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  1. No Clinically Significant Difference Between Adult and Pediatric IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Scores in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmeier, Nicole; Oak, Sameer R; O'Rourke, Colin; Strnad, Greg; Spindler, Kurt P; Jones, Morgan; Farrow, Lutul D; Andrish, Jack; Saluan, Paul

    Two versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation form currently exist: the original version (1999) and a recently modified pediatric-specific version (2011). Comparison of the pediatric IKDC with the adult version in the adult population may reveal that either version could be used longitudinally. We hypothesize that the scores for the adult IKDC and pediatric IKDC will not be clinically different among adult patients aged 18 to 50 years. Randomized crossover study design. Level 2. The study consisted of 100 participants, aged 18 to 50 years, who presented to orthopaedic outpatient clinics with knee problems. All participants completed both adult and pediatric versions of the IKDC in random order with a 10-minute break in between. We used a paired t test to test for a difference between the scores and a Welch's 2-sample t test to test for equivalence. A least-squares regression model was used to model adult scores as a function of pediatric scores, and vice versa. A paired t test revealed a statistically significant 1.6-point difference between the mean adult and pediatric scores. However, the 95% confidence interval (0.54-2.66) for this difference did not exceed our a priori threshold of 5 points, indicating that this difference was not clinically important. Equivalence testing with an equivalence region of 5 points further supported this finding. The adult and pediatric scores had a linear relationship and were highly correlated with an R2 of 92.6%. There is no clinically relevant difference between the scores of the adult and pediatric IKDC forms in adults, aged 18 to 50 years, with knee conditions. Either form, adult or pediatric, of the IKDC can be used in this population for longitudinal studies. If the pediatric version is administered in adolescence, it can be used for follow-up into adulthood.

  2. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...

  3. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2017-01-01

    Subjective beliefs are elicited routinely in economics experiments. However, such elicitation often suffers from two possible disadvantages. First, beliefs are recovered in the form of a summary statistic, usually the mean, of the underlying latent distribution. Second, recovered beliefs are bias...

  4. Myelodysplastic syndromes: a scoring system with prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti, G J; Stevens, J R; Oscier, D G; Hamblin, T J; Machin, D

    1985-03-01

    141 patients with MDS were classified according to the FAB criteria and followed up for a period of 4-192 months. It was recognized that patients with RAEBT had a uniformly poor prognosis. However, there was a wide variation in survival among the other subgroups. A score of 1 was assigned to each of the following presenting haematological features: bone marrow blasts greater than or equal to 5%, platelets less than or equal to 100 X 10(9)/l, neutrophils less than or equal to 2.5 X 10(9)/l and Hb less than or equal to 10.0 g/dl. Therefore the score for each patient ranged between 0 and 4. There were no statistically significant differences between those patients who scored 0 or 1, or between those who scored 2 and 3. Therefore patients were put into three groups: Group A (score 0 or 1), Group B (score 2 or 3), Group C (score 4). The differences in survival between each of the three groups are highly significant (P less than 0.00001). This system further separates patients with RA, RAS, RAEB into good and bad prognostic groups. This study also confirms that deaths due to cytopenias are more common than those due to transformation to AML. The use of this scoring system in conjunction with the FAB criteria for MDS should serve as a prognostic tool on which to base treatment.

  5. Splitting the BLOSUM Score into Numbers of Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossi Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical tools developed in the context of Shannon information theory were used to analyze the meaning of the BLOSUM score, which was split into three components termed as the BLOSUM spectrum (or BLOSpectrum. These relate respectively to the sequence convergence (the stochastic similarity of the two protein sequences, to the background frequency divergence (typicality of the amino acid probability distribution in each sequence, and to the target frequency divergence (compliance of the amino acid variations between the two sequences to the protein model implicit in the BLOCKS database. This treatment sharpens the protein sequence comparison, providing a rationale for the biological significance of the obtained score, and helps to identify weakly related sequences. Moreover, the BLOSpectrum can guide the choice of the most appropriate scoring matrix, tailoring it to the evolutionary divergence associated with the two sequences, or indicate if a compositionally adjusted matrix could perform better.

  6. Smartphone Restriction and its Effect on Subjective Withdrawal Related Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Aarestad, Sarah Helene; Eide, Tine Almenning

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone overuse is associated with a number of negative consequences for the individual and the environment. In the right end of the distribution of smartphone usage, concepts such as smartphone addiction seem warranted. An area that so far lacks research concerns the effect of smartphone restriction generally and specifically on subjective withdrawal related scores across different degrees of smartphone usage. The present study examined withdrawal related scores on the Smartphone Withdraw...

  7. Reliability of scored patient generated subjective global assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Establish the reliability of the scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in determining nutritional status among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) naive HIV-infected adults. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study among outpatient medical clinics, in The AIDS Support Organization ...

  8. Apgar Scores: Examining the Long-term Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2000-01-01

    The Apgar scoring system was intended as an evaluative measure of a newborn's condition at birth and of the need for immediate attention. In the most recent past, individuals have unsuccessfully attempted to link Apgar scores with long-term developmental outcomes. This practice is not appropriate, as the Apgar score is currently defined. Expectant parents need to be aware of the limitations of the Apgar score and its appropriate uses.

  9. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, L J F; van Wagenberg, A V; Uitdehaag, K A; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2012-10-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale, as chicks are divided into first grade (Q1-saleable) and second grade (Q2) chicks right after hatch. Incidences and reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch performance have hardly been investigated, but may provide information for flock performance. We conducted an experiment to investigate (1) the quality of a broiler flock and the relation with post-hatch flock performance based on a qualitative score (Pasgar©score) of Q1 chicks and based on the incidence of Q2 chicks and (2) the reasons for classifying chicks as Q2, and the potential of these chicks for survival and post-hatch growth. The performance was followed of Q1 and Q2 chicks obtained from two breeder flocks that hatched in two different hatching systems (a traditional hatcher or a combined hatching and brooding system, named Patio). Eggs were incubated until embryo day 18, when they were transferred to one of the two hatching systems. At embryo day 21/post-hatch day 0, all chicks from the hatcher (including Q2 chicks) were brought to Patio, where the hatchery manager marked the Q2 chicks from both flocks and hatching systems and registered apparent reasons for classifying these chicks as Q2. Chick quality was assessed of 100 Q1 chicks from each flock and hatching system. Weights of all chicks were determined at days 0, 7, 21 and 42. There were no correlations between mean Pasgar©score and post-hatch growth or mortality, and suboptimal navel quality was the only quality trait associated with lower post-hatch growth. Growth was clearly affected by breeder flock and hatching system, which could not be linked to mean Pasgar©score or incidence of Q2 chicks

  10. Obstetrical complications and Apgar score in subjects at risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta; Smigielski, Janusz; Pawełczyk, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify associations between a history of obstetrical complications (OCs) and the future development of symptoms indicating risk of psychosis (At Risk Mental State - ARMS). The frequency of OCs was assessed in 66 ARMS subjects, 50 subjects with the first episode of schizophrenia (FES) and 50 healthy controls. Obstetrical data was obtained from medical documentation and evaluated with the Lewis and Murray Scale. Definite OCs, according to the Lewis and Murray Scale, occurred significantly more frequently in the ARMS group compared to the controls (χ(2) = 7.79, p = 0.005; OR = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.46-12.11), as well as in the FES subjects compared to the controls (χ(2) = 8.39, p = 0.004; OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 1.56-13.20). Apgar scores in the first (Apgar 1) and the fifth minute after birth (Apgar 5) were significantly lower in the FES subjects compared to the controls (for Apgar 1 score Z = 4.439, p Apgar 5 score Z = 5.250, p Apgar 5 scores compared to the healthy controls (Z = 3.458, p = 0.0016). The results indicate that OCs and low Apgar 5 score should be considered important factors in identifying subjects at risk of developing psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prognostic Value of Gai′s Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR <0.80. Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  12. Prognostic Value of Gai's Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yang, Shuang; Gai, Lu-Yue; Han, Zhi-Qi; Xin, Qian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Jun-Jie; Jin, Qin-Hua

    2016-12-05

    The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard. We retrospectively analyzed 107 visually assessed significant coronary lesions in 88 patients (mean age, 59.6 ± 10.2 years; 76.14% of males) who underwent CCTA, invasive coronary angiography, and invasive FFR measurement. An FFR significant coronary stenosis. Lesions were divided into two groups using an FFR cutoff value of 0.80. We compared Gai's plaque scores and CACS between the two groups and evaluated the correlations of these scores with FFR. The statistical methods included unpaired t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Coronary lesions with FFR Gai's scores than those with FFR ≥0.80. Gai's score had the strongest correlation with FFR (r = -0.48, P arteries and a single artery. Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR. However, Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  13. Prognostic Value of Gai′s Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang Zhang; Shuang Yang; Lu-Yue Gai; Zhi-Qi Han; Qian Xin; Xiao-Bo Yang; Jun-Jie Yang; Qin-Hua Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, us...

  14. TS-Chemscore, a Target-Specific Scoring Function, Significantly Improves the Performance of Scoring in Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Qi; Zou, Jun; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2015-07-01

    Most of the scoring functions currently used in structure-based drug design belong to 'universal' scoring functions, which often give a poor correlation between the calculated scores and experimental binding affinities. In this investigation, we proposed a simple strategy to construct target-specific scoring functions based on known 'universal' scoring functions. This strategy was applied to Chemscore, a widely used empirical scoring function, which led to a new scoring function, termed TS-Chemscore. TS-Chemscore was validated on 14 protein targets, which cover a wide range of biological target categories. The results showed that TS-Chemscore significantly improved the correlation between the calculated scores and experimental binding affinities compared with the original Chemscore. TS-Chemscore was then applied in virtual screening to retrieve novel JAK3 and YopH inhibitors. Top 30 compounds for each target were selected for experimental validation. Six active compounds for JAK3 and four for YopH were obtained. These compounds were out of the lists of top 30 compounds sorted by Chemscore. Collectively, TS-Chemscore established in this study showed a better performance in virtual screening than its counterpart Chemscore. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. New risk markers may change the HeartScore risk classification significantly in one-fifth of the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hansen, T W; Christensen, M K

    2008-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) added to risk prediction based on HeartScore and history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. A Danish population......CRP in subjects with low-moderate risk and UACR and Nt-proBNP in subjects with known diabetes of cardiovascular disease changed HeartScore risk classification significantly in 19% of the population....... sample of 2460 individuals was divided in three groups: 472 subjects receiving cardiovascular medication or having history of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction or stroke, 559 high-risk subjects with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular death above 5% as estimated by HeartScore, and 1429 low-moderate risk...

  16. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  17. An isotonic partial credit model for ordering subjects on the basis of their sum scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, R.

    2012-01-01

    In practice, the sum of the item scores is often used as a basis for comparing subjects. For items that have more than two ordered score categories, only the partial credit model (PCM) and special cases of this model imply that the subjects are stochastically ordered on the common latent variable.

  18. Apparent diffusion coefficient ratio correlates significantly with prostate cancer gleason score at final pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Lars; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Løgager, Vibeke; Balslev, Ingegerd; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient measurements (ADCtumor and ADCratio ) and the Gleason score from radical prostatectomy specimens. Seventy-one patients with clinically localized prostate cancer scheduled for radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed prior to prostatectomy and mean ADC values from both cancerous (ADCtumor ) and benign (ADCbenign ) tissue were measured to calculate the ADCratio (ADCtumor divided by ADCbenign ). The ADC measurements were correlated with the Gleason score from the prostatectomy specimens. The association between ADC measurements and Gleason score showed a significant negative correlation (P Gleason score for all tumors (P = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an overall area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73 (ADCtumor ) to 0.80 (ADCratio ) in discriminating Gleason score 6 from Gleason score ≥7 tumors. The AUC changed to 0.72 (ADCtumor ) and 0.90 (ADCratio ) when discriminating Gleason score ≤7(3+4) from Gleason score ≥7(4+3). ADC measurements showed a significant correlation with tumor Gleason score at final pathology. The ADCratio demonstrated the best correlation compared to the ADCtumor value and radically improved accuracy in discriminating Gleason score ≤7(3+4) from Gleason score ≥7(4+3) tumors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Freezing of Gait Detection in Parkinson's Disease: A Subject-Independent Detector Using Anomaly Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy T; Moore, Steven T; Lewis, Simon John Geoffrey; Nguyen, Diep N; Dutkiewicz, Eryk; Fuglevand, Andrew J; McEwan, Alistair L; Leong, Philip H W

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is common in Parkinsonian gait and strongly relates to falls. Current clinical FoG assessments are patients' self-report diaries and experts' manual video analysis. Both are subjective and yield moderate reliability. Existing detection algorithms have been predominantly designed in subject-dependent settings. In this paper, we aim to develop an automated FoG detector for subject independent. After extracting highly relevant features, we apply anomaly detection techniques to detect FoG events. Specifically, feature selection is performed using correlation and clusterability metrics. From a list of 244 feature candidates, 36 candidates were selected using saliency and robustness criteria. We develop an anomaly score detector with adaptive thresholding to identify FoG events. Then, using accuracy metrics, we reduce the feature list to seven candidates. Our novel multichannel freezing index was the most selective across all window sizes, achieving sensitivity (specificity) of (). On the other hand, freezing index from the vertical axis was the best choice for a single input, achieving sensitivity (specificity) of () for ankle and () for back sensors. Our subject-independent method is not only significantly more accurate than those previously reported, but also uses a much smaller window (e.g., versus ) and/or lower tolerance (e.g., versus ).Freezing of gait (FoG) is common in Parkinsonian gait and strongly relates to falls. Current clinical FoG assessments are patients' self-report diaries and experts' manual video analysis. Both are subjective and yield moderate reliability. Existing detection algorithms have been predominantly designed in subject-dependent settings. In this paper, we aim to develop an automated FoG detector for subject independent. After extracting highly relevant features, we apply anomaly detection techniques to detect FoG events. Specifically, feature selection is performed using correlation and clusterability metrics. From

  20. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  1. Elevated risk of an intermediate or high SYNTAX score in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xishan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Fangfang; Dong, Pingshuan; Fa, Xianen; Zhang, Qingyong; Li, Li; Wang, Zhikuan; Zhao, Di

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the SYNTAX score under different fasting plasma glucose (FPG) states in Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography, particularly subjects with impaired FPG. Four hundred and forty-six subjects undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled in this study and divided into four groups based on the FPG level or a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): normal FPG, impaired FPG, known and previously unknown T2DM. The angiographic SYNTAX scores were higher in the subjects with known (pimportance of achieving better glycemic control in order to prevent coronary atherosclerosis and improve the cardiovascular prognosis.

  2. A simple scoring model for advanced colorectal neoplasm in asymptomatic subjects aged 40-49 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Mi; Kim, Hee Sun; Park, Jae Jun; Baik, Su Jung; Youn, Young Hoon; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Hyojin

    2017-01-09

    Limited data are available for advanced colorectal neoplasm in asymptomatic individuals aged 40-49 years. We aimed to identify risk factors and develop a simple prediction model for advanced colorectal neoplasm in these persons. Clinical data were collected on 2781 asymptomatic subjects aged 40-49 years who underwent colonoscopy for routine health examination. Subjects were randomly allocated to a development or validation set. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of advanced colorectal neoplasm. The prevalence of overall and advanced colorectal neoplasm was 20.2 and 2.5% respectively. Older age (45-49 years), male sex, positive serology of Helicobacter pylori, and high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were independently associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasm. BMI (body mass index) was not significant in multivariable analysis. We developed a simple scoring model for advanced colorectal neoplasm (range 0-9). A cutoff of ≥4 defined 43% of subjects as high risk for advanced colorectal neoplasm (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 58%; area under the receiver operating curve = 0.72) in the validation datasets. Older age (45-49 years), male sex, positive serology of H. pylori, high triglyceride level, and low HDL level were identified as independent risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasm.

  3. Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the impact of the method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nonoverlapping parallel forms each containing eight items from...... questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and convergent/discriminant validity. RESULTS: In difference score analyses...... showed no differential effect by MOA. Participants preferred screen interface over PQ and IVR. CONCLUSION: We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels or psychometric properties of IVR, PQ, or PDA administration compared with PC....

  4. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Saudek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the module. Methods: We analyzed institutional and national item difficulties for BD items from the NBME pediatrics content area item analysis reports from 2011 to 2014 before (pre and after (post the pilot (October 2012. Total scores of 590 NBME subject examination students from examinee performance profiles were analyzed pre/post. t-Tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze item difficulties for institutional versus national scores and pre/post comparisons of item difficulties and total scores. Results: BD scores for our institution were 0.65 (±0.19 compared to 0.62 (±0.15 nationally (P=0.346; Cohen's d=0.15. The average of post-consecutive BD scores for our students was 0.70(±0.21 compared to examinees nationally [0.64 (±0.15] with a significant mean difference (P=0.031; Cohen's d=0.43. The difference in our institutions pre [0.65 (±0.19] and post [0.70 (±0.21] BD scores trended higher (P=0.391; Cohen's d=0.27. Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national norms. Conclusions: Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above

  5. Significance of Gleason Score 7 With Tertiary Pattern 5 at Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Walaa; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2017-02-01

    To study the prognostic influence of tertiary pattern 5 (TP5) in radical prostatectomy specimens with a Gleason score of 7. A total of 4060 specimens with a Gleason score of 7 with and without TP5 seen between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were subdivided into 3 + 4 = 7, 3 + 4 = 7 with TP5, 4 + 3 = 7, and 4 + 3 = 7 with TP5. We compared prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, pathologic stage, and surgical margin status between the groups. The impact of TP5 on biochemical recurrence was also assessed. The median age was 68 years old with a median prostate-specific antigen level of 9.3 ng/mL. TP5 was present in 259 patients (6.4%) with a Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 and in 361 patients (8.9%) with a Gleason score of 4 + 3 = 7. The mean follow-up without progression was 3 years. The presence of a tertiary pattern correlated with pathologic stage; the only exception was that there was no statistically significant difference between Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 with TP5 and 4 + 3 = 7. Multivariate analysis showed that TP5 was independently associated with biochemical recurrence among patients with a Gleason score of 7 (P Gleason score 7 in radical prostatectomy specimens is still significant using contemporary grading. Moreover, TP5 was independently associated with biochemical recurrence. However, 3 + 4 = 7 with TP5 behaves like 4 + 3 = 7 in terms of biochemical recurrence-free survival rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  7. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leunissen Jack AM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical significance testing for an alignment. The e-value is the most commonly used statistical validation method for sequence database searching. The CluSTr database and the Protein World database have been created using an alternative statistical significance test: a Z-score based on Monte-Carlo statistics. Several papers have described the superiority of the Z-score as compared to the e-value, using simulated data. We were interested if this could be validated when applied to existing, evolutionary related protein sequences. Results All experiments are performed on the ASTRAL SCOP database. The Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm with both e-value and Z-score statistics is evaluated, using ROC, CVE and AP measures. The BLAST and FASTA algorithms are used as reference. We find that two out of three Smith-Waterman implementations with e-value are better at predicting structural similarities between proteins than the Smith-Waterman implementation with Z-score. SSEARCH especially has very high scores. Conclusion The compute intensive Z-score does not have a clear advantage over the e-value. The Smith-Waterman implementations give generally better results than their heuristic counterparts. We recommend using the SSEARCH algorithm combined with e-values for pairwise sequence comparisons.

  8. Relation between subjective and objective scores on the active straight leg raising test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients

  9. Subjective Scoring of Divergent Thinking: Examining the Reliability of Unusual Uses, Instances, and Consequences Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined the reliability of three types of divergent thinking tasks (unusual uses, instances, consequences/implications) and two types of subjective scoring (an average across all responses vs. the responses people chose as their top-two responses) within a latent variable framework, using the maximal-reliability "H"…

  10. Visual analogue scale foot and ankle: validity and reliability of Thai version of the new outcome score in subjective form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha; Suntharapa, Thongchai; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2011-08-01

    Nowadays, measuring score in the form of subjective questionnaires is the important tool for clinical evaluation of the foot and ankle-related problems. VisualAnalogue Scale-Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) is the newly developed subjective questionnaire, which has sufficiency of validity and reliability from a previous study Translate the original English version of VAS-FA into the Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai VAS-FA in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. According to the forward-backward translation protocol, original VAS-FA was translated into the Thai version. Thai VAS-FA and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were distributed to 42 Thai patients to complete. For validation, Thai VAS-FA scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. For reliability, the test-retest reliability and internal consistency were analyzed. Thai VAS-FA score demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF), role physical (RP), bodily pain (BP) domains, and total score of SF-36 (statistically significant with p 0.5 values). The result of reliability revealed highly intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.995 from test-retest study. The internal consistency was excellent with Cronbach alpha: 0.995. The original VAS-FA score is a well-validated, subjective, visual-analogue-scale based outcome score. The Thai version of VAS-FA form maintained the validity and reliability of the original version. This newly translated-validated score can be distributed for the evaluation of the functions, symptoms, and limitation of activities in Thai patients with foot and ankle problems.

  11. Assessing Framingham cardiovascular risk scores in subjects with diabetes and their correlation with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali R Damkondwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the Framingham cardiovascular risk assessment scores in subjects with diabetes and their association with diabetic retinopathy in subjects with diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this population-based prospective study, subjects with diabetes were recruited (n=1248; age ≥40 years. The Framingham cardiovascular risk scores were calculated for 1248 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The scores were classified as high risk (>10%, and low risk (<10%. Results: Out of the 1248 subjects, 830 (66.5% patients had a low risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD in 10 years and 418 (33.5% had a high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. The risk of developing CVD was more in males than females (56.8% vs. 7% The prevalence of both diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening retinopathy was more in the high-risk group (21% and 4.5%, respectively. The risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy were similar in both the groups (low vs. high - duration of diabetes (OR 1.14 vs. 1.08, higher HbA1c (OR 1.24 vs. 1.22, presence of macro- and microalbuminuria (OR 10.17 vs. 6.12 for macro-albuminuria and use of insulin (OR 2.06 vs. 4.38. The additional risk factors in the high-risk group were presence of anemia (OR 2.65 and higher serum high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (OR 1.05. Conclusion: Framingham risk scoring, a global risk assessment tool to predict the 10-year risk of developing CVD, can also predict the occurrence and type of diabetic retinopathy. Those patients with high CVD scores should be followed up more frequently and treated adequately. This also warrants good interaction between the treating physician/cardiologist and the ophthalmologist.

  12. Comparison of the ceiling effect in the Lysholm score and the IKDC subjective score for assessing functional outcome after ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Ho Jong; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Choi, Jung Yun; Ha, Jeong Ku; Kim, Ji Yeong; Kim, Jin Goo

    2014-10-01

    To compare the ceiling effect of the Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores for assessing functional outcome after ACL reconstruction and evaluated the correlation with the one-leg hop test. A total of 134 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction between 2007 and 2011 were enrolled in this study. All patients fulfilled the postoperative 6- and 12-month evaluations. The ceiling effect of the Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores was assessed, and the correlations between two scales and one-leg hop test were analysed. For the entire sample, the ceiling effect for the Lysholm score was 14.9% and 30.6% at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The values for the IKDC subjective score were 5.2% and 17.2%, respectively. In all subjects, the correlation coefficients [95% confidence intervals] between the IKDC subjective score and one-leg hop test at 6 and 12months (r=0.492, [0.34 to 0.62]; r=0.296, [0.12 to 0.46]) were higher than those for the Lysholm score (r=0.355, [0.18 to 0.51]; r=0.241, [0.06 to 0.41]), respectively.(pceiling effect and the correlation with the LSI. However, the concern that the ceiling effect of the Lysholm score was greater than the IKDC subjective score, should be addressed in assessing the patient's functional status postoperatively. III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. BAHNG score: predictive model for detection of subjects with the oropharynx colonized by uncommon microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Del Castillo, J; Teja-Marina, J; Candel, F J; Barberán, J; Moreno-Cuervo, A; Chiarella, F; López-González, L; Ramos-Cordero, P; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2017-11-06

    Pneumonia is most frequently produced by the microaspiration of flora that colonizes the oropharynx. Etiological diagnosis of pneumonia is infrequent in clinical practise and empirical treatment should be prescribed. The aims of the present study were to determine the factors associated with oropharynx colonization by uncommon microorganisms (UM) and to develop a predictive model. A cross-sectional study that included all pa-tients living in one long-term care facilities was developed. Demographic, comorbidities, basal functional status and clinical data were collected. To determinate the oropharyngeal colonization, a single sample of pharynx was obtained for each subject using a cotton swab. A total of 221 subjects were included, mean age 86.27 (SD 8.05) years and 157 (71%) were female. In 32 (14.5%) subjects UM flora was isolated, Gram-negative bacilli in 16 (7.2%) residents, and Staphylococcus aureus in 16 (7.2%). The predictive model included the presence of hypertension, neuromuscular disease, Barthel <90 and use of PEG. The BAHNG score (BArthel, Hypertension, Neuromuscular, Gastrostomy), showed an area under the curve of 0.731 (CI 95% 0.643-0.820; p<0.001). We have classified patients according to this score in low (0-2 points), intermediate (3-5 points) and high risk (≥ 6). The probability of UM colonization in the oropharyngeal based on this classification is 4.1%, 15.8% and 57.1% for low, intermediate and high risk, respectively. The BAHNG score could help in the identifications of elderly patients with high risk of colonization by UM. In case of pneumonia the evaluation of the subject through this score could help in the initial decisions concerning antibiotic treatment.

  14. Health-related Quality of Life Scores Changes Significantly within the First Three Months After Hernia Mesh Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Rosenberg, Jacob; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2014-01-01

    or change of scores on PROMs as a function of time after hernia repair, we compared the CCS scores with the visual analog scale (VAS) scores reflecting the subdomains of the CCS. RESULTS: A total of 166 patients completed the study. CCS scores for QoL, pain, sensation of mesh, and activity limitations...... changed significantly with time during the 90-day study period. Furthermore, CCS and VAS showed significant agreement and correlation (ρ = 0.52-0.82, P

  15. Independent or Integrated? The Impact on Subject Examination Scores of Changing a Neuropsychiatry Clerkship to Independent Clerkships in Psychiatry and Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather S; Gabrielli, William F; Paolo, Anthony; Walling, Anne

    2017-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess any impact on National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) neurology and psychiatry subject examination scores of changing from an integrated neuropsychiatry clerkship to independent neurology and psychiatry clerkships. NBME psychiatry and neurology subject examinations scores were compared for all 625 students completing the required neuropsychiatry clerkship in academic years 2005-2006 through 2008-2009 with all 650 students completing the independent neurology and psychiatry clerkships in academic years 2009-2010 through 2012-2013. Statistical adjustments were made to ensure comparability across groups and over time. A significant improvement in subject examination scores was associated with the independent clerkships. The independent clerkship model was associated with a modest improvement in NBME subject examination scores. This finding may be attributable to many causes or combination of causes other than curricular design. Curricular planners need to pay attention to the potential impact of course integration on specialty-specific NBME subject examination performance.

  16. Does coronary calcium scoring with a SCORE better predict significant coronary artery stenosis than without? Correlation with computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durhan, Gamze; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Akata, Deniz [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Karakaya, Jale; Karaagaoglu, Ergun [Hacettepe University, Department of Biostatistics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-03

    To determine effectiveness of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) alone and combined with Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) in adult patients for significant coronary artery stenosis by using computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as reference standard. Two thousand twenty-one patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CACS test and CTCA. Patients were examined with dual-source CT and were grouped according to their age, gender, CACS, and estimated SCORE risk. Coronary plaque existence and degree of stenosis were assessed with CTCA. Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves were analyzed. CACS was the single independent variable in estimating relative risk of critical stenosis and had superior outcome when compared with SCORE risk in logistic regression and ROC curve. Area under the ROC curve was greatest in the interval between 50-59 years. When SCORE was combined with CACS in patients with zero CACS, percentage of significant stenosis increased from 1.4% to 7.0% in patients with high or very high SCORE risk, and decreased to 0.9 % in patients with low or moderate SCORE risk. CACS combination with SCORE risk predicts coronary artery stenosis. When CACS is zero, CTCA can be performed in patients with high or very high SCORE risk. (orig.)

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient ratio correlates significantly with prostate cancer gleason score at final pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Løgager, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient measurements (ADCtumor and ADCratio ) and the Gleason score from radical prostatectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients with clinically localized prostate cancer scheduled for radical prostatectomy...... between ADC measurements and the Gleason score for all tumors (P = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed an overall area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73 (ADCtumor ) to 0.80 (ADCratio ) in discriminating Gleason score 6 from Gleason score ≥7 tumors. The AUC changed to 0.72 (ADCtumor...

  18. Genetic Association and Risk Scores in a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Meta-analysis of 16,707 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robert; Hobbs, Brian D; Zhou, Jin; Castaldi, Peter J; McGeachie, Michael J; Hardin, Megan E; Hawrylkiewicz, Iwona; Sliwinski, Pawel; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Deog K; Agusti, Alvar; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Calverley, Peter M; Donner, Claudio F; Lomas, David A; Wouters, Emiel F; Vestbo, Jørgen; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Litonjua, Augusto A; Sparrow, David; Paré, Peter D; Levy, Robert D; Rennard, Stephen I; Beaty, Terri H; Hokanson, John; Silverman, Edwin K; Cho, Michael H

    2017-07-01

    The heritability of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cannot be fully explained by recognized genetic risk factors identified as achieving genome-wide significance. In addition, the combined contribution of genetic variation to COPD risk has not been fully explored. We sought to determine: (1) whether studies of variants from previous studies of COPD or lung function in a larger sample could identify additional associated variants, particularly for severe COPD; and (2) the impact of genetic risk scores on COPD. We genotyped 3,346 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,588 cases (1,803 severe COPD) and 1,782 control subjects from four cohorts, and performed association testing with COPD, combining these results with existing genotyping data from 6,633 cases (3,497 severe COPD) and 5,704 control subjects. In addition, we developed genetic risk scores from SNPs associated with lung function and COPD and tested their discriminatory power for COPD-related measures. We identified significant associations between SNPs near PPIC (P = 1.28 × 10-8) and PPP4R4/SERPINA1 (P = 1.01 × 10-8) and severe COPD; the latter association may be driven by recognized variants in SERPINA1. Genetic risk scores based on SNPs previously associated with COPD and lung function had a modest ability to discriminate COPD (area under the curve, ∼0.6), and accounted for a mean 0.9-1.9% lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted for each additional risk allele. In a large genetic association analysis, we identified associations with severe COPD near PPIC and SERPINA1. A risk score based on combining genetic variants had modest, but significant, effects on risk of COPD and lung function.

  19. Weight Symmetry and Latency Scores for Unexpected Surface Perturbations in Subjects With Traumatic and Vascular Unilateral Transtibial Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rueda, Francisco; Molero-Sánchez, Alberto; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M; Carratalá-Tejada, María; Cuesta-Gómez, Alicia; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Subjects with lower limb amputation develop new motor control strategies to preserve balance when they experience unexpected perturbations. Most studies performed thus far have not aimed to discuss the possible differences in postural control between subjects with vascular unilateral transtibial amputation (UTA) and subjects with traumatic UTA. To analyze the automatic postural reaction in response to unexpected surface perturbations in a sample of subjects with traumatic and vascular UTA and to compare these observations with those for a group of healthy subjects. University department. Observational study. A total of 9 men with traumatic UTA, 7 men with vascular UTA, and 10 control subjects without amputation. Computerized dynamic posturography Smart EquiTest System version 8.0 was used to measure automatic postural responses in both groups. The motor control test was used to assess the participants' automatic postural responses to unexpected surface perturbations. Latency scores showed that subjects with traumatic UTA coped with faster latencies under their sound limb than did the subjects with vascular UTA in medium backward and forward perturbations (medium-backward: P = .004; medium-forward: P = .037). In addition, the subjects with traumatic UTA also managed faster responses to medium-backward (P = .017 versus right control limb; P = .046 versus left control limb) and large-backward (P = .021 versus right control limb) and medium-forward (P = .012 versus right control limb; P = .043 versus left control limb) perturbations in their sound limb in contrast to control subjects. Weight symmetry showed that the subjects with traumatic UTA bore significantly more weight through their sound limb compared with the control subjects during medium and large backward translations (P = .028 and P = .045, respectively). The subjects with traumatic UTA had a greater reliance on their sound limb, and they had faster latencies and more weight in the sound limb upon

  20. [Influence of hearing aids on monosyllabic test score and subjective everyday hearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thümmler, R; Liebscher, T; Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    Pure tone and speech audiometry are essential methods for examining the indication for hearing aids, as well as for hearing aid evaluation. Additionally, the subjective benefit of hearing aids has to be evaluated with appropriate questionnaires. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between speech audiometry data and the results of a simple and user-friendly questionnaire, as well as to provide normative data for subjective benefit. Data from 136 hearing aid users with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. Pure tone thresholds and Freiburg monosyllabic speech perception in the binaural situation were measured at 65 dB in quiet and in noise (signal-to-noise ratio, SNR = +5 dB), with and without hearing aids. Additionally, subjective hearing in everyday life was recorded using the 12-item Oldenburg Inventory. Improvement of speech perception with hearing aids for the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet was 32.0 percentage points on average; in noise, there was an average improvement of 16.4 percentage points. There was a strong correlation between the results of pure tone and speech audiometry. With hearing aids, patients scored their everyday hearing using the Oldenburg Inventory on average 1.4 scale points better than without hearing aids. Results of the Oldenburg Inventory correlate with both pure tone and speech audiometry. Hearing aid evaluation should include both speech audiometry and systematic measurement of the subjective benefit using a suitable questionnaire. In combination, the Freiburg monosyllabic test and the Oldenburg Inventory allow for quick and comprehensive evaluation.

  1. Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Christopher JF

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to both the new datasets as well as previously studied datasets. This methodology is rigorous and statistically grounded, and ultimately culminates in a Wilcoxon significance test that proves the effectiveness of the system. We further include a complete generalization of the specific technique to arbitrary grammars and datasets using a mathematical abstraction that allows researchers in different domains to apply the method to their own work. Background Our work can be viewed as an alternative to existing methods to solve the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR problem. To this end, we review a number approaches both from a methodological and also a performance perspective. In addition to these approaches, we also examined a number of chemical properties that can be used by generic classifier systems, such as feed-forward artificial neural networks. In studying these approaches, we identified a set of interesting benchmark problem sets to which many of the above approaches had been applied. These included: ACE, AChE, AR, BBB, BZR, Cox2, DHFR, ER, FXa, GPB, Therm, and Thr. Finally, we developed our own benchmark set by collecting data on toxicology. Results Our results show that our system performs better than, or comparatively to, the existing methods over a broad range of problem types. Our method does not require the expert knowledge that is necessary to apply the other methods to novel problems. Conclusions We conclude that our success is due to the ability of our system to: 1 encode molecules losslessly before presentation to the learning system, and 2

  2. Framingham coronary heart disease risk score can be predicted from structural brain images in elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maryam Rondina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature has presented evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF play an important role on cognitive performance in elderly individuals, both those who are asymptomatic and those who suffer from symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Findings from studies applying neuroimaging methods have increasingly reinforced such notion. Studies addressing the impact of CVRF on brain anatomy changes have gained increasing importance, as recent papers have reported gray matter loss predominantly in regions traditionally affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia in the presence of a high degree of cardiovascular risk. In the present paper, we explore the association between CVRF and brain changes using pattern recognition techniques applied to structural MRI and the Framingham score (a composite measure of cardiovascular risk largely used in epidemiological studies in a sample of healthy elderly individuals. We aim to answer the following questions: Is it possible to decode (i.e., to learn information regarding cardiovascular risk from structural brain images enabling individual predictions? Among clinical measures comprising the Framingham score, are there particular risk factors that stand as more predictable from patterns of brain changes? Our main findings are threefold: i we verified that structural changes in spatially distributed patterns in the brain enable statistically significant prediction of Framingham scores. This result is still significant when controlling for the presence of the APOE 4 allele (an important genetic risk factor for both AD and cardiovascular disease. ii When considering each risk factor singly, we found different levels of correlation between real and predicted factors; however, single factors were not significantly predictable from brain images when considering APOE4 allele presence as covariate. iii We found important gender differences, and the possible causes of that finding are discussed.

  3. Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype affects the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects: comparison of traditional phenotype and activity score systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Haotian; Shi, Jun; Shen, Kai; Hu, Pei

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects and used paroxetine as a tool drug to compare the performance of traditional phenotype and activity score systems. Pharmacokinetic data were evaluated in 24 subjects who received a single oral dose of 25 mg controlled-release paroxetine. Plasma paroxetine concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. CYP2D6 genotypes were tested by PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Subjects were classified by two systems of phenotype prediction. In the traditional phenotype system, subjects were classified as extensive metabolizers or intermediate metabolizers; in the activity score system, subjects were divided into four activity groups. Analysis of variance testing was applied to estimate the effects of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. With the traditional phenotype system, significant differences were observed in the following pharmacokinetic parameters of paroxetine: t 1/2, C max, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Vz/F, and CL/F (all P paroxetine was about 3.5-fold higher in the intermediate metabolizer group than in the extensive metabolizer group. With the activity score system, significant differences were observed in the t 1/2, C max, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Vz/F, and CL/F among the four different activity score groups (all P paroxetine decreased by around one half as the activity score increased by 0.5. The pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine after a single administration was affected by CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Both the traditional phenotype and the activity score systems performed well and distinguished subjects with different drug exposures. The activity score system provided a more detailed classification for the subjects.

  4. Temporal stability of the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale for high- and low-scoring normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, André; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Böcker, Koen B.E.; de Haan, Edward H.F.

    1999-01-01

    It has been documented that many normal people report hallucinatory experiences. The Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale is widely used to investigate differences between subjects who score high or low in hallucinatory predisposition. In this study we addressed the question of whether scores remain

  5. The Impact of Relative Poverty on Norwegian Adolescents’ Subjective Health: A Causal Analysis with Propensity Score Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Ivar Elstad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N = 510 and their parents, combined with register data on the family’s economic situation. Relatively poor adolescents had significantly worse subjective health than non-poor adolescents. Relatively poor adolescents also experienced many other social disadvantages, such as parental unemployment and parental ill health. Comparisons between the relatively poor and the non-poor adolescents, using propensity score matching, indicated a negative impact of relative poverty on the subjective health among those adolescents who lived in families with relatively few economic resources. The results suggest that there is a causal component in the association between relative poverty and the symptom burden of disadvantaged adolescents. Relative poverty is only one of many determinants of adolescents’ subjective health, but its role should be acknowledged when policies for promoting adolescent health are designed.

  6. The coronary calcium score is a more accurate predictor of significant coronary stenosis than conventional risk factors in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: In this retrospective study we assessed the predictive value of the coronary calcium score for significant (>50%) stenosis relative to conventional risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 5515 symptomatic patients from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA. All had...... predictor of significant stenosis to be male gender (B=1.07) followed by diabetes mellitus (B=0.70) smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, family history of CAD and age but not obesity. When the log transformed CAC score was included, it became the most powerful predictor (B=1.25), followed by male...... gender (B=0.48), diabetes, smoking, family history and age but hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension lost significance. The CAC score is a more accurate predictor of >50% stenosis than risk factors regardless of the means of assessment of stenosis. The sensitivity of risk factors, CAC score...

  7. Nutritional Assessment Score: A new tool derived from Subjective Global Assessment for hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fink, Jaqueline; de Mello, Elza Daniel; Beghetto, Mariur Gomes; Luft, Vivian Cristine; de Jezus Castro, Stela Maris; de Mello, Paula Daniel

    2017-02-24

    There is no method to be used as a reference standard for nutritional assessment. This study aims to develop and verify the performance of a new tool, based on the Item Response Theory (IRT), from the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) questionnaire, in hospitalized adult patients. Retrospective cohort study, composed by secondary database, formed by patients included from October 2005 to June 2006. The new tool presented was developed through the usage of cumulative models from the IRT. Out of 1503 evaluated patients, 2/3 were randomly selected to the development sample of the new tool and 1/3 to the performance verification sample. After item adjustments, the "Nutritional Assessment Score" (NAS) was proposed, with reduced number of questions, and, in comparison to SGA, less polytomic items. NAS demonstrates association to variables that are clinically relevant (hospital mortality, long hospital stay, serum albumin and body mass index) and has shown itself to be more precise to patients with the worst degrees of nutritional status. Results point to the validation of the NAS in detecting, accurately, the nutritional status of hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of significant obstructive sleep apnoea in the obese patient: development of the novel DX-OSA score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoroja, Daniela D; Cioc, Dan Adrian

    2016-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in obese surgical patients. We investigated the extent to which anthropometric measurements can be used to identify the presence of significant OSA (Apnoea/Hypopnoea Index (AHI) ≥ 20) in adult patients. We prospectively studied 1357 adult patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Prior to surgery, body mass index (BMI), gender, neck circumference, STOP-Bang score, SpO2, neck and trunk fat (by dual X-ray absorptiometry) were recorded. All patients with a STOP-Bang score ≥ 5 underwent polysomnography. Auto-titrated Positive Airway Pressure (APAP) therapy was instituted when AHI ≥ 20/h. Predictors of OSA were identified and their cut-off values determined. In total, 1357 patients were screened; 345 patients underwent preoperative polysomnography; 190 had AHI ≥ 20/h and received APAP treatment. The novel Dual X-Ray-Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (DX-OSA) score was derived from the data. The score included 6 items: the STOP-Bang score, BMI, neck fat, trunk fat, baseline SpO2, and Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV), and its sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive values, negative-predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities determined. At a cut-off of 3, the DX-OSA score had the same sensitivity as the STOP-bang score, but better specificity. The lowest likelihood ratio was found for STOP-Bang and the highest for the DX-OSA score (OSA probability > 83%). The DX-OSA score may be useful for identifying obese patients with significant OSA who require CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) treatment, and CPAP could be commenced without the need for polysomnography, therefore, without delaying surgery.

  9. Increased automatic spreading activation in healthy subjects with elevated scores in a scale assessing schizophrenic language disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, S; Andresen, B; Domin, F; Martin, T; Probsthein, E; Kretschmer, G; Krausz, M; Naber, D; Spitzer, M

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies on semantic priming have suggested that schizophrenic patients with language disturbances demonstrate enhanced semantic and indirect semantic priming effects relative to controls. However, the interpretation of semantic priming studies in schizophrenic patients is obscured by methological problems and several artefacts (such as length of illness). We, therefore, used a psychometric high-risk approach to test whether healthy subjects reporting language disturbances resembling those of schizophrenics (as measured by the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire subscale 'language') display increased priming effects. In addition, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was used to cover symptoms of schizotypal personality. Enhanced priming was expected to occur under conditions favouring automatic processes. One hundred and sixty healthy subjects performed a lexical decision semantic priming task containing two different stimulus onset asynchronicities (200 ms and 700 ms) with two experimental conditions (semantic priming and indirect semantic priming) each. Analyses of variance revealed that the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-' language' high scorers significantly differed from low scorers in three of the four priming conditions indicating increased automatic spreading activation. No significant results were obtained for the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and subscales scores. In line with Maher and Spitzer it is suggested that increased automatic spreading activation underlies schizophrenia-typical language disturbances which in our study cannot be attributed to confounding variables such as different reaction time baselines, medication or length of illness. Finally, results confirm that the psychometric high-risk approach is an important tool for investigating issues relevant to schizophrenia.

  10. Upgrade in Gleason score between prostate biopsies and pathology following radical prostatectomy significantly impacts upon the risk of biochemical recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Niall M; Hong, Matthew K H; Casey, Rowan G; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Peters, Justin; Harewood, Laurence; Goldenberg, S Larry; Hovens, Chris M; Costello, Anthony J; Gleave, Martin E

    2011-10-01

    •To determine the effect of an upgrade in Gleason score between initial prostate biopsy and final prostatectomy specimen on the risk of postoperative biochemical recurrence. •A total of 1629 patients with paired biopsy and radical prostatectomy histology were identified from two prospectively recorded prostate cancer databases. •Information on key clinical and pathological characteristics as well as prostate-specific antigen follow-up was recorded. •Patients who experienced an upgrade in their Gleason score were compared with corresponding patients with concordant tumours of the lower and higher grade. •Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate models were generated to examine the impact of Gleason score upgrade on the risk of postoperative biochemical recurrence. •Overall, 466 patients (28.6%) experienced an upgrade in their Gleason score post radical prostatectomy, in 88.4% of cases involving a change in a single Gleason score point. •Patients upgraded from Gleason 6 (3 + 3) to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) had pathological characteristics that were very similar to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) concordant tumours, with an identical risk of biochemical recurrence. In contrast, patients upgraded from Gleason score 6 (3 + 3) to Gleason 7 (4 + 3) had tumours with pathological characteristics intermediate between the two concordant groups, which was mirrored by their risk of biochemical recurrence. •Patients with Gleason 7 tumours who experienced a change in the predominant pattern from 3 + 4 to 4 + 3 had tumours that resembled Gleason 7 (4 + 3) concordant tumours, with a similar risk of biochemical recurrence. In contrast, patients upgraded from Gleason 7 to Gleason >7 had tumours with intermediate pathological characteristics, and a risk of biochemical recurrence that was significantly different to concordant tumours of the lower and higher grade. •In multivariate models, a change in Gleason score was an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in the preoperative

  11. PI-RADS Version 2: Detection of Clinically Significant Cancer in Patients With Biopsy Gleason Score 6 Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Won; Shin, Su-Jin; Taik Oh, Young; Jung, Dae Chul; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk; Park, Sung Yoon

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the utility of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) in the detection of a clinically significant cancers in patients with prostate cancers with a biopsy Gleason score of 6. A group of 182 consecutively registered patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 underwent MRI and radical prostatectomy. Clinically significant cancer was surgically defined as Gleason score of 7 or greater, tumor volume of 0.5 cm 3 or greater, or tumor category T3 or greater. Clinical parameters (prostate-specific antigen level, greatest percentage of biopsy core, and percentage of positive cores) and the PI-RADSv2 ratings by three independent readers (experienced readers 1 and 2, inexperienced reader 3) were investigated. Cutoffs and the diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 for clinically significant cancer were analyzed. Clinically significant cancer was found in 87.4% (159/182) of patients. The cutoff PI-RADSv2 score for clinically significant cancer was 4 for readers 1 and 2 and 5 for reader 3. The AUCs were 0.829 and 0.853 for readers 1 and 2 (p value, 95.3% (143/150); negative predictive value, 50.0% (16/32); and accuracy, 87.4% (159/182). The corresponding values for reader 2 were 81.1% (129/159), 82.6% (19/23), 97.0% (129/133), 38.8% (19/49), and 81.3% (148/182). For the experienced readers, 66.7-81.3% of patients with false-negative results had clinically significant cancers with tumor volume less than 1 cm 3 . PI-RADSv2 may help experienced readers identify clinically significant prostate cancers in patients with a biopsy Gleason score of 6. However, some small (PI-RADSv2 is used.

  12. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  13. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  14. Nutritional status assessed by scored patient-generated subjective global assessment associated with length of hospital stay in adult patients receiving an appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hao Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition has been associated with poor health outcomes in hospitalized patients. This study assessed the validity of the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA in adult patients who had undergone an open appendectomy, and examined the association of this assessment tool with length of hospital stay. Methods: Nutritional status was determined by using the scored PG-SGA in adult patients (n = 86 who had undergone an open appendectomy within 24 hours of admission. Variables were compared between well-nourished and malnourished participants. Regression analysis was used to identify potential predictors for length of hospital stay. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis was used to examine the validity of the PG-SGA score to predict the nutritional status. Results: On admission, 17% of the study subjects were malnourished and associated with a significantly older age (53.0 vs. 39.5, greater PG-SGA score (8 vs. 2, higher comorbidity (67% vs. 27%, and longer length of hospital stay (6.9 d vs. 4.1 d. The PG-SGA score and comorbidity were the determined risk factors for length of hospital stay after performing multiple regression analysis. Furthermore, the PG-SGA score had a significantly positive correlation with length of hospital stay (Spearman's rho = 0.378, p < 0.001. The area under the ROC curve indicating the PG-SGA score, compared with nutritional status, is 0.9751. Conclusions: The scored PG-SGA in adults receiving an appendectomy is significantly associated with length of hospital stay, and is an effective tool for assessing the nutritional status of patients with cancer and chronic illness, as well as of patients with acute surgical abdomen.

  15. Amino acid positions subject to multiple coevolutionary constraints can be robustly identified by their eigenvector network centrality scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Daniel J; Ray, J Christian J; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2015-12-01

    As proteins evolve, amino acid positions key to protein structure or function are subject to mutational constraints. These positions can be detected by analyzing sequence families for amino acid conservation or for coevolution between pairs of positions. Coevolutionary scores are usually rank-ordered and thresholded to reveal the top pairwise scores, but they also can be treated as weighted networks. Here, we used network analyses to bypass a major complication of coevolution studies: For a given sequence alignment, alternative algorithms usually identify different, top pairwise scores. We reconciled results from five commonly-used, mathematically divergent algorithms (ELSC, McBASC, OMES, SCA, and ZNMI), using the LacI/GalR and 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase protein families as models. Calculations used unthresholded coevolution scores from which column-specific properties such as sequence entropy and random noise were subtracted; "central" positions were identified by calculating various network centrality scores. When compared among algorithms, network centrality methods, particularly eigenvector centrality, showed markedly better agreement than comparisons of the top pairwise scores. Positions with large centrality scores occurred at key structural locations and/or were functionally sensitive to mutations. Further, the top central positions often differed from those with top pairwise coevolution scores: instead of a few strong scores, central positions often had multiple, moderate scores. We conclude that eigenvector centrality calculations reveal a robust evolutionary pattern of constraints-detectable by divergent algorithms--that occur at key protein locations. Finally, we discuss the fact that multiple patterns coexist in evolutionary data that, together, give rise to emergent protein functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Amino acid positions subject to multiple co-evolutionary constraints can be robustly identified by their eigenvector network centrality scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Daniel J.; Ray, J. Christian J.; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2015-01-01

    As proteins evolve, amino acid positions key to protein structure or function are subject to mutational constraints. These positions can be detected by analyzing sequence families for amino acid conservation or for co-evolution between pairs of positions. Co-evolutionary scores are usually rank-ordered and thresholded to reveal the top pairwise scores, but they also can be treated as weighted networks. Here, we used network analyses to bypass a major complication of co-evolution studies: For a given sequence alignment, alternative algorithms usually identify different, top pairwise scores. We reconciled results from five commonly-used, mathematically divergent algorithms (ELSC, McBASC, OMES, SCA, and ZNMI), using the LacI/GalR and 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase protein families as models. Calculations used unthresholded co-evolution scores from which column-specific properties such as sequence entropy and random noise were subtracted; “central” positions were identified by calculating various network centrality scores. When compared among algorithms, network centrality methods, particularly eigenvector centrality, showed markedly better agreement than comparisons of the top pairwise scores. Positions with large centrality scores occurred at key structural locations and/or were functionally sensitive to mutations. Further, the top central positions often differed from those with top pairwise co-evolution scores: Instead of a few strong scores, central positions often had multiple, moderate scores. We conclude that eigenvector centrality calculations reveal a robust evolutionary pattern of constraints – detectable by divergent algorithms – that occur at key protein locations. Finally, we discuss the fact that multiple patterns co-exist in evolutionary data that, together, give rise to emergent protein functions. PMID:26503808

  17. Prognostic significance of global grading system of Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambara, Tsunehito; Oyama, Tetsunari; Segawa, Atsuki; Fukabori, Yoshitatsu; Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the influence of the revised Gleason grading system (GGS, revised at a consensus conference organized by the International Society of Urological Pathology in 2005) on prediction of prognosis for patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Prostatic needle biopsy specimens from 113 patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis were scored using the conventional GGS (CGGS), modified global GGS (MGGGS), and modified highest GGS (MHGGS). The patients were divided into two groups (Gleason score or = 8) using each grading system. Prostate-specific antigen failure-free survival after hormone therapy (HT) was estimated retrospectively. The Cox proportional hazard method was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Patients with a Gleason score of score of > or = 8 according to each GGS. However, the better prognosis patients were detected more precisely by the CGGS and MGGGS than the MHGGS. Multivariate analysis showed that the CGGS and MGGGS were significant prognostic indicators for the outcome of HT after adjustment for other prognostic factors. These results suggest that the CGGS and MGGGS are more useful than the MHGGS as prognostic indicators for HT. Further evaluation in larger series is needed to define its clinical usefulness.

  18. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients contain significantly less igm against mono-methylated lysine than healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sha; Liu, Ying; Ma, Younan; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Shao, Yuehu; Gao, Fengying; Wu, Fengqi; Gao, Ruitong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1-19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs) to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31-19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31-19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31-19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31-19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31-19 (H31-19K9me). Our further studies revealed that ε-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31-19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions.

  19. Relationship between the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC), vitamin D levels, and insulin resistance in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Arrau, Carlos; Jerez, Saimar; Paoli, Mariela; González-Rivas, Juan P; Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2017-02-01

    To assess the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] blood concentrations in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) risk according to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) modified for Latin America (LA-FINDRISC). This study was conducted in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela. Eighty two women and 20 men (53 obese and 49 nonobese), with an average age of 42.6±12.30 years were enrolled. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, basal insulin, plasma lipids, Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and 25(OH)D levels were measured. FINDRISC with WC cutoff points modified for Latin America was applied. No difference in 25(OH)D levels between obese and nonobese subjects was found. When anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical variables according to the 25(OH)D status were compared, the only difference detected was higher LA-FINDRISC in the insufficient/low 25(OH)D group compared to normal 25(OH)D levels group (12.75±6.62; vs 10.15±5.21; p=0.031). LA-FINDRISC was negatively correlated with plasma 25(OH)D levels (r=-0.302; p=0.002) and positively correlated with the HOMA-IR index (r=0.637; p=0.0001). The LA-FINDRISC significantly correlated with both 25(OH)D levels and insulin resistance markers in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A score including ADAM17 substrates correlates to recurring cardiovascular event in subjects with atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Stefano; Copetti, Massimiliano; Cardellini, Marina; Menghini, Rossella; Pecchioli, Chiara; Luzi, Alessio; Di Cola, Giovanni; Porzio, Ottavia; Ippoliti, Arnaldo; Romeo, Franco; Pellegrini, Fabio; Federici, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Atherosclerosis disease is a leading cause for mortality and morbidity. The narrowing/rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is accountable for acute cardiovascular events. However, despite of an intensive research, a reliable clinical method which may disclose a vulnerable patient is still unavailable. We tested the association of ADAM17 (A Disintegrin and Metallo Protease Domain 17) circulating substrates (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sIL6R and sTNFR1) with a second major cardiovascular events [MACEs] (cardiovascular death, peripheral artery surgeries, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke) in 298 patients belonging to the Vascular Diabetes (AVD) study. To evaluate ADAM17 activity we create ADAM17 score through a RECPAM model. Finally we tested the discrimination ability and the reclassification of clinical models. At follow-up (mean 47 months, range 1-118 months), 55 MACEs occurred (14 nonfatal MI, 14 nonfatal strokes, 17 peripheral artery procedures and 10 cardiovascular deaths) (incidence = 7.8% person-years). An increased risk for incident events was observed among the high ADAM17 score individuals both in univariable (HR 19.20, 95% CI 15.82-63.36, p atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, albumin and transferrin for nutritional assessment of gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correira Pereira, Marta Alexandra; Santos, Carla Adriana; Almeida Brito, José; Fonseca, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients frequently have impaired speech capacities. Enteral feeding teams frequently depend on laboratorial or anthropometrical parameters for nutritional assessment. In these patients, this study aimed to evaluate: (1) the practicability of Scored - Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA); (2) their nutritional status using the Scored-PG-SGA; (3) association of serum albumin and transferrin values to the nutritional status rating using PG-SGA. On adult outpatients with head or neck cancer under prolonged (> 1 month) gastrostomy feeding, Scored-PGSGA, albumin and transferrin were evaluated during the same appointment. Scored-PG-SGA was easily feasible in 42 patients, even in patients with speech difficulties. Twenty-five patients were moderately/severely undernourished (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as ≥ 2, thus needing nutritional/ pharmacologic intervention. Albumin was low in 13 patients. Transferrin was low in 19 patients. Average albumin and transferrin in moderately/severely undernourished patients (PG-SGA/B+C) was significantly lower than in well-nourished (PG-SGA/A). There was association between Scored- PG-SGA rating, albumin and transferrin. In PEG fed head or neck cancer patients, PGSGA was practicable and useful, even in patients with impaired speaking skills. Most patients displayed moderate/severe malnutrition (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as needing for nutritional/pharmacological intervention. Scored-PG-SGA should be systematically included in the evaluation of these patients. In these patients, albumin and transferrin levels showed relation with Scored-PG-SGA and should be considered as nutritional biomarkers. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Prognostic significance of primary Gleason pattern in Japanese men with Gleason score 7 prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideaki; Muramaki, Mototsugu; Furukawa, Junya; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Inoue, Taka-aki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the significance of the primary Gleason pattern in patients with Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. This study included 959 consecutive Japanese men who underwent radical prostatectomy without neoadjuvant therapies and were subsequently diagnosed as having GS 7 prostate cancer based on the modified International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2005 Gleason grading system. Of these 959 patients, 666 (69.4%) and 293 (30.6%) had GS 3+4 and GS 4+3 tumors, respectively. There were significant differences in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, biopsy GS, pathologic T stage, lymphatic invasion, microvenous invasion, and perineural invasion between these 2 groups. During the mean observation of 48.9 months, biochemical recurrence occurred in 211 patients (22.0%), and there was a significant difference in the biochemical recurrence-free survival between patients with GS 3+4 tumors and those with GS 4+3 tumors. Of several factors examined, biochemical recurrence-free survival was significantly associated with the PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle invasion, surgical margin status, lymphatic invasion, microvenous invasion, perineural invasion, and primary Gleason pattern, among which the PSA level, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle invasion, and surgical margin status, but not primary Gleason pattern, appeared to be independent predictors of biochemical recurrence. Despite the lack of an independent significance, primary Gleason pattern based on the modified ISUP 2005 Gleason grading system is shown to be significantly associated with the biochemical outcome of Japanese men with GS 7 prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic significance of APACHE II score and plasma suPAR in Chinese patients with sepsis: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Shen, Yong; Li, Zhihua; Fei, Aihua; Wang, Hairong; Ge, Qinmin; Pan, Shuming

    2016-07-29

    Timely risk stratification is the key strategy to improve prognosis of patients with sepsis. Previous study has proposed to develop a powerful risk assessment rule by the combination of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). That reaffirmation of suPAR as a prognostic marker in Chinese patients with severe sepsis is the aim of the study. A total of 137 consecutive Chinese patients with sepsis were enrolled in a prospective study cohort. Demographic and clinical characteristics, conventional risk factors and important laboratory data were prospectively recorded. Sequential plasma suPAR concentrations were measured by an enzymeimmunoabsorbent assay on days 1, 3, and 7 after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Cox regression analysis were used to examine the performance of suPAR in developing a rule for risk stratification. The results showed that plasma suPAR concentrations remained relatively stable within survivors and non-survivors during the first week of disease course. Regression analysis indicated that APACHE II ≥15 and suPAR ≥10.82 ng/mL were independently associated with unfavorable outcome. With the above cutoffs of APACHE II and suPAR, strata of disease severity were determined. The mortality of each stratum differed significantly from the others. Combination of APACHE II score and suPAR may supply the powerful prognostic utility for the mortality of sepsis.

  4. Reliability of scored patient generated subjective global assessment for nutritional status among HIV infected adults in TASO, Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokori, A; Kabehenda, M K; Nabiryo, C; Wamuyu, M G

    2011-08-01

    Establish the reliability of the scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in determining nutritional status among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) naive HIV-infected adults. A descriptive, cross sectional study among outpatient medical clinics, in The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), Mulago Centre, Kampala, Uganda. The study group (n=217) consisted of male (n=60) and female (n=157) HIV patients (18-67 years). Purposive sampling was used. Anthropometry (weight, height, BMI), nutritional history (body weight, dietary intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, functional capacity and infections), and clinical status were assessed. Sensitivity and specificity of PG-SGA were determined using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Data collection was done from April-May 2008. Only 12% of the subjects were underweight and over half (58.2%) had normal weight. The PG-SGA had low sensitivity (69.2%) and specificity (57.1%) at categorizing the risk for malnutrition indicated by BMInutritional status in this population.

  5. The Portuguese version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Normative data, reliability, and clinical significance cut-offs scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering

  6. External validation of the Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score : Ruling out significant abdominal injury in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Willem-Jan J.; Stoepker, Leon; Nellensteijn, David R.; Groen, Henk; El Moumni, Mostafa; Hulscher, Jan B.

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to validate the use of the Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score. The BATiC score uses only readily available laboratory parameters, ultrasound results, and results from physical examination and does therefore not carry any risk of additional

  7. The Influence of Significant Others on Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Intentions Regarding Dietary Supplement Use among Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Eddy, James M.; Qi Wang, Min; Nagy, Steve; Perko, Michael A.; Bartee, R. Todd

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Results indicated that attitudes were a better…

  8. Prognostic significance of global grading system of Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kambara, Tsunehito; Oyama, Tetsunari; Segawa, Atsuki; Fukabori, Yoshitatsu; Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    ...) on prediction of prognosis for patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS Prostatic needle biopsy specimens from 113 patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis were scored using the conventional GGS (CGGS...

  9. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  10. Association between Framingham risk score and subclinical atherosclerosis among elderly with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Moatassem S; Khater, Mohamed S; Omar, Omar H; Mabrouk, Randa A; Mostafa, Shimaa A

    2014-01-01

    Framingham risk score (FRS) is a widely used tool to identify asymptomatic individuals who are at risk to cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association between subclinical atherosclerosis and FRS among elderly with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy participants. Methods: As case-control study was done on 58 men and women, who had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and in 59 age and gender matched control participants. They were selected from a geriatric outpatient clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), clinical variables, plasma lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured for each participants. Results: Diabetic patients had higher FRS, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, total cholesterol level, and LDL levels than control subjects. Mean cIMT values were higher in diabetic than healthy subjects. After multivariate regression analysis, FRS was independently associated with carotid IMT in type 2 diabetes patients after adjustment for other risk factors. However triglycerides and BMI were independently associated with cIMT among the control group. Conclusion: FRS is likely to be more informative about the atherosclerotic state in diabetics but not in the healthy elderly. PMID:24551481

  11. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P < 0·001), PDAI (P < 0·001), PGA (P < 0·001) and DLQI (P = 0·03) scores. This study suggests cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Aoki, Shigeki; Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing.

  13. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kabasawa, Hiroyuki [GE Healthcare, Japan Applied Science Laboratory, Hino (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  14. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  15. A Methodology of Analysis for Monitoring Treatment Progression with 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) in a Single-Subject Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigbaum, Genomary; Wigton, Nancy L

    2015-09-01

    19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) is a modality using 19-electrodes with real-time normative database z-scores, suggesting effective clinical outcomes in fewer sessions than traditional neurofeedback. Thus, monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome is necessary. The area of focus in this study was a methodology of quantitative analysis for monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome with 19ZNF. This methodology is noted as the Sites-of-Interest, which included repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) and t-tests for z-scores; it was conducted on 10 cases in a single subject design. To avoid selection bias, the 10 sample cases were randomly selected from a pool of 17 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Available client outcome measures (including self-report) are briefly discussed. The results showed 90% of the pre-post comparisons moved in the targeted direction (z = 0) and of those, 96% (80% Bonferroni corrected) of the t-tests and 96% (91% Bonferroni corrected) of the rANOVAs were statistically significant; thus indicating a progression towards the mean in 15 or fewer 19ZNF sessions. All cases showed and reported improvement in all outcome measures (including quantitative electroencephalography assessment) at case termination.

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Significant Fibrosis Among Subjects with Transient Elastography-Defined Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kwang Joon; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2017-08-01

    Transient elastography (TE) can be used to assess the degree of liver fibrosis and steatosis. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without significant liver fibrosis in the general population. A total of 3033 subjects without alcoholic or chronic viral liver diseases who underwent a medical health check-up including TE were recruited from April 2013 to August 2014. TE-defined NAFLD was defined as a controlled attenuation parameter of ≥250 dB/m, and significant liver fibrosis was defined as a liver stiffness (LS) value of ≥8 kPa. Overall, 1178 (42.9%) subjects had NAFLD. Subjects with NAFLD had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and a higher prevalence of parameters related to metabolic syndrome, such as high blood pressure, a high body mass index (BMI), glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia than did subjects without NAFLD (all P liver fibrosis was identified in 60 (5.1%) subjects with NAFLD, and its independent predictors were age [odds ratio (OR) 1.054], ALT level (OR 1.019), BMI (OR 1.217), and diabetes (OR 1.987) (all P liver fibrosis. The risk factors found in this study can help identify which subjects with NAFLD are vulnerable to fibrosis progression.

  17. Inter-examiner reproducibility of Ocular Response Analyzer using the waveform score quality index in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalos, Achilleas; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Makris, Leonidas; Dervenis, Nikolaos; Kilintzis, Vasilis; Topouzis, Fotis

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the inter-examiner reproducibility of Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) parameters in healthy subjects using the waveform score (WS) for quality control of acquisition. Fifteen healthy subjects had their intraocular pressure (IOP) measured with ORA by 2 masked examiners. An acquisition protocol that aimed at obtaining 4 reliable measurements in each eye with WS≥6 and with as few repeated measurements as possible was employed, whereas a maximum of 8 measurements per eye was allowed. Additional good quality criteria included symmetrical force-in and force-out applanation signal peaks on the ORA waveform and few or no distortions of the applanation signal curve. Only the right eyes were included in the analysis. Examiners were trained but not experienced. The inter-examiner reproducibility of ORA parameters was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean values of the best 4 measurements were considered in analysis. ICC including the best 4 measurements per eye was high for all ORA parameters. Specifically, ICC for Goldmann-correlated IOP was 0.961, for corneal-compensated IOP was 0.962, for corneal resistance factor was 0.987, and for corneal hysteresis was 0.988. Similar reproducibility was found when only the 3 best measurements per eye were included in the analysis. The protocol for IOP measurement with ORA using the WS ≥6 as quality index achieved high inter-examiner reproducibility for all ORA parameters. High reproducibility was obtained even by inexperienced examiners when considering the mean of the best 3 measurements per eye.

  18. Identification of clinically significant psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity by examining quality of life in subjects with occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzo Heberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Juniper Asthma Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S is a questionnaire that allows measurement of disease specific quality of life. We wanted to examine correlations between the (AQLQ(S general and different subscale scores and both psychiatric morbidity and levels of psychological distress in individuals with occupational asthma (OA and to determine if results in the emotional function subscale allow identification of individuals with clinically significant psychological distress or current psychiatric disorders. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of individuals with OA who were assessed during a re-evaluation for permanent disability, after they were no longer exposed to the sensitizing agent. Patients underwent a general sociodemographic and medical history evaluation, a brief psychiatric interview (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, PRIME-MD and completed a battery of questionnaires including the AQLQ(S, the St-Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and the Psychiatric Symptom Index (PSI. Results There was good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.936 for the AQLQ(S total score and construct validity for the AQLQ(S (Spearman rho = -0.693 for the SGRQ symptom score and rho = -0.650 for the asthma severity score. There were medium to large correlations between the total score of the AQLQ(S and the SGRQ symptom score (r = -.693, and PSI total (r = -.619 and subscale scores (including depression, r = -.419; anxiety, r = -.664; anger, r = -.367; cognitive disturbances, r = -.419. A cut-off of 5.1 on the AQLQ(S emotional function subscale (where 0 = high impairment and 7 = no impairment had the best discriminative value to distinguish individuals with or without clinically significant psychiatric distress according to the PSI, and a cut-off of 4.7 best distinguished individuals with or without a current psychiatric disorder according to the PRIME-MD. Conclusions Impaired quality of life is

  19. Adaptation of the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Score (OASIS) questionnaire for perception of oral aesthetics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Wladimir Vinicius; Traebert, Jefferson

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the cross-cultural adaptation and reliability and validity of the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Score (OASIS) for the perception of oral aesthetics in Brazilian adolescents. The cross-cultural adaptation was developed in agreement with internationally recommended methodology. The psychometric properties were assessed by application of the Brazilian version of the OASIS in 304 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years who were enrolled at two public schools and one private school in Tubarão, Brazil. The internal consistency of the instrument was measured using Cronbach's alpha. The reliability was estimated through stability and homogeneity, using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and the Bland-Altman agreement. Validity was determined by comparing the OASIS-Brazil with the aesthetic component of the instrument Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) using the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient. The internal consistency obtained was 0.52. Inter-observer and intra-observer correlations were strong, 0.87 and 0.83, respectively. The correlation with the aesthetic part of OIDP was 0.44. The results showed that the process of cross-cultural adaptation was successful and the adapted instrument showed good psychometric properties.

  20. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  1. Automated Scoring of Short-Answer Open-Ended GRE® Subject Test Items. ETS GRE® Board Research Report No. 04-02. ETS RR-08-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don; Freedman, Marshall; Harrison, Marissa; Obetz, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development, administration, and scoring of open-ended variants of GRE® Subject Test items in biology and psychology. These questions were administered in a Web-based experiment to registered examinees of the respective Subject Tests. The questions required a short answer of 1-3 sentences, and responses were automatically…

  2. Development of new diabetes risk scores on the basis of the current definition of diabetes in Japanese subjects [Rapid Communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Takahiro; Oka, Rie; Nakasone, Yasuto; Sato, Yuka; Yamauchi, Keishi; Hashikura, Rie; Takayama, Masayuki; Hirayama, Yudai; Hirabayashi, Kazuko; Koike, Hideo; Aizawa, Toru

    2016-09-30

    To develop diabetes risk score (RS) based on the current definition of diabetes, we retrospectively analyzed consecutive 4,159 health examinees who were non-diabetic at baseline. Diabetes, diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0 mmol/L, 2hPG ≥11.1 mmol/L and/or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol), developed in 279 of them during the mean period of 4.9 years. A full RS (RS Full ), a RS without 2hPG (RS -2hPG ) and a non-invasive RS (RS NI ) were created on the basis of multivariate Cox proportional model by weighted grading based on hazard ratio in half the persons assigned. The RSs were verified in the remaining half of the participants. Positive family history (FH), male sex, smoking and higher age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), FPG, 2hPG and HbA1c were independent predictors for RS Full . For RS -2hPG , 7 independent predictors, exclusive of 2hPG and smoking but inclusive of elevated triglycerides (TG) comparing to RS Full , were selected. FH, male sex, and higher age, SBP and HbA1c were independent predictors in RS NI . In the validation cohort, C-statistic (95%CI) of RS Full , RS -2hPG and RS NI were 0.80 (0.76-0.84), 0.75 (0.70-0.78) and 0.68 (0.63-0.72), respectively, which were significantly different from each other (P <0.01). Absolute percentage difference between predicted probability and observed diabetes were 1.9%, 0.7% and 0.9%, by the three scores, respectively, and not significantly different from each other. In conclusion, diabetes defined by the current criteria was predicted by the new diabetes risk scores with reasonable accuracy. Nonetheless, RS Full with a postchallenge glucose value performed superior to RS -2hPG and RS NI .

  3. Significant relationships between a simple marker of redox balance and lifestyle behaviours; Relevance to the Framingham risk score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Seyedsadjadi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been closely linked to the progressive cell damage associated with emerging non-communicable disease (NCDs. Early detection of these biochemical abnormalities before irreversible cell damage occurs may therefore be useful in identifying disease risk at an individual level. In order to test this hypothesis, this study assessed the relationship between a simple measure of redox status and lifestyle risk factors for NCDs, and the population-based risk score of Framingham. In a cross-sectional study design, 100 apparently healthy middle-aged males (n = 48 and females (n = 52 were asked to complete a comprehensive lifestyle assessment questionnaire, followed by body fat percentage and blood pressure measurements, and blood collection. The ratio of plasma total antioxidant capacity to hydroperoxide (TAC/HPX was used as an index of redox balance. One-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyse the association between TAC/HPX, lifestyle components and other plasma biomarkers. The TAC/HPX ratio was higher in males compared to females (t96 = 2.34, P = 0.021. TAC/HPX was also lower in participants with poor sleep quality (t93 = 2.39, P = 0.019, with high sleep apnoea risk (t62.2 = 3.32, P = 0.002, with high caffeine (F(2, 93 = 3.97, P = 0.022 and red meat intake (F(2, 93 = 5.55, P = 0.005. These associations were independent of gender. Furthermore, the TAC/HPX ratio decreased with increasing body fat percentage (F(2, 95 = 4.74, P = 0.011 and depression score (t94 = 2.38, P = 0.019, though these associations were dependent on gender. Importantly, a negative association was observed between TAC/HPX levels and the Framingham risk score in both males (r(45 = -0.39, P = 0.008 and females (r(50 = -0.33, P = 0.019 that was independent of other Framingham risk score components. Findings from this study suggests that a relatively simple measure of redox balance such as the TAC/HPX ratio may be a sensitive

  4. Assessment of Left Ventricular Torsion in Short Axis View between Healthy Subjects and Significant Coronary Artery Disease Patients

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    Zahra Arab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease causes changes in biomechanical parameters and function of myocardial. Recently, torsion angle is one of the most important mechanical parameters. Therefore in this study, torsion angle in healthy subjects and LAD significant coronary artery disease patients, using echo tracking method in short axis view, was evaluated.Materials and Methods: In cross sectional study, 14 healthy subjects and 10 patients with significant stenosis of LAD were evaluated. Two dimensional echocardiography images were scanned in apical and basal parasternal short axis view were recorded. Successive ultrasonic images were processed by echo tracking under block matching algorithm and peak torsion angle were estimated. Difference between healthy group and patient group were extracted by using peak torsion angle by the confidence level of 95%.Results: In this study, basal rotation angle, apical rotation angle and torsion angle in short axis view in significant coronary artery disease patients significantly decreased 33%, 44% and 38% relative to healthy subjects, respectively. Also time to reach peak torsion angle in LAD coronary artery stenosis patients increased 19% relative to healthy group.Conclusion: It seems, torsion angle in short axis view, can diagnose LAD coronary artery stenosis patients reative to healthy subject.

  5. 2 years outcome of thread lifting with absorbable barbed pdo threads: Innovative score for objective and subjective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasser Helmy

    2017-09-01

    Thread lifting rejuvenation procedures are re-evolved again, after developing of absorbable threads, with very popular spread among plastic surgeons and dermatologists but with little articles have been written in literature about absorbable threads. Objective to evaluate two years' outcome of absorbable barbed thread lifting used for facial rejuvenation. Prospective comparative study both objectively and subjectively and follow up assessment for 24 months. Thread lifting for face rejuvenation has significant long-lasting considerable skin lifting from 3-10 mm and high degree of patients' satisfaction with less incidence rate of complications about 4.8%. Augmented results are obtained when thread lifting is combined with other lifting and rejuvenation modalities. Significant facial rejuvenations are got by thread lifting and highly augmented results are observed when they are combined with Botox, fillers and/or platelet rich plasma (PRP) rejuvenations.

  6. The influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms and intentions regarding dietary supplement use among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, M S; Eddy, J M; Wang, M Q; Nagy, S; Perko, M A; Bartee, R T

    2001-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased significantly over the past decade. The use of supplements among adolescents seems to be influenced by their beliefs and attitudes. The influence of coaches, parents, and athletic trainers also may be important. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others (coaches, parents, and trainers) on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Adolescents (N = 1,626) who were enrolled in grades six through twelve in nine public schools completed a self-report questionnaire that measured attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions regarding dietary supplement use. Results indicated that attitudes were a better predictor of intentions to use dietary supplements than were subjective norms. It was also found that trainers had more influence on the attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions of adolescents regarding supplement use than did parents and coaches. Implications for prevention are addressed.

  7. [Serum myeloperoxidase activity and serum paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with silicosis and observation subjects and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei-hua; Qiu, Sheng-qiang; Hong, Xiao-ping; Wu, Quan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in patients with silicosis and observation subjects and their clinical significance. Seventy-two patients with silicosis (stage I: 30 cases, stage II: 22 cases, stage III: 20 cases) and 37 observation subjects were selected as a case group, and 110 healthy men were selected as a control group. Serum MPO activity was measured by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and serum PON-1 activity was measured by chemical spectrophotometry. Serum MPO activity was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group [(102.1 ± 15.7) U/L vs. (62.4 ± 11.4) U/L, P silicosis than in the observation subjects [(91.3 ± 13.5) U/L, (85.7 ± 14.4) U/L, and (88.6 ± 14.5) U/L vs. (128.4 ± 16.4) U/L, P silicosis increased; serum PON-1 activity was significantly lower in the patients with stages II and III silicosis than in the observation subjects and the patients with stage I silicosis [(70.4 ± 11.4) U/ml and (67.6 ± 13.7) U/ml vs. (101.5 ± 14.0) U/ml and (89.1 ± 10.1) U/ml, P silicosis and evaluation of patient's condition.

  8. Prognostic significance of Gleason score 7 (3+4 and Gleason score 7 (4+3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis and choice of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ADCP directly depend on the numerous of predictive factors, among which the most important are summary histological tumor grade (Gleason score, which is the sum of the first and second dominant histological grade and clinical stage. According to recent research these factors include androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The importance of the first and second dominant histological grade becomes particularly important in ADCP Gleason score 7. Tumors with worse prognosis considered to be ADCP of higher Gleason score, the advanced clinical stage, androgen independent tumors and tumors that show a higher degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive significance of ADCP Gleason score 7 (3+4 and ADCP Gleason score 7 (4+3 in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. The study included 33 ADCP of Gleason score 7,26 (78.79% ADCP 7 (3+4 and 7 (21.21% ADCP 7 (4+3. All tumors are most often diagnosed with stage D2, when there are already distant metastases. ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 were diagnosed more often at this stage, among them there are more androgen independent tumors and they show a greater degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. All the results are in accordance with data from the literature suggesting that ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 have a worse prognosis than ADCP of Gleason score 7 (3 +4.

  9. The Role of Family Orientations in Shaping the Effect of Fertility on Subjective Well-being: A Propensity Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Nicoletta; Arpino, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    This article investigates whether and how having a child impacts an individual's subjective well-being, while taking into account heterogeneity in family attitudes. People with different family orientations have different values, gender attitudes, preferences toward career and family, and expectations about how childbearing can affect their subjective well-being. These differences impact fertility decisions and the effect of parenthood on an individual's life satisfaction. We define three groups of people based on their family orientations: Traditional, Mixed, and Modern. Applying propensity score matching on longitudinal data (British Household Panel Survey), we create groups of individuals with very similar socioeconomic characteristics and family orientations before childbearing. We then compare those who have one child with those who are childless, and those who have two children with those who have only one child. We show that parents are significantly more satisfied than nonparents, and this effect is stronger among men than among women. For men, we do not find significant differences across family orientations groups in the effect of the birth of the first child on life satisfaction. Among women, only Traditional mothers seem to be more satisfied than their childless counterparts. Women who have a second child are never more satisfied than those who have only one child, regardless of their family orientations. Traditional and Mixed men experience a gain in life satisfaction when they have a second child, but this effect is not found for Modern men.

  10. [Structure and function of the cardiotocographic score (CTG-score) calculated by the "quantitative cardiotocography" computer method. Determining the significance of its components for the accuracy of the estimates for the ph of the fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, P; Atanasov, B

    2011-01-01

    In the last three years "quantitative cardiotocography" has become the main method for fetal monitoring during late pregnancy and birth in Sheynovo hospital - Sofia, Bulgaria. Our previous studies presented opportunities for increasing the diagnostic potential of the methodology. In this paper we offer a new approach to further improve the accuracy of prognostic values for fetal pH during labor. This is achieved by analyzing the individual components of the CTG-score (microfluctuation - OSZ, basic fetal heart rate - FRQ and decelerations - DEC). Several groups of CTG-scores have been formed, according to the composition of the score and the correlation between forecast and actual results for the pH of the fetus. For each of the stored 171 recordings we compared the CTG-score, produced prior to the delivery, with the pH measured in the umbilical artery (UA) before cutting the umbilical cord. As fetal pH forecast is based strictly on the CTG-score value, the difference between actual and prognostic results for the pH actually shows how accurate is the CTG score itself. We used standard deviation (Std. deviation) to assess this variability. We defined several groups of CTG-score based on its composition and the respective standard deviations. Each group includes CTG-scores with no significant statistical difference between the calculated standard deviations: CTG-score with low (composed of OSZ; Std. Dev. 0.065), satisfactory (composed of OSZ + FRQ and FRQ; Std. dev 0048 and 0044), high (composed of OSZ + DEC and DEC; Std. dev 0032 and 0027) and very high (composed of FRQ + DEC and OSZ + FRQ + DEC; Std. dev. 0019 and 0012) predictive value. We observed a substantial variety in the prognostic results, depending on which components of the CTG-score are involved in the evaluation of pH. The composition of the CTG-score seems to be crucial for the accuracy of the prognostic fetal pH values. In order to organize the gathered information it is necessary to develop clinical

  11. Effect of intraarticular inoculation of mesenchymal stem cells in dogs with hip osteoarthritis by means of objective force platform gait analysis: concordance with numeric subjective scoring scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Jose M; Cuervo, Belen; Rubio, Monica; Sopena, Joaquín; Domínguez, Juan M; Santana, Angelo; Carrillo, Jose M

    2016-10-07

    Subjective pain assessment scales have been widely used for assessing lameness in response to pain, but the accuracy of these scales has been questioned. To assess scale accuracy, 10 lame, presa Canario dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) associated with bilateral hip dysplasia were first treated with mesenchymal stem cells. Then, potential lameness improvement was analyzed using two pain scales (Bioarth and visual analog scale). These data were compared with similar data collected using a force platform with the same animals during a period of 6 months after treatment. The F test for intraclass correlation showed that concordance in pain/lameness scores between the 2 measuring methodologies was not significant (P value ≥ 0.9213; 95 % confidence interval, -0.56, 0.11). Although subjective pain assessment showed improvement after 6 months, force platform data demonstrated those same animals had returned to the initial lameness state. Use of pain assessment scales to measure lameness associated with OA did not have great accuracy and concordance when compared with quantitative force platform gait analysis.

  12. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  13. Prognostic significance of multiple-detector computed tomography in conjunction with TIMI risk score for patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Mayumi; Takagi, Atsushi; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Kasanuki, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Risk stratification among patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has been made by clinical scoring. Recently, multiple-detector computed tomography (MDCT) appeared to provide noninvasive coronary angiography (CAG). To clarify the prognostic significance of MDCT, we aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of MDCT in the early management and in predicting the long-term prognosis of NSTE-ACS with low to intermediate risk. Among 84 consecutive patients with NSTEACS, risk stratification using a TIMI risk score was done. A total of 48 patients were categorized as low to intermediate risk. Multiple-detector CT was performed in 30 patients using 16-slice MDCT. MDCT detected coronary stenoses in 18 patients. Compared to invasive CAG, MDCT successfully depicted the coronary stenosis (P TIMI risk score appeared to demonstrate prognostic significance in patients with NSTE-ACS.

  14. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  15. Proposal and validation of prognostic scoring systems for IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Guffanti, Andrea; Marcheselli, Luigi; Rossi, Davide; Callea, Vincenzo; Vincenzo, Federico; De Muro, Marianna; Baraldi, Alessandra; Villani, Oreste; Musto, Pellegrino; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Gaidano, Gianluca; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Goldaniga, Maria; Depaoli, Lorenzo; Baldini, Luca

    2009-07-01

    The presenting clinico-hematologic features of 1,283 patients with IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) were correlated with the frequency of evolution into multiple myeloma (MM). Two IgG MGUS populations were evaluated: a training sample (553 patients) and a test sample (378 patients); the IgA MGUS population consisted of 352 patients. Forty-seven of the 553 training group patients and 22 of 378 test group IgG patients developed MM after a median follow-up of 6.7 and 3.6 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that serum monoclonal component (MC) levels of sample. Thirty of the 352 IgA patients developed MM after a median follow-up of 4.8 years, and multivariate analysis showed that hemoglobin levels of <12.5 g/dL and reduced serum polyclonal immunoglobulin correlated with progression. A pooled statistical analysis of all of the patients confirmed the validity of Mayo Clinic risk model showing that IgA class, serum MC levels, and light-chain proteinuria are the most important variables correlated with disease progression. Using simple variables, we validated a prognostic model for IgG MGUS. Among the IgA cases, the possible prognostic role of hemoglobin emerged in addition to a decrease in normal immunoglobulin levels.

  16. The macrophage activation marker sCD163 combined with markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) score predicts clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, T D; McGrail, R; Møller, Holger Jon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive identification of significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis is needed in hepatology practice. AIM: To investigate whether the combination of sCD163 as a hepatic inflammation marker and the fibrosis markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (ELF) can pre...

  17. A prediction score for significant coronary artery disease in Chinese patients ≥50 years old referred for rheumatic valvular heart disease surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenjun; Pan, Jun; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Hailong; Fan, Fudong; Luo, Xuan; Ge, Min; Wang, Dongjin

    2017-12-18

    Our goal was to establish a prediction score and protocol for the preoperative prediction of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we validated the model based on 490 patients without a history of myocardial infarction and who underwent preoperative screening coronary angiography. Significant CAD was defined as ≥50% narrowing of the diameter of the lumen of the left main coronary artery or ≥70% narrowing of the diameter of the lumen of the left anterior descending coronary artery, left circumflex artery or right coronary artery. Significant CAD was present in 9.8% of patients. Age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ischaemia evident on an electrocardiogram were independently associated with significant CAD and were entered into the multivariate model. According to the logistic regression predictive risk score, preoperative coronary angiography is recommended in (i) postmenopausal women between 50 and 59 years of age with ≥9.1% logistic regression predictive risk score; (ii) postmenopausal women who are ≥60 years old with a logistic regression predictive risk score ≥6.6% and (iii) men ≥50 years old whose logistic regression predictive risk score was ≥2.8%. Based on this predictive model, 246 (50.2%) preoperative coronary angiograms could be safely avoided. The negative predictive value of the model was 98.8% (246 of 249). This model was accurate for the preoperative prediction of significant CAD in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease. This model must be validated in larger cohorts and various populations.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Dutch version of the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. C.P. van der Schans; Martine J. Sealy; Ulrike Hass; Jan L. Roodenburg; Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2014-01-01

    Posterpresentatie gehouden tijdens en in het kader van Clinical Nutrition Week 2014. Background: Nutritional assessment is considered to be an important element in the nutrition care process of cancer patients, since nutritional status is positively associated with health outcome. The Scored

  19. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  20. Malnutrition in Geriatric Rehabilitation: Prevalence, Patient Outcomes, and Criterion Validity of the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment and the Mini Nutritional Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Skye; Young, Adrienne; Bauer, Judith; Isenring, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Accurate identification and management of malnutrition is essential so that patient outcomes can be improved and resources used efficaciously. In malnourished older adults admitted to rehabilitation: 1) report the prevalence, health and aged care use, and mortality of malnourished older adults; 2) determine and compare the criterion (concurrent and predictive) validity of the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in diagnosing malnutrition; and 3) identify the Scored PG-SGA score cut-off value associated with malnutrition. Observational, prospective cohort. Participants were 57 older adults (65 years and older; mean±standard deviation age=79.1±7.3 years) from two rural rehabilitation units in New South Wales, Australia. Scored PG-SGA; MNA; and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) classification of malnutrition were compared to establish concurrent validity and report malnutrition prevalence. Length of stay, discharge location, rehospitalization, admission to a residential aged care facility, and mortality were measured to report health-related outcomes and to establish predictive validity. Malnutrition prevalence varied according to assessment tool (ICD-10-AM: 46%; Scored PG-SGA: 53%; MNA: 28%). Using the ICD-10-AM as the reference standard, the Scored PG-SGA ratings (sensitivity 100%, specificity 87%) and score (sensitivity 92%, specificity 84%, ROC AUC [receiver operating characteristics area under the curve]=0.910±0.038) showed strong concurrent validity, and the MNA had moderate concurrent validity (sensitivity 58%, specificity 97%, receiver operating characteristics area under the curve=0.854±0.052). The Scored PG-SGA rating, Scored PG-SGA score, and MNA showed good predictive validity. Malnutrition can increase the risk of longer rehospitalization length of stay, admission to a residential

  1. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangwei; Chen, Fei; Zhu, Mingping; Chen, Aiqing; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP) variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP). They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD) of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV) were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  2. Dutch Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA): training improves scores for comprehensibility and difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faith Ottery; Jan Roodenburg; Anne van der Braak; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; Martine J. Sealy; Danique Haven; Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is a validated instrument to assess and monitor malnutrition, which consists of both patient-reported and professional-reported items. A professional should be able to correctly interpret all items. Untrained professionals may

  3. Accuracy of the prostate health index versus the urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 score to predict overall and significant prostate cancer at initial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisen, Thomas; Rouprêt, Morgan; Brault, Didier; Léon, Priscilla; Cancel-Tassin, Géraldine; Compérat, Eva; Renard-Penna, Raphaële; Mozer, Pierre; Guechot, Jérome; Cussenot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether the Prostate Health Index (PHI) or the urinary Prostate-Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA-3) score is more accurate at screening for prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the accuracy of PHI and PCA-3 scores to predict overall and significant PCa in men undergoing an initial prostate biopsy. Double-blind assessments of PHI and PCA-3 were conducted by referent physicians in 138 patients who subsequently underwent trans-rectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy according to a 12-core scheme. Predictive accuracies of PHI and PCA-3 were assessed using AUC and compared according to the DeLong method. Diagnostic performances with usual cut-off values for positivity (i.e., PHI >40 and PCA-3 >35) were calculated, and odds ratios associated with predicting PCa overall and significant PCa as defined by pathological updated Epstein criteria (i.e., Gleason score ≥7, more than three positive cores, or >50% cancer involvement in any core) were estimated using logistic regression. Prevalences of overall and significant PCa were 44.9% and 28.3%, respectively. PCA-3 (AUC = 0.71) was the most accurate predictor of PCa overall, and significantly outperformed PHI (AUC = 0.65; P = 0.03). However, PHI (AUC = 0.80) remained the most accurate predictor when screening exclusively for significant PCa and significantly outperformed PCA-3 (AUC = 0.55; P = 0.03). Furthermore, PCA-3 >35 had the best accuracy, and positive or negative predictive values when screening for PCa overall whereas these diagnostic performances were greater for PHI >40 when exclusively screening for significant PCa. PHI > 40 combined with PCA-3 > 35 was more specific in both cases. In multivariate analyses, PCA-3 >35 (OR = 5.68; 95%CI = [2.21-14.59]; P 40 (OR = 9.60; 95%CI = [1.72-91.32]; P = 0.001) was the only independent predictor for detecting significant PCa. Although PCA-3 score is the best predictor for PCa

  4. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-09-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  5. Preferred 11 different job rotation types in automotive company and their effects on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders: comparison between subjective and actual scores by workers' age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, In Sik; Jeong, Byung Yong; Jeong, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates workers' favoured rotation types by their age and compares means between subjective and actual scores on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The subjects of research were 422 assembly line units in Hyundai Motor Company. The survey of 422 units focused on the workers' preference for 11 different rotation types and subjective scores for each type's perceived benefits, both by the workers' age. Then, actual scores on production-related indices were traced over a five-year period. The results suggest that different rotation types lead to different results in productivity, product quality and MSDs. Workers tend to perceive job rotation as a helpful method to enhance satisfaction, productivity and product quality more so than the actual production data suggests. Job rotation was especially effective in preventing MSDs for workers aged under 45, while its effects were not clear for the workers aged 45 years or older. Practitioner's Summary: This research presents appropriate rotation type for different age groups. Taking workers' age into account, administrators can use the paper's outcomes to select and implement the suitable rotation type to attain specific goals such as enhancing productivity, improving product quality or reducing MSDs.

  6. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP. They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P<0.01. For the hypertensive group, SD of repeats decreased from 6.5 to 5.5 mmHg for SBP and from 6.7 to 4.2 mmHg for MAP, and CV decreased from 4.2% to 3.6% for SBP and from 5.8% to 3.8% for MAP (all P<0.05. In conclusion, polynomial curve fitting of oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  7. [Tattooing and its significance in Switzerland. A representative study of 2177 20-year-old Swiss subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, W E

    1990-03-03

    To investigate the incidence, significance and symbolism of tattooing in Switzerland, a representative group of 2177 young males (all liable for military service, age 19-21 years) were examined in 1988. All tattoos were sketched, the location was recorded and the individual meaning was discussed with the bearer. 135 subjects (6.2%) had 1-9 tattoos per person, showing 155 different marks. Only 13% of all tattoos were professional, moderate to large in size and most often located in the area of the upper arm and the shoulder. 87% of tattoos were self-inflicted or placed by a friend and the left side was therefore preferred (66%). In general, these were small to moderate in size, simple in design, and usually located on the forearm and the hand. The dominant significance of all tattoos was related to mental attitude (29%) and love affairs (14%). 13% were pictorial. Some were related to drug abuse, criminality of gangs, or contained magic symbolism or personal data such as zodiac signs and initials (about 4% each). Only 20% had no conventional or private meaning or involved concealed symbolism. For further understanding of the individuals' social history, it should be noted that some tattoos were characterized by minor differences of meaning, such as the "man-in-4-walls" mark (= prison), the "fuck-the-police" mark, the leaf of cannabis sativa or different cross motifs. Even greater consistency related to tattoos located in the web space between the thumb and the forefinger or on the back of the fingers. The location in itself may therefore provide additional personal information on individual circumstances at the time of tattooing.

  8. Diagnostic performance of a CT-based scoring system for diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy: comparison with subjective CT assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goense, Lucas; Rossum, Peter S.N. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiation Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stassen, Pauline M.C.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Hillegersberg, Richard van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wessels, Frank J.; Leeuwen, Maarten S. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-10-15

    To develop a CT-based prediction score for anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy and compare it to subjective CT interpretation. Consecutive patients who underwent a CT scan for a clinical suspicion of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis between 2003 and 2014 were analyzed. The CT scans were systematically re-evaluated by two radiologists for the presence of specific CT findings and presence of an anastomotic leak. Also, the original CT interpretations were acquired. These results were compared to patients with and without a clinical confirmed leak. Out of 122 patients that underwent CT for a clinical suspicion of anastomotic leakage; 54 had a confirmed leak. In multivariable analysis, anastomotic leakage was associated with mediastinal fluid (OR = 3.4), esophagogastric wall discontinuity (OR = 4.9), mediastinal air (OR = 6.6), and a fistula (OR = 7.2). Based on these criteria, a prediction score was developed resulting in an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 0.86, sensitivity of 80%, and specificity of 84%. The original interpretation and the systematic subjective CT assessment by two radiologists resulted in AUCs of 0.68 and 0.75 with sensitivities of 52% and 69%, and specificities of 84% and 82%, respectively. This CT-based score may provide improved diagnostic performance for diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy. (orig.)

  9. Continuous Auricular Electroacupuncture Can Significantly Improve Heart Rate Variability and Clinical Scores in Patients with Depression: First Results from a Transcontinental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the impact and acceptability of providing continuous auricular electroacupuncture as an adjunct to conventional medications for patients with depression. Ten patients with a mean age ± SD of 43.3 ± 10.4 years were able to provide informed consent. The quantitative and qualitative outcome measures were heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV, and different clinical scores. The study documented that a special kind of auricular electro acupuncture, applied over a period of three days, can improve various aspects of quality of life significantly but also highlighted the significant increase of HRV whilst having acupuncture treatment. In conclusion, our study shows stimulation-related and quantifiable clinical and physiological alterations in parameters after continuous auricular acupoint stimulation in patients with depression. Improved access to electro acupuncture treatment would be of major benefit for these patients. Further studies are necessary in order to verify the gained results.

  10. Toxoplasma-infected subjects report an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder diagnosis more often and score higher in Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, J; Horáček, J

    2017-02-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis, the life-long presence of dormant stages of Toxoplasma in immunoprivileged organs and of anamnestic IgG antibodies in blood, affects about 30% of humans. Infected subjects have an increased incidence of various disorders, including schizophrenia. Several studies, as well as the character of toxoplasmosis-associated disturbance of neurotransmitters, suggest that toxoplasmosis could also play an etiological role in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The aim of the present cross-sectional study performed on a population of 7471 volunteers was to confirm the association between toxoplasmosis and OCD, and toxoplasmosis and psychological symptoms of OCD estimated by the standard Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Incidence of OCD was 2.18% (n=39) in men and 2.28% (n=83) in women. Subjects with toxoplasmosis had about a 2.5 times higher odds of OCD and about a 2.7 times higher odds of learning disabilities. The incidence of 18 other neuropsychiatric disorders did not differ between Toxoplasma-infected and Toxoplasma-free subjects. The infected subjects, even the OCD-free subjects, scored higher on the OCI-R. Examined subjects provided the information about their toxoplasmosis and OCD statuses themselves, which could result in underrating the strength of observed associations. The results confirmed earlier reports of the association between toxoplasmosis and OCD. They also support recent claims that latent toxoplasmosis is in fact a serious disease with many impacts on quality of life of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of an abridged scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (abPG-SGA) as a nutritional screening tool for cancer patients in an outpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielson, Denise K; Scaffidi, Donna; Leung, Elizabeth; Stoyanoff, Linda; Robinson, Jennifer; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Darling, Pauline B

    2013-01-01

    The scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool (PG-SGA), regarded as the most appropriate means of identifying malnutrition in cancer patients, is often challenging to implement in a busy outpatient setting. We assessed the validity of an abridged version of the PG-SGA (abPG-SGA), which forgoes the physical examination, and compared its usefulness in discerning malnutrition to the full PG-SGA and Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST). The nutritional status of 90 oncology outpatients receiving chemotherapy was assessed according to SGA global rating, PG-SGA, and MST. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of various cut-off scores for malnutrition. Thirty-six percent of patients were malnourished (SGA). The abPG-SGA yielded 94% sensitivity and 78% specificity and area under the curve (AUC) = 0.956, which was slightly lower than PG-SGA (97% sensitivity, 86% specificity, AUC = 0.967) and higher than MST (81% sensitivity, 72% specificity, AUC = 0.823). Patient reported symptoms included loss of appetite (30%), altered taste (31%), fatigue (30%), and decreased ability to perform activities of daily living (53%). In conclusion, the abPG-SGA is a practical, informative and valid tool for detecting malnutrition in the outpatient oncology setting.

  12. Impact of clinical, psychological, and social factors on decreased Tinetti test score in community-living elderly subjects: a prospective study with two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manckoundia, Patrick; Thomas, Frédérique; Buatois, Séverine; Guize, Louis; Jégo, Bertrand; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Benetos, Athanase

    2008-06-01

    Balance and gait are essential to maintain physical autonomy, particularly in elderly people. Thus the detection of risk factors of balance and gait impairment appears necessary in order to prevent falls and dependency. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of demographic, social, clinical, psychological, and biological parameters on the decline in balance and gait assessed by the Tinetti test (TT) after a two-year follow-up. This prospective study was conducted among community-living, young elderly volunteers in the centre "Investigations Preventives et Cliniques" and "Observatoire De l'Age" (Paris, France). Three hundred and forty-four participants aged 63.5 on average were enrolled and performed the TT twice, once at inclusion and again two years later. After the two-year follow-up, two groups were constituted according to whether or not there was a decrease in the TT score: the "TT no-deterioration" group comprised subjects with a decrease of less than two points and the "TT deterioration" group comprised those with a decrease of two points or more. Selected demographic, social, clinical, psychological, and biological parameters for the two groups were then compared. Statistical analysis showed that female sex, advanced age, high body mass index, osteoarticular pain, and a high level of anxiety all have a negative impact on TT score. Knowledge of predictive factors of the onset or worsening of balance and gait disorders could allow clinicians to detect young elderly people who should benefit from a specific prevention program.

  13. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  14. Correlation between podoplanin expression and extracapsular spread in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity using subjective immunoreactivity scores and semiquantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermod, Maxime; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Petrova, Tatiana V; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Simon, Christian; Tolstonog, Genrich; Monnier, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The correlation between podoplanin expression and extracapsular spread in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has never been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of podoplanin expression for this parameter. Subjective immunoreactivity scores and semiquantitative image analysis of podoplanin expression were performed in 67 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma and in their corresponding lymph nodes. Neck classification showed 34 cases (51%) of pN0 and 33 cases (49%) of pN+. Correlation between the levels of podoplanin expression and the histopathological data was established. In lymph nodes, a high level of podoplanin expression correlated with the presence of extracapsular spread by multivariate analysis (p = .03). A strong correlation between subjective and semiquantitative image analysis was observed (r = 0.77; p < .001). A high level of podoplanin expression in lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinoma is independently associated with extracapsular spread. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Head Neck 39: 98-108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A comparative study of cognitive function following traumatic brain injury: Significance of initial Glasgow coma scale score to predict cognitive outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Majumder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability all over the world. It is associated with diversities of outcomes including cognitive deficits. The worse cognitive outcome is often associated with more severe degree of TBI as measured by initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score. Materials and Methods: Present study compared the cognitive function of TBI patients having initial GCS score 9-10 with those having the initial GCS score 11-12. The assessment on Postgraduate Institute battery of brain dysfunction was conducted when the patients came for their follow-up visit at a tertiary health care facility between 6 months and 12 months of sustaining TBI. Results: There was moderate degree of cognitive dysfunction in the group with initial GCS score of 9-10 and no dysfunction in the group with initial GCS score of 11-12. Conclusion: The initial GCS score of 10 may be critical to predict cognitive deficits among TBI patients during 6-12 months of recovery period.

  16. The significance of organic carbon and nutrient export from peatland-dominated landscapes subject to disturbance, a stoichiometric perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Waldron

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial-aquatic interface is a crucial environment in which to consider the fate of exported terrestrial carbon in the aquatic system. Here the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC may be controlled by nutrient availability. However, peat-dominated headwater catchments are normally of low nutrient status and thus there is little data on how DOC and nutrient export co-varies. We present nutrient and DOC data for two UK catchments dominated by peat headwaters. One, Whitelee, is undergoing development for Europe's largest windfarm. Glen Dye by comparison is relatively undisturbed. At both sites there are significant linear relationships between DOC and soluble reactive phosphorus and nitrate concentrations in the drainage waters. However, inter-catchment differences exist. Changes in the pattern of nutrient and carbon export at Whitelee reveal that landscape disturbance associated with windfarm development impacts the receiving waters, and that nutrient export does not increase in a stoichiometric manner that will promote increase in microbial biomass but rather supports aquatic respiration. In turn greater CO2 efflux may prevail. Hence disturbance of terrestrial carbon stores may impact the both the aquatic and gaseous carbon cycle. We suggest estimates of aquatic carbon export should inform the decision-making process prior to development in ecosystems and catchments with high terrestrial carbon storage.

  17. Assessment of Divergent Thinking by means of the Subjective Top-Scoring Method: Effects of the Number of Top-Ideas and Time-on-Task on Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Mühlmann, Caterina; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2014-01-01

    Divergent thinking tasks are commonly used as indicators of creative potential, but traditional scoring methods of ideational originality face persistent problems such as low reliability and lack of convergent and discriminant validity. Silvia et al. (2008) have proposed a subjective top-2 scoring method, where participants are asked to select their two most creative ideas, which then are evaluated for creativity. This method was found to avoid problems with discriminant validity, and to outperform other scoring methods in terms of convergent validity. These findings motivate a more general, systematic analysis of the subjective top-scoring method. Therefore, this study examined how reliability and validity of the originality and fluency scores depend on the number of top-ideas and on time-on-task. The findings confirm that subjective top-scoring avoids the confounding of originality with fluency. The originality score showed good internal consistency, and evidence of reliability was found to increase as a function of the number of top-ideas and of time-on-task. Convergent validity evidence, however, was highest for a time-on-task of about 2 to 3 minutes and when using a medium number of about three top-ideas. Reasons for these findings are discussed together possible limitations of this study and future directions. The article also presents some general recommendations for the assessment of divergent thinking with the subjective top-scoring method. PMID:24790683

  18. Prognostic significance of Gleason score 7 (3+4) and Gleason score 7 (4+3) in prostatic adenocarcinoma in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mijović M.; Vukićević D.; Đerković B.; Nedeljković V.; Vitković L.

    2014-01-01

    Prognosis and choice of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ADCP) directly depend on the numerous of predictive factors, among which the most important are summary histological tumor grade (Gleason score, which is the sum of the first and second dominant histological grade) and clinical stage. According to recent research these factors include androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The importance of the first and second dominant histological grade become...

  19. Significance of periacinar cleftings as supporting criteria in diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma Gleason score-a 7 (3+4 and Gleason score-a 7 (4+3 and their relationship with parameters of predictive value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of different pathohystological diseases of prostate in the most cases is based on common benignant and malignant characteristics. The presence of periacinar cleftings (PC is an additional criterion favouring prostatic adenocarcinoma. According to the presence and extent of PC, analysed on high power field (400x, glands were classified into 3 groups: group 1-glands without PC or with PC affecting ≤50% of gland circumference; group 2-glands with PC affecting >50% gland circumference in 50% gland circumference in ≥50% examined glands. The aim of our study was to determine the importance of presence of PC in prostatic adenocarcinoma (ADCP of Gleason score 7(3+4 and 7(4+3 and establish the existence of differences in their appearance at ADCP with first and second dominant histological grade 3 and 4 in each different relationship based on correlation analysis of PC and parameters of the predictive value (preoperative value of serum prostate specific antigen, tumor volume, clinical stage and degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. The study included 33 ADCP of Gleason score 7, 26 (78.79% ADCP 7(3+4 and 7 (21.21% ADCP 7(4+3. In ADCP Gleason 7(3+4 periacinar cleftings are more common in tumors that are smaller, better differentiated (produce more PSA, which is diagnosed in less advanced clinical stages and showing a less degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. In ADCP Gleason 7(4+3 periacinar cleftings are more common in tumors which produce less value of serum PSA (poorly differentiated and in tumors that are diagnosed in advanced clinical stages. Periacinar cleftings are common findings in prostatic adenocarcinoma Gleason score 7(4+3 which are considerd as tumors with worse prognosis. Because of all we can rank PC among the important additional criteria for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  20. Significance of erection hardness score as a diagnostic tool to assess erectile function recovery in Japanese men after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Akira; Yao, Akihisa; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize time-dependent recovery of erectile function in Japanese patients following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) using the erection hardness score (EHS). This study prospectively included 170 Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer (PC) undergoing RARP without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. The erectile function of each patient was assessed based on the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) and EHS at the baseline and on every visit to an outpatient clinic after RARP. In this series, potency was defined as the ability to have an erection sufficient for intercourse, corresponding to EHS ≥3, while patients with EHS ≥2 were regarded as those with erectile function. Of these 170 patients, 20 and 75 underwent bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing procedures, respectively; however, non-nerve-sparing procedures were performed in the remaining 75. A proportional increase in the IIEF-5 score according to EHS was noted at 24 months after RARP. At 6, 12 and 24 months after RARP, the recovery rates of erectile function were 11.9, 21.7 and 35.8 %, respectively, while those of potency were 3.8, 9.8 and 13.7 %, respectively. Of several factors examined, the age, preoperative IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure were identified as independent predictors of erectile function recovery. These findings suggest that favorable erectile function recovery could not be achieved in Japanese PC patients even after the introduction of RARP; therefore, it might be preferable for such a cohort to use EHS rather than IIEF-5 as an assessment tool for the postoperative recovery of erectile function.

  1. Changes in medical treatment six months after risk stratification with HeartScore and coronary artery calcification scanning of healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT-scan as ...

  2. Significant discrepancies exist between clinician assessment and patient self-assessment of functional capacity by validated scoring tools during preoperative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, John Whittemore; Wanderer, Jonathan Porter; McEvoy, Matthew David

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative assessment of functional capacity is necessary to direct decisions regarding cardiac evaluation and may help identify patients at high risk for perioperative complications. Patient self-triage regarding functional capacity could be useful for discerning which patients benefit from a clinician evaluation at a Preoperative Evaluation Center prior to the day of surgery. We evaluated the feasibility of preoperative, patient self-triage regarding functional capacity. Patients were recruited immediately prior to their preoperative evaluation. Study participants completed electronic versions of the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System (PROMIS)-Short Form 12a-Physical Function. DASI and PROMIS questionnaire responses were scored and evaluated for correlation with clinician assessments of functional capacity. Correlation was analyzed around the dichotomous outcome of evaluated the usability of the questionnaires. After IRB approval, 204 patients were enrolled and completed both DASI and PROMIS questionnaires. Clinicians assessed functional capacity at assessments assessments (Fisher's exact, two-tailed P value assessments and patient self-assessments of functional capacity. Further study is needed to determine if either patient self-triage by means of activity questionnaires or clinician evaluation is valid and reliable in the preoperative setting.

  3. The GALAD scoring algorithm based on AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP significantly improves detection of BCLC early stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J; Bilgi, H; Heider, D; Schotten, C; Manka, P; Bedreli, S; Gorray, M; Ertle, J; van Grunsven, L A; Dechêne, A

    2016-12-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death in cirrhotic patients worldwide. The detection rate for early stage HCC remains low despite screening programs. Thus, the majority of HCC cases are detected at advanced tumor stages with limited treatment options. To facilitate earlier diagnosis, this study aims to validate the added benefit of the combination of AFP, the novel biomarkers AFP-L3, DCP, and an associated novel diagnostic algorithm called GALAD. Material and methods: Between 2007 and 2008 and from 2010 to 2012, 285 patients newly diagnosed with HCC and 402 control patients suffering from chronic liver disease were enrolled. AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP were measured using the µTASWako i30 automated immunoanalyzer. The diagnostic performance of biomarkers was measured as single parameters and in a logistic regression model. Furthermore, a diagnostic algorithm (GALAD) based on gender, age, and the biomarkers mentioned above was validated. Results: AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP showed comparable sensitivities and specifities for HCC detection. The combination of all biomarkers had the highest sensitivity with decreased specificity. In contrast, utilization of the biomarker-based GALAD score resulted in a superior specificity of 93.3 % and sensitivity of 85.6 %. In the scenario of BCLC 0/A stage HCC, the GALAD algorithm provided the highest overall AUROC with 0.9242, which was superior to any other marker combination. Conclusions: We could demonstrate in our cohort the superior detection of early stage HCC with the combined use of the respective biomarkers and in particular GALAD even in AFP-negative tumors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Can paediatric early warning scores (PEWS) be used to guide the need for hospital admission and predict significant illness in children presenting to the emergency department? An assessment of PEWS diagnostic accuracy using sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillitos, Peter J; Hadley, Graeme; Maconochie, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Designed to detect early deterioration of the hospitalised child, paediatric early warning scores (PEWS) validity in the emergency department (ED) is less validated. We aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of two commonly used PEWS (Brighton and COAST) in predicting hospital admission and, for the first time, significant illness. Retrospective analysis of PEWS data for paediatric ED attendances at St Mary's Hospital, London, UK, in November 2012. Patients with missing data were excluded. Diagnoses were grouped: medical and surgical. To classify diagnoses as significant, established guidelines were used and, where not available, common agreement between three acute paediatricians. 1921 patients were analysed. There were 211 admissions (11%). 1630 attendances were medical (86%) and 273 (14%) surgical. Brighton and COAST PEWS performed similarly. hospital admission: PEWS of ≥3 was specific (93%) but poorly sensitive (32%). The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was low at 0.690. Significant illness: for medical illness, PEWS ≥3 was highly specific (96%) but poorly sensitive (44%). The AUC was 0.754 and 0.755 for Brighton and COAST PEWS, respectively. Both scores performed poorly for predicting significant surgical illness (AUC 0.642). PEWS ≥3 performed well in predicting significant respiratory illness: sensitivity 75%, specificity 91%. Both Brighton and COAST PEWS scores performed similarly. A score of ≥3 has good specificity but poor sensitivity for predicting hospital admission and significant illness. Therefore, a high PEWS should be taken seriously but a low score is poor at ruling out the requirement for admission or serious underlying illness. PEWS was better at detecting significant medical illness compared with detecting the need for admission. PEWS performed poorly in detecting significant surgical illness. PEWS may be particularly useful in evaluating respiratory illness in a paediatric ED. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  5. WISC-III subtests of similarities, vocabulary and comprehension: objective or subjective scoring? / Subtestes semelhanças, vocabulário e compreensão do WISC-III: pontuação objetiva ou subjetiva?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Marques de Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In all psychological tests, scoring should be of concern for examiners because the accuracy of results depends, at some extent, on the quality of the correction. This work aims to examine the correction, by different psychologists, of the scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III subtests of Similarities, Vocabulary and Comprehension since these are the subtests where examiner's subjectivity seemingly most influences scoring. Forty two psychologists from different states in Brazil participated in this study. They corrected the answers of six test protocols randomly selected from a standardization sample for the Brazilian context. Taking as reference the total scores, the Vocabulary subtest showed greater variability in score, followed by the Comprehension one. Considering the total number of items tested in each subtest, Similarities had the highest agreement among raters. The results showed that all the three subtests involve subjectivity on behalf of the examiner to score the answers. Continuing in this study, we also aim to determine test reliability based on interrater agreement.

  6. Assessment of agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scoring the recovery of horses from anesthesia by use of subjective grading scales and development of a system for evaluation of the recovery of horses from anesthesia by use of accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Lascola, Kara M; Carter, Jennifer E; da Cunha, Anderson F; Donaldson, Lydia L; Doherty, Thomas J; Martin-Flores, Manuel; Hofmeister, Erik H; Keating, Stephanie C J; Mama, Khursheed R; Mason, Diane E; Posner, Lysa P; Sano, Hiroki; Seddighi, Reza; Shih, Andre C; Weil, Ann B; Schaeffer, David J

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate agreement among diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia for scores determined by use of a simple descriptive scale (SDS) or a composite grading scale (CGS) for quality of recovery of horses from anesthesia and to investigate use of 3-axis accelerometry (3AA) for objective evaluation of recovery. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Horses were fitted with a 3AA device and then were anesthetized. Eight diplomates evaluated recovery by use of an SDS, and 7 other diplomates evaluated recovery by use of a CGS. Agreement was tested with κ and AC1 statistics for the SDS and an ANOVA for the CGS. A library of mathematical models was used to map 3AA data against CGS scores. RESULTS Agreement among diplomates using the SDS was slight (κ = 0.19; AC1 = 0.22). The CGS scores differed significantly among diplomates. Best fit of 3AA data against CGS scores yielded the following equation: RS = 9.998 × SG0.633 × ∑UG0.174, where RS is a horse's recovery score determined with 3AA, SG is acceleration of the successful attempt to stand, and ∑UG is the sum of accelerations of unsuccessful attempts to stand. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Subjective scoring of recovery of horses from anesthesia resulted in poor agreement among diplomates. Subjective scoring may lead to differences in conclusions about recovery quality; thus, there is a need for an objective scoring method. The 3AA system removed subjective bias in evaluations of recovery of horses and warrants further study.

  7. The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

  8. [Diagnostic significance of multiparametric MRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy of the prostate in patients with increased PSA levels and negative standard biopsy results to detect significant prostate cancer - Correlation with the Gleason score. Korrelation mit dem Gleason Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Manuela; Hoffmann, Manuela A; Wieler, Helmut J; Jakobs, Frank M; Taymoorian, Kasra; Gerhards, Arnd; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2017-08-14

    To increase diagnostic precision and to reduce overtreatment of low-risk malignant disease, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) combined with ultrasound (US) fusion guided biopsy of the prostate were performed. In 99 male patients with increased PSA plasma levels and previous negative standard biopsy procedures, mpMRI was carried out followed by US fusion guided perineal biopsy. PI-RADS-Data (PS) of mpMRI and histopathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized and statistically compared. Lesions in 72/99 (73 %) of patients were determined to be suspect of malignancy, based on a PS 4 or 5. In 33/99 (33 %) of patients, malignancy could not be confirmed by histopathology. With regard to the remaining 66 patients with previous negative biopsy results, 42 (64 %) were diagnosed with a low-grade carcinoma (GS 6, 7a) and 24 (36 %) with a high-grade carcinoma (GS ≥ 7b). The proportion of corresponding results in mpMRI (PS 4-5) when a high-grade carcinoma had been detected, was 21/24 (88 %), which related to a sensitivity of 88 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 85 % (p = 0,002). In addition, 35 of 42 patients (83%), graded PS 4-5 in mpMRI, were diagnosed with low-grade carcinoma-positive (p < 0,001). Sensitivity to differentiation between low- and high-grade carcinomas (GS ≤ 7a vs. ≥ 7b) by means of PS was 88 % with a NPV of 70 % (p = 0,74). Our results suggest that mpMRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy is able to detect considerably higher rates of clinically relevant prostate malignancies compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. However, no statistical significance could be shown regarding the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas. It is hoped that the hybrid methods PSMA-PET/CT or PSMA-PET/MRI will lead to the next optimization step in the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas which so far has been unsatisfactory.

  9. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words.

  10. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  11. An objective fluctuation score for Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm K Horne

    Full Text Available Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson's Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system.The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm.This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations.The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges.

  12. Subtestes semelhanças, vocabulário e compreensão do WISC-III: pontuação objetiva ou subjetiva? WISC-III subtests of similarities, vocabulary and comprehension: objective or subjective scoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Marques de Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou analisar a pontuação dos subtestes Semelhanças, Vocabulário e Compreensão do WISC-III, tendo em vista que podem envolver maior subjetividade do avaliador. Participaram do estudo 42 psicólogos de diferentes Estados do Brasil, os quais corrigiram as respostas de 6 protocolos do teste selecionados aleatoriamente da amostra de padronização ao contexto brasileiro. Tomando-se como referência os escores totais, o subteste Vocabulário apresentou maior variabilidade nas pontuações, seguido por Compreensão. Considerando-se o total de itens analisados em cada subteste, Semelhanças apresentou a maior concordância entre os avaliadores. Entretanto, os resultados evidenciaram que os três subtestes envolvem a subjetividade do avaliador na pontuação das respostas.In all psychological tests, scoring should be of concern for examiners because the accuracy of results depends, at some extent, on the quality of the correction. This work aims to examine the correction, by different psychologists, of the scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III subtests of Similarities, Vocabulary and Comprehension since these are the subtests where examiner's subjectivity seemingly most influences scoring. Forty two psychologists from different states in Brazil participated in this study. They corrected the answers of six test protocols randomly selected from a standardization sample for the Brazilian context. Taking as reference the total scores, the Vocabulary subtest showed greater variability in score, followed by the Comprehension one. Considering the total number of items tested in each subtest, Similarities had the highest agreement among raters. The results showed that all the three subtests involve subjectivity on behalf of the examiner to score the answers. Continuing in this study, we also aim to determine test reliability based on interrater agreement.

  13. Syncopation and the score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyang Song

    Full Text Available The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature. Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10 were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved.

  14. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry diagnostic discordance between Z-scores and T-scores in young adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, John J

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for postmenopausal osteoporosis using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-scores have been widely accepted. The validity of these criteria for other populations, including premenopausal women and young men, has not been established. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends using DXA Z-scores, not T-scores, for diagnosis in premenopausal women and men aged 20-49 yr, though studies supporting this position have not been published. We examined diagnostic agreement between DXA-generated T-scores and Z-scores in a cohort of men and women aged 20-49 yr, using 1994 World Health Organization and 2005 ISCD DXA criteria. Four thousand two hundred and seventy-five unique subjects were available for analysis. The agreement between DXA T-scores and Z-scores was moderate (Cohen\\'s kappa: 0.53-0.75). The use of Z-scores resulted in significantly fewer (McNemar\\'s p<0.001) subjects diagnosed with "osteopenia," "low bone mass for age," or "osteoporosis." Thirty-nine percent of Hologic (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA) subjects and 30% of Lunar (GE Lunar, GE Madison, WI) subjects diagnosed with "osteoporosis" by T-score were reclassified as either "normal" or "osteopenia" when their Z-score was used. Substitution of DXA Z-scores for T-scores results in significant diagnostic disagreement and significantly fewer persons being diagnosed with low bone mineral density.

  15. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  16. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects: first steps towards global inflammation and damage scores of peripheral and axial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Møller, Jakob M; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Thomsen, Henrik S; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2015-06-01

    By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation with conventional MRI (convMRI). WBMRI (3.0-T) of patients with peripheral PsA (n = 18) or axial SpA (n = 18) and of HS (n = 12) was examined for proportion of evaluable features (readability) and the presence and pattern of lesions in axial and peripheral joints. Furthermore, global WBMRI scores of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint, but lower in the distal peripheral joints. Wrists, shoulders, knees, ankles and MTP joints were most commonly involved, with frequency of synovitis > bone marrow oedema (BMO) > erosion. WBMRI global BMO scores of peripheral and axial joints were higher in PsA {median 7 [interquartile range (IQR) 3-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P joint scores were ρ = 0.20-0.78. WBMRI allows simultaneous assessment of peripheral and axial joints in PsA and SpA, and the distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions and global scores can be determined. The study strongly encourages further development and longitudinal testing of WBMRI techniques and assessment methods in PsA and SpA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Impact of Lesion Visibility on Transrectal Ultrasound on the Prediction of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer (Gleason Score 3 + 4 or Greater) with Transrectal Ultrasound-Magnetic Resonance Imaging Fusion Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Nguyen, Hao G; Zagoria, Ronald J; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R; Behr, Spencer C; Westphalen, Antonio C

    2017-09-20

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of lesion visibility with transrectal ultrasound on the prediction of clinically significant prostate cancer with transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging fusion biopsy. This HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) compliant, institutional review board approved, retrospective study was performed in 178 men who were 64.7 years old with prostate specific antigen 8.9 ng/ml. They underwent transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging fusion biopsy from January 2013 to September 2016. Visible lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were assigned a PI-RADS™ (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System), version 2 score of 3 or greater. Transrectal ultrasound was positive when a hypoechoic lesion was identified. We used a 3-level, mixed effects logistic regression model to determine how transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging concordance predicted the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer. The diagnostic performance of the 2 methods was estimated using ROC curves. A total of 1,331 sextants were targeted by transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging fusion or systematic biopsies, of which 1,037 were negative, 183 were Gleason score 3 + 3 and 111 were Gleason score 3 + 4 or greater. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging alone at 20.5% and 19.7% of these locations, respectively. Men with positive imaging had higher odds of clinically significant prostate cancer than men without visible lesions regardless of modality (transrectal ultrasound OR 14.75, 95% CI 5.22-41.69, magnetic resonance imaging OR 12.27, 95% CI 6.39-23.58 and the 2 modalities OR 28.68, 95% CI 14.45-56.89, all p magnetic resonance imaging alone (0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.87, p = 0.04). The sensitivity and specificity of transrectal ultrasound were 42.3% and 91.6%, and the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging

  18. Clinical and prognostic significance of human papillomavirus DNA in the sperm or exfoliated cells of infertile patients and subjects with risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresta, Carlo; Pizzol, Damiano; Moretti, Afra; Barzon, Luisa; Palù, Giorgio; Garolla, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in infertile patients and subjects with risk factors. Cross-sectional clinical study. Andrology and microbiology sections at a university hospital. A cohort of 290 subjects: 26 with genital warts, 66 with HPV positive partners, 108 infertile patients, and 90 fertile controls. Semen analysis, sperm culture, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HPV detection. Statistical analysis was performed with a two-tailed Student's t-test. The prevalence of HPV semen infection found in all groups was as follows: patients with genital warts, 53.8%; infected partners, 40.9%; infertile patients, 10.2%, fertile controls, 2.2%. Infertile patients had a higher HPV DNA prevalence in sperm cells than the other groups. The results of HPV investigation were compared with sperm parameters and the results of FISH analysis. Sperm motility was more frequently reduced in infected samples and in particular when the infection was present in the sperm. This study demonstrated a very high prevalence of infection in the semen of patients with risk factors for HPV. In each group of subjects, HPV seems to be preferentially located in sperm or exfoliated cells, with different effects on sperm motility. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium scores and silent myocardial ischaemia was similar in Indian Asians and European whites in a cross-sectional study of asymptomatic subjects from a U.K. population (LOLIPOP-IPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Piyush; Kooner, Jaspal S; Raval, Usha; Lahiri, Avijit

    2011-05-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is 70% higher among Indian Asians (IA) than European whites (EW), the reasons for this excess remain unexplained. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is highly correlated with coronary plaque burden and silent myocardial ischaemia in EW; but fails to identify excess risk in IA. We hypothesised that IA have a higher prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia compared to EW, despite similar CAC, and this may explain their excess CHD mortality. CAC was measured for 2,369 asymptomatic men and women, aged 35 to 75 years, as part of the London Life Sciences Population (LOLIPOP) study. 518 subjects had CAC scores >100 Agatston units and of these 256 (49%) patients underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). CAC scores were similar among IA and EW, after adjustment for conventional risk factors. MPS abnormalities were seen in 56 (22%) subjects. Presence of diabetes (P = .03) and increasing CAC (P < .001) were independent predictors for severity of silent myocardial ischaemia. Ethnicity did not influence the prevalence or the extent of silent myocardial ischaemia. MPS did not identify greater ischaemia among IA compared with EW. This appears incongruent with almost 2-fold higher risk of CHD mortality observed in IA.

  20. Comparative study of four maxillofacial trauma scoring systems and expert score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Yi; An, Jin-gang; He, Yang; Gong, Xi

    2014-11-01

    To select a scoring system suitable for the scoring of maxillofacial trauma by comparing 4 commonly used scoring systems according to expert scoring. Twenty-eight subjects who had experienced maxillofacial trauma constituted the study cohort. Four commonly used systems were selected: New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS), Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MFISS), and Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MISS). Each patient was graded using these 4 systems. From the experience of our trauma center, an expert scoring table was created. After the purpose and scheme of the study had been explained, 35 experts in maxillofacial surgery were invited to grade the injury of the 28 patients using the expert scoring table according to their clinical experience. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score were compared. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score demonstrated a normal distribution. All results demonstrated significant differences (P maxillofacial injuries. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Absence of a significant pharmacokinetic interaction between atorvastatin and fenofibrate: A randomized, crossover, study of a fixed-dose formulation in healthy Mexican subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar ePatiño-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several clinical trials have substantiated the efficacy of the co-administration of statins like atorvastatin and fibrates. Without information currently available about the interaction between the two drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effect when both drugs were co-administered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of tablets containing atorvastatin 20 mg, or the combination of atorvastatin 20 mg with fenofibrate 160 mg administered to healthy Mexican volunteers. This was a randomized, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study; 36 eligible subjects aged between 20 to 50 years were included. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax were measured for atorvastatin as the reference and atorvastatin and fenofibrate as the test product for bioequivalence design. The estimation computed (90% confidence intervals for atorvastatin and fenofibrate combination versus atorvastatin for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, were 102,09, 125,95 and 120,97% respectively. These results suggest that atorvastatin and fenofibrate have no relevant clinical-pharmacokinetic drug interaction.

  2. Apgar Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as ... baby's general condition at birth. What Does the Apgar Test Measure? The test measures your baby's: Heart ...

  3. Circulating resistin is a significant predictor of mortality independently from cardiovascular comorbidities in elderly, non-diabetic subjects with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouga, Anna; Dalamaga, Maria; Kastania, Anastasia N; Kroupis, Christos; Lagiou, Maria; Saounatsou, Koralia; Dimas, Kleanthi; Vlahakos, Demetrios V

    2016-01-01

    Resistin is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) disease. To associate circulating resistin with all-cause and CV mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Serum resistin was determined in a cohort of 80 elderly, non-diabetic patients with stable CKD at different stages in a follow-up period of 5 years. Circulating resistin was significantly elevated in deceased compared to alive patients. Resistin emerged as an independent biomarker of all-cause and CV mortality after a 5-year follow-up period. Elevated circulating resistin was a significant independent predictor of CV and all-cause mortality in elderly, non-diabetic CKD patients.

  4. Exercise significantly increases plasma adrenaline and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in normal healthy subjects but not in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Toshihito; Nakamura, Takeshi; Ito, Tomoyuki; Umemoto, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Keiko; Kinoshita, Tokio; Nakagawa, Masafumi; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2012-04-01

    To compare plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and adrenaline during exercise between persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) individuals. Randomized controlled study. Human laboratory at a medical university. Persons with SCI (n=7) and AB individuals (n=9). Two-hour arm crank ergometer exercise at 60% maximum oxygen consumption. Plasma oxLDL and adrenaline levels. Exercise significantly increased plasma adrenaline levels in AB persons (mean ± SD: rest, 45.4±32.2 pg/mL; exercise, 200.9±113.7 pg/mL; Pplasma oxLDL levels in AB persons (mean ± SD: rest, 102.2±30.2 U/L; exercise, 179.7±60.0 U/L; Pplasma adrenaline levels during exercise contribute to the increase in plasma oxLDL levels. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the Position of Mental Foramen for Clinical and Forensic Significance in terms of Gender in Dentate Subjects by Digital Panoramic Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Shweta; Mhapuskar, Amit; Hiremutt, Darshan; Giroh, Versha R; Kalyanpur, Kedarnath; Alpana, K R

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of the position of mental foramen aids in forensic, surgical, endodontic, as well as diagnostic procedures. Thus, in view of this, the present study was conducted among the population of Pune, a central part of India, to determine the most regular location of the mental foramen and to estimate difference in position of mental foramen based on gender. The present retrospective study was commenced on 200 digital panoramic radiographs of dentate patients. The location of the representation of the mental foramen was traced. Measurements for evaluating distance of superior and inferior borders of the foramen in relation to the lower border of the mandible were made using the reference lines drawn from anatomical landmarks. The data so obtained were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The most common position of mental foramen among Pune population in horizontal plane in both male and female patients was in line with second premolar followed by position in between first and second premolar, whereas in the vertical plane, most common position was at or in line with apex of second premolar followed by in between apex of first and second premolar. The variation in length of superior and inferior border of the foramen in relation to lower border of the mandible with respect to gender was found to be significant, with p-value forensic identification of gender.

  6. A 19-SNP coronary heart disease gene score profile in subjects with type 2 diabetes: the coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes (CoRDia study) study baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaney, Katherine E; Ward, Claire E; Bappa, Dauda A S; McGale, Nadine; Davies, Anna K; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Li, KaWah; Howard, Philip; Vance, Dwaine R; Crockard, Martin A; Lamont, John V; Newman, Stanton; Humphries, Steve E

    2016-10-03

    The coronary risk in diabetes (CoRDia) trial (n = 211) compares the effectiveness of usual diabetes care with a self-management intervention (SMI), with and without personalised risk information (including genetics), on clinical and behavioural outcomes. Here we present an assessment of randomisation, the cardiac risk genotyping assay, and the genetic characteristics of the recruits. Ten-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk was calculated using the UKPDS score. Genetic CHD risk was determined by genotyping 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Randox's Cardiac Risk Prediction Array and calculating a gene score (GS). Accuracy of the array was assessed by genotyping a subset of pre-genotyped samples (n = 185). Overall, 10-year CHD risk ranged from 2-72 % but did not differ between the randomisation groups (p = 0.13). The array results were 99.8 % concordant with the pre-determined genotypes. The GS did not differ between the Caucasian participants in the CoRDia SMI plus risk group (n = 66) (p = 0.80) and a sample of UK healthy men (n = 1360). The GS was also associated with LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05) and family history (p = 0.03) in a sample of UK healthy men (n = 1360). CHD risk is high in this group of T2D subjects. The risk array is an accurate genotyping assay, and is suitable for estimating an individual's genetic CHD risk. Trial registration This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov; registration identifier NCT01891786.

  7. Absence of significant interactive effects of high-dose D-cycloserine and ethanol in healthy human subjects: preliminary insights into ethanol actions at the glycine B site of NMDA glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Louis; Petrakis, Ismene L; Pittman, Brian; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; D'Souza, D Cyril; Perry, Edward; Limoncelli, Diana; Krystal, John H

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol reduces N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function via multiple cellular targets. It is not yet clear whether direct ethanol antagonism of the glycine(B) co-agonist site of NMDA receptors is relevant to this effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether ethanol effects at the glycine(B) co-agonist site was clinically relevant by evaluating some aspects of the psychopharmacologic interactions between the glycine(B) partial agonist, D-cycloserine (DCS), and ethanol in healthy human subjects. All subjects completed 4 test days under double-blind conditions in which DCS or placebo was administered orally prior to ethanol or an ethanol-tainted placebo drink. Two groups of healthy subjects were studied. A first group of subjects (n = 25) were pretreated orally with DCS 500 mg or placebo 4 hours prior to ethanol (0.8 g/kg, p.o. or placebo) administration. A second group of subjects (n = 20) were pretreated with DCS 1000 mg or placebo prior to ethanol administration. Outcomes included subjective and cognitive responses to the experimental interventions. Predictable ethanol responses were observed in both groups of subjects, although the response to ethanol and the breath alcohol levels, but not plasma alcohol levels, were slightly but significantly lower in the group that received the higher DCS dose. DCS produced mild sedative effects that were greater for the lower than the higher dose. It also produced a mild impairment of verbal fluency without impairing attention. No statistically significant interactions between ethanol and DCS emerged in analyses. However, the combination of ethanol and DCS produced significantly greater impairment than both ethanol or DCS administered alone on a test of verbal fluency and aspects of memory function. DCS and ethanol both produced sedative and cognitive effects, consistent with their ability to reduce NMDA receptor function. However, the absence of interactive effects observed in this study raises

  8. Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alice S.; Browne, Una

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between–within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure conson...

  9. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C.; Rostrup, E.; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2007-01-01

    ) score, history of depression, geriatric depression scale (GDS) score, subjective gait difficulty, history of falls, walking speed, and total score on the short physical performance battery (SPPB) were analyzed. Significant correlations between CC atrophy and MMSE, SPPB, and walking speed were identified...

  10. Nasalance score variation in normal adult Japanese speakers of Mid-West Japanese dialect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachimura, T; Mori, C; Hirata, S I; Wada, T

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to examine nasalance score variation for normal adult Japanese speakers of Mid-West dialect and the gender difference in average mean nasalance score. Nasalance scores were obtained using a nasometer model 6200. The sample stimulus "Kitsutsuki passage," constructed of four sentences containing no Japanese nasal sounds, was used three times by each subject. One hundred normal adult speakers (50 women and 50 men) of Japanese served as subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 19 to 35 years of age (24.0 +/- 3.2). A mean nasalance score as well as an overall average nasalance value across speakers was calculated for each subject. The average mean nasalance scores between men and women were compared. The average mean nasalance score for the normal Japanese speakers was 9.1% (+/- 3.9). There was no statistically significant sex difference (p nasometer.

  11. Test-retest nasalance score variability in hypernasal speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Thomas; Lewis, Kerry E

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate test-retest nasalance score variability in subjects with hypernasal resonance. Two groups of subjects with hypernasal speech recited both the Turtle Passage and the Mouse Passage two times each. For one group, the Nasometer headgear was not changed between repetitions of each stimulus (NCHG; n = 17); and for the other group, the headgear was changed between repetitions (CHG; n = 18). Three subjects in the CHG group would not recite the Mouse Passage two times. The subjects were 35 patients with hypernasal speech followed by a cleft palate team. The outcome measures were the four nasalance scores obtained for each subject. There was no significant difference between first and second repetitions for either stimulus in either the NCHG group or in the CHG group. Cumulative frequency tables showed that for the Turtle Passage-NCHG condition, 15 of the 17 (88%) repeated nasalance scores were within 5 nasalance points of each other. For the CHG condition, however, only 9 of 18 (50%) repeated nasalance scores were within 5 points. For the Mouse Passage-NCHG condition, 15 of the 17 (88%) repeated nasalance scores were within 5 points. For the CHG condition, however, only 11 of 15 (73%) repeated scores were within 5 points. Test-retest variability was greater in a population of hypernasal patients than that reported in other studies for normal speakers, and headgear change increased test-retest variability.

  12. The value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score for refining stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation with a CHADS2 score 0-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2012-01-01

    associated with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score was estimated in Cox regression models adjusted for year of inclusion and antiplatelet therapy. The value of adding the extra CHA2DS2-VASc risk factors to the CHADS2 score was evaluated by c-statistics, Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated......DS2-VASc score significantly improved the predictive value of the CHADS2 score alone and a CHA2DS2-VASc score=0 could clearly identify 'truly low risk' subjects. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc score would significantly improve classification of AF patients at low and intermediate risk of stroke, compared......North American and European guidelines on atrial fibrillation (AF) are conflicting regarding the classification of patients at low/intermediate risk of stroke. We aimed to investigate if the CHA2DS2-VASc score improved risk stratification of AF patients with a CHADS2 score of 0-1. Using individual...

  13. Dyspepsia and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar Alamsyah Siregar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyspepsia is a constellation of symptoms referable to the gastroduodenal region of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Emotional disturbances are often associated with dyspepsia and have been proposed as one of the possible causes of dyspepsia. This study was aimed to evaluate the difference between the severity of dyspepsia using porto alegre dyspeptic symptoms questionnaire (PADYQ and emotional disturbances using depression, anxiety, stress scales (DASS. Method: This study was a cross-sectional analytical study. All the subjects were evaluated using PADYQ and DASS. PADYQ is classified into four categories (no, mild, moderate and severe dyspepsia symptoms. Data was analyzed using Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney test. A p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There were 90 subjects that enrolled in this study, consisted of 47 (52.2% males and 43 (47.8% females. Thirty three (36.7% subjects had PADYQ score was < 6, while it was ≥ 6 in the other 57 (63.3% subjects. DASS scores were significantly different in subjects without dyspepsia symptoms compared to subjects with dyspepsia symptoms. There is a difference in DASS scores between subjects with different categories of dyspepsia symptoms (p < 0.05. Conclusion: There was a difference in the severity of emotional disturbances among subjects with dyspepsia symptoms and without dyspepsia symptoms. The severity of emotional disturbances parallel with the severity of dyspepsia. Evaluation of emotional disturbances in case of dyspepsia will be helpful in the management of dyspepsia.

  14. Clinical significance of VEGFR-2 and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax pretreatment score in predicting the long-term outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Emilio; Peligros, Isabel [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Pathology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Alfonso, Pilar [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Medical Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Carlos; Ochoa, Enrique [Hospital Provincial de Castellon, Institute of Oncology, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Herranz, Rafael [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Carreras, Jose L. [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) stimulate key processes involved in tumor progression and are important targets for cancer drugs. {sup 18}F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) is a marker of tumor metabolic activity. The purpose of this study was to measure SUVmax combined with VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 proteins in pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving intensive neoadjuvant treatment and to correlate the findings with clinical outcome. VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 were measured using the immunoreactive score (IRS). SUVmax (median 8.4) was quantified in tumors with molecular overexpression (IRS {>=}3 + SUVmax {>=} 8.4 indicating active tumors; SUVmax <8.4 indicating inactive tumors). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore associations between tumor markers, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The study group comprised 38 patients with a median follow-up of 69.3 months (range 4.5 - 92 months). Multivariate analysis showed that active tumors (overexpressing VEGFR-2, high SUVmax) were associated with worse DFS (HR 4.73, 95 % CI 1.18 - 22.17; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 4.28, 95 % CI 1.04 - 20.12; p = 0.05). Active tumors overexpressing VEGFR-2 are associated with a worse overall outcome in patients with rectal cancer treated with induction chemotherapy followed by pelvic chemoradiation and surgery. The optimal diagnostic cut-off level for this novel biomarker association should be investigated. Evaluation in a clinical trial is required to determine whether selected patients could benefit from a VEGFR-targeting drug. (orig.)

  15. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  16. Comparison of Nasalance scores obtained with the Nasometer 6200 and the Nasometer II 6400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Thomas; Lewis, Kerry; Brancamp, Tami

    2005-09-01

    This study was designed to compare nasalance scores obtained with the old Nasometer 6200 and the new Nasometer II 6400, and to evaluate test-retest reliability of nasalance scores on each machine. Nasalance scores were obtained for 60 subjects reading each of two stimuli. Each subject read each stimulus two times on one machine; the headgear was removed and replaced and each stimulus was read a third time. The same procedure was then repeated with the second machine. Within machines, nasalance scores were compared for repeated stimuli with and without headgear change. The first reading of each stimulus with each machine was used to compare nasalance scores across machines. The subjects were 60 adults with normal speech ranging in age from 19 to 59 years. The main outcome measures were the 12 nasalance scores obtained for each of 60 subjects. For both passages, there was a significant difference in nasalance scores between the old Nasometer and the Nasometer II; however, the actual variability that could be attributed to a difference between machines was small. Most of the variability between machines could be explained as within-subject performance variability and variability associated with headgear change. There was no significant difference in repeated scores within machines with or without headgear change. For clinical purposes, care should be exercised when comparing nasalance scores between the old Nasometer and the Nasometer II.

  17. Risk prediction is improved by adding markers of subclinical organ damage to SCORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: It is unclear whether subclinical vascular damage adds significantly to Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk stratification in healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a population-based sample of 1968 subjects without cardiovascular disease or diabetes not receiving any cardiova......AIMS: It is unclear whether subclinical vascular damage adds significantly to Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk stratification in healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a population-based sample of 1968 subjects without cardiovascular disease or diabetes not receiving any...

  18. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) Score Could Be a Predictive Factor for Radiation Pneumonitis in Lung Cancer Patients With Normal Pulmonary Function Treated by Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Ye, WenFeng; Li, QiWen; Wang, Bin; Luo, GuangYu; Chen, ZhaoLin; Guo, SuPing; Qiu, Bo; Liu, Hui

    2017-09-19

    To investigate the relationship between malnutrition and the severity of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with lung cancer with normal baseline pulmonary function and lungs' V20 SGA) scores; radiation esophagitis grade; V20 of lungs; and mean lung dose. These factors were correlated with RP using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Of 150 patients, 12 patients (8.0%) developed Grade 3 to 5 RP, 37 (24.6%) patients developed grade 3 to 5 esophageal toxicity. In univariate analysis, ALB level (P = .002), radiation esophagitis (P SGA score (P SGA (P SGA could be a predictor for RP in patients with lung cancer treated with definitive IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How French subjects describe well-being from food and eating habits? Development, item reduction and scoring definition of the Well-Being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, I; Marrel, A; Arnould, B; Capuron, L; Dupuy, A; Ginon, E; Layé, S; Lecerf, J-M; Prost, M; Rogeaux, M; Urdapilleta, I; Allaert, F-A

    2016-01-01

    Providing well-being and maintaining good health are main objectives subjects seek from diet. This manuscript describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument assessing well-being associated with food and eating habits in a general healthy population. Qualitative data from 12 groups of discussion (102 subjects) conducted with healthy subjects were used to develop the core of the Well-being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ). Twelve other groups of discussion with subjects with joint (n = 34), digestive (n = 32) or repetitive infection complaints (n = 30) were performed to develop items specific to these complaints. Five main themes emerged from the discussions and formed the modular backbone of the questionnaire: "Grocery shopping", "Cooking", "Dining places", "Commensality", "Eating and drinking". Each module has a common structure: items about subject's food behavior and items about immediate and short-term benefits. An additional theme - "Eating habits and health" - assesses subjects' beliefs about expected benefits of food and eating habits on health, disease prevention and protection, and quality of ageing. A preliminary validation was conducted with 444 subjects with balanced diet; non-balanced diet; and standard diet. The structure of the questionnaire was further determined using principal component analyses exploratory factor analyses, with confirmation of the sub-sections food behaviors, immediate benefits (pleasure, security, relaxation), direct short-term benefits (digestion and satiety, energy and psychology), and deferred long-term benefits (eating habits and health). Thirty-three subscales and 14 single items were further defined. Confirmatory analyses confirmed the structure, with overall moderate to excellent convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. The Well-BFQ is a unique, modular tool that comprehensively assesses the full picture of well-being related to food and eating habits in

  20. Correlations Between Chiropractic National Board (Part I) Scores and Basic Science Course Grades and Related Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenberger, Virginia

    1999-01-01

    A study at one institution found significant correlations between students' scores on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners test and academic achievement data. Results indicate that it is not always course subject matter that influences the relationship between course grade and board scores, but may instead be the ability to assimilate…

  1. Relationship between subjective experiences and psychopathological dimensions in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Byun, Hee-Jung; Ann, Jun-Hyung; Lee, Jinyoung

    2010-10-01

    Subjective experiences are subtle, self-experienced disturbances, a thorough description of which is provided within the framework of the concept of basic symptoms. Recent studies have shown that subjective experiences have important diagnostic implications for schizophrenia and related disorders. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between subjective experiences and psychopathological dimensions in schizophrenia. Sixty-seven outpatients with schizophrenia were evaluated. Subjective experiences were comprehensively assessed using the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ). Symptoms of schizophrenia were evaluated using the Manchester Scale (MS). Pearson's partial correlation analysis was performed between the FCQ and the MS scores, controlling for the influence of extrapyramidal adverse effects. The analysis revealed that the MS positive symptom score had significant positive correlations with the FCQ total score and subscales scores. The MS negative symptom score did not have significant correlations with the FCQ scores. The results of our study suggest that subjective experiences are significantly associated with positive symptomatology in schizophrenia, suggesting that they may share a common underlying neural basis. Future prospective studies are necessary to confirm the stability of these relationships and to explore the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of subjective experiences in a diverse group of patients at different stages of illness.

  2. Anomalous subjective experiences in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jinyoung

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare anomalous subjective experiences in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression, in order to elucidate differences in subjective experiences and examine their potential clinical correlates in schizophrenia and mood disorders. The subjective experiences of 78 outpatients with schizophrenia (n=32), bipolar disorder (n=24) and unipolar depression (n=22), and 32 healthy controls were comprehensively assessed using the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ). The FCQ total score was significantly higher in the schizophrenia and depression groups than in the healthy control group. There were no significant differences in the FCQ total or subscale scores among the schizophrenia, unipolar depression, and bipolar disorder groups. In the schizophrenia group, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative factor score was a significant negative predictor of the severity of subjective experiences assessed by the FCQ total score. Disruption of subjective experiences in patients with unipolar depression was associated with greater severity of depressive symptoms and younger age. In the bipolar disorder group, women reported more disruptions in subjective experience. Anomalous subjective experiences measured by the FCQ are not specific to schizophrenia, and the severity of these experiences in unipolar depression is substantially high. The finding of a dissimilar pattern of predictors of subjective experiences across different diagnostic groups suggests the complexity and variety of factors contributing to anomalous subjective experiences in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How the range effect contaminates control scores in studies of visual illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotopf, W H; Brown, S A

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between mean control scores and mean experimental scores in 23 experiments on alignment illusions has been examined. Evidence is presented to show that, through the operation of the range effect, control scores are biased to a significant degree in the direction of experimental scores. The implications of this are considered, not only as regards the value of control scores in psychophysical studies, but also as further evidence of the dangers of within-subjects experimental designs when issues depend upon the values of extreme points in a range of values.

  4. The persistence of depression score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Grobbee, D. E.; Burger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To construct a score that allows prediction of major depressive episode (MDE) persistence in individuals with MDE using determinants of persistence identified in previous research. Method: Data were derived from 250 subjects from the general population with new MDE according to DSM-III-R.

  5. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale,

  6. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUALDI-RUSSO, E.; TASCA, M. A.; BRASILI, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring. PMID:10634693

  7. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, E; Tasca, M A; Brasili, P

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring.

  8. Less is more: the design of early-warning scoring systems affects the speed and accuracy of scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofidis, Melany J; Hill, Andrew; Horswill, Mark S; Watson, Marcus O

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of early-warning scoring system design on the speed and accuracy of scoring. Despite the widespread implementation of early-warning scoring systems in hospitals, the speed and accuracy with which chart-users determine patients' early-warning scores has received minimal research attention. Within-subjects, with scoring-system design as the independent variable. Forty-seven novice chart-users were presented with realistic vital sign observations recorded on charts with three different scoring-system designs. The rows for recording individual vital sign scores were either: (1) grouped together beneath all of the vital sign rows; (2) separated, with each row presented immediately below the corresponding vital sign row; or (3) excluded altogether. Participants' response times and error rates for determining the overall scores were measured for 54 time-points per design. Data were collected in December 2012-January 2013. Contrary to predictions, participants responded fastest and made the fewest errors when using the chart design without individual vital sign scoring-rows. For the other two designs, participants were faster when the rows for scoring individual vital signs were separated (vs. grouped), but accuracy did not differ. For both of these designs, significantly more time-points were affected by scoring errors compared with adding errors. Finally, data for patients with more serious derangements yielded greater response times and error rates on all three charts. Early-warning scoring systems may be more effective without individual vital sign scoring-rows. Even when charts are designed by multi-disciplinary teams of human factors specialists and clinicians, empirical evaluations are essential. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Pavement scores synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to summarize the use of pavement scores by the states, including the : rating methods used, the score scales, and descriptions; if the scores are used for recommending pavement : maintenance and rehabilitation action...

  10. SIGNIFICANT ABSENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Orhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Photographing the city pertains to photo-graphing architectural features, historic sites, streets, crowds, signs, the underground, crime, entertainment, recreational facilities, ruins, traces, and space. City, on the other hand, pertains to residential space that is de-stroyed and reconstructed at certain turning points due to economic, cultural, architectural, and demographic reasons.This study will attempt to examine the photographer as the subject as well as the boundaries of her photo-graphic designations in the face of urban renewal through sample projects. Also functioning as a part of the memory industry, which has been formed during the last half-century that simultaneously witnessed memory loss and memory boom, photography, albeit through certain projects, has proven the possibility of a critical gaze at social and individual testimonials. When Eugene Atget's photos of the old Paris which he took between 1898-1924 out of commercial concerns is viewed as a milestone, Antoine D'Agata's Psychogeographie (2005 and other similar projects can be said to not only docu-ment urban change and transformation but also act as intermediaries of defiance against separation from the accustomed living areas.

  11. ASSESSING SUBJECTIVE SLEEP QUALITY IN SENIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Kukliczová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at assessing the quality of sleep in seniors. Another objective was to determine the impact of gender, age, type of residence and taking sleeping medication on the quality of sleep. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were collected using the standardized Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire. The sample comprised 146 seniors living in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. The survey was conducted from January 2014 to the end of October 2014 in a long-term chronic care department of a selected hospital, two retirement homes and among seniors living in their own homes. Results: Thirty-five (24% seniors had their global PSQI scores of 5 (i.e. the highest score indication good sleep quality or less. The remaining 111 (76% participants were shown to suffer from impaired sleep quality as their global PSQI scores were 6 or higher. There were statistically significant differences in component scores between seniors with the global PSQI scores of 5 or less and those with higher scores. The best quality of sleep was observed in females, seniors in the 65–74 age category and those sharing their own homes with their spouses or partners. Conclusion: Subjective sleep quality assessment varies significantly with respect to gender, age, type of residence and use of sleeping medication. Keywords: sleep quality, PSQI, subjective assessment, senior.

  12. [One-week effects of Tamsulosin on benign prostatic hyperplasia assessed with a daily symptom score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masayuki; Egawa, Shin; Ikemoto, Isao; Nakajo, Hiroshi; Hatano, Takashi; Kira, Shinichiro; Mizuo, Toshihiko; Kagami, Yutaka

    2009-04-01

    The early effects of Tamsulosin within one week of administration on lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were investigated. Patients with newly diagnosed BPH were randomized into a Tamsulosin group and a Eviprostat group. Changes in subjective symptoms daily for 7 days after the start of administration and in the 4th week (8 times in total) were evaluated using seven symptoms in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the quality of life (QOL) index entered in a self-scoring diary kept by the patients daily. In the Tamsulosin group, the IPSS total score showed significant improvements. Significant improvements were observed in the incomplete emptying and frequency scores from the day after the start of administration, in the intermittence and straining scores from day 2, in the urgency and weak stream scores from day 3 and in the nocturia score from day 5. The QOL index significantly improved on day 7. In comparison with Eviprostat, Tamsulosin showed a stronger improvement tendency in the total IPSS, voiding symptoms score and incomplete emptying score and the difference was significant. The difference between the two groups was especially marked for the intermittence and weak stream scores and Tamsulosin showed significantly better early effects. Tamsulosin also showed significantly better early effects than Eviprostat in the QOL index. In conclusion, it was clear that Tamsulosin caused significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH as a whole from a very early stage within one week after administration.

  13. Use of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in Chinese male patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos King-Ho; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Chan, Steve Wai-Hee; Tsu, James Hok-Leung; Fan, Chi-Wai; Chu, Peggy Sau-Kwan; Cheung, Fu-Keung; Ma, Wai-Kit; Mah, Ida Soo Fan; Yip, Sidney Kam-Hung; Hou, Simon See-Ming; So, Hing-Shing; Lam, CindyLo-Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To test the psychometric properties of the International Prostate Symptom Score (Hong Kong Chinese version 2) (IPSS) in Chinese male patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) under secondary care. A prospective longitudinal study was done by interviewing subjects at baseline, at 2 week after baseline for assessing test-retest reliability and at 26 week after baseline for assessing responsiveness. All subjects were interviewed to complete a structured questionnaire including IPSS, Short Form-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The IPSS HRQOL score had weak correlations with SF-12v2 summary and DASS domain scores. For reliability analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90 for the seven symptom-related items. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the IPSS total symptom score and HRQOL score were 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. For sensitivity, statistically significant differences were detected between the subjects with BPH and those without for IPSS total symptom score (effect size = 0.68) but not the IPSS HRQOL score. The areas under ROC curves for the IPSS total symptom and HRQOL scores were 0.67 and 0.60, respectively. The IPSS was valid, reliable instrument in Chinese patients with BPH. The IPSS total symptom score, but not the HRQOL score, is sensitive in differentiating subgroups.

  14. Discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Suttajit, Sirijit; Eurviriyanukul, Kanokkwan; Varnado, Prirada

    2017-06-20

    This study aimed to determine: i) the correlation between objective and subjective cognition, ii) the correlates of objective and subjective cognition and iii) the predictors of discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition. Participants were non-elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We assessed subjective cognition using the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire for Depression (PDQ-D) and objective cognition using Face I and Face II tests of the Wechsler Memory Scale, 3rd edition and Digit Span and Matrix Reasoning tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults, 3rd edition. The discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition was estimated. Participants were 57 outpatients with MDD. PDQ-D scores were not correlated with composite neurocognitive test (NCT) z scores. Years of education significantly predicted composite NCT z scores, as did age. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores significantly predicted PDQ-D scores, as did antidepressant treatment. Age significantly predicted discrepancy scores, as did PHQ-9 scores. In conclusion, objective and subjective cognition in patients with MDD are not correlated. Age and education predict objective cognition. Depression. severity and antidepressant treatment predict subjective cognition. Age and depression severity may predict the discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition.

  15. Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice; Browne, Una

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure consonant sentences than low-pressure consonant sentences, and for the Rainbow passage than total test sentences. There was no significant difference between high-pressure consonant sentences and the Zoo passage. Compared to previous studies, the Irish young adults had lower nasalance scores than Irish children and than young adults with North American dialects.

  16. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  17. Importance of Wells score and Geneva score for the evaluation of patients suspected of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruettner, Joachim; Walter, Thomas; Lang, Siegfried; Meyer, Michael; Apfaltrer, Paul; Henzler, Thomas; Viergutz, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The European Society of Cardiology guidelines for pulmonary embolism (PE) published in 2008 and updated in 2014 recommend a risk stratification including risk scores like Wells and the Geneva score. The utility and practicability of these scores are controversially discussed. Recently, in a trauma cohort and in spinal surgery patients, no correlation between Wells Score and PE diagnosis was found. The aim of the study was the evaluation of Wells and Geneva scores in patients presenting with chest pain, dyspnoea or syncope in an emergency department. We retrospectively examined 326 patients suspected of PE, including assessment, according to Wells and Geneva scores. PE was detected in 13.5 %. The average Wells score was 1.0, the average Geneva score 3.9. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses showed for both scores a high significant area under the curve (Wells score 0.68; Geneva score 0.64). The association between the scores and the diagnosis of PE was calculated with logistic regression analysis and showed high significant odds ratios (OR) for both scores (Wells score 1.38; Geneva score 1.24). There was no significant difference between the area under the curve (AUC) of Wells score and Geneva score. The utility of Wells and Geneva scores for the evaluation of patients suspected of PE in an emergency patient cohort. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Nonsignificance of sleep relative to IQ and neuropsychological scores in predicting academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2008-06-01

    The goal of the study was to determine the relative importance of sleep, IQ, neuropsychological, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) scores in predicting academic achievement. Objective overnight polysomnograph sleep scores, parent ratings of sleep problems, IQ, neuropsychological test scores, and parent ratings of ADHD were used to predict academic achievement in a general population sample of 412 elementary schoolchildren, 6 to 12 years of age with IQs of 71 to 147. Using stepwise linear regression analysis, IQ was the best single predictor of reading and math achievement test scores. The most powerful combined predictors of achievement were IQ and some of the neuropsychological test scores. Subjective parent-reported sleep problems and objective polysomnograph scores (apnea-hypopnea index, mean oxygen saturation and lowest saturation percentage during sleep, snoring frequency and severity, sleep latency, minutes to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, arousal index, number of awakenings, sleep efficiency, and percentage of stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and REM sleep) did not contribute significantly more to the prediction of achievement. Children with and without sleep problems did not differ from each other in achievement. IQ, neuropsychological test scores, and ADHD ratings were all significantly related to achievement, but correlations between achievement and objective and subjective sleep scores were all nonsignificant. There may be individual children for whom sleep problems affect achievement, but for a large group of community children, sleep was not significantly related to academic functioning. In contrast, IQ and neuropsychological test scores were powerful predictors of achievement.

  19. Scoring nail psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, K.M.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Bastiaens, M.T.; Plusje, L.G.; Baran, R.L.; Pasch, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scoring systems are indispensable in evaluating the severity of disease and monitoring treatment response. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the competence of various nail psoriasis severity scoring systems and to develop a new scoring system. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective,

  20. Development and Validation of a Teaching Module for Echocardiographic Scoring of Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Nathan; Okello, Emmy; Gupta, Vedant; Bailey, Alison L; Josephson, Richard; Madan Mohan, Sri Krishna; Osman, Mohammed N; Longenecker, Chris T

    2017-08-31

    The Wilkins score and commissural calcification scores predict outcomes after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty. However, many cardiologists are inadequately trained in their application-both in the United States where the incidence of rheumatic heart disease has fallen and in rheumatic heart disease endemic countries where training infrastructure is weak. This study sought to develop a computer-based educational module teaching 2 scoring systems for rheumatic mitral stenosis and to validate the module among cardiology fellows in the United States and Uganda. We developed a module organized into 3 sets of 10 echocardiograms each. The module was completed by 13 cardiology fellows from 2 academic centers in the United States and 1 in Uganda. Subject answers were compared with a score assigned by 2 experts in echocardiography. The primary outcome was change in subjects' accuracy from set 1 to set 3, measured by mean absolute deviation from expert scores. Secondary outcomes included change in interoperator variability and individual subject bias from set 1 to set 3. The mean absolute deviations from expert scores in sets 1 and 3 were 2.09 and 1.82 for the Wilkins score (possible score range 0 to 16) and 1.13 and 0.94 for the commissural calcification score (possible score range 0 to 4). The change from set 1 to set 3 was statistically significant only for 1 of the Wilkins component scores (leaflet calcification, p < 0.001.) No change was seen in the interoperator variability. Individual subject bias in assigning the total Wilkins score was reduced from set 1 to set 3. Use of this module has the potential to enhance the training of cardiologists in the echocardiographic assessment of mitral stenosis. Modified versions of this module or similar ones should be tested in targeted populations of cardiology trainees with the most exposure to mitral stenosis interventions. Copyright © 2017 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. In adolescents with epilepsy, high scores of anxiety and depression are associated with occurrence of seizures in public places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Nathália F; Oliveira, Fernando L B B; Siqueira, Jorge A; Souza, Elisabete Abib Pedroso de

    2015-03-01

    To assess depression and anxiety symptoms of adolescents with epilepsy compared with adolescents without epilepsy. The study sample consisted of: case participants (50 subjects) attending the pediatric epilepsy clinic of a tertiary hospital and control participants (51 subjects) from public schools. The instruments utilized were: identification card with demographic and epilepsy data, Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. No significant differences were founded between the groups regarding scores for depression and anxiety symptoms but both groups presented moderate scores of anxiety. A correlation was found between low scores anxiety and not frequent seizures, low scores anxiety and perception of seizure control, high scores of anxiety and depression and occurrence of seizures in public places. Low scores of anxiety are associated with not frequent seizures; high scores of anxiety and depression are associated with occurrence of seizures in public places.

  2. The relationship between insight and subjective experience in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Yuki; Ito, Koki; Hashimoto, Naoki; Toyoshima, Kuniyoshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Yutaka; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationship between level of insight and various subjective experiences for patients with schizophrenia. Seventy-four patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from our hospital were evaluated. The level of insight into their illness and various subjective experiences were evaluated at discharge. We used the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) for evaluation of insight. In addition, five different rating scales were used to evaluate subjective experiences: Subjective Experience of Deficits in Schizophrenia (SEDS), Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment Short form (SWNS), Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI)-30. The SWNS and the scores for awareness of mental disorder and awareness of the social consequences of mental disorder on SUMD showed a weak positive correlation. The DAI-30 showed a significant negative correlation with most general items on SUMD and a negative correlation between the subscale scores for the awareness and attribution of past symptoms. SEDS, SWNS, SQLS, and the BDI significantly correlated with the subscale scores for awareness of current symptoms on SUMD, and weakly correlated with the subscale scores for attribution of current negative symptoms. Awareness of subjective distress was related to awareness of having a mental disorder. Feeling subjective distress was related to awareness of current symptoms, as well as to the ability to attribute current negative symptoms to a mental disorder. Positive attitudes toward medication correlated with better general insight into the illness.

  3. High Activity Arthroplasty Score has a lower ceiling effect than standard scores after knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Jean-Yves; Louis, Pascal; Diesinger, Yann

    2014-04-01

    The tested hypothesis was following: the High Activity Arthroplasty Score has a significant lower ceiling effect than American Knee Society Score and Oxford Knee Score after total knee arthroplasty. One hundred patients operated on for total knee arthroplasty with more than one-year follow-up have been included. The ceiling effect was 53% for the American Knee Society Score, 33% for the Oxford Knee Score, and 0% for the High Activity Arthroplasty Score. High Activity Arthroplasty Score had a significantly lower ceiling effect than American Knee Society Score and Oxford Knee Score. High Activity Arthroplasty Score has the potential to detect more subtle differences in level of function than standard scoring systems among a non-selected total knee arthroplasty population. © 2014.

  4. Nasalance scores for normal-speaking Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Omer; Akcam, Timur; Birkent, Hakan; Arslan, Hasan Huseyin; Gerek, Mustafa

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain normative nasalance scores for adult and children subjects speaking Turkish language and obtain a reference for normality when nasality is evaluated. Mean nasalance scores were obtained from 35 normal-speaking children aged 7 to 13 years, and 125 adults aged 18 to 69 years during the repetition of 3 nasalance passages that were categorized according to the amount of nasal consonants (oral, oronasal, and nasal passages). The Nasometer (model 6400) was used to obtain nasalance scores for the 3 reading passages. Group mean ± SD nasalance scores of children for oral passage, oronasal passage, and nasal passage were 15.14 ± 4.81, 37.76 ± 4.42, and 49.23 ± 6.95, respectively. Nasalance scores for the adult group were 13.46 ± 6.26, 37.84 ± 6.13, and 50.28 ± 7.77, respectively. There were significant differences in mean nasalance scores for oral versus nasal materials both for children and adult groups. The present study provides normative nasalance scores for Turkish-speaking children and adults. The results indicated acceptable differentiation between oral and nasal materials.

  5. Predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. van den Berge

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: SF-36 scores at baseline, age, and previous PCI were significant predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI. Specifically, the SF-36 score at baseline was an important predictor. Thus assessment of subjective health status at baseline is useful as an indicator to predict long-term subjective health status. Subjective health status becomes better by optimal medical treatment, cardiac rehabilitation and psychosocial support. This is the first study determining predictors of subjective health status 10 years post-PCI.

  6. Pooling score: an endoscopic model for evaluating severity of dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, D

    2008-06-01

    The finding of secretions and bolus pooling is of great diagnostic interest in the evaluation of subjects with swallowing disorders. Bedside evaluation alone, in subjects at risk for aspiration, can underestimate this parameter. The usefulness of endoscopic investigation for the evaluation of subjects with swallowing disorders is stressed, in order to plan treatment and follow-up. Based on endoscopic evaluation of material pooling we devised a score expressing the severity of dysphagia. This value takes into account endoscopic landmarks and other parameters of bedside evaluation. Endoscopic and bedside data were collected from a heterogeneous population of 520 consecutive patients seen in our Service over a 6-year period. By means of the test of equality of group means and logistic regression, parameters able to significantly predict aspiration in the series were identified. An ordinal number was attributed to each parameter in order to obtain scores expressing three degrees of severity of dysphagia: mild, moderate, severe. The scores can be used to guide the management of patients in a simple way, providing indications for targeted referral to the speech pathologist and for tracking the disorder over time. This investigation represents the basis for future research aimed at validating the scores in a larger case series.

  7. Re-Scoring the Game’s Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    -temporal alignment in the resulting emotional congruency of nondiegetic music. Whereas imaginary aspects of immersive presence are systemically affected by the presentation of dynamic music, sensory spatial aspects show higher sensitivity towards the arousal potential of the music score. It is argued......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self......-report questionnaires of experiential states each time after playing the game 'Batman: Arkham City' in one of three randomized conditions accounting for [1] dynamic music, [2] non-dynamic music/low arousal potential and [3] non-dynamic music/high arousal potential, aiming to manipulate emotional arousal and structural...

  8. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  9. INTEGRATIVE CLINICAL NUTRITION DIALYSIS SCORE (ICNDS FOR PREDICTION OF NUTRITIONAL RISK IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Blumberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Integrative Clinical Nutrition Dialysis Score is a new quantitative method for identifying nutritional risk in hemodialysis patients. It is based on biochemical measures and weight change taken as a part of the patient’s monthly routine care and can be accomplished within a short time following completion of laboratory results. The Scoring result is a number between 0-100 given for each patient. A higher Score indicates a good nutritional status, a lower Score represents malnutrition. The Score identifies also a monthly change in nutritional status, and patients who should receive nutritional intervention. In 59 patients, Score results were found to be significantly correlated with nutrition evaluation by the Subjective Global Assessment taken within the same month. In 165 patients, baseline score emerged as a significant inverse predictor of mortality and hospitalization: each 1-unit increase in score reduced mortality risk by 7.1%, and reduced hospitalization risk by 6.5%. A 1- unit increase of slope of monthly scores reduced mortality risk by 23.6% and reduced hospitalization risk by 20.1%. A threshold of Score greater or equal to 75 reduced mortality by 64.2%. Patients were divided into four categories based on baseline score (above/equal or below a threshold of 75 and slope of monthly scores (smaller or larger/equal to 0. Worsening nutrition status over time as indicated by both score and slope, significantly increased death hazard. Results confirm that Integrative Clinical Nutrition Dialysis Score (ICNDS is a simple, useful prognostic tool to reflect hemodialysis patients nutrition status, and nutrition deterioration at its very commencement.

  10. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  11. Comparison of Coping Strategies of Student Teachers Based on Their Subject of Specialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. M., Majitha; Sajan, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the difference in the mean scores of coping strategies of student teachers based on their subject of specialisation. A total of 558 student teachers were selected for the study. Results indicate that there exists a significant difference in the mean scores of Coping Strategies of student teachers of Arts…

  12. Standardization of nasalance scores in normal Saudi speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassabi, Rasha M; Hassan, Sabah; Mesallam, Tamer A; Malki, Khalid H; Farahat, Mohamed; Alfaris, Abdullah

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to obtain normative nasalance scores for a normal Saudi population with different ages and genders, to develop nasometric Arabic speech materials, and to make cross-linguistic comparison. Participants included 219 normal Saudi native monolingual Arabic speakers of different ages. Subjects were classified into four groups according to age and gender. Subjects did not have any history of oral, nasal, or velopharyngeal abnormality. Arabic speech samples were developed to evaluate nasalance scores, which included syllables repetition, three oral sentences, three oro-nasal sentences, and three nasal sentences. Nasalance data were obtained using Nasometer II-6400. Normative nasalance values were determined. Significant differences between the male and female children groups were noticed in many parameters. Nasalance scores were higher in adults, with significant differences between all groups. Normative nasalance scores for Saudi Arabic speakers have been developed for both adults and children. The Arabic speech materials developed in this study appear to be easy to use and applicable for different age groups.

  13. Nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mikyong; Baek, William S; Lee, Eunkyung; Koh, Kyung S; Kim, Baek-Kyu; Baek, Rongmin

    2014-02-01

    There are numerous nasometric studies to date, including normative nasalance scores for various languages as well as nasometric differences in age, gender, race and region except the Korean language. In this regard, we sought to establish normative nasalance scores for Koreans. We created speech samples based on the everyday use of phonemes in the Korean language which were syntactically simple for children. In addition, we analysed nasometric features based on age and gender and confirmed test-retest reliability. The study included 108 children (54 girls and 54 boys, aged 7-11 years) and 108 adults (54 women and 54 men, aged 18-29 years) with normal articulation, resonance, voice and hearing. Nasometer II 6400 was used to measure the nasalance scores. The subjects read or repeated three speech stimuli, each consisting of 33, 36 and 24 syllables: (1) an oral passage devoid of nasal consonants, (2) an oro-nasal passage and (3) nasal sentences. For each stimulus, mean nasalance scores were obtained and gender or age dependence was analysed, using two-way analyses of variance. The mean nasalance scores for the oral passage, oro-nasal passage and nasal sentences were 11.69% (standard deviation (SD) 3.68), 34.04% (SD 4.88) and 63.72% (SD 6.07), respectively. Female speakers exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than male speakers on the oro-nasal passage (p = 0.000) and nasal sentences (p = 0.004). Children exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than adults on nasal sentences (p = 0.000). The nasalance scores in children and females were a little higher. Korean normative data will provide reference information in the evaluation and treatment of resonance problems. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  15. The Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. The impact of vocal intensity and pitch modulation on nasalance scores: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; Van Borsel, John; Cardinael, An; Reeckmans, Stephanie; Bonte, Katrien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of pitch and intensity modulation on nasalance scores. A single-group pretest-posttest design was used in which subjects produced reading passages at different pitch and intensity levels. The Nasometer was used for the registration of nasalance scores in subjects with and without cleft palate. An increase in intensity in the non-cleft group resulted in a small but significant decrease in nasalance. Lowering the pitch level resulted in a small but significant decrease in nasalance scores for both the non-cleft and cleft palate subjects. The nasalance changes after vocal modulations during connected speech are reliable and not biased but the impact of these vocal changes on speech intelligibility and daily communication and the usefulness of these vocal modulations as part of a behavioral management program is not yet proven. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Development of a spirometry T-score in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sei Won; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Baek, Seunghee; Jung, Ji-Ye; Kim, Young Sam; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Do; Mannino, David M; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2016-01-01

    Spirometry values may be expressed as T-scores in standard deviation units relative to a reference in a young, normal population as an analogy to the T-score for bone mineral density. This study was performed to develop the spirometry T-score. T-scores were calculated from lambda-mu-sigma-derived Z-scores using a young, normal age reference. Three outcomes of all-cause death, respiratory death, and COPD death were evaluated in 9,101 US subjects followed for 10 years; an outcome of COPD-related health care utilization (COPD utilization) was evaluated in 1,894 Korean subjects followed for 4 years. The probability of all-cause death appeared to remain nearly zero until -1 of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) T-score but increased steeply where FEV1 T-score reached below -2.5. Survival curves for all-cause death, respiratory death, COPD death, and COPD utilization differed significantly among the groups when stratified by FEV1 T-score (Pspirometry T-score could predict all-cause death, respiratory death, COPD death, and COPD utilization.

  18. Comparison of nasalance scores obtained from the Nasometer and the NasalView.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kerry E; Watterson, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Nasalance scores obtained from the Nasometer and the NasalView were compared for five different sentences. Vowel content was controlled in the design of the five stimulus sentences. One sentence was loaded with high-front vowels, one with high-back vowels, one with low-front vowels, one with low-back vowels, and one contained a mixture of vowel types. The subjects were 50 elementary school children ranging from kindergarten to sixth grade. Each subject was a native speaker of English, had no history of adenoidectomy, and was not currently enrolled in speech therapy services. The main outcome measures were the nasalance scores obtained from the Nasometer and the NasalView for each of the five sentences. There was a significant difference in the nasalance scores between the Nasometer and the NasalView for four of the five stimuli, but not all differences were in the same direction. For two stimuli, the Nasometer scores were significantly higher, and for two stimuli the NasalView scores were higher. Bivariate correlations between nasalance scores for individual stimuli were in the good range for the Nasometer but poor for the NasalView. Speech stimuli weighted with different vowel types are differentially affected by the different acoustical filtering used in the Nasometer versus the NasalView. Nasalance scores obtained with the NasalView were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those obtained with the Nasometer. This suggests that the two machines provide different information, and the scores are not interchangeable.

  19. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  20. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  1. Early warning scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    A free app available from the Apple App Store is aimed at supporting health professionals in Wales to use the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). The tool helps staff identify patients who are developing serious illness.

  2. Functional significance of air trapping detected in moderate asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, F. [Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Latrabe, V. [Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Raherison, C. [Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Marthan, R. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, INSERM E 9937, Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France); Tunon-de-Lara, J.M. [Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, INSERM E 9937, Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France)

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bronchial and lung abnormalities in patients suffering from moderate asthma as defined by international guidelines, with special attention to air trapping on CT in comparison with that detected in smoking and non-smoking normal subjects. Twenty-two patients classified as moderate asthma and control subjects including healthy volunteers, smokers (n = 10) or non-smokers (n = 12) were prospectively explored by high-resolution CT (HRCT) performed at suspended full inspiration and expiration. The same expiratory protocol was performed 15 min after inhalation of 200 {mu}g of salbutamol. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests within the same week and bronchodilator response was assessed following inhalation of salbutamol. Abnormalities of bronchi and lung parenchyma on inspiratory CT and air trapping on expiratory CT, in dependent and non-dependent areas, were assessed and scored semi-quantitatively by two independent observers. Comparison of score mean values between the different groups was performed using Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation between CT findings and pulmonary function tests were calculated. Mosaic perfusion was observed in 23 % of asthmatics. Air-trapping scores were significantly higher in asthmatic patients than in non-smoking control subjects (p = 0.003), but not than in smokers. This difference was ascribed to non-dependent zones of the lung for which air-trapping scores were also higher in asthmatic patients (p = 0.003) and in smoking subjects (p = 0.004) than in normal controls. In the asthmatic group, a significant positive correlation was found between airways resistance and bronchial dilatation score (p = 0.01), and between small airways obstruction index and mosaic perfusion score (p = 0.05). In addition, both FEV1 and reversibility of small airways obstruction values correlated with air-trapping score (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007, respectively). No change could be detected in air-trapping score

  3. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  4. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  5. Utilidad de los puntajes clínicos para mejorar la predicción de enfermedad coronaria significativa después de una prueba de esfuerzo convencional Usefulness of clinical scores to improve prediction of significant coronary heart disease after conventional treadmill exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Guerrero

    2008-10-01

    comparing patients with and without outcomes, the first ones classified more frequently as having higher probability than those that had not, with statistically significant differences (Morise: p = 0,0002 and Duke: 0,0005. In the Morise score with cutoff value 48, 92% sensitivity and 68% specificity was achieved. In Duke, with cutoff value 38, it was 100% and 31% respectively. Discussion: concordance for Morise is better than for the other evaluated methods. The addition of clinical scores to the exercise testing interpretation improves its operative characteristics without any cost increment, achieving savings of 10% to 18%. Conclusions: clinical scores increase sensitivity and specificity, and for this reason they should be used as routine in the conventional exercise testing report. Nevertheless, it is necessary to look for solutions to improve its performance even further.

  6. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score predicts mnemonic hippocampal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Ursini, Gianluca; Romer, Adrienne L; Knodt, Annchen R; Mezeivtch, Karleigh; Xiao, Ena; Pergola, Giulio; Blasi, Giuseppe; Straub, Richard E; Callicott, Joseph H; Berman, Karen F; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bertolino, Alessandro; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2018-02-03

    The use of polygenic risk scores has become a practical translational approach to investigating the complex genetic architecture of schizophrenia, but the link between polygenic risk scores and pathophysiological components of this disorder has been the subject of limited research. We investigated in healthy volunteers whether schizophrenia polygenic risk score predicts hippocampal activity during simple memory encoding, which has been proposed as a risk-associated intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. We analysed the relationship between polygenic risk scores and hippocampal activity in a discovery sample of 191 unrelated healthy volunteers from the USA and in two independent replication samples of 76 and 137 healthy unrelated participants from Europe and the USA, respectively. Polygenic risk scores for each individual were calculated as the sum of the imputation probability of reference alleles weighted by the natural log of odds ratio from the recent schizophrenia genome-wide association study. We examined hippocampal activity during simple memory encoding of novel visual stimuli assessed using blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI. Polygenic risk scores were significantly associated with hippocampal activity in the discovery sample [P = 0.016, family-wise error (FWE) corrected within Anatomical Automatic Labeling (AAL) bilateral hippocampal-parahippocampal mask] and in both replication samples (P = 0.033, FWE corrected within AAL right posterior hippocampal-parahippocampal mask in Bari sample, and P = 0.002 uncorrected in the Duke Neurogenetics Study sample). The relationship between polygenic risk scores and hippocampal activity was consistently negative, i.e. lower hippocampal activity in individuals with higher polygenic risk scores, consistent with previous studies reporting decreased hippocampal-parahippocampal activity during declarative memory tasks in patients with schizophrenia and in their healthy siblings. Polygenic risk scores accounted for

  7. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF PAIN SCORE IN INGUINAL HERNIA TENSION - FREE OPERATIVE TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Janković

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The study consists of 100 patients who underwent surgery and were treated at the Surgical Clinic of Nis Clinical Centre. The patients were divided into two groups: the first one included 50 patients subjected to surgery with the use of the Shouldice operative technique (control group and the second one included 50 patients who underwent surgery with the use of the Lichtenstein operative technique (experimental group. In these 100 patients, the pain score was examined on the basis of Visual Analogous Score (VAS or using Verbal Pain Score (VPS. For statistical analysis we used the T – test for two large independent samples, which was later presented on graphs, tables and diagram. The pain score was observed from the first to the seventh day, and then on the tenth, fifteenth, twentieth, thirtieth, two months and one year after. The examination results showed a significantly lower pain score in patients who underwent surgery with the use of Lichtenstein technique.

  8. Do subjective assessments of running patterns reflect objective parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Mourot, Laurent; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen(®) method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen(®) method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h(-1) while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen(®) method and objectively using 3D motion capture. For each runner and speed, two researchers scored the five Volodalen(®) items on a 1-to-5 scale, which addressed vertical oscillation, upper-body motion, pelvis and foot position at ground contact, and footstrike pattern. Seven 3D biomechanical parameters reflecting the subjective items were also collected and correlated to the subjective scores. Twenty-eight runners were classified as aerial and 26 as terrestrial. Runner classification did not change with speed, but the relative contribution of the biomechanical parameters to the subjective classification was speed dependent. The magnitude of correlations between subjective and objective measures ranged from trivial to very large. Five of the seven objective parameters significantly differed between aerial and terrestrial runners, and these parameters demonstrated the strongest correlations to the subjective scores. Our results support the validity of the Volodalen(®) method, whereby the visual appreciation of running gait reflected quantifiable objective parameters. Two minor modifications to the method are proposed to simplify its use and improve agreement between subjective and objective measures.

  9. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  10. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and

  11. Heritability estimates and correlations between subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PavarniN

    exceptions were positive genetic correlations of fibre diameter (FD) and coefficient of variation of FD with staple formation score and belly and points score. Genetic progress in subjective traits thus appears possible, if desired in a selection strategy. Keywords: Correlations, heritabilities, linearly assessed traits, subjective ...

  12. Introducing the SKIN score: a validated scoring system to assess severity of mastectomy skin flap necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaine, Valerie; Hoskin, Tanya L; Farley, David R; Grant, Clive S; Boughey, Judy C; Torstenson, Tiffany A; Jacobson, Steven R; Jakub, James W; Degnim, Amy C

    2015-09-01

    With increasing use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR), mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) is a clinical problem that deserves further study. We propose a validated scoring system to discriminate MSFN severity and standardize its assessment. Women who underwent skin-sparing (SSM) or nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and IBR from November 2009 to October 2010 were studied retrospectively. A workgroup of breast and plastic surgeons scored postoperative photographs using the skin ischemia necrosis (SKIN) score to assess depth and surface area of MSFN. We evaluated correlation of the SKIN score with reoperation for MSFN and its reproducibility in an external sample of surgeons. We identified 106 subjects (175 operated breasts: 103 SSM, 72 NSM) who had ≥1 postoperative photograph within 60 days. SKIN scores correlated strongly with need for reoperation for MSFN, with an AUC of 0.96 for SSM and 0.89 for NSM. External scores agreed well with the gold standard scores for the breast mound photographs with weighted kappa values of 0.82 (depth), 0.56 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). The agreement was similar for the nipple-areolar complex photographs: 0.75 (depth), 0.63 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). A simple scoring system to assess the severity of MSFN is proposed, incorporating both depth and surface area of MSFN. The SKIN score correlates strongly with the need for reoperation to manage MSFN and is reproducible among breast and plastic surgeons.

  13. Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS)-Italian version: regression based norms and equivalent scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Mattia; Trojano, Luigi; Trojsi, Francesca; Greco, Roberta; Santoro, Manuela; Basile, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Fausta; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Patrone, Manila; Femiano, Cinzia; Monsurrò, Mariarosaria; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive assessment for individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) can be difficult because of frequent occurrence of difficulties with speech, writing, and drawing. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) is a recent multi-domain neuropsychological screening tool specifically devised for this purpose, and it assesses the following domains: executive functions, social cognition, verbal fluency and language (ALS-specific), but also memory and visuospatial abilities (Non-ALS specific). ECAS total score ranges from 0 (worst performance) to 136 (best performance). Moreover, a brief caregiver interview provides an assessment of behaviour changes and psychotic symptoms usually associated with ALS patients. The aim of the present study was to provide normative values for ECAS total score and sub-scores in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Two hundred and seventy-seven Italian healthy subjects (151 women and 126 men; age range 30-79 years; educational level from primary school to university) underwent ECAS and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ECAS total score and sub-scale scores. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off scores were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between adjusted ECAS total scores with adjusted MoCA total scores (r rho  = 0.669, p study provided normative data for the ECAS in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  14. Mono- and polysubstance dependent subjects differ on social factors, childhood trauma, personality, suicidal behaviour, and comorbid Axis I diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, G; Carli, V; Tedeschi, D; Di Giannantonio, M; Roy, A; Janiri, L; Sarchiapone, M

    2009-09-01

    The study aimed to examine the clinical correlates of polysubstance dependence. Seven hundred and fifty two substance-dependent subjects were interviewed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Subjects completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Subjects found to have polysubstance dependence were compared with subjects with monosubstance dependence. Polysubstance dependence was found in 48.3% of the subjects. Subjects with polysubstance dependence were significantly younger, more were separated/divorced and unemployed, and they had significantly higher CTQ scores for childhood emotional and physical neglect, higher EPQ psychoticism scores, higher BGLHA aggression scores, and higher BIS impulsivity scores. Significantly more of the polysubstance dependent subjects had attempted suicide, self-mutilated, and exhibited aggressive behavior. Significantly more monosubstance dependent subjects had an Axis I psychiatric disorder and they had higher HDRS depression scores. Polysubstance dependence is common among the groups studied and may be associated with certain socio-demographic, developmental, and personality factors.

  15. The utility of the KJOC score in professional baseball in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Justin O; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kneip, Chris J; Noble, Philip C; Lintner, David M

    2013-09-01

    The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow questionnaire has been shown by previous studies to be more sensitive than other validated subjective measurement tools in the detection of upper extremity dysfunction in overhead-throwing athletes. The primary objective was to establish normative data for KJOC scores in professional baseball players in the United States. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effect of player age, playing position, professional competition level, history of injury, history of surgery, and time point of administration on the KJOC score. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. From 2011 to 2012, a total of 203 major league and minor league baseball players within the Houston Astros professional baseball organization completed the KJOC questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered at 3 time points: spring training 2011, end of season 2011, and spring training 2012. The KJOC scores were analyzed for significant differences based on player age, injury history, surgery history, fielding position, competition level, self-reported playing status, and time point of KJOC administration. The average KJOC score among healthy players with no history of injury was 97.1 for major league players and 96.8 for minor league players. The time point of administration did not significantly affect the final KJOC score (P = .224), and KJOC outcomes did not vary with player age (r = -0.012; P = .867). Significantly lower average KJOC scores were reported by players with a history of upper extremity injury (86.7; P baseball players with the KJOC score. Age and time of administration had no significant effect on the outcome of the KJOC score. Missed practices or games within the previous year because of injury were the most significant demographic predictors of lower KJOC scores. The KJOC score was shown to be a sensitive measurement tool for detecting subtle changes in the upper extremity performance of the professional baseball

  16. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  17. The Subjective Quality of Life in Young People With Tourette Syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiguo; Zheng, Lanlan; Zheng, Xueping; Zhang, Xinhua; Yi, Mingji; Ma, Xu

    2017-03-01

    To explore the subjective quality of life (QoL) in children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) in China to provide a basis for more effective interference. A total of 107 patients and 107 controls were enrolled. Subjective QoL was investigated by Inventory of Subjective Life Quality, Family Environment Scale of Chinese Version, and the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and a case-control study was performed. The total score of subjective QoL and family life, school life, peer relationship, cognitive component, environment, self-awareness, cognitive component and depression experience in the TS were lower than control. Patients with co-morbid exhibited significantly lower scores within the subjective QoL family life, peer relationship, school life, self-awareness, and cognitive affective domains. The subjective QoL is impaired and it is important to control clinical symptoms and improve family environment for the improvement of the subjective QoL in TS.

  18. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coronary artery calcium score: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The coronary artery calcium score plays an Important role In cardiovascular risk stratification, showing a significant association with the medium- or long-term occurrence of major cardiovascular events. Here, we discuss the following: protocols for the acquisition and quantification of the coronary artery calcium score by multidetector computed tomography; the role of the coronary artery calcium score in coronary risk stratification and its comparison with other clinical scores; its indications, interpretation, and prognosis in asymptomatic patients; and its use in patients who are symptomatic or have diabetes. PMID:28670030

  20. The contribution of anthropometric characteristics to performance scores in elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, A L; Lefevre, J; Beunen, G; Malina, R M

    1999-12-01

    Aims of this study were: a) to identify anthropometric variables correlated with gymnastic performance, and b) to predict performance scores from a combination of anthropometric dimensions. correlational analysis and a stepwise multiple regression were used. Subjects were participants at the 24th World Championships Artistic Gymnastics, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in 1987. A total of 168 female gymnasts (mean age: 16.5 +/- 1.8 years) were investigated. Each gymnast participated in all events. An extensive battery of anthropometric dimensions was taken on each athlete. The somatotype was estimated. Skeletal maturation of the hand-wrist was assessed. Competition scores for the four individual gymnastic events (balance beam, floor exercise, vault, uneven bars) and a composite score for each gymnast were the dependent variables. Moderately high, significant correlations (p gymnastics performance scores, r varying from -0.38 to -0.60, for biceps skinfold and the score on balance beam, and for endomorphy and the total score, respectively. The correlations suggest that gymnasts with more subcutaneous fat and higher endomorphy have lower performance scores. About 32% to 45% of the variance in gymnastic performance scores could be explained by anthropometric dimensions and/or derived variables, but endomorphy and chronological age are the most important predictors. There is a relatively strong relationship between several anthropometric variables and gymnastic performance in a sample of elite female gymnasts, but the associations are not sufficiently high to predict performance scores on an individual basis.

  1. Childhood Trauma Associated with Enhanced High Frequency Band Powers and Induced Subjective Inattention of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score. The subjective inattention scores, ADHD scale, and anxiety and depression symptom were evaluated. EEG was recorded and quantitative band powers were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1 the high CTQ group showed significantly increased delta, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma, and significantly decreased low alpha power compared to the low CTQ group; (2 the high CTQ group had higher inattention score compared to the low CTQ group; (3 the high CTQ group had higher adult ADHD scores; (4 CTQ scores showed significant positive correlations with inattention scores, and adult ADHD scores; (5 unexpectedly, the inattention scores showed significant positive correlations with beta powers and a negative correlation with low alpha power; and (6 the moderated mediation model was confirmed: the depression fully mediated the path from state anxiety to inattention, and the CTQ significantly moderated the pathway between anxiety and depression. Our results show the possibility that childhood adversity may cause subjective inattention and adult ADHD symptoms. Depressive symptoms fully mediated the path from anxiety to inattention, especially in those who report severe childhood traumatic experiences.

  2. Subjective sleep quality in urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alimohamad; Farhadi, Mohammad; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adult populations and can have a significant effect on daytime activities. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of sleep problems and subjective sleep quality in the adult population of Tehran, Iran. From an urban community of Tehran, a random sample of 3400 adult men and women were selected by a cross-sectional design. Using the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), subjects were interviewed face-to-face. There were 3114 completed questionnaires returned and analyzed. The mean age of the subjects was 43.57 (± SD 17.5) years. Overall 37% (95% CI: 35-39) of the population were categorized as poor sleepers. The PSQI > 5 showed 27% were males versus 35% among females. The global PSQI scores ranged from 4.20 ± 2.67 to 5.60 ± 3.74 for males and 5.03 ± 3.00 to 7.97 ± 4.31 for females by age groups. The difference across age groups for global PSQI score was significant in females (P rate of sleep complaints in this population-based study was high. Females, older adults, widows and separated couple were the most important risk factors for sleep disturbances.

  3. Score test variable screening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this paper makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient...

  4. Your Criminal Fico Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Scores.” Journal of Applied Psychology 97(2012): 469–478. Chan, Janet, and Lyria Bennett Moses, “Is Big Data Challenging Criminology?” Theoretical...release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) One of the more contentious uses of big data ...analytics in homeland security is predictive policing, which harnesses big data to allocate police resources, decrease crime, and increase public safety

  5. Score test variable screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this article makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (pfoods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  7. Nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking adults and children: Effects of age, vowel context, and stimulus length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seunghee; Cho, Seong-Hyeon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking children and adults and to determine whether age, vowel contexts, and stimulus length influence nasalance scores. Fifty-seven children aged 4-6 years and 17 adults participated in the study. Mean nasalance scores were obtained for eight sentences devoid of nasal consonants divided into the vowel/a/and/i/contexts; the sentences consisted of 4, 8, 16, and 31 syllables. All subjects were asked to repeat the speech stimuli twice after the examiner. The headset of the nasometer was replaced between the first and second recordings. An average value of the nasalance scores from the two recordings for each stimulus was calculated and used in the statistical analysis as a representative measure for each subject. Mean and standard deviations of nasalance scores were obtained for each speech stimulus and each age group. The statistical analysis indicated significant effects of age and vowel context and a significant interaction between age and the vowel context on nasalance scores. However, the effect of stimulus length on nasalance scores was not significant. All speakers had higher nasalance scores for the vowel/i/contexts than for the vowel/a/contexts. Adults had higher nasalance scores compared to children in both vowel contexts. These normal nasalance values from Korean-speaking children aged 4-6 years will provide important reference information for resonance assessment of children with cleft palate who have been considered for secondary palatal surgery. The results of the study suggest that subjects' age and the vowel content of speech stimuli should be carefully considered when interpreting the nasalance scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Takechi, Sayuri; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31-64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81) of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease.

  9. Validity of Modified Ballard Score after 7 Days of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiman Arshpreet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Modified Ballard Score is used for assessment of gestational age of a neonate. It is most accurate when done between first 12-20 hours of life, but its validity is known only up to 7th day of life and not beyond it. Aim: To assess the validity of Modified Ballard Score for assessment of gestational age after 7th day of life. Materials and method: The study was conducted in the NICU of Katihar Medical College, Katihar. It is an observational study carried over a period of 3 months, in which 44 neonates were examined in accordance to the physical and neuromuscular criteria of Modified Ballard Score on days 1,3,7 and 10 of life and the result was then compared to the gestational age as calculated from a first trimester ultrasonography report or mother’s LMP, whichever was available. Result: Out of 44 subjects, the gestational age from Modified Ballard Score on day 10th of life was accurate in accordance to mother’s LMP or first trimester ultrasonography report in 24. Statistical analysis done using IBM SPSS Statistics 24 model revealed a p value of 0.000. Hence, it can be concluded that modified Ballard score is valid after 7 days of life. Conclusion: Since the Modified Ballard Score is observed to be significant on day 10th of life in most of the cases according to the study, therefore, it can be used to assess gestational age of a neonate after 7 days of life.

  10. Serum ghrelin level is associated with cardiovascular risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Dana; Peter, P; Dădârlat, Alexandra; Sitar-Tăut, Adela; Zdrenghea, D

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a newly discovered bioactive peptide, was originally reported to induce growth hormone release. Recent studies have shown beneficial hemodynamic effects of ghrelin in the cardiovascular system to support the wide distribution of its receptors in cardiovascular tissues. The aim of the study was to determine whether cardiovascular risk factors influence plasma ghrelin levels. We evaluated in the Rehabilitation Hospital Cluj-Napoca, Cardiology-Department 88 consecutive subjects, 65 (73.86%) being women, with mean age 61.7 +/- 10.33 years. We assessed the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, smoking and lipid fractions). Plasma ghrelin levels were determined with a commercial ELISA kit (pg/ml). After the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors, we found no statistically significant difference between ghrelin levels in the patients with vs those without cardiovascular risk factors (p>0.05). A negative correlation was found between ghrelin levels and age, r = -0.32 (p cardiovascular risk for each patient according to the risk score system (SCORE) for high cardiovascular risk countries. Statistically, the risk of fatal cardiovascular events in the next 10 years was indirectly correlated with the ghrelin levels in each patient-correlation between ghrelin levels and SCORE system r = -0.25, p=0.015. In conclusion, low serum ghrelin concentrations are associated with an increased global cardiovascular risk, calculated based on the European SCORE scale. However, we could not demonstrate a direct relationship between any of the major risk factors and ghrelin.

  11. Validity of modified early warning, Glasgow Blatchford, and pre-endoscopic Rockall scores in predicting prognosis of patients presenting to emergency department with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Seyran; Köse, Ataman; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Erdoğan, Semra; Üçbilek, Enver; Çevik, İbrahim; Ayrık, Cüneyt; Sezgin, Orhan

    2015-12-30

    GBS, MEWS, and PER scoring systems are not commonly used for patients presenting to emergency department with GIS bleeding. This study aimed to determine the value of MEWS, GBS, and PER scores in predicting bleeding at follow-up, endoscopic therapy and blood transfusion need, mortality, and rebleeding within a 1-month period. A total of 202 consecutive patients with upper GIS bleeding between July 2013 and November 2014 were prospectively enrolled in the study. The relationship between MEWS, GBS, and PER scores and hospital outcome, bleeding at follow-up, endoscopic therapy, transfusion need, rebleeding, and death were examined. The study included a total of 202 subjects, with 84 (41.6 %) females and 118 (58.4 %) males. There was a significant correlation between GBS, MEWS, and PER scores and hospital outcomes (p score greater than 11 succesfully predicted bleeding at follow-up (p = 0.0237). GBS score's sensitivity for predicting endoscopic therapy was greater than those of other scoring systems. The discriminatory power of each scoring system was significant for predicting transfusion (p score greater than 13, a MEWS score greater than 2, and a PER score greater than 3 predicted death. A PER score greater than 3 predicted rebleeding (p <0.0001). The scoring systems in question can be easily calculated in patients presenting to ED with upper GIS bleeding and may be beneficial for risk stratification, determination of transfusion need, prediction of rebleeding, and decisions of hospitalization or discharge.

  12. Evaluation of Candida Scoring Systems to Predict Early Candidemia: A Prospective and Observational Study at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Uttarakhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Gupta, Pratima; Chatterjee, Biswaroop; Mittal, Garima; Prateek, Shashank; Mohanty, Aroop

    2017-12-01

    Candidemia in critically ill patients is usually a severe and life-threatening condition. Furthermore, due to its nonspecific presentation, it is difficult to diagnose leading to delayed treatment, prolonged hospitalization, and increased health-care costs with increase in morbidity and mortality. In view of lack of data on "Candida scoring systems," this study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these scoring systems in predicting the development of candidemia among the Intensive Care Unit patients. The "Candida score" was calculated at the onset of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, or shock. Various scoring systems were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Among all three bedside risk scoring systems to predict candidemia both Leon score and Wenzel score offered significant discrimination between candidemic and noncandidemic patients with P = 0.000 and 0.001, respectively. The area under the curve for the scoring systems was 0.946 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89-1) and 0.818 (95% CI = 0.687-0.949). Leon scoring system was found to have highest specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and positive likelihood ratio among all. Thus, we might conclude that a Leon score of ≥2.5 was most suitable for diagnosis of candidemia with significant accuracy and shortening of turnaround time when compared to the gold standard of blood culture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the subject.

  13. Personality Factor as a Predictor of Depression Score Among Depressed and CHD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikhavani, Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many risk factors can affect depression and coronary disease, these including physiological and psychological risk factors (such as personality traits) Objectives Our objectives were to examine whether personality factors (The Five-Factor Model) can predict depression score in the depressed and coronary heart disease (CHD) individuals compared to that of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods To achieve the above objectives, 100 depressed (Mean=35.90 years, SD=10.59 years), and 100 CHD (Mean=46.42 years, SD=12.52 years), patients and 100 healthy subjects (Mean = 37.97 years, SD =12.49 years) were selected by convenience sampling method. To compare the three groups of participants, ANOVA test was used. Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to identify the variables that most closely predict the perceived stress and depression scores. Pearson’s Correlation Co-efficient was used to examine the correlation between variables. Results In Neuroticism, the CHD patients had significant highest scores, followed by depressed patients. The healthy group had the least scores. In case of Extraversion, Openness and Agreeableness, healthy participants had significant higher scores followed by the depressed and CHD patients. Only in conscientiousness factor, Depressive and CHD groups had statistically less scores compared to the healthy group. Also, high Neuroticism and Age, and low Extraversion were significant protective factors for depression Scores of CHD patients, while high Neuroticism and low Extraversion function as predictors in the depressed and healthy groups. Conclusion The effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion on depression have been reported as inconsistent across previous studies. This study indicates that, older CHD individuals with high Neuroticism and low Extraversion scores are more vulnerable for depression. PMID:26557596

  14. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fingerprinting of music scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  16. Scores to predict major bleeding risk during oral anticoagulation therapy: a prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzé, Jacques; Rodondi, Nicolas; Waeber, Gérard; Monney, Pierre; Cornuz, Jacques; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2012-11-01

    Clinical scores may help physicians to better assess the individual risk/benefit of oral anticoagulant therapy. We aimed to externally validate and compare the prognostic performance of 7 clinical prediction scores for major bleeding events during oral anticoagulation therapy. We followed 515 adult patients taking oral anticoagulants to measure the first major bleeding event over a 12-month follow-up period. The performance of each score to predict the risk of major bleeding and the physician's subjective assessment of bleeding risk were compared with the C statistic. The cumulative incidence of a first major bleeding event during follow-up was 6.8% (35/515). According to the 7 scoring systems, the proportions of major bleeding ranged from 3.0% to 5.7% for low-risk, 6.7% to 9.9% for intermediate-risk, and 7.4% to 15.4% for high-risk patients. The overall predictive accuracy of the scores was poor, with the C statistic ranging from 0.54 to 0.61 and not significantly different from each other (P=.84). Only the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation score performed slightly better than would be expected by chance (C statistic, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.70). The performance of the scores was not statistically better than physicians' subjective risk assessments (C statistic, 0.55; P=.94). The performance of 7 clinical scoring systems in predicting major bleeding events in patients receiving oral anticoagulation therapy was poor and not better than physicians' subjective assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential for Bias and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Alec; Nandyala, Sreeharsha V; Miller, Christopher P; Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Walley, Kempland C; Kwon, John Y

    2017-11-01

    The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scoring System (AOFAS-AH) has not been validated and has significant risk for researcher bias, given that 40 out of 100 points are assessed by study staff subjectively. The purpose of this study is to evaluate its recent use in the orthopaedic literature to determine the percentage of previously published studies for which study conclusions would be changed if the AOFAS-AH scores were artificially altered, representing the effect of a systematic researcher bias. Articles from January 2012 and February 2015 in three orthopaedic journals were queried for use of the AOFAS-AH. Quantities of 4, 8, or 12 points were added to or subtracted from mean AOFAS-AH scores for each study while otherwise maintaining the reported standard deviation to simulate a researcher bias when scoring the subjective sections. Statistical analysis was performed with the adjusted AOFAS-AH mean scores in order to elucidate a potential "reversal" in statistical significance and conclusion. A 1582 original research articles were published during this time period. 128 articles utilized the AOFAS-AH score. 30 articles (23.4%) reported the required statistical data to permit manipulation of AOFAS-AH scores. Nine of the 30 articles (30%) had a reversal following a manipulation of 12 or fewer points. Seven (5.5%) reported the blinding status of the researchers. The potential for bias is high with the AOFAS-AH and its continued is questionable. Researchers utilizing the AOFAS-AH should at a minimum appropriately blind study staff and consider pre-study clarification of subjective terminology. Level IV.

  18. Factors associated with dietary diversity score among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiew, Kee Fong; Chan, Yoke Mun; Lye, Munn Sann; Loke, Seng Cheong

    2014-12-01

    Studies on diet quality among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are scarce. This crosssectional study aimed to assess the diet quality and to determine its associated factors among individuals with T2DM at the Medical Outpatients Department, Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia, from July 2010 to March 2011. Subjects were interviewed for sociodemographic data. Diabetes history was retrieved from the hospital's e-database. Usual dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire, from which a dietary diversity score was obtained with two measures: Food Group Score and Serving Score were constructed based on the Malaysian Dietary Guidelines. Food Group Score was computed from the number of food groups consumed from five major food groups (grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products) whereas Serving Score was computed from the number of servings consumed from the various food groups. Anthropometric measures, including weight, height, waist- and hip-circumference were examined. For data analyses, descriptive statistics, simple and multiple linear regression were conducted using IBM SPSS Statis- tics 20.0. A total of 113 subjects (50.4% female), with mean?SD age of 54.05 +/- 10.30 years and duration of diabetes of 11.25?9.05 years were studied. The mean Food Group Score and Serving Score were 4.12 +/- 0.79 and 12.75+3.50 respectively. Slightly more than one-third of the subjects achieved five food groups a day while less than 2% consumed a desirable number of servings from all food groups. Among the five food groups, dairy, and fruits were the least-frequently consumed foods. Lower education, lower personal income, working, non-insulin, overweight and obese subjects had significantly lower Food Group Score than their counterparts [F (6,106)=4.924, peducation, lower waist-to-hip ratio, overweight and obese subjects had significantly lower Serving Score than their counterparts [F (4,108)=7.520, peducational level through a simple and

  19. The AASM scoring manual: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M

    2009-11-01

    Summarize recently published studies and critiques evaluating the effects of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Sleep Scoring Manual. Only a few retrospective studies have been published evaluating the new AASM Scoring Manual. These have shown that when scoring polysomnograms (PSGs) using the AASM rules compared to previous standards and guidelines: increased amount and percentage of sleep time in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM) 1 (N1) and N3 sleep, and decreased NREM 2 (N2) sleep; improved interscorer reliability when scoring sleep stages in adults; large differences in apnea-hypopnea indexes (AHIs) using different hypopnea scoring definitions; and PSGs scored using the 'recommended' hypopnea definition in the new manual identified no significant sleep disordered breathing in 40% of lean individuals with symptomatic OSA (AHI ≥5/h by 1999 'Chicago' criteria) and a favorable response to treatment. Two years have passed since the AASM Scoring Manual was published, garnering less criticism than was feared by those who developed it. The improvement in interscorer reliability using the Manual is heartening since this goal shaped many of the choices made. The alternative hypopnea rule should be endorsed as a recommended option. The AASM Scoring Manual provides a foundation upon which we all can build rules and methods that quantify the complexity of sleep and its disorders. Multicenter validation and refinement of the Manual is encouraged.

  20. The Impact of Correction for Guessing Formula on MC and Yes/No Vocabulary Tests' Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah baradaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A standard correction for random guessing (cfg formula on multiple-choice and Yes/Noexaminations was examined retrospectively in the scores of the intermediate female EFL learners in an English language school. The correctionwas a weighting formula for points awarded for correct answers,incorrect answers, and unanswered questions so that the expectedvalue of the increase in test score due to guessing was zero. The researcher compared uncorrected and corrected scores on examinationsusing multiple-choice and Yes/No formats. These short-answer formats eliminatedor at least greatly reduced the potential for guessing the correctanswer. The expectation for students to improve their grade by guessingon multiple-choice and Yes/No format examinations is well known. The researcher examined a method for correcting for random guessing (cfg " no knowledge" on multiple- choice and Yes/No vocabulary examinations by comparing application and non-application of correction for guessing (cfg formula on scores on these examinations. It was done to determine whether the test takers really knew the correct answer, or they had resorted to a kind of guessing. This study represented a unique opportunity to compare scores from multiple-choice and Yes/No examinations in a settingin which students were given the same number of questions ineach of the two format types testing their knowledge over thesame subject matter. The results of this study indicated that the significant differences were highlighted between the subjects' scores when cfg formula was applied and when it was not.

  1. The Effect of English Language on Multiple Choice Question Scores of Thai Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Muangkaew, Wayuda; Assanasen, Jintana; Kunavisarut, Tada; Thongngarm, Torpong; Ruchutrakool, Theera; Kobwanthanakun, Surapon; Dejsomritrutai, Wanchai

    2016-04-01

    Universities in Thailand are preparing for Thailand's integration into the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by increasing the number of tests in English language. English language is not the native language of Thailand Differences in English language proficiency may affect scores among test-takers, even when subject knowledge among test-takers is comparable and may falsely represent the knowledge level of the test-taker. To study the impact of English language multiple choice test questions on test scores of medical students. The final examination of fourth-year medical students completing internal medicine rotation contains 120 multiple choice questions (MCQ). The languages used on the test are Thai and English at a ratio of 3:1. Individual scores of tests taken in both languages were collected and the effect of English language on MCQ was analyzed Individual MCQ scores were then compared with individual student English language proficiency and student grade point average (GPA). Two hundred ninety five fourth-year medical students were enrolled. The mean percentage of MCQ scores in Thai and English were significantly different (65.0 ± 8.4 and 56.5 ± 12.4, respectively, p language. Students were classified into six grade categories (A, B+, B, C+, C, and D+), which cumulatively measured total internal medicine rotation performance score plus final examination score. MCQ scores from Thai language examination were more closely correlated with total course grades than were the scores from English language examination (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.73 (p languages was higher in borderline students than in the excellent student group (11.2 ± 11.2 and 7.1 ± 8.2, respectively, p language MCQ examination scores were more highly associated with GPA than with English language proficiency. The use of English language multiple choice question test may decrease scores of the fourth-year internal medicine post-rotation final examination, especially those of borderline

  2. A novel respiratory symptom scoring system for CF pulmonary exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, N A; Sequeiros, I M

    2012-02-01

    There is currently no simple scoring system to evaluate change in symptoms during a pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We evaluated 265 episodes in 58 adult CF patients. A simple symptom score was administered at the start and the end of each PEx. The score evaluated four symptoms: cough, sputum, breathlessness and fatigue. Each symptom was scored from one (mild symptoms) to four (severe symptoms). The total symptom score was the summation of all the four symptoms. The total symptom score was compared with CF Respiratory Questionnaire (CFRQ) and with spirometry. There was significant internal correlation between scores for each pair of symptoms. The total symptom score correlated with the functional activity score and the respiratory score domains and with the summary score for CFRQ. The total symptom score correlated with spirometry values. Symptom score improved after 2-week treatment with intravenous (IV) antibiotics in 88.3%, remained unchanged in 7.3% and worsened in 4.4% of all episodes. Changes in symptom score after IV treatment correlated with changes of all main spirometry measurements. This new symptom score is simple and sensitive to change over a short period. It correlates with established quality-of-life questionnaires and with spirometry. The changes of symptom score over a short period correlate with changes in spirometry. This score can be used as an added tool to assess the outcome of CF PExs.

  3. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Using the results, as well as limited input from the AOSpine Trauma Knowledge Forum, the Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score was developed. Results Beginning with 1 point for A1, groups A, B, and C were consecutively awarded an additional point (A1, 1 point; A2, 2 points; A3, 3 points); however, because of a significant increase in the severity between A3 and A4 and because the severity of A4 and B1 was similar, both A4 and B1 were awarded 5 points. An uneven stepwise increase in severity moving from N0 to N4, with a substantial increase in severity between N2 (nerve root injury with radicular symptoms) and N3 (incomplete spinal cord injury) injuries, was identified. Hence, each grade of neurologic injury was progressively given an additional point starting with 0 points for N0, and the substantial difference in severity between N2 and N3 injuries was recognized by elevating N3 to 4 points. Finally, 1 point was awarded to the M1 modifier (indeterminate posterolateral ligamentous complex injury). Conclusion The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score is an easy-to-use, data-driven metric that will allow for the development of a surgical algorithm to accompany the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:27190734

  4. Relationship of Apgar Scores and Bayley Mental and Motor Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serunian, Sally A.; Broman, Sarah H.

    1975-01-01

    Examined the relationship of newborns' 1-minute Apgar scores to their 8-month Bayley mental and motor scores and to 8-month classifications of their development as normal, suspect, or abnormal. Also investigated relationships between Apgar scores and race, longevity, and birth weight. (JMB)

  5. Credit Scoring Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siana Halim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally easier to predict defaults accurately if a large data set (including defaults is available for estimating the prediction model. This puts not only small banks, which tend to have smaller data sets, at disadvantage. It can also pose a problem for large banks that began to collect their own historical data only recently, or banks that recently introduced a new rating system. We used a Bayesian methodology that enables banks with small data sets to improve their default probability. Another advantage of the Bayesian method is that it provides a natural way for dealing with structural differences between a bank’s internal data and additional, external data. In practice, the true scoring function may differ across the data sets, the small internal data set may contain information that is missing in the larger external data set, or the variables in the two data sets are not exactly the same but related. Bayesian method can handle such kind of problem.

  6. Pre-operative risk scores for the prediction of outcome in elderly people who require emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bates Tom

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision on whether to operate on a sick elderly person with an intra-abdominal emergency is one of the most difficult in general surgery. A predictive risk-score would be of great value in this situation. Methods A Medline search was performed to identify those predictive risk-scores relevant to sick elderly patients in whom emergency surgery might be life-saving. Results Many of the risk scores for surgical patients include the operative findings or require tests which are not available in the acute situation. Most of the relevant studies include younger patients and elective surgery. The Glasgow Aneurysm Score and Hardman Index are specific to ruptured aortic aneurysm while the Boey Score and the Hacetteppe Score are specific to perforated peptic ulcer. The Reiss Index and Fitness Score can be used pre-operatively if the elements of the score can be completed in time. The ASA score, which includes a significant element of subjective clinical judgement, can be augmented with factors such as age and urgency of surgery but no test has a negative predictive value sufficient to recommend against surgical intervention without clinical input. Conclusion Risk scores may be helpful in sick elderly patients needing emergency abdominal surgery but an experienced clinical opinion is still essential.

  7. Biering-Sorensen test scores in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Ortancil, O.; Ankarali, H.; Basaran, A.; Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Biering-Sorensen test is an isometric back endurance test. Biering-Sorensen test scores have varied in different cultural and occupational groups. The aims of this study were to collect normative data on Biering-Sorensen holding times, to determine the discriminative ability of the Biering-Sorensen test in Turkish coal miners, and to examine the association between Biering-Sorensen test result and functional disability. One hundred and fifty male coal miners participated in this study. Trunk extensor muscle strength was measured using the Biering-Sorensen test. Oswestry disability index was used to measure the functional disability level of low back pain. The mean Biering-Sorensen holding time for the total subject group was 107.3 {+-} 22.5 s. The mean time of Biering-Sorensen test of the subjects with and without low back pain were 99.9 {+-} 19.8 and 128.6 {+-} 15.2 s, respectively. The difference between the subjects with and without low back pain was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between Oswestry functional disability score and Biering-Sorensen holding time (R = -0.824, p < 0.001). Turkish coal miners have low mean back extensor endurance holding times. Biering-Sorensen test had a good discriminative ability in our study group. Trunk muscle strength has a significant effect on the disability level of low back pain. Thus trunk muscle endurance training exercise therapy may be effective for the reduction of disability in patients with low back pain.

  8. Total Diet Score as a valid method of measuring diet quality among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joanna C; Flood, Victoria M; Sadeghpour, Ali; Gopinath, Bamini; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the accuracy of a diet quality measurement tool, the Total Diet Score (TDS) using two validation methods; firstly the TDS calculated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was compared to the TDS calculated from weighed food records (WFRs); secondly the TDS was compared to a number of dietary biomarkers. Data were collected from a population based cohort study located in the Blue Mountains region of Sydney, Australia. To compare dietary assessment tools, a sub sample of 75 subjects (aged 63 to 83 years) completed the FFQ and three, four-day WFRs at baseline. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2897 subjects at the first follow up in 1997-1999. TDS scores were calculated from both WFRs and FFQs. Methods to compare FFQ TDS scores to WFR TDS scores included paired t-tests, Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman plots, joint classification quartiles and weighted kappa scores. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between TDS and biomarkers. No significant mean difference was found between FFQ TDS and WFRs TDS (p=0.63) with a significant positive correlation seen between the two methods (r=0.75, pdiet quality in an older population.

  9. Screening applicants for risk of poor academic performance: a novel scoring system using preadmission grade point averages and graduate record examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening tool for identifying physician assistant (PA) program applicants at highest risk for poor academic performance. Prior to reviewing applications for the class of 2009, a retrospective analysis of preadmission data took place for the classes of 2006, 2007, and 2008. A single composite score was calculated for each student who matriculated (number of subjects, N=228) incorporating the total undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), the science GPA (SGPA), and the three component Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores: verbal (GRE-V), quantitative (GRE-Q), analytical (GRE-A). Individual applicant scores for each of the five parameters were ranked in descending quintiles. Each applicant's five quintile scores were then added, yielding a total quintile score ranging from 25, which indicated an excellent performance, to 5, which indicated poorer performance. Thirteen of the 228 students had academic difficulty (dismissal, suspension, or one-quarter on academic warning or probation). Twelve of the 13 students having academic difficulty had a preadmission total quintile score 12 (range, 6-14). In response to this descriptive analysis, when selecting applicants for the class of 2009, the admissions committee used the total quintile score for screening applicants for interviews. Analysis of correlations in preadmission, graduate, and postgraduate performance data for the classes of 2009-2013 will continue and may help identify those applicants at risk for academic difficulty. Establishing a threshold total quintile score of applicant GPA and GRE scores may significantly decrease the number of entering PA students at risk for poor academic performance.

  10. Orthopaedic triage during natural disasters and mass casualties: do scoring systems matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Nikolaj

    2013-08-01

    Mass casualty events, either natural disasters or man-made, are associated with extremities injuries. The treating surgeon often faces a challenging decision: can the affected extremity be saved or amputated? The following article will present the author's view on the subject of triage and the use of scoring systems in the decision-making process whether to salvage or amputate an affected extremity. The author will analyse the existing scoring systems and emphasise significance of the regional factors: geographical, cultural and level of health care, as factors playing roles in this process.

  11. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  12. What Is the Apgar Score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids What Is the Apgar Score? KidsHealth > For Parents > What Is the Apgar ... Qué es la puntuación de Apgar? About the Apgar Score The Apgar score, the very first test ...

  13. Studying the Speech Recognition Scores of Hearing Impaied Children by Using Nonesense Syllables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current article is aimed at evaluating speech recognition scores in hearing aid wearers to determine whether nonsense syllables are suitable speech materials to evaluate the effectiveness of their hearing aids. Method: Subjects were 60 children (15 males and 15 females with bilateral moderate and moderately severe sensorineural hearing impairment who were aged between 7.7-14 years old. Gain prescription was fitted by NAL method. Then speech evaluation was performed in a quiet place with and without hearing aid by using a list of 25 monosyllable words recorded on a tape. A list was prepared for the subjects to check in the correct response. The same method was used to obtain results for normal subjects. Results: The results revealed that the subjects using hearing aids achieved significantly higher SRS in comparison of not wearing it. Although the speech recognition ability was not compensated completely (the maximum score obtained was 60% it was also revealed that the syllable recognition ability in the less amplified frequencies were decreased. the SRS was very higher in normal subjects (with an average of 88%. Conclusion: It seems that Speech recognition score can prepare Audiologist with a more comprehensive method to evaluate the hearing aid benefits.

  14. Stool consistency is significantly associated with pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Shiro

    Full Text Available Commensal as well as pathogenic bacteria can influence a variety of gut functions, thereby leading to constipation and diarrhea in severe cases. In fact, several researchers have reported evidence supporting the association between stool consistency or constipation and the Gut microbiome (GM composition and dysbiosis. GM influences the human health and disease via the gut-brain axis. We thus hypothesized that the pathogenic bacteria increases pain perception to some extent, which means that there could be an association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects.Observational study.The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between stool consistency or constipation and pain perception of healthy subjects.Thirty-eight healthy subjects participated in this study. The participants were assessed on their usual stool form (the Bristol Stool Form Scale: BSFS, constipation (the Cleveland Clinic Constipation score: CCS, degree of obesity, pain perception by mechanical stimulus, cold pain threshold, and a questionnaire on psychological state.The BSFS was significantly and positively associated with pain perception, and showed a significant association with anxiety states. Furthermore, pain perception was significantly associated with anxiety states. However, there were no significant associations between the CCS and any independent variables. In addition, we found that a significant predictor to the pain perception was BSFS. Moreover, there were significant relationships among the psychological states, BSFS and obesity.These results suggest that the stool form is associated with pain perception and anxiety status.

  15. Rockall score of the acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rockall score of the acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients the experience in Sudan. ... subjective evaluation of outcome of patient treatment. Objectives: To predict the morbidity and mortality in patients presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Ibn-Sina Hospital using the Rockall score. Patients and ...

  16. Objective and subjective sleep during pregnancy: links with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, Ella; Tikotzky, Liat; Manber, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to study the associations between objective and subjective sleep in pregnant women, to examine which specific aspects of women's sleep are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms and to test the moderating role of depressive and anxiety symptoms in the relations between objective and subjective sleep. The sample included 148 pregnant women. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy for five nights at the participants' home, and subjective sleep was measured with the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and anxiety symptoms with the Beck anxiety inventory. Significant associations were found between the subjective sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores, but there were no significant associations between actigraphic sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores. Depressive and anxiety scores emerged as significant moderators of the links between objective and subjective sleep. The findings suggest that emotional distress (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms severity) during pregnancy is associated with subjective sleep disturbances but not with objective sleep disturbances. Importantly, only among women with higher levels of emotional distress was subjective sleep quality associated with objective sleep quality. These findings may suggest that women with higher levels of emotional distress are not necessarily biased in their perception of sleep quality. However, they may perceive fragmented sleep as more detrimental to their wellbeing.

  17. The apgar score and infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Wu, Ting; Lei, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hao; Mao, Meng; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if the Apgar score remains pertinent in contemporary practice after more than 50 years of wide use, and to assess the value of the Apgar score in predicting infant survival, expanding from the neonatal to the post-neonatal period. The U.S. linked live birth and infant death dataset was used, which included 25,168,052 singleton births and 768,305 twin births. The outcome of interest was infant death within 1 year after birth. Cox proportional hazard-model was used to estimate risk ratio of infant mortality with different Apgar scores. Among births with a very low Apgar score at five minutes (1-3), the neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates remained high until term (≥ 37 weeks). On the other hand, among births with a high Apgar score (≥7), neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rate decreased progressively with gestational age. Non-Hispanic White had a consistently higher neonatal mortality than non-Hispanic Black in both preterm and term births. However, for post-neonatal mortality, Black had significantly higher rate than White. The pattern of changes in neonatal and post-neonatal mortality by Apgar score in twin births is essentially the same as that in singleton births. The Apgar score system has continuing value for predicting neonatal and post-neonatal adverse outcomes in term as well as preterm infants, and is applicable to twins and in various race/ethnic groups.

  18. The apgar score and infant mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the Apgar score remains pertinent in contemporary practice after more than 50 years of wide use, and to assess the value of the Apgar score in predicting infant survival, expanding from the neonatal to the post-neonatal period. METHODS: The U.S. linked live birth and infant death dataset was used, which included 25,168,052 singleton births and 768,305 twin births. The outcome of interest was infant death within 1 year after birth. Cox proportional hazard-model was used to estimate risk ratio of infant mortality with different Apgar scores. RESULTS: Among births with a very low Apgar score at five minutes (1-3, the neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates remained high until term (≥ 37 weeks. On the other hand, among births with a high Apgar score (≥7, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rate decreased progressively with gestational age. Non-Hispanic White had a consistently higher neonatal mortality than non-Hispanic Black in both preterm and term births. However, for post-neonatal mortality, Black had significantly higher rate than White. The pattern of changes in neonatal and post-neonatal mortality by Apgar score in twin births is essentially the same as that in singleton births. CONCLUSIONS: The Apgar score system has continuing value for predicting neonatal and post-neonatal adverse outcomes in term as well as preterm infants, and is applicable to twins and in various race/ethnic groups.

  19. Benefit From Directional Microphone Hearing Aids: Objective and Subjective Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Sung; Moon, Il Joon; Jin, Sun Hwa; Choi, Ji Eun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to find and compare the effect of directional (DIR) processing of two different hearing aids via both subjective and objective methods, to determine the association between the results of the subjective and objective evaluations, and to find out individual predictive factors influencing the DIR benefit. Twenty-six hearing aid users fitted unilaterally with each two different experimental hearing aid performed modified Korean Hearing in Noise Test (K-HINT) in three DIR conditions; omnidirectional (OMNI) mode, OMNI plus noise reduction feature, fixed DIR mode. In order to determine benefits from DIR benefit within a hearing aid and compare performance of the DIR processing between hearing aids, a subjective questionnaire was administrated on speech quality (SQ) and discomfort in noise (DN) domain. Correlation analysis of factors influencing DIR benefit was accomplished. Benefits from switching OMNI mode to DIR mode within both hearing aids in K-HINT were about 2.8 (standard deviation, 3.5) and 2.1 dB SNR (signal to ratio; SD, 2.5), but significant difference in K-HINT results between OMNI and OMNI plus noise reduction algorithm was not shown. The subjective evaluation resulted in the better SQ and DN scores in DIR mode than those in OMNI mode. However, the difference of scores on both SQ and DN between the two hearing aids with DIR mode was not statistically significant. Any individual factors did not significantly affect subjective and objective DIR benefits. DIR benefit was found not only in the objective measurement performed in the laboratory but also in the subjective questionnaires, but the subjective results was failed to have significant correlation with the DIR benefit obtained in the K-HINT. Factors influencing individual variation in perceptual DIR benefit were still hard to explain.

  20. NASALANCE SCORES IN LEBANESE ENGLISH-SPEAKING ADULTS USING NASOMETRIC ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Ziade, Georges; Jabbour, Jad; Khneizer, Gebran; Kutkut, Issa

    2015-01-01

    To obtain normative data for nasalance scores in Middle Eastern English-speaking adult population. Cross-sectional study. A total of 102 subjects were recruited in the study, 26 were excluded, thus, 77 Middle Eastern English-speaking adults (mean age = 23.77 ± 4.295; 39 males, 38 females) with normal speech and no hearing problems participated in the study. Using Nasometer II 6450, nasalance scores were obtained for each participant's readings of 3 passages: Zoo and Rainbow passages and nasal sentences. Mean nasalance score, standard deviation and range. Mean nasalance scores for Zoo passage, Rainbow passage and nasal sentences were 25.21 ± 11.07, 34.04 ± 9.30 and 41.29 ± 9.87 respectively. Mean scores didn't differ significantly between males and females, though scores for the Zoo passage were slightly higher among males (26.51 ± 11.66) than females (23.87 ± 10.42). In within-session reliability testing, 86% of retests for all three passages fell within 5 nasalance points of the previous test. In across-session reliability testing, 93% of retests for all 3 passages were within 5 points of initial test. This study provides normative data for nasalance scores among Middle-Eastern adults, which can help make nasometer and determination of nasalance more clinically useful in this population.

  1. Validity evidence for the Simulated Colonoscopy Objective Performance Evaluation scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, Kristen D; Cox, Tiffany C; Pearl, Jonathan P; Ritter, E Matthew

    2014-02-01

    Low-cost, objective systems to assess and train endoscopy skills are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Simulated Colonoscopy Objective Performance Evaluation to assess the skills required to perform endoscopy. Thirty-eight subjects were included in this study, all of whom performed 4 tasks. The scoring system measured performance by calculating precision and efficiency. Data analysis assessed the relationship between colonoscopy experience and performance on each task and the overall score. Endoscopic trainees' Simulated Colonoscopy Objective Performance Evaluation scores correlated significantly with total colonoscopy experience (r = .61, P = .003) and experience in the past 12 months (r = .63, P = .002). Significant differences were seen among practicing endoscopists, nonendoscopic surgeons, and trainees (P performance between the endoscopist groups, except for mucosal inspection (scope manipulation, P Performance Evaluation objectively assesses the technical skills required to perform endoscopy and shows promise as a platform for proficiency-based skills training. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors.The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%. The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69 and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals.The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations.

  3. [Overview of regulatory aspects guiding tablet scoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maíra Teles; Sá-Barreto, Lívia Cristina Lira; Silva, Dayde Lane Mendonça; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio Sergio Soares

    2016-06-01

    Tablet scoring is a controversial but common practice used to adjust doses, facilitate drug intake, or lower the cost of drug treatment, especially in children and the elderly. The risks of tablet scoring are mainly related to inaccuracies in the resulting dose and stability problems. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of worldwide guidelines regarding tablet scoring. We found that regulatory health agencies in Mercosur countries as well as other South American countries do not have published standards addressing tablet splitting. Among the surveyed health agencies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States is the only one to present standards, ranging from splitting instructions to regulation of the manufacturing process. The concept of functional scoring implemented by the FDA has introduced some level of guarantee as to the ability of tablets to be split. In conclusion, technical and scientific bases are still insufficient to guide health rules on this subject, making the decision on scoring, in certain situations, random and highly risky to public health. The need for more detailed regulation is vital to ensure the safety of tablet medications.

  4. Multimodos e múltiplas Representações, aprendizagem significativa e subjetividade: três referenciais conciliáveis da educação científica Multimodal and multiple representation, significant learning and subjectivity: three reconcilable scientific education frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A linha de pesquisa em multimodos e múltiplas representações vem atualmente sendo inspiradora de ações instrucionais na educação científica. Partindo dos fundamentos que justificam um encaminhamento didático à luz dessas referências, este trabalho procura mostrar que há compatibilidade dos seus fundamentos com a teoria da aprendizagem significativa de Ausubel e com as questões levantadas pelas pesquisas que indicam a necessidade de se considerar a subjetividade dos alunos presentes numa sala de aula. Essencialmente, procuramos argumentar que a promoção de um ensino por meio de multimodos e múltiplas representações é consistente com o ambiente plural das subjetividades existentes numa sala de aula e com uma aprendizagem significativa.The research line in multi-modal and multiple representations is being currently inspiring instruction of actions in the scientific education. Starting by the foundations that justify a didactic direction in the light of theses references, this work tries to show that there is compatibility of their foundations with the theory of the significant learning of Ausubel, and with the lifted up subjects for the researches that indicate the need to consider the students' subjective diversity present in a classroom. Essentially, we tried to argue that the promotion of a teaching through multiple and multi-modal representation is consistent with the plural atmosphere of the existent subjectivities in a classroom and with a significant learning.

  5. Comparing subjective and objective measures of headgear compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Annemieke; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Hoogstraten, Johan; Prahl-Andersen, Birte; Kuitert, Rein

    2007-12-01

    Many studies have used subjective measures to examine patient compliance during orthodontic treatment. Objective measurement of compliance has been confined to only a few studies that used electronic timing devices built into removable appliances. Our aim in this study was to compare subjective and objective methods of measuring compliance with headgear wear. It was hypothesized that orthodontists, patients, and patients' parents overestimate compliance and report more wearing hours than the headgear timers indicate. Also, relationships between sex, age, treatment time, and headgear compliance were explored. A headgear timer device and 3 questionnaires were developed to assess compliance. The subjects were unaware that their headgear use was being measured. Significant differences between the estimates of orthodontists, patients, parents, and headgear timer scores were found. Also, there were differences regarding age and treatment time. Subjective measures might result in overestimation of compliance. This suggests that the use of an objective instrument to measure headgear compliance should be continued in future studies.

  6. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  7. [Quantification of microangiopathic lesions in brain parenchyma and age-adjusted mean scores for the diagnostic separation of normal from pathological values in senile dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, F; Kreis, M; Damian, M; Krumm, B; Frölich, F

    2005-06-01

    To quantify microangiopathic lesions in the cerebral white matter and to develop age-corrected cut-off values for separating normal from dementia-related pathological lesions. In a memory clinic, 338 patients were investigated neuropsychiatrically by a psychological test battery and by MRI. Using a FLAIR sequence and a newly developed rating scale, white matter lesions (WMLs) were quantified with respect to localization, number and intensity, and these ratings were condensed into a score. The WML scores were correlated with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) score in dementia patients. A non-linear smoothing procedure was used to calculate age-related mean values and confidence intervals, separate for cognitively intact subjects and dementia patients. The WML scores correlated highly significantly with age in cognitively intact subjects and with psychometric scores in dementia patients. Age-adjusted WML scores of cognitively intact subjects were significantly different from those of dementia patients with respect to the whole brain as well as to the frontal lobe. Mean value and confidence intervals adjusted for age significantly separated dementia patients from cognitively intact subjects over an age range of 54 through 84 years. A rating scale for the quantification of WML was validated and age-adjusted mean values with their confidence intervals for a diagnostically relevant age range were developed. This allows an easy to handle, fast and reliable diagnosis of the vascular component in senile dementia.

  8. Framingham risk score and severity of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, M R; Cetiner, M A; Karabag, T; Akpinar, I; Sayin, E; Kurcer, M A; Dogan, S M; Aydin, M

    2014-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Easy-to-perform and reliable parameters are needed to predict the presence and severity of CAD and to implement efficient diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. We aimed to examine whether the Framingham risk scoring system can be used for this purpose. A total of 222 patients (96 women, 126 men; mean age, 59.1 ± 11.9 years) who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in the study. Presence of > %50 stenosis in a coronary artery was assessed as critical CAD. The Framingham risk score (FRS) was calculated for each patient. CAD severity was assessed by the Gensini score. The relationship between the FRS and the Gensini score was analyzed by correlation and regression analyses. The mean Gensini score was 18.9 ± 25.8, the median Gensini score was 7.5 (0-172), the mean FRS was 7.7 ± 4.2, and the median FRS was 7 (0-21). Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between FRS and Gensini score (r = 0.432, p < 0.0001). This relationship was confirmed by linear regression analysis (β = 0.341, p < 0.0001). A cut-off level of 7.5 for FRS predicted severe CAD with a sensitivity of 68 % and a specificity of 73.6 % (ROC area under curve: 0.776, 95 % CI: 0.706-0.845, PPV: 78.1 %, NPV: 62.3 %, p < 0.0001). Our work suggests that the FRS system is a simple and feasible method that can be used for prediction of CAD severity. As the sample size was small in our study, further large-scale studies are needed on this subject to draw solid conclusions.

  9. Functional movement scores and longitudinal performance outcomes in elite track and field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Laymon, Abigail S; Arnold, Todd

    2014-03-01

    Subjects with scores on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) assessment of ≤14 or with at least 1 bilateral asymmetry have been shown to have greater future injury incidence than subjects with FMS scores >14 or no movement asymmetries. To determine if FMS injury risk factors extend to longitudinal competitive performance outcomes in elite track and field athletes. Elite track and field athletes were examined (N = 121), each completing an FMS before the 2011 competitive season. Best competition marks for the year were obtained from athletes' actual performances for 2010 and 2011. Performance change between 2010 and 2011 was examined in cohorts of FMS scores ≤14 (LoFMS) vs >14 (HiFMS), athletes with bilateral asymmetry in at least 1 of the 5 FMS movements vs athletes with no asymmetry, and athletes who scored 1 on the deep-squat movement vs athletes who scored 2 or 3. HiFMS had a significantly different change in performance from 2010 to 2011 (0.41% ± 2.50%, n = 80) compared with LoFMS (-0.51% ± 2.30%, P = .03, n = 41). Athletes with no asymmetries had a longitudinal improvement in performance (+0.60% ± 2.86%, n = 50) compared with athletes with at least 1 asymmetry (-0.26% ± 2.10%, P = .03, n = 71). Athletes who scored 1 on the deep-squat movement had a significantly different change in performance (-1.07 ± 2.08%, n = 22) vs athletes who scored 2 (0.13% ± 2.28%, P = .03, n = 87) or 3 (1.98% ± 3.31%, P = .001, n = 12). Functional movement ability, known to be associated with the likelihood of future injury, is also related to the ability to improve longitudinal competitive performance outcomes.

  10. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  11. [Prognostic value of GRACE scores versus TIMI score in acute coronary syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luis C L; Freitas, Rafael; Bittencourt, Ana P; Souza, Alexandre C; Almeida, Maria C; Leal, Jamile; Esteves, José Péricles

    2010-05-01

    Although the TIMI score is the one most frequently used in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) without ST-segment elevation, the GRACE score has potential prognostic superiority, as it was created based on an observational registry, part of the variables is treated in a semi-quantitative form and renal function is taken into account in its calculation. To test the hypothesis that the GRACE risk score has superior in-hospital prognostic value, when compared to the TIMI score in patients admitted with ACS. Individuals with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation, consecutively admitted at the Coronary Unit between August 2007 and January 2009, were included in the study. A total of 154 patients aged 71 +/- 13 years, of which 56% were females, with a GRACE median of 117 and a TIMI median of 3 were studied. During the hospitalization period, the incidence of events was 8.4% (12 deaths and 1 non-fatal infarction). The Hosmer-Lemeshow test applied to the GRACE score presented an chi2 of 5.3 (P = 0.72), whereas the TIMI score presented an chi2 of 1.85 (P = 0.60). Therefore, both scores presented good calibration. As for the analysis of discrimination, the GRACE score presented a C-statistics of 0.91 (95%CI= 0.86 - 0.97), significantly superior to the C-statistics of 0.69 of the TIMI score (95%CI = 0.55 - 0.84) - P = 0.02 for the difference between the scores. Regarding the prediction of hospital events in patients with ACS, the GRACE score has superior prognostic capacity when compared to the TIMI score.

  12. Avaliação da taxa de sudorese de atletas de judô e sua associação com escores subjetivos de fome e apetite Evaluation of water Loss in judo training and its relationship with subjective hunger and appetite scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O judô, assim como outros esportes que envolvem categorias de pesos, é uma modalidade em que os atletas apresentam grande risco de hipo-hidratação devido aos processos de desidratação involuntária e/ou voluntária. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a taxa de sudorese (ml/min de judocas em um dia de treino e associar o grau de desidratação com alterações subjetivas de fome e apetite. A amostra foi composta por 14 atletas (nove homens e cinco mulheres, com idade média de 19,6 ± 5,9 anos. Para a realização do estudo, foram mensuradas a massa corporal e as taxas subjetivas de fome, apetite e esforço, expressas em uma escala de zero a 10, antes e logo após o treino. A massa corporal foi significantemente menor após o treino (68,8 ± 18,1kg versus 66,9 ± 17,3kg; p Judo, as well as other types of sports involving weight categories, is a modality in which athletes have high risk of hypohydration due to involuntary /voluntary dehydration. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluate the sweating rate (ml/min of judokas in a training day and verify the impact of the dehydration degree upon subjective hunger and appetite rates. The sample was composed of 14 athletes (nine men and five women with mean age of 19.6 ± 5.9 years. Body mass and subjective rates of hunger, appetite and effort were measured in a scale ranging from zero to 10, before and after training. Body mass was significantly lower after training (68.8 ± 18.1kg versus 66.9 ± 17.3kg; p < 0,01, with reduction of 2.6 ± 1.1%. Hunger and effort rates were significantly higher after exercise (2.1 ± 2.2 versus 4.8 ± 3.6, p = 0.02 and 0 versus 7.2 ± 1.3; p < 0,01, likewise craving for fruit rate (4.3 ± 3.8 versus 8.0 ± 2.8; p = 0.01. Positive correlations were obtained between: 1 effort scale and post-training craving for dairy products (r = 0.63; p < 0.05; 2 percentage of body mass reduction and hunger rate the in post-training period (r = 0.55, p < 0

  13. Subclinical cardiovascular disease assessment and its relationship with cardiovascular risk SCORE in a healthy adult population: A cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, Ovidiu; Roca, Mihai; Floria, Mariana; Petris, Antoniu Octavian; Graur, Mariana; Mitu, Florin

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship and the accuracy of SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project) risk correlated to multiple methods for determining subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a healthy population. This cross-sectional study included 120 completely asymptomatic subjects, with an age range 35-75 years, and randomly selected from the general population. The individuals were evaluated clinically and biochemical, and the SCORE risk was computed. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by various methods: carotid ultrasound for intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque detection; aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV); echocardiography - left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and aortic atheromatosis (AA); ankle-brachial index (ABI). SCORE mean value was 2.95±2.71, with 76% of subjects having SCORE <5. Sixty-four percent of all subjects have had increased subclinical CVD changes, and SCORE risk score was correlated positively with all markers, except for ABI. In the multivariate analysis, increased cIMT and aPWV were significantly associated with high value of SCORE risk (OR 4.14, 95% CI: 1.42-12.15, p=0.009; respectively OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01-1.96, p=0.039). A positive linear relationship was observed between 3 territories of subclinical CVD (cIMT, LVMI, aPWV) and SCORE risk (p<0.0001). There was evidence of subclinical CVD in 60% of subjects with a SCORE value <5. As most subjects with a SCORE value <5 have subclinical CVD abnormalities, a more tailored subclinical CVD primary prevention program should be encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Job Strain and Cardiovascular Health Score (from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health [ELSA-Brasil] Baseline).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Priscila T P; Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Moreno, Arlinda B; Alencar, Airlane P; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-07-15

    We aimed to study the association between the American Heart Association cardiovascular health (CVH) score and job strain in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health baseline. We analyzed data from 11,351 active workers (aged 35 to 74 years) without overt cardiovascular disease and who had complete data. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Job Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Clinical (fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure) and lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index) components of CVH score were assessed according to the American Heart Association criteria. We used quasi-Poisson and multinomial regression models, adjusted for age, gender, race, educational level and income, and positive relative predicted score differences (rPSDs) indicate greater predicted scores. Subjects with low skill discretion scores had lower global (rPSD: -1.8%; p = 0.021) and lifestyle (rPSD: -3.6%; p = 0.018) CVH scores. Participants with low decision authority (rPSD: -2.4%; p = 0.029) and low social support scores (rPSD: -3.3%; p = 0.001) also had lower lifestyle CVH scores. In conclusion, we found significant associations between job strain and CVH scores in this large multicenter sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Subjective and Objective Measures in the Treatment of Hemifacial Spasm With OnabotulinumtoxinA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundury, Rao V; D'Angelo, Alexander S; Couch, Steven M; Holds, John B

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (SFGS) and Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) Scale Instrument outcomes when treating hemifacial spasm (HFS) with onabotulinumtoxinA. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of records of 66 HFS patients treated with onabotulinumtoxinA. SFGS and FaCE surveys were completed prior to onabotulinumtoxinA therapy and at 1 month follow up. Surveys were analyzed for differences using paired Student t tests, with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Correlations were determined using Spearman correlation (rs), with coefficients of ≥0.40 or ≤-0.40 considered significant. There were 22 complete data sets. SFGS composite score improved from mean, 56.9 (SD, 12.3) to 63.6 (SD, 12.3), p < 0.01. SFGS subdomain synkinesis score significantly improved (p < 0.01). The FaCE scale subdomain oral function significantly worsened (p = 0.05). The Δ pre-/post-SFGS composite score did not correlate with the Δ pre-/post-FaCE composite score (rs = 0.24). There was a significant positive correlation between SFGS composite score and FaCE social function score (rs = 0.462, p = 0.03) and between SFGS voluntary movement score and FaCE social function score (rs = 0.477, p = 0.03). Subgroup analysis of single FaCE questions demonstrated no statistical change in subjective dry eye (p = 0.30). There was an improvement in social functioning in treated HFS patients, which positively correlated with improvement in overall objective voluntary facial movement. There was no statistical difference in subjective dry eye symptoms. The overall SFGS composite score improved following treatment of HFS with botulinum toxin. This information can be used when counseling expected outcomes in HFS patients treated with onabotulinumtoxinA.

  16. Scoring biosecurity in European conventional broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Limbergen, T; Dewulf, J; Klinkenberg, M; Ducatelle, R; Gelaude, P; Méndez, J; Heinola, K; Papasolomontos, S; Szeleszczuk, P; Maes, D

    2018-01-01

    Good biosecurity procedures are crucial for healthy animal production. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of biosecurity on conventional broiler farms in Europe, following a standardized procedure, thereby trying to identify factors that are amenable to improvement. The current study used a risk-based weighted scoring system (biocheck.ugent ®) to assess the level of biosecurity on 399 conventional broiler farms in 5 EU member states. The scoring system consisted of 2 main categories, namely external and internal biosecurity, which had 8 and 3 subcategories, respectively. Biosecurity was quantified by converting the answers to 97 questions into a score from 0 to 100. The minimum score, "0," represents total absence of any biosecurity measure on the broiler farm, whereas the maximum score, "100," means full application of all investigated biosecurity measures. A possible correlation between biosecurity and farm characteristics was investigated by multivariate linear regression analysis. The participating broiler farms scored better for internal biosecurity (mean score of 76.6) than for external biosecurity (mean 68.4). There was variation between the mean biosecurity scores for the different member states, ranging from 59.8 to 78.0 for external biosecurity and from 63.0 to 85.6 for internal biosecurity. Within the category of external biosecurity, the subcategory related to "infrastructure and vectors" had the highest mean score (82.4), while the subcategory with the lowest score related to biosecurity procedures for "visitors and staff" (mean 51.5). Within the category of internal biosecurity, the subcategory "disease management" had the highest mean score (65.8). In the multivariate regression model a significant negative correlation was found between internal biosecurity and the number of employees and farm size. These findings indicate that there is a lot of variation for external and internal biosecurity on the participating broiler farms

  17. A new scoring system for evaluating coronary artery disease by using blood pressure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Qiu, Jian; Ma, Liheng; Lei, Hongqiang; Cai, Zekun; Zhao, Hui; Deng, Yu; Ma, Jun; Xu, Lin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new scoring system using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to assist in the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). One hundred twenty-five subjects (53.1 ± 9.6 years of age) were included. Pearson's tests were first performed to identify the parameters that correlated with Duke Treadmill Score (DTS). Blood test parameters and blood pressure variability (BPV) measures that were extracted from the ABPM were included. Next, a multiple linear regression analysis was performed to train a new scoring system in the 84 patients from the 125 patients. Then, a correlation analysis was conducted to validate the correlation between the new scoring system and DTS in the remaining 41 subjects. A further correlation analysis was used to verify the clinical value of the new scoring system using ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Our new scoring system, which had a 24.096 - 0.083 × residual standard deviation of night systolic blood pressure (SBP) - 0.130 × age - 0.206 × average real variability of night SBP, was correlated with DTS (r = 0.312, P = 0.047). Moreover, our new scoring system was also correlated with various markers of cardiac function (r = -0.290, P = 0.001; r = -0.262, P = 0.004; r = -0.303, P = 0.001; r = -0.306, P = 0.001, respectively) measured by UCG and with baPWV (r = 0.529, P = 0.001). Furthermore, the r-values for the BPV Score versus the markers were closer to -1 than the corresponding r-values for the Duke Score vs the same parameters. And the differences in r-values between Duke Score and BPV Score were statistically significant (P = 0.022). In conclusion, the new scoring system based on ABPM has potential as a non-invasive tool for evaluating CAD.

  18. Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality following Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Propensity Score Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been widely studied and the effects of injury can be long term or even lifelong. This research aims to characterize the sleep problems of patients following acute mTBI. Methods. A total of 171 patients with mTBI within one month and 145 non-mTBI controls were recruited in this study. The questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, was used to evaluate seven aspects of sleep problems. A propensity score method was used to generate a quasirandomized design to account for the background information, including gender, age, Beck’s Anxiety Index, Beck’s Depression Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The effect was evaluated via cumulative logit regression including propensity scores as a covariate. Results. Before adjustment, about 60% mTBI patients and over three quarters of control subjects had mild sleep disturbance while one third mTBI patients had moderate sleep disturbance. After adjusting by the propensity scores, the scores of sleep quality and duration were significant between mTBI and control groups. Conclusion. Our study supports that sleep problem is common in mTBI group. After adjusting the confounders by propensity score, sleep duration and subjective sleep quality are the most frequently reported problems in mTBI patients within one month after the injury.

  19. The effects of music on physiological responses and sedation scores in sedated, mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Boukje M; Gamel, Claudia; van der Bijl, Jaap J; Bots, Michiel L; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2010-04-01

    A pilot study designed as future randomised controlled trial was carried out to determine the effects of music on physiological responses and sedation scores in sedated, mechanically ventilated patients. Mechanically ventilated ICU patients, even when receiving intravenous sedatives, may experience stress and anxiety. One possible intervention to reduce stress and anxiety is listening to music. A randomised controlled trial design with repeated measures was used. Data were collected over a six-month period in 2006. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Subjects in the experimental group listened to music three times for 30 minutes over two days; subjects in the control group undertook three 30 minute rest periods. Physiological effects of music on systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and heart and respiratory rate were assessed. Sedation scores were also measured. Physiological parameters did not show a significant difference between the groups. Patients in the experimental group showed significantly higher Ramsay (sedation) scores than patients in the control group after the first session. The higher scores indicate that patients were less responsive to external stimuli. Our results suggest that listening to music leads to higher sedation scores in sedated, mechanically ventilated ICU patients. No significant decreases in physiological parameters were observed. Listening to music showed no negative changes in the condition of these patients. Future research should focus on the use of other measures, such as stress hormones, to assess stress in sedated, mechanically ventilated ICU patients. For the sedated, mechanically ventilated ICU patient, the benefit of music may lie in the associated (deeper) level of sedation that is achieved, which in turn may make the patient less susceptible to stress and anxiety.

  20. Effects of the "affectionless control" parenting style on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-30

    The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.

  1. Subjective Versus Objective Estimated Cardiovascular Disease Risk and Adherence to Physical Activity in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nadia; Miller, Arlene; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2017-07-18

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for African American (AA) women in the United States. Despite high prevalence of CVD risk factors, AA women perceive their CVD risk as low. Our objectives were to (1) identify relationships between subjective (self-reported perceived) CVD risk and objective CVD risk estimated by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk estimator, (2) identify demographic and psychosocial factors associated with subjective perceived risk and discrepancy with objective estimated CVD risk, and (3) determine whether subjective perceived CVD risk was associated with physical activity (PA) adherence. This was a secondary data analysis of data collected from a 12-month lifestyle PA intervention conducted with 281 AA women. Subjective perceived CVD risk was measured by 1 question; objective estimated CVD risk was calculated using the ASCVD score. Women were categorized by congruence or discrepancy between subjective perceived and objective estimated CVD risk. Subjective perceived CVD risk and objective ASCVD risk scores were both low. Approximately 20% subjectively perceived their risk as lower than objective ASCVD scores. Atherosclerotic CVD risk discrepancy groups differed by depressed mood symptoms. Participants reported many perceived barriers to PA. Perceived CVD risk was not related to PA adherence. The significance of associated CVD risk factors may be underestimated by AA women, leading to discrepancy between subjective and objective risk estimates. Research is needed to clarify relationships among perceived risk, estimated risk using risk calculators such as ASCVD, and health behavior.

  2. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  3. Model for predicting the injury severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shuichi; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Murata, Masato; Kaneko, Minoru; Aoki, Makoto; Kanbe, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takuro; Ohyama, Yoshio; Tamura, Jun'ichi

    2015-07-01

    To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score from parameters that are obtained in the emergency department at arrival. We reviewed the medical records of trauma patients who were transferred to the emergency department of Gunma University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2010. The injury severity score, age, mean blood pressure, heart rate, Glasgow coma scale, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, platelet count, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrin degradation products, were examined in those patients on arrival. To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score, multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The injury severity score was set as the dependent variable, and the other parameters were set as candidate objective variables. IBM spss Statistics 20 was used for the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at P  Watson ratio was 2.200. A formula for predicting the injury severity score in trauma patients was developed with ordinary parameters such as fibrin degradation products and mean blood pressure. This formula is useful because we can predict the injury severity score easily in the emergency department.

  4. High mean platelet volume, low-grade systemic coagulation, and fibrinolytic activation are associated with pre-term delivery and low APGAR score in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebapcilar, Ayse G; Taner, Cuneyt E; Kebapcilar, Levent; Bozkaya, Giray

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed for evaluating coagulation parameters and low APGAR scores in pregnancies with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) vs. normal control pregnancies. We carried out a prospective case-control study by enrolling 40 women with ICP at the third trimester of pregnancy and 40 pregnant women without ICP. Total bile acid levels (TBA), MPV, D-dimer, and umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio (UASDR) values were higher in women with ICP. Pregnancies complicated by low APGAR score exhibited significantly higher D-dimer levels than those of unimpaired fetal outcome in patients with ICP and control subjects. Levels of D-dimer were inversely correlated with 5'-Apgar score and positively associated with UASDR values in patients with ICP. Pregnancies that exhibited abnormal UASDR had higher total bile acid (TBA), D-dimer, MPV values and lesser 5'-Apgar score. In linear stepwise regression analyses, D-dimer independently and positively associated with UASDR, inversely associated with 5'-Apgar score in subjects with ICP; positively associated with mean platelet volume (MPV) values and inversely associated with 5'-Apgar score in all subjects. Patients with ICP had low-grade systemic coagulation and fibrinolytic activation as evidenced by elevated D-dimer, and also D-dimer is associated with lower APGAR scores in both ICP and all pregnancies. Increased D-dimer levels suggest that hematological parameters could be potentially used as indicators of risk factor for assessing low APGAR score in ICP.

  5. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiovascular disease in familial hypercholesterolemia: Validation and refinement of the Montreal-FH-SCORE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Martine; Brisson, Diane; Dufour, Robert; Khoury, Étienne; Gaudet, Daniel; Baass, Alexis

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a disease characterized by increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) but there is marked individuality in the occurrence of CVD events. Recently, the Montreal-FH-SCORE (MFHS) has been shown to stratify CVD frequency in FH subjects, but this score has not yet been validated. The aims of the present study were to conduct an independent external validation of the MFHS in a retrospective cohort of heterozygous FH and to identify additional variables that could significantly improve the prediction of prevalent CVD. The MFHS calculation is based on 5 variables: age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, gender, hypertension, and smoking status. This score was validated in a cohort of 718 adult FH using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis to determine the discriminatory ability of the MFHS. The performance of the MFHS was compared to a novel Combined-FH-SCORE in 1388 FH. The MFHS had an excellent discrimination for prevalent CVD events in the validation cohort, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.799 (0.766-0.832, P < .0001). Patients with a high MFHS score presented a significant 8.8-fold increased odd of CVD events compared with patients with a low score (95% confidence interval 5.8-13.3, P < .0001). The addition of lipoprotein(a) to the score did not improve the prediction of CVD events (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.823 vs 0.817, P = .11). This study confirmed that the MFHS is a strong predictor of prevalent CVD in FH and that the addition of lipoprotein(a) offers a minor improvement in the discrimination of the score. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  8. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  9. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  11. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227,…

  12. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  13. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  14. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  15. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  16. Normalization of the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy score ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share ... encephalopathy score (PHES) and evaluate the prevalence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) among .... that can affect cognitive function; (3) diabetes mellitus;. (4) significant comorbid illness ...

  17. Antisocial and psychopathic personalities in a sample of addicted subjects: differences in psychological resources, symptoms, alexithymia and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Alessio; Craparo, Giuseppe; Sareri, Giuseppe Iraci; Caretti, Vincenzo; Giannini, Marco; Meringolo, Patrizia

    2014-10-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are two constructs not interchangeable. Compared to the ASPD, psychopathy is characterized by lack of anxiety, low withdrawal, and high levels of attention seeking. The sample of this study included 76 subjects with a substance use disorder. Subjects were aged between 18 and 59 years old (M=32.87, SD=9.36). With respect to level of education 3 subjects are elementary school graduates, 49 have a middle school diploma, 21 own a high school diploma, and 3 participants have a bachelor's degree. We administered the following measures: a) Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R); b) Psychological Treatment Inventory (PTI); c) 20-Item-Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20); d) Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Most of the significant correlations between the Psychopathic Index (PPI-R total score), and the measures administered are listed below: PPI-R total score and Deviance (r=.482, p<.001), PPI-R total score and Hypomania (r=.369, p < .001), PPI-R total score and Unresolved attachment (r=.293, p<.001), PPI-R total score and Manipulativeness (r=.550, p<.001), PPI-R total score and the TAS-20 total score (r=.230; p<.001), PPI-R total score and Difficulty in Identifying Feelings (DIF) factor (r=.250, p<.001), PPI-R total score and Attentional Impulsiveness (r=.409, p<.001); PPI-R total score and Motor Impulsiveness (r=.526, p<.001). Results of MANOVAs between the two groups also revealed significant differences on several variables analyzed. Our study showed that addicted subjects with psychopathic tendencies are more likely to experience negative emotions and have a peculiar cognitive style with respect to antisocial addicts. These results partially confirm those ones of previous studies underlining that psychopathic population is generally characterized for a major need for stimulation, poor behavioral controls, lack of realistic long-term goals, impulsivity, irresponsibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  18. Sex-specific effects of subjective memory complaints with respect to cognitive impairment or depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Sugawara, Norio; Kaneda, Ayako; Okubo, Noriyuki; Iwane, Kaori; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between subjective memory complaints (SMC) and sex. We researched the prevalence of SMC in a sample of 394 participants who were at least 60 years of age (138 male and 256 female). We also administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D) scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis, which included SMC in association with the MMSE or CES-D scores and other confounding factors, was performed to determine the influence of sex on SMC. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The durations of education of male participants were significantly higher than those of female participants. MMSE scores for female participants were significantly higher than those for male participants. There was no significant difference in CES-D scores between male and female participants. Twenty-four male participants and 72 female participants showed evidence of SMC. The incidence of SMC was more frequent in female participants than in male participants. In all participants, sex difference and CES-D score were significantly associated with SMC. In male participants, MMSE score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. Both in female participants and all participants, CES-D score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. SMC varied by sex and were associated with the degree of cognitive impairment in male participants, while they were associated with depressive symptoms in female participants.

  19. Right tail increasing dependence between scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M.; García, Jesús E.; González-López, V. A.; Romano, N.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the behavior of the conditional probability Prob(U > u|V > v) of two records coming from students of an undergraduate course, where U is the score of calculus I, scaled in [0, 1] and V is the score of physics scaled in [0, 1], the physics subject is part of the admission test of the university. For purposes of comparison, we consider two different undergraduate courses, electrical engineering and mechanical engineering, during nine years, from 2003 to 2011. Through a Bayesian perspective we estimate Prob(U > u|V > v) year by year and course by course. We conclude that U is right tail increasing in V, in both courses and for all the years. Moreover, over these nine years, we observe different ranges of variability for the estimated probabilities of electrical engineering when compared to the estimated probabilities of mechanical engineering.

  20. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Elaheh; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tohka, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting) and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50) and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43) in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  1. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  2. A higher baseline somatization score at sea level as an independent predictor of acute mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Shi-Zhu; Jin, Jun; Dong, Jun-Qing; Li, Qian-Ning; Yu, Jie; Tang, Cai-Fa; Yu, Shi-Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Qin, Jun; Huang, Lan

    2016-12-01

    The current study aimed to identify the predictive values of psychological factors that are evaluated by the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90) for acute mountain sickness (AMS). The subjects (n=285, non-acclimatized young Chinese men), who were recruited in July 2013, completed a case report questionnaire. In addition, their vital signs (heart rate [HR], blood pressure and pulse oxygen saturation) were measured, and their psychological factors were examined using the SCL-90 at sea level. AMS was diagnosed using the Lake Louise self-assessment scoring system in the morning of the second day after their arrival at 3450m. Of the nine factors of the SCL-90, the AMS patients (AMS score≥3) were characterized by significantly higher scores for baseline somatization [14.0 (5.0) vs. 13.0 (3.0), psomatization (r=0.316, psomatization score (odds ratio=1.129, p=0.001) was an independent predictor of AMS. Furthermore, some non-AMS often-occurred symptoms (paresthesia, shortness of breath, reduced activity and tinnitus) were also found to be associated with the baseline SCL-90 scores. AMS is correlated with the baseline somatization score at sea level, which was measured using the SCL-90. A higher baseline somatization score is also an independent predictor of AMS. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Latina Birth Weight Paradox: the Role of Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, Jill; Sunil, Thankam

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this project was to quantitatively test differences in subjective social status scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women to determine the role of subjective social status in birth weight variation between Mexico-born and US-born Mexican-American women. Six hundred low-income pregnant and non-pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in south Texas were surveyed for subjective social status, depression, perceived social stress, parity, and pregnancy intendedness. Psychosocial health variables, parity, and pregnancy intendedness were included due to their significant associations with low birth weight. Pregnant women had higher subjective social status scores than non-pregnant women. The difference in scores between non-pregnant and pregnant women was smaller in Mexican immigrant women than Mexican-American women. Pregnancy intendedness did not influence subjective social status in pregnant women of either sample, but having children (parity) in both samples was associated with higher subjective social status scores. Among Mexican-American women, community subjective social status was correlated with levels of depressive symptoms and perceived social stress. Subjective social status, depression, and perceived social stress were not correlated among Mexican immigrant women. Our results suggest that incorporation into the USA influences maternal mental health vis-à-vis changes in how women of reproductive age think about themselves and their gender roles in relation to others. Theoretically, our work supports mixed-method approaches to document how culture change as a result of immigration may impact maternal and infant health. Future research should test whether the effect of subjective social status on birth weight occurs when subjective social status does not correlate with depression or stress.

  4. Sensation seeking as a common factor in opioid dependent subjects and high risk sport practicing subjects. A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, P; Auriacombe, M; Piquemal, E; Verger, M; Brisseau-Gimenez, S; Grabot, D; Tignol, J

    2003-03-01

    Animal research has outlined a vulnerability trait to drug dependence like behavior. The behavioral characteristic of this vulnerability is hyperactivity in response to a novel environment of which sensation seeking (SS) has been suggested as a possible equivalent in humans. If this is the case, SS should be more frequent in drug dependent and risky sports practicing subjects then controls. The objective of this study was to determine if opioid dependent subjects (ODS) and regular paragliders (RP) would be more SS then normal controls. Cross sectional study. Three groups of 34 individuals (total 102) matched for age and sex were selected from ODS seeking treatment, a paragliding club, and a college staff. Global and sub-scores of the Zuckerman sensation seeking scale (SSS). Non parametric statistics (Kruskal Wallis and Wilcoxon 2-Sample Tests) were used given the non-normal distribution of SSS scores in the ODS and RP groups. Significant differences were found across the three groups for the Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS) (P = 0.001), dishinibition (Dis) (P = 0.0003) and total score (P = 0.001). ODS and RP scored significantly higher than controls on two (Dis and the TAS scales). RP also scored significantly higher on the Boredom Susceptibility (BS) scale (P = 0.04). Our results show that RP and ODS differ from controls and have some similarities based on the SSS. In this study, the ODS and the RP could express different forms of a general tendency to seek intense and abrupt sensations through various behaviors. Our results in humans are in favor of the hypothesis that the behavioral trait of vulnerability to drug dependence behavior is expressed through SS. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  5. Endoscopic scoring of late gastrointestinal mucosal damage after adjuvant radiochemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Resat; Uygur-Bayramicli, Oya; Gemici, Cengiz; Yavuzer, Dilek; Sargin, Mehmet; Yildirim, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate late effects of chemoradiation on gastrointestinal mucosa with an endoscopic scoring system and compare it to a clinical scoring system. METHODS: Twenty-four patients going to receive chemoradiation after gastric surgery underwent endoscopy four wk after surgery and one year after the chemoradiation finished. Upper gastrointestinal findings were recorded according to a system proposed by World Organisation for Digestive Endoscopy (OMED) and clinical scoring was done with RTOG-EORTC radiation morbidity scoring systems. RESULTS: There was no significant endoscopic difference in gastric and intestinal mucosa after chemoradiation (P > 0.05) and there was no association between endoscopic scores and clinical scores. Endoscopic changes were minimal. CONCLUSION: Late effects after chemoradiation in operated patients with gastric cancers can be evaluated with an endoscopic scoring system objectively and this system is superior to clinical scoring systems. PMID:16865788

  6. Extension of the lod score: the mod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget-Darpoux, F

    2001-01-01

    In 1955 Morton proposed the lod score method both for testing linkage between loci and for estimating the recombination fraction between them. If a disease is controlled by a gene at one of these loci, the lod score computation requires the prior specification of an underlying model that assigns the probabilities of genotypes from the observed phenotypes. To address the case of linkage studies for diseases with unknown mode of inheritance, we suggested (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1986) extending the lod score function to a so-called mod score function. In this function, the variables are both the recombination fraction and the disease model parameters. Maximizing the mod score function over all these parameters amounts to maximizing the probability of marker data conditional on the disease status. Under the absence of linkage, the mod score conforms to a chi-square distribution, with extra degrees of freedom in comparison to the lod score function (MacLean et al., 1993). The mod score is asymptotically maximum for the true disease model (Clerget-Darpoux and Bonaïti-Pellié, 1992; Hodge and Elston, 1994). Consequently, the power to detect linkage through mod score will be highest when the space of models where the maximization is performed includes the true model. On the other hand, one must avoid overparametrization of the model space. For example, when the approach is applied to affected sibpairs, only two constrained disease model parameters should be used (Knapp et al., 1994) for the mod score maximization. It is also important to emphasize the existence of a strong correlation between the disease gene location and the disease model. Consequently, there is poor resolution of the location of the susceptibility locus when the disease model at this locus is unknown. Of course, this is true regardless of the statistics used. The mod score may also be applied in a candidate gene strategy to model the potential effect of this gene in the disease. Since, however, it

  7. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9{+-}7.1 years)) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans.

  8. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kokoro Sano,1 Motoko Kawashima,1 Sayuri Takechi,2 Masaru Mimura,2 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. Materials and methods: We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31–64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. Results: The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81 of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. Conclusion: In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. Keywords: dry eye, exercise, office workers, cognitive behavioral therapy

  9. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  10. An ultrasound score for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riecke, B F; Christensen, R.; Torp-Pedersen, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop standardized musculoskeletal ultrasound (MUS) procedures and scoring for detecting knee osteoarthritis (OA) and test the MUS score's ability to discern various degrees of knee OA, in comparison with plain radiography and the 'Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score' (KOOS......) domains as comparators. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of MUS examinations in 45 patients with knee OA. Validity, reliability, and reproducibility were evaluated. RESULTS: MUS examination for knee OA consists of five separate domains assessing (1) predominantly morphological changes in the medial...... coefficients ranging from 0.75 to 0.97 for the five domains. Construct validity was confirmed with statistically significant correlation coefficients (0.47-0.81, P knee OA. In comparison with standing radiographs...

  11. Audience Response System Facilitates Prediction of Scores on In-Training Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal H. Shah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Audience response systems (ARS are increasingly popular; however, their contribution to education is not completely clear. Our study found that scores from review quizzes delivered by an ARS correlate with in-training exam (ITE scores and are viewed positively by residents. This information may be useful in identifying poor performers early so that targeted educational interventions can be made. The objective was to determine if scores on review quizzes delivered by an ARS correlate with ITE scores and to obtain participant feedback on use of the ARS for ITE preparation. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of emergency medicine (EM residents at six accredited EM residency programs. Subjects included residents who had taken previous ITEs. Subjects participated in bimonthly review sessions using an ARS. Twelve review quizzes were administered, each consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions. After the ITE, subjects completed an attitudinal survey consisting of six Likert-scale items and one “yes/no” item. We used a mixed linear model to analyze the data, accounting for prior 2012 ITE scores and nesting due to institution. Results: Among 192 participants, 135 (70.3% completed the ITE in both 2012 and 2013; we analyzed their data for the first objective. Results from the mixed linear model indicate that the total mean score on the review quizzes was a significant [t(127 = 6.68; p < 0.001] predictor of the 2013 ITE after controlling for the 2012 ITE score. One hundred forty-six (76.0% participants completed the attitudinal survey; 96% of respondents stated that they would like ARS to be used more often in resident education. Respondents felt the sessions aided in learning (mean 7.7/10, assisted in preparation for the ITE (mean 6.7/10, and helped identify content areas of weakness (mean 7.6/10. Conclusion: Our results suggest that scores from review quizzes delivered by an audience response system correlate with in

  12. APACHE III score is superior to King's College Hospital criteria, MELD score and APACHE II score to predict outcomes after liver transplantation for acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikatas, P; Lee, J-E; Sauer, I M; Schmidt, S C; Seehofer, D; Puhl, G; Guckelberger, O

    2013-01-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score and King's College Hospital (KCH) criteria are accepted prognostic models acute liver failure (ALF), while the use of (APACHE) scores predict to outcomes of emergency liver transplantation is rare. The present study included 87 patients with ALF who underwent liver transplantation. We calculated (KCH) criteria, as well as MELD, APACHE II, and APACHE III scores at the listing date for comparison with 3-month outcomes. According to the Youden-Index, the best cut-off value for the APACHE II score was 8.5 with 100% sensitivity, 49% specificity, 24% positive predictive value (PPV), and 100% negative predictive value (NPV). Patients with APACHE III cut-off was 80. The APACHE III score demonstrated the highest specificity and PPV (90% specificity, 50% PPV). The NPV was 92%. With a 90-point threshold the specificity increased to 98% with 75% PPV and 89% NPV. Only 1 of 4 patients with a score >90 survived transplantation (P = .001). MELD score and KCH criteria were not significant (P > .05). According to the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, only the APACHE III score adequately describe the data. The APACHE III score was superior to KCH criteria, MELD score, and APACHE II score to predict outcomes after transplantation for ALF. It is a valuable parameter for pretransplantation patient selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serial quantitative EEG among elderly subjects with delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S A; Leuchter, A F; Walter, D O; Weiner, H

    1993-08-01

    Serial quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) studies were performed in 33 elderly delirious, demented, and control subjects to determine which QEEG variables were associated with changes in clinical state as measured by the Folstein Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Conventional EEGs and brain maps were independently rated by two electroencephalographers without knowledge of clinical diagnoses. Correlational analyses were performed using these ratings, along with numerical data from QEEG. In the delirium group (n = 15), changes in scores for the relative power map and changes in relative power in the alpha band had significant associations with changes in MMSE. In the dementia group (n = 10), changes in score for absolute power maps and changes in absolute power in the delta band had significant associations with changes in MMSE. In the control group, changes in MMSE over time were negligible. These findings have potential clinical utility in diagnosing delirium, and in providing a quantitative measure of its severity, which can be used serially.

  14. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P =110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  15. The effect of linguistic background on staggered spondaic word and dichotic consonant vowel scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, R W; Katbamna, B; Tawfik, S; Smolak, L H

    1987-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of linguistic background on scores obtained by native and non-native subjects on two dichotic speech tests in American English, the staggered spondaic word (SSW) and the dichotic consonant-vowel (CV) tests. Thirty subjects whose native languages were either Hindi or Arabic were tested. Test findings were compared to results obtained from 10 native English-speaking subjects. The non-native English speakers showed abnormally high error scores on the SSW test while the native speakers performed with no errors on that test. Performance on the dichotic CV test was comparable for both the native English and the Hindi subjects, while the Arabic subjects performed significantly worse than the two other groups. These data indicate that tests of speech perception using English must be interpreted with caution when administered to non-native English speakers, and that neither the SSW nor the dichotic CV tests may be assumed to be free of linguistic bias.

  16. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  17. Assessment of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis using hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI: comparison with Shwachman score, Chrispin-Norman score and spirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, Edwin J.R. van [University of Sheffield, Unit of Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Fichele, Stanislao; Fleming, Sally; Wild, Jim M. [University of Sheffield, Unit of Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Howe, Bridget; Bott, Sandra; Taylor, Christopher J. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This study assesses the feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and correlates the findings with standard clinical parameters based on chest radiograph (CXR) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). An uncontrolled, observational study in eighteen children with cystic fibrosis aged 5 - 17 years (median 12.1 years), with different severity of disease was carried out. All subjects underwent routine clinical assessment including PFT and standard auxology; CXR was obtained and Shwachman and Chrispin-Norman scores calculated. Hyperpolarized 3-He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out using a spin-exchange polarizer and a whole body 1.5 T scanner. Ventilation distribution images were obtained during a 21-second breath-hold and scored according to previously defined criteria. Spearman's non-parametric correlations test was performed to assess for statistical significance at the p<0.05 level. The children tolerated the procedure well. No desaturation events were observed during 3-He MRI. A significant, albeit moderate, correlation was found between MRI score and FEV1% predicted (r=-0.41; p=0.047) and FVC% predicted (r=-0.42; p=0.04), while there were trends of correlations between Shwachman score and MRI score (r=-0.38; p=0.06) and Shwachman score and FEV1% predicted (r=0.39; p=0.055). The feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-He MRI in children with CF was demonstrated. MRI appears to be able to demonstrate functional lung changes, although correlations with routine clinical tests are only moderate to poor. This non-ionising radiation technique could be useful for monitoring lung disease and assessing therapy in this patient population. (orig.)

  18. Combat exposure, social relationships, and subjective well-being among middle-aged and older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mai See; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    This study described the association of subjective well-being with combat exposure and social relationships among middle-aged and older Veteran men in the USA. The stress-buffering hypothesis, which predicts social relationships may moderate the association between combat exposure and subjective well-being, was also examined. Data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2961) were used to estimate logistic regression models, focusing on three measures of subjective well-being: depression, life satisfaction, and self-reported health. In the fully adjusted models, there were no statistically significant relationships between combat exposure and the three indicators of subjective well-being. However, compared to Veterans who had lower scores on the social relationship index, Veterans who had higher scores were less likely to be depressed and less likely to report poor or fair health. Veterans who had higher scores on the social relationships index reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those Veterans who had lower scores. There was no evidence for a social relationships buffering effect. The results of this study demonstrated that combat exposure did not have a long-term relationship with subjective well-being. Longitudinal research designs with more comprehensive indicators of combat exposure may help researchers better understand some of the underlying complexity of this relationship. Complementary research with samples of women Veterans, as well as samples of Hispanic, and non-Black, non-White Veterans, is also needed.

  19. Association between risk perception, subjective knowledge, and depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Fukutomi, Eriko; Wada, Taizo; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Chen, Wen-Ling; Tanaka, Mire; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-05-30

    Risk perception is one of the core factors in theories of health behavior promotion. However, the association between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in depression is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between subjective knowledge, risk perception, and objective scores of depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. A total of 747 elderly participants (mean age: 76.1, female: 59.8%) who completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) along with items assessing subjective knowledge and risk perception were included in the analysis. We assessed the correlation between subjective knowledge and risk perception, and then compare GDS-15 scores by level of subjective knowledge and risk perception. Subjective knowledge was weakly associated with risk perception and related to lower GDS-15 scores in a dose-response pattern, which did not change after adjusting for age, gender, basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, years of education and history of depression. There was no significant association between risk perception and GDS-15 scores. The relationship between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in younger generations is unclear, but warrants examination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-26

    This software (Asset Scoring Tool) is designed to help building owners and managers to gain insight into the as-built efficiency of their buildings. It is a web tool where users can enter their building information and obtain an asset score report. The asset score report consists of modeled building energy use (by end use and by fuel type), building systems (envelope, lighting, heating, cooling, service hot water) evaluations, and recommended energy efficiency measures. The intended users are building owners and operators who have limited knowledge of building energy efficiency. The scoring tool collects minimum building data (~20 data entries) from users and build a full-scale energy model using the inference functionalities from Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS). The scoring tool runs real-time building energy simulation using EnergyPlus and performs life-cycle cost analysis using FEDS. An API is also under development to allow the third-party applications to exchange data with the web service of the scoring tool.

  1. Objective and subjective personality characteristics of medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meit, Heather Anderson

    The present study viewed personality characteristics of medical students using both objective (i.e., a valid and reliable psychological instrument) and subjective methods (i.e., medical students' self-ratings of how they viewed themselves and how they believed others viewed them). The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF, 5th Edition) and a researcher developed instrument, the Subjective Rating Form (SRF), were utilized in this study. Significant differences were found in 16PF scores from entry to medical school (Time 1) to exit from medical school (Time 2). Significant differences were also observed when SRF scores were compared between Self at Time 1 (retrospectively), Self at Time 2, and self-ratings made from the perspective of Other. Most striking were differences between 16PF and SRF scores when compared with each other, at both Time 1 and Time 2. This last group of findings translated into differences between the actual and perceived self (i.e., real vs. ideal). The implications of such differences are discussed.

  2. Red cell distribution width and neurological scoring systems in acute stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hasan Kara,1 Selim Degirmenci,1 Aysegul Bayir,1 Ahmet Ak,1 Murat Akinci,1 Ali Dogru,1 Fikret Akyurek,2 Seyit Ali Kayis3 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; 3Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between the red blood cell distribution width (RDW and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores in patients who had acute ischemic stroke. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study included 88 patients who have had acute ischemic stroke and a control group of 40 patients who were evaluated in the Emergency Department for disorders other than acute ischemic stroke. All subjects had RDW determined, and stroke patients had scoring with the GCS, CNS, and NIHSS scores. The GCS, CNS, and NIHSS scores of the patients were rated as mild, moderate, or severe and compared with RDW. Results: Stroke patients had significantly higher median RDW than control subjects. The median RDW values were significantly elevated in patients who had more severe rather than milder strokes rated with all three scoring systems (GCS, CNS, and NIHSS. The median RDW values were significantly elevated for patients who had moderate rather than mild strokes rated by GCS and CNS and for patients who had severe rather than mild strokes rated by NIHSS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.760 (95% confidence interval, 0.676–0.844. Separation of stroke patients and control groups was optimal with RDW 14% (sensitivity, 71.6%; specificity, 67.5%; accuracy, 70.3%. Conclusion: In stroke patients who have symptoms <24 hours, the RDW may be useful in predicting the severity and functional outcomes of the stroke

  3. Effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Nassar, Jihad; Dowli, Alexander; Al Zaghal, Zeid; Sabri, Alain

    2012-11-01

    To address the effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). A total of 22 male subjects have been recruited for this study. Subjects with vocal fold pathologies, recent history of upper respiratory tract infection or laryngeal manipulation were excluded. Demographic data included age and history of smoking. All subjects were evaluated while fasting for at least 12 h and non-fasting. By non-fasting we mean that they ate and drank during the day at their discretion with no reservation. The abstention from water and or food intake during the non-fasting period extended from few minutes to 3 h. All subjects were evaluated at the same time during the day. The evaluation consisted of a laryngeal examination and the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The Reflux Finding Score (RFS) was used to report on the reflux laryngeal findings. Subjects were considered to have LPRD if either the RSI or the RFS were positive (>9 RSI, >7 RFS). There was a non-significant increase in the total prevalence of LPRD while fasting compared to non-fasting (32 vs. 50 % while fasting, p value 0.361). In the RSI, the most common symptoms while non-fasting and fasting were throat clearing (64 vs. 68 %), postnasal drip (45 vs. 59 %) and globus sensation (36 vs. 50 %). The average score of all the three increased significantly while fasting. For the RFS the most common laryngeal findings in the non-fasting group versus the fasting group were erythema (77 vs. 68 %), thick endolaryngeal mucus (77 vs. 77 %) and posterior commissure hypertrophy (55 vs. 64 %). Fasting results in a nonsignificant increase in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The increase can be hypothetically explained on the change in eating habits and the known alterations in gastric secretions during Ramadan. Fasting subjects must be alert to the effect of LPRD on their throat and voice in particular.

  4. PRSice: Polygenic Risk Score software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euesden, Jack; Lewis, Cathryn M; O'Reilly, Paul F

    2015-05-01

    A polygenic risk score (PRS) is a sum of trait-associated alleles across many genetic loci, typically weighted by effect sizes estimated from a genome-wide association study. The application of PRS has grown in recent years as their utility for detecting shared genetic aetiology among traits has become appreciated; PRS can also be used to establish the presence of a genetic signal in underpowered studies, to infer the genetic architecture of a trait, for screening in clinical trials, and can act as a biomarker for a phenotype. Here we present the first dedicated PRS software, PRSice ('precise'), for calculating, applying, evaluating and plotting the results of PRS. PRSice can calculate PRS at a large number of thresholds ("high resolution") to provide the best-fit PRS, as well as provide results calculated at broad P-value thresholds, can thin Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) according to linkage disequilibrium and P-value or use all SNPs, handles genotyped and imputed data, can calculate and incorporate ancestry-informative variables, and can apply PRS across multiple traits in a single run. We exemplify the use of PRSice via application to data on schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and smoking, illustrate the importance of identifying the best-fit PRS and estimate a P-value significance threshold for high-resolution PRS studies. PRSice is written in R, including wrappers for bash data management scripts and PLINK-1.9 to minimize computational time. PRSice runs as a command-line program with a variety of user-options, and is freely available for download from http://PRSice.info jack.euesden@kcl.ac.uk or paul.oreilly@kcl.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargénius, Hanna L; Bylsma, Frederick W; Lydersen, Stian; Hestad, Knut

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO) patients and 100 healthy controls (HC) completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference -0.302, CI -1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579). In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean -1.784, CI -3.237 to -0.331, p = 0.016) and the Unit points (mean -1.409, CI -2.291 to -0.528, p = 0.002), but not on the Order points score (mean -0.351, CI -0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284). Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  6. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Sargénius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT, and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO patients and 100 healthy controls (HC completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference −0.302, CI −1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579. In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean −1.784, CI −3.237 to −0.331, p = 0.016 and the Unit points (mean −1.409, CI −2.291 to −0.528, p = 0.002, but not on the Order points score (mean −0.351, CI −0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284. Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  7. SGA scores have poor correlation with serum albumin in obese hemodialysis patients: a secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Eric D; Hand, Rosa K; Steiber, Alison L

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between serum albumin and the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) in a sample of obese hemodialysis (HD) patients. Study subjects (N = 253) included patients who were categorized into well-nourished (68%, SGA score 6-7) and malnourished (score 1-5) groups, and, on the basis of the body mass index (BMI), into obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2); 35%) and nonobese (BMI SGA Validation Project and Nutrition Algorithm Preliminary Report determined the relationship between the 7-point SGA and serum albumin concentrations in a sample of obese HD patients. Data were analyzed at Case Western Reserve University from a total of 253 HD patients. The SGA scores in the BMI groups were compared with serum albumin as an objective measure of nutrition and inflammation risk. By using analysis of variance, the obese and nonobese populations showed statistically significant differences in SGA scores (obese: P SGA group with age and gender as covariates. Serum albumin values (P SGA group. The secondary analysis showed that SGA does not correlate well with serum albumin; thus, it may not be a valid nutrition assessment tool among obese HD patients. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phoneme and Word Scoring in Speech-in-Noise Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Curtis J; Penman, Tina M; Ellis, Emily M; Baltzell, Lucas S; McMillan, Garnett P

    2016-03-01

    Understanding speech in background noise is difficult for many individuals; however, time constraints have limited its inclusion in the clinical audiology assessment battery. Phoneme scoring of words has been suggested as a method of reducing test time and variability. The purposes of this study were to establish a phoneme scoring rubric and use it in testing phoneme and word perception in noise in older individuals and individuals with hearing impairment. Words were presented to 3 participant groups at 80 dB in speech-shaped noise at 7 signal-to-noise ratios (-10 to 35 dB). Responses were scored for words and phonemes correct. It was not surprising to find that phoneme scores were up to about 30% better than word scores. Word scoring resulted in larger hearing loss effect sizes than phoneme scoring, whereas scoring method did not significantly modify age effect sizes. There were significant effects of hearing loss and some limited effects of age; age effect sizes of about 3 dB and hearing loss effect sizes of more than 10 dB were found. Hearing loss is the major factor affecting word and phoneme recognition with a subtle contribution of age. Phoneme scoring may provide several advantages over word scoring. A set of recommended phoneme scoring guidelines is provided.

  9. Correlation of hematocrit and Apgar scores in newborns of women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Helen Chioma; Nwogoh, Benedict; Odetunde, Odutola Israel

    2017-01-01

    To compare the incidence of polycythemia in newborns of women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) with those of normotensive mothers, to determine the incidence of perinatal stress using Apgar scores and to correlate hematocrit with Apgar scores in these newborn. This was a hospital-based comparative study conducted in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Apgar scores of 200 newborns- 100 from mothers with HDP (case group) and 100 from normotensive mothers (control group)- were taken at 1st and 5th minute of birth and cord blood samples collected to determine hematocrit. The subjects were categorized into polycythemic and non polycythemic using a hematocrit ≥65%. Eight percent of newborns of women with HDP had polycythemia while none of the controls did. Apgar scores in the case group with and without polycythemia at one-minute were 4.1±1.8 and 6.6±2.1, respectively and at 5 minutes were 6.9±1.7 and 8.5±1.4 respectively. Hematocrit correlated positively with Apgar scores (both at one and five minutes) in cases without polycythemia (r = 0.221, p = 0.034 and r = 0.255, p = 0.014). Hematocrit of polycythemic newborns did not correlate with Apgar scores (r = -0.287, p = 0.491 and r = -0.436, p = 0.281). The incidence of polycythemia is significantly higher in newborns of women with HDP and these polycythemic neonates had a significantly higher incidence of birth asphyxia. Therefore, birth outcome as determined by Apgar score is influenced by hematocrit.

  10. Development and validation of the Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saceda-Corralo, David; Moreno-Arrones, Óscar Muñoz; Fonda-Pascual, Pablo; Pindado-Ortega, Cristina; Buendía-Castaño, Diego; Alegre-Sánchez, Adrián; Segurado-Miravalles, Gonzalo; Rodrigues-Barata, Ana Rita; Jaén-Olasolo, Pedro; Vaño-Galván, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a scarring alopecia characterized by recession of the frontotemporal hairline and loss of the eyebrows. To design and validate a scoring system to assess the severity of FFA. The Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia Severity Score (FFASS) was developed; criterion validity was assessed by the Investigator's Global Assessment, and construct validity was evaluated by the convergence of other measures of severity (the Patient's Global Assessment], the rest of the clinical features, the Lichen Planopilaris Activity Index, and quality of life measures (Dermatology Life Quality Index and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were determined. In total, 103 female patients were included. The FFASS showed significant correlation to the Patient's Global Assessment, occipital involvement, and the Lichen Planopilaris Activity Index. Intraobserver reliability was completed for 31 subjects and showed good correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-0.95; P < .001). Interobserver reliability showed excellent correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-0.99; P < .001). The study was performed at a single institution, and only female patients were assessed. The FFASS is a statistically validated scale and a reliable measure of FFA severity, and it can be used in clinical practice and future research studies as an assessment tool. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive......BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods...... influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...

  12. RISK FACTOR DIAGNOSTIC SCORE IN DIABETIC FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shameem P. M

    2016-09-01

    and heel pad loss with risk score: 35 to 45. 11 patients had toe loss with metatarsal nibbling with risk score: 50 to 70. Midtarsal amputation performed in 6 patients with risk score: 55 to 65. Below-knee amputation in 5 patients with score: 70 and 80. 6 patients underwent above-knee amputation with score: 80 and above. CONCLUSIONS The clinical scoring system evaluated in this study is useful in predicting the course of diabetic foot ulcers. The scores are directly proportional to the amputation level in the ascending order, from conservative treatment to above-knee amputation. Adjusted R square value of the correlation is 0.880 indicating a predictive value of 88% and the p value is 0 000 conferring statistical significance to the findings.

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PREDICTION OF FALLS IN PARKINSONS DISEASE SUBJECTS USING TIMED UP AND GO TEST WITH TINETTI MOBILITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Goswami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjects with moderate disability in Parkinson’s disease experience difficulty when they are required to walk while attending to a complex activity. These subjects have a tendency to fall which is related to the disease symptoms and also may be due to age factor. This study is intended to predict the future falls in Parkinson’s disease. Subjects with moderate disability were assessed with the Tinnetti mobility test and Timed up and go test, where the number of falls will be correlated with each test scores to check which test can predict the future falls better. Method: The participants in the study were 30 Parkinson’s Disease subjects, out of which 12 subjects did not meet the inclusion criteria, remaining 18 subjects were assessed with Tinnetti mobility test and Timed Up and Go test. For each subject scores were documented. The study was done for a duration of 1 year. During this time subjects were allowed to document the number of falls. These numbers of falls were correlated with each test scores for the prediction of falls. Results: Pearson correlation test has been done to correlate the number of falls with each test score and found that Tinnetti mobility test is negatively correlated to the number of falls that is - .847 and Timed Up and Go test is positively related that is 0.924. The correlation result with each test score were statistically significant (p<0.01 but Timed Up and Go test score was found to be more significant compared to Tinnetti mobility test scores. Conclusion: The analysis shows that Timed Up and Go test is a better predictor of falls than Tinnetti mobility test which is showing statistical significance (p<0.01 in case of Parkinson’s disease patients.

  14. Modified Ferriman-Gallwey Score in Hirsutism and its Association with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, R; Jayapalan, Sabeena

    2017-01-01

    Hirsutism is the presence of terminal hair in females in males pattern. It occurs in 5%-15% of women. Modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score of ≥ 8 is considered hirsutism, but there are populations with a low mFG score. In clinical practice, hirsutism is subjective. Although hirsutism is considered as a purely esthetic problem, it is associated with many underlying disorders, especially androgen excess disorders. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) disease is the most common cause of androgen excess in females, and there are reports of its association with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome occurs alone in hirsutism. To assess mFG score in patients who consider themselves as hirsute. To study the association between metabolic syndrome and hirsutism. Hospital-based cross-sectional study design was adopted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and clinical data. The severity of hirsutism was assessed using mFG score and metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the American Heart Association criteria. mFG score was expressed as mean and Student's t-test and Chi-square statistic were used as the tests of significance. Logistic regression analysis was performed. The mean mFG score was 5.5. Metabolic syndrome was present in 44%. About 65.2% of patients with score ≥8 had metabolic syndrome, whereas only 37.7% of patients with score metabolic syndrome (P = 0.019). Metabolic syndrome (P = 0.018) and PCOS (P = 0.003) were the significant variables in logistic regression analysis. Triglyceride levels ≥150 mg/dl and waist circumference ≥88 cm were the components of metabolic syndrome that were significantly associated with hirsutism (P = 0.006 in both). To find the ideal cutoff of mFG score to define hirsutism in our population, a population study among females in the reproductive age group has to be conducted. As there is a definite association of hirsutism and metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome can result in cardiovascular

  15. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  16. Use of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score to predict bleeding complications in patients with unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numasawa, Yohei; Kohsaka, Shun; Miyata, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Akio; Noma, Shigetaka; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Susumu; Momiyama, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Yuji; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-07-01

    Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) is a prognostic score developed for managing the high risk of cardiac events immediately after unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI). In Asian populations that have a higher rate of bleeding complications, data about TIMI score are lacking. Using a Japanese multicenter registry, we investigated the impact of utilizing TIMI score in UA/NSTEMI patients, focusing on bleeding complications. The TIMI score was calculated for 587 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for UA/NSTEMI (2008-2010). They were classified into low-risk (TIMI score 0-2, N = 268, 45.6 %), intermediate-risk (TIMI score 3-4, N = 264, 45.0 %) and high-risk (TIMI score 5-7, N = 55, 9.4 %) groups; patient characteristics for each group were statistically analyzed. The patients in the higher TIMI score group were older (p TIMI score was significantly associated with requirement of blood transfusion (low-risk, moderate-risk, and high-risk groups: 1.1, 4.2, and 7.3 %, respectively; p = 0.021), and the incidence of access site bleeding (1.1, 2.7, and 5.5 %, p = 0.112). The TIMI score might aid in subjectively quantifying the risk of in-hospital complication rates such as access site bleeding.

  17. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  18. Nociception coma scale-revised scores correlate with metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Boly, Mélanie; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

    2014-02-01

    The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) was recently validated to assess possible pain perception in patients with disorders of consciousness. To identify correlations between cerebral glucose metabolism and NCS-R total scores. [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, NCS-R, and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised assessments were performed in 49 patients with disorders of consciousness. We identified a significant positive correlation between NCS-R total scores and metabolism in the posterior part of the anterior cingulate cortex, known to be involved in pain processing. No other cluster reached significance. No significant effect of clinical diagnosis (vegetative/unresponsive vs minimally conscious states), etiology or interval since insult was observed. Our data support the hypothesis that the NCS-R total scores are related to cortical processing of nociception and may constitute an appropriate behavioral tool to assess, monitor, and treat possible pain in brain-damaged noncommunicative patients with disorders of consciousness. Future studies using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging should investigate the correlation between NCS-R scores and brain activation in response to noxious stimulation at the single-subject level.

  19. Effect of Intraoperative Dexamethasone on Pain Scores and Narcotic Consumption in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samona, Jason; Cook, Carrie; Krupa, Kyle; Swatsell, Krystle; Jackson, Andrew; Dukes, Chase; Martin, Sidney

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether the addition of intravenous dexamethasone during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) would be effective at reducing postoperative pain scores and postoperative opioid consumption. A total of 102 patients undergoing TKA were placed into two groups: 55 subjects received intraoperative dexamethasone 8 mg intravenously (treatment group) and 47 did not receive dexamethasone at any time during the perioperative period. Comparison was made using the 0-10 numeric pain rating scale and the amount of opioids used in each group. Patients who received dexamethasone required significantly less oral opioids compared to the control group. Pain scores at 24 h post-surgery were significantly less for the dexamethasone group compared to the control group. There was no difference between groups in regards to patient-controlled analgesic dose or pain scores in the post-anesthesia care unit, at 12 or 48 h post-surgery. A single dose of dexamethasone given intraoperatively significantly decreased oral narcotic consumption and decreased pain scores 24 h postoperatively. Dexamethasone appears to be a safe modality to use to control pain in patients undergoing TKA. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner’s dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others’ individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for ‘group scoring’ but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed.

  1. Comparison of the severity of lower extremity arterial disease in smokers and patients with diabetes using a novel duplex Doppler scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Rudresh; Gowda, Goutham; Ibrahim, Jebin; Reddy, Harish T; Chodiboina, Haritha; Shah, Rushit

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the diagnostic feasibility of a novel scoring system of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in smokers and patients with diabetes depending on duplex Doppler sonographic features. Patients presenting with the symptomatology of PAD were divided into three groups: diabetes only, smoking only, and smokers with diabetes. The patients were clinically examined, a clinical severity score was obtained, and the subjects were categorized into the three extrapolated categories of mild, moderate, and severe. All 106 subjects also underwent a thorough duplex Doppler examination, and various aspects of PAD were assessed and tabulated. These components were used to create a novel duplex Doppler scoring system. Depending on the scores obtained, each individual was categorized as having mild, moderate, or severe illness. The Cohen kappa value was used to assess interobserver agreement between the two scoring systems. Interobserver agreement between the traditional Rutherford clinical scoring system and the newly invented duplex Doppler scoring system showed a kappa value of 0.83, indicating significant agreement between the two scoring systems (PDoppler imaging is an effective screening investigation for lower extremity arterial disease, as it not only helps in its diagnosis, but also in the staging and grading of the disease, providing information that can be utilized for future management and treatment planning.

  2. Comparison of the severity of lower extremity arterial disease in smokers and patients with diabetes using a novel duplex Doppler scoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiremath, Rudresh; Gowda, Goutham; Ibrahim, Jebin; Reddy, Harish T.; Chodiboina, Haritha; Shah, Rushit [Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, KVG Medical College and Hospital, Sullia (India)

    2017-07-15

    The aim of this study was to validate the diagnostic feasibility of a novel scoring system of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in smokers and patients with diabetes depending on duplex Doppler sonographic features. Patients presenting with the symptomatology of PAD were divided into three groups: diabetes only, smoking only, and smokers with diabetes. The patients were clinically examined, a clinical severity score was obtained, and the subjects were categorized into the three extrapolated categories of mild, moderate, and severe. All 106 subjects also underwent a thorough duplex Doppler examination, and various aspects of PAD were assessed and tabulated. These components were used to create a novel duplex Doppler scoring system. Depending on the scores obtained, each individual was categorized as having mild, moderate, or severe illness. The Cohen kappa value was used to assess interobserver agreement between the two scoring systems. Interobserver agreement between the traditional Rutherford clinical scoring system and the newly invented duplex Doppler scoring system showed a kappa value of 0.83, indicating significant agreement between the two scoring systems (P<0.001). Duplex Doppler imaging is an effective screening investigation for lower extremity arterial disease, as it not only helps in its diagnosis, but also in the staging and grading of the disease, providing information that can be utilized for future management and treatment planning.

  3. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over...... objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  4. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  5. Factors predicting Gleason score 6 upgrading after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milonas, Daimantas; Grybas, Aivaras; Auskalnis, Stasys; Gudinaviciene, Inga; Baltrimavicius, Ruslanas; Kincius, Marius; Jievaltas, Mindaugas

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer Gleason score 6 is the most common score detected on prostatic biopsy. We analyzed the clinical parameters that predict the likelihood of Gleason score upgrading after radical prostatectomy. The study population consisted of 241 patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy between Feb 2002 and Dec 2007 for Gleason score 6 adenocarcinoma. The influence of preoperative parameters on the probability of a Gleason score upgrading after surgery was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression and ROC curves. Gleason score upgrade was found in 92 of 241 patients (38.2%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only percentage of cancer in dominant lobe and prostate weight were significant predictors for Gleason score upgrading (p = 0.043 and p = 0.006, respectively). ROC curves showed that prostate weight and PSA density were only two independent significant parameters for prediction of upgrade (AUC - 0.634, p Gleason score upgrading was observed to be accompanied by significantly higher rates of extra prostatic extension (p Gleason 6 at biopsy are Gleason 7 at surgery. Upgraded tumors significantly associated with adverse pathological features. The probability of Gleason score upgrade can be predicted using prostate weight and PSA density as independent parameters.

  6. Confidence scores for prediction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander; van de Wiel, MA

    2011-01-01

    modelling strategy is applied to different training sets. For each modelling strategy we estimate a confidence score based on the same repeated bootstraps. A new decomposition of the expected Brier score is obtained, as well as the estimates of population average confidence scores. The latter can be used......In medical statistics, many alternative strategies are available for building a prediction model based on training data. Prediction models are routinely compared by means of their prediction performance in independent validation data. If only one data set is available for training and validation......, then rival strategies can still be compared based on repeated bootstraps of the same data. Often, however, the overall performance of rival strategies is similar and it is thus difficult to decide for one model. Here, we investigate the variability of the prediction models that results when the same...

  7. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo, E-mail: anamariafeoli@hotmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Alimentary habits, physical activity, and Framingham global risk score in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Immersion in the virtual environment: the effect of a musical score on the video gaming experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Scott D; Zehnder, Sean M

    2004-11-01

    This study provides one of very few experimental investigations into the impact of a musical soundtrack on the video gaming experience. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: game-with-music, game-without-music, or music-only. After playing each of three segments of The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (Electronic Arts, 2002)--or, in the music-only condition, listening to the musical score that accompanies the scene--subjects responded on 21 verbal scales. Results revealed that some, but not all, of the verbal scales exhibited a statistically significant difference due to the presence of a musical score. In addition, both gender and age level were shown to be significant factors for some, but not all, of the verbal scales. Details of the specific ways in which music affects the gaming experience are provided in the body of the paper.

  10. Serum levels of neopterin in gestational diabetes mellitus: the relationship with Apgar scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipekci, Suleyman Hilmi; Kebapcilar, Ayse Gul; Yilmaz, Setenay Arzu; Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Pekin, Aybike Tazegul; Abusoglu, Sedat; Unlu, Ali; Annagur, Ali; Celik, Cetin

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate neopterin levels and low Apgar scores in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) vs. normal control pregnancies. We carried out a cross-sectional study by enrolling 81 pregnant women with GDM and 38 pregnant women without GDM. Maternal and cord blood neopterin levels were higher in women with GDM. There was a significant positive association between fasting blood glucose levels and maternal serum neopterin levels. The results of 50-g oral glucose challenge tests revealed a correlation between maternal and cord neopterin levels. Pregnancies complicated by GDM exhibited lower fetal Apgar scores than those of control subjects. The levels of cord blood neopterin were inversely correlated with an fetal Apgar score of 1 min in patients with GDM. Patients with GDM had higher maternal and cord blood neopterin levels, and the cord blood neopterin levels are inversely associated with lower Apgar scores in women with GDM. The neopterin levels might be potential predictors of low fetal Apgar scores in women with GDM.

  11. Can black extrinsic tooth discoloration predict a lower caries score rate in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmuly, Tom; Zini, Avraham; Yitschaky, Michael; Yitschaky, Oded

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between black extrinsic tooth discoloration and caries prevalence in an adult population. This association has been previously shown in children and adolescents but has never been examined in an adult population. Young adults, aged 18 to 29 years old, were examined for black extrinsic tooth discoloration and caries prevalence. The study group included 110 young adults with black stain; the control group consisted of 170 young adults without black stain. The decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index score was determined for each subject. The mean DMFT score was calculated for both groups and compared between groups (independent t test). Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to identify independent influences (age, pigmentation, gender, and smoking) on DMFT. Mean DMFT score was 4.2 ± 3.9 for the study group and 5.98 ± 4.8 for the control group, which was statistically significant (P < .001). Mean D score (untreated caries) was 1.6 ± 2.5 (study) and 2.4 ± 3.5 (control) (P < .05). Age had a positive correlation with the DMFT score; however, gender and smoking were negatively correlated. The association between black stain and reduced rates of dental caries was demonstrated in a young adult population for the first time.

  12. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  13. Do Negative Affect Characteristics and Subjective Memory Concerns Increase Risk for Late Life Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Chelsey M.; Wilson, Helen W.; Woodard, John L.; Calamari, John E.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the development and exacerbation of late-life anxiety, we tested a risk model positing that trait negative affect (NA) characteristics would interact with cognitive functioning, thereby increasing some older adults’ risk for increased anxiety symptoms. The moderator-mediator model consisted of measures of NA, cognitive functioning, and their interaction, as predictors of later Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scores (HARS) via a mediational process, subjective memory concerns (SMCs). Older adults (aged 65-years and over; Mage = 76.7 years, SD = 6.90 years) completed evaluations four times over approximately 18 months. A latent growth curve model including Anxiety Sensitivity Index total score (ASI), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS) total raw score, the ASI x DRS interaction, a SMC measure as mediator, HARS intercept (scores at times 3 and 4), and HARS slope provided good fit The ASI x DRS-2 interaction at Time 1 predicted HARS slope score (β = −.34, p <.05). When ASI score was high, stronger cognitive functioning was associated with fewer anxiety symptoms. The indirect effect of ASI score predicting HARS score 18-months later through the SMC mediator was statistically significant (β = .08, p < .05). Results suggest that the cognitive functioning changes associated with aging might contribute to the development of anxiety symptoms in older adults with specific NA traits. Implications for predicting and preventing late life anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:23623610

  14. Subjective biological self and self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumerlin, J R; Berretta, S A; Privette, G; Bundrick, C M

    1994-12-01

    Ginsburg, Rogers, and Maslow, humanistic theorists, have maintained that the self is an emergent characteristic of one's biological makeup. The relationship between physical self-efficacy as an appraisal of subjective biology and self-actualization was examined in a sample of 160 black and white participants. An r of .46 supports the association of subjective biology and self-actualization. Whereas there were no gender or racial differences in scores on self-actualization, men scored higher on physical self-efficacy and subscales of perceived physical ability and perceived self-presentation confidence.

  15. The impact of living with a functional and aesthetic nasal deformity after primary rhinoplasty: a utility outcomes score assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, Hani; Izadpanah, Ali; Thibaudeau, Stephanie; Christodoulou, Georges; Tahiri, Youssef; Slavin, Sumner A; Lin, Samuel J

    2012-10-01

    Revision rhinoplasty for functional deformities can be both an aesthetic and reconstructive surgical challenge. We set out to quantify the health state utility assessment of living with the physical appearance of nasal asymmetry along with having nasal obstruction. The use of utility scores has helped to establish the health burden of living with various medical conditions. We sought to quantify living with a health state of nasal asymmetry with nasal obstruction after primary rhinoplasty using utility outcome scores. We used previously validated utility outcome measures to quantify the health burden of this clinical scenario in 128 prospective subjects. These subjects were from a sample of the population and medical students recruited to complete a survey to determine the utility outcome score of revision rhinoplasty using visual analog scale (VAS), time trade-off (TTO), and standard gamble (SG) tests to obtain utility scores for revision rhinoplasty. Linear regression and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. All measures (VAS, TTO, and SG) for functional nasal deformity (0.80±0.13, 0.90±0.12, and 0.91±0.13, respectively) of the 128 prospective subjects participating in this online study were significantly different (Peducation were not predictors of utility scores. In a sample of the population and medical students, VAS, TTO, and SG utility scores for revision rhinoplasty were determined and can be compared objectively with other health states and diseases with known utility scores. In a preoperative setting, women were objectively willing to potentially "trade" more years of life to treat a functional nasal deformity. If faced with a deformed nose after primary rhinoplasty, our sample population would consent to undergo a revision rhinoplasty procedure with a theoretical 9% chance of mortality and were willing to trade 3.6 years of their remaining life.

  16. AVERAGE SCORE OF THE UNIFIED STATE EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Nurieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Summing up the results of the Unified State Exam (USE is traditionally based on comparing the average scores for institutions or territories, without taking into account what the indicator of the quality of education really represents.The aim of the article is to clarify the content «average score» on the example of the Mathematics federal testing results.Methodology and research methods. The methodology of comprehensive analysis is used, including the methods of comparative and statistical data analysis published following the exam results. As well, the parallel analysis of data used in the researches of the National Research University «The Higher School of Economics» (HSE was conducted.Results and scientific novelty. It is found out that the average score in the Unified State Exam in mathematics largely depends on peculiarities of testing and assessment materials, a scoring system of leveling nature and results of training students for solving simple problems.Practical significance. The authors suppose that the study findings will contribute to the improvement of methods and technologies of carrying the Unified State Exam. 

  17. [Intraoperative crisis and surgical Apgar score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Masakatsu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative crisis is an inevitable event to anesthesiologists. The crisis requires effective and coordinated management once it happened but it is difficult to manage the crises properly under extreme stressful situation. Recently, it is reported that the use of surgical crisis checklists is associated with significant improvement in the management of operating-room crises in a high-fidelity simulation study. Careful preoperative evaluation, proper intraoperative management and using intraoperative crisis checklists will be needed for safer perioperative care in the future. Postoperative complication is a serious public health problem. It reduces the quality of life of patients and raises medical cost. Careful management of surgical patients is required according to their postoperative condition for preventing postoperative complications. A 10-point surgical Apgar score, calculated from intraoperative estimated blood loss, lowest mean arterial pressure, and lowest heart rate, is a simple and available scoring system for predicting postoperative complications. It undoubtedly predicts higher than average risk of postoperative complications and death within 30 days of surgery. Surgical Apgar score is a bridge between proper intraoperative and postoperative care. Anesthesiologists should make effort to reduce the postoperative complication and this score is a tool for it.

  18. Coronary artery calcium scoring is a better predictor of cardiac risk in subclinical hypothyroidism patients with low-risk Framingham score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Overt hypothyroidism accelerates the cardiovascular disease. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, being considered as a preclinical state, impacts on cardiovascular status is not clear. Aims: This study was aimed at assessing cardiac risk stratification by Framingham risk scoring (FRS and coronary coronary artery calcium score (CACS by noncontrast cardiac computed tomography in SCH. Study Design: Observational study. Subjects and Methods: We enrolled thirty treatment-naive SCH patients (aged 30–60 years with no serious concurrent medical conditions, thirty euthyroid (age, sex, and body mass index-matched controls, and ten healthy controls. All cases were evaluated for coronary artery calcium scoring and Framingham risk score. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. In addition, demographics and CACS are summarized graphically or in a table. Results: SCH cases had higher thyroglobulin, while there was a trend toward an increase in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very LDL, and decrease in HDL levels. All participants had low-risk FRS (10-year FRS < 10%. The mean CACS in SCH was significantly higher than simple obese and healthy controls (47.17 vs. 2.67 vs. 0.00. Conclusion: This study suggests that SCH is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in apparently healthy controls. The risk of occult coronary artery disease is increased in SCH cases.

  19. Correlation between overactive bladder symptom score and neuropsychological parameters in Alzheimer’s disease patients with lower urinary tract symptom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Lee, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Tae; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores. PMID:27802001

  20. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  1. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie...

  2. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  3. The HiSCORE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tluczykont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A central question of Astroparticle Physics, the origin of cosmic rays, still remains unsolved. HiSCORE (Hundred*i Square-km Cosmic ORigin Explorer is a concept for a large-area wide-angle non-imaging air shower detector, addressing this question by searching for cosmic ray pevatrons in the energy range from 10TeV to few PeV and cosmic rays in the energy range above 100TeV. In the framework of the Tunka-HiSCORE project, first prototypes have been deployed on the site of the Tunka-133 experiment, where we plan to install an engineering array covering an area of the order of 1km2. On the same site, also imaging and particle detectors are planned, potentially allowing a future hybrid detector system. Here we present the HiSCORE detector principle, its potential for cosmic ray origin search and the status of ongoing activities in the framework of the Tunka-HiSCORE experiment.

  4. Effect of sleep deprivation on shuttle run score in middle-aged amateur athletes. Influence of initial score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinais, S; Hue, O; Blonc, S; Le Gallais, D

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on shuttle run score (corresponding to an estimated VO2 peak) in middle-aged amateur athletes. Twenty-two athletes, training 9.2 hours a week (+/-4), performed a Leger and Gadoury shuttle test daily in a 4-day series that included a pre-test in day 0, 28 hours without sleep before test 1 (and 10 another hours after the test and before bedtime for a sleep deprivation of 38 hours), and then 10 hours of sleep before each of days 2 and 3. Shuttle run score showed no significant difference over the 4 days; however, the change in shuttle run score on day 2 was significantly correlated with the initial score. This result suggests that effect of sleep deprivation on shuttle run score is dependent on initial score and may encourage high level aerobic athletes to avoid sleep deprivation 2 days before a competition.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of IncobotulinumtoxinA in Subjects Previously Treated with Botulinum Toxin versus Toxin-Naïve Subjects with Cervical Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Fernandez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine whether botulinum toxin treatment history affected the outcomes of a study comparing the safety and efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA with placebo in subjects with cervical dystonia (CD.Methods: This was a prospective, double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled, multicenter trial in botulinum toxin‐treated or toxin‐naïve CD subjects. Subjects received a fixed dose of either 120 U or 240 U of incobotulinumtoxinA or placebo. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to Week 4 in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS total score. Treatment‐emergent adverse events (TEAEs were also evaluated. This report represents a subgroup analysis of botulinum toxin‐treated or toxin‐naïve subjects.Results: Participants (N = 233; 38.6% toxin‐naïve had a mean age of 52.8 years. IncobotulinumtoxinA significantly improved TWSTRS total scores from baseline to Week 4 in both dose groups versus placebo, and the improvement persisted through the end of the study (≤20 weeks. Both the previously toxin‐treated and toxin‐naïve subjects demonstrated significant improvements in TWSTRS total scores at Week 4 compared to baseline. The most frequent TEAEs in the incobotulinumtoxinA groups were dysphagia, neck pain, and muscular weakness, which were generally mild. TEAEs were more common in the 240 U group and toxin‐naïve subjects. Discussion: Overall, incobotulinumtoxinA was safe and effective in CD, regardless of toxin therapy history. A lower starting dose may be better tolerated among toxin‐naïve subjects without sacrificing efficacy.

  6. Demographic and socio-economic associations with academic attainment (UCAS tariff scores) in applicants to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, David; James, David; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2007-03-01

    In the United Kingdom medical students are selected predominantly on their academic merit. Their academic achievement marks are equated via the tariff point score structure administered by the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). We studied the applicant databases for 1998-2003 for one English medical school to determine the factors that predict high tariff point scores. Complete demographic data and relative socio-economic status, educational institution attended and tariff point score was available for 8997 UK applicants aged 21 years or younger to the 5-year Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (BM BS) course at Nottingham University medical school (and partially complete data for a further 1891 applicants). The data were subjected to standard univariate and multivariate analyses and to path analysis. In these samples, the independent predictors of a high tariff point score were being younger and male. The effect sizes were small, although significant. Higher tariff point scores were achieved by those from households less materially disadvantaged. Ethnicity was also a predictor with white, Chinese and those of mixed ethnic origin achieving higher tariff point scores than those from other groups. Finally, the type of school attended predicted academic achievement with applicants from further education colleges, independent schools and grant-maintained schools achieving higher tariff point scores. Notwithstanding the relatively homogeneous (predominantly young, white, high academic achievers) applicant pool to a single UK medical school we identified consistent significant predictors of high tariff point scores. As high tariff point scores are still the major entry criterion to UK medical schools, our findings will be of value in informing policy decisions concerning 'widening access' schemes being established at government request.

  7. The effect of Asian dust events on the daily symptoms in Yonago, Japan: a pilot study on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Asian dust events is a frequent problem, with associated health issues throughout Northeast Asia. However, the effects of Asian dust on human health are not well known in Japan. The authors evaluated the association between daily symptoms and dust events in Yonago, Japan. The subjects were 54 healthy individuals who were distributed survey sheets on nasopharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms, which were quantified in February 2009. The authors investigated the symptoms of the subjects on Asian dust days and control days, and compared the symptom scores with measures of suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is the indicator of Asian dust. The scores for symptoms were significantly higher on Asian dust days than on control days (p=.020). The skin symptom scores were positively correlated with the SPM level (pAsian dust influence the symptoms of healthy subjects, although the symptoms are not severe. Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. Anxious, introverted personality traits in patients with chronic subjective dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Jeffrey P; Rohe, Daniel E; Eggers, Scott D Z; Shepard, Neil T

    2014-01-01

    Chronic subjective dizziness (CSD) is a neurotologic disorder of persistent non-vertiginous dizziness, unsteadiness, and hypersensitivity to one's own motion or exposure to complex visual stimuli. CSD usually follows acute attacks of vertigo or dizziness and is thought to arise from patients' failure to re-establish normal locomotor control strategies after resolution of acute vestibular symptoms. Pre-existing anxiety or anxiety diathesis may be risk factors for CSD. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with CSD are more likely than individuals with other chronic neurotologic illnesses to possess anxious, introverted personality traits. Data were abstracted retrospectively from medical records of 40 patients who underwent multidisciplinary neurotology evaluations for chronic dizziness. Twenty-four subjects had CSD. Sixteen had chronic medical conditions other than CSD plus co-existing anxiety disorders. Group differences in demographics, Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) scores, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores, DSM-IV diagnoses, personality traits measured with the NEO Personality Inventory - Revised (NEO-PI-R), and temperaments composed of NEO-PI-R facets were examined. There were no differences between groups in demographics, mean DHI or HADS-anxiety scores, or DSM-IV diagnoses. The CSD group had higher mean HADS-depression and NEO-PI-R trait anxiety, but lower NEO-PI-R extraversion, warmth, positive emotions, openness to feelings, and trust (all p<0.05). CSD subjects were significantly more likely than comparison subjects to have a composite temperament of high trait anxiety plus low warmth or excitement seeking. An anxious, introverted temperament is strongly associated with CSD and may be a risk factor for developing this syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electromyographic and neuromuscular variables in unstable postpolio subjects, stable postpolio subjects, and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M

    1997-09-01

    To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.

  10. New reliable scoring system, Toyama mouse score, to evaluate locomotor function following spinal cord injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigyo, Michiko; Tanabe, Norio; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Choi, Song-Hyen; Tohda, Chihiro

    2014-06-03

    Among the variety of methods used to evaluate locomotor function following a spinal cord injury (SCI), the Basso Mouse Scale score (BMS) has been widely used for mice. However, the BMS mainly focuses on hindlimb movement rather than on graded changes in body support ability. In addition, some of the scoring methods include double or triple criteria within a single score, which likely leads to an increase in the deviation within the data. Therefore we aimed to establish a new scoring method reliable and easy to perform in mice with SCI. Our Toyama Mouse Score (TMS) was established by rearranging and simplifying the BMS score and combining it with the Body Support Scale score (BSS). The TMS reflects changes in both body support ability and hindlimb movement. The definition of single score is made by combing multiple criteria in the BMS. The ambiguity was improved in the TMS. Using contusive SCI mice, hindlimb function was measured using the TMS, BMS and BSS systems. The TMS could distinguish changes in hindlimb movements that were evaluated as the same score by the BMS. An analysis of the coefficient of variation (CV) of score points recorded for 11 days revealed that the CV for the TMS was significantly lower than the CV obtained using the BMS. A variation in intra evaluators was lower in the TMS than in the BMS. These results suggest that the TMS may be useful as a new reliable method for scoring locomotor function for SCI models.

  11. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p bicycle seat designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Affective temperaments in subjects with female-to-male gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Öcek Baş, Tuba; Kani, Ayşe Sakallı; Duran, Alaattin

    2015-05-01

    Males and females have different temperaments. In individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) there is marked incongruence between a person׳s expressed/experienced gender and their biological sex. The present study aimed to investigate the most common affective temperaments in individuals with female-to-male (FtM) GD. We performed a prospective and comparative study investigating affective temperaments in subjects with FtM GD. Eighty subjects with FtM GD and 68 female controls were enrolled. The Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) was completed by all participants. TEMPS-A scores were significantly higher in subjects with FtM GD for hyperthymic temperament (p≤0.001), whereas depressive (p≤0.001), anxious (p≤0.001), and cyclothymic (p=0.028) temperament scores were significantly higher in female controls. The study was limited by the lack of male-to-female subjects and male controls. The results of our study indicate that individuals with FtM GD have significantly higher scores of hyperthymic temperament, measured by TEMPS-A. Biological basis underlying the development of gender identity independent from the biological sex might be related with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Poor sleep maintenance and subjective sleep quality are associated with postpartum maternal depression symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eliza M; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stickgold, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Women are at increased risk of developing mood disorders during the postpartum period, and poor postpartum sleep may be a modifiable risk factor for the development of depression. This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between sleep variables and postpartum depression symptoms using wrist actigraphy and self-report surveys. Twenty-five healthy primiparous women were recruited from their outpatient obstetricians' offices from July 2009 through March 2010. Subjects wore wrist actigraphs for 1 week during the third trimester of pregnancy and again during the 2nd, 6th, 10th, and 14th weeks postpartum while completing sleep logs and sleep surveys. Subjective assessments of mood were collected at the end of each actigraph week. Subjective sleep assessments were strongly predictive of depression severity scores as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) across all weeks (p sleep maintenance, such as sleep fragmentation, sleep efficiency, and wake time after sleep onset, were also significantly correlated with EPDS scores postpartum. However, there was no relationship between nocturnal sleep duration and EPDS scores. This study provides additional evidence that poor sleep maintenance as measured by wrist actigraphy, rather than lesser amounts of sleep, is associated with EPDS scores during the postpartum period and that subjective assessments of sleep may be more accurate predictors of postpartum depression symptoms than wrist actigraphy. It also supports the hypothesis that disrupted sleep may contribute to the development and extent of postpartum depression symptoms.

  14. Correlation of Visual Prostate Symptom Score with International Prostate Symptom Score and Uroflowmetry Parameters in Nepalese Male Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhomi, K K; Subedi, N; Panta, P P

    2017-01-01

    International prostate symptom score is a validated questionnaire used to evaluate the lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Visual prostate symptom score is a new simplified symptom score with pictograms to evaluate the same. We evaluated the correlation of visual prostate symptom score with international prostate symptom score and uroflowmetry parameters in Nepalese male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Male patients aged ≥40 years attending the Urology clinic were enrolled in the study. They were given international prostate symptom score and visual prostate symptom score questionnaires to complete providing assistance whenever needed. Demographic data, examination findings and uroflowmetry parameters were noted. Correlation and regression analysis was used to identify correlation of the two scoring systems and uroflowmetry parameters. Among the 66 patients enrolled, only 10 (15.15%) patients were able to understand English language. There was a statistically significant correlation between total visual prostate symptom score and international prostate symptom score (r= 0.822; Pcorrelations between individual scores of the two scoring systems related to force of urinary stream, frequency, nocturia and quality of life were also statistically significant. There was also a statistically significant correlation of both scores with maximum flow rate and average flow rate. There is a statistically significant correlation of visual prostate symptom score with international prostate symptom score and uroflowmetry parameters. IPSS can be replaced with simple VPSS in evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly male patients.

  15. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsen, T.; Vlieg, J. de; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Groenen, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical

  16. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsen, T.; Vlieg, de J.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Groenen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background - In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical

  17. Propagation of Significant Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

  18. Quantification of microangiopathic lesions in brain parenchyma and age-adjusted mean scores for the diagnostic separation of normal from pathological values in senile dementia; Quantifizierung mikroangiopathischer Hirnparenchymlaesionen zur Abgrenzung altersnormaler gegenueber pathologischer Auspraegung bei Altersdemenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, F.; Kreis, M.; Damian, M. [Neuroradiologie, Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin Mannheim, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Krumm, B. [Biostatistik, Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin Mannheim, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Froelich, F. [Gerontopsychiatrie, Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin Mannheim, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: to quantify microangiopathic lesions in the cerebral white matter and to develop age-corrected cut-off values for separating normal from dementia-related pathological lesions. Materials and methods: in a memory clinic, 338 patients were investigated neuropsychiatrically by a psychological test battery and by MRI. Using a FLAIR sequence and a newly developed rating scale, white matter lesions (WMLs) were quantified with respect to localization, number and intensity, and these ratings were condensed into a score. The WML scores were correlated with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) score in dementia patients. A non-linear smoothing procedure was used to calculate age-related mean values and confidence intervals, separate for cognitively intact subjects and dementia patients. Results: the WML scores correlated highly significantly with age in cognitively intact subjects and with psychometric scores in dementia patients. Age-adjusted WML scores of cognitively intact subjects were significantly different from those of dementia patients with respect to the whole brain as well as to the frontal lobe. Mean value and confidence intervals adjusted for age significantly separated dementia patients from cognitively intact subjects over an age range of 54 through 84 years. Conclusion: a rating scale for the quantification of WML was validated and age-adjusted mean values with their confidence intervals for a diagnostically relevant age range were developed. This allows an easy to handle, fast and reliable diagnosis of the vascular component in senile dementia. (orig.)

  19. Impact of Prenatal Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Intervention on Maternal Anxiety and Depression and Newborns’ Apgar Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Karamoozian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motherhood is a transformative and pleasing experience in a woman’s life. However, given the physical and psychological changes, it can induce a degree of stress and anxiety in mothers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM on maternal anxiety and depression during pregnancy and newborns’ Apgar scores. Methods: This semi-experimental study was performed by applying a pretest-posttest control-group design. Overall, 30 primiparous mothers were selected among women referring to health clinics of Kerman, Iran, using convenience sampling. Subjects were randomly allocated to experimental and control groups. Data were collected, using Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Questionnaire. After completing the pretest, the experimental group was subjected to 12 sessions of CBSM training; posttest data were collected after the intervention. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed, using SPSS version 16. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The obtained results revealed a significant decrement in the average posttest scores of anxiety and depression in the experimental group, compared to pretest scores and the control group. Moreover, differences in 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores between the two groups were statistically significant. These findings indicated the effectiveness of CBSM during pregnancy in reducing maternal anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Pregnant women can benefit from psychological interventions such as CBSM in medical and health care centers.

  20. Arteriovenous malformation embocure score: AVMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Demetrius K; Moftakhar, Roham; Straus, David; Munich, Stephan A; Chaus, Fahad; Kaszuba, Megan C

    2016-07-01

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs) may be treated with microsurgery, radiosurgery, endovascular surgery, or a combination of these modalities. Grading scales are available to aid the assessment of curative risk for microsurgery and radiosurgery. No grading system has been developed to assess the curative risk of endovascular surgery. To report our retrospective application of the AVM embocure score to patients treated at our institution between 2005 and 2011 METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 39 patients with CAVM treated at our institution between 2005 and 2011 with the primary aim of achieving a curative embolization. After reviewing all the different variables associated with the conventional Onyx embolization technique for CAVMs, we identified the following as the most relevant characteristics influencing the chances for complete angiographic embolization and complication risk: the number of arterial pedicles and draining veins, size of AVM nidus, and vascular eloquence. We sought to develop a scoring system to assess the complication risk for a curative embolization of CAVM with liquid embolic Onyx (Covidien, Irvine, California, USA). We developed the AVM embocure score (AVMES). This scoring system ranges from 3 to 10 and is the arithmetic sum of the number of arterial pedicles feeding the AVM (≤3, 4-6, >6), the number of draining veins (≤3, 4-6, >6), the size of the AVM nidus in centimeters (≤3, 4-6, >6), and the vascular eloquence (0-1). We applied AVMES to the same cohort of patients and validated the predictability of complete angiographic embolization and expected clinical risk of complication. In lesions with an AVMES of 3 (n=8), there was a 100% rate of complete AVM obliteration and 0% rate of major complications. In AVMES 4 (n=12) lesions, there was 75% complete obliteration rate, with 8% major morbidity. In AVMES 5 (n=9) lesions, there was 78% complete obliteration and 11% major morbidity. In AVMES >5 (n=10) there was 20

  1. Field evaluation of broiler gait score using different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFS Cordeiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is today the world's largest broiler meat exporter; however, in order to keep this position, it must comply with welfare regulations while maintaining low production costs. Locomotion problems restrain bird movements, limiting their access to drinking and feeding equipment, and therefore their survival and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate locomotion deficiency in broiler chickens reared under stressful temperature conditions using three different sampling methods of birds from three different ages. The experiment consisted in determining the gait score of 28, 35, 42 and 49-day-old broilers using three different known gait scoring methods: M1, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then stimulated to walk out of the circle; M2, ten birds were randomly selected and gait scored; and M3, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then observed while walking away from the circle without stimulus to walking. Environmental temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity inside the poultry houses were recorded. No evidence of interaction between scoring method and age was found however, both method and age influenced gait score. Gait score was found to be lower at 28 days of age. The evaluation using the ten randomly selected birds within the house was the method that presented the less reliable results. Gait score results when birds were stimulated to walk were lower than when they were not simulated, independently of age. The gait scores obtained with the three tested methods and ages were higher than those considered acceptable. The highest frequency of normal gait score (0 represented 50% of the flock. These results may be related to heat stress during rearing. Average gait score incresead with average ambient temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity. The evaluation of gait score to detect locomotion problems of broilers under rearing conditions seems subjective and

  2. National Board Scores versus Student GPA's in Chiropractic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Theodore J.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between student GPAs and scores on the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners tests was investigated in an effort to determine if the chiropractic curriculum was properly preparing students to be licensed. The study found that there was a significant correlation between GPAs and board scores. (Author/MLW)

  3. A Human Capital Model of Educational Test Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  4. Immediate outcome of babies with low Apgar score in Mulago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Birth asphyxia contributes significantly to perinatal morbidity and mortality especially in resource poor countries. Although the Apgar score has been in use for over 50 years, the prevalence of low Apgar score and attendant risk factors and outcome have not been established in many sub-Saharan countries ...

  5. Biological significance of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerre, P.; Andreesen, J.R.

    1986-02-01

    Until a few years ago, selenium was exclusively thought of as a toxic substance which was applied mainly in the optical and electrical industries. By now, many biological reactions have been detected which cannot take place without the catalytic effect of selenium. The majority of these processes was found and clarified in microorganisms; however, the anticarcinogenic properties of this trace element may well have some significance for man in future.

  6. Characterizing indeterminate (Likert-score 3/5) peripheral zone prostate lesions with PSA density, PI-RADS scoring and qualitative descriptors on multiparametric MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizmohun Appayya, Mrishta; Sidhu, Harbir S; Dikaios, Nikolaos; Johnston, Edward W; Simmons, Lucy Am; Freeman, Alex; Kirkham, Alexander Ps; Ahmed, Hashim U; Punwani, Shonit

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether indeterminate (Likert-score 3/5) peripheral zone (PZ) multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) studies are classifiable by prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density (PSAD), Prostate Imaging Reporting And Data System version 2 (PI-RADS_v2) rescoring and morphological MRI features. Men with maximum Likert-score 3/5 within their PZ were retrospectively selected from 330 patients who prospectively underwent prostate mpMRI (3 T) without an endorectal coil, followed by 20-zone transperineal template prostate mapping biopsies +/- focal lesion-targeted biopsy. PSAD was calculated using pre-biopsy PSA and MRI-derived volume. Two readers A and B independently assessed included men with both Likert-assessment and PI-RADS_v2. Both readers then classified mpMRI morphological features in consensus. Men were divided into two groups: significant cancer (≥ Gleason 3 + 4) or insignificant cancer (≤ Gleason 3 + 3)/no cancer. Comparisons between groups were made separately for PSA & PSAD using Mann-Whitney test and morphological descriptors with Fisher's exact test. PI-RADS_v2 and Likert-assessment were descriptively compared and percentage inter-reader agreement calculated. 76 males were eligible for PSA & PSAD analyses, 71 for PI-RADS scoring, and 67 for morphological assessment (excluding significant image artefacts). Unlike PSA (p = 0.915), PSAD was statistically different (p = 0.004) between the significant [median: 0.19 ng ml - 2 (interquartile range: 0.13-0.29)] and non-significant/no cancer [median: 0.13 ng ml - 2 (interquartile range: 0.10-0.17)] groups. Presence of mpMRI morphological features was not significantly different between groups. Subjective Likert-assessment discriminated patients with significant cancer better than PI-RADS_v2. Inter-reader percentage agreement was 83% for subjective Likert-assessment and 56% for PI-RADS_v2. PSAD may categorize presence of significant cancer in patients with Likert-scored 3/5 PZ mpMRI findings. Advances in

  7. Inpatient nursing care and early warning scores: a workflow mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne; Skipper, Chantel; Steury, Rachel; Walsh, Heather; Levin, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Early warning scores calculated by registered nurses (RNs) are used in hospitals to enhance the recognition of and communication about patient deterioration. This study evaluated workflow variables surrounding calculation and documentation of one pediatric hospital's use of an early warning score. Results indicated that there were significant delays in documentation of early warning scores by RNs and inconsistencies between the early warning scores and vital signs collected and documented by non-RN personnel. These findings reflected information obtained from the RNs about how they prioritize tasks and use work-arounds to specific systems issues regarding assessment and documentation in the electronic medical record.

  8. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  9. [The diagnostic values of Wells score and modified Geneva score for pretesting acute pulmonary embolism: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan-ping; Li, Yan-yan; Chen, Jin; Zheng, Guang; Ma, Xin; Peng, Xiao-xia; Yang, Yuan-hua

    2012-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic predictive value of Wells score and modified Geneva score for acute pulmonary embolism by prospective case series and to explore a more suitable scoring system for Chinese population. All the patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE) and received CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) were enrolled consecutively in Fuxing Hospital, Capital Medical University, China, from June 2009 to August 2011. Before CTPA test or on condition that test results were unknown, clinical scoring was assessed prospectively by the Wells score and the modified Geneva score. The probability of PE in each patient was assessed and the patients were divided into low, moderate and high probability groups according to the clinical scores. The result of CTPA was used as the diagnostic gold standard for PE. Diagnostic accuracy in each group was analyzed. The predictive accuracy of both scores was compared by AUC(ROC) curve. A total of 139 patients met our enrollment criteria and 117 eligible patients entered our study at last. PE was diagnosed in 47 patients by CTPA with an overall prevalence of 40.2%.Prevalence of PE in the low, moderate and high pretest probability groups assessed by the Wells score and by the simplified modified Geneva score were 7.1% (3/42), 42.9% (21/49), 88.5% (23/26) and 10.0% (3/30), 48.1% (37/77), 7/10, respectively. AUC(ROC) curves for the Wells score and the simplified modified Geneva score were 0.872 (95%CI 0.810 - 0.933) and 0.734 (95%CI 0.643 - 0.825) respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.005). The Wells score is more accurate for clinical predicting acute PE than the modified Geneva score.

  10. Developing and scoring essay tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, M

    1999-01-01

    The need to prepare nursing students for the licensing examination has resulted in a predominance of multiple-choice testing in nursing courses. But what about evaluating students' ability to present ideas in their own words and develop creative responses to questions posed by the teacher? Essay items provide an effective means of assessing higher levels of learning and ability to organize and present ideas in writing. The author describes how to develop essay items and score responses.

  11. Metacognitions are associated with subjective memory problems in patients with chronic fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Børsting Jacobsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjective cognitive impairments are frequent, but poorly understood in patients with chronic fatigue. We hypothesized that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs at baseline were associated with baseline subjective cognitive impairments, that they predict subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, and that a reduction in maladaptive metacognitive beliefs was associated with less subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, independent of changes in fatigue, pain, insomnia, depression, and anxiety.Methods: In this non-controlled study, patients (n=137 on sick leave due to chronic fatigue received a 3.5-week inpatient RTW rehabilitation program. Of these patients 69 (50.4 % was referred with a ICPC-2 diagnosis of chronic fatigue. Patients completed questionnaires about metacognitive beliefs, somatic complaints, psychological complaints, and cognitive impairments before and after treatment. To test the hypotheses we performed paired t tests of change, as well as seven hierarchical linear regressions.Results: Results showed that baseline maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were significantly associated with subjective cognitive impairments at baseline, controlling for symptoms. Score on baseline metacognitive beliefs did not predict impairments post-treatment. Testing specific maladaptive beliefs, pre-treatment scores on cognitive confidence were associated with subjective cognitive impairments both pre and post-treatment, controlling for symptoms. Post-treatment metacognitive beliefs and post-treatment cognitive confidence were associated with post-treatment subjective cognitive impairments, controlling for pre-treatment impairments and pre-treatment metacognitive beliefs, as well as pre and post scores on symptom measures. Conclusion: This study reports associations between maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and subjective cognitive impairments in patients with chronic fatigue. Targeting metacognitive beliefs

  12. Relation of Framingham Risk Score to Subclinical Atherosclerosis Evaluated Across Three Arterial Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Roksana; Hodis, Howard N; Detrano, Robert; Liu, Chao-ran; Liu, Chi-hua; Mack, Wendy J

    2008-01-01

    The Framingham risk score (FRS) is widely used in clinical practice to identify subjects at high risk for developing coronary heart disease (CHD). However, FRS may not accurately identify subjects at risk. We measured subclinical atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and aorta with the presence of calcium (CAC and AC, respectively) and in the common carotid artery by intima-media thickness (CIMT) in 498 healthy subjects. The distribution of these subclinical atherosclerosis measures was evaluated across 3 strata of the FRS. CAC, AC and CIMT were significantly independently associated with FRS. The FRS increased with the number of arterial sites with atherosclerosis. Sixty-nine percent of the subjects categorized in the low risk group (FRS20%) had 1 or more vascular imaging studies demonstrating subclinical atherosclerosis. Among the low risk group, subjects with atherosclerosis had a longer history of lifetime smoking compared to those without atherosclerosis. In conclusion, subclinical atherosclerosis is prominent across the spectrum of FRS. Evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis in different arterial sites in addition to FRS may be useful in targeting subjects for lifestyle and other interventions. PMID:18805105

  13. The effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Moghtaderi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an annoying disease cause major problems including insomnia, impaired concentration, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.Methods: This was a pilot experimental study with pre- and post-test method. 20 people suffered from subjective tinnitus were divided equally in two groups of experimental and control. The two groups were matched according to age and severity of tinnitus. They completed tinnitus clinical questionnaires before and after the test and the severity of their tinnitus was recorded by a number from one to ten. Experimental group went under hypnotherapy for 10 sessions. The control group did not perform any psychological treatment. The gathered data were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test (independent and dependent.Results: There were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of each group and also, between the post-test scores of experimental and control groups (p = 0.001 for all.Conclusion: The results showed that hypnotherapy could effectively reduce the seventy of tinnitus in patients in the experimental group; in other words, the results confirm the effectiveness of medical hypnosis in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.

  14. [Establishment of "Anaphylaxis Scoring Aichi (ASCA)," a new symptom scoring system to be used in an oral food challenge (OFC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Asuka; Maeda, Toru; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Takae; Yasui, Masahiro; Kando, Naoyuki; Ito, Komei

    2013-08-01

    An original symptom score sheet named "Anaphylaxis Scoring Aichi (ASCA)" was created to quantitatively determine the severity of allergic symptoms provoked in an oral food challenge. ASCA lists and sorts subjective and objective symptoms into five organs (respiratory, skin-mucosal, gastrointestinal, psycho-neurological and cardiovascular). The organ scores were given (0 to 60 points) in accordance with the severity of each symptom. The total score was defined as the sum of the highest 5 organ scores (maximum 240 points) observed throughout the course of an OFC. This study evaluated the ASCA score in 253 cases of a positive food challenge (age 1-16 years, mean 5.3±3.2 years) conducted from April to August 2011 in our institute. The results were compared to the modified anaphylaxis grading presented in the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Oral Food Challenge Test in Food Allergy 2009. At the same time, we evaluated the indications of symptomatic treatment using ASCA score. The total score closely correlated with the anaphylaxis grading, but there was a wide range of overlap between grade 2 and grade 3. All cases with a total score≥60 points were equivalent to grade 4 or 5, and that were consisted of three or more organ symptoms. These severe cases contained respiratory or skin/mucosal symptoms, and despite the early induction of initial therapy, the symptoms became worse. ASCA is therefore considered to be a useful tool for use in an oral food challenge test.

  15. Translation and validation of the new version of the Knee Society Score - The 2011 KS Score - into Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lucia Pastore e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the new version of the Knee Society Score - The 2011 KS Score - into Brazilian Portuguese and verification of its measurement properties, reproducibility, and validity. In 2012, the new version of the Knee Society Score was developed and validated. This scale comprises four separate subscales: (a objective knee score (seven items: 100 points; (b patient satisfaction score (five items: 40 points; (c patient expectations score (three items: 15 points; and (d functional activity score (19 items: 100 points. METHOD: A total of 90 patients aged 55-85 years were evaluated in a clinical cross-sectional study. The pre-operative translated version was applied to patients with TKA referral, and the post-operative translated version was applied to patients who underwent TKA. Each patient answered the same questionnaire twice and was evaluated by two experts in orthopedic knee surgery. Evaluations were performed pre-operatively and three, six, or 12 months post-operatively. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between the two applications. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The ICC found no difference between the means of the pre-operative, three-month, and six-month post-operative evaluations between sub-scale items. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of The 2011 KS Score is a valid and reliable instrument for objective and subjective evaluation of the functionality of Brazilian patients who undergo TKA and revision TKA.

  16. Score Function of Distribution and Revival of the Moment Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2016), s. 1118-1136 ISSN 0361-0926 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : characteristics of distributions * data characteristics * general moment method * Huber moment estimator * parametric methods * score function Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2016

  17. Biophysical profile scores and resistance indices of the umbilical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The role of Biophysical Profile Score and resistive index of the umbilical artery for monitoring pre-eclampsia patients. Design: Descriptive prospective study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: One hundred and ten cases during a three month period. Results: Normal ...

  18. Prognostic factors and scoring system for survival in colonic perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Shuhei; Shimomatsuya, Takumi; Nakajima, Masayuki; Amaya, Hirokazu; Kobuchi, Taketsune; Shiraishi, Susumu; Konishi, Sayuri; Ono, Susumu; Maruhashi, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    No ideal and generally accepted prognostic factors and scoring systems exist to determine the prognosis of peritonitis associated with colonic perforation. This study was designed to investigate prognostic factors and evaluate the various scoring systems to allow identification of high-risk patients. Between 1996 and 2003, excluding iatrogenic and trauma cases, 26 consecutive patients underwent emergency operations for colorectal perforation and were selected for this retrospective study. Several clinical factors were analyzed as possible predictive factors, and APACHE II, SOFA, MPI, and MOF scores were calculated. The overall mortality was 26.9%. Compared with the survivors, non-survivors were found more frequently in Hinchey's stage III-IV, a low preoperative marker of pH, base excess (BE), and a low postoperative marker of white blood cell count, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and renal output (24h). According to the logistic regression model, BE was a significant independent variable. Concerning the prognostic scoring systems, an APACHE II score of 19, a SOFA score of 8, an MPI score of 30, and an MOF score of 7 or more were significantly related to poor prognosis. Preoperative BE and postoperative white blood cell count were reliable prognostic factors and early classification using prognostic scoring systems at specific points in the disease process are useful to improve our understanding of the problems involved.

  19. Pancreatic cysts in general population on ultrasonography: Prevalence and development of risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroida, Yoko; Sato, Masaya; Hikita, Hiromi; Hagiwara, Shu; Sato, Mamiko; Gotoh, Hiroaki; Kato, Sachiko; Iwai, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Yatomi, Yutaka; Sasano, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Hitoshi

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic cysts are related to the presence of ductal adenocarcinomas elsewhere in the pancreas, and are also associated with an increased risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in the future. Most of the previous studies that investigated the prevalence of pancreatic cysts focused on patients within a hospital or out-patient setting, which may not be representative of the general population. We investigated the prevalence and predictive factors for the presence of pancreatic cysts within a large number of subjects via general health examination. Between December 2007 and December 2013, a total of 5198 subjects were enrolled that underwent ultrasonography (US) on general health examination. We established a scoring system for predicting the presence of one or more pancreatic cysts using a split-sample method. Among the enrolled subjects, the prevalence of a pancreatic cyst was 3.5 %. In multivariate analysis, the prevalence was significantly increased with older age, female sex, and the presence of gall bladder adenomyomatosis (GB-ADM). Based on multivariate analysis in the training sample (n = 2,599), we established the scoring system consisting of age, sex, and the presence of GB-ADM to predict the presence of pancreatic cysts. This scoring system was validated in the testing sample (n = 2,599) and produced an area under the curve of 0.711. The prevalence of pancreatic cyst detected by US was 3.5 % in the general population, and increased with age, female sex, and the presence of GB-ADM. A new scoring system developed in the present study may help to identify better candidates for further examination when the pancreas is not visible by US.

  20. [Validation of a diagnostic scoring system (Ohmann score) in acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, A; Sitter, H; Rampp, T A; Schäfer, E; Hasse, C; Lorenz, W; Rothmund, M

    1999-07-01

    A diagnostic scoring system, recently published by Ohmann et al. in this journal, was validated by analyzing the clinicopathological data of a consecutive series of 2,359 patients, admitted for suspicion of acute appendicitis. The results of the scoring system were compared to the results of clinical evaluation by junior (provisional) and senior surgeons (final clinical diagnosis). To assess the diagnostic ability of the score, the accuracy and positive predictive value were defined as the major diagnostic performance parameters; the rate of theoretical negative laparotomies and that of diagnostic errors served as the major procedural performance parameters. Of 2,359 patients admitted for suspected acute appendicitis, 662 were proven to have acute appendicitis by histology, for a prevalence of 28%. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the provisional clinical diagnosis were 0.50, 0.94, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.82; 0.93, for the score 0.63, 0.93, 0.77, 0.86 and 0.84, and for the final clinical diagnosis 0.90, 0.94, 0.85, 0.96, and 0.93, respectively. Of the main diagnostic performance parameter, the accuracy of the score was significantly better than that of provisional clinical diagnosis (P apendicitis, the score demonstrated a superior performance, with only 6 cases missed (0.9%). However, the number of patients with acute appendicitis, including those with perforated disease, who were not identified by the score, was almost four times that of the final clinical diagnosis (245 vs 63). With regard to the main procedural performance parameter, the score resulted in a significantly smaller number of diagnostic errors than the provisional clinical investigator (P < 0.05, chi 2 test). The results of this study indicate that the diagnostic scoring system might be helpful when experienced investigators or additional diagnostic modalities such as ultrasonography are not available. It may therefore be of value

  1. Predictive value of semi-quantitative MRI-based scoring systems for future knee replacement: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Eng, John; Demehri, Shadpour [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zikria, Bashir [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carrino, John A. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate, in a confirmatory fashion, whether baseline and change from baseline to 24-month follow-up in cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions and meniscal damage are predictors of knee replacement (KR) in subjects with a high risk of osteoarthritis (OA), independent of the level of physical activity, symptom severity and radiographic abnormalities. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative's (OAI) baseline and 24-month follow-up knee MRIs of 115 patients (age range: 45-78 years; 48 % female; BMI: 20.9-48.7) were analyzed. Cartilage, bone marrow and menisci were semi-quantitatively scored according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) and Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) systems in all compartments. Baseline and 24-month interval changes in structural tissue damage assessed by BLOKS and WORMS were used as predictors of KR independent of clinical and radiographic parameters using Cox hazard analysis. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, BMI and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly: PASE), Western Ontario and McMaster Questionnaire (WOMAC) total score and radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score. BLOKS and WORMS baseline cartilage scores were predictors of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. One score increase in the average baseline BLOKS full-thickness cartilage defect score was associated with a [hazard ratio (95 % CI)] 13.55 (3.61-50.89) times greater risk of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. Net reclassification improvements (NRIs) of the additional evaluation of 24-month follow-up MRI scores and assessment of changes were not significant for prediction of KR (NRI range: - 7.23 - 24.8 %). The BLOKS cartilage score for full-thickness cartilage defects had the highest hazard for KR. Follow-up MRI changes in structural tissue damage, detected by BLOKS and WORMS cartilage, bone marrow or meniscus scores (up to 24 months) had no significant predictive value in addition

  2. Disease scoring systems for oral lichen planus; a critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity of both the objective and subjective parameters used in these systems and the lack of acceptance of one of these systems for uniform use, there is a need for an international, authorized consensus meeting on this subject. Because of the natural course of OLP characterized by remissions and exacerbations and also due to the varying distribution pattern and the varying clinical types, e.g. reticular and erosive, the relevance of a DSS based on morphologic parameters is somewhat questionable. Instead, one may consider to only look for a quality of life scoring system adapted for use in OLP patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, disease scoring system, classification. PMID:25681372

  3. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Coletta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  4. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  5. Prostacyclin (epoprostenol) induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Troels; Olesen, Jes; Oturai, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    and vasodilatation of cranial vessels. A stable analog of PGI(2) epoprostenol (10 ng/kg/min) was infused for 25 min into 12 healthy subjects in a cross-over, double-blind study. Headache intensity was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10. In addition, we recorded mean flow in the middle cerebral artery (V...

  6. Patient-generated subjective global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; Martine J. Sealy; Suzanne Kasenic; Elizabeth Isenring; Faith D. Ottery; Susan P. DeBolt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), including the PG-SGA Short Form (SF, aka ‘abridged’), was originally developed in the mid 1990’s as a scored, patient self-report, paperbased instrument and has been widely validated. The PG-SGA (SF) has been used for screening,

  7. On the relationship between subjective and objective measures of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Ina; Kirchner, Christine; Bock, Otmar Leo

    2016-09-01

    Objective and subjective methods have been used in the past to assess workplace fatigue, but little is known about correlations between them. We examine correlations between subjective and objective measures, including measures collected in a workplace scenario. 15 young and 17 older participants were assessed before and after work with four types of fatigue measure: objective physical (posturography), objective mental (psychomotor vigilance task), subjective physical and mental (self-assessment), objective and subjective realistic (oculomotor behaviour, observer-rated facial expression, typing performance). Pre- and post-test scores were analysed with an ANOVA, significant differences were submitted to a factor analysis. It yielded three factors: one representing posturography, the second self-rated mental and physical fatigue and the third observer-rated facial expression. Results advocate the existence of three independent fatigue components: Objective physical fatigue, introspective and extrospective fatigue. Practitioner Summary: This study analyses correlations between different subjective and objective fatigue markers to better understand the complex nature of workplace fatigue. Measurements were conducted directly at the workplace. Results reveal that fatigue comprises three independent fatigue components: Objective physical fatigue, introspective and extrospective fatigue.

  8. Subjective and objective effects of coffee consumption - caffeine or expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Zs; Szemerszky, R; Köteles, F

    2015-03-01

    Impact of 5 mg/kg caffeine, chance of receiving caffeine (stimulus expectancies), and expectations of effects of caffeine (response expectancies) on objective (heart rate (HR), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), measures of heart rate variability (HRV), and reaction time (RT)) and subjective variables were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with a no-treatment group. Participants were 107 undergraduate university students (mean age 22.3 ± 3.96 years). Consumption of 5 mg/kg caffeine had an impact on participants' SBP, standard deviation of normal heartbeat intervals, HR (decrease), and subjective experience 40 minutes later even after controlling for respective baseline values, stimulus and response expectancies, and habitual caffeine consumption. No effects on DBP, high frequency component of HRV, the ratio of low- and high-frequency, and RT were found. Beyond actual caffeine intake, response expectancy score was also a determinant of subjective experience which refers to a placebo component in the total effect. Actual autonomic (SBP, HR) changes and somatosensory amplification tendency, however, had no significant impact on subjective experience. Placebo reaction plays a role in the subjective changes caused by caffeine consumption but it has no impact on objective variables. Conditional vs deceptive administration of caffeine (i.e. stimulus expectancies) had no impact on any assessed variable.

  9. Recurrence analysis of the EEG during sleep accurately identifies subjects with mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, David E; Punjabi, Naresh M; Kim, Paul Y; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2014-12-30

    Analysis of brain recurrence (ABR) is a novel computational method that uses two variables for sleep depth and two for sleep fragmentation to quantify temporal changes in non-random brain electrical activity. We postulated that ABR of the sleep-staged EEG could identify an EEG signature specific for the presence of mental health symptoms. Using the Mental Health Inventory Questionnaire (MHI-5) as ground truth, psychological distress was assessed in a study cohort obtained from the Sleep Heart Health Study. Subjects with MHI-5 50. Sixteen ABR markers derived from the EEG were analyzed using linear discriminant analysis to identify marker combinations that reliably classified individual subjects. A biomarker function computed from 12 of the markers accurately classified the subjects based on their MHI-5 scores (AUROC=82%). Use of additional markers did not improve classification accuracy. Subgroup analysis (20 highest and 20 lowest MHI-5 scores) improved classification accuracy (AUROC=89%). Biomarker values for individual subjects were significantly correlated with MHI-5 score (r=0.36, 0.54 for N=68, 40, respectively). ABR of EEGs obtained during sleep successfully classified subjects with regard to the severity of mental health symptoms, indicating that mood systems were reflected in brain electrical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Whole-word response scoring underestimates functional spelling ability for some individuals with global agraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tesla Demarco

    2015-05-01

    These data suggest that conventional whole-word scoring may significantly underestimate functional spelling performance. Because by-letter scoring boosted pre-treatment scores to the same extent as post-treatment scores, the magnitude of treatment gains was no greater than estimates from conventional whole-word scoring. Nonetheless, the surprisingly large disparity between conventional whole-word scoring and by-letter scoring suggests that by-letter scoring methods may warrant further investigation. Because by-letter analyses may hold interest to others, we plan to make the software tool used in this study available on-line for use to researchers and clinicians at large.

  11. Relationship between maternal periodontal disease and Apgar score of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Abdollahifard, Sedigeh; Chitsazi, Mohammad-Taghi; Behlooli, Sepideh

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and the health status of newborns using Apgar scores. One hundred pregnant women with periodontal disease were included in the case series and 100 pregnant women without periodontal disease were placed in the control group, respectively. The periodontal parameters of bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing depth (PD), birth weight, and Apgar scores were recorded in both groups. T-tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to determine the birth weight odds ratio to analyze the relationship between the periodontal parameters of BOP, CAL, and PD on the one hand and an Apgar score of less than 7. An unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze differences in means between the case and control groups using SPSS ver. 13. The means of the ages, periodontal pocket depths, attachment loss, areas with BOP, Apgar score in the first 5 minutes and infant birth weight exhibited statistically significant differences between the case and control groups. The ratio of an Apgar score of Apgar score and BOP, CAL, and PD and also between the Apgar score and infant birth weight. The results of this study showed a significant relationship between periodontal disease and infant birth weight; in addition, there was a significant relationship between the periodontal indexes of BOP, CAL, and PD on the one hand and the Apgar score on the other.

  12. Improved automated perimetry performance in elderly subjects after listening to Mozart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Cabral Marques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. INTRODUCTION: Automated perimetry (AP is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. METHODS: Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2. The study group (25 subjects underwent AP after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. RESULTS: The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively. The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03. DISCUSSION: This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. CONCLUSION: Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects.

  13. Improved automated perimetry performance in elderly subjects after listening to Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Junia Cabral; Vanessa, Adriana Chaves Oliveira; Fiorelli, Macedo Batista; Kasahara, Niro

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. Automated perimetry (AP) is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2). The study group (25 subjects) underwent AP after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects) underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively). The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03). This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects.

  14. Normative significance of transnationalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    The paper concerns the specific transnational aspects of the ‘cartoons controversy' over the publication of 12 drawings of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. Transnationalism denotes the relationships that are not international (between states) or domestic (between states...... and citizens, or between groups or individuals within a state). The paper considers whether the specifically transnational aspects of the controversy are normatively significant, that is, whether transnationalism makes a difference for the applicability or strength of normative considerations concerning...... publications such as the Danish cartoons. It is argued that, although some of the usual arguments about free speech only or mainly apply domestically, many also apply transnationally; that standard arguments for multicultural recognition are difficult to apply transnationally; and that requirements of respect...

  15. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  16. The Utility of Scoring Systems in Predicting Early and Late Mortality in Alcoholic Hepatitis: Whose Score Is It Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naaventhan Palaniyappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH is a distinct clinical entity in the spectrum of alcoholic liver disease with a high short-term mortality. Several scoring systems are being used to assess the severity of AH but the ability of these scores to predict long-term survival in these patients is largely unknown. Aims. We aim to assess the utility of five different scoring systems Child Pugh (CP, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD, Maddrey’s discriminant function (mDF, Glasgow AH score (GAHS, and age-bilirubin-INR-creatinine (ABIC score in predicting shot-term and long-term survival in patients with AH. Methods. Patients with histological evidence of AH were identified from our database. The clinical and biochemical parameters were used to calculate the 5 different scores. The prognostic utility of these scores was determined by generating an ROC curve for survival at 30 days, 90 days, 6 months, and 1 year. Results and Conclusions. All 5 scores with the exception of CP score have a similar accuracy in predicting the short-term prognosis. However, they are uniformly poor in predicting longer-term survival with AUROC not exceeding 0.74. CP score is a very poor predictor of survival in both short and long term. Abstinence from alcohol was significantly (<0.05 associated with survival at 1 year.

  17. PENGARUH PENDAMPING PERSALINAN TERHADAP APGAR SCORE BAYI MENIT PERTAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widd Efrita

    2015-07-01

    dengan penilaian Apgar Score menit pertama kelAsphyxia is a major cause of infant mortality, an indicator for the diagnosis of asphyxia in newborns with Apgar Scores assessment first minute after birth. Kontraksi uterus selama proses persalinan dapat menimbulkan rasa nyeri sehingga meningkatkan ketegangan,ketakutan dan kecemasan pada ibu dan keluarga. Uterine contractions during labor can cause pain thereby increasing the tension, this process affects placenter utero oxygenation in infants who are still in the uterus, so that when the baby will have birth asphyxia is characterized by the value of the first minute Apgar score lower. Namun hal ini dapat diatasi dengan menciptakan lingkungan yang mendukung diantaranya menghadirkan suami atau keluarga sebagai pendamping dalam proses persalinan. But this can be overcome by creating an environment that supports them bring their husbands or families as a companion in labor. Tujuan umum penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan nilai apgar score menit pertama pada persalinan dengan pendamping dan tanpa pendamping di BPS Kota Padang tahun 2013. The general objective of this study was to determine the difference in value of the first minute Apgar score at birth with and without an escort companion in private practice midwives Padang in 2013. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental dengan rancangan non-Randomized Posttest Only Control Group Design . This study is an experimental non-randomized design Posttest Only Control Group Design. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah semua ibu inpartu fase aktif di bidan praktik swasta di Kota Padang selama periode Agustus s/d September 2013. Subjects in this study were all mothers inpartu active phase in private practice midwives in Padang during the period August s / d September 2013. Data diambil dengan menggunakan daftar ceklis berdasarkan hasil observasi terhadap kedua kelompok. The data were taken using a checklist based on the observation list to both groups. Data dianalisis dengan

  18. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effectiveness of using the front door score to enhance the chest pain triage accuracy of emergency nurse triage decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jonathan K M; Suen, Lorna K P

    2013-01-01

    Nurses lack a standard tool to stratify the risk of chest pain in triage patients. The type of risk stratification may correspond to the type of acuity rating of the 5-level triage scale adopted by nurses for chest pain triage, based on the Front Door Score, simplified from the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Risk Score for unstable angina or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of using the Front Door Score to enhance the accuracy of emergency nurse triage decisions for patients who present with chest pain. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A convenience sample of 200 subjects was obtained from an emergency department in Hong Kong. Data were collected via a questionnaire. The final physician diagnoses were used as the gold standard in justifying the appropriateness of the risk stratification of chest pain. The agreement rates among the final physician diagnoses, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Risk Score for unstable angina or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, nurses using the triage scale, and nurses using the Front Door Score were computed using κ statistics. A significant substantial agreement was observed between the final physician diagnoses and nurses using the Front Door Score. In comparison, the agreement between the final physician diagnoses and nurses using the triage scale was poor. The chest pain triage reliability of nurses using the Front Door Score was found to be much more credible than that of nurses using the triage scale. A suggested conversion of the scales of Front Door Score was established. The Front Door Score should be considered as a standard tool to enhance the chest pain triage accuracy of emergency nurse triage decisions.

  20. Tear Osmolarity, Break-up Time and Schirmer's Scores in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söğütlü Sarı, Esin; Koç, Rabia; Yazıcı, Alper; Şahin, Gözde; Çakmak, Harun; Kocatürk, Tolga; Ermiş, Sıtkı Samet

    2015-08-01

    Dry eye is an important problem in Parkinson's disease (PD) with a potential to affect life quality. Tear osmolarity, accepted as the gold standard in dry eye diagnosis, has not been studied in this subset of patients so far. Therefore, in this study we aimed to evaluate tear osmolarity, Schirmer's test scores and tear film break-up time (TBUT) in PD patients. PD patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year and healthy controls who admitted for refractive abnormalities were enrolled to the study. Subjects using any systemic medication with a possibility to affect tear tests were not included in the study. The presence of any ocular surface disorder, previous ocular surgery, previous dry eye diagnosis, any topical ophthalmic medication or contact lens use were other exclusion criteria. Age, gender, disease duration, and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) score for disease severity were noted, and blink rate (BR), Schirmer's test score, TBUT and tear osmolarity of the right eye were measured in both groups. Thirty-seven PD patients and 37 controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were age and gender matched. The mean disease duration and H&Y score were 5.70±2.64 years and 1.70±0.93, respectively. H&Y staging and disease duration were not correlated to BR, Schirmer's scores, TBUT, or tear osmolarity (p>0.05). The mean BR was 8.54±4.99 blinks/minute in PD patients and 11.97±6.36 blinks/minute in the control group. Mean Schirmer's scores, TBUT and osmolarity values were 9.08±4.46 mm, 11.38±4.05 seconds and 306.43±12.63 mOsm/L in the PD group and 17.16±9.57 mm, 12.81±3.66 seconds and 303.81±16.13 mOsm/L in the control group. The differences were significant only in BR and Schirmer's scores. BR and Schirmer's scores decreased significantly in PD patients. Although not significant, the demonstrated tear osmolarity increment might be important to document the dry eye and inflammatory process of the ocular surface in PD patients.

  1. Tear Osmolarity, Break-up Time and Schirmer’s Scores in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söğütlü Sarı, Esin; Koç, Rabia; Yazıcı, Alper; Şahin, Gözde; Çakmak, Harun; Kocatürk, Tolga; Ermiş, Sıtkı Samet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Dry eye is an important problem in Parkinson’s disease (PD) with a potential to affect life quality. Tear osmolarity, accepted as the gold standard in dry eye diagnosis, has not been studied in this subset of patients so far. Therefore, in this study we aimed to evaluate tear osmolarity, Schirmer’s test scores and tear film break-up time (TBUT) in PD patients. Ma­te­ri­als and Met­hods: PD patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year and healthy controls who admitted for refractive abnormalities were enrolled to the study. Subjects using any systemic medication with a possibility to affect tear tests were not included in the study. The presence of any ocular surface disorder, previous ocular surgery, previous dry eye diagnosis, any topical ophthalmic medication or contact lens use were other exclusion criteria. Age, gender, disease duration, and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) score for disease severity were noted, and blink rate (BR), Schirmer’s test score, TBUT and tear osmolarity of the right eye were measured in both groups. Re­sults: Thirty-seven PD patients and 37 controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were age and gender matched. The mean disease duration and H&Y score were 5.70±2.64 years and 1.70±0.93, respectively. H&Y staging and disease duration were not correlated to BR, Schirmer’s scores, TBUT, or tear osmolarity (p>0.05). The mean BR was 8.54±4.99 blinks/minute in PD patients and 11.97±6.36 blinks/minute in the control group. Mean Schirmer’s scores, TBUT and osmolarity values were 9.08±4.46 mm, 11.38±4.05 seconds and 306.43±12.63 mOsm/L in the PD group and 17.16±9.57 mm, 12.81±3.66 seconds and 303.81±16.13 mOsm/L in the control group. The differences were significant only in BR and Schirmer’s scores. Conclusion: BR and Schirmer’s scores decreased significantly in PD patients. Although not significant, the demonstrated tear osmolarity increment might be important to document the dry eye and inflammatory process of

  2. Factors impacting Press Ganey patient satisfaction scores in orthopedic surgery spine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etier, Brian E; Orr, Scott P; Antonetti, Jonathan; Thomas, Scott B; Theiss, Steven M

    2016-11-01

    Patient satisfaction is and will continue to become an important metric in the American health care system. To our knowledge, there is no current literature exploring the factors that impact patient satisfaction in outpatient orthopedic spine surgery clinic. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors impact patient satisfaction in an outpatient orthopedic spine clinic. This is a case series, level of evidence IV. We reviewed the Press Ganey Associates database to identify patients seen in an orthopedic spine surgery clinic from 2013 to 2015. Outcome measures were self-reported, which included visual analog pain scores and Press Ganey satisfaction scores. Retrospective computerized Press Ganey survey review was performed to identify patient demographics and patient visit characteristics. Bivariate analysis was used by splitting the patient response into the following: 0-3 (not satisfied), 4-7 (somewhat satisfied), and 8-11 (satisfied). Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher exact test were used to evaluate the significance of patient and visit characteristics. Any variable that had a p-value less than .20 was subjected to the Poisson regression model. Overall, 353 patients were seen in an orthopedic spine surgery clinic and completed the Press Ganey survey. Three hundred and thirty-two patients were satisfied with their visit. Patients who were satisfied had a mean pain score of 4.02; patients who were somewhat satisfied or not satisfied had a pain score of 7 and 6, respectively (p=.009). Of 21 patients who felt the provider did not spend enough time with him or her, five (24%) patients were not satisfied with their visit. Poisson regression model confirmed significance of pain score and "provider time spent with you." Most impactful was "provider spent enough time with you" where a "yes, definitely" answer predicted a nearly 60% increase in Press Ganey overall satisfaction score. Two patient variables that have a statistical significance on Press Ganey

  3. Tear Osmolarity, Break-up Time and Schirmer’s Scores in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Söğütlü Sarı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dry eye is an important problem in Parkinson’s disease (PD with a potential to affect life quality. Tear osmolarity, accepted as the gold standard in dry eye diagnosis, has not been studied in this subset of patients so far. Therefore, in this study we aimed to evaluate tear osmolarity, Schirmer’s test scores and tear film break-up time (TBUT in PD patients. Materials and Methods: PD patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year and healthy controls who admitted for refractive abnormalities were enrolled to the study. Subjects using any systemic medication with a possibility to affect tear tests were not included in the study. The presence of any ocular surface disorder, previous ocular surgery, previous dry eye diagnosis, any topical ophthalmic medication or contact lens use were other exclusion criteria. Age, gender, disease duration, and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y score for disease severity were noted, and blink rate (BR, Schirmer’s test score, TBUT and tear osmolarity of the right eye were measured in both groups. Results: Thirty-seven PD patients and 37 controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were age and gender matched. The mean disease duration and H&Y score were 5.70±2.64 years and 1.70±0.93, respectively. H&Y staging and disease duration were not correlated to BR, Schirmer’s scores, TBUT, or tear osmolarity (p>0.05. The mean BR was 8.54±4.99 blinks/minute in PD patients and 11.97±6.36 blinks/minute in the control group. Mean Schirmer’s scores, TBUT and osmolarity values were 9.08±4.46 mm, 11.38±4.05 seconds and 306.43±12.63 mOsm/L in the PD group and 17.16±9.57 mm, 12.81±3.66 seconds and 303.81±16.13 mOsm/L in the control group. The differences were significant only in BR and Schirmer’s scores. Conclusion: BR and Schirmer’s scores decreased significantly in PD patients. Although not significant, the demonstrated tear osmolarity increment might be important to document the dry eye and inflammatory

  4. Patients' expectations of deep brain stimulation, and subjective perceived outcome related to clinical measures in Parkinson's disease: a mixed-method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Franziska; Lewis, Catharine J; Horstkoetter, Nina; Eggers, Carsten; Kalbe, Elke; Maarouf, Mohammad; Kuhn, Jens; Zurowski, Mateusz; Moro, Elena; Woopen, Christiane; Timmermann, Lars

    2013-11-01

    To study patients' expectations of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and their subjective perceived outcome, by using qualitative and quantitative methods in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients were prospectively examined before and 3 months after surgery. Semistructured interviews regarding preoperative expectations and postsurgical subjective perceived outcome were conducted. These were analysed using content analysis. For statistical analyses, patients were classified according to their subjective perceived outcome, resulting in three different subjective outcome groups (negative, mixed, positive outcome). The groups were used for multiple comparisons between and within each group regarding motor impairment, quality of life (QoL), neuropsychiatric status and cognitive functioning, using standard instruments. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to find predictors of subjective negative outcome. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyse cut-off scores for predictive tests. Of the 30 PD patients participating, 8 had a subjective negative outcome, 8 a mixed and 14 a positive outcome. All groups significantly improved in motor functioning. Patients with subjective negative outcome were characterised by preoperative unrealistic expectations, no postsurgical improvement in QoL, and significantly higher presurgical and postsurgical apathy and depression scores. Higher preoperative apathy and depression scores were significant predictors of negative subjective outcome. Cut-off scores for apathy and depression were identified. The mixed-method approach proved useful in examining a patient's subjective perception of STN-DBS outcome. Our results show that significant motor improvement does not necessarily lead to a positive subjective outcome. Moreover, PD patients should be screened carefully before surgery regarding apathy and depression. (DRKS-ID: DRKS00003221).

  5. New scoring system (APACHE-HF) for predicting adverse outcomes in patients with acute heart failure: evaluation of the APACHE II and Modified APACHE II scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hirotake; Shirakabe, Akihiro; Hata, Noritake; Yamamoto, Masanori; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Shinada, Takuro; Tomita, Kazunori; Tsurumi, Masafumi; Matsushita, Masato; Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Shinya; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2014-12-01

    No scoring system for assessing acute heart failure (AHF) has been reported. Data for 824 AHF patients were analyzed. The subjects were divided into an alive (n=750) and a dead group (n=74). We constructed a predictive scoring system based on eight significant APACHE II factors in the alive group [mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse, sodium, potassium, hematocrit, creatinine, age, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS); giving each one point], defined as the APACHE-HF score. The patients were assigned to five groups by the APACHE-HF score [Group 1: point 0 (n=70), Group 2: points 1 and 2 (n=343), Group 3: points 3 and 4 (n=294), Group 4: points 5 and 6 (n=106), and Group 5: points 7 and 8 (n=11)]. A higher optimal balance was observed in the APACHE-HF between sensitivity and specificity [87.8%, 63.9%; area under the curve (AUC)=0.779] at 2.5 points than in the APACHE II (47.3%, 67.3%; AUC=0.558) at 17.5 points. The multivariate Cox regression model identified belonging to Group 5 [hazard ratio (HR): 7.764, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.586-38.009], Group 4 (HR: 6.903, 95%CI 1.940-24.568) or Group 3 (HR: 5.335, 95%CI 1.582-17.994) to be an independent predictor of 3-year mortality. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a poorer prognosis, including all-cause death and HF events (death, readmission-HF), in Group 5 and Group 4 than in the other groups, in Group 3 than in Group 2 or Group 1, and in Group 2 than in Group 1. The new scoring system including MAP, pulse, sodium, potassium, hematocrit, creatinine, age, and GCS (APACHE-HF) can be used to predict adverse outcomes of AHF. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The utility of the additive EuroSCORE, RIFLE and AKIN staging scores in the prediction and diagnosis of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Fiona A I; McGeehan, Paul; Hill, Sharleen; Phelps, Richard; Kluth, David C; Zamvar, Vipin; Hughes, Jeremy; Ferenbach, David A

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery is a complication associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. We compared staging systems for the diagnosis of AKI after cardiac surgery, and assessed pre-operative factors predictive of post-operative AKI. Clinical data, surgical risk scores, procedure and clinical outcome were obtained on all 4,651 patients undergoing cardiac surgery to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh between April 2006 and March 2011, of whom 4,572 had sufficient measurements of creatinine before and after surgery to permit inclusion and analysis. The presence of AKI was assessed using the AKIN and RIFLE criteria. By AKIN criteria, 12.4% of the studied population developed AKI versus 6.5% by RIFLE criteria. Any post-operation AKI was associated with increased mortality from 2.2 to 13.5% (relative risk 7.0, p < 0.001), and increased inpatient stay from a median of 7 (IQR 4) to 9 (IQR 11) days (p < 0.05). Patients identified by AKIN, but not RIFLE, had a mean peak creatinine rise of 34% from baseline and had a significantly lower mortality compared to RIFLE-'Risk' AKI (mortality 6.1 vs. 9.7%; p < 0.05). Pre-operative creatinine, diabetes, NYHA Class IV dyspnoea and EuroSCORE-1 (a surgical risk score) all predicted subsequent AKI on multivariate analysis. EuroSCORE-1 outperformed any single demographic factor in predicting post-operative AKI risk, equating to an 8% increase in relative risk for each additional point. AKI after cardiac surgery is associated with delayed discharge and high mortality rates. The AKIN and RIFLE criteria identify patients at a range of AKI severity levels suitable for trial recruitment. The utility of EuroSCORE as a risk stratification tool to identify high AKI-risk subjects for prospective intervention merits further study.

  7. Comparison of the Wells score with the simplified revised Geneva score for assessing pretest probability of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaloza, Andrea; Melot, Christian; Motte, Serge

    2011-02-01

    The Wells score is widely used in the assessment of pretest probability of pulmonary embolism (PE). The revised Geneva score is a fully standardized clinical decision rule that was recently validated and further simplified. We compared the predictive accuracy of these two scores. Data from 339 patients clinically suspected of PE from two prospective management studies were used and combined. Pretest probability of PE was assessed prospectively by the Wells score. The simplified revised (SR) Geneva score was calculated retrospectively. The predictive accuracy of both scores was compared by area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The overall prevalence of PE was 19%. Prevalence of PE in the low, moderate and high pretest probability groups assessed by the Wells score and by the simplified revised Geneva score was respectively 2%(95% CI (CI) 1-6) and 4% (CI 2-10), 28% (CI 22-35) and 25% (CI 20-32), 93% (CI 70-99) and 56% (CI 27-81). The Wells score performed better than the simplified revised Geneva score in patients with a high suspicion of PE (pGeneva score was 0.85 (CI: 0.81 to 0.89) and 0.76 (CI: 0.71 to 0.80) respectively. The difference between the AUCs was statistically significant (p=0.005). In our population the Wells score appeared to be more accurate than the simplified revised Geneva score. The impact of this finding in terms of patient outcomes should be investigated in a prospective study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EFFECT OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE PROGRAMME ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH FOR SUBJECTS WITH MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Prashant Akhilesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Therapeutic eccentric exercise may provide both a structural and functional benefit during tendinopathy rehabilitation. The objective is to find the effect of eccentric exercises on improvement of pain and grip strength for subjects with Medial Epicondylitis. Method: Pre to post test experimental study design randomized thirty subjects with medial epicondylitis, 15 each into Group A and Group B. Group B subjects were treated with conventional therapy and Eccentric exercises. Group A subjects were treated with conventional therapy. Results: When means of post intervention were compared using Independent ‘t’ between groups there was no statistically significant difference in improvements obtained in VAS scores and grip strength. There was a statistically significant change in means of VAS score and Grip strength when means were analyzed by using Paired‘t’ test and Wilcoxon signed rank test within the groups with positive percentage of change. Conclusion: It is concluded that four weeks of Eccentric Exercise Programme combined with conventional therapy shown significant effect on improving pain and Grip strength, however the improvement obtained has no difference when compared with control conventional treatment for Subjects with Medial Epicondylitis.

  9. The BRICS (Bronchiectasis Radiologically Indexed CT Score): A Multicenter Study Score for Use in Idiopathic and Postinfective Bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Pallavi; Chalmers, J D; Goeminne, P C; Mai, C; Saravanamuthu, P; Velu, P Palani; Cartlidge, M K; Loebinger, M R; Jacob, J; Kamal, F; Schembri, N; Aliberti, S; Hill, U; Harrison, M; Johnson, C; Screaton, N; Haworth, C; Polverino, E; Rosales, E; Torres, A; Benegas, M N; Rossi, A G; Patel, D; Hill, A T

    2017-12-13

    The goal of this study was to develop a simplified radiological score that could assess clinical disease severity in bronchiectasis. The Bronchiectasis Radiologically Indexed CT Score (BRICS) was devised based on a multivariable analysis of the Bhalla score and its ability in predicting clinical parameters of severity. The score was then externally validated in six centers in 302 patients. A total of 184 high-resolution CT scans were scored for the validation cohort. In a multiple logistic regression model, disease severity markers significantly associated with the Bhalla score were percent predicted FEV1, sputum purulence, and exacerbations requiring hospital admission. Components of the Bhalla score that were significantly associated with the disease severity markers were bronchial dilatation and number of bronchopulmonary segments with emphysema. The BRICS was developed with these two parameters. The receiver operating-characteristic curve values for BRICS in the derivation cohort were 0.79 for percent predicted FEV1, 0.71 for sputum purulence, and 0.75 for hospital admissions per year; these values were 0.81, 0.70, and 0.70, respectively, in the validation cohort. Sputum free neutrophil elastase was significantly elevated in the group with emphysema on CT imaging. A simplified CT scoring system can be used as an adjunct to clinical parameters to predict disease severity in patients with idiopathic and postinfective bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical nutrition scores are superior for the prognosis of haemodialysis patients compared to lab markers and bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Roman; Jehle, Peter M; Osten, Bernd; Dorligschaw, Otgontogoo; Girndt, Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Malnutrition is closely related to inflammation and atherosclerosis in uraemic patients. There is still debate on how to quantify nutritional status in order to achieve the best prediction of mortality and hospitalization. Different methods to detect malnutrition were prospectively investigated for their prognostic impact on mortality and hospitalization of haemodialysis (HD) patients. We compared clinical nutrition scores (body mass index, BMI; subjective global assessment, SGA; malnutrition inflammation score, MIS; and nutritional risk screening, NRS) to lab parameters of protein and lipid metabolism, or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in 90 HD patients. Over a 3-year follow-up, all-cause mortality and hospitalization were evaluated using a Cox regression model. The scores SGA, NRS, MIS, serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin and BIA were predictive of both mortality and hospitalization. Elevated CRP predicted only a significantly higher mortality. After adjustment for age, gender, dialysis vintage and diabetes status, the best prognostic parameters for mortality were the clinical nutrition scores, MIS-Index > or = 10 [HR 6.25 (2.82-13.87), P clinical nutrition scores are superior compared to lab markers and BIA. To confirm malnutrition, we propose using clinical nutrition score generally or at least in the case of two malnutrition-positive parameters (lab, BIA, BMI).

  11. Score Bounded Monte-Carlo Tree Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Tristan; Saffidine, Abdallah

    Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a successful algorithm used in many state of the art game engines. We propose to improve a MCTS solver when a game has more than two outcomes. It is for example the case in games that can end in draw positions. In this case it improves significantly a MCTS solver to take into account bounds on the possible scores of a node in order to select the nodes to explore. We apply our algorithm to solving Seki in the game of Go and to Connect Four.

  12. Analysis of four scoring systems for the prognosis of patients with metastasis of the vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollner, Péter; Horváth, Anna; Mezei, Tamás; Banczerowski, Péter; Czigléczki, Gábor

    2018-01-31

    The metastatic spinal diseases are common health problems and there is no consensus on the appropriate treatment of metastases in several conditions. Using clinical measures (e.g. survival time, functional status), the prognosis prediction systems advise on the appropriate interventions. The aim of this article is to assess and compare four widely used scoring systems (revised Tokuhashi, Tomita, Van der Linden and modified Bauer scores) on a single center cohort. A retrospective study of 329 patients was designed who were subjected to surgeries because of metastatic spinal diseases. Subpopulations according to the classifications of four scoring systems were identified. The overall survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier formula. The difference between the survival curves of subpopulations was analyzed with the log-rank tests. The consistency rates for the four scoring systems are calculated as well. The follow up period was 8 years. The median survival time was 222 days. The overall survival of prognostic categories in three scoring systems was significantly differing from each other, but we found no differences between the categories of the van der Linden system. In this cohort the revised Tokuhashi system gave the best approximation for the survival time with a mean predictive capability 60.5%. The evaluation of four standard scoring systems showed that three of them were self-consistent although, none of systems was able to predict the survival rates in our cohort. Based on the predictive capability, the revised Tokuhashi system may provide the best predictions with careful examination of individual cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The spaced learning concept significantly improves training for laparoscopic suturing: a pilot randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Michael; Boettcher, Johannes; Mietzsch, Stefan; Krebs, Thomas; Bergholz, Robert; Reinshagen, Konrad

    2018-01-01

    Spaced learning has been shown to be effective in various areas like traditional knowledge or motor skill acquisition. To evaluate the impact of implementation of the spaced learning concept in laparoscopic training was the aim of this study. To evaluate the effectiveness of spaced learning, subjects were asked to perform four surgeon's square knots on a bowel model prior and post 3 h of hands-on training. All subjects were medical students and novice in laparoscopic suturing. Total time, knot stability (evaluated via tensiometer), suture accuracy, knot quality (Muresan score), and laparoscopic performance (Munz checklist) were assessed. Moreover, motivation was accessed using Questionnaire on Current Motivation. Twenty students were included in the study; after simple randomization, ten were trained using "spaced learning" concept and ten conservatively. Both groups had comparable baseline characteristics and improved after training significantly regarding all aspects assessed in this study. Subjects that trained via spaced learning were superior in terms of suture performance, knot quality, and suture strength. Ultimately, spaced learning significantly decreased anxiety and impression of challenge compared to controls. The spaced learning concept is very suitable for complex motor skill acquisition like laparoscopic suturing and knot tying. It significantly improves laparoscopic performance and knot quality as shown by the knot score and suture strength. Thus, we recommend to incorporate spaced learning into training courses and surgical programs.

  14. Score lists in multipartite hypertournaments

    CERN Document Server

    Pirzada, Shariefuddin; Iványi, Antal

    2010-01-01

    Given non-negative integers $n_{i}$ and $\\alpha_{i}$ with $0 \\leq \\alpha_{i} \\leq n_i$ $(i=1,2,...,k)$, an $[\\alpha_{1},\\alpha_{2},...,\\alpha_{k}]$-$k$-partite hypertournament on $\\sum_{1}^{k}n_{i}$ vertices is a $(k+1)$-tuple $(U_{1},U_{2},...,U_{k},E)$, where $U_{i}$ are $k$ vertex sets with $|U_{i}|=n_{i}$, and $E$ is a set of $\\sum_{1}^{k}\\alpha_{i}$-tuples of vertices, called arcs, with exactly $\\alpha_{i}$ vertices from $U_{i}$, such that any $\\sum_{1}^{k}\\alpha_{i}$ subset $\\cup_{1}^{k}U_{i}^{\\prime}$ of $\\cup_{1}^{k}U_{i}$, $E$ contains exactly one of the $(\\sum_{1}^{k} \\alpha_{i})!$ $\\sum_{1}^{k}\\alpha_{i}$-tuples whose entries belong to $\\cup_{1}^{k}U_{i}^{\\prime}$. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for $k$ lists of non-negative integers in non-decreasing order to be the losing score lists and to be the score lists of some $k$-partite hypertournament.

  15. Expanding the scoring system for the Dynamic Gait Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumway-Cook, Anne; Taylor, Catherine S; Matsuda, Patricia Noritake; Studer, Michael T; Whetten, Brady K

    2013-11-01

    The Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) measures the capacity to adapt gait to complex tasks. The current scoring system combining gait pattern (GP) and level of assistance (LOA) lacks clarity, and the test has a limited range of measurement. This study developed a new scoring system based on 3 facets of performance (LOA, GP, and time) and examined the psychometric properties of the modified DGI (mDGI). A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted. Nine hundred ninety-five participants (855 patients with neurologic pathology and mobility impairments [MI group] and 140 patients without neurological impairment [control group]) were tested. Interrater reliability was calculated using kappa coefficients. Internal consistency was computed using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. Factor analysis and Rasch analysis investigated unidimensionality and range of difficulty. Internal validity was determined by comparing groups using multiple t tests. Minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for total score and 3 facet scores using the reliability estimate for the alpha coefficients. Interrater agreement was strong, with kappa coefficients ranging from 90% to 98% for time scores, 59% to 88% for GP scores, and 84% to 100% for LOA scores. Test-retest correlations (r) for time, GP, and LOA were .91, .91, and .87, respectively. Three factors (time, LOA, GP) had eigenvalues greater than 1.3 and explained 79% of the variance in scores. All group differences were significant, with moderate to large effect sizes. The 95% minimal detectable change (MDC95) was 4 for the mDGI total score, 2 for the time and GP total scores, and 1 for the LOA total score. The limitations included uneven sample sizes in the 2 groups. The MI group were patients receiving physical therapy; therefore, they may not be representative of this population. The mDGI, with its expanded scoring system, improves the range, discrimination, and facets of measurement related to walking function. The strength of the

  16. Bilateral Hallux Valgus: A Utility Outcome Score Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdom, Asim M; Sinno, Hani; Aldebeyan, Sultan; Cota, Adam; Hamdy, Reggie Charles; Alzahrani, Mohammad; Janelle, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Hallux valgus is the most common forefoot problem in adults. Although it can cause considerable disability and affect the quality of life of those affected, many patients seek medical attention because of cosmetic concerns. Our aim was to objectively measure the perceived health burden of living with bilateral hallux valgus. Previously validated utility outcome measures, including the visual analog scale, time trade-off, and standard gamble tests, were used to quantify the health burden for single-eye blindness, double-eye blindness, and bilateral hallux valgus in 103 healthy subjects using an online survey. The Student t test and linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. The mean visual analog scale, time trade-off, and standard gamble scores for bilateral hallux valgus were 0.86 ± 1.6, 0.95 ± 0.5, and 0.95 ± 0.14, respectively. These were significantly greater than the utility scores for single-eye and double-eye blindness (p hallux valgus. In conclusion, we have objectively demonstrated the effect of living with bilateral hallux valgus deformities. Our sample population reported being willing to undergo a procedure with a 5% mortality rate and sacrifice 1.8 years of life to attain perfect health and avoid the bilateral hallux valgus health state. Our findings will guide us in counseling our patients and understanding how they perceive their foot deformity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-07-29

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines.

  18. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  19. Angle Closure Scoring System (ACSS-A Scoring System for Stratification of Angle Closure Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Rao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the angle closure scoring system (ACSS for stratifying primary angle course disease.This observational cross sectional institutional study included patients with primary open angle glaucoma suspects (n = 21 and primary angle closure disease (primary angle closure, PAC, n = 63 and primary angle course glaucoma, PACG, n = 58 (defined by International society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, ISGEO. Two independent examiners blinded to clinical details, graded good quality pre-laser goniophotographs of the patients incorporating quadrants of peripheral anterior synechieae (PAS, non-visibility of posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM and blotchy pigments (ranging from 1-4 quadrants, iris configuration, angle recess (sum of above depicting ACSSg and lens thickness/axial length ratio (LT/AL, cup disc ratio and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP to give total score (ACSSt.There were significant differences in ACSSg scores within the same ISGEO stage of PAC and PACG between eyes that required nil or >1medicines after laser iridotomy, p1 medicines in both PAC and PACG eyes, p12 and 14 in PAC (odds ratio = 2.7(95% CI-1.7-5.9 and PACG (Odds ratio = 1.6(95%CI-1.19-2.2 predicted need for single medicines while ACSSg scores >14 and 19 predicted need for ≥2 medicines in PAC and PACG eyes, respectively. The LT/Al ratio, IOP score or cup disc score did not influence the need for medical treatment independently.The ACSS can be a useful clinical adjunct to the ISGEO system to predict need for medicines and prognosticate each stage more accurately.

  20. Angle Closure Scoring System (ACSS)-A Scoring System for Stratification of Angle Closure Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Sarangi, Sarada; Das, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the angle closure scoring system (ACSS) for stratifying primary angle course disease. Methods This observational cross sectional institutional study included patients with primary open angle glaucoma suspects (n = 21) and primary angle closure disease (primary angle closure, PAC, n = 63 and primary angle course glaucoma, PACG, n = 58 (defined by International society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, ISGEO). Two independent examiners blinded to clinical details, graded good quality pre-laser goniophotographs of the patients incorporating quadrants of peripheral anterior synechieae (PAS), non-visibility of posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM) and blotchy pigments (ranging from 1–4 quadrants), iris configuration, angle recess (sum of above depicting ACSSg) and lens thickness/axial length ratio (LT/AL), cup disc ratio and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to give total score (ACSSt). Result There were significant differences in ACSSg scores within the same ISGEO stage of PAC and PACG between eyes that required nil or >1medicines after laser iridotomy, p1 medicines in both PAC and PACG eyes, p12 and 14 in PAC (odds ratio = 2.7(95% CI-1.7–5.9) and PACG (Odds ratio = 1.6(95%CI-1.19–2.2) predicted need for single medicines while ACSSg scores >14 and 19 predicted need for ≥2 medicines in PAC and PACG eyes, respectively. The LT/Al ratio, IOP score or cup disc score did not influence the need for medical treatment independently. Conclusion The ACSS can be a useful clinical adjunct to the ISGEO system to predict need for medicines and prognosticate each stage more accurately. PMID:27788183

  1. RELIABILITY OF BARR, LEECH, AND BLETHYN SCORE IN USING OF PLAIN RADIOGRAPHY IN DETERMINING FECAL IMPACTION IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT CONSTIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin REZAZADEH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Several scoring was developed for evaluation of children with fecal retention using plain radiograph. There are controversies about specificity and sensitivity of these scoring system. Objectives - The aim of this study was to evaluate Barr, Blethyn, and Leech score in evaluation of fecal load in plain radiograph. Methods - This case control study was conducted on children aged 2-14 years old with abdominal pain who visited Abuzar children's Hospital of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted in fall season. Children with history of previous abdominal surgery, any systemic illness including sickle cell anemia were excluded. Children with constipation were placed in case group. Subjects without constipation were placed in control group. Subjects without exclusion criteria were examined by physician who is blind to aim of the study. Careful history and physical examination was done. Demographic features, history of gastrointestinal problem, duration of abdominal pain, defecation habit, stool consistency (loose, hard, and results of physical examination were recorded. Rome III criteria was used for definition of constipation. Abdominal x-ray was ordered for each patients. Abdominal radiography was reviewed by radiologist. Barr, Leach, and Blethyn scores were calculated for each case. Results - In this study 102 children with functional constipation and 102 children without constipation as a control were included. Mean ±SD for case and control group was 68.39±34.88 and 69.46±32.60 (P=0.82.Leech score (mean ±SD was 11.05±2.177 and 5.67±3.228 for case and control group respectively (P<0.0001. Barr score (mean ±SD was 14.86±3.54 and 7.16±5.59 for case and control group respectively (P=<0.0001. Blethyn (mean ±SD score was 1.97±0.667 and 1.04±0.900 for case and control group respectively (P=0.000. Sensitivity and specificity of Barr score was 83% and 79% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of

  2. Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax.

  3. Minimal Clinically Important Differences for American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Score in Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiok Yang; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zainul-Abidin, Suraya; Ying, Hao; Koo, Kevin; Rikhraj, Inderjeet Singh

    2017-05-01

    The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score is one of the most common and adapted outcome scales in hallux valgus surgery. However, AOFAS is predominantly physician based and not patient based. Although it may be straightforward to derive statistical significance, it may not equate to the true subjective benefit of the patient's experience. There is a paucity of literature defining MCID for AOFAS in hallux valgus surgery although it could have a great impact on the accuracy of analyzing surgical outcomes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to define the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) for the AOFAS score in these patients, and the secondary aim was to correlate patients' demographics to the MCID. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 446 patients were reviewed preoperatively and followed up for 2 years. An anchor question was asked 2 years postoperation: "How would you rate the overall results of your treatment for your foot and ankle condition?" (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor, terrible). The MCID was derived using 4 methods, 3 from an anchor-based approach and 1 from a distribution-based approach. Anchor-based approaches were (1) mean difference in 2-year AOFAS scores of patients who answered "good" versus "fair" based on the anchor question; (2) mean change of AOFAS score preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up in patients who answered good; (3) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves method, where the area under the curve (AUC) represented the likelihood that the scoring system would accurately discriminate these 2 groups of patients. The distribution-based approach used to calculate MCID was the effect size method. There were 405 (90.8%) females and 41 (9.2%) males. Mean age was 51.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 13) years, mean preoperative BMI was 24.2 (SD = 4.1). Mean preoperative AOFAS score was 55.6 (SD = 16.8), with significant improvement to 85.7 (SD = 14.4) in 2 years ( P value

  4. An international study to increase concordance in Ki67 scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polley, Mei-Yin C; Leung, Samuel C Y; Gao, Dongxia

    2015-01-01

    'training' and 'test' web-based images. Software tracked object selection and scoring. Success for the calibration was prespecified as Root Mean Square Error of scores compared with reference ... for tissue microarray scoring required intraclass correlation significantly >0.70 but aiming for observed intraclass correlation ≥0.90. Laboratory performance showed non-significant but promising trends of improvement through the calibration exercise (mean Root Mean Square Error decreased from 0.6 to 0.......4, Maximum Absolute Deviation from 1.6 to 0.9; paired t-test: P=0.07 for Root Mean Square Error, 0.06 for Maximum Absolute Deviation). For tissue microarray scoring, the intraclass correlation estimate was 0.94 (95% credible interval: 0.90-0.97), markedly and significantly >0.70, the prespecified minimum...

  5. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  6. Problems of "draw-a-person: a quantitative scoring system" (DAP:QSS) as a measure of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncone, Alda

    2014-10-01

    There has been some ongoing debate on whether the DAP:QSS can be used to measure intelligence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of the DAP:QSS with Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and the DAP:QSS's accuracy as a predictor of RCPM scores and academic achievement. 184 children from two elementary schools in a region of Southern Italy was evaluated by the DAP:QSS, the RCPM, the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (GH), and school marks. Drawings' scores, school marks, and RCPM scores were subjected to a Pearson's correlation. Stepwise regression analyses were carried out to identify significant predictors of RCPM scores and school marks. After controlling for socioeconomic status, the DAP:QSS showed a significant correlation with the RCPM and GH tests and academic achievement. However, the modest correlations with the RCPM, the small amount of variance in RCPM scores accounted for by the DAP:QSS (R(2) = .24), and the errors of the DAP:QSS in correctly classifying participants with borderline/deficient intellectual functioning advise against the use of the DAP:QSS as a measure of intelligence.

  7. Clinical Dementia Rating Orientation Score as an Excellent Predictor of the Progression to Alzheimer's Disease in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Byun, Min Soo; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Yi, Dahyun; Seo, Eun Hyun; Choe, Young Min; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Choi, Hyo Jung; Lee, Jun Ho; Chee, Ik Seung; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the usefulness of each subscale score of the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) for predicting Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia progression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) elderly subjects. Fifty-nine elderly MCI individuals were recruited from a university dementia and memory disorder clinic. Standardized clinical and neuropsychological tests were performed both at baseline and at the time of 2 years follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the ability of various clinical measures or their combinations to predict progression to AD dementia in MCI individuals. MCIp individuals showed significantly higher CDR Orientation subscale and CDR sum-of-boxes (SOB) score than MCInp ones, while there were no significant differences in other CDR subscale scores between the two. MCIp individuals also showed marginally higher MMSE scores than MCInp ones. A series of logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the model including CDR Orientation subscale had better AD dementia prediction accuracy than either the model with either MMSE or CDR-SOB. Our findings suggest that CDR Orientation subscale score, a simple and easily available clinical measure, could provide very useful information to predict AD dementia progression in amnestic MCI individuals in real clinical settings.

  8. A SCORING SYSTEM TO IMPROVE DECISION MAKING AND OUTCOMES IN THE ADAPTATION OF RECENTLY CAPTURED WHITE RHINOCEROSES (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM) TO CAPTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Kruger, Milandie; Kruger, Marius; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-four subadult and adult white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) were captured between February and October, 2009-11, in Kruger National Park and placed in holding bomas prior to translocation to other locations within South Africa. A simple three-category system was developed based on appetite, fecal consistency/volume, and behavior to assess adaptation to bomas. Individual animal and group daily median scores were used to determine trends and when rhinoceroses had successfully adapted to the boma. Seventeen rhinoceroses did not adapt to boma confinement, and 16 were released (1 mortality). No differences in boma scores were observed between rhinoceroses that adapted and those that did not, until day 8, when the first significant differences were observed (adapted score=13 versus nonadapted score=10). The time to reach a boma score determined as successful adaptation (median 19 d) matched subjective observations, which was approximately 3 wk for most rhinoceroses. Unsuccessful adaptation was indicated by an individual boma score of less than 15, typically during the first 2 wk, or a declining trend in scores within the first 7-14 d. This scoring system can be used for most locations and could also be easily adapted to other areas in which rhinoceroses are held in captivity. This tool also provides important information for assessing welfare in newly captured rhinoceroses.

  9. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  10. Interobserver agreement on the assessability of standard ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographs and its effect on agreement in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia and on routine FCI scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Geert E C; Coopman, Frank; Duchateau, Luc; Bosmans, Tim; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Van Bree, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Insufficient agreement on scoring hip quality might be caused by differences in the assessability of a radiograph (exposure, contrast, positioning, and diagnostic quality). We studied the agreement in assessability of standard ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographs by experienced (nine) and inexperienced (21) observers, using the standard subjective method of quality control, currently applied in screening programs. The effect of assessability on the agreement of scoring hip quality [dysplastic vs. nondysplastic and the final Federation Cinologique International (FCI) score] was also investigated. There was a significant difference (P hip dysplasia, nor did it result in consistent scoring of the hip status from that radiograph, despite a significant (P hip quality, caused differences in diagnosing hip dysplasia and FCI scoring in the same dog ranging from excellent hips to moderate hip dysplasia. Therefore, the credibility of the FCI screening method for canine hip dysplasia, using the standard hip-extended radiographic view, as currently applied in most European countries, is questionable.

  11. Gleason Score within Prostate Abnormal Areas Defined by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Did Not Vary According to the PIRADS Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaoui, Hakim; Neuzillet, Yann; Ghoneim, Tarek; Rouanne, Mathieu; Abdou, Abdelali; Lugagne-Delpon, Pierre Marie; Scherrer, Antoine; Radulescu, Camelia; Delancourt, Christian; Molinié, Vincent; Lebret, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    We aim to correlate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate reporting (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS] version 2) with the Gleason score into both radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen and MRI fusion-targeted biopsies (FTB). mpMRI of 74 patients who underwent an RP after FTB were retrospectively reviewed. The Gleason score distribution was compared according to the PI-RADS score using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results were compared to those of the mpMRI-guided biopsy of the same anatomical zone. For comparison, 903 RP specimen and their corresponding classical biopsies were also reviewed. Cohen's kappa concordance test was used to compare biopsies and prostatectomy specimen analyses. An exact match between Gleason grade in RP specimen and FTB was found in 62% of the cases. There was no significant difference in Gleason score ≤7 (3 + 4) vs. ≥7 (4 + 3) distribution according to the PI-RADS scores (p = 0.096). Overall, Kappa coefficients were similar with MRI-targeted biopsies compared to classical biopsies (κ = 0.378, 95% CI [0.194-0.563], and κ = 0.316, 95% CI [0.259-0.374], respectively). PI-RADS score was not associated with significant differences regarding Gleason score distribution within target. Moreover, concordance of Gleason score in both MRI-targeted and classical biopsies with those within target in RP specimen was weak. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Evidence of Objective Memory Impairments in Deployed Gulf War Veterans With Subjective Memory Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L

    2017-05-01

    Despite the fact that many veterans returned from the 1991 Gulf War (GW) with complaints of memory difficulties, most neuropsychological studies to date have found little evidence of a correspondence between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans. However, if GW veterans complain about memory problems, it is likely that they experience memory problems in their daily lives. In this respect, it is notable that the past studies that have investigated the relationship between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans used composite measures to quantify subjective complaints and batteries of neuropsychological tests that assessed multiple domains to objectively measure cognitive function. The study's focus on memory was motivated by the suggestive evidence that subjective memory complaint may be a harbinger of further cognitive decline and increased risk for dementia. This study examined the association between subjective memory complaint (probed with single question: "Do you have difficulty remembering things?") and performance on a single objective test of verbal learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT-II) in a sample of 428 deployed GW veterans. GW veterans who endorsed memory difficulties performed more poorly on CVLT-II measures of total learning, retention, and delayed recall than GW veterans without subjective memory complaints (p subjective memory complaint significantly predicted CVLT-II retention scores (β = -0.12, p = 0.04) and marginally predicted CVLT-II delayed recall scores (β = -0.11, p = 0.05) over and above potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables. This study suggests that deployed GW veterans with subjective memory complaints have objective memory impairments. In light of the evidence linking subjective memory complaint to increased risk for dementia in the elderly, these findings suggest that aging GW veterans with subjective memory complaints

  13. Applications of the international scoring system for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC and its interaction with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score (SOFA in prediction of prognosis and final outcome in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rostom

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: A significant correlation exists between SOFA and DIC scores together in critically ill patients with APACHE II score ⩾25 as regards MODS and mortality. The combination of DIC and SOFA scores highly improves the prognostic performance of either score alone. It's recommended to combine these scores together for better mortality prediction.

  14. Nasalance scores in pediatric patients after adenoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzuner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Akkoc, Ahmet; Arslan, Erhan; Arslan, Necmi; Samim, Etem Erdal

    2014-04-01

    Adenoidectomy is one of the most frequently performed operations in childhood. Nasal obstruction and chronic infection are the basic indications for surgery. Nasometer measures both oral and nasal air pressure during loud speech, and calculates their ratio. The aim of this study was to compare the mean nasal values in patients who had adenoidectomy at different ages against a control group. Eighty children between the ages of three and sixteen that had adenoidectomy in our clinic between 2006 and 2010 were compared against eighty age-matched controls who had not had nasal obstruction in their lifetime and were proven to have open nasal airways on physical examination. Statistical analysis of the data showed that mean nasalance scores were significantly lower in patients who had adenoidectomy before 6 years of age when compared to the ones who had the operation after the age of six. In addition, when we compared the children who had adenoidectomy before 5 years of age and between 5 and 6 years of age, we found that their nasalance scores were significantly lower when compared to those who had adenoidectomy after the age of six (p = 0.017 and p = 0.019, respectively). This study has shown that, even when adenoidectomy is performed, hyponasality may continue in clinically symptomatic patients under the age of six, and that there are no determined risk factors other than the early age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Further analysis of the Glans-Urethral Meatus-Shaft (GMS) hypospadias score: correlation with postoperative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Kirsch, Andrew J; Leong, Traci; Broecker, Bruce H; Smith, Edwin A; Elmore, James M

    2015-04-01

    curvature and urethral plate quality are often cited as important factors. In our series, boys with greater than 60° of ventral curvature undergoing a single-stage repair were 27 times more likely to develop a fistula than those without chordee on multivariate analysis, making severe curvature an independent predictor of urethrocutaneous fistula formation. That meatal location did not retain significance on multivariate analysis highlights the importance of considering the entire hypospadias complex when determining severity, rather than just evaluating the position of the meatus. Our study has several limitations that warrant consideration. While GMS scores were assigned prospectively, the data was collected retrospectively, subjecting it to flaws inherent with such study design. Furthermore, type of repair is influenced by surgeon preference and subjective assessment of hypospadias characteristics not incorporated in our scoring system (i.e. tissue quality, urethral hypoplasia, penoscrotal transposition). Despite these limitations, our study demonstrates a strong correlation between the GMS classification and surgical complications, furthering supporting its potential as a tool to standardize hypospadias severity and gauge postoperative complications. The Glans-Urethral Meatus-Shaft (GMS) classification provides a means by which hypospadias severity and reporting can be standardized, which may improve inter-study comparison of reconstructive outcomes. There is a strong correlation between complication risk and total GMS score. Degree of chordee (S score) is independently predictive of fistula rate. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  17. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  18. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  19. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  20. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  1. Subjective sleep disturbances and quality of life in chronic tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, J; Graco, M; Brown, D J; Schembri, R; Berlowitz, D J

    2015-08-01

    This is a cross-sectional survey. The objective of this study was to evaluate the subjective