WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjects responded faster

  1. Subjective thirst moderates changes in speed of responding associated with water consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jane Edmonds

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Participants (N=34 undertook a CANTAB battery on two separate occasions after fasting and abstaining from fluid intake since the previous evening. On one occasion they were offered 500 ml water shortly before testing, and on the other occasion no water was consumed prior to testing. Reaction times, as measured by Simple Reaction Time (SRT, were faster on the occasion on which they consumed water. Furthermore, subjective thirst was found to moderate the effect of water consumption on speed of responding. Response latencies in the SRT task were greater under the no water condition than under the water condition, but only for those participants with relatively high subjective thirst after abstaining from fluid intake overnight. For those participants with relatively low subjective thirst, latencies were unaffected by water consumption, and were similarly fast as those recorded for thirsty participants who had consumed water. These results reveal the novel finding that subjective thirst moderates the positive effect of fluid consumption on speed of responding. The results also showed evidence that practice also affected task performance. These results imply that, for speed of responding at least, the positive effects of water supplementation may result from an attenuation of the central processing resources consumed by the subjective sensation of thirst that otherwise impair the execution of speeded cognitive processes.

  2. Why We Respond Faster to the Self than to Others? An Implicit Positive Association Theory of Self-Advantage during Implicit Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui

    2010-01-01

    Human adults usually respond faster to their own faces rather than to those of others. We tested the hypothesis that an implicit positive association (IPA) with self mediates self-advantage in face recognition through 4 experiments. Using a self-concept threat (SCT) priming that associated the self with negative personal traits and led to a…

  3. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  4. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  5. IGF and IGFBP as an index for discrimination between vitamin D supplementation responders and nonresponders in overweight Saudi subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Yakout, Sobhy M; Wani, Kaiser; Khattak, Malak Nawaz Khan; Garbis, Spiro D; Chrousos, George P; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S

    2018-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Therefore, it is significant to recognize which biochemical markers modulate serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in response to vitamin D supplementation in such a population. Our aim was to study the correlation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and insulin growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) with serum 25(OH)D in response to vitamin D supplementation in a Saudi population. A total of 199 (89 males/110 females) vitamin D deficient subjects (25(OH)D level IGF-1 and IGF-2, and IGFBPs 2-5 were measured. Vitamin D response was computed for all subjects as the difference in levels of serum 25(OH)D concentration at the end of 6 months compared to baseline. After intervention, serum 25(OH)D concentration significantly increased from 35.6 nmol/L (26.6-43.5) to 61.8 nmol/L (54.8-73.3) in responder subjects (P IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio are more sensitive to acute vitamin D status changes. IGF1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio significantly increased in all subjects after 6 months (P = .01). Changes in 25(OH)D was significantly associated with changes in IGFBP-2 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio in responders only. This study proposes that changes in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are modulated by vitamin D supplementation and can be taken into consideration in investigations involving vitamin D correction. Moreover, increase in serum 25(OH)D and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio are more sensitive markers for the response to vitamin D supplementation in Saudi population.

  6. Mothers' electrophysiological, subjective, and observed emotional responding to infant crying: The role of secure base script knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Ashley M; Roisman, Glenn I; Haydon, Katherine C; Bost, Kelly; McElwain, Nancy; Garcia, Leanna; Hester, Colleen

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the extent to which secure base script knowledge-reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-relevant events are encountered, a clear need for assistance is communicated, competent help is provided and accepted, and the problem is resolved-is associated with mothers' electrophysiological, subjective, and observed emotional responses to an infant distress vocalization. While listening to an infant crying, mothers (N = 108, M age = 34 years) lower on secure base script knowledge exhibited smaller shifts in relative left (vs. right) frontal EEG activation from rest, reported smaller reductions in feelings of positive emotion from rest, and expressed greater levels of tension. Findings indicate that lower levels of secure base script knowledge are associated with an organization of emotional responding indicative of a less flexible and more emotionally restricted response to infant distress. Discussion focuses on the contribution of mothers' attachment representations to their ability to effectively manage emotional responding to infant distress in a manner expected to support sensitive caregiving.

  7. Writing faster Python

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Did you know that Python preallocates integers from -5 to 257 ? Reusing them 1000 times, instead of allocating memory for a bigger integer, can save you a couple of milliseconds of code’s execution time. If you want to learn more about this kind of optimizations then, … well, probably this presentation is not for you :) Instead of going into such small details, I will talk about more "sane" ideas for writing faster code. After a very brief overview of how to optimize Python code (rule 1: don’t do this; rule 2: don’t do this yet; rule 3: ok, but what if I really want to do this ?), I will show simple and fast ways of measuring the execution time and finally, discuss examples of how some code structures could be improved. You will see: - What is the fastest way of removing duplicates from a list - How much faster your code is when you reuse the built-in functions instead of trying to reinvent the wheel - What is faster than the good ol’ for loop - If the lookup is faster in a list or a set (and w...

  8. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  9. Bribes for Faster Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, Amal

    2000-01-01

    The paper models the practice of charging bribes for faster delivery of essential services in third world countries. It then examines the possibility of curbing corruption by supervision, and secondly, by introducing competition among delivery agents. It is argued that a supervisory solution eludes the problem because no hard evidence of the reduction of corruption can be established for this type of offenses. It is also shown that using more than one supplier cannot eliminate the practice, a...

  10. Longer - Faster - Purer

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    The MR-ToF-MS, a new ion trap, has been integrated into ISOLTRAP, the experiment that performs accurate mass measurements on short-lived nuclides produced at ISOLDE. When used as a mass separator and spectrometer, it extends ISOLTRAP’s experimental reach towards the limits of nuclear stability.   Susanne Kreim, the ISOLTRAP local group leader at CERN in front of a part of the ISOLTRAP device. When mass measurement experiments like ISOLTRAP* are placed in an on-line radioactive ion-beam facility they face a major challenge: the efficient and fast transfer of the nuclide of interest to the location where the mass measurement is performed. The biggest yield of one selected nuclide, without contaminants, needs to be transferred to the set-up as quickly as possible in order to measure its mass with the greatest precision. Recently, the ISOLTRAP collaboration installed a new device that provides a faster separation of isobars.** It has significantly improved ISOLTRAP’s purificat...

  11. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  12. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  13. Acute topiramate differentially affects human aggressive responding at low vs. moderate doses in subjects with histories of substance abuse and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard; Cherek, Don R

    2009-04-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs have demonstrated efficacy in the management of irritability and aggression in a variety of psychiatric populations. We examined the acute effects of topiramate on aggression using a laboratory model of human aggression (PSAP) in individuals at high risk for aggressive and violent behavior.Twelve subjects, on parole/probation and with an Axis-II personality disorder and/or a substance use disorder, received 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg in an ascending sequence, with intervening placebo doses.Subjects participated 2-3 days per week over 4-6 weeks. Due to cognitive side effects at 300 mg, two subjects only completed through the 200 mg dose. Topiramate produced an inverted U-shaped dose response curve, with increases in aggression peaking at 200 mg and a modest decrease at 400 mg. Statistical analysis revealed a polynomial trend for dose (p=0.001). The observed inverted U-shaped function in aggressive responding is consistent with non-human aggression studies of GABA-A modulators. Acute topiramate doses >400 mg may have anti-aggressive effects, but dose levels in the 200-300 mg range may produce increases in aggression and side effects.

  14. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  15. Zero bugs and program faster

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A book about programming, improving skill, and avoiding mistakes. The author spent two years researching every bug avoidance technique she could find. This book contains the best of them. If you want to program faster, with fewer bugs, and write more secure code, buy this book! "This is the best book I have ever read." - Anonymous reviewer "Four score and seven years ago this book helped me debug my server code." -Abraham Lincoln "Would my Javascript have memory leaks without this book? Would fishes fly without water?" -Socrates "This book is the greatest victory since the Spanish Armada, and the best about programming." -Queen Elizabeth

  16. Size matters: bigger is faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Sara C; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Margaret E

    2009-06-01

    A largely unexplored aspect of lexical access in visual word recognition is "semantic size"--namely, the real-world size of an object to which a word refers. A total of 42 participants performed a lexical decision task on concrete nouns denoting either big or small objects (e.g., bookcase or teaspoon). Items were matched pairwise on relevant lexical dimensions. Participants' reaction times were reliably faster to semantically "big" versus "small" words. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms, including more active representations for "big" words, due to the ecological importance attributed to large objects in the environment and the relative speed of neural responses to large objects.

  17. Slow light brings faster communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Two teams of researchers have managed to significantly reduce the speed of light in an optical fibre, which could open the door to all-optical routers for telecommunications, as Daniel Gauthier explains. Optical engineers around the globe are working hard to meet the ever-growing demand for higher-speed information networks, and the latest systems being developed operate at rates close to 160 GB per second - which is over 100 times quicker than the fastest broadband services currently available and a world away from the 56 kb per second dial-up connections of the early years of the Internet. Paradoxically, it seems that making light travel slower rather than faster might be the best way to meet these high-speed challenges. (U.K.)

  18. Within-Subject Testing of the Signaled-Reinforcement Effect on Operant Responding as Measured by Response Rate and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Doughty, Adam H.

    2005-01-01

    Response rates under random-interval schedules are lower when a brief (500 ms) signal accompanies reinforcement than when there is no signal. The present study examined this signaled-reinforcement effect and its relation to resistance to change. In Experiment 1, rats responded on a multiple random-interval 60-s random-interval 60-s schedule, with…

  19. Do Subjects with Whiplash-Associated Disorders Respond Differently in the Short-Term to Manual Therapy and Exercise than Those with Mechanical Neck Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-04-01

    To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28 with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability ( P  = 0.021), larger pain area ( P  = 0.003), and lower pressure pain thresholds in the tibialis anterior muscle ( P  = 0.009) than those with mechanical neck pain. The adjusted ANCOVA revealed no between-group differences for any outcome (all P  > 0.15). A significant main effect of time was demonstrated for clinical outcomes and cervical range of motion with both groups experiencing similar improvements (all P   0.222). The current clinical trial found that subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders exhibited similar clinical and neurophysiological responses after a multimodal physical therapy intervention, suggesting that although greater signs of central sensitization are present in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders, this does not alter the response in the short term to manual therapy and exercises. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Faster than Hermitian Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Brody, Dorje C.; Jones, Hugh F.; Meister, Bernhard K.

    2007-01-01

    Given an initial quantum state vertical bar ψ I > and a final quantum state vertical bar ψ F >, there exist Hamiltonians H under which vertical bar ψ I > evolves into vertical bar ψ F >. Consider the following quantum brachistochrone problem: subject to the constraint that the difference between the largest and smallest eigenvalues of H is held fixed, which H achieves this transformation in the least time τ? For Hermitian Hamiltonians τ has a nonzero lower bound. However, among non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Hamiltonians satisfying the same energy constraint, τ can be made arbitrarily small without violating the time-energy uncertainty principle. This is because for such Hamiltonians the path from vertical bar ψ I > to vertical bar ψ F > can be made short. The mechanism described here is similar to that in general relativity in which the distance between two space-time points can be made small if they are connected by a wormhole. This result may have applications in quantum computing

  1. Impact of Periodontal Therapy on the Subgingival Microbiota of Severe Periodontitis: Comparison between Good Responders and “Refractory” Subjects by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ana Paula V.; Bennet, Susan; Cotton, Sean L.; Goodson, J. Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study compared the changes on the subgingival microbiota of subjects with “refractory” periodontitis (RP) or treatable periodontitis (GR) before and after periodontal therapy by using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Methods Individuals with chronic periodontitis were classified as RP (n=17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n=30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after treatment. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and 15 months after treatment and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM analysis. Significant differences in taxa before and after therapy were sought using the Wilcoxon test. Results The majority of species evaluated decreased in prevalence in both groups after treatment; however, only a small subset of organisms was significantly affected. Species that increased or persisted in high frequency in RP but were significantly reduced in GR included Bacteroidetes sp., Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Tannerella forsythia, Dialister spp., Selenomonas spp., Catonella morbi, Eubacterium spp., Filifactor alocis, Parvimonas micra, Peptostreptococcus sp. OT113, Fusobacterium sp. OT203, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Streptococcus intermedius or Streptococcus constellatus and Shuttlesworthia satelles. In contrast, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Gemella haemolysans, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Kingella oralis, Lautropia mirabilis, Neisseria elongata, Rothia dentocariosa, Streptococcus australis and Veillonella spp. were more associated with therapeutic success. Conclusion Persistence of putative and novel periodontal pathogens, as well as low prevalence of beneficial species was associated with chronic “refractory” periodontitis. PMID:22324467

  2. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  3. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  4. Faster than Nyquist signaling algorithms to silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Dasalukunte, Deepak; Rusek, Fredrik; Anderson, John B

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the challenges and design trade-offs arising during the hardware design of Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling transceivers. The authors describe how to design for coexistence between the FTN system described and Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, enabling readers to design FTN specific processing blocks as add-ons to the conventional transceiver chain.   • Provides a comprehensive introduction to Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling transceivers, covering both theory and hardware implementation; • Enables readers to design systems that achieve bandwidth efficiency by making better use of the available spectrum resources; • Describes design techniques to achieve 2x improvement in bandwidth usage with similar performance as that of an OFDM system.  

  5. Faster than light, slower than time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, R.

    1981-01-01

    The problem with faster-than-light travel is that, in the framework of Special Relativity, it is logically equivalent to time-travel. The problem with time-travel is that it leads to two types of paradoxes. The paradoxes, and the various means of skirting them, are all discussed here. Virtually all the examples are drawn from science-fiction novels, which are a large and neglected source of thought-experiments. (Auth.)

  6. Compressing bitmap indexes for faster search operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of compression on bitmap indexes. The main operations on the bitmaps during query processing are bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, NOT, etc. Using the general purpose compression schemes, such as gzip, the logical operations on the compressed bitmaps are much slower than on the uncompressed bitmaps. Specialized compression schemes, like the byte-aligned bitmap code(BBC), are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose schemes, but in many cases they are still orders of magnitude slower than the uncompressed scheme. To make the compressed bitmap indexes operate more efficiently, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme which we refer to as the word-aligned hybrid code (WAH). Tests on both synthetic and real application data show that the new scheme significantly outperforms well-known compression schemes at a modest increase in storage space. Compared to BBC, a scheme well-known for its operational efficiency, WAH performs logical operations about 12 times faster and uses only 60 percent more space. Compared to the uncompressed scheme, in most test cases WAH is faster while still using less space. We further verified with additional tests that the improvement in logical operation speed translates to similar improvement in query processing speed

  7. Compressing bitmap indexes for faster search operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2002-04-25

    In this paper, we study the effects of compression on bitmap indexes. The main operations on the bitmaps during query processing are bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, NOT, etc. Using the general purpose compression schemes, such as gzip, the logical operations on the compressed bitmaps are much slower than on the uncompressed bitmaps. Specialized compression schemes, like the byte-aligned bitmap code(BBC), are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose schemes, but in many cases they are still orders of magnitude slower than the uncompressed scheme. To make the compressed bitmap indexes operate more efficiently, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme which we refer to as the word-aligned hybrid code (WAH). Tests on both synthetic and real application data show that the new scheme significantly outperforms well-known compression schemes at a modest increase in storage space. Compared to BBC, a scheme well-known for its operational efficiency, WAH performs logical operations about 12 times faster and uses only 60 percent more space. Compared to the uncompressed scheme, in most test cases WAH is faster while still using less space. We further verified with additional tests that the improvement in logical operation speed translates to similar improvement in query processing speed.

  8. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  9. Better Faster Noise with the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyvill, Geoff; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    Filtered noise [Perlin 1985] has, for twenty years, been a fundamental tool for creating functional texture and it has many other applications; for example, animating water waves or the motion of grass waving in the wind. Perlin noise suffers from a number of defects and there have been many atte...... attempts to create better or faster noise but Perlin’s ‘Gradient Noise’ has consistently proved to be the best compromise between speed and quality. Our objective was to create a better noise cheaply by use of the GPU....

  10. Faster and Energy-Efficient Signed Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate faster and energy-efficient column compression multiplication with very small area overheads by using a combination of two techniques: partition of the partial products into two parts for independent parallel column compression and acceleration of the final addition using new hybrid adder structures proposed here. Based on the proposed techniques, 8-b, 16-b, 32-b, and 64-b Wallace (W, Dadda (D, and HPM (H reduction tree based Baugh-Wooley multipliers are developed and compared with the regular W, D, H based Baugh-Wooley multipliers. The performances of the proposed multipliers are analyzed by evaluating the delay, area, and power, with 65 nm process technologies on interconnect and layout using industry standard design and layout tools. The result analysis shows that the 64-bit proposed multipliers are as much as 29%, 27%, and 21% faster than the regular W, D, H based Baugh-Wooley multipliers, respectively, with a maximum of only 2.4% power overhead. Also, the power-delay products (energy consumption of the proposed 16-b, 32-b, and 64-b multipliers are significantly lower than those of the regular Baugh-Wooley multiplier. Applicability of the proposed techniques to the Booth-Encoded multipliers is also discussed.

  11. Fast Physics Testbed for the FASTER Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W.; Liu, Y.; Hogan, R.; Neggers, R.; Jensen, M.; Fridlind, A.; Lin, Y.; Wolf, A.

    2010-03-15

    This poster describes the Fast Physics Testbed for the new FAst-physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project. The overall objective is to provide a convenient and comprehensive platform for fast turn-around model evaluation against ARM observations and to facilitate development of parameterizations for cloud-related fast processes represented in global climate models. The testbed features three major components: a single column model (SCM) testbed, an NWP-Testbed, and high-resolution modeling (HRM). The web-based SCM-Testbed features multiple SCMs from major climate modeling centers and aims to maximize the potential of SCM approach to enhance and accelerate the evaluation and improvement of fast physics parameterizations through continuous evaluation of existing and evolving models against historical as well as new/improved ARM and other complementary measurements. The NWP-Testbed aims to capitalize on the large pool of operational numerical weather prediction products. Continuous evaluations of NWP forecasts against observations at ARM sites are carried out to systematically identify the biases and skills of physical parameterizations under all weather conditions. The highresolution modeling (HRM) activities aim to simulate the fast processes at high resolution to aid in the understanding of the fast processes and their parameterizations. A four-tier HRM framework is established to augment the SCM- and NWP-Testbeds towards eventual improvement of the parameterizations.

  12. Many random walks are faster than one

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alon, N.; Avin, Ch.; Koucký, Michal; Kozma, G.; Lotker, Z.; Tuttle, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2011), s. 481-502 ISSN 0963-5483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA ČR GA201/05/0124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : multiple random walks * parallel random walks Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2011 http://journals.cambridge.org/ action /displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8280727

  13. Visual Motion Processing Subserves Faster Visuomotor Reaction in Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K; Mierau, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Athletes participating in ball or racquet sports have to respond to visual stimuli under critical time pressure. Previous studies used visual contrast stimuli to determine visual perception and visuomotor reaction in athletes and nonathletes; however, ball and racquet sports are characterized by motion rather than contrast visual cues. Because visual contrast and motion signals are processed in different cortical regions, this study aimed to determine differences in perception and processing of visual motion between athletes and nonathletes. Twenty-five skilled badminton players and 28 age-matched nonathletic controls participated in this study. Using a 64-channel EEG system, we investigated visual motion perception/processing in the motion-sensitive middle temporal (MT) cortical area in response to radial motion of different velocities. In a simple visuomotor reaction task, visuomotor transformation in Brodmann area 6 (BA6) and BA4 as well as muscular activation (EMG onset) and visuomotor reaction time (VMRT) were investigated. Stimulus- and response-locked potentials were determined to differentiate between perceptual and motor-related processes. As compared with nonathletes, athletes showed earlier EMG onset times (217 vs 178 ms, P < 0.001), accompanied by a faster VMRT (274 vs 243 ms, P < 0.001). Furthermore, athletes showed an earlier stimulus-locked peak activation of MT (200 vs 182 ms, P = 0.002) and BA6 (161 vs 137 ms, P = 0.009). Response-locked peak activation in MT was later in athletes (-7 vs 26 ms, P < 0.001), whereas no group differences were observed in BA6 and BA4. Multiple regression analyses with stimulus- and response-locked cortical potentials predicted EMG onset (r = 0.83) and VMRT (r = 0.77). The athletes' superior visuomotor performance in response to visual motion is primarily related to visual perception and, to a minor degree, to motor-related processes.

  14. Skin graft donor site: a procedure for a faster healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Roberto; Grimaldi, Luca; Brandi, Cesare; Nisi, Giuseppe; D'Aniello, Carlo

    2017-10-23

    The authors want to evaluate the efficacy of fibrillary tabotamp dressing in skin graft-donor site. A comparison was made with Vaseline gauzes. Tabotamp is an absorbable haemostatic product of Ethicon (Johnson and Johnson) obtained by sterile and oxidized regenerated cellulose (Rayon). It is used for mild to moderate bleeding. 276 patients were subject to skin graft and divided into two group: Group A and Group B. The donor site of patients in Group A was medicated with fibrillary tabotamp, while the patients of Group B were medicated only with Vaseline gauze. We recorded infection, timing of healing, number of dressing change, the pain felt during and after the dressing change with visual analog scale (VAS) and a questionnaire. Patients allocated in Group A healed faster than the Group B. Questionnaires and VAS analysis showed lower pain felt, lower intake of pain drugs and lower infection rate in the Group A than the Group B. Analysis of coast showed lower dressing change in Group A than the Group B. We believe that the use of tabotamp is a very viable alternative to improve healing.

  15. Responding to Children's Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…

  16. Responding to Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  17. Responding to Misbehavior

    OpenAIRE

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on responding to misbehavior.

  18. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  19. Quantum mechanics and faster-than-light communication: methodological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Weber, T.

    1983-06-01

    A detailed quantum mechanical analysis of a recent proposal of faster than light communication through wave packet reduction is performed. The discussion allows us to focus on some methodological problems about critical investigations in physical theories. (author)

  20. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  1. Faster, more intense! The relation between electrophysiological reflections of attentional orienting, sensory gain control, and speed of responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Mulckhuyse, Manon; Slagter, Heleen A.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Selective visual attention is thought to facilitate goal-directed behavior by biasing the system in advance to favor certain stimuli over others, resulting in their selective processing. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the link between control processes that induce a

  2. New analytical approaches for faster or greener phytochemical analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Chapter 1 provides a short introduction into the constraints of phytochemical analysis. In order to make them faster, less laborious and greener, there is a clear scope for miniaturized and simplified sample preparation, solvent-free extractions

  3. ZKBoo: Faster Zero-Knowledge for Boolean Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomelli, Irene; Madsen, Jesper; Orlandi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    variants of IKOS, which highlights their pros and cons for practically rele- vant soundness parameters; ◦ A generalization and simplification of their approach, which leads to faster Σ-protocols (that can be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic) for state- ments of the form “I know x...

  4. Faster and timing-attack resistant AES-GCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Käsper, E.; Schwabe, P.; Clavier, C.; Gaj, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a bitsliced implementation of AES encryption in counter mode for 64-bit Intel processors. Running at 7.59 cycles/byte on a Core 2, it is up to 25% faster than previous implementations, while simultaneously offering protection against timing attacks. In particular, it is the only

  5. Increasing the Capital Income Tax Leads to Faster Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.; Yanagawa, N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper shows that under rather mild conditions, higher capital income taxes lead to faster growth in an overlapping generations economy with endogenous growth. Government expenditures are financed with labor income taxes as well as capital income taxes. Since capital income accrues to the old,

  6. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  7. Multiple Object Tracking Using the Shortest Path Faster Association Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghao Xi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the persistently multiple object tracking in cluttered environments, this paper presents a novel tracking association approach based on the shortest path faster algorithm. First, the multiple object tracking is formulated as an integer programming problem of the flow network. Then we relax the integer programming to a standard linear programming problem. Therefore, the global optimum can be quickly obtained using the shortest path faster algorithm. The proposed method avoids the difficulties of integer programming, and it has a lower worst-case complexity than competing methods but better robustness and tracking accuracy in complex environments. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm takes less time than other state-of-the-art methods and can operate in real time.

  8. Faster-X evolution: Theory and evidence from Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Brian; Campos, José L; Jackson, Benjamin C

    2018-02-12

    A faster rate of adaptive evolution of X-linked genes compared with autosomal genes can be caused by the fixation of recessive or partially recessive advantageous mutations, due to the full expression of X-linked mutations in hemizygous males. Other processes, including recombination rate and mutation rate differences between X chromosomes and autosomes, may also cause faster evolution of X-linked genes. We review population genetics theory concerning the expected relative values of variability and rates of evolution of X-linked and autosomal DNA sequences. The theoretical predictions are compared with data from population genomic studies of several species of Drosophila. We conclude that there is evidence for adaptive faster-X evolution of several classes of functionally significant nucleotides. We also find evidence for potential differences in mutation rates between X-linked and autosomal genes, due to differences in mutational bias towards GC to AT mutations. Many aspects of the data are consistent with the male hemizygosity model, although not all possible confounding factors can be excluded. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The faster-X effect: integrating theory and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Richard P; Connallon, Tim

    2013-09-01

    Population genetics theory predicts that X (or Z) chromosomes could play disproportionate roles in speciation and evolutionary divergence, and recent genome-wide analyses have identified situations in which X or Z-linked divergence exceeds that on the autosomes (the so-called 'faster-X effect'). Here, we summarize the current state of both the theory and data surrounding the study of faster-X evolution. Our survey indicates that the faster-X effect is pervasive across a taxonomically diverse array of evolutionary lineages. These patterns could be informative of the dominance or recessivity of beneficial mutations and the nature of genetic variation acted upon by natural selection. We also identify several aspects of disagreement between these empirical results and the population genetic models used to interpret them. However, there are clearly delineated aspects of the problem for which additional modeling and collection of genomic data will address these discrepancies and provide novel insights into the population genetics of adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adrenaline in cardiac arrest: Prefilled syringes are faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Claire; Gillett, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Standard ampoules and prefilled syringes of adrenaline are widely available in Australasian EDs for use in cardiac arrest. We hypothesise that prefilled syringes can be administered more rapidly and accurately when compared with the two available standard ampoules. This is a triple arm superiority study comparing the time to i.v. administration and accuracy of dosing of three currently available preparations of adrenaline. In their standard packaging, prefilled syringes were on average more than 12 s faster to administer than the 1 mL 1:1000 ampoules and more than 16 s faster than the 10 mL 1:10,000 ampoules (P adrenaline utilising a Minijet (CSL Limited, Parkville, Victoria, Australia) is faster than using adrenaline in glass ampoules presented in their plastic packaging. Removing the plastic packaging from the 1 mL (1 mg) ampoule might result in more rapid administration similar to the Minijet. Resuscitation personnel requiring rapid access to adrenaline should consider storing it as either Minijets or ampoules devoid of packaging. These results might be extrapolatable to other clinical scenarios, including pre-hospital and anaesthesia, where other drugs are required for rapid use. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. Relationships Among Attention Networks and Physiological Responding to Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapas, Casey; Weinberg, Anna; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Although researchers have long hypothesized a relationship between attention and anxiety, theoretical and empirical accounts of this relationship have conflicted. We attempted to resolve these conflicts by examining relationships of attentional abilities with responding to predictable and unpredictable threat, related but distinct motivational process implicated in a number of anxiety disorders. Eighty-one individuals completed a behavioral task assessing efficiency of three components of attention – alerting, orienting, and executive control (Attention Network Test - Revised). We also assessed startle responding during anticipation of both predictable, imminent threat (of mild electric shock) and unpredictable contextual threat. Faster alerting and slower disengaging from non-emotional attention cues were related to heightened responding to unpredictable threat, whereas poorer executive control of attention was related to heightened responding to predictable threat. This double dissociation helps to integrate models of attention and anxiety and may be informative for treatment development. PMID:27816781

  12. Faster Simulation Methods for the Non-Stationary Random Vibrations of Non-Linear MDOF Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askar, A.; Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    subject to nonstationary Gaussian white noise excitation, as an alternative to conventional direct simulation methods. These alternative simulation procedures rely on an assumption of local Gaussianity during each time step. This assumption is tantamount to various linearizations of the equations....... Such a treatment offers higher rates of convergence, faster speed and higher accuracy. These procedures are compared to the direct Monte Carlo simulation procedure, which uses a fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme with the white noise process approximated by a broad band Ruiz-Penzien broken line process...

  13. Faster Simulation Methods for the Nonstationary Random Vibrations of Non-linear MDOF Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askar, A.; Köylüo, U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    1996-01-01

    subject to nonstationary Gaussian white noise excitation, as an alternative to conventional direct simulation methods. These alternative simulation procedures rely on an assumption of local Gaussianity during each time step. This assumption is tantamount to various linearizations of the equations....... Such a treatment offers higher rates of convergence, faster speed and higher accuracy. These procedures are compared to the direct Monte Carlo simulation procedure, which uses a fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme with the white noise process approximated by a broad band Ruiz-Penzien broken line process...

  14. Even Faster Web Sites Performance Best Practices for Web Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Souders, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Performance is critical to the success of any web site, and yet today's web applications push browsers to their limits with increasing amounts of rich content and heavy use of Ajax. In this book, Steve Souders, web performance evangelist at Google and former Chief Performance Yahoo!, provides valuable techniques to help you optimize your site's performance. Souders' previous book, the bestselling High Performance Web Sites, shocked the web development world by revealing that 80% of the time it takes for a web page to load is on the client side. In Even Faster Web Sites, Souders and eight exp

  15. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.; Carr, R.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but we find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long free electron lasers (FELs). Our application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. We present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  16. Robustness of a bisimulation-type faster-than preorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Iltgen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available TACS is an extension of CCS where upper time bounds for delays can be specified. Luettgen and Vogler defined three variants of bismulation-type faster-than relations and showed that they all three lead to the same preorder, demonstrating the robustness of their approach. In the present paper, the operational semantics of TACS is extended; it is shown that two of the variants still give the same preorder as before, underlining robustness. An explanation is given why this result fails for the third variant. It is also shown that another variant, which mixes old and new operational semantics, can lead to smaller relations that prove the same preorder.

  17. CSRtrack Faster Calculation of 3-D CSR Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Dohlus, Martin

    2004-01-01

    CSRtrack is a new code for the simulation of Coherent Synchrotron radiation effects on the beam dynamics of linear accelerators. It incorporates the physics of our previous code, TraFiC4, and adds new algorithms for the calculation of the CSR fields. A one-dimensional projected method allows quick estimates and a greens function method allows 3D calculations about ten times faster than with the `direct' method. The tracking code is written in standard FORTRAN77 and has its own parser for comfortable input of calculation parameters and geometry. Phase space input and the analysis of the traced particle distribution is done with MATLAB interface programs.

  18. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.

    1994-08-01

    The authors introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but they find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long FEL's. Their application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. They present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules

  19. 20 Recipes for Programming MVC 3 Faster, Smarter Web Development

    CERN Document Server

    Munro, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    There's no need to reinvent the wheel every time you run into a problem with ASP.NET's Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework. This concise cookbook provides recipes to help you solve tasks many web developers encounter every day. Each recipe includes the C# code you need, along with a complete working example of how to implement the solution. Learn practical techniques for applying user authentication, providing faster page reloads, validating user data, filtering search results, and many other issues related to MVC3 development. These recipes help you: Restrict access to views with password

  20. How to Elect a Leader Faster than a Tournament

    OpenAIRE

    Alistarh, Dan; Gelashvili, Rati; Vladu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The problem of electing a leader from among $n$ contenders is one of the fundamental questions in distributed computing. In its simplest formulation, the task is as follows: given $n$ processors, all participants must eventually return a win or lose indication, such that a single contender may win. Despite a considerable amount of work on leader election, the following question is still open: can we elect a leader in an asynchronous fault-prone system faster than just running a $\\Theta(\\log n...

  1. Faster than light motion does not imply time travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andréka, Hajnal; Madarász, Judit X; Németi, István; Székely, Gergely; Stannett, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Seeing the many examples in the literature of causality violations based on faster than light (FTL) signals one naturally thinks that FTL motion leads inevitably to the possibility of time travel. We show that this logical inference is invalid by demonstrating a model, based on (3+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, in which FTL motion is permitted (in every direction without any limitation on speed) yet which does not admit time travel. Moreover, the Principle of Relativity is true in this model in the sense that all observers are equivalent. In short, FTL motion does not imply time travel after all. (paper)

  2. Drought evolution: greater and faster impacts on blue water than on green water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, G.; Orth, R.

    2017-12-01

    Drought propagates through the terrestrial water cycle, affecting different interlinked geospheres which have so far been mostly investigated separately and without direct comparison. By use of comprehensive multi-decadal data from >400 near-natural catchments along a steep climate gradient across Europe we here analyze drought propagation from precipitation (deficits) through soil moisture to runoff (blue water) and evapotranspiration (green water). We show that soil-moisture droughts reduce runoff stronger and faster than evapotranspiration. While runoff responds within weeks, evapotranspiration can be unaffected for months, or even entirely as in central and northern Europe. Understanding these different drought pathways towards blue and green water resources contributes to improve food and water security and offers early warning potential to mitigate (future) drought impacts on society and ecosystems.

  3. Faster in-plane switching and reduced rotational viscosity characteristics in a graphene-nematic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Rajratan; Kinnamon, Daniel; Skaggs, Nicole; Womack, James

    2016-05-01

    The in-plane switching (IPS) for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) was found to be considerably faster when the LC was doped with dilute concentrations of monolayer graphene flakes. Additional studies revealed that the presence of graphene reduced the rotational viscosity of the LC, permitting the nematic director to respond quicker in IPS mode on turning the electric field on. The studies were carried out with several graphene concentrations in the LC, and the experimental results coherently suggest that there exists an optimal concentration of graphene, allowing a reduction in the IPS response time and rotational viscosity in the LC. Above this optimal graphene concentration, the rotational viscosity was found to increase, and consequently, the LC no longer switched faster in IPS mode. The presence of graphene suspension was also found to decrease the LC's pretilt angle significantly due to the π-π electron stacking between the LC molecules and graphene flakes. To understand the π-π stacking interaction, the anchoring mechanism of the LC on a CVD grown monolayer graphene film on copper substrate was studied by reflected crossed polarized microscopy. Optical microphotographs revealed that the LC alignment direction depended on monolayer graphene's hexagonal crystal structure and its orientation.

  4. Faster in-plane switching and reduced rotational viscosity characteristics in a graphene-nematic suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rajratan; Kinnamon, Daniel; Skaggs, Nicole; Womack, James

    2016-01-01

    The in-plane switching (IPS) for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) was found to be considerably faster when the LC was doped with dilute concentrations of monolayer graphene flakes. Additional studies revealed that the presence of graphene reduced the rotational viscosity of the LC, permitting the nematic director to respond quicker in IPS mode on turning the electric field on. The studies were carried out with several graphene concentrations in the LC, and the experimental results coherently suggest that there exists an optimal concentration of graphene, allowing a reduction in the IPS response time and rotational viscosity in the LC. Above this optimal graphene concentration, the rotational viscosity was found to increase, and consequently, the LC no longer switched faster in IPS mode. The presence of graphene suspension was also found to decrease the LC's pretilt angle significantly due to the π-π electron stacking between the LC molecules and graphene flakes. To understand the π-π stacking interaction, the anchoring mechanism of the LC on a CVD grown monolayer graphene film on copper substrate was studied by reflected crossed polarized microscopy. Optical microphotographs revealed that the LC alignment direction depended on monolayer graphene's hexagonal crystal structure and its orientation.

  5. Faster in-plane switching and reduced rotational viscosity characteristics in a graphene-nematic suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rajratan, E-mail: basu@usna.edu; Kinnamon, Daniel; Skaggs, Nicole; Womack, James [Soft Matter and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, The United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402 (United States)

    2016-05-14

    The in-plane switching (IPS) for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) was found to be considerably faster when the LC was doped with dilute concentrations of monolayer graphene flakes. Additional studies revealed that the presence of graphene reduced the rotational viscosity of the LC, permitting the nematic director to respond quicker in IPS mode on turning the electric field on. The studies were carried out with several graphene concentrations in the LC, and the experimental results coherently suggest that there exists an optimal concentration of graphene, allowing a reduction in the IPS response time and rotational viscosity in the LC. Above this optimal graphene concentration, the rotational viscosity was found to increase, and consequently, the LC no longer switched faster in IPS mode. The presence of graphene suspension was also found to decrease the LC's pretilt angle significantly due to the π-π electron stacking between the LC molecules and graphene flakes. To understand the π-π stacking interaction, the anchoring mechanism of the LC on a CVD grown monolayer graphene film on copper substrate was studied by reflected crossed polarized microscopy. Optical microphotographs revealed that the LC alignment direction depended on monolayer graphene's hexagonal crystal structure and its orientation.

  6. Faster quantum chemistry simulation on fault-tolerant quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cody Jones, N; McMahon, Peter L; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Whitfield, James D; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Van Meter, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    Quantum computers can in principle simulate quantum physics exponentially faster than their classical counterparts, but some technical hurdles remain. We propose methods which substantially improve the performance of a particular form of simulation, ab initio quantum chemistry, on fault-tolerant quantum computers; these methods generalize readily to other quantum simulation problems. Quantum teleportation plays a key role in these improvements and is used extensively as a computing resource. To improve execution time, we examine techniques for constructing arbitrary gates which perform substantially faster than circuits based on the conventional Solovay–Kitaev algorithm (Dawson and Nielsen 2006 Quantum Inform. Comput. 6 81). For a given approximation error ϵ, arbitrary single-qubit gates can be produced fault-tolerantly and using a restricted set of gates in time which is O(log ϵ) or O(log log ϵ); with sufficient parallel preparation of ancillas, constant average depth is possible using a method we call programmable ancilla rotations. Moreover, we construct and analyze efficient implementations of first- and second-quantized simulation algorithms using the fault-tolerant arbitrary gates and other techniques, such as implementing various subroutines in constant time. A specific example we analyze is the ground-state energy calculation for lithium hydride. (paper)

  7. Elastic coupling of limb joints enables faster bipedal walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J.C.; Kuo, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The passive dynamics of bipedal limbs alone are sufficient to produce a walking motion, without need for control. Humans augment these dynamics with muscles, actively coordinated to produce stable and economical walking. Present robots using passive dynamics walk much slower, perhaps because they lack elastic muscles that couple the joints. Elastic properties are well known to enhance running gaits, but their effect on walking has yet to be explored. Here we use a computational model of dynamic walking to show that elastic joint coupling can help to coordinate faster walking. In walking powered by trailing leg push-off, the model's speed is normally limited by a swing leg that moves too slowly to avoid stumbling. A uni-articular spring about the knee allows faster but uneconomical walking. A combination of uni-articular hip and knee springs can speed the legs for improved speed and economy, but not without the swing foot scuffing the ground. Bi-articular springs coupling the hips and knees can yield high economy and good ground clearance similar to humans. An important parameter is the knee-to-hip moment arm that greatly affects the existence and stability of gaits, and when selected appropriately can allow for a wide range of speeds. Elastic joint coupling may contribute to the economy and stability of human gait. PMID:18957360

  8. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  10. Exceptional Responders Initial Feasibility Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot study evaluating identification of cancer patients who respond to treatment that is ineffective in at least 90 percent of patients found that it was indeed able to confirm a majority of proposed patients as exceptional responders based on clinical

  11. First responder tracking and visualization for command and control toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Petrov, Plamen; Meisinger, Roger

    2010-04-01

    In order for First Responder Command and Control personnel to visualize incidents at urban building locations, DHS sponsored a small business research program to develop a tool to visualize 3D building interiors and movement of First Responders on site. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSI), has developed a toolkit called Hierarchical Grid Referenced Normalized Display (HiGRND). HiGRND utilizes three components to provide a full spectrum of visualization tools to the First Responder. First, HiGRND visualizes the structure in 3D. Utilities in the 3D environment allow the user to switch between views (2D floor plans, 3D spatial, evacuation routes, etc.) and manually edit fast changing environments. HiGRND accepts CAD drawings and 3D digital objects and renders these in the 3D space. Second, HiGRND has a First Responder tracker that uses the transponder signals from First Responders to locate them in the virtual space. We use the movements of the First Responder to map the interior of structures. Finally, HiGRND can turn 2D blueprints into 3D objects. The 3D extruder extracts walls, symbols, and text from scanned blueprints to create the 3D mesh of the building. HiGRND increases the situational awareness of First Responders and allows them to make better, faster decisions in critical urban situations.

  12. DOE translation tool: Faster and better than ever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Chakieh, T.; Vincent, C.

    2006-01-01

    CAE's constant push to advance power plant simulation practices involves continued investment in our technologies. This commitment has yielded many advances in our simulation technologies and tools to provide faster maintenance updates, easier process updates and higher fidelity models for power plant simulators. Through this quest, a comprehensive, self-contained and user-friendly DCS translation tool for plant control system emulation was created. The translation tool converts an ABB Advant AC160 and/or AC450 control system, used in both gas turbine-based, fossil and nuclear power plants, into Linux or Windows-based ROSE[reg] simulation schematics. The translation for a full combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant that comprises more than 5,300 function plans distributed over 15 nodes is processed in less than five hours on a dual 2.8Ghz Xeon Linux platform in comparison to the 12 hours required by CAE's previous translation tool. The translation process, using the plant configuration files, includes the parsing of the control algorithms, the databases, the graphic and the interconnection between nodes. A Linux or Windows API is then used to automatically populate the ROSE[reg] database. Without such a translation, tool or if ?stimulation? of real control system is not feasible or too costly, simulation of the DCS manually takes months of error prone manual coding. The translation can be performed for all the nodes constituting the configuration files of the whole plant DCS, or in order to provide faster maintenance updates and easier process updates, partial builds are possible at 3 levels: a. single schematic updates, b. multi-schematic updates and c. single node updates based on the user inputs into the Graphical User Interface. improvements including: - Process time reduction of over 60%; - All communication connections between nodes are fully automated; - New partial build for one schematic, a group of schematics or a single node; - Availability on PC

  13. Faster and more accurate transport procedures for HZETRN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaba, T.C.; Blattnig, S.R.; Badavi, F.F.

    2010-01-01

    The deterministic transport code HZETRN was developed for research scientists and design engineers studying the effects of space radiation on astronauts and instrumentation protected by various shielding materials and structures. In this work, several aspects of code verification are examined. First, a detailed derivation of the light particle (A ≤ 4) and heavy ion (A > 4) numerical marching algorithms used in HZETRN is given. References are given for components of the derivation that already exist in the literature, and discussions are given for details that may have been absent in the past. The present paper provides a complete description of the numerical methods currently used in the code and is identified as a key component of the verification process. Next, a new numerical method for light particle transport is presented, and improvements to the heavy ion transport algorithm are discussed. A summary of round-off error is also given, and the impact of this error on previously predicted exposure quantities is shown. Finally, a coupled convergence study is conducted by refining the discretization parameters (step-size and energy grid-size). From this study, it is shown that past efforts in quantifying the numerical error in HZETRN were hindered by single precision calculations and computational resources. It is determined that almost all of the discretization error in HZETRN is caused by the use of discretization parameters that violate a numerical convergence criterion related to charged target fragments below 50 AMeV. Total discretization errors are given for the old and new algorithms to 100 g/cm 2 in aluminum and water, and the improved accuracy of the new numerical methods is demonstrated. Run time comparisons between the old and new algorithms are given for one, two, and three layer slabs of 100 g/cm 2 of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. The new algorithms are found to be almost 100 times faster for solar particle event simulations and almost 10 times

  14. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  15. Dishonest responding or true virtue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Moshagen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    but troubling proposition that high scores in impression management scales actually reflect honesty rather than dishonest responding. In line with findings indicating that respondents answer to personality questionnaires rather accurately in typical low demand situations, we herein suggest that high impression...... management scores indeed reflect true virtues rather than dishonesty under such conditions. We found support for this idea by replicating previous correlations between impression management scores and virtue-related basic personality traits (including honesty-humility), and additionally provided conclusive...

  16. Innovations for competitiveness: European views on "better-faster-cheaper"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzei, A.; Groepper, P.; Novara, M.; Pseiner, K.

    1999-09-01

    The paper elaborates on " lessons learned" from two recent ESA workshops, one focussing on the role of Innovation in the competitiveness of the space sector and the second on technology and engineering aspects conducive to better, faster and cheaper space programmes. The paper focuses primarily on four major aspects, namely: a) the adaptations of industrial and public organisations to the global market needs; b) the understanding of the bottleneck factors limiting competitiveness; c) the trends toward new system architectures and new engineering and production methods; d) the understanding of the role of new technology in the future applications. Under the pressure of market forces and the influence of many global and regional players, applications of space systems and technology are becoming more and more competitive. It is well recognised that without major effort for innovation in industrial practices, organisations, R&D, marketing and financial approaches the European space sector will stagnate and loose its competence as well as its competitiveness. It is also recognised that a programme run according to the "better, faster, cheaper" philosophy relies on much closer integration of system design, development and verification, and draws heavily on a robust and comprehensive programme of technology development, which must run in parallel and off-line with respect to flight programmes. A company's innovation capabilities will determine its future competitive advantage (in time, cost, performance or value) and overall growth potential. Innovation must be a process that can be counted on to provide repetitive, sustainable, long-term performance improvements. As such, it needs not depend on great breakthroughs in technology and concepts (which are accidental and rare). Rather, it could be based on bold evolution through the establishment of know-how, application of best practices, process effectiveness and high standards, performance measurement, and attention to

  17. Bird on Your Smartphone: How to make identification faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, T.; Kurniawan, I. S.; Tapilow, F. S.

    2018-01-01

    Identification skills of students are needed in the field activities of animal ecology course. Good identification skills will help students to understand the traits, determine differences and similarities in order to naming of birds’ species. This study aims to describe the identification skill of students by using smart phone applications designed in such a way as a support in the field activities. Research method used was quasi experiment involving 60 students which were divided into two groups, one group that use smartphone applications (SA) and other group using a guidebook (GB). This study was carried out in the classroom and outside (the field). Instruments used in this research included tests and questionnaire. The identification skills were measured by tests, indicated by an average score (AS). The results showed that the identification skills of SA students were higher (AS = 3.12) than those of GB one (AS = 2.91). These results are in accordance with response of students. The most of students (90.08%) mentioned that the use of smart phone applications in identifying birds is helpful, more effective and convenience to make identification faster. For further implementation, however, performance of the smartphone used here need to be enhanced to improve the identification skills of students and for wider use.

  18. Faster Double-Size Bipartite Multiplication out of Montgomery Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masayuki; Okeya, Katsuyuki; Vuillaume, Camille

    This paper proposes novel algorithms for computing double-size modular multiplications with few modulus-dependent precomputations. Low-end devices such as smartcards are usually equipped with hardware Montgomery multipliers. However, due to progresses of mathematical attacks, security institutions such as NIST have steadily demanded longer bit-lengths for public-key cryptography, making the multipliers quickly obsolete. In an attempt to extend the lifespan of such multipliers, double-size techniques compute modular multiplications with twice the bit-length of the multipliers. Techniques are known for extending the bit-length of classical Euclidean multipliers, of Montgomery multipliers and the combination thereof, namely bipartite multipliers. However, unlike classical and bipartite multiplications, Montgomery multiplications involve modulus-dependent precomputations, which amount to a large part of an RSA encryption or signature verification. The proposed double-size technique simulates double-size multiplications based on single-size Montgomery multipliers, and yet precomputations are essentially free: in an 2048-bit RSA encryption or signature verification with public exponent e=216+1, the proposal with a 1024-bit Montgomery multiplier is at least 1.5 times faster than previous double-size Montgomery multiplications.

  19. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  20. Higher Resolution and Faster MRI of 31Phosphorus in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Merideth; Barrett, Sean; Sethna, Zachary; Insogna, Karl; Vanhouten, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Probing the internal composition of bone on the sub-100 μm length scale is important to study normal features and to look for signs of disease. However, few useful non-destructive techniques are available to evaluate changes in the bone mineral chemical structure and functional micro-architecture on the interior of bones. MRI would be an excellent candidate, but bone is a particularly challenging tissue to study given the relatively low water density, wider linewidths of its solid components leading to low spatial resolution, and the long imaging time compared to conventional 1H MRI. Our lab has recently made advances in obtaining high spatial resolution (sub-400 μm)3 three-dimensional 31Phosphorus MRI of bone through use of the quadratic echo line-narrowing sequence (1). In this talk, we describe our current results using proton decoupling to push this technique even further towards the factor of 1000 increase in spatial resolution imposed by fundamental limits. We also discuss our work to speed up imaging through novel, faster reconstruction algorithms that can reconstruct the desired image from very sparse data sets. (1) M. Frey, et al. PNAS 109: 5190 (2012).

  1. Hexagonal undersampling for faster MRI near metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Bragi; Worters, Pauline W; Gold, Garry E; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Slice encoding for metal artifact correction acquires a three-dimensional image of each excited slice with view-angle tilting to reduce slice and readout direction artifacts respectively, but requires additional imaging time. The purpose of this study was to provide a technique for faster imaging around metallic implants by undersampling k-space. Assuming that areas of slice distortion are localized, hexagonal sampling can reduce imaging time by 50% compared with conventional scans. This work demonstrates this technique by comparisons of fully sampled images with undersampled images, either from simulations from fully acquired data or from data actually undersampled during acquisition, in patients and phantoms. Hexagonal sampling is also shown to be compatible with parallel imaging and partial Fourier acquisitions. Image quality was evaluated using a structural similarity (SSIM) index. Images acquired with hexagonal undersampling had no visible difference in artifact suppression from fully sampled images. The SSIM index indicated high similarity to fully sampled images in all cases. The study demonstrates the ability to reduce scan time by undersampling without compromising image quality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R, E-mail: fvera@ucv.cl [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de ValparaIso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2011-09-15

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  3. Learning Faster by Discovering and Exploiting Object Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Janež

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the question: “Is it possible to speed up the learning process of an autonomous agent by performing experiments in a more complex environment (i.e., an environment with a greater number of different objects?” To this end, we use a simple robotic domain, where the robot has to learn a qualitative model predicting the change in the robot's distance to an object. To quantify the environment's complexity, we defined cardinal complexity as the number of objects in the robot's world, and behavioural complexity as the number of objects' distinct behaviours. We propose Error reduction merging (ERM, a new learning method that automatically discovers similarities in the structure of the agent's environment. ERM identifies different types of objects solely from the data measured and merges the observations of objects that behave in the same or similar way in order to speed up the agent's learning. We performed a series of experiments in worlds of increasing complexity. The results in our simple domain indicate that ERM was capable of discovering structural similarities in the data which indeed made the learning faster, clearly superior to conventional learning. This observed trend occurred with various machine learning algorithms used inside the ERM method.

  4. Causal events enter awareness faster than non-causal events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Moors

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers have long argued that causality cannot be directly observed but requires a conscious inference (Hume, 1967. Albert Michotte however developed numerous visual phenomena in which people seemed to perceive causality akin to primary visual properties like colour or motion (Michotte, 1946. Michotte claimed that the perception of causality did not require a conscious, deliberate inference but, working over 70 years ago, he did not have access to the experimental methods to test this claim. Here we employ Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS—an interocular suppression technique to render stimuli invisible (Tsuchiya & Koch, 2005—to test whether causal events enter awareness faster than non-causal events. We presented observers with ‘causal’ and ‘non-causal’ events, and found consistent evidence that participants become aware of causal events more rapidly than non-causal events. Our results suggest that, whilst causality must be inferred from sensory evidence, this inference might be computed at low levels of perceptual processing, and does not depend on a deliberative conscious evaluation of the stimulus. This work therefore supports Michotte’s contention that, like colour or motion, causality is an immediate property of our perception of the world.

  5. Shampoo-clay heals diaper rash faster than calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-06-01

    Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and risk ratio. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O.

  6. Responding to Bullying: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra; Blais, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Children who are bullied are often told to "solve the problems themselves"; however, when bullying is repeated over time, it becomes increasingly difficult for victimized children to stop the torment because of their relative lack of power. We examine the ways in which children respond to bullying and their evaluations of the…

  7. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  8. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  9. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  10. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaël Aubry

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR in endurance athletes.Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects before (Pre, and immediately after an overload training period (Mid and after a 2-week taper (Post. Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue. Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size. Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large, plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate. These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations.These findings suggest that i a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity.

  11. Semantic size does not matter: "bigger" words are not recognized faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sean H K; Yap, Melvin J; Tse, Chi-Shing; Kurby, Christopher A

    2011-06-01

    Sereno, O'Donnell, and Sereno (2009) reported that words are recognized faster in a lexical decision task when their referents are physically large than when they are small, suggesting that "semantic size" might be an important variable that should be considered in visual word recognition research and modelling. We sought to replicate their size effect, but failed to find a significant latency advantage in lexical decision for "big" words (cf. "small" words), even though we used the same word stimuli as Sereno et al. and had almost three times as many subjects. We also examined existing data from visual word recognition megastudies (e.g., English Lexicon Project) and found that semantic size is not a significant predictor of lexical decision performance after controlling for the standard lexical variables. In summary, the null results from our lab experiment--despite a much larger subject sample size than Sereno et al.--converged with our analysis of megastudy lexical decision performance, leading us to conclude that semantic size does not matter for word recognition. Discussion focuses on why semantic size (unlike some other semantic variables) is unlikely to play a role in lexical decision.

  12. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  13. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  14. The acquisition of conditioned responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A

    2011-04-01

    This report analyzes the acquisition of conditioned responses in rats trained in a magazine approach paradigm. Following the suggestion by Gallistel, Fairhurst, and Balsam (2004), Weibull functions were fitted to the trial-by-trial response rates of individual rats. These showed that the emergence of responding was often delayed, after which the response rate would increase relatively gradually across trials. The fit of the Weibull function to the behavioral data of each rat was equaled by that of a cumulative exponential function incorporating a response threshold. Thus, the growth in conditioning strength on each trial can be modeled by the derivative of the exponential--a difference term of the form used in many models of associative learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972). Further analyses, comparing the acquisition of responding with a continuously reinforced stimulus (CRf) and a partially reinforced stimulus (PRf), provided further evidence in support of the difference term. In conclusion, the results are consistent with conventional models that describe learning as the growth of associative strength, incremented on each trial by an error-correction process.

  15. Subjective time runs faster under the influence of bright rather than dim light conditions during the forenoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takeshi; Fukui, Tomoe; Morofushi, Masayo; Tokura, Hiromi

    2007-05-16

    The study investigated if 6 h morning bright light exposure, compared with dim light exposure, could influence time sense (range: 5-15 s). Eight women served as participants. The participant entered a bioclimatic chamber at 10:00 h on the day before the test day, where an ambient temperature and relative humidity were controlled at 25 degrees C and 60%RH. She sat quietly in a sofa in 50 lx until 22:00 h, retired at 22:00 h and then slept in total darkness. She rose at 07:00 h the following morning and again sat quietly in a sofa till 13:00 h, either in bright (2500 lx) or dim light (50 lx), the order of light intensities between the two occasions being randomized. The time-estimation test was performed from 13:00 to 13:10 h in 200 lx. The participant estimated the time that had elapsed between two buzzers, ranging over 5-15 s, and inputting the estimate into a computer. The test was carried out separately upon each individual. Results showed that the participants estimated higher durations of the given time intervals after previous exposure to 6 h of bright rather than dim light. The finding is discussed in terms of different load errors (difference between the actual core temperature and its thermoregulatory set-point) following 6-h exposure to bright or dim light in the morning.

  16. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  17. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-11-18

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%-3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  18. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jin Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%–3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3, vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  19. Acquisition of peak responding: what is learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Gallistel, Charles R; Allen, Brian D; Frank, Krystal M; Gibson, Jacqueline M; Brunner, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the common measures of timing performance behaved in the course of training on the peak procedure in C3H mice. Following fixed interval (FI) pre-training, mice received 16 days of training in the peak procedure. The peak time and spread were derived from the average response rates while the start and stop times and their relative variability were derived from a single-trial analysis. Temporal precision (response spread) appeared to improve in the course of training. This apparent improvement in precision was, however, an averaging artifact; it was mediated by the staggered appearance of timed stops, rather than by the delayed occurrence of start times. Trial-by-trial analysis of the stop times for individual subjects revealed that stops appeared abruptly after three to five sessions and their timing did not change as training was prolonged. Start times and the precision of start and stop times were generally stable throughout training. Our results show that subjects do not gradually learn to time their start or stop of responding. Instead, they learn the duration of the FI, with robust temporal control over the start of the response; the control over the stop of response appears abruptly later.

  20. CB decontamination for first responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.D.G.; Purdon, J.G.; Burczyk, A. [Defence Research and Development Canada Suffield, Ralston, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Universal Containment System (UCS) is designed to contain, mitigate and decontaminate chemical, biological and radiological warfare agents. The UCS consists of a lightweight, tent-like enclosure filled with a water-based surface decontaminating foam (SDF). The Canadian government funded a project to advance the understanding of the behaviour of the UCS. This paper described the success of the project as well as the technological advances in the UCS formulation and equipment. Vapour desorption experiments were conducted in which SDF was applied onto 12 surfaces found in a typical office environment. Both mustard and nerve agent were studied on the test surfaces. Both scrubbing and non-scrubbing decontamination methods were tested. SDF effectively decontaminated the non-porous substances, particularly when the scrubbing procedure was used. Results were more complicated for the non-porous samples. A dye added to the agent was useful for determining the fate of the agent. Liquid phase studies were conducted in which the reaction between SDF and various agents were studied in the liquid phase in order to estimate the rate of reaction, the stoichiometry and the reaction products formed. Both SDF and the commercial decontamination agent CASCAD were found to effectively kill 100 per cent of anthrax spores. The significance of this project to first responders was considerable. Changes to the formulation and equipment of UCS will increase its usefulness and safety. Users will also have a better knowledge of the amount of decontamination needed for complete effectiveness in specific situations. Recommendations have been made for use of the product on a range of indoor surfaces. Field trials have shown the blast mitigation and agent decontamination ability of the foam under explosive situations. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Drug use among complete responders, partial responders and non-responders in a longitudinal survey of nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Rasmussen, Lotte; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In observational studies, non-response can limit representativity and introduce bias. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in the number of used drugs among complete responders, partial responders, and non-responders in a whole birth cohort of Danish nonagenarians participati...

  2. The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoyan Angela; Koutstaal, Wilma; Engel, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    Familiar items are found faster than unfamiliar ones in visual search tasks. This effect has important implications for cognitive theory, because it may reveal how mental representations of commonly encountered items are changed by experience to optimize performance. It remains unknown, however, whether everyday items with moderate levels of exposure would show benefits in visual search, and if so, what kind of experience would be required to produce them. Here, we tested whether familiar product logos were searched for faster than unfamiliar ones, and also familiarized subjects with previously unfamiliar logos. Subjects searched for preexperimentally familiar and unfamiliar logos, half of which were familiarized in the laboratory, amongst other, unfamiliar distractor logos. In three experiments, we used an N-back-like familiarization task, and in four others we used a task that asked detailed questions about the perceptual aspects of the logos. The number of familiarization exposures ranged from 30 to 84 per logo across experiments, with two experiments involving across-day familiarization. Preexperimentally familiar target logos were searched for faster than were unfamiliar, nonfamiliarized logos, by 8 % on average. This difference was reliable in all seven experiments. However, familiarization had little or no effect on search speeds; its average effect was to improve search times by 0.7 %, and its effect was significant in only one of the seven experiments. If priming, mere exposure, episodic memory, or relatively modest familiarity were responsible for familiarity's effects on search, then performance should have improved following familiarization. Our results suggest that the search-related advantage of familiar logos does not develop easily or rapidly.

  3. Reading faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nation

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  4. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  5. 29 CFR 98.1000 - Respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Respondent. 98.1000 Section 98.1000 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.1000 Respondent. Respondent means a person against whom an agency has initiated a debarment or suspension action. ...

  6. Differences in change in coping styles between good responders, moderate responders and non-responders to pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilkova-Hartmann, Ana; Janssen, Daisy J A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise tolerance and health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data on the effects of PR on coping styles are limited. Aim of the present study was to compare changes in coping styles between patients who had a good, moderate and no improvement in either exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Coping styles of 439 COPD patients undergoing PR were assessed by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL) at baseline and after PR. Patients' pulmonary function, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D) were recorded. Good, moderate and non-responders were defined on the basis of minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for SGRQ total score and/or 6MWD. Overall, 54.0% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for good responders, while 22.1% were moderate responders. Change in passive reaction pattern coping style differed significantly between good responders and non-responders following PR (p styles after PR occurred among the good responders, whereas the majority of moderate responders' and non-responders' coping styles were not significantly influenced by PR. Good responders decreased their passive reaction pattern coping style in contrast to non-responders after PR. In general, PR did not change the coping among moderate and non-responders. Further research is warranted to determine whether including interventions targeting coping styles may modify coping behaviour of COPD patients, as well as improvement in exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Defense Technology Opportunities for First Responders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Rodney; Bedard, Louis; Derrah, Scott; Boucher, Robert

    2004-01-01

    For this study, the US and Canadian governments assessed the potential for technology transfer of five technologies, which were developed to meet military requirements, to civilian first responders...

  9. No evidence for faster male hybrid sterility in population crosses of an intertidal copepod (Tigriopus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Christopher S

    2008-06-01

    Two different forces are thought to contribute to the rapid accumulation of hybrid male sterility that has been observed in many inter-specific crosses, namely the faster male and the dominance theories. For male heterogametic taxa, both faster male and dominance would work in the same direction to cause the rapid evolution of male sterility; however, for taxa lacking differentiated sex chromosomes only the faster male theory would explain the rapid evolution of male hybrid sterility. It is currently unknown what causes the faster evolution of male sterility, but increased sexual selection on males and the sensitivity of genes involved in male reproduction are two hypotheses that could explain the observation. Here, patterns of hybrid sterility in crosses of genetically divergent copepod populations are examined to test potential mechanisms of faster male evolution. The study species, Tigriopus californicus, lacks differentiated, hemizygous sex chromosomes and appears to have low levels of divergence caused by sexual selection acting upon males. Hybrid sterility does not accumulate more rapidly in males than females in these crosses suggesting that in this taxon male reproductive genes are not inherently more prone to disruption in hybrids.

  10. Resilience among first responders | Pietrantoni | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine hundred and sixty-one first responders filled out an on-line questionnaire, containing measure of sense of community, collective efficacy, self-efficacy and work-related mental health outcomes (compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction). Results. First responders reported high level of compassion ...

  11. Mobile-Only Web Survey Respondents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824658; Toepoel, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304576034; amin, alerk

    2016-01-01

    Web surveys are no longer completed on just a desktop or laptop computer. Respondents increasingly use mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones to complete web surveys. In this article, we study how respondents in the American Life Panel complete surveys using varying devices. We show that

  12. 7 CFR 3017.1000 - Respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respondent. 3017.1000 Section 3017.1000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.1000 Respondent...

  13. Vehicle parts detection based on Faster - RCNN with location constraints of vehicle parts feature point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqin; Sang, Nong; Gao, Changxin

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle parts detection plays an important role in public transportation safety and mobility. The detection of vehicle parts is to detect the position of each vehicle part. We propose a new approach by combining Faster RCNN and three level cascaded convolutional neural network (DCNN). The output of Faster RCNN is a series of bounding boxes with coordinate information, from which we can locate vehicle parts. DCNN can precisely predict feature point position, which is the center of vehicle part. We design an output strategy by combining these two results. There are two advantages for this. The quality of the bounding boxes are greatly improved, which means vehicle parts feature point position can be located more precise. Meanwhile we preserve the position relationship between vehicle parts and effectively improve the validity and reliability of the result. By using our algorithm, the performance of the vehicle parts detection improve obviously compared with Faster RCNN.

  14. Suppression dampens unpleasant emotion faster than reappraisal: Neural dynamics in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, JiaJin; Long, QuanShan; Ding, NanXiang; Lou, YiXue; Liu, YingYing; Yang, JieMin

    2015-05-01

    The timing dynamics of regulating negative emotion with expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal were investigated in a Chinese sample. Event-Related Potentials were recorded while subjects were required to view, suppress emotion expression to, or reappraise emotional pictures. The results showed a similar reduction in self-reported negative emotion during both strategies. Additionally, expressive suppression elicited larger amplitudes than reappraisal in central-frontal P3 component (340-480 ms). More importantly, the Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were decreased in each 200 ms of the 800-1600 ms time intervals during suppression vs. viewing conditions. In contrast, LPP amplitudes were similar for reappraisal and viewing conditions in all the time windows, except for the decreased amplitudes during reappraisal in the 1400-1600 ms. The LPP (but not P3) amplitudes were positively related to negative mood ratings, whereas the amplitudes of P3, rather than LPP, predict self-reported expressive suppression. These results suggest that expressive suppression decreases emotion responding more rapidly than reappraisal, at the cost of greater cognitive resource involvements in Chinese individuals.

  15. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon D W; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda N; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total population data. Total population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity, and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, using current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). We recruited 927 household heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples underrepresented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven sampling statistical inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected nonhidden population. However, current respondent-driven sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience sampling method, and caution is required

  16. Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience

  17. The Faster, Better, Cheaper Approach to Space Missions: An Engineering Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Joe

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes, in viewgraph form, the faster, better, cheaper approach to space missions. The topics include: 1) What drives "Faster, Better, Cheaper"? 2) Why Space Programs are Costly; 3) Background; 4) Aerospace Project Management (Old Culture); 5) Aerospace Project Management (New Culture); 6) Scope of Analysis Limited to Engineering Management Culture; 7) Qualitative Analysis; 8) Some Basic Principles of the New Culture; 9) Cause and Effect; 10) "New Ways of Doing Business" Survey Results; 11) Quantitative Analysis; 12) Recent Space System Cost Trends; 13) Spacecraft Dry Weight Trend; 14) Complexity Factor Trends; 15) Cost Normalization; 16) Cost Normalization Algorithm; 17) Unnormalized Cost vs. Normalized Cost; and 18) Concluding Observations.

  18. Real-time vehicle detection and tracking in video based on faster R-CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Vehicle detection and tracking is a significant part in auxiliary vehicle driving system. Using the traditional detection method based on image information has encountered enormous difficulties, especially in complex background. To solve this problem, a detection method based on deep learning, Faster R-CNN, which has very high detection accuracy and flexibility, is introduced. An algorithm of target tracking with the combination of Camshift and Kalman filter is proposed for vehicle tracking. The computation time of Faster R-CNN cannot achieve realtime detection. We use multi-thread technique to detect and track vehicle by parallel computation for real-time application.

  19. Dedicated workspaces: Faster resumption times and reduced cognitive load in sequential multitasking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that virtual desktops have become a widespread approach to window management within desktop environments. However, despite their success, there is no experimental evidence of their effect on multitasking. In this paper, we present an experimental study incorporating 16 participants...... to perform the same tasks. Results show that adopting virtual desktops as dedicated workspaces allows for faster task resumption (10 s faster on average) and reduced cognitive load during sequential multitasking. Within our experiment the majority of users already benefited from using dedicated workspaces...

  20. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  1. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  2. Breaking the Myth That Relay Swimming Is Faster Than Individual Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorski, Sabrina; Etxebarria, Naroa; Thompson, Kevin G

    2016-04-01

    To investigate if swimming performance is better in a relay race than in the corresponding individual race. The authors analyzed 166 elite male swimmers from 15 nations in the same competition (downloaded from www.swimrankings.net). Of 778 observed races, 144 were Olympic Games performances (2000, 2004, 2012), with the remaining 634 performed in national or international competitions. The races were 100-m (n = 436) and 200-m (n = 342) freestyle events. Relay performance times for the 2nd-4th swimmers were adjusted (+ 0.73 s) to allow for the "flying start." Without any adjustment, mean individual relay performances were significantly faster for the first 50 m and overall time in the 100-m events. Furthermore, the first 100 m of the 200-m relay was significantly faster (P > .001). During relays, swimmers competing in 1st position did not show any difference compared with their corresponding individual performance (P > .16). However, swimmers competing in 2nd-4th relay-team positions demonstrated significantly faster times in the 100-m (P individual events (P team positions were adjusted for the flying start no differences were detected between relay and individual race performance for any event or split time (P > .17). Highly trained swimmers do not swim (or turn) faster in relay events than in their individual races. Relay exchange times account for the difference observed in individual vs relay performance.

  3. Pedestrian crowd dynamics in merging sections: Revisiting the ;faster-is-slower; phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhoseini, Zahra; Sarvi, Majid; Saberi, Meead

    2018-02-01

    The study of the discharge of active or self-driven matter in narrow passages has become of the growing interest in a variety of fields. The question has particularly important practical applications for the safety of pedestrian human flows notably in emergency scenarios. It has been suggested predominantly through simulation in some theoretical studies as well as through few experimentations that under certain circumstances, an elevated vigour to escape may exacerbate the outflow and cause further delay although the experimental evidence is rather mixed. The dimensions of this complex phenomenon known as the "faster-is slower" effect are of crucial importance to be understood owing to its potential practical implications for the emergency management. The contextual requirements of observing this phenomenon are yet to be identified. It is not clear whether a "do not speed up" policy is universally beneficial and advisable in an evacuation scenario. Here for the first time we experimentally examine this phenomenon in relation to the pedestrian flows at merging sections as a common geometric feature of crowd egress. Various merging angles and three different speed regimes were examined in high-density laboratory experiments. The measurements of flow interruptions and egress efficiency all indicated that the pedestrians were discharged faster when moving at elevated speed levels. We also observed clear dependencies between the discharge rate and the physical layout of the merging with certain designs clearly outperforming others. But regardless of the design, we observed faster throughput and greater avalanche sizes when we instructed pedestrians to run. Our results give the suggestion that observation of the faster-is-slower effect may necessitate certain critical conditions including passages being overly narrow relative to the size of participles (pedestrians) to create long-lasting blockages. The faster-is-slower assumption may not be universal and there may be

  4. Different event-related patterns of gamma-band power in brain waves of fast- and slow-reacting subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokeit, H; Makeig, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast- and slow-reacting subjects exhibit different patterns of gamma-band electroencephalogram (EEG) activity when responding as quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects produce speeded reactions in different ways and demonstrates that analysis of event-related changes in the amplitude of EEG activity recorded from the human scalp can reveal information about event-related brain processes unavailable using event-related potential measures. Time-varying spectral power in a selected (35- to 43-Hz) gamma frequency band was averaged across trials in two experimental conditions: passive listening and speeded reacting to binaural clicks, forming 40-Hz event-related spectral responses. Factor analysis of between-subject event-related spectral response differences split subjects into two near-equal groups composed of faster- and slower-reacting subjects. In faster-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power peaked near 200 ms and 400 ms poststimulus in the react condition, whereas in slower-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power just before stimulus delivery was larger in the react condition. These group differences were preserved in separate averages of relatively long and short reaction-time epochs for each group. gamma-band (20-60 Hz)-filtered event-related potential response averages did not differ between the two groups or conditions. Because of this and because gamma-band power in the auditory event-related potential is small compared with the EEG, the observed event-related spectral response features must represent gamma-band EEG activity reliably induced by, but not phase-locked to, experimental stimuli or events. PMID:8022783

  5. Motivational salience signal in the basal forebrain is coupled with faster and more precise decision speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Irene; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2014-03-01

    The survival of animals depends critically on prioritizing responses to motivationally salient stimuli. While it is generally believed that motivational salience increases decision speed, the quantitative relationship between motivational salience and decision speed, measured by reaction time (RT), remains unclear. Here we show that the neural correlate of motivational salience in the basal forebrain (BF), defined independently of RT, is coupled with faster and also more precise decision speed. In rats performing a reward-biased simple RT task, motivational salience was encoded by BF bursting response that occurred before RT. We found that faster RTs were tightly coupled with stronger BF motivational salience signals. Furthermore, the fraction of RT variability reflecting the contribution of intrinsic noise in the decision-making process was actively suppressed in faster RT distributions with stronger BF motivational salience signals. Artificially augmenting the BF motivational salience signal via electrical stimulation led to faster and more precise RTs and supports a causal relationship. Together, these results not only describe for the first time, to our knowledge, the quantitative relationship between motivational salience and faster decision speed, they also reveal the quantitative coupling relationship between motivational salience and more precise RT. Our results further establish the existence of an early and previously unrecognized step in the decision-making process that determines both the RT speed and variability of the entire decision-making process and suggest that this novel decision step is dictated largely by the BF motivational salience signal. Finally, our study raises the hypothesis that the dysregulation of decision speed in conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, and cognitive aging may result from the functional impairment of the motivational salience signal encoded by the poorly understood noncholinergic BF neurons.

  6. Dependent Interviewing and Sub-Optimal Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eggs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.

  7. Experimental study of electromagnetic radiation from a faster-than-light vacuum macroscopic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessarab, A.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation); Martynenko, S.P. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation); Prudkoi, N.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation); Soldatov, A.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: soldatov@vniief.ru; Terekhin, V.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    The effect which manifests itself in the form of directed electromagnetic pulses (EMP) initiated by an X-ray incident obliquely upon a conducting surface has been confirmed and investigated experimentally in detail. A planar accelerating diode comprising a metallic cathode and grid anode was initiated with an oblique short soft-X-ray pulse from a point laser-plasma source. Then a source of directed EMP-a current of accelerated photoelectrons-was formed whose boundary ran along the anode external surface with a faster-than-light velocity. The plasma was formed when short-pulse ({approx}0.3ns) laser radiation from ISKRA-5 facility was focused on a plane Au target. The amplitude-in-time and spatial characteristics of radiation emitted by the faster-than-light source have been measured. Parameters of the accelerated electron current have been measured too.

  8. Withholding response to self-face is faster than to other-face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Hu, Yinying; Tang, Xiaochen; Luo, Junlong; Gao, Xiangping

    2015-01-01

    Self-face advantage refers to adults' response to self-face is faster than that to other-face. A stop-signal task was used to explore how self-face advantage interacted with response inhibition. The results showed that reaction times of self-face were faster than that of other-face not in the go task but in the stop response trials. The novelty of the finding was that self-face has shorter stop-signal reaction time compared to other-face in the successful inhibition trials. These results indicated the processing mechanism of self-face may be characterized by a strong response tendency and a corresponding strong inhibition control.

  9. Object Detection Based on Fast/Faster RCNN Employing Fully Convolutional Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern object detectors always include two major parts: a feature extractor and a feature classifier as same as traditional object detectors. The deeper and wider convolutional architectures are adopted as the feature extractor at present. However, many notable object detection systems such as Fast/Faster RCNN only consider simple fully connected layers as the feature classifier. In this paper, we declare that it is beneficial for the detection performance to elaboratively design deep convolutional networks (ConvNets of various depths for feature classification, especially using the fully convolutional architectures. In addition, this paper also demonstrates how to employ the fully convolutional architectures in the Fast/Faster RCNN. Experimental results show that a classifier based on convolutional layer is more effective for object detection than that based on fully connected layer and that the better detection performance can be achieved by employing deeper ConvNets as the feature classifier.

  10. Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice / Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa – comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole – were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such results are in line with those found in the literature, which indicate the opposition between egalitarianism (suprapersonal vs. protestant ethic (achievement values so as to explicate the prejudice and the motivations that would prevent such attitude.

  11. Investigating the Mpemba Effect: When Hot Water Freezes Faster than Cold Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, R. T.; Cullerne, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Under certain conditions a body of hot liquid may cool faster and freeze before a body of colder liquid, a phenomenon known as the Mpemba Effect. An initial difference in temperature of 3.2 °C enabled warmer water to reach 0 °C in 14% less time than colder water. Convection currents in the liquid generate a temperature gradient that causes more…

  12. Faster dissolution of PuO2 in nitrous media by means of electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, F.; Kim, J.I.; Luckner, N.; Brueckl, N.; Lieberer, E.

    1984-03-01

    The contribution shows that the dissolution of PuO 2 in HNO 3 can be accelerated considerably by means of electrolytic oxidation. A glass apparatus has been developed which uses platinum electrodes providing for sufficient contact between electrodes and solids. Increase of temperature, acid concentration, and electrode current density, and a good contact between electrode and metal oxide will improve the dissolution kinetics. The reaction could be made even faster by addition of Ce 4+ . (orig.) [de

  13. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Wyndham; Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0-20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury.

  14. Learning to Play in a Day: Faster Deep Reinforcement Learning by Optimality Tightening

    OpenAIRE

    He, Frank S.; Liu, Yang; Schwing, Alexander G.; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel training algorithm for reinforcement learning which combines the strength of deep Q-learning with a constrained optimization approach to tighten optimality and encourage faster reward propagation. Our novel technique makes deep reinforcement learning more practical by drastically reducing the training time. We evaluate the performance of our approach on the 49 games of the challenging Arcade Learning Environment, and report significant improvements in both training time and...

  15. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  16. Content Specificity in Imaginal Exposure: Evaluation of Subjective and Physiological Responding in Patients with Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-18

    1989; van der Molen , van den Hout, Vroemen, Lousberg, and Grie; 1986), attributions ofthreat (Kenardy, Evans, and Oe~ 1988; Rapee, Mattick, and... Molen , G.M., van den HOUl, M.A. Vroemen. 1. • Lousberg, H.• & Griez, E. (1986). Cognitive determinants oflac13te-induced anxiety. Behaviour Research...Chambless. 1982: Griez and van den Hout, 1983). Conversely, however, these researchers are among many who assume a quantitative rather than a qualitative

  17. Standardized Index of Shape (SIS): a quantitative DCE-MRI parameter to discriminate responders by non-responders after neoadjuvant therapy in LARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrillo, Antonella; Fusco, Roberta; Petrillo, Mario; Granata, Vincenza [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Radiology; Sansone, Mario [Naples Univ. ' ' Federico II' ' (Italy). Dept. of Biomedical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering; Avallone, Antonio [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology; Delrio, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Gastrointestinal surgical Oncology; Pecori, Biagio [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Radiotherapy; Tatangelo, Fabiana [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Diagnostic Pathology; Ciliberto, Gennaro [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the potential of DCE-MRI to discriminate responders from non-responders after neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). We investigated several shape parameters for the time-intensity curve (TIC) in order to identify the best combination of parameters between two linear parameter classifiers. Seventy-four consecutive patients with LARC were enrolled in a prospective study approved by our ethics committee. Each patient gave written informed consent. After surgery, pathological TNM and tumour regression grade (TRG) were estimated. DCE-MRI semi-quantitative analysis (sqMRI) was performed to identify the best parameter or parameter combination to discriminate responders from non-responders in response monitoring to CRT. Percentage changes of TIC shape descriptors from the baseline to the presurgical scan were assessed and correlated with TRG. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and linear classifier were applied. Forty-six patients (62.2 %) were classified as responders, while 28 subjects (37.8 %) were considered as non-responders. sqMRI reached a sensitivity of 93.5 % and a specificity of 82.1 % combining the percentage change in Maximum Signal Difference (ΔMSD) and Wash-out Slope (ΔWOS), the Standardized Index of Shape (SIS). SIS obtains the best result in discriminating responders from non-responders after CRT in LARC, with a cut-off value of -3.0 %. (orig.)

  18. What is wrong with non-respondents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and dif...

  19. Responding to Children Victimized by Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brock, Stephen E.; Chang, Yiping; O'Malley, Meagan D.

    2006-01-01

    Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers,…

  20. Responding with Care to Students Facing Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souers, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to trauma--which many experts view as include ongoing life stressors like poverty, parents divorcing, death of a family member, or drug abuse in the home--is prevalent among school-aged children. Teachers know that facing trauma impedes students' ability to focus and learn, but it can be challenging to keep responding caringly to a…

  1. The Forgotten Disaster Victim: Reducing Responder Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Approved by: Anke Richter Thesis Advisor Michael Petrie EMS Bureau, County of Monterey Second Reader Erik Dahl Associate Chair for Instruction...RESPONDERS IN DISASTERS .............20 1. Oklahoma City Bombing .............................................................20 2. World Trade Center...Categories, 2008–2014..................................................................................................19 Figure 4. Oklahoma City Bombing

  2. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  3. Methods for Handling Missing Secondary Respondent Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rebekah; Johnson, David

    2013-01-01

    Secondary respondent data are underutilized because researchers avoid using these data in the presence of substantial missing data. The authors reviewed, evaluated, and tested solutions to this problem. Five strategies of dealing with missing partner data were reviewed: (a) complete case analysis, (b) inverse probability weighting, (c) correction…

  4. Responding to Children's Fears: A Partnership Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, Reesa

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study into children's fears and suggests that forging partnerships between parents, children, and teachers is one positive step toward addressing fear in young children. Defines partnerships and asserts that they can help in better recognizing fear displays in young children and in sharing ideas about best practice in responding to…

  5. Editorial: How to respond to reviewers' comments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soji, Zimkhitha

    Is the content and writing satisfactory enough to make it worth reviewing? Not adequately addressing concerns raised by the reviewers and/or editors does not help the peer-review and publishing processes. Poor judgement when responding to reviewers'/editors' comments often produces a undesirable outcome. Merely ...

  6. 42 CFR 93.225 - Respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respondent. 93.225 Section 93.225 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  7. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  8. Faster Smith-Waterman database searches with inter-sequence SIMD parallelisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognes Torbjørn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Smith-Waterman algorithm for local sequence alignment is more sensitive than heuristic methods for database searching, but also more time-consuming. The fastest approach to parallelisation with SIMD technology has previously been described by Farrar in 2007. The aim of this study was to explore whether further speed could be gained by other approaches to parallelisation. Results A faster approach and implementation is described and benchmarked. In the new tool SWIPE, residues from sixteen different database sequences are compared in parallel to one query residue. Using a 375 residue query sequence a speed of 106 billion cell updates per second (GCUPS was achieved on a dual Intel Xeon X5650 six-core processor system, which is over six times more rapid than software based on Farrar's 'striped' approach. SWIPE was about 2.5 times faster when the programs used only a single thread. For shorter queries, the increase in speed was larger. SWIPE was about twice as fast as BLAST when using the BLOSUM50 score matrix, while BLAST was about twice as fast as SWIPE for the BLOSUM62 matrix. The software is designed for 64 bit Linux on processors with SSSE3. Source code is available from http://dna.uio.no/swipe/ under the GNU Affero General Public License. Conclusions Efficient parallelisation using SIMD on standard hardware makes it possible to run Smith-Waterman database searches more than six times faster than before. The approach described here could significantly widen the potential application of Smith-Waterman searches. Other applications that require optimal local alignment scores could also benefit from improved performance.

  9. Paying more for faster care? Individuals' attitude toward price-based priority access in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Tim M; Dellaert, Benedict G C

    2013-05-01

    Increased competition in the health care sector has led hospitals and other health care institutions to experiment with new access allocation policies that move away from traditional expert based allocation of care to price-based priority access (i.e., the option to pay more for faster care). To date, little is known about individuals' attitude toward price-based priority access and the evaluation process underlying this attitude. This paper addresses the role of individuals' evaluations of collective health outcomes as an important driver of their attitude toward (price-based) allocation policies in health care. The authors investigate how individuals evaluate price-based priority access by means of scenario-based survey data collected in a representative sample from the Dutch population (N = 1464). They find that (a) offering individuals the opportunity to pay for faster care negatively affects their evaluations of both the total and distributional collective health outcome achieved, (b) however, when health care supply is not restricted (i.e., when treatment can be offered outside versus within the regular working hours of the hospital) offering price-based priority access affects total collective health outcome evaluations positively instead of negatively, but it does not change distributional collective health outcome evaluations. Furthermore, (c) the type of health care treatment (i.e., life saving liver transplantation treatment vs. life improving cosmetic ear correction treatment - priced at the same level to the individual) moderates the effect of collective health outcome evaluations on individuals' attitude toward allocation policies. For policy makers and hospital managers the results presented in this article are helpful because they provide a better understanding of what drives individuals' preferences for health care allocation policies. In particular, the results show that policies based on the "paying more for faster care" principle are more

  10. Faster native vowel discrimination learning in musicians is mediated by an optimization of mnemonic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Greber, Marielle; Pushparaj, Arethy; Kühnis, Jürg; Jäncke, Lutz

    2017-09-01

    The ability to discriminate phonemes varying in spectral and temporal attributes constitutes one of the most basic intrinsic elements underlying language learning mechanisms. Since previous work has consistently shown that professional musicians are characterized by perceptual and cognitive advantages in a variety of language-related tasks, and since vowels can be considered musical sounds within the domain of speech, here we investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of native vowel discrimination learning in a sample of professional musicians and non-musicians. We evaluated the contribution of both the neurophysiological underpinnings of perceptual (i.e., N1/P2 complex) and mnemonic functions (i.e., N400 and P600 responses) while the participants were instructed to judge whether pairs of native consonant-vowel (CV) syllables manipulated in the first formant transition of the vowel (i.e., from /tu/ to /to/) were identical or not. Results clearly demonstrated faster learning in musicians, compared to non-musicians, as reflected by shorter reaction times and higher accuracy. Most notably, in terms of morphology, time course, and voltage strength, this steeper learning curve was accompanied by distinctive N400 and P600 manifestations between the two groups. In contrast, we did not reveal any group differences during the early stages of auditory processing (i.e., N1/P2 complex), suggesting that faster learning was mediated by an optimization of mnemonic but not perceptual functions. Based on a clear taxonomy of the mnemonic functions involved in the task, results are interpreted as pointing to a relationship between faster learning mechanisms in musicians and an optimization of echoic (i.e., N400 component) and working memory (i.e., P600 component) functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Faster Smith-Waterman database searches with inter-sequence SIMD parallelisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognes, Torbjørn

    2011-06-01

    The Smith-Waterman algorithm for local sequence alignment is more sensitive than heuristic methods for database searching, but also more time-consuming. The fastest approach to parallelisation with SIMD technology has previously been described by Farrar in 2007. The aim of this study was to explore whether further speed could be gained by other approaches to parallelisation. A faster approach and implementation is described and benchmarked. In the new tool SWIPE, residues from sixteen different database sequences are compared in parallel to one query residue. Using a 375 residue query sequence a speed of 106 billion cell updates per second (GCUPS) was achieved on a dual Intel Xeon X5650 six-core processor system, which is over six times more rapid than software based on Farrar's 'striped' approach. SWIPE was about 2.5 times faster when the programs used only a single thread. For shorter queries, the increase in speed was larger. SWIPE was about twice as fast as BLAST when using the BLOSUM50 score matrix, while BLAST was about twice as fast as SWIPE for the BLOSUM62 matrix. The software is designed for 64 bit Linux on processors with SSSE3. Source code is available from http://dna.uio.no/swipe/ under the GNU Affero General Public License. Efficient parallelisation using SIMD on standard hardware makes it possible to run Smith-Waterman database searches more than six times faster than before. The approach described here could significantly widen the potential application of Smith-Waterman searches. Other applications that require optimal local alignment scores could also benefit from improved performance.

  12. The Faster, Better, Cheaper Approach to Space Missions: An Engineering Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.

    1999-01-01

    NASA was chartered as an independent civilian space agency in 1958 following the Soviet Union's dramatic launch of the Sputnik 1 (1957). In his state of the union address in May of 1961, President Kennedy issued to the fledging organization his famous challenge for a manned lunar mission by the end of the decade. The Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs that followed put the utmost value on high quality, low risk (as low as possible within the context of space flight), quick results, all with little regard for cost. These circumstances essentially melded NASAs culture as an organization capable of great technological achievement but at extremely high cost. The Space Shuttle project, the next major agency endeavor, was put under severe annual budget constraints in the 1970's. NASAs response was to hold to the high quality standards, low risk and annual cost and let schedule suffer. The result was a significant delay in the introduction of the Shuttle as well as overall total cost growth. By the early 1990's, because NASA's budget was declining, the number of projects was also declining. Holding the same cost and schedule productivity levels as before was essentially causing NASA to price itself out of business. In 1992, the helm of NASA was turned over to a new Administrator. Dan Goldin's mantra was "faster, better, cheaper" and his enthusiasm and determination to change the NASA culture was not to be ignored. This research paper documents the various implementations of "faster, better, cheaper" that have been attempted, analyzes their impact and compares the cost performance of these new projects to previous NASA benchmarks. Fundamentally, many elements of "faster, better, cheaper" are found to be working well, especially on smaller projects. Some of the initiatives are found to apply only to smaller or experimental projects however, so that extrapolation to "flagship" projects may be problematic.

  13. Semantic Size Does Not Matter: “Bigger” Words Are Not Recognised Faster

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sean H.K.; Yap, Melvin J.; Tse, Chi-Shing; Kurby, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Sereno, O’Donnell, and Sereno (2009) reported that words are recognised faster in a lexical decision task when their referents are physically large rather than small, suggesting that “semantic size” might be an important variable that should be considered in visual word recognition research and modelling. We sought to replicate their size effect, but failed to find a significant latency advantage in lexical decision for “big” words (cf. “small” words), even though we used the same word stimul...

  14. Two-ply channels for faster wicking in paper-based microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camplisson, Conor K; Schilling, Kevin M; Pedrotti, William L; Stone, Howard A; Martinez, Andres W

    2015-12-07

    This article describes the development of porous two-ply channels for paper-based microfluidic devices that wick fluids significantly faster than conventional, porous, single-ply channels. The two-ply channels were made by stacking two single-ply channels on top of each other and were fabricated entirely out of paper, wax and toner using two commercially available printers, a convection oven and a thermal laminator. The wicking in paper-based channels was studied and modeled using a modified Lucas-Washburn equation to account for the effect of evaporation, and a paper-based titration device incorporating two-ply channels was demonstrated.

  15. Faster-than-real-time robot simulation for plan development and robot safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, C.D. III; Dalton, R.; Ogles, J.; Tulenko, J.S.; Zhou, X.

    1990-01-01

    The University of Florida, in cooperation with the Universities of Texas, Tennessee, and Michigan and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is developing an advanced robotic system for the US Department of Energy under the University Program for Robotics for Advanced Reactors. As part of this program, the University of Florida has been pursuing the development of a faster-than-real-time robotic simulation program for planning and control of mobile robotic operations to ensure the efficient and safe operation of mobile robots in nuclear power plants and other hazardous environments

  16. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Przybylski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908 provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  17. Amitriptyline Intoxication Responded to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldem Turan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The most severe effects in amitriptiline intoxications are related with central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Amitriptiline intoxication especially with high doses has severe cardiac effects and can result in cardiac arrest. Most favorable responses can be achieved with efficient and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We wanted to present a case ingested high dose of amitriptiline for attempt to suicide and responded to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  18. Nuclear Fallout Decision Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-11

    If terrorists detonated an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an urban area, thousands of people would die from the blast, and many more would become sick or die from exposure to fallout radiation. Proper sheltering and evacuation can protect people from fallout and save lives. This project provides guidance to first responders as to when to evacuate and what route to take to protect themselves against fallout radiation.

  19. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on how to operationalize these essential capabilities. By definition true uncertainty represents environmental conditions that are hard to foresee, which can catch the unprepared by surprise while presenting opportunities to the conscious organization. We demonstrate that organizations relying...

  20. Pattern-mixture models for analyzing normal outcome data with proxy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardell, Michelle; Hicks, Gregory E; Miller, Ram R; Langenberg, Patricia; Magaziner, Jay

    2010-06-30

    Studies of older adults often involve interview questions regarding subjective constructs such as perceived disability. In some studies, when subjects are unable (e.g. due to cognitive impairment) or unwilling to respond to these questions, proxies (e.g. relatives or other care givers) are recruited to provide responses in place of the subject. Proxies are usually not approached to respond on behalf of subjects who respond for themselves; thus, for each subject, data from only one of the subject or proxy are available. Typically, proxy responses are simply substituted for missing subject responses, and standard complete-data analyses are performed. However, this approach may introduce measurement error and produce biased parameter estimates. In this paper, we propose using pattern-mixture models that relate non-identifiable parameters to identifiable parameters to analyze data with proxy respondents. We posit three interpretable pattern-mixture restrictions to be used with proxy data, and we propose estimation procedures using maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. The methods are applied to a cohort of elderly hip-fracture patients. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Development of Future Orientation is Associated with Faster Decline in Hopelessness during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giollabhui, Naoise; Nielsen, Johanna; Seidman, Sam; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2018-01-05

    Hopelessness is implicated in multiple psychological disorders. Little is known, however, about the trajectory of hopelessness during adolescence or how emergent future orientation may influence its trajectory. Parallel process latent growth curve modelling tested whether (i) trajectories of future orientation and hopelessness and (ii) within-individual change in future orientation and hopelessness were related. The study was comprised of 472 adolescents [52% female, 47% Caucasian, 47% received free lunch] recruited at ages 12-13 who completed measures of future orientation and hopelessness at five annual assessments. The results indicate that a general decline in hopelessness across adolescence occurs quicker for those experiencing faster development of future orientation, when controlling for age, sex, low socio-economic status in addition to stressful life events in childhood and adolescence. Stressful childhood life events were associated with worse future orientation at baseline and negative life events experienced during adolescence were associated with both an increase in the trajectory of hopelessness as well as a decrease in the trajectory of future orientation. This study provides compelling evidence that the development of future orientation during adolescence is associated with a faster decline in hopelessness.

  2. National health expenditure projections, 2013-23: faster growth expected with expanded coverage and improving economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisko, Andrea M; Keehan, Sean P; Cuckler, Gigi A; Madison, Andrew J; Smith, Sheila D; Wolfe, Christian J; Stone, Devin A; Lizonitz, Joseph M; Poisal, John A

    2014-10-01

    In 2013 health spending growth is expected to have remained slow, at 3.6 percent, as a result of the sluggish economic recovery, the effects of sequestration, and continued increases in private health insurance cost-sharing requirements. The combined effects of the Affordable Care Act's coverage expansions, faster economic growth, and population aging are expected to fuel health spending growth this year and thereafter (5.6 percent in 2014 and 6.0 percent per year for 2015-23). However, the average rate of increase through 2023 is projected to be slower than the 7.2 percent average growth experienced during 1990-2008. Because health spending is projected to grow 1.1 percentage points faster than the average economic growth during 2013-23, the health share of the gross domestic product is expected to rise from 17.2 percent in 2012 to 19.3 percent in 2023. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. They all like it hot: faster cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Clean up a greasy kitchen spill with cold water and the going is slow. Us hot water instead and progress improves markedly. So it makes sense that cleanup of greasy underground contaminants such as gasoline might go faster if hot water or steam were somehow added to the process. The Environmental Protection Agency named hundreds of sites to the Superfund list - sites that have been contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum products or solvents. Elsewhere across the country, thousands of properties not identified on federal cleanup lists are contaminated as well. Given that under current regulations, underground accumulations of solvent and hydrocarbon contaminants (the most serious cause of groundwater pollution) must be cleaned up, finding a rapid and effective method of removing them is imperative. In the early 1990`s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore developed dynamic underground stripping. This method for treating underground contaminants with heat is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods.

  4. Ear Detection under Uncontrolled Conditions with Multiple Scale Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear detection is an important step in ear recognition approaches. Most existing ear detection techniques are based on manually designing features or shallow learning algorithms. However, researchers found that the pose variation, occlusion, and imaging conditions provide a great challenge to the traditional ear detection methods under uncontrolled conditions. This paper proposes an efficient technique involving Multiple Scale Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN to detect ears from 2D profile images in natural images automatically. Firstly, three regions of different scales are detected to infer the information about the ear location context within the image. Then an ear region filtering approach is proposed to extract the correct ear region and eliminate the false positives automatically. In an experiment with a test set of 200 web images (with variable photographic conditions, 98% of ears were accurately detected. Experiments were likewise conducted on the Collection J2 of University of Notre Dame Biometrics Database (UND-J2 and University of Beira Interior Ear dataset (UBEAR, which contain large occlusion, scale, and pose variations. Detection rates of 100% and 98.22%, respectively, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Faster recovery of a diatom from UV damage under ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaping; Campbell, Douglas A; Gao, Kunshan

    2014-11-01

    Diatoms are the most important group of primary producers in marine ecosystems. As oceanic pH declines and increased stratification leads to the upper mixing layer becoming shallower, diatoms are interactively affected by both lower pH and higher average exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation. The photochemical yields of a model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were inhibited by ultraviolet radiation under both growth and excess light levels, while the functional absorbance cross sections of the remaining photosystem II increased. Cells grown under ocean acidification (OA) were less affected during UV exposure. The recovery of PSII under low photosynthetically active radiation was much faster than in the dark, indicating that photosynthetic processes were essential for the full recovery of photosystem II. This light dependent recovery required de novo synthesized protein. Cells grown under ocean acidification recovered faster, possibly attributable to higher CO₂ availability for the Calvin cycle producing more resources for repair. The lower UV inhibition combined with higher recovery rate under ocean acidification could benefit species such as P.tricornutum, and change their competitiveness in the future ocean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of accelerating faster than exponential population growth on genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppell, Mark; Boehnke, Michael; Zöllner, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    Current human sequencing projects observe an abundance of extremely rare genetic variation, suggesting recent acceleration of population growth. To better understand the impact of such accelerating growth on the quantity and nature of genetic variation, we present a new class of models capable of incorporating faster than exponential growth in a coalescent framework. Our work shows that such accelerated growth affects only the population size in the recent past and thus large samples are required to detect the models' effects on patterns of variation. When we compare models with fixed initial growth rate, models with accelerating growth achieve very large current population sizes and large samples from these populations contain more variation than samples from populations with constant growth. This increase is driven almost entirely by an increase in singleton variation. Moreover, linkage disequilibrium decays faster in populations with accelerating growth. When we instead condition on current population size, models with accelerating growth result in less overall variation and slower linkage disequilibrium decay compared to models with exponential growth. We also find that pairwise linkage disequilibrium of very rare variants contains information about growth rates in the recent past. Finally, we demonstrate that models of accelerating growth may substantially change estimates of present-day effective population sizes and growth times.

  7. Transcriptional changes induced by bevacizumab combination therapy in responding and non-responding recurrent glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Staunstrup, Line Maersk; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy produces clinical durable response in 25-30% of recurrent glioblastoma patients. This group of patients has shown improved survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression associated with response...... and resistance to bevacizumab combination therapy.Methods: Recurrent glioblastoma patients who had biomarker-accessible tumor tissue surgically removed both before bevacizumab treatment and at time of progression were included. Patients were grouped into responders (n = 7) and non-responders (n = 14). Gene...... expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was performed using RNA-sequencing.Results: By comparing pretreatment samples of responders with those of non-responders no significant difference was observed. In a paired comparison analysis of pre- and posttreatment samples of non...

  8. L-059: EPR-First responders: Radiological emergency manual for first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference is an emergency manual review about the first responders knowledge. The IAEA safety standard manuals, the medical gestion, the security forces and the fast communications are very important in a radiological emergency

  9. Infant differential behavioral responding to discrete emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J

    2017-10-01

    Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Responding to the Housing and Financial Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scanlon, Kathleen; Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The long period of house price growth in markets across the world ended with the US and global financial crisis of 2007/08. The crisis and the consequent recession had profound effects on mortgage market actors – including households, institutions and governments – in most advanced economies......, whether or not they participated in this rapid house price growth. Many of the trends observed during the boom, especially the innovations in financial instruments, were reversed. This paper presents evidence on how mortgage markets and stakeholders responded in the initial period after the crash...

  11. Faster gastric emptying of a liquid meal in rats after hypothalamic dorsomedial nucleus lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denofre-Carvalho S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH nucleus lesion on body weight, plasma glucose levels, and the gastric emptying of a liquid meal were investigated in male Wistar rats (170-250 g. DMH lesions were produced stereotaxically by delivering a 2.0-mA current for 20 s through nichrome electrodes (0.3-mm tip exposure. In a second set of experiments, the DMH and the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH nucleus were lesioned with a 1.0-mA current for 10 s (0.1-mm tip exposure. The medial hypothalamus (MH was also lesioned separately using a nichrome electrode (0.3-mm tip exposure with a 2.0-mA current for 20 s. Gastric emptying was measured following the orogastric infusion of a liquid test meal consisting of physiological saline (0.9% NaCl, w/v plus phenol red dye (6 mg/dl as a marker. Plasma glucose levels were determined after an 18-h fast before the lesion and on the 7th and 15th postoperative day. Body weight was determined before lesioning and before sacrificing the rats. The DMH-lesioned rats showed a significantly faster (P<0.05 gastric emptying (24.7% gastric retention, N = 11 than control (33.0% gastric retention, N = 8 and sham-lesioned (33.5% gastric retention, N = 12 rats, with a transient hypoglycemia on the 7th postoperative day which returned to normal by the 15th postoperative day. In all cases, weight gain was slower among lesioned rats. Additional experiments using a smaller current to induce lesions confirmed that DMH-lesioned rats had a faster gastric emptying (25.1% gastric retention, N = 7 than control (33.4% gastric retention, N = 17 and VMH-lesioned (34.6% gastric retention, N = 7 rats. MH lesions resulted in an even slower gastric emptying (43.7% gastric retention, N = 7 than in the latter two groups. We conclude that although DMH lesions reduce weight gain, they do not produce consistent changes in plasma glucose levels. These lesions also promote faster gastric emptying of an inert liquid meal, thus suggesting a role for

  12. Process Fragment Libraries for Easier and Faster Development of Process-based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schumm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “process fragment” is recently gaining momentum in business process management research. We understand a process fragment as a connected and reusable process structure, which has relaxed completeness and consistency criteria compared to executable processes. We claim that process fragments allow for an easier and faster development of process-based applications. As evidence to this claim we present a process fragment concept and show a sample collection of concrete, real-world process fragments. We present advanced application scenarios for using such fragments in development of process-based applications. Process fragments are typically managed in a repository, forming a process fragment library. On top of a process fragment library from previous work, we discuss the potential impact of using process fragment libraries in cross-enterprise collaboration and application integration.

  13. Registered nurse supply grows faster than projected amid surge in new entrants ages 23-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, David I; Buerhaus, Peter I; Staiger, Douglas O

    2011-12-01

    The vast preponderance of the nation's registered nurses are women. In the 1980s and 1990 s, a decline in the number of women ages 23-26 who were choosing nursing as a career led to concerns that there would be future nurse shortages unless the trend was reversed. Between 2002 and 2009, however, the number of full-time-equivalent registered nurses ages 23-26 increased by 62 percent. If these young nurses follow the same life-cycle employment patterns as those who preceded them--as they appear to be thus far--then they will be the largest cohort of registered nurses ever observed. Because of this surge in the number of young people entering nursing during the past decade, the nurse workforce is projected to grow faster during the next two decades than previously anticipated. However, it is uncertain whether interest in nursing will continue to grow in the future.

  14. A faster sample preparation method for determination of polonium-210 in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, B.B.; Jing Chen; Kochermin, Vera; Godwin Tung; Sorina Chiorean

    2016-01-01

    In order to facilitate Health Canada’s study on background radiation levels in country foods, an in-house radio-analytical method has been developed for determination of polonium-210 ( 210 Po) in fish samples. The method was validated by measurement of 210 Po in a certified reference material. It was also evaluated by comparing 210 Po concentrations in a number of fish samples by another method. The in-house method offers faster sample dissolution using an automated digestion system compared to currently used wet-ashing on a hot plate. It also utilizes pre-packed Sr-resin® cartridges for rapid and reproducible separation of 210 Po versus time-consuming manually packed Sr-resin® columns. (author)

  15. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Xiang Tian

    Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  16. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (Preversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  17. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Versus CT in Lung Ablation Procedure: Which is Faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Battistuzzi, Jean-Benoit; Catena, Vittorio; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Schena, Emiliano; Buy, Xavier; Palussiere, Jean

    2015-10-01

    To compare cone-beam CT (CBCT) versus computed tomography (CT) guidance in terms of time needed to target and place the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode on lung tumours. Patients at our institution who received CBCT- or CT-guided RFA for primary or metastatic lung tumours were retrospectively included. Time required to target and place the RFA electrode within the lesion was registered and compared across the two groups. Lesions were stratified into three groups according to their size (20 mm). Occurrences of electrode repositioning, repositioning time, RFA complications, and local recurrence after RFA were also reported. Forty tumours (22 under CT, 18 under CBCT guidance) were treated in 27 patients (19 male, 8 female, median age 67.25 ± 9.13 years). Thirty RFA sessions (16 under CBCT and 14 under CT guidance) were performed. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that CBCT was faster than CT to target and place the electrode within the tumour independently from its size (β = -9.45, t = -3.09, p = 0.004). Electrode repositioning was required in 10/22 (45.4 %) tumours under CT guidance and 5/18 (27.8 %) tumours under CBCT guidance. Pneumothoraces occurred in 6/14 (42.8 %) sessions under CT guidance and in 6/16 (37.5 %) sessions under CBCT guidance. Two recurrences were noted for tumours receiving CBCT-guided RFA (2/17, 11.7 %) and three after CT-guided RFA (3/19, 15.8 %). CBCT with live 3D needle guidance is a useful technique for percutaneous lung ablation. Despite lesion size, CBCT allows faster lung RFA than CT.

  18. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Versus CT in Lung Ablation Procedure: Which is Faster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: r.cazzato@unicampus.it; Battistuzzi, Jean-Benoit, E-mail: j.battistuzzi@bordeaux.unicancer.fr; Catena, Vittorio, E-mail: vittoriocatena@gmail.com [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte, E-mail: b.zobel@unicampus.it [Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Italy); Schena, Emiliano, E-mail: e.schena@unicampus.it [Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentations, Biomedical Engineering Laboratory (Italy); Buy, Xavier, E-mail: x.buy@bordeaux.unicancer.fr; Palussiere, Jean, E-mail: j.palussiere@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France)

    2015-10-15

    AimTo compare cone-beam CT (CBCT) versus computed tomography (CT) guidance in terms of time needed to target and place the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode on lung tumours.Materials and MethodsPatients at our institution who received CBCT- or CT-guided RFA for primary or metastatic lung tumours were retrospectively included. Time required to target and place the RFA electrode within the lesion was registered and compared across the two groups. Lesions were stratified into three groups according to their size (<10, 10–20, >20 mm). Occurrences of electrode repositioning, repositioning time, RFA complications, and local recurrence after RFA were also reported.ResultsForty tumours (22 under CT, 18 under CBCT guidance) were treated in 27 patients (19 male, 8 female, median age 67.25 ± 9.13 years). Thirty RFA sessions (16 under CBCT and 14 under CT guidance) were performed. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that CBCT was faster than CT to target and place the electrode within the tumour independently from its size (β = −9.45, t = −3.09, p = 0.004). Electrode repositioning was required in 10/22 (45.4 %) tumours under CT guidance and 5/18 (27.8 %) tumours under CBCT guidance. Pneumothoraces occurred in 6/14 (42.8 %) sessions under CT guidance and in 6/16 (37.5 %) sessions under CBCT guidance. Two recurrences were noted for tumours receiving CBCT-guided RFA (2/17, 11.7 %) and three after CT-guided RFA (3/19, 15.8 %).ConclusionCBCT with live 3D needle guidance is a useful technique for percutaneous lung ablation. Despite lesion size, CBCT allows faster lung RFA than CT.

  19. Faster but not smarter: effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on alertness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Smith, Jessica E

    2013-03-01

    Despite 100 years of psychopharmacological research, the extent to which caffeine consumption benefits human functioning remains unclear. To measure the effects of overnight caffeine abstinence and caffeine administration as a function of level of habitual caffeine consumption. Medium-high (n = 212) and non-low (n = 157) caffeine consumers completed self-report measures and computer-based tasks before (starting at 10:30 AM) and after double-blind treatment with either caffeine (100 mg, then 150 mg) or placebo. The first treatment was given at 11:15 AM and the second at 12:45 PM, with post-treatment measures repeated twice between 1:45 PM and 3:30 PM. Caffeine withdrawal was associated with some detrimental effects at 10:30 AM, and more severe effects, including greater sleepiness, lower mental alertness, and poorer performance on simple reaction time, choice reaction time and recognition memory tasks, later in the afternoon. Caffeine improved these measures in medium-high consumers but, apart from decreasing sleepiness, had little effect on them in non-low consumers. The failure of caffeine to increase mental alertness and improve mental performance in non-low consumers was related to a substantial caffeine-induced increase in anxiety/jitteriness that offset the benefit of decreased sleepiness. Caffeine enhanced physical performance (faster tapping speed and faster simple and choice reaction times) in both medium-high and non-low consumers. While caffeine benefits motor performance and tolerance develops to its tendency to increase anxiety/jitteriness, tolerance to its effects on sleepiness means that frequent consumption fails to enhance mental alertness and mental performance.

  20. Faster Movement Speed Results in Greater Tendon Strain during the Loaded Squat Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E.; Newton, Robert U.; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon dynamics influence movement performance and provide the stimulus for long-term tendon adaptation. As tendon strain increases with load magnitude and decreases with loading rate, changes in movement speed during exercise should influence tendon strain. Methods: Ten resistance-trained men [squat one repetition maximum (1RM) to body mass ratio: 1.65 ± 0.12] performed parallel-depth back squat lifts with 60% of 1RM load at three different speeds: slow fixed-tempo (TS: 2-s eccentric, 1-s pause, 2-s concentric), volitional-speed without a pause (VS) and maximum-speed jump (JS). In each condition joint kinetics, quadriceps tendon length (LT), patellar tendon force (FT), and rate of force development (RFDT) were estimated using integrated ultrasonography, motion-capture, and force platform recordings. Results: Peak LT, FT, and RFDT were greater in JS than TS (p < 0.05), however no differences were observed between VS and TS. Thus, moving at faster speeds resulted in both greater tendon stress and strain despite an increased RFDT, as would be predicted of an elastic, but not a viscous, structure. Temporal comparisons showed that LT was greater in TS than JS during the early eccentric phase (10–14% movement duration) where peak RFDT occurred, demonstrating that the tendon's viscous properties predominated during initial eccentric loading. However, during the concentric phase (61–70 and 76–83% movement duration) differing FT and similar RFDT between conditions allowed for the tendon's elastic properties to predominate such that peak tendon strain was greater in JS than TS. Conclusions: Based on our current understanding, there may be an additional mechanical stimulus for tendon adaptation when performing large range-of-motion isoinertial exercises at faster movement speeds. PMID:27630574

  1. UK medicines regulation: responding to current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Natalie; Hudson, Ian

    2016-12-01

    The medicines regulatory environment is evolving rapidly in response to the changing environment. Advances in science and technology have led to a vast field of increasingly complicated pharmaceutical and medical device products; increasing globalization of the pharmaceutical industry, advances in digital technology and the internet, changing patient populations, and shifts in society also affect the regulatory environment. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) regulates medicines, medical devices and blood products to protect and improve public health, and supports innovation through scientific research and development. It works closely with other bodies in a single medicines network across Europe and takes forward UK health priorities. This paper discusses the range of initiatives in the UK and across Europe to support innovation in medicines regulation. The MHRA leads a number of initiatives, such as the Innovation Office, which helps innovators to navigate the regulatory processes to progress their products or technologies; and simplification of the Clinical Trials Regulations and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme, to bring innovative medicines to patients faster. The Accelerated Access Review will identify reforms to accelerate access for National Health Service patients to innovative medicines and medical technologies. PRIME and Adaptive Pathways initiatives are joint endeavours within the European regulatory community. The MHRA runs spontaneous reporting schemes and works with INTERPOL to tackle counterfeiting and substandard products sold via the internet. The role of the regulator is changing rapidly, with new risk-proportionate, flexible approaches being introduced. International collaboration is a key element of the work of regulators, and is set to expand. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Teaching innovation system applied in business management subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rosillo

    2017-06-01

    Blunder offers a fun mobile training. We can know which student learns faster, learns more or learns better a particular topic. If a student plays the subject that the teacher has explained in class the level of learning affects to the final evaluation positively.

  3. Discriminant cognitive factors in responder and non-responder patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, E; Lussier, I; Ngan, E; Mendrek, A; Liddle, P

    1999-12-01

    To identify which improvements in cognitive function are associated with symptom resolution in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. a prospective open trial with atypical neuroleptics (risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine). Inpatient and outpatient units, Institute of Psychiatry. Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria were included. Clinical and cognitive assessment were done at baseline (T0) and again after six months of treatment (T2). Twenty-five patients completed the trial. New-generation antipsychotics during six months. Patients were considered as responders if their PANSS score decreased at least 20% (n = 15) and non-responders if it did not (n = 10). a computerized cognitive assessment comprised tests of short-term-memory (digit span), explicit long-term memory (word pair learning), divided attention, selective attention and verbal fluency (orthographic and semantic). Clinical assessment included PANSS and ESRS. A discriminant function analysis was performed to determine which changes in cognitive performance predicted symptomatic response status. Semantic fluency and orthographic fluency were significant predictors. Together they correctly predicted responder status in 88% of cases. Memory was not a significant predictor of symptomatic response. Verbal fluency discriminated the responder from the non-responder group during a pharmacological treatment.

  4. First responders and psychological first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekevski, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Emergencies and disasters are common and occur on a daily basis. Although most survivors will not experience any long-term negative mental health effects, some will. First responders tend to have first contact with the survivors and, therefore, are in a position to provide needed mental health assistance to survivors. Psychological first aid (PFA) is an evidence-informed approach to providing support to survivors following a serious crisis event, and it aims to reduce the initial distress of the traumatic event and to promote adaptive functioning and coping. PFA has gained a great deal of attention lately, likely due to the fact that it is easy to provide. This article discusses the potential negative effects of emergencies and disasters on mental health, provides a description of PFA and discusses its application, and provides an overview of the research base of PFA and a discussion on the need for future research.

  5. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  6. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  7. How to define responders in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Bardin, Thomas; Berenbaum, Francis; Flamion, Bruno; Jonsson, Helgi; Kanis, John A.; Pelousse, Franz; Lems, Willem F.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Reiter, Susanne; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular cartilage and involvement of other joint structures. Scope Regulatory agencies require relevant clinical benefit on symptoms and structure modification for registration of a new therapy as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). An international Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and International Osteoporosis Foundation was convened to explore the current burden of osteoarthritis, review current regulatory guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials, and examine the concept of responder analyses for improving drug evaluation in osteoarthritis. Findings The ESCEO considers that the major challenges in DMOAD development are the absence of a precise definition of the disease, particularly in the early stages, and the lack of consensus on how to detect structural changes and link them to clinically meaningful endpoints. Responder criteria should help identify progression of disease and be clinically meaningful. The ideal criterion should be sensitive to change over time and should predict disease progression and outcomes such as joint replacement. Conclusion The ESCEO considers that, for knee osteoarthritis, clinical trial data indicate that radiographic joint space narrowing >0.5 mm over 2 or 3 years might be a reliable surrogate measure for total joint replacement. On-going research using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical markers may allow the identification of these patients earlier in the disease process. PMID:23557069

  8. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  9. Faster algorithms for RNA-folding using the Four-Russians method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Balaji; Gusfield, Dan; Frid, Yelena

    2014-03-06

    The secondary structure that maximizes the number of non-crossing matchings between complimentary bases of an RNA sequence of length n can be computed in O(n3) time using Nussinov's dynamic programming algorithm. The Four-Russians method is a technique that reduces the running time for certain dynamic programming algorithms by a multiplicative factor after a preprocessing step where solutions to all smaller subproblems of a fixed size are exhaustively enumerated and solved. Frid and Gusfield designed an O(n3logn) algorithm for RNA folding using the Four-Russians technique. In their algorithm the preprocessing is interleaved with the algorithm computation. We simplify the algorithm and the analysis by doing the preprocessing once prior to the algorithm computation. We call this the two-vector method. We also show variants where instead of exhaustive preprocessing, we only solve the subproblems encountered in the main algorithm once and memoize the results. We give a simple proof of correctness and explore the practical advantages over the earlier method.The Nussinov algorithm admits an O(n2) time parallel algorithm. We show a parallel algorithm using the two-vector idea that improves the time bound to O(n2logn). We have implemented the parallel algorithm on graphics processing units using the CUDA platform. We discuss the organization of the data structures to exploit coalesced memory access for fast running times. The ideas to organize the data structures also help in improving the running time of the serial algorithms. For sequences of length up to 6000 bases the parallel algorithm takes only about 2.5 seconds and the two-vector serial method takes about 57 seconds on a desktop and 15 seconds on a server. Among the serial algorithms, the two-vector and memoized versions are faster than the Frid-Gusfield algorithm by a factor of 3, and are faster than Nussinov by up to a factor of 20. The source-code for the algorithms is available at http://github.com/ijalabv/FourRussiansRNAFolding.

  10. WS-020: EPR-First Responders: Cards of response measures for first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this working session is that the participants know how to use the cards of response measures for first responders. In a radiological emergency is useful to have cards which contains a list of the steps to be followed as well as the protection instructions and risk evaluation

  11. With medium-chain triglycerides, higher and faster oxygen radical production by stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruimel, J W; Naber, A H; Curfs, J H; Wenker, M A; Jansen, J B

    2000-01-01

    Parenteral lipid emulsions are suspected of suppressing the immune function. However, study results are contradictory and mainly concern the conventional long-chain triglyceride emulsions. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were preincubated with parenteral lipid emulsions. The influence of the lipid emulsions on the production of oxygen radicals by these stimulated leukocytes was studied by measuring chemiluminescence. Three different parenteral lipid emulsions were tested: long-chain triglycerides, a physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides, and structured triglycerides. Structured triglycerides consist of triglycerides where the medium- and long-chain fatty acids are attached to the same glycerol molecule. Stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with the physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides showed higher levels of oxygen radicals (p triglycerides or structured triglycerides. Additional studies indicated that differences in results of various lipid emulsions were not caused by differences in emulsifier. The overall production of oxygen radicals was significantly lower after preincubation with the three lipid emulsions compared with controls without lipid emulsion. A physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides induced faster production of oxygen radicals, resulting in higher levels of oxygen radicals, compared with long-chain triglycerides or structured triglycerides. This can be detrimental in cases where oxygen radicals play either a pathogenic role or a beneficial one, such as when rapid phagocytosis and killing of bacteria is needed. The observed lower production of oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the presence of parenteral lipid emulsions may result in immunosuppression by these lipids.

  12. Soft robotics: a review and progress towards faster and higher torque actuators (presentation video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Last year, nearly 160,000 industrial robots were shipped worldwide—into a total market valued at 26 Bn (including hardware, software, and peripherals).[1] Service robots for professional (e.g., defense, medical, agriculture) and personal (e.g., household, handicap assistance, toys, and education) use accounted for 16,000 units, 3.4 Bn and 3,000,000 units, $1.2 Bn respectively.[1] The vast majority of these robotic systems use fully actuated, rigid components that take little advantage of passive dynamics. Soft robotics is a field that is taking advantage of compliant actuators and passive dynamics to achieve several goals: reduced design, manufacturing and control complexity, improved energy efficiency, more sophisticated motions, and safe human-machine interactions to name a few. The potential for societal impact is immense. In some instances, soft actuators have achieved commercial success; however, large scale adoption will require improved methods of controlling non-linear systems, greater reliability in their function, and increased utility from faster and more forceful actuation. In my talk, I will describe efforts from my work in the Whitesides group at Harvard to prove sophisticated motions in these machines using simple controls, as well capabilities unique to soft machines. I will also describe the potential for combinations of different classes of soft actuators (e.g., electrically and pneumatically actuated systems) to improve the utility of soft robots. 1. World Robotics - Industrial Robots 2013, 2013, International Federation of Robotics.

  13. Sequence-based heuristics for faster annotation of non-coding RNA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Zasha; Ruzzo, Walter L

    2006-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are functional RNA molecules that do not code for proteins. Covariance Models (CMs) are a useful statistical tool to find new members of an ncRNA gene family in a large genome database, using both sequence and, importantly, RNA secondary structure information. Unfortunately, CM searches are extremely slow. Previously, we created rigorous filters, which provably sacrifice none of a CM's accuracy, while making searches significantly faster for virtually all ncRNA families. However, these rigorous filters make searches slower than heuristics could be. In this paper we introduce profile HMM-based heuristic filters. We show that their accuracy is usually superior to heuristics based on BLAST. Moreover, we compared our heuristics with those used in tRNAscan-SE, whose heuristics incorporate a significant amount of work specific to tRNAs, where our heuristics are generic to any ncRNA. Performance was roughly comparable, so we expect that our heuristics provide a high-quality solution that--unlike family-specific solutions--can scale to hundreds of ncRNA families. The source code is available under GNU Public License at the supplementary web site.

  14. World oil demand's shift toward faster growing and less price-responsive products and regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargay, Joyce M.; Gately, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Using data for 1971-2008, we estimate the effects of changes in price and income on world oil demand, disaggregated by product - transport oil, fuel oil (residual and heating oil), and other oil - for six groups of countries. Most of the demand reductions since 1973-74 were due to fuel-switching away from fuel oil, especially in the OECD; in addition, the collapse of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) reduced their oil consumption substantially. Demand for transport and other oil was much less price-responsive, and has grown almost as rapidly as income, especially outside the OECD and FSU. World oil demand has shifted toward products and regions that are faster growing and less price-responsive. In contrast to projections to 2030 of declining per-capita demand for the world as a whole - by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), International Energy Agency (IEA) and OPEC - we project modest growth. Our projections for total world demand in 2030 are at least 20% higher than projections by those three institutions, using similar assumptions about income growth and oil prices, because we project rest-of-world growth that is consistent with historical patterns, in contrast to the dramatic slowdowns which they project. (author)

  15. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, Lauren E; Ayres, Matthew P; Virginia, Ross A

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator-prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2-1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased probability of mosquito survival to the adult stage. Warming also advanced mosquito phenology, bringing mosquitoes into phenological synchrony with caribou. Increases in biting pests will have negative consequences for caribou and their role as a subsistence resource for local communities. Generalizable frameworks that account for multiple effects of temperature are needed to understand how climate change impacts coupled human-natural systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. A faster numerical scheme for a coupled system modeling soil erosion and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M.-H.; Cordier, S.; Lucas, C.; Cerdan, O.

    2015-02-01

    Overland flow and soil erosion play an essential role in water quality and soil degradation. Such processes, involving the interactions between water flow and the bed sediment, are classically described by a well-established system coupling the shallow water equations and the Hairsine-Rose model. Numerical approximation of this coupled system requires advanced methods to preserve some important physical and mathematical properties; in particular, the steady states and the positivity of both water depth and sediment concentration. Recently, finite volume schemes based on Roe's solver have been proposed by Heng et al. (2009) and Kim et al. (2013) for one and two-dimensional problems. In their approach, an additional and artificial restriction on the time step is required to guarantee the positivity of sediment concentration. This artificial condition can lead the computation to be costly when dealing with very shallow flow and wet/dry fronts. The main result of this paper is to propose a new and faster scheme for which only the CFL condition of the shallow water equations is sufficient to preserve the positivity of sediment concentration. In addition, the numerical procedure of the erosion part can be used with any well-balanced and positivity preserving scheme of the shallow water equations. The proposed method is tested on classical benchmarks and also on a realistic configuration.

  17. Emotion, Etmnooi, or Emitoon?--Faster lexical access to emotional than to neutral words during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissler, Johanna; Herbert, Cornelia

    2013-03-01

    Cortical processing of emotional words differs from that of neutral words. Using EEG event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study examines the functional stage(s) of this differentiation. Positive, negative, and neutral nouns were randomly mixed with pseudowords and letter strings derived from words within each valence and presented for reading while participants' EEG was recorded. Results indicated emotion effects in the N1 (110-140 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN, 216-320) and late positive potential (LPP, 432-500 ms) time windows. Across valence, orthographic word-form effects occurred from about 180 ms after stimulus presentation. Crucially, in emotional words, lexicality effects (real words versus pseudowords) were identified from 216 ms, words being more negative over posterior cortex, coinciding with EPN effects, whereas neutral words differed from pseudowords only after 320 ms. Emotional content affects word processing at pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical levels, but remarkably lexical access to emotional words is faster than access to neutral words. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A light and faster regional convolutional neural network for object detection in optical remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Peng; Zhang, Ye; Deng, Wei-Jian; Jia, Ping; Kuijper, Arjan

    2018-07-01

    Detection of objects from satellite optical remote sensing images is very important for many commercial and governmental applications. With the development of deep convolutional neural networks (deep CNNs), the field of object detection has seen tremendous advances. Currently, objects in satellite remote sensing images can be detected using deep CNNs. In general, optical remote sensing images contain many dense and small objects, and the use of the original Faster Regional CNN framework does not yield a suitably high precision. Therefore, after careful analysis we adopt dense convoluted networks, a multi-scale representation and various combinations of improvement schemes to enhance the structure of the base VGG16-Net for improving the precision. We propose an approach to reduce the test-time (detection time) and memory requirements. To validate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform experiments using satellite remote sensing image datasets of aircraft and automobiles. The results show that the improved network structure can detect objects in satellite optical remote sensing images more accurately and efficiently.

  19. Processing language in face-to-face conversation: Questions with gestures get faster responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Judith; Kendrick, Kobin H; Levinson, Stephen C

    2017-09-08

    The home of human language use is face-to-face interaction, a context in which communicative exchanges are characterised not only by bodily signals accompanying what is being said but also by a pattern of alternating turns at talk. This transition between turns is astonishingly fast-typically a mere 200-ms elapse between a current and a next speaker's contribution-meaning that comprehending, producing, and coordinating conversational contributions in time is a significant challenge. This begs the question of whether the additional information carried by bodily signals facilitates or hinders language processing in this time-pressured environment. We present analyses of multimodal conversations revealing that bodily signals appear to profoundly influence language processing in interaction: Questions accompanied by gestures lead to shorter turn transition times-that is, to faster responses-than questions without gestures, and responses come earlier when gestures end before compared to after the question turn has ended. These findings hold even after taking into account prosodic patterns and other visual signals, such as gaze. The empirical findings presented here provide a first glimpse of the role of the body in the psycholinguistic processes underpinning human communication.

  20. Revisit the faster-is-slower effect for an exit at a corner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun Min; Lin, Peng; Wu, Fan Yu; Li Gao, Dong; Wang, Guo Yuan

    2018-02-01

    The faster-is-slower effect (FIS), which means that crowd at a high enough velocity could significantly increase the evacuation time to escape through an exit, is an interesting phenomenon in pedestrian dynamics. Such phenomenon had been studied widely and has been experimentally verified in different systems of discrete particles flowing through a centre exit. To experimentally validate this phenomenon by using people under high pressure is difficult due to ethical issues. A mouse, similar to a human, is a kind of self-driven and soft body creature with competitive behaviour under stressed conditions. Therefore, mice are used to escape through an exit at a corner. A number of repeated tests are conducted and the average escape time per mouse at different levels of stimulus are analysed. The escape times do not increase obviously with the level of stimulus for the corner exit, which is contrary to the experiment with the center exit. The experimental results show that the FIS effect is not necessary a universal law for any discrete system. The observation could help the design of buildings by relocating their exits to the corner in rooms to avoid the formation of FIS effect.

  1. Resonant Drag Instabilities in protoplanetary disks: the streaming instability and new, faster-growing instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2018-04-01

    We identify and study a number of new, rapidly growing instabilities of dust grains in protoplanetary disks, which may be important for planetesimal formation. The study is based on the recognition that dust-gas mixtures are generically unstable to a Resonant Drag Instability (RDI), whenever the gas, absent dust, supports undamped linear modes. We show that the "streaming instability" is an RDI associated with epicyclic oscillations; this provides simple interpretations for its mechanisms and accurate analytic expressions for its growth rates and fastest-growing wavelengths. We extend this analysis to more general dust streaming motions and other waves, including buoyancy and magnetohydrodynamic oscillations, finding various new instabilities. Most importantly, we identify the disk "settling instability," which occurs as dust settles vertically into the midplane of a rotating disk. For small grains, this instability grows many orders of magnitude faster than the standard streaming instability, with a growth rate that is independent of grain size. Growth timescales for realistic dust-to-gas ratios are comparable to the disk orbital period, and the characteristic wavelengths are more than an order of magnitude larger than the streaming instability (allowing the instability to concentrate larger masses). This suggests that in the process of settling, dust will band into rings then filaments or clumps, potentially seeding dust traps, high-metallicity regions that in turn seed the streaming instability, or even overdensities that coagulate or directly collapse to planetesimals.

  2. Detection of vehicle parts based on Faster R-CNN and relative position information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingwen; Sang, Nong; Chen, Youbin; Gao, Changxin; Wang, Yongzhong

    2018-03-01

    Detection and recognition of vehicles are two essential tasks in intelligent transportation system (ITS). Currently, a prevalent method is to detect vehicle body, logo or license plate at first, and then recognize them. So the detection task is the most basic, but also the most important work. Besides the logo and license plate, some other parts, such as vehicle face, lamp, windshield and rearview mirror, are also key parts which can reflect the characteristics of vehicle and be used to improve the accuracy of recognition task. In this paper, the detection of vehicle parts is studied, and the work is novel. We choose Faster R-CNN as the basic algorithm, and take the local area of an image where vehicle body locates as input, then can get multiple bounding boxes with their own scores. If the box with maximum score is chosen as final result directly, it is often not the best one, especially for small objects. This paper presents a method which corrects original score with relative position information between two parts. Then we choose the box with maximum comprehensive score as the final result. Compared with original output strategy, the proposed method performs better.

  3. Development of Novel Faster-Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Transcutaneous Vaccine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Akihiko; Ito, Sayami; Sakagami, Shun; Asada, Hideo; Saito, Mio; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Hirobe, Sachiko; Okada, Naoki

    2017-08-03

    Microneedle (MN) patches are promising for transcutaneous vaccination because they enable vaccine antigens to physically penetrate the stratum corneum via low-invasive skin puncturing, and to be effectively delivered to antigen-presenting cells in the skin. In second-generation MN patches, the dissolving MNs release the loaded vaccine antigen into the skin. To shorten skin application time for clinical practice, this study aims to develop novel faster-dissolving MNs. We designed two types of MNs made from a single thickening agent, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or hyaluronan (HN). Both CMC-MN and HN-MN completely dissolved in rat skin after a 5-min application. In pre-clinical studies, both MNs could demonstrably increase antigen-specific IgG levels after vaccination and prolong antigen deposition compared with conventional injections, and deliver antigens into resected human dermal tissue. In clinical research, we demonstrated that both MNs could reliably and safely puncture human skin without any significant skin irritation from transepidermal water loss measurements and ICDRG (International Contact Dermatitis Research Group) evaluation results.

  4. Faster acquisition of laparoscopic skills in virtual reality with haptic feedback and 3D vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelsteen, Kristine; Langegård, Anders; Lantz, Adam; Ekelund, Mikael; Anderberg, Magnus; Bergenfelz, Anders

    2017-10-01

    The study investigated whether 3D vision and haptic feedback in combination in a virtual reality environment leads to more efficient learning of laparoscopic skills in novices. Twenty novices were allocated to two groups. All completed a training course in the LapSim ® virtual reality trainer consisting of four tasks: 'instrument navigation', 'grasping', 'fine dissection' and 'suturing'. The study group performed with haptic feedback and 3D vision and the control group without. Before and after the LapSim ® course, the participants' metrics were recorded when tying a laparoscopic knot in the 2D video box trainer Simball ® Box. The study group completed the training course in 146 (100-291) minutes compared to 215 (175-489) minutes in the control group (p = .002). The number of attempts to reach proficiency was significantly lower. The study group had significantly faster learning of skills in three out of four individual tasks; instrument navigation, grasping and suturing. Using the Simball ® Box, no difference in laparoscopic knot tying after the LapSim ® course was noted when comparing the groups. Laparoscopic training in virtual reality with 3D vision and haptic feedback made training more time efficient and did not negatively affect later video box-performance in 2D. [Formula: see text].

  5. Introducing difference recurrence relations for faster semi-global alignment of long sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hajime; Kasahara, Masahiro

    2018-02-19

    The read length of single-molecule DNA sequencers is reaching 1 Mb. Popular alignment software tools widely used for analyzing such long reads often take advantage of single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) operations to accelerate calculation of dynamic programming (DP) matrices in the Smith-Waterman-Gotoh (SWG) algorithm with a fixed alignment start position at the origin. Nonetheless, 16-bit or 32-bit integers are necessary for storing the values in a DP matrix when sequences to be aligned are long; this situation hampers the use of the full SIMD width of modern processors. We proposed a faster semi-global alignment algorithm, "difference recurrence relations," that runs more rapidly than the state-of-the-art algorithm by a factor of 2.1. Instead of calculating and storing all the values in a DP matrix directly, our algorithm computes and stores mainly the differences between the values of adjacent cells in the matrix. Although the SWG algorithm and our algorithm can output exactly the same result, our algorithm mainly involves 8-bit integer operations, enabling us to exploit the full width of SIMD operations (e.g., 32) on modern processors. We also developed a library, libgaba, so that developers can easily integrate our algorithm into alignment programs. Our novel algorithm and optimized library implementation will facilitate accelerating nucleotide long-read analysis algorithms that use pairwise alignment stages. The library is implemented in the C programming language and available at https://github.com/ocxtal/libgaba .

  6. Level of headaches after surgical aneurysm clipping decreases significantly faster compared to endovascular coiled patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In incidental aneurysms, endovascular treatment can lead to post-procedural headaches. We studied the difference of surgical clipping vs. endovascular coiling in concern to post-procedural headaches in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Sixtyseven patients with aneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage were treated in our department from September 1st 2015 - September 1st 2016. 43 Patients were included in the study and the rest was excluded because of late recovery or highgrade subarachnoid bleedings. Twenty-two were surgical treated and twenty-one were interventionally treated. We compared the post-procedural headaches at the time points of 24 h, 21 days, and 3 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (VAS for pain. After surgical clipping the headache score decreased for 8.8 points in the VAS, whereas the endovascular treated population showed a decrease of headaches of 3.3 points. This difference was highly statistical significant and remained significant even after 3 weeks where the pain score for the surgically treated patients was 0.68 and for the endovascular treated 1.8. After 3 months the pain was less than 1 for both groups with surgically treated patients scoring 0.1 and endovascular treated patients 0.9 (not significant. Clipping is relieving the headaches of patients with aneurysm rupture faster and more effective than endovascular coiling. This effect stays significant for at least 3 weeks and plays a crucial role in stress relieve during the acute and subacute ICU care of such patients.

  7. Faster-Than-Real-Time Simulation of Lithium Ion Batteries with Full Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Mazumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional coupled electrochemical-thermal model of a lithium ion battery with full temporal and normal-to-electrode spatial resolution is presented. Only a single pair of electrodes is considered in the model. It is shown that simulation of a lithium ion battery with the inclusion of detailed transport phenomena and electrochemistry is possible with faster-than-real-time compute times. The governing conservation equations of mass, charge, and energy are discretized using the finite volume method and solved using an iterative procedure. The model is first successfully validated against experimental data for both charge and discharge processes in a LixC6-LiyMn2O4 battery. Finally, it is demonstrated for an arbitrary rapidly changing transient load typical of a hybrid electric vehicle drive cycle. The model is able to predict the cell voltage of a 15-minute drive cycle in less than 12 seconds of compute time on a laptop with a 2.33 GHz Intel Pentium 4 processor.

  8. Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal conhecer em que medida as motivações interna e externa para responder sem preconceito frente aos negros se correlacionam com os valores humanos. Para tanto, contou-se com a participação de 308 pessoas da cidade de João Pessoa (PB, distribuídas entre estudantes do ensino médio e universitário, bem como pessoas da população geral. Estes responderam, além de questões demográficas, o Questionário dos Valores Básicos, Escala de Desejabilidade Social e a Escala de Motivação Interna e Externa para Responder sem Preconceito. De acordo com os resultados, a motivação interna se correlacionou de modo positivo principalmente com os valores suprapessoais, como maturidade, beleza e conhecimento. No caso da motivação externa, esta o fez unicamente com os valores de realização, destacando-se entre eles prestígio e privacidade. Estes resultados são coerentes com aqueles apresentados na literatura, que indicam a oposição entre os valores de igualitarismo (suprapessoais vs. ética protestante (realização para explicar o preconceito e as motivações para não apresentar este tipo de atitude.The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa - comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole - were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such

  9. Severe Valproic Acid Intoxication Responding to Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ertuğ Arslanköylü

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is a commonly used antiepileptic drug which causes intoxication easily due to its narrow therapeutic window. Here, we present a child with valproic acid poisoning who responded to hemodialysis. A 14-year-old male patient with epilepsy and mental motor retardation was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to valproic acid intoxication. Plasma valproic acid level was 710 µg/mL. The patient’s vital signs were stable and a decrease was observed in the valproic acid and ammonia levels with supportive treatment at the beginning. On the third day of the admission, hemodynamic and mental status of the patient deteriorated, plasma ammonia and lactate levels elevated, thus, we decided to perform hemodialysis. After hemodialysis, the patient’s hemodynamic status and mental function improved in conjunction with the reduction in valproic acid, ammonia and lactate levels. Thus he was transferred to the pediatric ward. Hemodialysis may be considered an effective treatment choice for severe valproic acid intoxication. Here, it was shown that hemodialysis may also be effective in patients with deteriorated general status under supportive treatment in the late phase of valproic acid intoxication.

  10. Utilities respond to nuclear station blackout rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, A.M.; Beasley, B.; Tenera, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss how nuclear plants in the United States have taken actions to respond to the NRC Station Blackout Rule, 10CFR50.63. The rule requires that each light water cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate must be able to withstand for a specified duration and recover from a station blackout. Station blackout is defined as the complete loss of a-c power to the essential and non-essential switch-gear buses in a nuclear power plant. A station blackout results from the loss of all off-site power as well as the on-site emergency a-c power system. There are two basic approaches to meeting the station blackout rule. One is to cope with a station blackout independent of a-c power. Coping, as it is called, means the ability of a plant to achieve and maintain a safe shutdown condition. The second approach is to provide an alternate a-c power source (AAC)

  11. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  12. Reasons anglers did not respond to an internet survey and evaluation of data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Henderson, Kjetil R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource management agencies have traditionally used statewide mail surveys to gather information from anglers, but cost savings and faster returns occur using the internet. This study examined mail or internet fishery survey return rates and associated data by license type of South Dakota resident anglers. Junior anglers (ages 16-18; Junior Combination license) had the lowest internet and mail survey return rates (20% and 28%, respectively), followed by adult anglers (ages 19-64; Adult Fishing and Adult Combination licenses; 30% and 39%, respectively), and senior anglers (ages 65+; Senior Fishing and Senior Combination licenses; 42% and 66%, respectively). The three age groups were significantly different on three email use characteristics (shared email, frequency of use, and comfort level). The primary reason for not responding to the internet survey was not receiving or noticing the email request, and secondarily, being too busy to respond. Although having a relatively low response rate, data collected by the internet compared to follow-up mail surveys of internet non-respondents were similar.

  13. Responding to Students' Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on a teacher's and his students' responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in J Chem Educ 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and a teacher's development in response to this curriculum. We also explore the tensions this teacher experiences as students subsequently respond to his adjusted teaching. We use a Chemistry Teacher Inventory (Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Res Sci Educ 40(11):667-689, 2011; Lewthwaite and Wiebe in Can J Math Sci Technol Educ 12(1):36-61, 2012; Lewthwaite in Chem Educ Res Pract. doi:10.1039/C3RP00122A, 2014) to assist the teacher in monitoring how he teaches and how he would like to improve his teaching. We also use a student form of the instrument, the Chemistry Classroom Inventory and Classroom Observation Protocol (Lewthwaite and Wiebe 2011) to verify the teacher's teaching and perception of student preferences for his teaching especially in terms of the discursive processes the curriculum encourages. By so doing, the teacher is able to use both sets of data as a foundation for critical reflection and work towards resolution of the incongruence in data arising from students' preferred learning orientations and his teaching aspirations. Implications of this study in regards to the authority of students' voice in triggering teachers' pedagogical change and the adjustments in `teachering' and `studenting' required by such curricula are considered.

  14. Faster, better, and cheaper” at NASA: Lessons learned in managing and accepting risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Larry J.

    2007-11-01

    Can Earth observing missions be done "better, faster and cheaper"? In this paper I explore the management and technical issues that arose from the attempt to do things "faster, better and cheaper" at NASA. The FBC mantra lead to some failures and, more significantly, an increase in the cadence of missions. Mission cadence is a major enabler of innovation and the driver for the training and testing of the next generation of managers, engineers, and scientists. A high mission cadence is required to maintain and develop competence in mission design, management, and execution and, for an exploration-driven organization, to develop and train the next generation of leaders: the time between missions must be short enough that careers span the complete life of more than a few missions. This process reduces risk because the "lessons learned" are current and widely held. Increasing the cadence of missions has the added benefit of reducing the pressure to do everything on one particular mission thus reducing mission complexity. Since failures are inevitable in such a complex endeavor, a higher mission cadence has the advantage of providing some resiliency to the scientific program the missions support. Some failures are avoidable (often only in hindsight) but most are due to some combination of interacting factors. This interaction is often only appreciated as a potential failure mode after the fact. There is always the pressure to do more with less: the scope of the project may become too ambitious or the management and oversight of the project may be reduced to fit the money allocated, or the project time line may be lengthened due to external factors (launcher availability, budgetary constraints) without a concomitant increase in the total funding. This leads to increased risk. Risks are always deemed acceptable until they change from a "risk" to a "failure mode". Identifying and managing those risks are particularly difficult when the activities are dispersed

  15. QERx- A Faster than Real-Time Emulator for Space Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B.; Pidgeon, A.; Robinson, P.

    2012-08-01

    Developing software for space systems is challenging. Especially because, in order to be sure it can cope with the harshness of the environment and the imperative requirements and constrains imposed by the platform were it will run, it needs to be tested exhaustively. Software Validation Facilities (SVF) are known to the industry and developers, and provide the means to run the On-Board Software (OBSW) in a realistic environment, allowing the development team to debug and test the software.But the challenge is to be able to keep up with the performance of the new processors (LEON2 and LEON3), which need to be emulated within the SVF. Such processor emulators are also used in Operational Simulators, used to support mission preparation and train mission operators. These simulators mimic the satellite and its behaviour, as realistically as possible. For test/operational efficiency reasons and because they will need to interact with external systems, both these uses cases require the processor emulators to provide real-time, or faster, performance.It is known to the industry that the performance of previously available emulators is not enough to cope with the performance of the new processors available in the market. SciSys approached this problem with dynamic translation technology trying to keep costs down by avoiding a hardware solution and keeping the integration flexibility of full software emulation.SciSys presented “QERx: A High Performance Emulator for Software Validation and Simulations” [1], in a previous DASIA event. Since then that idea has evolved and QERx has been successfully validated. SciSys is now presenting QERx as a product that can be tailored to fit different emulation needs. This paper will present QERx latest developments and current status.

  16. Faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bingham, Philip R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Systems and methods are described for faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms. A method includes of obtaining multiple spatially-heterodyned holograms, includes: digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a first angle between a first reference beam and a first object beam; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a second angle between a second reference beam and a second object beam; and applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result, wherein digitally recording the first spatially-heterodyned hologram is completed before digitally recording the second spatially-heterodyned hologram and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  17. Faster but Less Careful Prehension in Presence of High, Rather than Low, Social Status Attendees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee's peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee.

  18. Sequential search leads to faster, more efficient fragment-based de novo protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Saulo H P; Law, Eleanor C; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M

    2018-04-01

    Most current de novo structure prediction methods randomly sample protein conformations and thus require large amounts of computational resource. Here, we consider a sequential sampling strategy, building on ideas from recent experimental work which shows that many proteins fold cotranslationally. We have investigated whether a pseudo-greedy search approach, which begins sequentially from one of the termini, can improve the performance and accuracy of de novo protein structure prediction. We observed that our sequential approach converges when fewer than 20 000 decoys have been produced, fewer than commonly expected. Using our software, SAINT2, we also compared the run time and quality of models produced in a sequential fashion against a standard, non-sequential approach. Sequential prediction produces an individual decoy 1.5-2.5 times faster than non-sequential prediction. When considering the quality of the best model, sequential prediction led to a better model being produced for 31 out of 41 soluble protein validation cases and for 18 out of 24 transmembrane protein cases. Correct models (TM-Score > 0.5) were produced for 29 of these cases by the sequential mode and for only 22 by the non-sequential mode. Our comparison reveals that a sequential search strategy can be used to drastically reduce computational time of de novo protein structure prediction and improve accuracy. Data are available for download from: http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/resources. SAINT2 is available for download from: https://github.com/sauloho/SAINT2. saulo.deoliveira@dtc.ox.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Faster diffraction-based overlay measurements with smaller targets using 3D gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Kritsun, Oleg; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Volkman, Catherine; Hu, Jiangtao

    2012-03-01

    Diffraction-based overlay (DBO) technologies have been developed to address the overlay metrology challenges for 22nm technology node and beyond. Most DBO technologies require specially designed targets that consist of multiple measurement pads, which consume too much space and increase measurement time. The traditional empirical approach (eDBO) using normal incidence spectroscopic reflectometry (NISR) relies on linear response of the reflectance with respect to overlay displacement within a small range. It offers convenience of quick recipe setup since there is no need to establish a model. However it requires three or four pads per direction (x or y) which adds burden to throughput and target size. Recent advances in modeling capability and computation power enabled mDBO, which allows overlay measurement with reduced number of pads, thus reducing measurement time and DBO target space. In this paper we evaluate the performance of single pad mDBO measurements using two 3D targets that have different grating shapes: squares in boxes and L-shapes in boxes. Good overlay sensitivities are observed for both targets. The correlation to programmed shifts and image-based overlay (IBO) is excellent. Despite the difference in shapes, the mDBO results are comparable for square and L-shape targets. The impact of process variations on overlay measurements is studied using a focus and exposure matrix (FEM) wafer. Although the FEM wafer has larger process variations, the correlation of mDBO results with IBO measurements is as good as the normal process wafer. We demonstrate the feasibility of single pad DBO measurements with faster throughput and smaller target size, which is particularly important in high volume manufacturing environment.

  20. Slower Perception Followed by Faster Lexical Decision in Longer Words: A Diffusion Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Froehlich, Eva; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Hofmann, Markus J; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of stimulus length on reaction times (RTs) in the lexical decision task are the topic of extensive research. While slower RTs are consistently found for longer pseudo-words, a finding coined the word length effect (WLE), some studies found no effects for words, and yet others reported faster RTs for longer words. Moreover, the WLE depends on the orthographic transparency of a language, with larger effects in more transparent orthographies. Here we investigate processes underlying the WLE in lexical decision in German-English bilinguals using a diffusion model (DM) analysis, which we compared to a linear regression approach. In the DM analysis, RT-accuracy distributions are characterized using parameters that reflect latent sub-processes, in particular evidence accumulation and decision-independent perceptual encoding, instead of typical parameters such as mean RT and accuracy. The regression approach showed a decrease in RTs with length for pseudo-words, but no length effect for words. However, DM analysis revealed that the null effect for words resulted from opposing effects of length on perceptual encoding and rate of evidence accumulation. Perceptual encoding times increased with length for words and pseudo-words, whereas the rate of evidence accumulation increased with length for real words but decreased for pseudo-words. A comparison between DM parameters in German and English suggested that orthographic transparency affects perceptual encoding, whereas effects of length on evidence accumulation are likely to reflect contextual information and the increase in available perceptual evidence with length. These opposing effects may account for the inconsistent findings on WLEs.

  1. Climatic niche evolution is faster in sympatric than allopatric lineages of the butterfly genus Pyrgus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pitteloud, C.; Arrigo, N.; Suchan, T.; Mastretta-Yanes, A.; Vila, R.; Dincă, V.; Hernández-Roldán, J.; Brockmann, E.; Chittaro, Y.; Klečková, Irena; Fumagalli, L.; Buerki, S.; Pellissier, L.; Alvarez, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1852 (2017), č. článku 20170208. ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climatic niche * macro-evolutionary processes * parametric biogeography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1852/20170208

  2. Factors influencing healthcare provider respondent fatigue answering a globally administered in-app survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas N. O’Reilly-Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Methods Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Results Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Discussion Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the

  3. Functional effects of treadmill-based gait training at faster speeds in stroke survivors: a prospective, single-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Roghayeh; Ershad, Navid; Rezayinejad, Marziyeh; Fatemi, Elham; Phadke, Chetan P

    2017-09-01

    To examine the functional effects of walking retraining at faster than self-selected speed (SSS). Ten individuals with chronic stroke participated in a 4-week training over a treadmill at walking speeds 40% faster than SSS, three times per week, 30 min/session. Outcome measures assessed before, after, and 2 months after the end of intervention were the Timed Up and Go, the 6-Minute Walk, the 10-Meter Walk test, the Modified Ashworth Scale, SSS, and fastest comfortable speed. After 4 weeks of training, all outcome measures showed clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements (Ptraining. The results showed that a strategy of training at a speed 40% faster than SSS can improve functional activity in individuals with chronic stroke, with effects lasting up to 2 months after the intervention.

  4. First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics: Advanced Topics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nolan, Richard; Baker, Marie; Branson, Jake; Hammerstein, Josh; Rush, Kris; Waits, Cal; Schweinsberg, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics: Advanced Topics expands on the technical material presented in SEI handbook CMU/SEI-2005-HB-001, First Responders Guide to Computer Forensics [Nolan 05...

  5. Fast-responding property of electromagnetically induced transparency in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Bai, Zhengyang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the transient optical response property of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a cold Rydberg atomic gas. We show that both the transient behavior and the steady-state EIT spectrum of the system depend strongly on Rydberg interaction. Especially, the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT can be five times faster (and even higher) than the conventional EIT without the Rydberg interaction. For comparison, two different theoretical approaches (i.e., two-atom model and many-atom model) are considered, revealing that Rydberg blockade effect plays a significant role for increasing the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT. The fast-responding Rydberg-EIT by using the strong, tunable Rydberg interaction uncovered here is not only helpful for enhancing the understanding of the many-body dynamics of Rydberg atoms but also useful for practical applications in quantum information processing by using Rydberg atoms.

  6. Are OPERA neutrinos faster than light because of non-inertial reference frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanà, C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent results from the OPERA experiment reported a neutrino beam traveling faster than light. The challenging experiment measured the neutrino time of flight (TOF) over a baseline from the CERN to the Gran Sasso site, concluding that the neutrino beam arrives ~60 ns earlier than a light ray would do. Because the result, if confirmed, has an enormous impact on science, it might be worth double-checking the time definitions with respect to the non-inertial system in which the neutrino travel time was measured. An observer with a clock measuring the proper time τ free of non-inertial effects is the one located at the solar system barycenter (SSB). Aims: Potential problems in the OPERA data analysis connected with the definition of the reference frame and time synchronization are emphasized. We aim to investigate the synchronization of non-inertial clocks on Earth by relating this time to the proper time of an inertial observer at SSB. Methods: The Tempo2 software was used to time-stamp events observed on the geoid with respect to the SSB inertial observer time. Results: Neutrino results from OPERA might carry the fingerprint of non-inertial effects because they are timed by terrestrial clocks. The CERN-Gran Sasso clock synchronization is accomplished by applying corrections that depend on special and general relativistic time dilation effects at the clocks, depending on the position of the clocks in the solar system gravitational well. As a consequence, TOF distributions are centered on values shorter by tens of nanoseconds than expected, integrating over a period from April to December, longer if otherwise. It is worth remarking that the OPERA runs have always been carried out from April/May to November. Conclusions: If the analysis by Tempo2 holds for the OPERA experiment, the excellent measurement by the OPERA collaboration will turn into a proof of the general relativity theory in a weak field approximation. The analysis presented here is falsifiable

  7. Second generation stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system with faster scan time and wider angular span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliste, Jabari; Wu, Gongting; Laganis, Philip E; Spronk, Derrek; Jafari, Houman; Olson, Kyle; Gao, Bo; Lee, Yueh Z; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a new generation stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system with higher tube flux and increased angular span over a first generation system. The linear CNT x-ray source was designed, built, and evaluated to determine its performance parameters. The second generation system was then constructed using the CNT x-ray source and a Hologic gantry. Upon construction, test objects and phantoms were used to characterize system resolution as measured by the modulation transfer function (MTF), and artifact spread function (ASF). The results indicated that the linear CNT x-ray source was capable of stable operation at a tube potential of 49 kVp, and measured focal spot sizes showed source-to-source consistency with a nominal focal spot size of 1.1 mm. After construction, the second generation (Gen 2) system exhibited entrance surface air kerma rates two times greater the previous s-DBT system. System in-plane resolution as measured by the MTF is 7.7 cycles/mm, compared to 6.7 cycles/mm for the Gen 1 system. As expected, an increase in the z-axis depth resolution was observed, with a decrease in the ASF from 4.30 mm to 2.35 mm moving from the Gen 1 system to the Gen 2 system as result of an increased angular span. The results indicate that the Gen 2 stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system, which has a larger angular span, increased entrance surface air kerma, and faster image acquisition time over the Gen 1 s-DBT system, results in higher resolution images. With the detector operating at full resolution, the Gen 2 s-DBT system can achieve an in-plane resolution of 7.7 cycles per mm, which is better than the current commercial DBT systems today, and may potentially result in better patient diagnosis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. PET/CT Biograph trademark Sensation 16. Performance improvement using faster electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.J.; Schwaiger, M.; Ziegler, S.I.; Bercier, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: the new PET/CT biograph sensation 16 (BS16) tomographs have faster detector electronics which allow a reduced timing coincidence window and an increased lower energy threshold (from 350 to 400 keV). This paper evaluates the performance of the BS16 PET scanner before and after the Pico-3D electronics upgrade. Methods: four NEMA NU 2-2001 protocols, (i) spatial resolution, (ii) scatter fraction, count losses and random measurement, (iii) sensitivity, and (iv) image quality, have been performed. Results: a considerable change in both PET count-rate performance and image quality is observed after electronics upgrade. The new scatter fraction obtained using Pico-3D electronics showed a 14% decrease compared to that obtained with the previous electronics. At the typical patient background activity (5.3 kBq/ml), the new scatter fraction was approximately 0.42. The noise equivalent count-rate (R NEC ) performance was also improved. The value at which the R NEC curve peaked, increased from 3.7 . 10 4 s -1 at 14 kBq/ml to 6.4 . 10 4 s -1 at 21 kBq/ml (2R-NEC rate). Likewise, the peak true count-rate value increased from 1.9 . 10 5 s -1 at 22 kBq/ml to 3.4 . 10 5 s -1 at 33 kBq/ml. An average increase of 45% in contrast was observed for hot spheres when using AW-OSEM (4ix8s) as the reconstruction algorithm. For cold spheres, the average increase was 12%. Conclusion: the performance of the PET scanners in the BS16 tomographs is improved by the optimization of the signal processing. The narrower energy and timing coincidence windows lead to a considerable increase of signal-to-noise ratio. The existing combination of fast detectors and adapted electronics in the BS16 tomographs allow imaging protocols with reduced acquisition time, providing higher patient throughput. (orig.)

  9. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  10. Faster metabolite (1H transverse relaxation in the elder human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Marjańska

    Full Text Available (1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is unique among imaging modalities because signals from several metabolites are measured during a single examination period. Each metabolite reflects a distinct intracellular process. Furthermore transverse (T2 relaxation times probe the viability of the cell microenvironment, e.g., the viscosity of the cellular fluids, the microscopic susceptibility distribution within the cells, and the iron content. In this study, T2s of brain metabolites were measured in the occipital lobe of eighteen young and fourteen elderly subjects at a field strength of 4 tesla. The T2s of N-acetylaspartate, total creatine, and total choline were 23%, 16% and 10% shorter in elderly than in young subjects. The findings of this study suggest that noninvasive detection of T2 provides useful biological information on changes in the cellular microenvironment that take place during aging.

  11. CIRUN: Climate Information Responding to User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by

  12. Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

  13. Adipose Gene Expression Prior to Weight Loss Can Differentiate and Weakly Predict Dietary Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, David M.; Temanni, M. Ramzi; Henegar, Corneliu; Combes, Florence; Pelloux, Véronique; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Saris, Wim H. M.; Viguerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Clément, Karine

    2007-01-01

    Background The ability to identify obese individuals who will successfully lose weight in response to dietary intervention will revolutionize disease management. Therefore, we asked whether it is possible to identify subjects who will lose weight during dietary intervention using only a single gene expression snapshot. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study involved 54 female subjects from the Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Human Obesity-Implications for Dietary Guidelines (NUGENOB) trial to determine whether subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression could be used to predict weight loss prior to the 10-week consumption of a low-fat hypocaloric diet. Using several statistical tests revealed that the gene expression profiles of responders (8–12 kgs weight loss) could always be differentiated from non-responders (diet is able to differentiate responders from non-responders as well as serve as a weak predictor of subjects destined to lose weight. While the degree of prediction accuracy currently achieved with a gene expression snapshot is perhaps insufficient for clinical use, this work reveals that the comprehensive molecular signature of adipose tissue paves the way for the future of personalized nutrition. PMID:18094752

  14. Responding to the real needs of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, H

    1994-01-01

    INPPARES, the International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliate in Peru, has provided family planning and other services to the Peruvian population since 1976. The organization concentrates upon interventions targeted to women of low socioeconomic status. One of the group's most important strategies has been to distribute contraceptives at the community level in rural and peri-urban areas of the country through a network of centers managed by promoters. These promoters are virtually all female. The organization in 1993 supplied 812 distribution centers. Promoters and their supervisors have received training in contraception, basic data recording, community work, and related topics. INPPARES, however, suspected that the quality of the project would be improved if promoters and supervisors were trained about the role of women in the community and their rights and identity as women. The personnel would then be able to better understand the role of contraception and reproductive health in women's lives. To that end, INPPARES in 1992-93 developed a project in coordination with the Manuela Ramos Association, a Peruvian women's organization. A questionnaire was given to forty promoters on issues related to women's roles, values, attitudes, the place of women in society and the family, family planning, sexual relations, and decision making. Their responses pointed to a real need to provide promoters and supervisors with more information through workshops on women in Peruvian society, women's identity and roles, women's sexual rights, and the quality of care in service provision. Four pamphlets were drafted from a seminar of fifty supervisors from both organizations to be used in a series of twelve workshops for 256 promoters. Post-intervention evaluation of the original forty participants confirm the significant effectiveness of both subjects covered and materials used in achieving desired project goals. Four workshops were subsequently held in which project results

  15. Happier, faster: Developmental changes in the effects of mood and novelty on responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Positive mood ameliorates several cognitive processes: It can enhance cognitive control, increase flexibility, and promote variety seeking in decision making. These effects of positive mood have been suggested to depend on frontostriatal dopamine, which is also associated with the detection of novelty. This suggests that positive mood could also affect novelty detection. In the present study, children and adults saw either a happy or a neutral movie to induce a positive or neutral mood. After that, they were shown novel and familiar images. On some trials a beep was presented over headphones either at the same time as the image or at a 200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and the task of the participant was to detect these auditory targets. Children were slower in responding than adults. Positive mood, however, speeded responses, especially in children, and induced facilitatory effects of novelty. These effects were consistent with increased arousal. Although effects of novelty were more consistent with an attentional response, in children who had watched a happy movie the novel images evoked a more liberal response criterion, suggestive of increased arousal. This suggests that mood and novelty may affect response behaviour stronger in children than in adults.

  16. When to Blink and when to Think: Preference for Intuitive Decisions Results in Faster and Better Tactical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; Laborde, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    Intuition is often considered an effective manner of decision making in sports. In this study we investigated whether a preference for intuition over deliberation results in faster and better lab-based choices in team handball attack situations with 54 male and female handball players of different expertise levels. We assumed that intuitive…

  17. An Adaptive Tuning Mechanism for Phase-Locked Loop Algorithms for Faster Time Performance of Interconnected Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Interconnected renewable energy sources (RES) require fast and accurate fault ride through (FRT) operation, in order to support the power grid, when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive phase-locked loop (adaptive dαβPLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response...

  18. Dyslexics' faster decay of implicit memory for sounds and words is manifested in their shorter neural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe-Dax, Sagi; Frenkel, Or; Ahissar, Merav

    2017-01-24

    Dyslexia is a prevalent reading disability whose underlying mechanisms are still disputed. We studied the neural mechanisms underlying dyslexia using a simple frequency-discrimination task. Though participants were asked to compare the two tones in each trial, implicit memory of previous trials affected their responses. We hypothesized that implicit memory decays faster among dyslexics. We tested this by increasing the temporal intervals between consecutive trials, and by measuring the behavioral impact and ERP responses from the auditory cortex. Dyslexics showed a faster decay of implicit memory effects on both measures, with similar time constants. Finally, faster decay of implicit memory also characterized the impact of sound regularities in benefitting dyslexics' oral reading rate. Their benefit decreased faster as a function of the time interval from the previous reading of the same non-word. We propose that dyslexics' shorter neural adaptation paradoxically accounts for their longer reading times, since it reduces their temporal window of integration of past stimuli, resulting in noisier and less reliable predictions for both simple and complex stimuli. Less reliable predictions limit their acquisition of reading expertise.

  19. IAEA responds to cancer crisis in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    doctors and other health workers to operate them - are needed to help low and middle income countries fight cancer. Currently, only about 2,500 radiotherapy machines are operating. Moreover, most developing countries lack effective public health policies and comprehensive diagnostic programmes that are essential to managing the growing cancer epidemic. On World Cancer Day, the IAEA is pleased to announce its decision to install a MDS Nordion Equinox cancer therapy system at the Tanzanian clinic as part of a larger PACT effort to help the country advance its National Cancer Strategy and Action Plan, which will now for the first time include not only curative treatment but also cancer surveillance, prevention, early detection, and palliation.'The need to respond to this cancer crisis is clear and compelling,' MDS Nordion President Steve West said. 'We are proud to be part of PACT and the global response to improve cancer care in Tanzania and ultimately throughout the developing world.' The International Union Against Cancer (UICC) and its member organizations in over 80 countries are dedicating World Cancer Day 2006 to fighting childhood cancers by focusing on early detection and equal access to treatment. More than 80% of children affected by cancer live in low-income countries, where the cure rate is very low and most receive no treatment. The UICC advocates a coordinated strategy by the global cancer control community - one that combines innovative science and sound public health policies. This approach can save a large proportion of the 90,000 children lost every year to cancer. Cancer Treatment in Tanzania: The majority of cancers prevalent in Tanzania today require radiotherapy treatment. PACT will establish its first Centre of Excellence at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ORCI estimates that each year there are over 20,000 new patients with cancer in Tanzania. Currently, ORCI can treat only about 2,500 patients per year - only a

  20. Charged Particles are Prevented from Going Faster than the Speed of Light by Light Itself: A Biophysical Cell Biologist's Contribution to Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne, R.

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of living organisms have led biologists and physicians to introduce fundamental concepts, including Brownian motion, the First Law of Thermodynamics, Poiseuille's Law of fluid flow, and Fick's Law of diffusion into physics. Given the prominence of viscous forces within and around cells and the experience of identifying and quantifying such resistive forces, biophysical cell biologists have an unique perspective in discovering the viscous forces that cause moving particles to respond to an applied force in a nonlinear manner. Using my experience as a biophysical cell biologist, I show that in any space consisting of a photon gas with a temperature above absolute zero, Doppler-shifted photons exert a velocity-dependent viscous force on moving charged particles. This viscous force prevents charged particles from exceeding the speed of light. Consequently, light itself prevents charged particles from moving faster than the speed of light. This interpretation provides a testable alternative to the interpretation provided by the Special Theory of Relativity, which contends that particles are prevented from exceeding the speed of light as a result of the relativity of time. (author)

  1. Market is faster than politics. Energy suppliers often need too much time to adapt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O.

    1999-01-01

    At the moment the opening of the power markets in the countries of the European Union is a main subject for current discussions. Especially the numerous energy supply companies are facing the challenge of adapting themselves to the new legal framework. According to Klaus-Dieter Maier, vice-president of the management consulting company A.T. Kearney GmbH, the electric utilities in Switzerland -- there are about 1200 at the moment -- will soon be affected by the market opening process. The next step for them will be to move towards services as their main activity [de

  2. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  4. A Bayesian truth serum for subjective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelec, Drazen

    2004-10-15

    Subjective judgments, an essential information source for science and policy, are problematic because there are no public criteria for assessing judgmental truthfulness. I present a scoring method for eliciting truthful subjective data in situations where objective truth is unknowable. The method assigns high scores not to the most common answers but to the answers that are more common than collectively predicted, with predictions drawn from the same population. This simple adjustment in the scoring criterion removes all bias in favor of consensus: Truthful answers maximize expected score even for respondents who believe that their answer represents a minority view.

  5. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects with leprosy and 100 with albinism were interviewed. .... change negative mind-sets and sociocultural stereotypes about albinism in ... respondent's age, gender, marital status, occupation, the highest ... Variables such as age, sex, marital status, occupation, level of education,.

  6. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    movement control and a functional mobility test to investigate overall functional locomotor ability. Postflight sessions were given on days 1, 2, 4, 7 after their return. Subjects walked on a treadmill driven at 1.8 m/s while performing a visual task. Motion data from head and trunk segmental motion data were obtained to calculate the angular head pitch (HP) movements during walking trials while subjects performed the visual task, to estimate the contributions of vestibular reflexive mechanisms in HP movements. Astronauts showed a heterogeneous response pattern of both increases and decreases in the amplitude of HP movement. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of this heterogeneity in postflight responses in head movement control by examining data obtained using the same experimental test paradigm on a vestibular clinical population (VC) and in normal subjects undergoing adaptation to acute body load support unloading. Results showed that exposure to unloaded locomotion caused a significant increase in HP movements, whereas in the VC patients the HP movements were significantly decreased. We infer that BLS-mediated somatosensory input centrally modulates vestibular input and can adaptively modify head-movement control during locomotion. Thus, space flight may cause a central adaptation of the converging vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems. To investigate changes in functional mobility astronaut subjects walked at their preferred pace around an obstacle course consisting of several pylons and obstacles set up on a foam floor, which provided an unstable walking surface. Subjects were instructed to walk around the course as fast as possible without touching any of the objects on the course for a total of six individual trials per test session. One of the dependent measures was time to complete the course (TCC, sec). The learning rate over the six trials performed on preflight and the first day after landing (micro curve) was used to characterize the

  8. Dissociating indifferent, directional, and extreme responding in personality data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W B; Hülsheger, Ute R

    2015-01-01

    - and observer reports of personality traits. The three-process model captures indifferent, directional, and extreme responding. Substantively, we hypothesize that, and test whether, trait Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. METHOD: We applied the three-process model to personality data......-process model. Second, we show that the various response processes show a pattern of correlations across traits and rating sources which is in line with the idea that indifferent and extreme responding are person-specific tendencies, whereas directional responding is content-specific. Third, we report findings...... of N = 577 dyads (self- and observer reports of the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised) of Dutch and German respondents. RESULTS: First, we provide evidence that indifferent, directional, and extreme responding can be separated from each other in personality data through the use of the three...

  9. Partitioning and mobilization of photoassimilate in alfalfa subjected to water deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.H.; Sheaffer, C.C.; Heichel, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Faster regrowth of a stressed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) crop compared to an unstressed crop after rewatering has been reported. The bases of this compensatory response are unknown, but they may be important to understanding adaptation to water stress and to developing crop water management strategies. The authors objectives was to determine the effect of stress induced by water deficit on photoassimilate partitioning and the utilization of stored assimilates during regrowth of alfalfa. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted using cultivars differing in winterhardiness. Plants were subjected to water stress, pulse-labeled with 14 CO 2 , and sampled following 0, 1, 14, 21, and 28-d translocation periods. Following the 14-d sampling, herbage was harvested and water stress was removed. Cultivars contrasting in winterhardiness responded similarly to water stress. Stressed plant roots contained 73 and 114% more total plant radioactivity (TPR) than the control at the 1 and 14-d translocation periods, respectively. Water stress significantly increased root starch and TPR percentage in the starch fraction, but had much smaller effects on root soluble-sugar concentration and TPR percentage of the root sugar fraction. Herbage regrowth mass following harvest and rewatering of the water-stressed plants was similar to that of the control. Compared to the control, water-stressed alfalfa has greater total nonstructural carbohydrates in the roots, apparently due to increased photoassimilate partitioning to the roots. However, the greater root carbohydrate concentrations did not result in compensatory herbage regrowth following rewatering

  10. Recruiting an Internet Panel Using Respondent-Driven Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonlau Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respondent-driven sampling (RDS is a network sampling technique typically employed for hard-to-reach populations when traditional sampling approaches are not feasible (e.g., homeless or do not work well (e.g., people with HIV. In RDS, seed respondents recruit additional respondents from their network of friends. The recruiting process repeats iteratively, thereby forming long referral chains.

  11. Boosting recovery rather than buffering reactivity: Higher stress-induced oxytocin secretion is associated with increased cortisol reactivity and faster vagal recovery after acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Koester, Anna M; Riepenhausen, Antje; Singer, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience. On average, oxytocin levels increased by 51% following psychosocial stress. The stress-induced oxytocin secretion, however, did not reduce stress reactivity. To the contrary, higher oxytocin secretion was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and peak cortisol levels in both sexes. In the second phase of the stress response the opposite pattern was observed, with higher oxytocin secretion associated with faster vagal recovery. We suggest that after an early stage of oxytocin and HPA-axis co-activation, the stress-reducing action of oxytocin unfolds. Due to the time lag it manifests as a recovery-boosting rather than a reactivity-buffering effect. By reinforcing parasympathetic autonomic activity, specifically during stress recovery, oxytocin may provide an important protective function against the health-compromising effects of sustained stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  13. Adipose gene expression prior to weight loss can differentiate and weakly predict dietary responders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to identify obese individuals who will successfully lose weight in response to dietary intervention will revolutionize disease management. Therefore, we asked whether it is possible to identify subjects who will lose weight during dietary intervention using only a single gene expression snapshot. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study involved 54 female subjects from the Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Human Obesity-Implications for Dietary Guidelines (NUGENOB trial to determine whether subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression could be used to predict weight loss prior to the 10-week consumption of a low-fat hypocaloric diet. Using several statistical tests revealed that the gene expression profiles of responders (8-12 kgs weight loss could always be differentiated from non-responders (<4 kgs weight loss. We also assessed whether this differentiation was sufficient for prediction. Using a bottom-up (i.e. black-box approach, standard class prediction algorithms were able to predict dietary responders with up to 61.1%+/-8.1% accuracy. Using a top-down approach (i.e. using differentially expressed genes to build a classifier improved prediction accuracy to 80.9%+/-2.2%. CONCLUSION: Adipose gene expression profiling prior to the consumption of a low-fat diet is able to differentiate responders from non-responders as well as serve as a weak predictor of subjects destined to lose weight. While the degree of prediction accuracy currently achieved with a gene expression snapshot is perhaps insufficient for clinical use, this work reveals that the comprehensive molecular signature of adipose tissue paves the way for the future of personalized nutrition.

  14. Mindfulness Training: Worthwhile as a Means to Enhance First Responder Crisis Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    control, tolerance for challenging experience, heightened awareness, and the elimination or reduction of negative emotions , anxieties, biases, and...biochemical evidence in the argument for MT training, branding mindfulness, and MT with terms that would tend to be attractive to first responders, crafting...strictly cerebral, but invariably involves social and emotional components, and therefore, subjectivity. He clarifies, “The point we want to make here is

  15. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  16. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  17. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  18. Senp1 drives hypoxia-induced polycythemia via GATA1 and Bcl-xL in subjects with Monge's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Priti; Zhao, Huiwen W; Cabrales, Pedro J; Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Poulsen, Orit; Appenzeller, Otto; Hsiao, Yu Hsin; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2016-11-14

    In this study, because excessive polycythemia is a predominant trait in some high-altitude dwellers (chronic mountain sickness [CMS] or Monge's disease) but not others living at the same altitude in the Andes, we took advantage of this human experiment of nature and used a combination of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, genomics, and molecular biology in this unique population to understand the molecular basis for hypoxia-induced excessive polycythemia. As compared with sea-level controls and non-CMS subjects who responded to hypoxia by increasing their RBCs modestly or not at all, respectively, CMS cells increased theirs remarkably (up to 60-fold). Although there was a switch from fetal to adult HgbA0 in all populations and a concomitant shift in oxygen binding, we found that CMS cells matured faster and had a higher efficiency and proliferative potential than non-CMS cells. We also established that SENP1 plays a critical role in the differential erythropoietic response of CMS and non-CMS subjects: we can convert the CMS phenotype into that of non-CMS and vice versa by altering SENP1 levels. We also demonstrated that GATA1 is an essential downstream target of SENP1 and that the differential expression and response of GATA1 and Bcl-xL are a key mechanism underlying CMS pathology. © 2016 Azad et al.

  19. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.K.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; England, R.E.; Morris, J.A.; Martin, D.F. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk

    2004-12-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment.

  20. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.K.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; England, R.E.; Morris, J.A.; Martin, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment

  1. Dorsal hippocampus inactivation impairs spontaneous recovery of Pavlovian magazine approach responding in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campese, Vincent D.; Delamater, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Destruction or inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) has been shown to eliminate the renewal of extinguished fear [1–4]. However, it has recently been reported that the contextual control of responding to extinguished appetitive stimuli is not disrupted when the DH is destroyed or inactivated prior to tests for renewal of Pavlovian conditioned magazine approach [5]. In the present study we extend the analysis of DH control of appetitive extinction learning to the spontaneous recovery of Pavlovian conditioned magazine approach responding. Subjects were trained to associate two separate stimuli with the delivery of food and had muscimol or vehicle infused into the DH prior to a single test-session for spontaneous recovery occurring immediately following extinction of one of these stimuli, but one week following extinction of the other. While vehicle treated subjects showed more recovery to the distally extinguished stimulus than the proximal one, muscimol treated subjects failed to show spontaneous recovery to either stimulus. This result suggests that, while the DH is not involved in the control of extinction by physical contexts [5], it may be involved when time is the gating factor controlling recovery of extinguished responding. PMID:24742862

  2. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  3. Collaboration and interaction of first responders with the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, M. van; Dinesen, C.; Rijk, R. van; Bird, M.; Wester, M.; Hansen, L.J.; Vinther-Larsen, L.; Padron, C.; Boswinkel, R.; Ven, J. van de

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased focus on the need for collaboration between first responders and the general public. This type of collaboration requires soft skills that are not necessarily included in more traditional command and control trainings for first responders. Learning to collaborate with the

  4. Interviewer-Respondent Interactions in Conversational and Standardized Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittereder, Felicitas; Durow, Jen; West, Brady T.; Kreuter, Frauke; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2018-01-01

    Standardized interviewing (SI) and conversational interviewing are two approaches to collect survey data that differ in how interviewers address respondent confusion. This article examines interviewer-respondent interactions that occur during these two techniques, focusing on requests for and provisions of clarification. The data derive from an…

  5. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  6. Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

  7. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  8. Acute Chemical Incidents With Injured First Responders, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Natalia; Wu, Jennifer; Yang, Alice; Orr, Maureen

    2018-04-01

    IntroductionFirst responders, including firefighters, police officers, emergency medical services, and company emergency response team members, have dangerous jobs that can bring them in contact with hazardous chemicals among other dangers. Limited information is available on responder injuries that occur during hazardous chemical incidents. We analyzed 2002-2012 data on acute chemical incidents with injured responders from 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry chemical incident surveillance programs. To learn more about such injuries, we performed descriptive analysis and looked for trends. The percentage of responders among all injured people in chemical incidents has not changed over the years. Firefighters were the most frequently injured group of responders, followed by police officers. Respiratory system problems were the most often reported injury, and the respiratory irritants, ammonia, methamphetamine-related chemicals, and carbon monoxide were the chemicals more often associated with injuries. Most of the incidents with responder injuries were caused by human error or equipment failure. Firefighters wore personal protective equipment (PPE) most frequently and police officers did so rarely. Police officers' injuries were mostly associated with exposure to ammonia and methamphetamine-related chemicals. Most responders did not receive basic awareness-level hazardous material training. All responders should have at least basic awareness-level hazardous material training to recognize and avoid exposure. Research on improving firefighter PPE should continue. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:211-221).

  9. The remembering subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Garzón Martínez

    2015-07-01

    More concretely this article presents the idea of remembrance subjectivity that becomes converted into a political platform for reclaiming the right to recollect and change based on those recollections

  10. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  11. Careless responding in internet-based quality of life assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; May, Marcella; Stone, Arthur A

    2018-04-01

    Quality of life (QoL) measurement relies upon participants providing meaningful responses, but not all respondents may pay sufficient attention when completing self-reported QoL measures. This study examined the impact of careless responding on the reliability and validity of Internet-based QoL assessments. Internet panelists (n = 2000) completed Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) short-forms (depression, fatigue, pain impact, applied cognitive abilities) and single-item QoL measures (global health, pain intensity) as part of a larger survey that included multiple checks of whether participants paid attention to the items. Latent class analysis was used to identify groups of non-careless and careless responders from the attentiveness checks. Analyses compared psychometric properties of the QoL measures (reliability of PROMIS short-forms, correlations among QoL scores, "known-groups" validity) between non-careless and careless responder groups. Whether person-fit statistics derived from PROMIS measures accurately discriminated careless and non-careless responders was also examined. About 7.4% of participants were classified as careless responders. No substantial differences in the reliability of PROMIS measures between non-careless and careless responder groups were observed. However, careless responding meaningfully and significantly affected the correlations among QoL domains, as well as the magnitude of differences in QoL between medical and disability groups (presence or absence of disability, depression diagnosis, chronic pain diagnosis). Person-fit statistics significantly and moderately distinguished between non-careless and careless responders. The results support the importance of identifying and screening out careless responders to ensure high-quality self-report data in Internet-based QoL research.

  12. Sex and the stimulus-movement effect: Differences in acquisition of autoshaped responding in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nathaniel C; Makar, Jennifer R; Myers, Todd M

    2017-03-15

    The stimulus-movement effect refers to the phenomenon in which stimulus discrimination or acquisition of a response is facilitated by moving stimuli as opposed to stationary stimuli. The effect has been found in monkeys, rats, and humans, but the experiments conducted did not provide adequate female representation to investigate potential sex differences. The current experiment analyzed acquisition of stimulus touching in a progressive series of classical conditioning procedures in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) as a function of sex and stimulus movement. Classical conditioning tasks arrange two or more stimuli in relation to each other with different temporal and predictive relations. Autoshaping procedures overlay operant contingencies onto a classical-conditioning stimulus arrangement. In the present case, a neutral stimulus (a small gray square displayed on a touchscreen) functioned as the conditional stimulus and a food pellet functioned as the unconditional stimulus. Although touching is not required to produce food, with repeated stimulus pairings subjects eventually touch the stimulus. Across conditions of increasing stimulus correlation and temporal contiguity, male monkeys acquired the response faster with a moving stimulus. In contrast, females acquired the response faster with a stationary stimulus. These results demonstrate that the stimulus-movement effect may be differentially affected by sex and indicate that additional experiments with females are needed to determine how sex interacts with behavioral phenomena discovered and elaborated almost exclusively using males. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Simultaneous development of laparoscopy and robotics provides acceptable perioperative outcomes and shows robotics to have a faster learning curve and to be overall faster in rectal cancer surgery: analysis of novice MIS surgeon learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melich, George; Hong, Young Ki; Kim, Jieun; Hur, Hyuk; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Nam Kyu; Sender Liberman, A; Min, Byung Soh

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopy offers some evidence of benefit compared to open rectal surgery. Robotic rectal surgery is evolving into an accepted approach. The objective was to analyze and compare laparoscopic and robotic rectal surgery learning curves with respect to operative times and perioperative outcomes for a novice minimally invasive colorectal surgeon. One hundred and six laparoscopic and 92 robotic LAR rectal surgery cases were analyzed. All surgeries were performed by a surgeon who was primarily trained in open rectal surgery. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Operative time and CUSUM plots were used for evaluating the learning curve for laparoscopic versus robotic LAR. Laparoscopic versus robotic LAR outcomes feature initial group operative times of 308 (291-325) min versus 397 (373-420) min and last group times of 220 (212-229) min versus 204 (196-211) min-reversed in favor of robotics; major complications of 4.7 versus 6.5 % (NS), resection margin involvement of 2.8 versus 4.4 % (NS), conversion rate of 3.8 versus 1.1 (NS), lymph node harvest of 16.3 versus 17.2 (NS), and estimated blood loss of 231 versus 201 cc (NS). Due to faster learning curves for extracorporeal phase and total mesorectal excision phase, the robotic surgery was observed to be faster than laparoscopic surgery after the initial 41 cases. CUSUM plots demonstrate acceptable perioperative surgical outcomes from the beginning of the study. Initial robotic operative times improved with practice rapidly and eventually became faster than those for laparoscopy. Developing both laparoscopic and robotic skills simultaneously can provide acceptable perioperative outcomes in rectal surgery. It might be suggested that in the current milieu of clashing interests between evolving technology and economic constrains, there might be advantages in embracing both approaches.

  14. High responders and low responders: factors associated with individual variation in response to standardized training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Theresa N; Lamberts, Robert P; Lambert, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    The response to an exercise intervention is often described in general terms, with the assumption that the group average represents a typical response for most individuals. In reality, however, it is more common for individuals to show a wide range of responses to an intervention rather than a similar response. This phenomenon of 'high responders' and 'low responders' following a standardized training intervention may provide helpful insights into mechanisms of training adaptation and methods of training prescription. Therefore, the aim of this review was to discuss factors associated with inter-individual variation in response to standardized, endurance-type training. It is well-known that genetic influences make an important contribution to individual variation in certain training responses. The association between genotype and training response has often been supported using heritability estimates; however, recent studies have been able to link variation in some training responses to specific single nucleotide polymorphisms. It would appear that hereditary influences are often expressed through hereditary influences on the pre-training phenotype, with some parameters showing a hereditary influence in the pre-training phenotype but not in the subsequent training response. In most cases, the pre-training phenotype appears to predict only a small amount of variation in the subsequent training response of that phenotype. However, the relationship between pre-training autonomic activity and subsequent maximal oxygen uptake response appears to show relatively stronger predictive potential. Individual variation in response to standardized training that cannot be explained by genetic influences may be related to the characteristics of the training program or lifestyle factors. Although standardized programs usually involve training prescribed by relative intensity and duration, some methods of relative exercise intensity prescription may be more successful in creating

  15. Responders and non-responders to drug treatment in social phobia : Differences at baseline and prediction of response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaap, BR; Westenberg, HGM; DenBoer, JA

    1996-01-01

    Differences between responders and non-responders to drug therapy were investigated in social phobia. Two previously published studies were pooled to obtain data of 30 patients who were treated for 12 weeks with brofaromine or fluvoxamine. Four criterion variables were used to divide patients in

  16. International Scavenging for First Responder Guidance and Tools: IAEA Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berthelot, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-05

    In fiscal years (FY) 2016 and 2017, with support from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) examined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) radiological emergency response and preparedness products (guidance and tools) to determine which of these products could be useful to U.S. first responders. The IAEA Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC), which is responsible for emergency preparedness and response, offers a range of tools and guidance documents for responders in recognizing, responding to, and recovering from radiation emergencies and incidents. In order to implement this project, BNL obtained all potentially relevant tools and products produced by the IAEA IEC and analyzed these materials to determine their relevance to first responders in the U.S. Subsequently, BNL organized and hosted a workshop at DHS National Urban Security Technology Laboratory (NUSTL) for U.S. first responders to examine and evaluate IAEA products to consider their applicability to the United States. This report documents and describes the First Responder Product Evaluation Workshop, and provides recommendations on potential steps the U.S. federal government could take to make IAEA guidance and tools useful to U.S. responders.

  17. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further...

  18. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (Oct-Nov 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-21

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  19. Will small energy consumers be faster in transition? Evidence from the early shift from coal to oil in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, M.d.Mar; Folchi, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This paper provide evidence of the early transition from coal to oil for 20 Latin American countries over the first half of the 20th century, which does not fit the transition experiences of large energy consumers. These small energy consumers had earlier and faster transitions than leading nations. We also provide evidence for alternative sequences (inverse, revertible) in the transition from coal to oil. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ‘leapfrogging’ allowed a set of follower economies to reach the next rung of the energy ladder (oil domination) 30 years in advance of the most developed economies. We examine these follower economies, where transition took place earlier and faster than the cases historically known, in order to understand variation within the energy transitions and to expand the array of feasible pathways of future energy transitions. We find that being a small energy consumer makes a difference for the way the energy transition takes place; but also path dependence (including trade and technological partnerships), domestic energy endowment (which dictates relative prices) and policy decisions seem to be the variables that shaped past energy transitions. - Highlights: ► We provide evidence of the early transition from coal to oil for 20 Latin American. ► We find that being a small energy consumer makes a difference for the way the energy transition takes place. ► Followers had earlier and faster transitions than leading nations. ► ‘Leapfrogging’ allowed extremely fast energy transitions. ► Alternative forms (revertible, inverse) of energy transition also exist.

  20. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  1. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  2. Better, faster and cheaper energy facades for transformation of multi-storey blocks built between 1960 and 1976

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    an innovative process. The aim is to inspire clients and consultants to think smart through optimizing the planning and design process as well as the building process. Through this way of thinking we can secure a better, cheaper and faster energy renovation of the existing building stock. The project is under...... scale projects have been driven by the housing association AL2bolig, Tilst, Denmark. Author was part of the architectural discussion through planning process and the evaluation of the first frame competition. The methods used are: - participation through the development process - comparable research...

  3. An adaptive Phase-Locked Loop algorithm for faster fault ride through performance of interconnected renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Interconnected renewable energy sources require fast and accurate fault ride through operation in order to support the power grid when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive Phase-Locked Loop (adaptive dαβPLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response of the grid...... side converter control of a renewable energy source, especially under fault ride through operation. The adaptive dαβPLL is based on modifying the control parameters of the dαβPLL according to the type and voltage characteristic of the grid fault with the purpose of accelerating the performance...

  4. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  5. Subjectivity of embodiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Miscellaneous subjects, ch. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model

  7. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  8. Enhancing Syndromic Surveillance With Online Respondent-Driven Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Mart L; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Buskens, Vincent; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Koppeschaar, Carl E; Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Kretzschmar, MEE

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the feasibility of combining an online chain recruitment method (respondent-driven detection) and participatory surveillance panels to collect previously undetected information on infectious diseases via social networks of participants. METHODS: In 2014, volunteers from 2

  9. Enhancing syndromic surveillance with online respondent-driven detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Mart L.; Van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Buskens, Vincent; Van Der Heijden, Peter G M; Koppeschaar, Carl E.; Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the feasibility of combining an online chain recruitment method (respondent-driven detection) and participatory surveillance panels to collect previously undetected information on infectious diseases via social networks of participants. Methods. In 2014, volunteers from 2

  10. Public transportation's role in responding to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the role public transportation has in responding to the challenge of climate change. It collects and analyzes data from across the country on public transportation fuel use, vehicles deployed, rides taken, and other key metrics, dr...

  11. Climate change 101 : understanding and responding to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To inform the climate change dialogue, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the Pew Center on the States have developed a series of brief reports entitled Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change. These reports...

  12. Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward for ... cultural intolerance and other destructive interpersonal interactions and relationships clearly ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  13. Tips for Disaster Responders: Preventing and Managing Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... actions to prevent stress and to strengthen your stress management skills is before your disaster assignment. Responder stress ... the disaster role, developing a personal toolkit of stress management skills, and preparing yourself and your loved ones. ...

  14. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  15. Strengthening Capacity to Respond to Computer Security Incidents ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in the form of spam, improper access to confidential data and cyber theft. ... These teams are usually known as computer security incident response teams ... regional capacity for preventing and responding to cyber security incidents in Latin ...

  16. Comparing the validity of informant and self-reports of personality using laboratory indices of emotional responding as criterion variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A; Katz, Andrea C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Shankman, Stewart A

    2016-09-01

    Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals' personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant-reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding, PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual's emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Comparing the Validity of Informant- and Self-reports of Personality Using Laboratory Indices of Emotional Responding as Criterion Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A.; Katz, Andrea C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant-reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant-reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals’ personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding; PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant-reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual’s emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. PMID:27273802

  18. CBT for childhood anxiety disorders: differential changes in selective attention between treatment responders and non-responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S; Tulen, Joke H M; Dierckx, Bram; Treffers, Philip D A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2010-02-01

    This study examined whether treatment response to stepped-care cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is associated with changes in threat-related selective attention and its specific components in a large clinical sample of anxiety-disordered children. Ninety-one children with an anxiety disorder were included in the present study. Children received a standardized stepped-care CBT. Three treatment response groups were distinguished: initial responders (anxiety disorder free after phase one: child-focused CBT), secondary responders (anxiety disorder free after phase two: child-parent-focused CBT), and treatment non-responders. Treatment response was determined using a semi-structured clinical interview. Children performed a pictorial dot-probe task before and after stepped-care CBT (i.e., before phase one and after phase two CBT). Changes in selective attention to severely threatening pictures, but not to mildly threatening pictures, were significantly associated with treatment success. At pre-treatment assessment, initial responders selectively attended away from severely threatening pictures, whereas secondary responders selectively attended toward severely threatening pictures. After stepped-care CBT, initial and secondary responders did not show any selectivity in the attentional processing of severely threatening pictures. Treatment non-responders did not show any changes in selective attention due to CBT. Initial and secondary treatment responders showed a reduction of their predisposition to selectively attend away or toward severely threatening pictures, respectively. Treatment non-responders did not show any changes in selective attention. The pictorial dot-probe task can be considered a potentially valuable tool in assigning children to appropriate treatment formats as well as for monitoring changes in selective attention during the course of CBT.

  19. Sense and Respond Logistics: Integrating Prediction, Responsiveness, and Control Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    location. In the current environment, increased ambiguity has diminished this advantage and increased the need for a sense and respond combat...readily be applied to system dynamics prob- lems in business and organization processes. ABMs bring the “natu- ralness” advantage (which allows more...negotiation) as part of eCommerce applications being achieved by 2007. In the general opinion of AgentLink’s respondents, as well as our technology

  20. The Future of Responder Family Preparedness: The New Normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    smart practices. Though responder family preparedness measures may be occurring on a very limited basis, it was found that nothing was prevalent in the...family preparedness for their employees. If any such programs exist, they are not well known or prevalent in the literature. First responders are... Beaver and Harriet Nelson of Father Knows Best. This predominant family structure was the societal norm and framed Killian’s problem and analysis

  1. The Influence of Agreeableness and Ego Depletion on Emotional Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Anna J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2017-10-01

    Agreeable individuals report more intense withdrawal-oriented negative emotions across aversive situations. Two studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory depletion (i.e., ego depletion) moderates the relationship between trait Agreeableness and negative emotional responding. Ego depletion was manipulated using a writing task. Emotional responding was measured with startle eye-blink responses (Study 1, N = 71) and self-reported valence, arousal, and empathic concern (Study 2, N = 256) during emotional picture viewing. Trait Agreeableness was measured using a questionnaire. In Study 1, Agreeableness predicted especially large startle responses during aversive images and especially small startles during appetitive images. After exercising self-control, the relationship between startle magnitudes and Agreeableness decreased. In Study 2, Agreeableness predicted more empathic concern for aversive images, which in turn predicted heightened self-reported negative emotions. After exercising self-control, the relationship between Agreeableness and empathic concern decreased. Agreeable individuals exhibit heightened negative emotional responding. Ego depletion reduced the link between Agreeableness and negative emotional responding in Study 1 and moderated the indirect effect of Agreeableness on negative emotional responding via empathic concern in Study 2. Empathic concern appears to be a resource-intensive process underlying heightened responding to aversive stimuli among agreeable persons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotr Wasiolek; April Simpson

    2008-01-01

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders

  3. Faster proton transfer dynamics of water on SnO2 compared to TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Kent, Paul R C; Bandura, Andrei V; Kubicki, James D; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Sofo, Jorge O

    2011-01-28

    Proton jump processes in the hydration layer on the iso-structural TiO(2) rutile (110) and SnO(2) cassiterite (110) surfaces were studied with density functional theory molecular dynamics. We find that the proton jump rate is more than three times faster on cassiterite compared with rutile. A local analysis based on the correlation between the stretching band of the O-H vibrations and the strength of H-bonds indicates that the faster proton jump activity on cassiterite is produced by a stronger H-bond formation between the surface and the hydration layer above the surface. The origin of the increased H-bond strength on cassiterite is a combined effect of stronger covalent bonding and stronger electrostatic interactions due to differences of its electronic structure. The bridging oxygens form the strongest H-bonds between the surface and the hydration layer. This higher proton jump rate is likely to affect reactivity and catalytic activity on the surface. A better understanding of its origins will enable methods to control these rates.

  4. A faster and more reliable data acquisition system for the full performance of the SciCRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasai, Y.; Matsubara, Y.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Kawabata, T.; Lopez, D.; Hikimochi, R.; Tsuchiya, A.; Ikeno, M.; Uchida, T.; Tanaka, M.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Nakamura, Y.; Oshima, T.; Koike, T.; Kozai, M.; Shibata, S.; Oshima, A.; Takamaru, H.

    2017-01-01

    The SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) is a massive scintillator tracker to observe cosmic rays at a very high-altitude environment in Mexico. The fully active tracker is based on the Scintillator Bar (SciBar) detector developed as a near detector for the KEK-to-Kamioka long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment (K2K) in Japan. Since the data acquisition (DAQ) system was developed for the accelerator experiment, we determined to develop a new robust DAQ system to optimize it to our cosmic-ray experiment needs at the top of Mt. Sierra Negra (4600 m). One of our special requirements is to achieve a 10 times faster readout rate. We started to develop a new fast readout back-end board (BEB) based on 100 Mbps SiTCP, a hardware network processor developed for DAQ systems for high energy physics experiments. Then we developed the new BEB which has a potential of 20 times faster than the current one in the case of observing neutrons. Finally we installed the new DAQ system including the new BEBs to a part of the SciCRT in July 2015. The system has been operating since then. In this paper, we describe the development, the basic performance of the new BEB, the status after the installation in the SciCRT, and the future performance.

  5. A faster and more reliable data acquisition system for the full performance of the SciCRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, Y., E-mail: sasaiyoshinori@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Matsubara, Y.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Kawabata, T.; Lopez, D.; Hikimochi, R.; Tsuchiya, A. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ikeno, M.; Uchida, T.; Tanaka, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Nakamura, Y.; Oshima, T.; Koike, T. [Department of Physics, Shinshu University, Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Kozai, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Shibata, S.; Oshima, A.; Takamaru, H. [College of Engineering, Chubu University, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); and others

    2017-06-11

    The SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) is a massive scintillator tracker to observe cosmic rays at a very high-altitude environment in Mexico. The fully active tracker is based on the Scintillator Bar (SciBar) detector developed as a near detector for the KEK-to-Kamioka long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment (K2K) in Japan. Since the data acquisition (DAQ) system was developed for the accelerator experiment, we determined to develop a new robust DAQ system to optimize it to our cosmic-ray experiment needs at the top of Mt. Sierra Negra (4600 m). One of our special requirements is to achieve a 10 times faster readout rate. We started to develop a new fast readout back-end board (BEB) based on 100 Mbps SiTCP, a hardware network processor developed for DAQ systems for high energy physics experiments. Then we developed the new BEB which has a potential of 20 times faster than the current one in the case of observing neutrons. Finally we installed the new DAQ system including the new BEBs to a part of the SciCRT in July 2015. The system has been operating since then. In this paper, we describe the development, the basic performance of the new BEB, the status after the installation in the SciCRT, and the future performance.

  6. Knowing what to respond in the future does not cancel the influence of past events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Elisabet; López-Moliner, Joan

    2009-05-29

    Everyday tasks seldom involve isolate actions but sequences of them. We can see whether previous actions influence the current one by exploring the response time to controlled sequences of stimuli. Specifically, depending on the response-stimulus temporal interval (RSI), different mechanisms have been proposed to explain sequential effects in two-choice serial response tasks. Whereas an automatic facilitation mechanism is thought to produce a benefit for response repetitions at short RSIs, subjective expectancies are considered to replace the automatic facilitation at longer RSIs, producing a cost-benefit pattern: repetitions are faster after other repetitions but they are slower after alternations. However, there is not direct evidence showing the impact of subjective expectancies on sequential effects. By using a fixed sequence, the results of the reported experiment showed that the repetition effect was enhanced in participants who acquired complete knowledge of the order. Nevertheless, a similar cost-benefit pattern was observed in all participants and in all learning blocks. Therefore, results of the experiment suggest that sequential effects, including the cost-benefit pattern, are the consequence of automatic mechanisms which operate independently of (and simultaneously with) explicit knowledge of the sequence or other subjective expectancies.

  7. Knowing what to respond in the future does not cancel the influence of past events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Tubau

    Full Text Available Everyday tasks seldom involve isolate actions but sequences of them. We can see whether previous actions influence the current one by exploring the response time to controlled sequences of stimuli. Specifically, depending on the response-stimulus temporal interval (RSI, different mechanisms have been proposed to explain sequential effects in two-choice serial response tasks. Whereas an automatic facilitation mechanism is thought to produce a benefit for response repetitions at short RSIs, subjective expectancies are considered to replace the automatic facilitation at longer RSIs, producing a cost-benefit pattern: repetitions are faster after other repetitions but they are slower after alternations. However, there is not direct evidence showing the impact of subjective expectancies on sequential effects. By using a fixed sequence, the results of the reported experiment showed that the repetition effect was enhanced in participants who acquired complete knowledge of the order. Nevertheless, a similar cost-benefit pattern was observed in all participants and in all learning blocks. Therefore, results of the experiment suggest that sequential effects, including the cost-benefit pattern, are the consequence of automatic mechanisms which operate independently of (and simultaneously with explicit knowledge of the sequence or other subjective expectancies.

  8. A comparison of physical and psychological features of responders and non-responders to cervical facet blocks in chronic whiplash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical facet block (FB) procedures are often used as a diagnostic precursor to radiofrequency neurotomies (RFN) in the management of chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Some individuals will respond to the FB procedures and others will not respond. Such responders and non-responders provided a sample of convenience to question whether there were differences in their physical and psychological features. This information may inform future predictive studies and ultimately the clinical selection of patients for FB procedures. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 58 individuals with chronic WAD who responded to cervical FB procedures (WAD_R); 32 who did not respond (WAD_NR) and 30 Healthy Controls (HC)s. Measures included: quantitative sensory tests (pressure; thermal pain thresholds; brachial plexus provocation test); nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR); motor function (cervical range of movement (ROM); activity of the superficial neck flexors during the cranio-cervical flexion test (CCFT). Self-reported measures were gained from the following questionnaires: neuropathic pain (s-LANSS); psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28), post-traumatic stress (PDS) and pain catastrophization (PCS). Individuals with chronic whiplash attended the laboratory once the effects of the blocks had abated and symptoms had returned. Results Following FB procedures, both WAD groups demonstrated generalized hypersensitivity to all sensory tests, decreased neck ROM and increased superficial muscle activity with the CCFT compared to controls (p 0.05). Both WAD groups demonstrated psychological distress (GHQ-28; p < 0.05), moderate post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain catastrophization. The WAD_NR group also demonstrated increased medication intake and elevated PCS scores compared to the WAD_R group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Chronic WAD responders and non-responders to FB procedures demonstrate a similar presentation of sensory disturbance, motor

  9. HPV-FASTER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, F Xavier; Robles, Claudia; Díaz, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    protocol would represent an attractive approach for many health-care systems, in particular, countries in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia, and some more-developed parts of Africa. The role of vaccination in women aged >30 years and the optimal number of HPV-screening tests required......Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related screening technologies and HPV vaccination offer enormous potential for cancer prevention, notably prevention of cervical cancer. The effectiveness of these approaches is, however, suboptimal owing to limited implementation of screening programmes and restricted...... indications for HPV vaccination. Trials of HPV vaccination in women aged up to 55 years have shown almost 90% protection from cervical precancer caused by HPV16/18 among HPV16/18-DNA-negative women. We propose extending routine vaccination programmes to women of up to 30 years of age (and to the 45-50-year...

  10. Controlling chaos faster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period

  11. Faster scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Economopoulos, G.R.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.; Moor, de O.; Schwartzbach, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of tokenization based

  12. Faster Scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  13. Faster, Practical GLL Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Afroozeh (Ali); A. Izmaylova (Anastasia)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractGeneralized LL (GLL) parsing is an extension of recursive-descent (RD) parsing that supports all context-free grammars in cubic time and space. GLL parsers have the direct relationship with the grammar that RD parsers have, and therefore, compared to GLR, are easier to understand, debug,

  14. Faster scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); O. de Moor; M.I. Schwartzbach

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  15. Controlling chaos faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.

  16. Controlling chaos faster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Christian [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience (BCCN), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Mathematics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); Kolodziejski, Christoph [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); III. Physical Institute—Biophysics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Nonlinear Dynamics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.

  17. Amitriptyline converts non-responders into responders to low-frequency electroacupuncture-induced analgesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Rafael S; Reis, G M; Rossaneis, A C; Silveira, J W S; Dias, Q M; Prado, W A

    2012-07-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of intraperitoneal or intrathecal amitriptyline combined with electroacupuncture modifies the tail-flick reflex and incision pain in rats that normally do not have analgesia to electroacupuncture in the tail-flick test (non-responder rats). Changes in the nociceptive threshold of intraperitoneal or intrathecal saline- or amitriptyline-treated non-responder rats were evaluated using the tail-flick or incision pain tests before, during and after a 20-min period of electroacupuncture, applied at 2 Hz to the Zusanli and Sanynjiao acupoints. Amitriptyline was used at doses of 0.8 mg/kg or 30 μg/kg by intraperitoneal or intrathecal route, respectively. At these doses, amitriptyline has no effect against thermal or incision pain in rats. Rats selected as non-responders to the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture 2 Hz in tail-flick and incision pain tests become responders after an intraperitoneal or intrathecal injection of amitriptyline. Amitriptyline converts non-responder rats to rats that respond to electroacupuncture with analgesia in a model of thermal phasic pain and anti-hyperalgesia in a model of incision pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High Fidelity, “Faster than Real-Time” Simulator for Predicting Power System Dynamic Behavior - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueck, Alex [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The “High Fidelity, Faster than Real­Time Simulator for Predicting Power System Dynamic Behavior” was designed and developed by Illinois Institute of Technology with critical contributions from Electrocon International, Argonne National Laboratory, Alstom Grid and McCoy Energy. Also essential to the project were our two utility partners: Commonwealth Edison and AltaLink. The project was a success due to several major breakthroughs in the area of large­scale power system dynamics simulation, including (1) a validated faster than real­ time simulation of both stable and unstable transient dynamics in a large­scale positive sequence transmission grid model, (2) a three­phase unbalanced simulation platform for modeling new grid devices, such as independently controlled single­phase static var compensators (SVCs), (3) the world’s first high fidelity three­phase unbalanced dynamics and protection simulator based on Electrocon’s CAPE program, and (4) a first­of­its­ kind implementation of a single­phase induction motor model with stall capability. The simulator results will aid power grid operators in their true time of need, when there is a significant risk of cascading outages. The simulator will accelerate performance and enhance accuracy of dynamics simulations, enabling operators to maintain reliability and steer clear of blackouts. In the long­term, the simulator will form the backbone of the newly conceived hybrid real­time protection and control architecture that will coordinate local controls, wide­area measurements, wide­area controls and advanced real­time prediction capabilities. The nation’s citizens will benefit in several ways, including (1) less down time from power outages due to the faster­than­real­time simulator’s predictive capability, (2) higher levels of reliability due to the detailed dynamics plus protection simulation capability, and (3) more resiliency due to the three­ phase unbalanced simulator’s ability to

  19. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  20. Factors associated with the intention of health care personnel to respond to a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan B

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, numerous groups of researchers have studied the willingness of health care personnel (HCP) to respond when a disaster threatens the health of a community. Not one of those studies reported that 100% of HCP were willing to work during a public-health event (PHE). The objective of this study was to explore factors associated with the intent of HCP to respond to a future PHE. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) framed this cross-sectional study. Data were obtained via a web-based survey from 305 HCP. Linear associations between the TPB-based predictor and outcome variables were examined using Pearson's correlations. Differences between two groups of HCP were calculated using independent t tests. A model-generating approach was used to develop and assess a series of TBP-based observed variable structural equation models for prediction of intent to respond to a future PHE and to explore moderating and mediating effects. The beginning patterns of relationships identified by the correlation matrix and t tests were evident in the final structural equation model, even though the patterns of prediction differed from those posited by the theory. Outcome beliefs had both a significant, direct effect on intention and an indirect effect on intention that was mediated by perceived behavioral control. Control beliefs appeared to influence intention through perceived behavioral control, as posited by the TPB, and unexpectedly through subjective norm. Subjective norm not only mediated the relationship between control beliefs and intention, but also the relationship between referent beliefs and intention. Additionally, professional affiliation seemed to have a moderating effect on intention. The intention to respond was influenced primarily by normative and control factors. The intent of nurses to respond to a future PHE was influenced most by the control factors, whereas the intent of other HCP was shaped more by the normative factors. Health care educators

  1. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  2. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  3. Subject Relative Clauses Are Not Universally Easier to Process: Evidence from Basque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Vergara, Marta; de la Cruz-Pavia, Irene; Laka, Itziar

    2010-01-01

    Studies from many languages consistently report that subject relative clauses (SR) are easier to process than object relatives (OR). However, Hsiao and Gibson (2003) report an OR preference for Chinese, a finding that has been contested. Here we report faster OR versus SR processing in Basque, an ergative, head-final language with pre-nominal…

  4. The probability of reinforcement per trial affects posttrial responding and subsequent extinction but not within-trial responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Kwok, Dorothy W S

    2018-01-01

    During magazine approach conditioning, rats do not discriminate between a conditional stimulus (CS) that is consistently reinforced with food and a CS that is occasionally (partially) reinforced, as long as the CSs have the same overall reinforcement rate per second. This implies that rats are indifferent to the probability of reinforcement per trial. However, in the same rats, the per-trial reinforcement rate will affect subsequent extinction-responding extinguishes more rapidly for a CS that was consistently reinforced than for a partially reinforced CS. Here, we trained rats with consistently and partially reinforced CSs that were matched for overall reinforcement rate per second. We measured conditioned responding both during and immediately after the CSs. Differences in the per-trial probability of reinforcement did not affect the acquisition of responding during the CS but did affect subsequent extinction of that responding, and also affected the post-CS response rates during conditioning. Indeed, CSs with the same probability of reinforcement per trial evoked the same amount of post-CS responding even when they differed in overall reinforcement rate and thus evoked different amounts of responding during the CS. We conclude that reinforcement rate per second controls rats' acquisition of responding during the CS, but at the same time, rats also learn specifically about the probability of reinforcement per trial. The latter learning affects the rats' expectation of reinforcement as an outcome of the trial, which influences their ability to detect retrospectively that an opportunity for reinforcement was missed, and, in turn, drives extinction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Platelet-rich fibrin, "a faster healing aid" in the treatment of combined lesions: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakar, Parupalli; Prasanna, Jammula Surya; Jayadev, Matapathi; Shravani, Guniganti Sushma

    2014-09-01

    Anatomically the pulp and periodontium are connected through apical foramen, and the lateral, accessory, and furcal canals. Diseases of one tissue may affect the other. In the present case report with two cases, a primary periodontal lesion with secondary endodontic involvement is described. In both cases, root canal treatment was done followed by periodontal therapy with the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as the regenerative material of choice. PRF has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of tissue healing. It is used to achieve faster healing of the intrabony defects. Absence of an intraradicular lesion, pain, and swelling, along with tooth stability and adequate radiographic bone fill at 9 months of follow-up indicated a successful outcome.

  6. Platelet-rich fibrin, "a faster healing aid" in the treatment of combined lesions: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parupalli Karunakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically the pulp and periodontium are connected through apical foramen, and the lateral, accessory, and furcal canals. Diseases of one tissue may affect the other. In the present case report with two cases, a primary periodontal lesion with secondary endodontic involvement is described. In both cases, root canal treatment was done followed by periodontal therapy with the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF as the regenerative material of choice. PRF has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of tissue healing. It is used to achieve faster healing of the intrabony defects. Absence of an intraradicular lesion, pain, and swelling, along with tooth stability and adequate radiographic bone fill at 9 months of follow-up indicated a successful outcome.

  7. Fast, faster, poorest decisions?: A practical theological exploration of the role of a speedy mobinomic world in decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Albert van den Berg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a digital world, it seems as if the boundaries between rich and poor are becoming increasingly blurred. A mobinomic world is created through the use of cellular telephones, which plays an important role on multiple levels of socioeconomic understanding. Various advantages are created through the interplay between the power of mobility and the convergence of various forms of media. Considering the immediate accessibility of an overflow of data in various forms as well as time pressure, decision-making is increasingly becoming associated with living in the fast lane of the digital world. Unfortunately, the cost of faster decision-making is that it could potentially result in individuals making poor decisions on various levels. A practical-theological exploration, as embedded in a transversal rational engagement, entails a preliminary investigation and description of this digital reality, especially as portrayed in the dynamics of decision-making associated with the social media platform Twitter.

  8. Do Zebra Mussels Grow Faster on Live Unionids than on Inanimate Substrate? A Study with Field Enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmann, Leonhard; Maier, Gerhard

    2006-05-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has invaded numerous freshwaters in Europe and North America and can foul many types of solid substrates, including unionid bivalves. In field experiments we compared growth rates of dreissenids on live specimens of the freshwater bivalve Anodonta cygnea to growth rates of dreissenids on stones. Dreissena density in the study lake was about 1000 m-2 in most places, Anodonta density approximately 1 m-2 and about 50% of the Anodonta were infested with 10-30 Dreissena . In summer/autumn small dreissenids generally grew faster on live Anodonta than on stones. Similar trends were observed for spring, but differences of growth increments between dreissenids on live Anodonta and stones were usually not significant. Dreissenids settled down or moved towards the ingestion/egestion siphons of Anodonta and ingestion siphons of dreissenids were directed towards siphons of Anodonta . These results suggest that dreissenids can use the food provided by the filter current of the large Anodonta .

  9. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding Short Form (BIDR-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Hart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-report studies often call for assessment of socially desirable responding. Many researchers use the Marlowe–Crowne Scale for its brief versions; however, this scale is outdated, and contemporary models of social desirability emphasize its multi-dimensional nature. The 40-item Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR incorporates Self-Deceptive Enhancement (honest but overly positive responding and Impression Management (bias toward pleasing others. However, its length limits its practicality. This article introduces the BIDR-16. In four studies, we shorten the BIDR from 40 items to 16 items, while retaining its two-factor structure, reliability, and validity. This short form will be invaluable to researchers wanting to assess social desirability when time is limited.

  10. Bridging the radiation science divide between scientists and first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolinol, V.; Stephen, A.; Frederick, B.; Harper, T.; Schlueck, C. Richard

    2018-01-01

    To be prepared for a response to a complex radiological or nuclear emergency, the first responder community must incorporate radiation protection principles, and be able to conduct tactical operational measurements, assess data, and determine associated health risks. While these actions must occur promptly in the first hours of an unfolding crisis, the on-scene responders must do so with no scientific support from radiation protection experts, such as from the central government. To further the challenges to effectively perform these actions, local hazardous material (HAZMAT) response teams, which are usually the source of technical expertise at the scene of a hazardous materials release, rarely encounter radiological materials or respond to large-scale radiological or nuclear emergencies

  11. How to respond to referee comments for scientific articles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemci, Mustafa Serdar; Turna, Burak

    2013-09-01

    Currently, the increasing number of article submissions to scientific journals forces editors to be more selective in their acceptance of papers. Consequently, editors have increased the frequency of their use of scientific referee mechanisms. For many researchers, the publication of a scientific article in a high impact factor journal is a gradual and difficult process. After preparation and submission of a manuscript, one of the most important issue is responding to the comments of referees. However, there is a paucity of published reports in the literature describing how to respond to these comments. The aim of this review is to assist researchers/authors in responding to referee comments as part of the publication process for scientific articles.

  12. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties.

  13. Osmium Atoms and Os2 Molecules Move Faster on Selenium-Doped Compared to Sulfur-Doped Boronic Graphenic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Nicolas P E; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Tran, Johanna; Spencer, Simon E F; Johansen, Adam M; Sanchez, Ana M; Dove, Andrew P; O'Reilly, Rachel K; Deeth, Robert J; Beanland, Richard; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-07-28

    We deposited Os atoms on S- and Se-doped boronic graphenic surfaces by electron bombardment of micelles containing 16e complexes [Os(p-cymene)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecarborane-1,2-diselenate/dithiolate)] encapsulated in a triblock copolymer. The surfaces were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and electron energy loss spectroscopy of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). Os atoms moved ca. 26× faster on the B/Se surface compared to the B/S surface (233 ± 34 pm·s(-1) versus 8.9 ± 1.9 pm·s(-1)). Os atoms formed dimers with an average Os-Os distance of 0.284 ± 0.077 nm on the B/Se surface and 0.243 ± 0.059 nm on B/S, close to that in metallic Os. The Os2 molecules moved 0.83× and 0.65× more slowly than single Os atoms on B/S and B/Se surfaces, respectively, and again markedly faster (ca. 20×) on the B/Se surface (151 ± 45 pm·s(-1) versus 7.4 ± 2.8 pm·s(-1)). Os atom motion did not follow Brownian motion and appears to involve anchoring sites, probably S and Se atoms. The ability to control the atomic motion of metal atoms and molecules on surfaces has potential for exploitation in nanodevices of the future.

  14. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oksanen, Ilona; Lehto, Kirsi; Lehto, Harry

    2007-02-14

    Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma). While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  15. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Janhunen

    Full Text Available Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma. While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  16. Cost per responder of TNF-α therapies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissel, Christian; Repp, Holger

    2013-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors ranked highest in German pharmaceutical expenditure in 2011. Their most important application is the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective is to analyze cost per responder of TNF-α inhibitors for RA from the German Statutory Health Insurance funds' perspective. We aim to conduct the analysis based on randomized comparative effectiveness studies of the relevant treatments for the German setting. For inclusion of effectiveness studies, we require results in terms of response rates as defined by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) or American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. We identify conventional triple therapy as the relevant comparator. We calculate cost per responder based on German direct medical costs. Direct clinical comparisons could be identified for both etanercept and infliximab compared to triple therapy. For infliximab, cost per responder was 216,392 euros for ACR50 and 432,784 euros for ACR70 responses. For etanercept, cost per ACR70 responder was 321,527 euros. Cost was lower for response defined by EULAR criteria, but data was only available for infliximab. Cost per responder is overestimated by 40% due to inclusion of taxes and mandatory rebates in German drugs' list prices. Our analysis shows specific requirements for cost-effectiveness analysis in Germany. Cost per responder for TNF-α treatment in the German setting is more than double the cost estimated in a similar analysis for the USA, which measured against placebo. The difference in results shows the critical role of the correct comparator for a specific setting.

  17. A Data-Driven Approach to Responder Subgroup Identification after Paired Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonio Heidegger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modulation of cortical excitability by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is used for investigating human brain functions. A common observation is the high variability of long-term depression (LTD-like changes in human (motor cortex excitability. This study aimed at analyzing the response subgroup distribution after paired continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS as a basis for subject selection.Methods: The effects of paired cTBS using 80% active motor threshold (AMT in 31 healthy volunteers were assessed at the primary motor cortex (M1 corresponding to the representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle of the left hand, before and up to 50 min after plasticity induction. The changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs were analyzed using machine-learning derived methods implemented as Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM and computed ABC analysis.Results: The probability density distribution of the MEP changes from baseline was tri-modal, showing a clear separation at 80.9%. Subjects displaying at least this degree of LTD-like changes were n = 6 responders. By contrast, n = 7 subjects displayed a paradox response with increase in MEP. Reassessment using ABC analysis as alternative approach led to the same n = 6 subjects as a distinct category.Conclusion: Depressive effects of paired cTBS using 80% AMT endure at least 50 min, however, only in a small subgroup of healthy subjects. Hence, plasticity induction by paired cTBS might not reflect a general mechanism in human motor cortex excitability. A mathematically supported criterion is proposed to select responders for enrolment in assessments of human brain functional networks using virtual brain lesions.

  18. Insulin resistance in clomiphene responders and non-responders with polycystic ovarian disease and therapeutic effects of metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsanezhad, M E; Alborzi, S; Zarei, A; Dehbashi, S; Omrani, G

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical features, endocrine and metabolic profiles in clomiphene (CC) responders and non-responders with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD), and to examine the effects of metformin (MTF) on the above parameters of CC resistance. A prospective clinical trial was undertaken at the infertility division of a university teaching hospital. Forty-one CC responders were selected and their hormonal and clinical features were determined. Forty-one CC-resistant PCOD women were also selected and clinical features; metabolic and hormonal profiles before and after treatment with MTF 1500 mg/day for 6-8 weeks were evaluated. Women who failed to conceive were treated by CC while continuing to take MTF. CC responders had higher insulin levels while non-responders were hyperinsulinemic. Menstrual irregularities improved in 30%. Mean+/-S.D. area under curve of insulin decreased from 297.58+/-191.33 to 206+/-0.1 mIU/ml per min (P=0.005). Only 39.39% ovulated and 24.24% conceived. PCOD is associated with insulin resistance (IR) particularly in CC-resistant women. Insulin resistance and androgen levels are significantly higher in obese patients. MTF therapy improved hyperandrogenemia, IR, and pregnancy rate.

  19. Minoxidil dose response study in female pattern hair loss patients determined to be non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, J; Goren, A; Kovacevic, M; Shapiro, J

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only US FDA approved drug for the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL). 5% minoxidil foam is only effective at re-growing hair in a minority of women (approximately 40%). Thus, the majority of FPHL patients remain untreated. Previously, we demonstrated that nonresponders to 5% minoxidil have low metabolism of minoxidil in hair follicles. As such, we hypothesized that increasing the dosage of topical minoxidil to low metabolizers would increase the number of responders without increasing the incidence of adverse events. In this study, we recruited FPHL subjects that were identified as non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil utilizing the previously validated assay for minoxidil response. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with a novel 15% topical minoxidil solution. At 12 weeks, 60% of subjects achieved a clinically significant response based on target area hair counts (>13.7% from baseline), as well as significant improvement in global photographic assessment. None of the subjects experienced significant hemodynamic changes or any other adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the potentially beneficial effect of a higher dosage of minoxidil in FPHL subjects who fail to respond to 5% minoxidil.

  20. Predictors of subjective well-being among older Ghanaians | Calys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The single item measure of life satisfaction was used to determine subjective wellbeing. Descriptive statistics as well as logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the predictors of SWB. Results: A total of 4724 individuals aged 50 years and above responded to the questionnaires. Of these 50.4% were males.

  1. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  2. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  3. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  4. Autonomic and subjective responsivity to emotional images in people with dissociative seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Susannah; Mellers, John D C; Goldstein, Laura H

    2018-06-01

    People with dissociative seizures (DS) report a range of difficulties in emotional functioning and exhibit altered responding to emotional facial expressions in experimental tasks. We extended this research by investigating subjective and autonomic reactivity (ratings of emotional valence, arousal and skin conductance responses [SCRs]) to general emotional images in 39 people with DS relative to 42 healthy control participants, whilst controlling for anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning and, where relevant, medication use. It was predicted that greater subjective negativity and arousal and increased SCRs in response to the affective pictures would be observed in the DS group. The DS group as a whole did not differ from controls in their subjective responses of valence and arousal. However, SCR amplitudes were greater in 'autonomic responders' with DS relative to 'autonomic responders' in the control group. A positive correlation was also observed between SCRs for highly arousing negative pictures and self-reported ictal autonomic arousal, in DS 'autonomic responders'. In the DS subgroup of autonomic 'non-responders', differences in subjective responses were observed for some conditions, compared to control 'non-responders'. The findings indicate unaffected subjective responses to emotional images in people with DS overall. However, within the group of people with DS, there may be subgroups characterized by differences in emotional responding. One subgroup (i.e., 'autonomic responders') exhibit heightened autonomic responses but intact subjective emotional experience, whilst another subgroup (i.e., 'autonomic non-responders') seem to experience greater subjective negativity and arousal for some emotional stimuli, despite less frequent autonomic reactions. The current results suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting awareness and regulation of physiological arousal and subjective emotional experience could be of value in some people with this disorder

  5. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plant transcription factors and insect defence si. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis. HUNLIN. PIN. RUOXUE LIŲ, BEIBEI LÜ, XIAOMENG WANG, CHUNLING ZHANG, SHUPING ZHANG, JUN QIAN, LEI CHEN,.

  6. 45 CFR 5.24 - Responding to your request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information on paper, we will do this if it is the only way to respond to a request. Nor are we required to... copying them all. Moreover, we are required to furnish only one copy of a record and usually impose that limit. If information exists in different forms, we will provide the record in the form that best...

  7. Plant Reproduction: AMOR Enables Males to Respond to Female Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Coimbra, Silvia

    2016-04-25

    The pollen tube of flowering plants undertakes a long journey to transport two sperm cells for double fertilization. New work on pollen tube guidance has identified an arabinogalactan-derived ovular factor that primes tubes to respond to female gametophyte-secreted attraction signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. WS-009: EPR-First Responders: Personnel protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this working session is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a laboratory explosion with radioactive material and a contamination risks by cobalt source. The first responder have to identify the incident commander, the type of response required, the risks of the emergency, the requirements for transporting the victims to the hospital and the actors involved in a radiological emergency

  9. Editor's Note Responding to suggestions from the research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Responding to suggestions from the research fellowship of the Institute of African Studies for a re-branding of the. Research Review, which began publication in the early 1960s soon after the establishment of the Institute, the old title has now been replaced with a new title — Contemporary Journal of African Studies. This is ...

  10. Responding to Individual Differences in Inclusive Classrooms in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Waterworth, David; Brady, Trish

    2014-01-01

    Responding to individual differences in classrooms in which there is increasing diversity is one of the challenges of inclusive education in Australia. The linking of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and assistive technologies (ATs) is one way in which this challenge can be addressed. This article describes an initiative, known as…

  11. Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McCluskey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment.

  12. Policy options to respond to rapid climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Marinova, N.A.; Bakker, S.; Tilburg, van X.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing research on climate change indicates that we cannot rule out the possibility of extreme climatic changes, beyond current IPCC scenarios. The thinking about policy responses to address these risks is still in its infancy. This study explores the possibilities for responding to extreme

  13. Communication: Listening and Responding. Affective 4.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgers, Sherry B., Comp.; Ward, G. Robert, Comp.

    This module is designed to provide practice in listening effectively and in responding to messages sent by another. The module is divided into two sets of activities, the first is the formation of a triad enabling the student to investigate the following: do you listen, listening and the unrelated response, incomplete listening, listening for…

  14. The Self as a Responding-and Responsible-Artifact

    OpenAIRE

    Dennett, Daniel C.

    2003-01-01

    The powerful illusion of a unified, Cartesian self responsible for intentional action is contrasted with the biologically sounder model of competitive processes that yield an only partially coherent agency, and the existence of the illusion of self is explained as an evolved feature of communicating agents, capable of responding to requests and queries about their own decisions and actions.

  15. 16 CFR 5.62 - Hearing rights of respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing rights of respondent. 5.62 Section 5.62 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.62 Hearing...

  16. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  17. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Mediates Effort-related Responding in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Alexandra; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2017-11-17

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the mOFC increased, while pharmacological stimulation reduced PR responding. In addition, pharmacological mOFC stimulation attenuated methylphenidate-induced increase of PR responding. Intact rats tested for PR responding displayed higher numbers of c-Fos positive mOFC neurons than appropriate controls; however, mOFC neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens did not show a selective increase in neuronal activation implying that they may not play a major role in regulating PR responding. Collectively, these results suggest that the mOFC plays a major role in mediating effort-related motivational functions. Moreover, our data demonstrate for the first time that the mOFC modulates effort-related effects of psychostimulant drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Senp1 drives hypoxia-induced polycythemia via GATA1 and Bcl-xL in subjects with Monge’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Priti; Zhao, Huiwen W.; Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Poulsen, Orit; Hsiao, Yu Hsin; Bafna, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, because excessive polycythemia is a predominant trait in some high-altitude dwellers (chronic mountain sickness [CMS] or Monge’s disease) but not others living at the same altitude in the Andes, we took advantage of this human experiment of nature and used a combination of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, genomics, and molecular biology in this unique population to understand the molecular basis for hypoxia-induced excessive polycythemia. As compared with sea-level controls and non-CMS subjects who responded to hypoxia by increasing their RBCs modestly or not at all, respectively, CMS cells increased theirs remarkably (up to 60-fold). Although there was a switch from fetal to adult HgbA0 in all populations and a concomitant shift in oxygen binding, we found that CMS cells matured faster and had a higher efficiency and proliferative potential than non-CMS cells. We also established that SENP1 plays a critical role in the differential erythropoietic response of CMS and non-CMS subjects: we can convert the CMS phenotype into that of non-CMS and vice versa by altering SENP1 levels. We also demonstrated that GATA1 is an essential downstream target of SENP1 and that the differential expression and response of GATA1 and Bcl-xL are a key mechanism underlying CMS pathology. PMID:27821551

  19. Effect of risperidone versus haloperidol on emotional responding in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, E; Khalfa, S; Da Fonseca, D; Besnier, N; Delaveau, P; Azorin, J M; Blin, O

    2008-10-01

    Studies on emotional processing report that schizophrenic patients present a specific pattern of emotional responding that usually includes deficits in emotional expressiveness, increased feelings of unpleasant emotion but decreased feelings of pleasant emotion, and increased physiological reactivity. However, studies have rarely controlled the nature of antipsychotic medication. Yet, the influence of these drugs on emotional response is uncertain and could vary depending on their pharmacological profile. This prospective and randomized study aimed to compare the effects of an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, to a typical one, haloperidol, on patients' emotional responding during an emotional induction task. Twenty-five schizophrenic patients underwent two emotional and clinical evaluations: one before treatment initiation and a second 4 weeks after. Emotional states of fear, sadness, anger, joy, and disgust were induced, as well as a neutral baseline state. Video recordings of patients during the induction task allowed for assessment of emotional expressiveness. Self-reports and measures of skin conductance and heart rate were performed to determine both subjective and physiological reactions to emotional experience. Compared to haloperidol, risperidone did not reduce patients' facial expressiveness, decreased physiological reactivity, and decreased experience of unpleasant emotion but maintained experience of pleasant emotion. Emotional expressiveness was negatively correlated to parkisonism. Our preliminary results suggest that atypical antipsychotics allow for better-adapted patterns of emotional responding than typical ones do. We suggest that this effect is due to reduced striatal D2 blockade, therefore, attenuating akinesia, coupled with increased 5HT and DA levels in prefrontal cortex, which improves emotional regulation.

  20. Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Allcock, Bethan; Thomas, Chris; Bard, Kim A

    2011-10-01

    Humans have the ability to replicate the emotional expressions of others even when they undergo different emotions. Such distinct responses of expressions, especially positive expressions, play a central role in everyday social communication of humans and may give the responding individuals important advantages in cooperation and communication. The present work examined laughter in chimpanzees to test whether nonhuman primates also use their expressions in such distinct ways. The approach was first to examine the form and occurrence of laugh replications (laughter after the laughter of others) and spontaneous laughter of chimpanzees during social play and then to test whether their laugh replications represented laugh-elicited laugh responses (laughter triggered by the laughter of others) by using a quantitative method designed to measure responses in natural social settings. The results of this study indicated that chimpanzees produce laugh-elicited laughter that is distinct in form and occurrence from their spontaneous laughter. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that nonhuman primates have the ability to replicate the expressions of others by producing expressions that differ in their underlying emotions and social implications. The data further showed that the laugh-elicited laugh responses of the subjects were closely linked to play maintenance, suggesting that chimpanzees might gain important cooperative and communicative advantages by responding with laughter to the laughter of their social partners. Notably, some chimpanzee groups of this study responded more with laughter than others, an outcome that provides empirical support of a socialization of expressions in great apes similar to that of humans.

  1. Analysing how plants in coastal wetlands respond to varying tidal regimes throughout their life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian; Cui, Baoshan; Li, Shanze

    2017-10-15

    Important to conserve plant species in coastal wetlands throughout their life cycle. All life stages in these habitats are exposed to varying tidal cycles. It is necessary to investigate all life stages as to how they respond to varying tidal regimes. We examine three wetlands containing populations of an endangered halophyte species, each subjected to different tidal regimes: (1). wetlands completely closed to tidal cycles; (2). wetlands directly exposed to tidal cycles (3). wetlands exposed to a partially closed tidal regime. Our results showed that the most threatened stage varied between wetlands subjected to these varying tidal regimes. We hypothesis that populations of this species have adapted to these different tidal regimes. Such information is useful in developing management options for coastal wetlands and modifying future barriers restricting tidal flushing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  3. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  4. Considering Time in Orthophotography Production: from a General Workflow to a Shortened Workflow for a Faster Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G.

    2015-08-01

    This article overall deals with production time with orthophoto imagery with medium size digital frame camera. The workflow examination follows two main parts: data acquisition and post-processing. The objectives of the research are fourfold: 1/ gathering time references for the most important steps of orthophoto production (it turned out that literature is missing on this topic); these figures are used later for total production time estimation; 2/ identifying levers for reducing orthophoto production time; 3/ building a simplified production workflow for emergency response: less exigent with accuracy and faster; and compare it to a classical workflow; 4/ providing methodical elements for the estimation of production time with a custom project. In the data acquisition part a comprehensive review lists and describes all the factors that may affect the acquisition efficiency. Using a simulation with different variables (average line length, time of the turns, flight speed) their effect on acquisition efficiency is quantitatively examined. Regarding post-processing, the time references figures were collected from the processing of a 1000 frames case study with 15 cm GSD covering a rectangular area of 447 km2; the time required to achieve each step during the production is written down. When several technical options are possible, each one is tested and time documented so as all alternatives are available. Based on a technical choice with the workflow and using the compiled time reference of the elementary steps, a total time is calculated for the post-processing of the 1000 frames. Two scenarios are compared as regards to time and accuracy. The first one follows the "normal" practices, comprising triangulation, orthorectification and advanced mosaicking methods (feature detection, seam line editing and seam applicator); the second is simplified and make compromise over positional accuracy (using direct geo-referencing) and seamlines preparation in order to achieve

  5. Bone Shaft Revascularization After Marrow Ablation Is Dramatically Accelerated in BSP-/- Mice, Along With Faster Hematopoietic Recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouleftour, Wafa; Granito, Renata Neves; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Sabido, Odile; Roche, Bernard; Thomas, Mireille; Linossier, Marie Thérèse; Aubin, Jane E; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Vico, Laurence; Malaval, Luc

    2017-09-01

    The bone organ integrates the activity of bone tissue, bone marrow, and blood vessels and the factors ensuring this coordination remain ill defined. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is with osteopontin (OPN) a member of the small integrin binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family, involved in bone formation, hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. In rodents, bone marrow ablation induces a rapid formation of medullary bone which peaks by ∼8 days (d8) and is blunted in BSP-/- mice. We investigated the coordinate hematopoietic and vascular recolonization of the bone shaft after marrow ablation of 2 month old BSP+/+ and BSP-/- mice. At d3, the ablated area in BSP-/- femurs showed higher vessel density (×4) and vascular volume (×7) than BSP+/+. Vessel numbers in the shaft of ablated BSP+/+ mice reached BSP-/- values only by d8, but with a vascular volume which was twice the value in BSP-/-, reflecting smaller vessel size in ablated mutants. At d6, a much higher number of Lin - (×3) as well as LSK (Lin - IL-7Rα - Sca-1 hi c-Kit hi , ×2) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC: Flt3 - LSK, ×2) were counted in BSP-/- marrow, indicating a faster recolonization. However, the proportion of LSK and HSC within the Lin - was lower in BSP-/- and more differentiated stages were more abundant, as also observed in unablated bone, suggesting that hematopoietic differentiation is favored in the absence of BSP. Interestingly, unablated BSP-/- femur marrow also contains more blood vessels than BSP+/+, and in both intact and ablated shafts expression of VEGF and OPN are higher, and DMP1 lower in the mutants. In conclusion, bone marrow ablation in BSP-/- mice is followed by a faster vascular and hematopoietic recolonization, along with lower medullary bone formation. Thus, lack of BSP affects the interplay between hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, and osteogenesis, maybe in part through higher expression of VEGF and the angiogenic SIBLING, OPN. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2528-2537, 2017. © 2016

  6. Survey sustainability Biomass. Appendix. Results of the international respondents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsma, G.C.; Groot, M.I.

    2006-06-15

    As part of an array of strategies to combat climate change, biomass is being used increasingly as a substitute for fossil fuels. It is important that the sustainability benefits thus accruing to the Netherlands are not at the expense of sustainable development in producer countries. Against this background the 'Sustainable biomass imports' project group is developing a set of criteria for evaluating the sustainability of biomass projects. To assess support for such criteria, CE conducted an internet survey among the various stakeholders (NGOs, industry, government), drawing a total of 104 responses. This report presents all the results and conclusions of the survey, for each category of stakeholders and overall. Among the most striking conclusions are the following: The majority of respondents see a sustainability audit on biomass as feasible, provided the sustainability criteria are adequate for the purpose (68%); Almost all the respondents are of the opinion that such sustainability criteria should apply to all applications of biomass (90%); On the issue of whether these criteria should vary according to the producer region concerned, respondents were divided (50% for, 50% against); Many NGOs state there should be different sustainability criteria in force for different biomass flows (50%), in contrast to industry, which argues for a uniform set of criteria for all flows; Most respondents hold that any biomass criteria should apply to both subsidised and unsubsidised projects; At the same time, a sizable majority of respondents state that subsidisation of biomass projects should depend on the degree of sustainability (72%) and in particular on the CO2 emission cuts achieved, this being regarded as the single most important factor; When it comes to the issue of GMO, opinions differ markedly between NGOs and industry, with some 75% of NGOs wanting this aspect included, but only 10% of industry; Respondents also commented on a number of additional issues

  7. Agreement between Dietary Intake of Older Adults and Proxy Respondents Assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Medici Saldiva, S R; Bassani, L; da Silva Castro, A L; Gonçalves, I B; de Oliveira Sales, C R; Lobo Marchioni, D M

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the degree of agreement of dietary intake reported by the patient subject with the dietary intake reported by a respondent (a next-of-kin or a caregiver), collected by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). 126 adults, both sexes, the average age was 65.9 years for patients and 54.4 years for respondents. They were recruited from the General Practice Clinic at the Clinical Hospital of São Paulo (AGD-FMUSP). The agreement between the responses given by patients and respondents was assessed using Spearman, weighted Kappa and Bland Altman tests. The analysis for accuracy between responses (Spearman test) showed a moderate degree of agreement (0.31-0.39) for Energy, Total fat, Total Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA), Total Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA). Regarding food groups a moderate agreement was found for the majority of the foods (fruits (0.30), dairy products (0.50), natural juices (0.45), beans (0.48), butter/margarine (0.55), coffee (0.41) and soda (0.45), with the exception of vegetables (0.12) and rice (0.63). The ingestion differences did not exceeded the limit of the two standard deviations for the majority of the pairs (Bland Altman). A respondent subsample composed only of husband/wives (N = 36) revealed a moderate agreement concordance for most macronutrients studied (0.30 - 0.58), except polyunsaturated fats (0.25). The results of this study show that, the FFQ may be used in cases where is impossible to get the answers directly from the patients.

  8. Sexual attraction to others: a comparison of two models of alloerotic responding in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Cantor, James M

    2012-02-01

    The penile response profiles of homosexual and heterosexual pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles to laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children and adults may be conceptualized as a series of overlapping stimulus generalization gradients. This study used such profile data to compare two models of alloerotic responding (sexual responding to other people) in men. The first model was based on the notion that men respond to a potential sexual object as a compound stimulus made up of an age component and a gender component. The second model was based on the notion that men respond to a potential sexual object as a gestalt, which they evaluate in terms of global similarity to other potential sexual objects. The analytic strategy was to compare the accuracy of these models in predicting a man's penile response to each of his less arousing (nonpreferred) stimulus categories from his response to his most arousing (preferred) stimulus category. Both models based their predictions on the degree of dissimilarity between the preferred stimulus category and a given nonpreferred stimulus category, but each model used its own measure of dissimilarity. According to the first model ("summation model"), penile response should vary inversely as the sum of stimulus differences on separate dimensions of age and gender. According to the second model ("bipolar model"), penile response should vary inversely as the distance between stimulus categories on a single, bipolar dimension of morphological similarity-a dimension on which children are located near the middle, and adult men and women are located at opposite ends. The subjects were 2,278 male patients referred to a specialty clinic for phallometric assessment of their erotic preferences. Comparisons of goodness of fit to the observed data favored the unidimensional bipolar model.

  9. A strategy of faster movements used by elderly humans to lift objects of increasing weight in ecological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellinger, Thomas; McIntyre, Joseph; Jami, Lena; Hanneton, Sylvain; Cheron, Guy; Roby-Brami, Agnes

    2017-08-15

    It is not known whether, during the course of aging, changes occur in the motor strategies used by the CNS for lifting objects of different weights. Here, we analyzed the kinematics of object-lifting in two different healthy groups (young and elderly people) plus one well-known deafferented patient (GL). The task was to reach and lift onto a shelf an opaque cylindrical object with changing weight. The movements of the hand and object were recorded with electromagnetic sensors. In an ecological context (i.e. no instruction was given about movement speed), we found that younger participants, elderly people and GL did not all move at the same speed and that, surprisingly, elder people are faster. We also observed that the lifting trajectories were constant for both the elderly and the deafferented patient while younger participants raised their hand higher when the object weighed more. It appears that, depending on age and on available proprioceptive information, the CNS uses different strategies of lifting. We suggest that elder people tend to optimize their feedforward control in order to compensate for less functional afferent feedback, perhaps to optimize movement time and energy expenditure at the expense of high precision. In the case of complete loss of proprioceptive input, however, compensation follows a different strategy as suggested by GL's behavior who moved more slowly compared to both our younger and older participants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. CNTs-Modified Nb3O7F Hybrid Nanocrystal towards Faster Carrier Migration, Lower Bandgap and Higher Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Li, Zhen; Yan, Aihua; Zhao, Hui; Liang, Huagen; Gao, Qingyu; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2017-01-06

    Novel semiconductor photocatalysts have been the research focus and received much attention in recent years. The key issues for novel semiconductor photocatalysts are to effectively harvest solar energy and enhance the separation efficiency of the electron-hole pairs. In this work, novel Nb 3 O 7 F/CNTs hybrid nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity have been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal plus etching technique. The important finding is that appropriate pH values lead to the formation of Nb 3 O 7 F nanocrystal directly. A general strategy to introdue interaction between Nb 3 O 7 F and CNTs markedly enhances the photocatalytic activity of Nb 3 O 7 F. Comparatively, Nb 3 O 7 F/CNTs nanocomposites exhibit higher photodegradation efficiency and faster photodegradation rate in the solution of methylene blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation. The higher photocatalytic activity may be attributed to more exposed active sites, higher carrier migration and narrower bandgap because of good synergistic effect. The results here may inspire more engineering, new design and facile fabrication of novel photocatalysts with highly photocatalytic activity.

  11. Extended two-photon microscopy in live samples with Bessel beams: steadier focus, faster volume scans, and simpler stereoscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Gabrielle; Cottet, Martin; Castonguay, Annie; McCarthy, Nathalie; De Koninck, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon microscopy has revolutionized functional cellular imaging in tissue, but although the highly confined depth of field (DOF) of standard set-ups yields great optical sectioning, it also limits imaging speed in volume samples and ease of use. For this reason, we recently presented a simple and retrofittable modification to the two-photon laser-scanning microscope which extends the DOF through the use of an axicon (conical lens). Here we demonstrate three significant benefits of this technique using biological samples commonly employed in the field of neuroscience. First, we use a sample of neurons grown in culture and move it along the z-axis, showing that a more stable focus is achieved without compromise on transverse resolution. Second, we monitor 3D population dynamics in an acute slice of live mouse cortex, demonstrating that faster volumetric scans can be conducted. Third, we acquire a stereoscopic image of neurons and their dendrites in a fixed sample of mouse cortex, using only two scans instead of the complete stack and calculations required by standard systems. Taken together, these advantages, combined with the ease of integration into pre-existing systems, make the extended depth-of-field imaging based on Bessel beams a strong asset for the field of microscopy and life sciences in general.

  12. World oil demand's shift toward faster growing and less price-responsive products and regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, Joyce M. [Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Gately, Dermot [Dept. of Economics, New York University, 19W. 4 St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Using data for 1971-2008, we estimate the effects of changes in price and income on world oil demand, disaggregated by product - transport oil, fuel oil (residual and heating oil), and other oil - for six groups of countries. Most of the demand reductions since 1973-74 were due to fuel-switching away from fuel oil, especially in the OECD; in addition, the collapse of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) reduced their oil consumption substantially. Demand for transport and other oil was much less price-responsive, and has grown almost as rapidly as income, especially outside the OECD and FSU. World oil demand has shifted toward products and regions that are faster growing and less price-responsive. In contrast to projections to 2030 of declining per-capita demand for the world as a whole - by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), International Energy Agency (IEA) and OPEC - we project modest growth. Our projections for total world demand in 2030 are at least 20% higher than projections by those three institutions, using similar assumptions about income growth and oil prices, because we project rest-of-world growth that is consistent with historical patterns, in contrast to the dramatic slowdowns which they project. (author)

  13. A faster ordered-subset convex algorithm for iterative reconstruction in a rotation-free micro-CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, E; Lalush, D S

    2009-01-01

    We present a faster iterative reconstruction algorithm based on the ordered-subset convex (OSC) algorithm for transmission CT. The OSC algorithm was modified such that it calculates the normalization term before the iterative process in order to save computational cost. The modified version requires only one backprojection per iteration as compared to two required for the original OSC. We applied the modified OSC (MOSC) algorithm to a rotation-free micro-CT system that we proposed previously, observed its performance, and compared with the OSC algorithm for 3D cone-beam reconstruction. Measurements on the reconstructed images as well as the point spread functions show that MOSC is quite similar to OSC; in noise-resolution trade-off, MOSC is comparable with OSC in a regular-noise situation and it is slightly worse than OSC in an extremely high-noise situation. The timing record shows that MOSC saves 25-30% CPU time, depending on the number of iterations used. We conclude that the MOSC algorithm is more efficient than OSC and provides comparable images.

  14. Faster N Release, but Not C Loss, From Leaf Litter of Invasives Compared to Native Species in Mediterranean Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Incerti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant invasions can have relevant impacts on biogeochemical cycles, whose extent, in Mediterranean ecosystems, have not yet been systematically assessed comparing litter carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics between invasive plants and native communities. We carried out a 1-year litterbag experiment in 4 different plant communities (grassland, sand dune, riparian and mixed forests on 8 invasives and 24 autochthonous plant species, used as control. Plant litter was characterized for mass loss, N release, proximate lignin and litter chemistry by 13C CPMAS NMR. Native and invasive species showed significant differences in litter chemical traits, with invaders generally showing higher N concentration and lower lignin/N ratio. Mass loss data revealed no consistent differences between native and invasive species, although some woody and vine invaders showed exceptionally high decomposition rate. In contrast, N release rate from litter was faster for invasive plants compared to native species. N concentration, lignin content and relative abundance of methoxyl and N-alkyl C region from 13C CPMAS NMR spectra were the parameters that better explained mass loss and N mineralization rates. Our findings demonstrate that during litter decomposition invasive species litter has no different decomposition rates but greater N release rate compared to natives. Accordingly, invasives are expected to affect N cycle in Mediterranean plant communities, possibly promoting a shift of plant assemblages.

  15. Development and evaluation of first responder equipment for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kuroki, Kenro; Schwantes, Jon M.; Pierson, Richard; Piper, Roman K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics are the technical means by which nuclear and other radioactive materials used in illegal activities are characterized as to physical and chemical condition, provenance, and history. Sampling for traditional forensics evidence (e.g. fingerprints, DNA, hair, fibers, and digital evidence) contaminated by radionuclides, and categorization of nuclear and other radioactive materials by on-sight measurement are required for first responders. Portable radiological equipment and radiation protection for first responders to achieve emergency tasks safely at the incident sites have been developed and evaluated in National Research Institute of Police Science. In this report, we introduce wireless network dosimetry system and neutron protection shield with water under sampling and categorization. Described next in this report are evaluation tests of active personal dosimeters using neutron irradiation field in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We evaluated them under fast and thermal neutron field. We confirmed the large fluctuation of the response for each dosimeter caused by the energy dependence of the detectors. (author)

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation and IVF outcome in poor responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidou, Olga; Sigalos, George; Vlahos, Nikos

    2017-06-01

    Ovarian stimulation of poor ovarian responders still remains a challenging issue. The incidence of poor responders among infertile women is reported in 9-24% IVF cycles and is associated with very low clinical pregnancy rates. Different treatments have been reported in the literature in an attempt to identify the best stimulation protocol for those patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate (DHEA) was suggested as a promising treatment. It is well known that androgens can influence ovarian follicular growth, augment steroidogenesis, promote follicular recruitment and increase the number of primary and pre-antral follicles. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of DHEA supplementation on women with diminished ovarian reserve. Because of the uncertainty of published data, we suggest that well-designed multicentre RCTs are required to provide more insight on the effectiveness of DHEA. The absence of significant side effects should not be considered as an argument to support DHEA treatment.

  17. An alternative framework for responding to the amphibian crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Volumes of data illustrate the severity of the crisis affecting amphibians, where > 32% of amphibians worldwide are threatened with declining populations. Although there have been isolated victories, the current approach to the issue is unsuccessful. We suggest that a radically different approach, something akin to human emergency response management (i.e. the Incident Command System), is one alternative to addressing the inertia and lack of cohesion in responding to amphibian issues. We acknowledge existing efforts and the useful research that has been conducted, but we suggest that a change is warranted and that the identification of a new amphibian chytrid provides the impetus for such a change. Our goal is to recognize that without a centralized effort we (collectively) are likely to fail in responding to this challenge.

  18. Train-the-trainer training for EV first responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents Electrical Line magazine. The magazine covers new product releases, provides expert opinion on solving problems posted by readers, has updated industry news and posts event calendars, among other features. This paper discusses industry news and various topics on electric vehicles. Nova Scotia Power is researching the convenience of electric charging and the readiness of the provincial electric grid to support electric vehicles as well as their cost effectiveness and performance. The paper describes how Hydro-Quebec is supporting the use of such vehicles through the selection of ten Boucherville businesses to participate in an electric vehicles trial program. The ten company names are listed. Recently, the national alternative fuels training consortium (NAFTC) conducted a safety-training workshop for electric drive vehicle first responders at the Tesla Motors headquarters in California. The aim was to ensure that first responders had the opportunity to enhance their knowledge of electric drive vehicle accident response procedures.

  19. How Did Climate and Humans Respond to Past Volcanic Eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Matthew; Ludlow, Francis; Legrande, Allegra N.

    2016-01-01

    To predict and prepare for future climate change, scientists are striving to understand how global-scale climatic change manifests itself on regional scales and also how societies adapt or don't to sometimes subtle and complex climatic changes. In this regard, the strongest volcanic eruptions of the past are powerful test cases, showcasing how the broad climate system responds to sudden changes in radiative forcing and how societies have responded to the resulting climatic shocks. These issues were at the heart of the inaugural workshop of the Volcanic Impacts on Climate and Society (VICS) Working Group, convened in June 2016 at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University in Palisades, N.Y. The 3-day meeting gathered approximately 50 researchers, who presented work intertwining the history of volcanic eruptions and the physical processes that connect eruptions with human and natural systems on a global scale.

  20. Respondent-Driven Sampling – Testing Assumptions: Sampling with Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barash Vladimir D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS estimators are based on a Markov Process model in which sampling occurs with replacement. Given that respondents generally cannot be interviewed more than once, this assumption is counterfactual. We join recent work by Gile and Handcock in exploring the implications of the sampling-with-replacement assumption for bias of RDS estimators. We differ from previous studies in examining a wider range of sampling fractions and in using not only simulations but also formal proofs. One key finding is that RDS estimates are surprisingly stable even in the presence of substantial sampling fractions. Our analyses show that the sampling-with-replacement assumption is a minor contributor to bias for sampling fractions under 40%, and bias is negligible for the 20% or smaller sampling fractions typical of field applications of RDS.

  1. Recurrent intraoperative silent ST depression responding to phenylephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative myocardial ischemia is attributed to decreased myocardial oxygen supply. We present an unusual case of recurrent, symptomless inferior wall ischemia in an apparently healthy male with no history of coronary artery disease after a spinal block. The recurring episodes were linked to tachycardia and presented with significant ST depression in Lead II with reciprocal elevation in lead aVL. The episodes responded to phenylephrine and subsided without residual sequelae.

  2. Platelet "first responders" in wound response, cancer, and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, David G; Kopetz, Scott; Hawk, Ernest; Sood, Anil K; Loree, Jonathan M; Gresele, Paolo; Honn, Kenneth V

    2017-06-01

    Platelets serve as "first responders" during normal wounding and homeostasis. Arising from bone marrow stem cell lineage megakaryocytes, anucleate platelets can influence inflammation and immune regulation. Biophysically, platelets are optimized due to size and discoid morphology to distribute near vessel walls, monitor vascular integrity, and initiate quick responses to vascular lesions. Adhesion receptors linked to a highly reactive filopodia-generating cytoskeleton maximizes their vascular surface contact allowing rapid response capabilities. Functionally, platelets normally initiate rapid clotting, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and wound biology that leads to sterilization, tissue repair, and resolution. Platelets also are among the first to sense, phagocytize, decorate, or react to pathogens in the circulation. These platelet first responder properties are commandeered during chronic inflammation, cancer progression, and metastasis. Leaky or inflammatory reaction blood vessel genesis during carcinogenesis provides opportunities for platelet invasion into tumors. Cancer is thought of as a non-healing or chronic wound that can be actively aided by platelet mitogenic properties to stimulate tumor growth. This growth ultimately outstrips circulatory support leads to angiogenesis and intravasation of tumor cells into the blood stream. Circulating tumor cells reengage additional platelets, which facilitates tumor cell adhesion, arrest and extravasation, and metastasis. This process, along with the hypercoagulable states associated with malignancy, is amplified by IL6 production in tumors that stimulate liver thrombopoietin production and elevates circulating platelet numbers by thrombopoiesis in the bone marrow. These complex interactions and the "first responder" role of platelets during diverse physiologic stresses provide a useful therapeutic target that deserves further exploration.

  3. NARAC Dispersion Model Product Integration With RadResponder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work on enhanced cooperation and interoperability of Nuclear Incident Response Teams (NIRT) is a joint effort between DHS/FEMA, DOE/NNSA and EPA. One such effort was the integration between the RadResponder Network, a resource sponsored by FEMA for the management of radiological data during an emergency, and the National Atmospheric Advisory Center (NARAC), a DOE/NNSA modeling resource whose predictions are used to aid radiological emergency preparedness and response. Working together under a FEMA-sponsored project these two radiological response assets developed a capability to read and display plume model prediction results from the NARAC computer system in the RadResponder software tool. As a result of this effort, RadResponder users have been provided with NARAC modeling predictions of contamination areas, radiological dose levels, and protective action areas (e.g., areas warranting worker protection or sheltering/evacuation) to help guide protective action decisions and field monitoring surveys, and gain key situation awareness following a radiological/nuclear accident or incident (e.g., nuclear power plant accident, radiological dispersal device incident, or improvised nuclear detonation incident). This document describes the details of this integration effort.

  4. Responding to oil spills in the open ocean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objectives in responding to any oil spill is to control the source of the spill, then, contain, collect, and recover the spilled product. Accomplishing those objectives is an immense challenge. It becomes much more difficult when attempted in the open ocean environment due to the more complex logistical and communications problems one encounters when operating miles from the nearest land. Often times, too, the response must be coordinated with either a salvage operation, a fire-fighting operation, a well control operation or a combination of any of these. There have been volumes of papers comparing the relative merits of mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, dispersant application, and bioremediation in responding to open ocean spills. Although each approach deserves special consideration in different circumstances, this presentation focuses on mechanical methods; the specialized equipment and operational tactics that are best utilized in responding to a major spill in the open ocean. This paper is divided into two sections. The first section, Equipment Used in Open Ocean Spills, addresses in general terms, the special equipment required in an offshore response operation. The second section, entitled Operational Tactics Used In Open Ocean Spills offers an overview of the tactics employed to achieve the general objectives of containment, collection, recovery, and temporary storage

  5. Phosphine Exposure Among Emergency Responders - Amarillo, Texas, January 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emily M; Patel, Ketki; Victory, Kerton R; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Nogueira, Leticia M; Bojes, Heidi K

    2018-04-06

    Phosphine is a highly toxic gas that forms when aluminum phosphide, a restricted-use pesticide* typically used in agricultural settings, reacts with water. Acute exposure can lead to a wide range of respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and can be fatal (1). On January 2, 2017, the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) was notified by the Texas Panhandle Poison Center of an acute phosphine exposure incident in Amarillo, Texas. DSHS investigated potential occupational phosphine exposures among the 51 on-scene emergency responders; 40 (78.4%) did not use respiratory protection during response operations. Fifteen (37.5%) of these 40 responders received medical care for symptoms or as a precaution after the incident, and seven (17.5%) reported new or worsening symptoms consistent with phosphine exposure within 24 hours of the incident. Emergency response organizations should ensure that appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is used during all incidents when an unknown hazardous substance is suspected. Additional evaluation is needed to identify targeted interventions that increase emergency responder PPE use during this type of incident.

  6. Teaching Subjectively: Interdisciplinary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article of linked, short essays reflecting on the experiences of five female scholars across three disciplines — law, social work and political science - draws upon Britzman’s (1991 notion of the “dialogic discourse” to explore how these professors’ sense of self is constituted through interplay with colleagues and their perceptions of students within the classroom. The authors explore the teacher/learner relationship as a dialogue within which learners and educators shape each other as they come to understand how and what they know. What the collection makes explicit is what is often only implicit, that the ways in which professors understand their practices and subjective self is central to the identity of “a professor”, which is never stable or certain, but is always a creative practice. Such practices, we argue, are best sustained through collegial reflective practices that help us make sense of ourselves and continue our work. Cet article consiste de courts essais reliés entre eux qui relatent les expériences de cinq professeures érudites qui oeuvrent dans trois disciplines différentes : le droit, le travail social et les sciences politiques. Il est basé sur la notion de « discours dialogique » de Britzman (1991 qui permet d’explorer comment la conscience de soi de ces professeures s’est constituée à travers leurs interactions avec leurs collègues et leurs perceptions des étudiants dans la salle de classe. Les auteures explorent les relations entre enseignants et apprenants sous forme de dialogues au sein desquels les apprenants et les éducateurs se façonnent les uns les autres au fur et à mesure qu’ils comprennent comment ils apprennent et ce qu’ils ont appris. Ce que la collection rend explicite est ce qui est souvent seulement implicite, à savoir que les diverses manières dont les professeurs comprennent leurs pratiques et leur moi subjectif sont au centre de l’identité d’un « professeur

  7. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  8. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQoL-Bref), Psychache Scale (PAS) instruments were administered on subjects that consented to the study. Results: One hundred and forty four (144) subjects of equal sex distribution were studied. The mean age was 31.7±10.2 years. The highest number of subjects, ...

  9. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  10. The characteristics of non-respondents and respondents of a mental health survey among evacuees in a disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Naoko; Iwasa, Hajime; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu

    2017-12-19

    The Fukushima Medical University conducted a mental health care program for evacuees after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, the mental health status of non-respondents has not been considered for surveys using questionnaires. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of non-respondents and respondents. The target population of the survey (FY2011-2013) is people living in the nationally designated evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture. Among these, the participants were 967 people (20 years or older). We examined factors that affected the difference between the groups of participants (i.e., non-respondents and respondents) using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Employment was higher in non-respondents (p=0.022) and they were also more socially isolated (p=0.047) when compared to respondents; non-respondents had a higher proportional risk of psychological distress compared to respondents (pemployment status (OR=1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.12-3.51) and psychological distress (OR=2.17, 95% CI:1.01-4.66). We found that non-respondents had a significantly higher proportion of psychological distress compared to the respondents. Although the non-respondents were the high-risk group, it is not possible to grasp the complexity of the situation by simply using questionnaire surveys. Therefore, in the future it is necessary to direct our efforts towards the mental health of non-respondents and respondents alike.

  11. Parenteral structured triglyceride emulsion improves nitrogen balance and is cleared faster from the blood in moderately catabolic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruimel, J W; Naber, T H; van der Vliet, J A; Carneheim, C; Katan, M B; Jansen, J B

    2001-01-01

    Most postoperative patients lose net protein mass, which reflects loss of muscle tissue and organ function. Perioperative parenteral nutrition may reduce the loss of protein, but in general, with conventional lipid emulsions a waste of protein still remains. We compared the effects on nitrogen balance of an emulsion containing structured triglycerides, a new type of synthesized triglycerides, with an emulsion of a physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides as part of parenteral feeding in moderately catabolic patients. The first 5 days after placement of an aortic prosthesis patients received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing 0.2 g of nitrogen per kg body weight per day; energy requirement was calculated using Harris and Benedict's equation, adding 300 kcal per day for activity. Twelve patients were treated with the structured triglyceride emulsion and 13 patients with the emulsion of the physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides. The design was a randomized, double-blind parallel study. In the patients who completed the study, the mean cumulative nitrogen balance over the first 5 postoperative days was -8+/-2 g in 10 patients on the structured triglyceride emulsion and -21+/-4 g in 9 patients on the emulsion of the physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides; the mean difference was 13 g of nitrogen (95% confidence interval 4 to 22, p = .015) in favor of the structured triglyceride emulsion. On the first postoperative day serum triglyceride and plasma medium-chain free fatty acid levels increased less during infusion of the structured triglyceride emulsion than with the physical mixture emulsion. The parenteral structured triglyceride emulsion improves the nitrogen balance and is cleared faster from the blood, compared with the emulsion of the physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides, in moderately catabolic patients.

  12. Stimulus- and goal-driven control of eye movements: action videogame players are faster but not better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimler, Benedetta; Pavani, Francesco; Donk, Mieke; van Zoest, Wieske

    2014-11-01

    Action videogame players (AVGPs) have been shown to outperform nongamers (NVGPs) in covert visual attention tasks. These advantages have been attributed to improved top-down control in this population. The time course of visual selection, which permits researchers to highlight when top-down strategies start to control performance, has rarely been investigated in AVGPs. Here, we addressed specifically this issue through an oculomotor additional-singleton paradigm. Participants were instructed to make a saccadic eye movement to a unique orientation singleton. The target was presented among homogeneous nontargets and one additional orientation singleton that was more, equally, or less salient than the target. Saliency was manipulated in the color dimension. Our results showed similar patterns of performance for both AVGPs and NVGPs: Fast-initiated saccades were saliency-driven, whereas later-initiated saccades were more goal-driven. However, although AVGPs were faster than NVGPs, they were also less accurate. Importantly, a multinomial model applied to the data revealed comparable underlying saliency-driven and goal-driven functions for the two groups. Taken together, the observed differences in performance are compatible with the presence of a lower decision bound for releasing saccades in AVGPs than in NVGPs, in the context of comparable temporal interplay between the underlying attentional mechanisms. In sum, the present findings show that in both AVGPs and NVGPs, the implementation of top-down control in visual selection takes time to come about, and they argue against the idea of a general enhancement of top-down control in AVGPs.

  13. Women awaken faster than men after electroencephalogram-monitored propofol sedation for colonoscopy: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riphaus, Andrea; Slottje, Mark; Bulla, Jan; Keil, Carolin; Mentzel, Christian; Limbach, Vera; Schultz, Barbara; Unzicker, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Sedation for colonoscopy using intravenous propofol has become standard in many Western countries. Gender-specific differences have been shown for general anaesthesia in dentistry, but no such data existed for gastrointestinal endoscopy. A prospective observational study. An academic teaching hospital of Hannover Medical School. A total of 219 patients (108 women and 111 men) scheduled for colonoscopy. Propofol sedation using electroencephalogram monitoring during a constant level of sedation depth (D0 to D2) performed by trained nurses or physicians after a body-weight-adjusted loading dose. The primary end-point was the presence of gender-specific differences in awakening time (time from end of sedation to eye-opening and complete orientation); secondary outcome parameters analysed were total dose of propofol, sedation-associated complications (bradycardia, hypotension, hypoxaemia and apnoea), patient cooperation and patient satisfaction. Multivariate analysis was performed to correct confounding factors such as age and BMI. Women awakened significantly faster than men, with a time to eye-opening of 7.3 ± 3.7 versus 8.4 ± 3.4 min (P = 0.005) and time until complete orientation of 9.1 ± 3.9 versus 10.4 ± 13.7 min (P = 0.008). The propofol dosage was not significantly different, with some trend towards more propofol per kg body weight in women (3.98 ± 1.81 mg versus 3.72 ± 1.75 mg, P = 0.232). The effect of gender aspects should be considered when propofol is used as sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy. That includes adequate dosing for women as well as caution regarding potential overdosing of male patients. ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02687568).

  14. Faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart related to cytosolic inorganic phosphate (Pi) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    A model of the cell bioenergetic system was used to compare the effect of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiencies in a broad range of moderate ATP demand in skeletal muscle and heart. Computer simulations revealed that kinetic properties of the system are similar in both cases despite the much higher mitochondria content and "basic" OXPHOS activity in heart than in skeletal muscle, because of a much higher each-step activation (ESA) of OXPHOS in skeletal muscle than in heart. Large OXPHOS deficiencies lead in both tissues to a significant decrease in oxygen consumption (V̇o2) and phosphocreatine (PCr) and increase in cytosolic ADP, Pi, and H(+) The main difference between skeletal muscle and heart is a much higher cytosolic Pi concentration in healthy tissue and much higher cytosolic Pi accumulation (level) at low OXPHOS activities in the former, caused by a higher PCr level in healthy tissue (and higher total phosphate pool) and smaller Pi redistribution between cytosol and mitochondria at OXPHOS deficiency. This difference does not depend on ATP demand in a broad range. A much greater Pi increase and PCr decrease during rest-to-moderate work transition in skeletal muscle at OXPHOS deficiencies than at normal OXPHOS activity significantly slows down the V̇o2 on-kinetics. Because high cytosolic Pi concentrations cause fatigue in skeletal muscle and can compromise force generation in skeletal muscle and heart, this system property can contribute to the faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart. Shortly, skeletal muscle with large OXPHOS deficiencies becomes fatigued already during low/moderate exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Desflurane Allows for a Faster Emergence when Compared to Sevoflurane Without Affecting the Baseline Cognitive Recovery Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G. Werner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims, We compared the effect of desflurane and sevoflurane on anesthesia recovery time in patients undergoing urological cystoscopic surgery. The Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test (SOMCT measured and compared cognitive impairment between groups and coughing was assessed throughout the anesthetic.Methods and Materials, This investigation included 75 ambulatory patients. Patients were randomized to receive either desflurane or sevoflurane. Inhalational anesthetics were discontinued after removal of the cystoscope and once repositioning of the patient was final. Coughing assessment and awakening time from anesthesia were assessed by a blinded observer.Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was performed by using t-test for parametric variables and Mann-Whitney U test for nonparametric variables. Results, The primary endpoint, mean time to eye-opening, was 5.0±2.5 minutes for desflurane, and 7.9±4.1 minutes for sevoflurane (p <0.001. There were no significant differences in time to SOMCT recovery (p=0.109, overall time spent in the post anesthesia care unit (p=0.924 or time to discharge (p=0.363. Median time until readiness for discharge was nine minutes in the desflurane group, while the sevoflurane group had a median time of 20 minutes (p=0.020. The overall incidence of coughing during the perioperative period was significantly higher in the desflurane (p=0.030. Conclusions, We re-confirmed that patients receiving desflurane had a faster emergence and met the criteria to be discharged from the post anesthesia care unit earlier. No difference was found in time to return to baseline cognition between desflurane and sevoflurane.

  16. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  17. Immunotherapy, an evolving approach for the management of triple negative breast cancer: Converting non-responders to responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Mai F; Omar, Hany A

    2018-02-01

    Immunotherapy comprises a promising new era in cancer therapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting either the programmed death (PD)-1 receptor or its ligand PD-L1 were first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of metastatic melanoma in 2011. The approval of this class is being extended to include other types of immunogenic tumors. Although breast cancer (BC) was first categorized as non-immunogenic tumor type, there are certain subsets of BC that showed a high level of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Those subsets include the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and HER-2 positive breast tumors. Preliminary data from clinical trials presented promising outcomes for patients with advanced stage/metastatic TNBC. While the objective response rate (ORR) was relatively low, it is still promising because of the observation that the patients who respond to the treatment with immune checkpoint blockade have favorable prognosis and often show a significant increase in the overall survival. Therefore, the main challenge is to find ways to enhance the tumor response to such therapy and to convert the non-responders to responders. This will consequently bring new hopes for patients with advanced stage metastatic TNBC and help to decrease death tolls from this devastating disease. In the current review, we are highlighting and discussing the up-to-date strategies adopted at either the preclinical or the clinical settings to enhance tumor responsiveness to immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing the amount of payment to research subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, DB

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses some ethical issues that can arise when researchers decide to increase the amount of payment offered to research subjects to boost enrollment. Would increasing the amount of payment be unfair to subjects who have already consented to participate in the study? This article considers how five different models of payment—the free market model, the wage payment model, the reimbursement model, the appreciation model, and the fair benefits model—would approach this issue. The article also considers several practical problems related to changing the amount of payment, including determining whether there is enough money in the budget to offer additional payments to subjects who have already enrolled, ascertaining how difficult it will be to re-contact subjects, and developing a plan of action for responding to subjects who find out they are receiving less money and demand an explanation. PMID:18757614

  19. 32 CFR 725.6 - Authority to determine and respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regs., art. 0327 (1990) 5 , shall be referred to the cognizant Command Counsel under, and subject to... Counsel, Navy Litigation Office, 720 Kennon Street SE, Bldg 36 Room 233, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20374...

  20. SUBJECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: RELATIONSHIPS RECONSIDERED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

  1. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  2. From Data to Knowledge — Faster: GOES Early Fire Detection System to Inform Operational Wildfire Response and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, A.; Quayle, B.; Prins, E. M.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fire managers at various levels require near-real-time, low-cost, systematic, and reliable early detection capabilities with minimal latency to effectively respond to wildfire ignitions and minimize the risk of catastrophic development. The GOES satellite images collected for vast territories at high temporal frequencies provide a consistent and reliable source for operational active fire mapping realized by the WF-ABBA algorithm. However, their potential to provide early warning or rapid confirmation of initial fire ignition reports from conventional sources remains underutilized, partly because the operational wildfire detection has been successfully optimized for users and applications for which timeliness of initial detection is a low priority, contrasting to the needs of first responders. We present our progress in developing the GOES Early Fire Detection (GOES-EFD) system, a collaborative effort led by University of California-Davis and USDA Forest Service. The GOES-EFD specifically focuses on first detection timeliness for wildfire incidents. It is automatically trained for a monitored scene and capitalizes on multiyear cross-disciplinary algorithm research. Initial retrospective tests in Western US demonstrate significantly earlier identification detection of new ignitions than existing operational capabilities and a further improvement prospect. The GOES-EFD-β prototype will be initially deployed for the Western US region to process imagery from GOES-NOP and the rapid and 4 times higher spatial resolution imagery from GOES-R — the upcoming next generation of GOES satellites. These and other enhanced capabilities of GOES-R are expected to significantly improve the timeliness of fire ignition information from GOES-EFD.

  3. Called to respond: The potential of unveiling hiddens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Black

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interested in exploring how personal stories and aesthetic modes of representing experiences can nudge open academic and educational spaces, this article/collection of particles seeks to document our encounters of being affected and called to respond to things the other has written and represented. As a way of engaging with questions about what research and research data might be and become, our attention has been drawn to stories and images from our lives that we have not shaken off – and to how, as we have opened these to the other, making once private moments public, our hiddens have morphed tenderly into a shared knowing and being. As we have acted on the call we have felt to respond we have found ourselves entering spaces of collaboration, communion, contemplation, and conversation – spaces illuminated by what we have not been able to – and cannot – set aside. Using visual and poetic materials we explore heartfelt and heartbroken aspects of our educational worlds and lives, to be present with each other and our (reemerging personal and professional meanings. We see the shared body (of work, of writing, of image that develops from the taking of brave steps and the risky slipping off of academic masks and language, as a manifestation of the trusted and nurturing spaces that can be generated through collaborative opportunities to gather together. These steps towards unveiling hiddens are producing in us and of us a friendship, fluency, and fluidity as we write new ways of becoming. In turn, we hope the uncovering and revealing of our dialogue in the public gathering of this journal might supports readers’ telling of their own life stories through what calls them to respond.

  4. Towards an understanding of resilience: responding to health systems shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Mayhew, Susannah; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Martineau, Frederick; Karanikolos, Marina; Blanchet, Karl; Liverani, Marco; Yei Mokuwa, Esther; McKay, Gillian; Balabanova, Dina

    2018-04-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has drawn attention to the role and responsiveness of health systems in the face of shock. It brought into sharp focus the idea that health systems need not only to be stronger but also more 'resilient'. In this article, we argue that responding to shocks is an important aspect of resilience, examining the health system behaviour in the face of four types of contemporary shocks: the financial crisis in Europe from 2008 onwards; climate change disasters; the EVD outbreak in West Africa 2013-16; and the recent refugee and migration crisis in Europe. Based on this analysis, we identify '3 plus 2' critical dimensions of particular relevance to health systems' ability to adapt and respond to shocks; actions in all of these will determine the extent to which a response is successful. These are three core dimensions corresponding to three health systems functions: 'health information systems' (having the information and the knowledge to make a decision on what needs to be done); 'funding/financing mechanisms' (investing or mobilising resources to fund a response); and 'health workforce' (who should plan and implement it and how). These intersect with two cross-cutting aspects: 'governance', as a fundamental function affecting all other system dimensions; and predominant 'values' shaping the response, and how it is experienced at individual and community levels. Moreover, across the crises examined here, integration within the health system contributed to resilience, as does connecting with local communities, evidenced by successful community responses to Ebola and social movements responding to the financial crisis. In all crises, inequalities grew, yet our evidence also highlights that the impact of shocks is amenable to government action. All these factors are shaped by context. We argue that the '3 plus 2' dimensions can inform pragmatic policies seeking to increase health systems resilience.

  5. Ethanol induces impulsive-like responding in a delay-of-reward operant choice procedure: impulsivity predicts autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, A; Aguado, A S; Pohorecky, L A; Benjamin, D

    1998-10-01

    Autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are reflexive and targeted motor responses expressed as a result of experience with reward. To evaluate the hypothesis that autoshaping may be a form of impulsive responding, within-subjects correlations between performance on autoshaping and impulsivity tasks were assessed in 15 Long-Evans hooded rats. Autoshaping procedures [insertion of retractable lever conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by the response-independent delivery of food (US)] were followed by testing for impulsive-like responding in a two-choice lever-press operant delay-of-reward procedure (immediate small food reward versus delayed large food reward). Delay-of-reward functions revealed two distinct subject populations. Subjects in the Sensitive group (n=7) were more impulsive-like, increasing immediate reward choices at longer delays for large reward, while those in the Insensitive group (n=8) responded predominantly on only one lever. During the prior autoshaping phase, the Sensitive group had performed more autoshaping CRs, and correlations revealed that impulsive subjects acquired the autoshaping CR in fewer trials. In the Sensitive group, acute injections of ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 g/kg) given immediately before delay-of-reward sessions yielded an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve with increased impulsivity induced by the 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 g/kg doses of ethanol, while choice strategy of the Insensitive group was not influenced by ethanol dose. Ethanol induced impulsive-like responding only in rats that were flexible in their response strategy (Sensitive group), and this group also performed more autoshaping CRs. Data support the hypothesis that autoshaping and impulsivity are linked.

  6. Slow fashion and sustainability in Spain: How can local manufacturing improve sustainability and how do consumers respond?

    OpenAIRE

    Karaosman, Hakan; Morales Alonso, Gustavo; Brun, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    "Slow Fashion" attempts to offset the demand for fast fashion and mass production (Fletcher, 2007). Consumers' response to sustainability-based practices is a limited discourse and studies for slow fashion concept are scarce. This study thus aims to enlighten the subject of how slow fashion concept could improve local economies and how Spanish consumers respond to such initiatives. This paper is based on an exploratory qualitative research for which focus group interviews including three grou...

  7. How Do Business Interest Groups Respond to Political Challenges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    adaptation. The paper illustrates these two response strategies with four episodes of political conflict in the political-economic history of Germany: (i) the adoption of social insurance under Bismarck, (ii) the adoption of unemployment insurance in the 1920s, (iii) the adoption of board...... their interests, using four episodes of political conflict in Germany. The paper elaborates a model of response strategies and their likely impact on political outcomes. The model suggests that business interest groups can respond to political challenges in two ways: by seeking confrontation or by pursuing...

  8. The growing importance of mental health: are medical curricula responding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, M Z

    2002-12-01

    Mental health is becoming an important issue. Several local and international studies have proven that the incidence of mental illness is on the rise. Doctors have also been able to make more accurate diagnoses and treat mental disorders more reliably with the aid of recent research and newer drugs. As such it is necessary for the medical curricula to respond to this shift. Medical students must now be exposed to new psychiatric disorders and ways of managing them. The time spent in psychiatry and the mode of teaching must also be revised and modified to the current needs of patients.

  9. How To Respond to Catastrophic Events in Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sooyeon

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2011, a massive earthquake and tsunami struck into Japan. Soon after this event, Toyota in the UK announced that their production had to been halted caused by disruption on supply chain relationship with Japan. Like this, a catastrophic event disturbs not only domestic situation but also international business. Supply chain is one of the most affected areas and also capable to control on business at the same time when a disaster occurs. In this work, how to respond supply chain sy...

  10. Recruitment of faster motor units is associated with greater rates of fascicle strain and rapid changes in muscle force during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; de Boef Miara, Maria; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2013-01-15

    Animals modulate the power output needed for different locomotor tasks by changing muscle forces and fascicle strain rates. To generate the necessary forces, appropriate motor units must be recruited. Faster motor units have faster activation-deactivation rates than slower motor units, and they contract at higher strain rates; therefore, recruitment of faster motor units may be advantageous for tasks that involve rapid movements or high rates of work. This study identified motor unit recruitment patterns in the gastrocnemii muscles of goats and examined whether faster motor units are recruited when locomotor speed is increased. The study also examined whether locomotor tasks that elicit faster (or slower) motor units are associated with increased (or decreased) in vivo tendon forces, force rise and relaxation rates, fascicle strains and/or strain rates. Electromyography (EMG), sonomicrometry and muscle-tendon force data were collected from the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscles of goats during level walking, trotting and galloping and during inclined walking and trotting. EMG signals were analyzed using wavelet and principal component analyses to quantify changes in the EMG frequency spectra across the different locomotor conditions. Fascicle strain and strain rate were calculated from the sonomicrometric data, and force rise and relaxation rates were determined from the tendon force data. The results of this study showed that faster motor units were recruited as goats increased their locomotor speeds from level walking to galloping. Slow inclined walking elicited EMG intensities similar to those of fast level galloping but different EMG frequency spectra, indicating that recruitment of the different motor unit types depended, in part, on characteristics of the task. For the locomotor tasks and muscles analyzed here, recruitment patterns were generally associated with in vivo fascicle strain rates, EMG intensity and tendon force. Together, these data provide

  11. Recruitment of faster motor units is associated with greater rates of fascicle strain and rapid changes in muscle force during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S. M.; de Boef Miara, Maria; Arnold, Allison S.; Biewener, Andrew A.; Wakeling, James M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Animals modulate the power output needed for different locomotor tasks by changing muscle forces and fascicle strain rates. To generate the necessary forces, appropriate motor units must be recruited. Faster motor units have faster activation–deactivation rates than slower motor units, and they contract at higher strain rates; therefore, recruitment of faster motor units may be advantageous for tasks that involve rapid movements or high rates of work. This study identified motor unit recruitment patterns in the gastrocnemii muscles of goats and examined whether faster motor units are recruited when locomotor speed is increased. The study also examined whether locomotor tasks that elicit faster (or slower) motor units are associated with increased (or decreased) in vivo tendon forces, force rise and relaxation rates, fascicle strains and/or strain rates. Electromyography (EMG), sonomicrometry and muscle-tendon force data were collected from the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscles of goats during level walking, trotting and galloping and during inclined walking and trotting. EMG signals were analyzed using wavelet and principal component analyses to quantify changes in the EMG frequency spectra across the different locomotor conditions. Fascicle strain and strain rate were calculated from the sonomicrometric data, and force rise and relaxation rates were determined from the tendon force data. The results of this study showed that faster motor units were recruited as goats increased their locomotor speeds from level walking to galloping. Slow inclined walking elicited EMG intensities similar to those of fast level galloping but different EMG frequency spectra, indicating that recruitment of the different motor unit types depended, in part, on characteristics of the task. For the locomotor tasks and muscles analyzed here, recruitment patterns were generally associated with in vivo fascicle strain rates, EMG intensity and tendon force. Together, these

  12. Differing Event-Related Patterns of Gamma-Band Power in Brain Waves of Fast- and Slow-Reacting Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Wilhelm Wundt proposed that there are two types of subjects in sim- ple RT experiments: fast-reacting subjects, who respond before they fully...quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects...accord with the hypothesis of Wundt and others that slower ("sensorial") responders wait to fully perceive a stimulus and then react to their perception

  13. CISN ShakeAlert: Faster Warning Information Through Multiple Threshold Event Detection in the Virtual Seismologist (VS) Early Warning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cua, G. B.; Fischer, M.; Caprio, M.; Heaton, T. H.; Cisn Earthquake Early Warning Project Team

    2010-12-01

    multiple-threshold approach is faster and more reliable for larger events than the earlier version of the VS codes. In addition, we provide evolutionary estimates of the probability of false alarms (PFA), which is an envisioned output stream of the CISN ShakeAlert system. The real-time decision-making approach envisioned for CISN ShakeAlert users, where users specify a threshhold PFA in addition to thresholds on peak ground motion estimates, has the potential to increase the available warning time for users with high tolerance to false alarms without compromising the needs of users with lower tolerances to false alarms.

  14. A nationwide pharmacy chain responds to the opioid epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily; Bergeron, Nyahne; Smith-Ray, Renae; Robson, Chester; O'Koren, Rachel

    To describe the 3-pronged approach taken by a large national retail pharmacy chain to address the opioid epidemic and associated overdoses. Large national retail pharmacy chain with more than 8200 stores in 50 states. Eight million customer interactions daily through in-store and digital settings. This is a company with a long history of responding to public health crises. Initiated 3 programs to respond to the opioid crisis: 1) provide safe medication disposal kiosks; 2) expand national access to naloxone; and 3) provide education on the risk and avoidance of opioid overdose. Used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate and enhance the quality, speed, and public health impact of the interventions. Not applicable. Early results are safe medication disposal kiosks in more than 43 states, naloxone-dispensing program in 33 states, and patient and support system education using the Opioid Overdose Toolkit from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The availability of safe drug-disposal kiosks, naloxone dispensing at pharmacies, and patient education are key prevention initiatives to address the opioid epidemic and reduce the increasing national burden of opioid overdose. Early results are quantitatively and qualitatively promising. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masse Jeff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days.

  16. MINER - A Mobile Imager of Neutrons for Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, John E. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, James S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark D [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kiff, Scott D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mascarenhas, Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van De Vreugde, James L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a mobile fast neutron imaging platform to enhance the capabilities of emergency responders in the localization and characterization of special nuclear material. This mobile imager of neutrons for emergency responders (MINER) is based on the Neutron Scatter Camera, a large segmented imaging system that was optimized for large-area search applications. Due to the reduced size and power requirements of a man-portable system, MINER has been engineered to fit a much smaller form factor, and to be operated from either a battery or AC power. We chose a design that enabled omnidirectional (4π) imaging, with only a ~twofold decrease in sensitivity compared to the much larger neutron scatter cameras. The system was designed to optimize its performance for neutron imaging and spectroscopy, but it does also function as a Compton camera for gamma imaging. This document outlines the project activities, broadly characterized as system development, laboratory measurements, and deployments, and presents sample results in these areas. Additional information can be found in the documents that reside in WebPMIS.

  17. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  18. Strategies in responding to a hostile takeover bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the steps to be taken by a corporation and its board in order to be properly prepared before a hostile takeover bid is made. The procedures and steps to be followed in responding to a bid with a view to maximizing value for shareholders are also outlined. Reasons why a company may become target for a hostile takeover bid are reviewed, followed by a more detailed examination of the responsibilities of a board in responding to a takeover bid. These responsibilities include the adoption of a shareholders' rights plan ('poison pill'), review of executive employment contracts, making sure that a corporate indemnification agreement and directors' and officers' liability insurance plan are in place, implementation of structural deterrents, investor communication plans, preparing the 'black book', creating or updating the list of 'white knights', designating a data room, entering into confidentiality agreements with white knights, preparation of a response timetable, review of recent takeover bids, strategies for dealing with hostile bidders, strategies for enticing one or more a white knights to enter the bidding. Sample copy of a confidentiality agreement is contained in Schedule A. A list of break-up fees in recent Canadian mergers and acquisitions transactions is provided in Schedule B. 24 refs

  19. Hospital Preparedness to Respond to Biological and Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florin, P.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the terrorist use of chemical or biological agents against civilian population. A large proportion of hospitals are probably poorly prepared to handle victims of chemical or biological terrorism. At national level, starting with 2008 hospitals will be under the administration and control of local authorities. That is good opportunities for local authorities and public health office to tailor the activity of the hospitals to the real needs in the area of responsibility, and to allocate the suitable budget for them. Commonly hospitals are not fully prepared to respond to massive casualty disaster of any kind, either i their capacity to care for large numbers of victims or in their ability to provide care in coordination with a regional or national incident command structure. Preparedness activities to respond properly to chemical or biological attack including the adequate logistic, the principle of training and drill for the hospital emergency units and medical personal, communication and integration of the hospital team in local and regional civil response team are developed by the author.(author)

  20. Adhesion and migration of cells responding to microtopography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Maruxa; Martínez, Elena; Yarwood, Stephen J; Dalby, Matthew J; Samitier, Josep

    2015-05-01

    It is known that cells respond strongly to microtopography. However, cellular mechanisms of response are unclear. Here, we study wild-type fibroblasts responding to 25 µm(2) posts and compare their response to that of FAK(-/-) fibroblasts and fibroblasts with PMA treatment to stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) and the small g-protein Rac. FAK knockout cells modulated adhesion number and size in a similar way to cells on topography; that is, they used more, smaller adhesions, but migration was almost completely stalled demonstrating the importance of FAK signaling in contact guidance and adhesion turnover. Little similarity, however, was observed to PKC stimulated cells and cells on the topography. Interestingly, with PKC stimulation the cell nuclei became highly deformable bringing focus on these surfaces to the study of metastasis. Surfaces that aid the study of cellular migration are important in developing understanding of mechanisms of wound healing and repair in aligned tissues such as ligament and tendon. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transcription Machinery: Ready To Respond to Host Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentie, Kelly; Garner, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    Regulating responses to stress is critical for all bacteria, whether they are environmental, commensal, or pathogenic species. For pathogenic bacteria, successful colonization and survival in the host are dependent on adaptation to diverse conditions imposed by the host tissue architecture and the immune response. Once the bacterium senses a hostile environment, it must enact a change in physiology that contributes to the organism's survival strategy. Inappropriate responses have consequences; hence, the execution of the appropriate response is essential for survival of the bacterium in its niche. Stress responses are most often regulated at the level of gene expression and, more specifically, transcription. This minireview focuses on mechanisms of regulating transcription initiation that are required by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to respond to the arsenal of defenses imposed by the host during infection. In particular, we highlight how certain features of M. tuberculosis physiology allow this pathogen to respond swiftly and effectively to host defenses. By enacting highly integrated and coordinated gene expression changes in response to stress, M. tuberculosis is prepared for battle against the host defense and able to persist within the human population. PMID:26883824

  2. Enabling complex genetic circuits to respond to extrinsic environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Shopera, Tatenda; Hinman, Kristina; Creamer, John Philip; Moon, Tae Seok

    2017-07-01

    Genetic circuits have the potential to improve a broad range of metabolic engineering processes and address a variety of medical and environmental challenges. However, in order to engineer genetic circuits that can meet the needs of these real-world applications, genetic sensors that respond to relevant extrinsic and intrinsic signals must be implemented in complex genetic circuits. In this work, we construct the first AND and NAND gates that respond to temperature and pH, two signals that have relevance in a variety of real-world applications. A previously identified pH-responsive promoter and a temperature-responsive promoter were extracted from the E. coli genome, characterized, and modified to suit the needs of the genetic circuits. These promoters were combined with components of the type III secretion system in Salmonella typhimurium and used to construct a set of AND gates with up to 23-fold change. Next, an antisense RNA was integrated into the circuit architecture to invert the logic of the AND gate and generate a set of NAND gates with up to 1168-fold change. These circuits provide the first demonstration of complex pH- and temperature-responsive genetic circuits, and lay the groundwork for the use of similar circuits in real-world applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1626-1631. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hazardous materials responder training in the new millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Betsinger, G.B. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States). Environmental Response Team; Merchant, S. [Environmental Tectonics Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Environmental Response Team (ERT) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was created to provide on-site professional expertise as well as health and safety guidance to Federal on-scene coordinators during accidental oil and chemical releases. ERT provides practical technical solutions to response activities based on theory as well as actual experience. Its creation in 1978 fulfilled the requirements of the U.S. National Contingency Plan. Members of the team have developed a 40-hour Hazardous Waste Responders training course and have themselves, attended a hands-on chemical and biological warfare personnel protective clothing course provided by the U.S. Army. The course demonstrated decontamination showers, moon suits, and entry procedures to a contaminated battlefield situation. ERT continues to emphasize the importance of hands-on training and exercises. Various training programs are underway where students can learn real-time monitoring techniques and respond to simulated hazardous waste incidents. They also learn how to assess environmental, public and occupational health and safety information on the Internet. The students also run air plume models and perform wet bench chemistry experiments. With the advent of more powerful computers, the current objective is to continue with these training activities using Instructor Controlled Interactive Computer Training (ICICT).

  4. LH Pretreatment as a Novel Strategy for Poor Responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pia Ferraretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor response to ovarian stimulation is still a major problem in IVF. The study presents a new stimulation protocol evaluated in a suppopulation of very difficult young poor ovarian responders. Material and Methods. The study consists in two sections. The first includes data from a randomized controlled study involving forty-three young patients with a poor ovarian response in at least two previous cycles (intended as cycle cancellation or with ≤3 collected oocytes. Patients were randomized in two groups: group A (control received FSH (400 IU/day, while group B received the new stimulation protocol consisting in a sequential association of 150 IU r-LH for 4 days followed by 400 IU r-FSH/after downregulation with daily GnRh agonist. The second includes data from the overall results in 65 patients treated with the new protocol compared to their previous performance with conventional cycles (historical control. Results. Both in the RCT and in the historical control study, LH pretreatment was able to decrease the cancellation rate, to improve the in vitro performance, and to significantly increase the live birth rates. Conclusions. LH pretreatment improved oocyte quantity and quality in young repeated poor responders selected in accordance with the Bologna criteria.

  5. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  6. Effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on Pavlovian conditioning and responding for conditioned reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Rayane I; Maddux, Jean-Marie N; Beharry, Priscilla F; Iannuzzi, Jessica; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    An appetitive Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can predict an unconditioned stimulus (US) and acquire incentive salience. We tested the hypothesis that US intensity and motivational state of the subject would influence Pavlovian learning and impact the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. To this end, we examined the effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning and responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Male Long-Evans rats (Harlan; 220-240 g) receiving 3% (3S) or 20% (20S) sucrose were either non-water deprived or given water for 1 hr per day. During Pavlovian conditioning sessions, half the rats in each concentration and deprivation condition received a 10-s CS paired with 0.2 ml of sucrose (16 trials/session; 3.2 ml/session). The remainder received unpaired CS and US presentations. Entries into a port where sucrose was delivered were recorded. Next, responding for conditioned reinforcement was tested, wherein pressing an active lever produced the CS and pressing an inactive lever had no consequences. CS-elicited port entries increased, and latency to the first CS-elicited port entry decreased across sessions in paired groups. Water deprivation augmented these effects, whereas sucrose concentration had no significant impact on behavior. Responding for conditioned reinforcement was observed in the 20S water-deprived, paired group. Thus, water deprivation can facilitate the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning, potentially by enhancing motivational state, and a high-intensity US and a high motivational state can interact to heighten the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Empirical Tryout of a New Statistic for Detecting Temporally Inconsistent Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    Statistical screening of self-report data is often advised to support the quality of analyzed responses - For example, reduction of insufficient effort responding (IER). One recently introduced index based on Mahalanobis's D for detecting outliers in cross-sectional designs replaces centered scores with difference scores between repeated-measure items: Termed person temporal consistency ( D 2 ptc ). Although the adapted D 2 ptc index demonstrated usefulness in simulation datasets, it has not been applied to empirical data. The current study addresses D 2 ptc 's low uptake by critically appraising its performance across three empirical applications. Independent samples were selected to represent a range of scenarios commonly encountered by organizational researchers. First, in Sample 1, a repeat-measure of future time perspective (FTP) inexperienced working adults (age >40-years; n = 620) indicated that temporal inconsistency was significantly related to respondent age and item reverse-scoring. Second, in repeat-measure of team efficacy aggregations, D 2 ptc successfully detected team-level inconsistency across repeat-performance cycles. Thirdly, the usefulness of the D 2 ptc was examined in an experimental study dataset of subjective life expectancy indicated significantly more stable responding in experimental conditions compared to controls. The empirical findings support D 2 ptc 's flexible and useful application to distinct study designs. Discussion centers on current limitations and further extensions that may be of value to psychologists screening self-report data for strengthening response quality and meaningfulness of inferences from repeated-measures self-reports. Taken together, the findings support the usefulness of the newly devised statistic for detecting IER and other extreme response patterns.

  8. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  9. Occupation as a factor of personality subjective wellbeing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetyan L.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines personality subjective well-being and describes its psychological structure, general components and characteristics. An overview of foreign theories and studies on subjective well-being is presented. Correlations among related concepts such as happiness, life satisfaction and subjective well-being are also described. Subjective well-being is seen as a multivariate construction of a stable nature in mobile equilibrium. It is argued that a type of professional activity can have great importance and a positive impact on an individual’s social life, health, identity shaping and psychological wellness. This article’s findings are substantiated by the survey administered to 2229 respondents divided into groups according to their area of business: students, psychologists, doctors, teachers, engineering and technical staff, representatives of service industries, workers, military men, and prisoners. The descriptors identified two types of natures: positive, directed to a person’s inner world (happy, lucky, optimistic and to the outer world (trustworthy, competent, successful, and negative (pessimistic, unhappy, envious. This division of nature type was categorized according to the participants’ subjective well-being index. Empirical evidence has shown that occupational specificity influences a person’s subjective well-being. A substantial difference was found in subjective well-being index of the respondents. A higher index is typical of students and military men. Educators and industrial intelligentsia also demonstrate an increased level of subjective well-being, whereas prisoners tend to have a low level of subjective well-being. The same low index is characteristic of servicing trade representatives and psychologists.

  10. Pregabalin in fibromyalgia - responder analysis from individual patient data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paine Jocelyn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population mean changes are difficult to use in clinical practice. Responder analysis may be better, but needs validating for level of response and treatment duration. A consensus group has defined what constitutes minimal, moderate, and substantial benefit based on pain intensity and Patient Global Impression of Change scores. Methods We obtained individual patient data from four randomised double blind trials of pregabalin in fibromyalgia lasting eight to 14 weeks. We calculated response for all efficacy outcomes using any improvement (≥ 0%, minimal improvement (≥ 15%, moderate improvement (≥ 30%, substantial improvement (≥ 50%, and extensive improvement (≥ 70%, with numbers needed to treat (NNT for pregabalin 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg daily compared with placebo. Results Information from 2,757 patients was available. Pain intensity and sleep interference showed reductions with increasing level of response, a significant difference between pregabalin and placebo, and a trend towards lower (better NNTs at higher doses. Maximum response rates occurred at 4-6 weeks for higher levels of response, and were constant thereafter. NNTs (with 95% confidence intervals for ≥ 50% improvement in pain intensity compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 22 (11 to 870 for pregabalin 300 mg, 16 (9.3 to 59 for pregabalin 450 mg, and 13 (8.1 to 31 for pregabalin 600 mg daily. NNTs for ≥ 50% improvement in sleep interference compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 13 (8.2 to 30 for pregabalin 300 mg, 8.4 (6.0 to 14 for pregabalin 450 mg, and 8.4 (6.1 to 14 for pregabalin 600 mg. Other outcomes had fewer respondents at higher response levels, but generally did not discriminate between pregabalin and placebo, or show any dose response. Shorter duration and use of 'any improvement' over-estimated treatment effect compared with longer duration and higher levels of response. Conclusions Responder analysis is useful in fibromyalgia

  11. Plasma cytokine profiles in depressed patients who fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients with depression fail to respond to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Few studies have attempted to define these patients from a biological perspective. Studies suggest that overall patients with depression show increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in patients who were SSRI resistant. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha and sIL-6R were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in DSM-1V major depressives who were SSRI resistant, in formerly SSRI resistant patients currently euthymic and in healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with SSRI-resistant depression had significantly higher production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (p=0.01) and TNF-alpha (p=0.004) compared to normal controls. Euthymic patients who were formerly SSRI resistant had proinflammatory cytokine levels which were similar to the healthy subject group. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels did not differ across the 3 groups. CONCLUSION: Suppression of proinflammatory cytokines does not occur in depressed patients who fail to respond to SSRIs and is necessary for clinical recovery.

  12. Ultrasound based evaluation of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in hepatitis c non-responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, S.; Aziz, S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis and grading of steatosis and fibrosis in Hepatitis C (HCV) patients not responding to ribavarin-interferon therapy. Study Design: A cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from March 2008 to August 2010. Methodology: Patients with positive HCV RNA despite 24 weeks ribavarin-interferon therapy (non-responders) were subjected to ultrasound and biopsy prior to institution of pegylated interferon therapy for detection and grading of steatosis and fibrosis. Using histopathology as the gold standard, sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values for ultrasound were determined. Results: The sensitivity of ultrasound for hepatic steatosis was 90.9% for no steatosis (NS), 100% for moderate and gross steatosis and 84.4% for mild steatosis with 100% specificity. The senitivity for fibrosis was 25% for no fibrosis, 100% for mild fibrosis, 89.74% for moderate fibrosis and 100% for gross fibrosis. The overall accuracy for detection of steatosis was 95.39% and that for fibrosis was 98.02%. Hepatic vein showed increased dampening of flow with advancing grades of steatosis and fibrosis. Conclusion: Ultrasound has a high accuracy in the diagnosis and grading of steatosis and fibrosis in HCV nonresponders. Mild fibrosis may confound the diagnosis of mild steatosis. (author)

  13. RESPONDING AND ANALYSING: STAGES OF TEACHING FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR IN INDONESIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Bumela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper offers an alternative to the teaching of a functional grammar course in Indonesian TEFL tertiary level context. An issue raised here is whether the course should directly require students to undertake textual analysis or provide them first with subjective reading experiences.  This issue is inspired by Jones and Lock¹s approach to teaching grammar in context (2011. This paper reports on a study that focused on two related phases of dealing with texts: responding and analyzing.  In the first phase, students were encouraged to take a personalised approach in responding to written English texts.  They had the freedom to decide whether the texts were meaningful for them in certain ways. Mckee (2003 and Lehtonen (2000 posit that as the sole decision maker in meaning negotiation, readers perceive the meaningfulness of texts in very diverse ways. In the second phase of the study, the students undertook an individual analysis of different text types.  This study reveals that a successful textual analysis is determined by how students make sense of the texts. The analysis of context of situation, for example, becomes meaningful to students after they demonstrate a proper position as a reader.  This, in turn, helps them in gaining insights into the structure and grammar of those texts.   Keywords: systemic functional linguistics, genre-based approach, textual analysis

  14. Commentary: Considering Assumptions in Associations Between Music Preferences and Empathy-Related Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A O'Neill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary considers some of the assumptions underpinning the study by Clark and Giacomantonio (2015. Their exploratory study examined relationships between young people's music preferences and their cognitive and affective empathy-related responses. First, the prescriptive assumption that music preferences can be measured according to how often an individual listens to a particular music genre is considered within axiology or value theory as a multidimensional construct (general, specific, and functional values. This is followed by a consideration of the causal assumption that if we increase young people's empathy through exposure to prosocial song lyrics this will increase their prosocial behavior. It is suggested that the predictive power of musical preferences on empathy-related responding might benefit from a consideration of the larger pattern of psychological and subjective wellbeing within the context of developmental regulation across ontogeny that involves mutually influential individual—context relations.

  15. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  16. Geriatric Respondents and Non-Respondents To Probiotic Intervention Can Be Differentiated By Inherent Gut Microbiome Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja eSenan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Probiotic interventions are known to have been shown to influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota in geriatrics. The growing concern is the apparent variation in response to identical strain dosage among human volunteers. One factor that governs this variation is the host gut microbiome. In this study, we attempted to define a core gut metagenome which could act as a predisposition signature marker of inherent bacterial community that can help predict the success of a probiotic intervention. Methods and Results: To characterize the geriatric gut microbiome we designed primers targeting the 16S rRNA hypervariable region V2-V3 followed by semiconductor sequencing using Ion Torrent PGM. Among respondents and non- respondents the chief genera of phylum Firmicutes that showed significant differences are Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Eubacterium, and Blautia (q< 0.002 while in the genera of phylum Proteobacteria included Shigella, Escherichia, Burkholderia and Camphylobacter (q <0.002. Conclusion: We have identified potential microbial biomarkers and taxonomic patterns that correlate with a positive response to probiotic intervention in geriatric volunteers. Future work with larger cohorts of geriatrics with diverse dietary influences could reveal the potential of the signature patterns of microbiota for personalized nutrition.

  17. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  18. Visual input that matches the content of vist of visual working memory requires less (not faster) evidence sampling to reach conscious access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayet, S.; van Maanen, L.; Heilbron, M.; Paffen, C.L.E.; Van Der Stigchel, S.

    2016-01-01

    The content of visual working memory (VWM) affects the processing of concurrent visual input. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimuli are released from interocular suppression faster when they match rather than mismatch a color that is memorized for subsequent recall. In order to investigate

  19. Evolution and plasticity: Divergence of song discrimination is faster in birds with innate song than in song learners in Neotropical passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Montgomery, Graham A; Schluter, Dolph

    2017-09-01

    Plasticity is often thought to accelerate trait evolution and speciation. For example, plasticity in birdsong may partially explain why clades of song learners are more diverse than related clades with innate song. This "song learning" hypothesis predicts that (1) differences in song traits evolve faster in song learners, and (2) behavioral discrimination against allopatric song (a proxy for premating reproductive isolation) evolves faster in song learners. We tested these predictions by analyzing acoustic traits and conducting playback experiments in allopatric Central American sister pairs of song learning oscines (N = 42) and nonlearning suboscines (N = 27). We found that nonlearners evolved mean acoustic differences slightly faster than did leaners, and that the mean evolutionary rate of song discrimination was 4.3 times faster in nonlearners than in learners. These unexpected results may be a consequence of significantly greater variability in song traits in song learners (by 54-79%) that requires song-learning oscines to evolve greater absolute differences in song before achieving the same level of behavioral song discrimination as nonlearning suboscines. This points to "a downside of learning" for the evolution of species discrimination, and represents an important example of plasticity reducing the rate of evolution and diversification by increasing variability. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be antecedents for subject-oriented anaphors (e.g. Maling 1984) ... 1985), it is unclear what actually determines this binding behaviour, or why subjects should ..... contexts can be unified by the fact that both functionally determine their complements. ...... Binding theory, control and pro. ... San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 179 ...

  1. Capacity of old trees to respond to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan G; Buckley, Thomas N; Tissue, David T

    2008-11-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] has increased dramatically within the current life spans of long-lived trees and old forests. Consider that a 500-year-old tree in the early twenty-first century has spent 70% of its life growing under pre-industrial levels of [CO2], which were 30% lower than current levels. Here we address the question of whether old trees have already responded to the rapid rise in [CO2] occurring over the past 150 years. In spite of limited data, aging trees have been shown to possess a substantial capacity for increased net growth after a period of post-maturity growth decline. Observations of renewed growth and physiological function in old trees have, in some instances, coincided with Industrial Age increases in key environmental resources, including [CO2], suggesting the potential for continued growth in old trees as a function of continued global climate change.

  2. Responding to the refusal of care in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind; Davenport, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The emergency department (ED) serves as the primary gateway for acute care and the source of health care of last resort. Emergency physicians are commonly expected to rapidly assess and treat patients with a variety of life-threatening conditions. However, patients do refuse recommended therapy, even when the consequences are significant morbidity and even mortality. This raises the ethical dilemma of how emergency physicians and ED staff can rapidly determine whether patient refusal of treatment recommendations is based on intact decision-making capacity and how to respond in an appropriate manner when the declining of necessary care by the patient is lacking a basis in informed judgment. This article presents a case that illustrates the ethical tensions raised by the refusal of life-sustaining care in the ED and how such situations can be approached in an ethically appropriate manner.

  3. Facing Change in Southeastern North Carolina: How Do We Respond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Hossfeld

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Once referred to as the "vale of humility between two mountains of conceit," North Carolina has transformed itself from its humble origins to a progressive state embracing the new millennium. From the boom of the Research Triangle to the financial banking hub of Charlotte, the state stands out on many indicators of progress, prosperity and leadership. Yet the very problems that have plagued the state for centuries endure, and the residue of these is the very issue Southeastern North Carolinians must address. Persistent poverty, affordable housing, low incomes and enduring racial inequalities are the age-old problems plaguing our region. Coupled with remarkable population growth and a growing immigrant population, the face of Down East is changing – and how we respond is critical to our future. A number of suggestions on economic development for areas of poverty are suggested.

  4. Respondent-driven sampling as Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sharad; Salganik, Matthew J

    2009-07-30

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a recently introduced, and now widely used, technique for estimating disease prevalence in hidden populations. RDS data are collected through a snowball mechanism, in which current sample members recruit future sample members. In this paper we present RDS as Markov chain Monte Carlo importance sampling, and we examine the effects of community structure and the recruitment procedure on the variance of RDS estimates. Past work has assumed that the variance of RDS estimates is primarily affected by segregation between healthy and infected individuals. We examine an illustrative model to show that this is not necessarily the case, and that bottlenecks anywhere in the networks can substantially affect estimates. We also show that variance is inflated by a common design feature in which the sample members are encouraged to recruit multiple future sample members. The paper concludes with suggestions for implementing and evaluating RDS studies.

  5. Responding to emergencies: How organization and management make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlay, D.S.; Haber, S.B.; Luckas, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    There is an observable and definable process that occurs during the course of responding to an abnormal event at a nuclear power plant. Each of the elements that comprise that process involves collective action and consequently is influenced by the character and effectiveness of organizational and managerial arrangements. Factors which affect each element include overt ones like the allocation of authority and responsibility and the skill of personnel, as well as covert factors like the methods used to resolve uncertainty. The purpose of this research project is to examine the process of response that occurs to an abnormal event at a nuclear power plant and where possible to identify the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  6. Responding to emergencies: How organization and management make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlay, D.S.; Haber, S.B.; Luckas, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    There is an observable and definable process that occurs during the course of responding to an abnormal event at a nuclear power plant. Each of the elements that comprise that process involves collective action and consequently is influenced by the character and effectiveness of organizational and managerial arrangements. Factors which affect each element include overt ones like the allocation of authority and responsibility and the skill of personnel, as well as covert factors like the methods used to resolve uncertainty. The purpose of this research project is to examine the process of response that occurs to an abnormal event at a nuclear power plant and where possible to identify the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  7. How Biology Teachers Can Respond to Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Teachers of biology and related subjects are increasingly meeting objections from students and their parents to the teaching of evolution and the exclusion of what is called the theory of Intelligent Design. This paper attempts to draw together arguments and evidence which may be used by such teachers. Four lessons are drawn from the 1982…

  8. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  9. Freeze-all cycle for all normal responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the freeze-all strategy in subgroups of normal responders, to assess whether this strategy is beneficial regardless of ovarian response, and to evaluate the possibility of implementing an individualized embryo transfer (iET) based on ovarian response. This was an observational, cohort study performed in a private IVF center. A total of 938 IVF cycles were included in this study. The patients were submitted to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and a cleavage-stage day 3 embryo transfer. We performed a comparison of outcomes between the fresh embryo transfer (n = 523) and the freeze-all cycles (n = 415). The analysis was performed in two subgroups of patients based on the number of retrieved oocytes: Group 1 (4-9 oocytes) and Group 2 (10-15 oocytes). In Group 1 (4-9 retrieved oocytes), the implantation rates (IR) were 17.9 and 20.5% (P = 0.259) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively; the ongoing pregnancy rates (OPR) were 31 and 33% (P = 0.577) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively. In Group 2 (10-15 oocytes), the IR were 22.1 and 30.1% (P = 0.028) and the OPR were 34 and 47% (P = 0.021) in the fresh and freeze-all groups, respectively. Although the freeze-all policy may be related to better in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in normal responders, these potential advantages decrease with worsening ovarian response. Patients with poorer ovarian response do not benefit from the freeze-all strategy.

  10. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Internal and External Factors Shaping Educational Beliefs of High School Teachers of "Sacred" Subjects to Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluz, Shira; Rich, Yisrael

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated pedagogical beliefs of teachers of "sacred" school subjects, curricular topics that the school community deems culturally valued, unassailable and inviolate. Two hundred and fifty-five teachers of girls only who taught sacred or secular subjects in Jewish modern religious high schools responded to questionnaires focusing…

  12. The Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being among Black Americans: A Structural Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of data from 668 black adult respondents to the 1980 National Survey of Black Americans suggests that subjective well-being among black Americans is multidimensional. A three-factor model of subjective well-being encompassing strain (depressive symptoms), life satisfaction, and self-esteem was empirically supported and consistently…

  13. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if

  14. Subjective Fatigue in Children with Hearing Loss Assessed Using Self- and Parent-Proxy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Gustafson, Samantha J.; Lancaster, Hope; Cho, Sun-Joo; Camarata, Stephen; Bess, Fred H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purposes of this study were to examine the effects of hearing loss and respondent type (self- vs. parent-proxy report) on subjective fatigue in children. We also examined associations between child-specific factors and fatigue ratings. Method: Subjective fatigue was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory…

  15. The Ruins of Neo-Liberalism and the Construction of a New (Scientific) Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lather, Patti

    2012-01-01

    Given my long-time interests in neoliberalism and questions of subjectivity, I am pleased to respond to Jesse Bazzul's paper, "Neoliberal Ideology, global capitalism, and science education: Engaging the question of subjectivity." In what follows, I first summarize what I see as Bazzul's contributions to pushing science education in "post"…

  16. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  17. A case of radiation myelopathy responded to ACTH therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Toshiyuki; Kawanami, Sachiko; Nishimaru, Katsuya

    1981-01-01

    A patient with nasal reticulum-cell sarcoma received 60 Co irradiation in a total dose of 10,000 rad in 25 fractions and intracarotid arterial transfusion of 5-Fu 4,000 mg. The prognosis was favorable without subjective symptoms for about one year before disturbance in walking and abnormal sensation in legs occurred. Metastasis of tumor was ruled out, and diagnosis of acute radiculoneuritis was made for the reason that the region which exposed to irradiation coincided the level of neurological disturbances which rapidly advanced. This patient received ACTH therapy. Administration of dexamethasone in a dose of 4 mg per day relieved subjective pain and lowered the level of impaired sensation, and arrested progress of motor paralysis. However, the symptoms was exacerbated again after 2 weeks and the decrease of the dose caused an highered the level of impaired and resulted in motor paralysis. Total dose was 171 mg. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Identifying Armed Respondents to Domestic Violence Restraining Orders and Recovering Their Firearms: Process Evaluation of an Initiative in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Claire, Barbara E.; Vittes, Katherine A.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a law enforcement initiative to screen respondents to domestic violence restraining orders for firearm ownership or possession and recover their firearms. Methods. The initiative was implemented in San Mateo and Butte counties in California from 2007 through 2010. We used descriptive methods to evaluate the screening process and recovery effort in each county, relying on records for individual cases. Results. Screening relied on an archive of firearm transactions, court records, and petitioner interviews; no single source was adequate. Screening linked 525 respondents (17.7%) in San Mateo County to firearms; 405 firearms were recovered from 119 (22.7%) of them. In Butte County, 88 (31.1%) respondents were linked to firearms; 260 firearms were recovered from 45 (51.1%) of them. Nonrecovery occurred most often when orders were never served or respondents denied having firearms. There were no reports of serious violence or injury. Conclusions. Recovering firearms from persons subject to domestic violence restraining orders is possible. We have identified design and implementation changes that may improve the screening process and the yield from recovery efforts. Larger implementation trials are needed. PMID:24328660

  19. Academic Work—Faster, Higher, Further? On the (Missing Proportion of Work to Spare Time in the (Cultural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Dressel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We make the practices of the academic production of knowledge a subject of critical discussion by focusing on the world of academic work and the academics themselves. Based on interviews with academics in the field of cultural sciences we conclude that with regard to their daily routines, their annual schedules, and their life-courses the so-called private life (family life, leisure time etc. becomes dominated by the social and cultural logics of the working sphere. Although it might appear exaggerated, we will refer to the humanities as a "total institution" which entails social, physical, and mental costs for its "inmates" as well as for those who never managed to become "inmates" (in spite of their efforts and those who don’t belong to the institution any more. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801385

  20. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the only physiological variables that influence the heat balance [4]. Yao et al [2] .... between the human responses and outdoor climate. 4.1 Subjective Response ... months seem to be influenced by cloud cover rather than the altitude.

  1. Contextual Change After Fear Acquisition Affects Conditioned Responding and the Time Course of Extinction Learning-Implications for Renewal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjouwerman, Rachel; Niehaus, Johanna; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2015-01-01

    Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear) memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF) paradigms (in particular renewal), involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g., in ABC and ABA renewal). Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e., renewal). Thus, the possibility of a general effect of context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied. Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36) was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149), while measuring physiological (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle) measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e., contextual switch after extinction). Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects.

  2. Sharka: how do plants respond to Plum pox virus infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Moreno, María J; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, is one of the most studied plant viruses, and major advances in detection techniques, genome characterization and organization, gene expression, transmission, and the description of candidate genes involved in PPV resistance have been described. However, information concerning the plant response to PPV infection is very scarce. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the research carried out to date in order to elucidate how plants cope with PPV infection and their response at different levels, including the physiological, biochemical, proteomic, and genetic levels. Knowledge about how plants respond to PPV infection can contribute to the development of new strategies to cope with this disease. Due to the fact that PPV induces an oxidative stress in plants, the bio-fortification of the antioxidative defences, by classical or biotechnological approaches, would be a useful tool to cope with PPV infection. Nevertheless, there are still some gaps in knowledge related to PPV-plant interaction that remain to be filled, such as the effect of PPV on the hormonal profile of the plant or on the plant metabolome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes respond to Prey Animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Garland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available North Island robins of New Zealand are a food hoarding species, which is unique in that they almost exclusively cache highly perishable hunted insects for later retrieval. In order to do so, they either kill and dismember or paralyze their prey for caching, depending on the prey size and kind. The present study comprises two experiments, using a Violation of Expectancy (VoE paradigm to examine variation in search behavior response to different prey conditions. The first experiment presents three different types of prey (mealworms, earthworms and locusts in expected (present and unexpected (absent conditions. The second experiment presents prey in varying states of animacy (alive and whole, dead and whole, dead and halved, and an inanimate stick and reveals prey in expected (same state or unexpected (differing state conditions. While robins did not respond with differential search times to different types of unexpectedly missing prey in Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 robins searched longer in conditions where prey was found in a differing state of animacy than initially shown. Robins also searched longer for prey when immediately consuming retrieved prey than when caching retrieved prey. Results indicate that North Island robins may be sensitive to prey animacy upon storage and retrieval of insect prey; such information could play a role in storage, pilfering and retrieval strategies of such a perishable food source.

  4. PERIPHERAL SENSORY NEURONS EXPRESSING MELANOPSIN RESPOND TO LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matynia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior.

  5. Signal Network Analysis of Plant Genes Responding to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jinbaek; Kim, Sang Hoon

    2012-12-01

    In this project, we irradiated Arabidopsis plants with various doses of gamma-rays at the vegetative and reproductive stages to assess their radiation sensitivity. After the gene expression profiles and an analysis of the antioxidant response, we selected several Arabidopsis genes for uses of 'Radio marker genes (RMG)' and conducted over-expression and knock-down experiments to confirm the radio sensitivity. Based on these results, we applied two patents for the detection of two RMG (At3g28210 and At4g37990) and development of transgenic plants. Also, we developed a Genechip for use of high-throughput screening of Arabidopsis genes responding only to ionizing radiation and identified RMG to detect radiation leaks. Based on these results, we applied two patents associated with the use of Genechip for different types of radiation and different growth stages. Also, we conducted co-expression network study of specific expressed probes against gamma-ray stress and identified expressed patterns of duplicated genes formed by whole/500kb segmental genome duplication

  6. Homicides of law enforcement officers responding to domestic disturbance calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercher, Cassandra; Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Webster, Daniel W

    2013-10-01

    To describe the law enforcement officer (LEO), encounter, perpetrator and victim characteristics of domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides in the USA from 1996 to 2010. Narrative text analysis was conducted on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's annual report 'Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted'. Potential cases were confirmed if the narrative included the term 'domestic disturbance' or a domestic disturbance situation was described. 116 LEOs were killed while responding to domestic disturbance calls. Ninety-five per cent of these homicides were committed with a firearm. Sixty-seven per cent of LEOs were wearing body armour when killed; however, 52% received the fatal wound to the head/neck. Sixty-one per cent of suspects had a criminal history mentioned within the narratives and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) were more likely to be killed by LEOs than suspects involved in other forms of domestic violence. Victims of the domestic disturbance were killed in 21% of the IPV-related LEO homicide cases as opposed to only 5% of other domestic disturbance calls. A firearm was the most common weapon used in the murder of a domestic disturbance victim (86%). This study describes domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides. Future research in this area should further examine the dangers unique to domestic disturbance calls. A longitudinal analysis could provide greater understanding of the injury and mortality risks faced by LEOs, in order to inform homicide prevention among law enforcement.

  7. Sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Wicks, Brittany

    2017-01-02

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression share stress as an etiological contributor and are more common in women than in men. Traditionally, preclinical studies investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress vulnerability have used only male rodents; however, recent studies that include females are finding sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress. This Mini-Review examines recent literature using a framework developed by McCarthy and colleagues (2012; J Neurosci 32:2241-2247) that highlights different types of sex differences. First, we detail how learned fear responses in rats are sexually dimorphic. Then, we contrast this finding with fear extinction, which is similar in males and females at the behavioral level but at the circuitry level is associated with sex-specific cellular changes and, thus, exemplifies a sex convergence. Next, sex differences in stress hormones are detailed. Finally, the effects of stress on learning, attention, and arousal are used to highlight the concept of a sex divergence in which the behavior of males and females is similar at baseline but diverges following stressor exposure. We argue that appreciating and investigating the diversity of sex differences in stress response systems will improve our understanding of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related psychiatric disorders and likely lead to the development of novel therapeutics for better treatment of these disorders in both men and women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L

    2017-07-01

    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Are Children the Better Placebo Analgesia Responders? An Experimental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Nathalie; Fadai, Tahmine; Sprenger, Christian; Hebebrand, Johannes; Wiech, Katja; Bingel, Ulrike

    2015-10-01

    There is little information regarding changes in placebo responsiveness with age, although first predictors of placebo responders such as psychological and physiological processes have been identified. Reviews and meta-analyses indicate that placebo response rates in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are higher in children and adolescents compared with adults. As these studies cannot control for age-dependent differences in the natural course of the disease, biases might contribute to different placebo rates in RCTs. To avoid these biases, this study investigated age-related differences in placebo responsiveness between children and adults in a well-established experimental model of placebo analgesia combining classic conditioning and expectation. Our data confirm placebo analgesic responses in children, which did not differ in magnitude from those of adults. The influence of previous experience on subsequent treatment outcome was stronger in children than in adults, indicating an increased relevance of learning processes for treatment outcomes in children. Further studies are needed to understand the influence of treatment-related learning processes in children and adolescents, which might critically determine treatment responsiveness during adulthood. This study is the first to experimentally explore placebo analgesia and influences of previous experience on placebo responses in children compared with adults. We found comparable placebo responses in both groups and an increased relevance of learning processes for treatment outcomes in children. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Responding to emergencies: How organization and management make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlay, D.S.; Haber, S.B.; Luckas, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    There is an observable and definable process that occurs during the course of responding to an abnormal event at a nuclear power plant (NPP). Each of the elements that comprise that process involves collective action and, consequently, is influenced by the character and effectiveness of organizational and managerial arrangements. Factors which affect each element include overt ones like the allocation of authority and responsibility and the skill of the personnel, as well as covert factors like the methods used to resolve uncertainty. The purpose of this research project is to examine the process of response that occurs to an abnormal event at a NPP and where possible, to identify the organizational and managerial factors that influence that process. The first task in this project involved the review and analysis of an extensive volume of documentation, primarily Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) documents. Based on the documentation reviewed during the first task of this project, it is possible to specify an observable and definable process for response to accident and emergency situations in a NPP. The process can be described by eight major elements; the initiating transient, information about plant behavior, diagnosing the problem, availability of emergency procedures, adequacy of emergency procedures, implementing emergency procedures, developing an ad hoc response evaluating an ad hoc response and implementing an ad hoc response. Importantly, the process to be described is an iterative one. Procedures and improvised responses are executed sequentially and the results of action are assessed and additional steps are taken if necessary

  11. The Hv1 proton channel responds to mechanical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Medha M; Tran, Truc; Hong, Liang; Joós, Béla; Morris, Catherine E; Tombola, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is expressed in tissues throughout the body and plays important roles in pH homeostasis and regulation of NADPH oxidase. Hv1 operates in membrane compartments that experience strong mechanical forces under physiological or pathological conditions. In microglia, for example, Hv1 activity is potentiated by cell swelling and causes an increase in brain damage after stroke. The channel complex consists of two proton-permeable voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) linked by a cytoplasmic coiled-coil domain. Here, we report that these VSDs directly respond to mechanical stimuli. We find that membrane stretch facilitates Hv1 channel opening by increasing the rate of activation and shifting the steady-state activation curve to less depolarized potentials. In the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient, membrane stretch alone opens the channel without the need for strong depolarizations. The effect of membrane stretch persists for several minutes after the mechanical stimulus is turned off, suggesting that the channel switches to a "facilitated" mode in which opening occurs more readily and then slowly reverts to the normal mode observed in the absence of membrane stretch. Conductance simulations with a six-state model recapitulate all the features of the channel's response to mechanical stimulation. Hv1 mechanosensitivity thus provides a mechanistic link between channel activation in microglia and brain damage after stroke. © 2016 Pathak et al.

  12. Obscure bleeding colonic duplication responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Jérémie; Projetti, Fabrice; Legros, Romain; Valgueblasse, Virginie; Sarabi, Matthieu; Carrier, Paul; Fredon, Fabien; Bouvier, Stéphane; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Sautereau, Denis

    2013-09-21

    We report the case of a 17-year-old male admitted to our academic hospital with massive rectal bleeding. Since childhood he had reported recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and had two exploratory laparotomies 5 and 2 years previously. An emergency abdominal computed tomography scan, gastroscopy and colonoscopy, performed after hemodynamic stabilization, were considered normal. High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was initiated and bleeding stopped spontaneously. Two other massive rectal bleeds occurred 8 h after each cessation of PPI which led to a hemostatic laparotomy after negative gastroscopy and small bowel capsule endoscopy. This showed long tubular duplication of the right colon, with fresh blood in the duplicated colon. Obscure lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a difficult medical situation and potentially life-threatening. The presence of ulcerated ectopic gastric mucosa in the colonic duplication explains the partial efficacy of PPI therapy. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding responding to empiric anti-acid therapy should probably evoke the diagnosis of bleeding ectopic gastric mucosa such as Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication, and gastroenterologists should be aware of this potential medical situation.

  13. Chemical spill responder's use of website data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpin, R.; Betsinger, G.

    2001-01-01

    The Emergency Response Team (ERT) of the US Environmental Protection Agency provides technical assistance to state and local government agencies. It has also provided hazardous waste and emergency response assistance to countries in North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. In order to address the increased level of involvement in multi-governmental response activities and counter terrorist incidents, ERT has developed a responder's technical assistance website. The site contains 6 links that can be divided into the following three information support areas: (1) generation information about ERT, (2) a response resources site which provides information regarding air sampling, monitoring plans, phytoremediation, and information related to oil spill incidents where physical and chemical properties of specific petroleum products are needed. The health and safety section of this site links to the Environment Canada Emergencies Science Division (ESD) website. The ESD site has a document entitled Properties of Crude Oils and Oil Products which provides information on Louisiana crude. This site also provides links to all Federal agency websites that have hazardous waste operations and emergency response requirements or guidelines, and (3) the Weather Information Program (WIP) and Response Operation and Validation Retriever (ROVR) service which provides interactive response pages for Federal on-scene coordinators, remedial project managers and the general public. This paper also described the next generation of ROVR and WIP interactive function involving real-time on-site air plume modeling

  14. Development of an IgG4-RD Responder Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie N. Carruthers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a multiorgan inflammatory disease in which diverse organ manifestations are linked by common histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Prospective studies of IgG4-RD patients are required to clarify the natural history, long-term prognosis, and treatment approaches in this recently recognized condition. Patients with IgG4-RD have different organ manifestations and are followed by multiple specialties. Divergent approaches to the assessment of patients can complicate the interpretation of studies, emphasizing the critical need for validated outcome measures, particularly assessments of disease activity and response to treatment. We developed a prototype IgG4-RD Responder Index (IgG4-RD RI based on the approach used in the development of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG. The IgG4-RD RI was refined by members of the International IgG4-RD Symposium Organizing Committee in a paper case exercise. The revised instrument was applied retrospectively to fifteen IgG4-RD patients at our institution. Those scores were compared to physician’s global assessment scale for the same visits. This paper describes the philosophy and goals of the IgG4-RD RI, the steps in the development of this instrument to date, and future plans for validation of this instrument as an outcome measure.

  15. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdery, Ashton M; Mouw, Ted; Bauldry, Shawn; Mucha, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM) with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network.

  16. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  17. Identification of Homophily and Preferential Recruitment in Respondent-Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Forrest W; Aronow, Peter M; Zeng, Li; Li, Jianghong

    2018-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a link-tracing procedure used in epidemiologic research on hidden or hard-to-reach populations in which subjects recruit others via their social networks. Estimates from RDS studies may have poor statistical properties due to statistical dependence in sampled subjects' traits. Two distinct mechanisms account for dependence in an RDS study: homophily, the tendency for individuals to share social ties with others exhibiting similar characteristics, and preferential recruitment, in which recruiters do not recruit uniformly at random from their network alters. The different effects of network homophily and preferential recruitment in RDS studies have been a source of confusion and controversy in methodological and empirical research in epidemiology. In this work, we gave formal definitions of homophily and preferential recruitment and showed that neither is identified in typical RDS studies. We derived nonparametric identification regions for homophily and preferential recruitment and showed that these parameters were not identified unless the network took a degenerate form. The results indicated that claims of homophily or recruitment bias measured from empirical RDS studies may not be credible. We applied our identification results to a study involving both a network census and RDS on a population of injection drug users in Hartford, Connecticut (2012-2013). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chapter 5. The contradictions of self-enterprising migrant worker subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Tinajero, Sandra Paola

    2014-01-01

    Migrant agricultural and care workers share similar conditions of work and social positions in the receiving labor market. The construction of their shared condition as low-wage laborers involves parallel processes of subject formation (or subjectification) and identity construction. The study of migration as a process of subject formation is not new. Here it serves to articulate the subject level of analysis to respond to the question about what the parallel experiences of migrant farm and c...

  19. Evolutionarily distant streptophyta respond differently to genotoxic stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vágnerová, Radka; Lukešová, Alena; Lukeš, Martin; Rožnovská, Petra; Holá, Marcela; Fulnečková, Jana; Fajkus, J.; Angelis, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 331. ISSN 2073-4425 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-01137S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA MŠk LTC17047 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : Bleomycin * DNA damage and repair * Klebsormidium * Methyl methanesulfonate * Physcomitrella patens * Ultraviolet light * Zygnema Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.600, year: 2016

  20. Sex differences in cognitive functioning in at-risk mental state for psychosis, first episode psychosis and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittig, S; Studerus, E; Papmeyer, M; Uttinger, M; Koranyi, S; Ramyead, A; Riecher-Rössler, A

    2015-02-01

    Several sex differences in schizophrenia have been reported including differences in cognitive functioning. Studies with schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (HC) indicate that the sex advantage for women in verbal domains is also present in schizophrenia patients. However, findings have been inconsistent. No study focused on sex-related cognitive performance differences in at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) individuals yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in cognitive functioning in ARMS, first episode psychosis (FEP) and HC subjects. We expected a better verbal learning and memory performance of women in all groups. The neuropsychological data analysed in this study were collected within the prospective Früherkennung von Psychosen (FePsy) study. In total, 118 ARMS, 88 FEP individuals and 86 HC completed a cognitive test battery covering the domains of executive functions, attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, IQ and speed of processing. Women performed better in verbal learning and memory regardless of diagnostic group. By contrast, men as compared to women showed a shorter reaction time during the working memory task across all groups. The results provide evidence that women generally perform better in verbal learning and memory, independent of diagnostic group (ARMS, FEP, HC). The finding of a shorter reaction time for men in the working memory task could indicate that men have a superior working memory performance since they responded faster during the target trials, while maintaining a comparable overall working memory performance level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Probabilistic information transmission in a network of coupled oscillators reveals speed-accuracy trade-off in responding to threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicoli, Amanda; Paley, Derek A.

    2016-11-01

    Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity. We find that when perfectly aligned individuals in a group are startled, there is a rapid escape by individuals that directly detect the threat, as well as by individuals responding to their neighbors. However, individuals that are not startled do not head away from the threat. In startled groups that are randomly oriented, there is a rapid, accurate response by individuals that directly detect the threat, followed by less accurate responses by individuals responding to neighbor cues. Over the simulation duration, however, even unstartled individuals head away from the threat. This study illustrates a potential speed-accuracy trade-off in the startle response of animal groups, in agreement with several previous experimental studies. Additionally, the model can be applied to a variety of group decision-making processes, including those involving higher-dimensional motion.

  2. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  3. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...

  4. Higher Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Associate with a Faster Recovery of Skeletal Muscle Strength after Muscular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindell K. Weaver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations predict muscular weakness after intense exercise. We hypothesized that pre-exercise serum 25(OHD concentrations inversely predict exercise-induced muscular weakness. Fourteen recreationally active adults participated in this study. Each subject had one leg randomly assigned as a control. The other leg performed an intense exercise protocol. Single-leg peak isometric force and blood 25(OHD, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin-4 were measured prior to and following intense exercise. Following exercise, serum 25(OHD concentrations increased (p < 0.05 immediately, but within minutes, subsequently decreased (p < 0.05. Circulating albumin increases predicted (p < 0.005 serum 25(OHD increases, while IFN-γ increases predicted (p < 0.001 serum 25(OHD decreases. Muscular weakness persisted within the exercise leg (p < 0.05 and compared to the control leg (p < 0.05 after the exercise protocol. Serum 25(OHD concentrations inversely predicted (p < 0.05 muscular weakness (i.e., control leg vs. exercise leg peak isometric force immediately and days (i.e., 48-h and 72-h after exercise, suggesting the attenuation of exercise-induced muscular weakness with increasing serum 25(OHD prior to exercise. Based on these data, we conclude that pre-exercise serum 25(OHD concentrations could influence the recovery of skeletal muscle strength after an acute bout of intense exercise.

  5. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  6. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  7. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  8. Different gene-specific mechanisms determine the 'revised-response' memory transcription patterns of a subset of A. thaliana dehydration stress responding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Ding, Yong; Fromm, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    2014-05-01

    Plants that have experienced several exposures to dehydration stress show increased resistance to future exposures by producing faster and/or stronger reactions, while many dehydration stress responding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana super-induce their transcription as a 'memory' from the previous encounter. A previously unknown, rather unusual, memory response pattern is displayed by a subset of the dehydration stress response genes. Despite robustly responding to a first stress, these genes return to their initial, pre-stressed, transcript levels during the watered recovery; surprisingly, they do not respond further to subsequent stresses of similar magnitude and duration. This transcriptional behavior defines the 'revised-response' memory genes. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating this transcription memory behavior. Potential roles of abscisic acid (ABA), of transcription factors (TFs) from the ABA signaling pathways (ABF2/3/4 and MYC2), and of histone modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) as factors in the revised-response transcription memory patterns are elucidated. We identify the TF MYC2 as the critical component for the memory behavior of a specific subset of MYC2-dependent genes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Ecosecent:: Essence, Subject and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachenko Hanna V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that due to multi-laterality the knowledge about security is distributed by various branches, one of which is ecosestate, within which conditions of secure functioning of socio-economic systems and methods of their provision are studied. It shows the essence of ecosecent as a component of the “state – region (branch – subject of economic activity” ecosestate vertical – a set of knowledge about economic security of subjects of economic activity. It considers reasons that cause establishment of ecosecent: practical needs and a necessity to reconsider basic concepts of the essence, limits and factors of economy. It formulates the subject of ecosecent. It considers the status of the “economic security of the subject of economic activity” notion as its state, described with a set of parameters or characteristic features as characteristics of the subject of economic activity as a condition of its activity and as a set of actions that allow ensuring or preservation of the state of security, in other words, protection of the subject of economic activity. It presents general approaches to structuring of ecosecent by activity, functional and branch features.

  10. Experiments of the EPR-type involving CP-violation do not allow faster-than-light communication between distant observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.; Weber, T.; Rimini, A.

    1987-11-01

    The proof that faster-than-light communication is not permitted by quantum mechanics derived some years ago by three of us, is extended to cover the case of measurements which do not fit within the standard scheme based on sets of orthogonal projections. A detailed discussion of a recent proposal of superluminal transmission making resort to a CP-violating interaction is presented. It is shown that such a proposal cannot work. (author). 8 refs

  11. Having your cake and eating it - Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants can evolve faster growth rate without losing their antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Brandis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus can produce small colony variants (SCVs during infections. These cause significant clinical problems because they are difficult to detect in standard microbiological screening and are associated with persistent infections. The major causes of the SCV phenotype are mutations that inhibit respiration by inactivation of genes of the menadione or hemin biosynthesis pathways. This reduces the production of ATP required to support fast growth. Importantly, it also decreases cross-membrane potential in SCVs, resulting in decreased uptake of cationic compounds, with reduced susceptibility to aminoglycoside antibiotics as a consequence. Because SCVs are slow-growing (mutations in men genes are associated with growth rates in rich medium ~30% of the wild-type growth rate bacterial cultures are very susceptible to rapid takeover by faster-growing mutants (revertants or suppressors. In the case of reversion, the resulting fast growth is obviously associated with the loss of antibiotic resistance. However, direct reversion is relatively rare due to the very small genetic target size for such mutations. We explored the phenotypic consequences of SCVs evolving faster growth by routes other than direct reversion, and in particular whether any of those routes allowed for the maintenance of antibiotic resistance. In a recent paper (mBio 8: e00358-17 we demonstrated the existence of several different routes of SCV evolution to faster growth, one of which maintained the antibiotic resistance phenotype. This discovery suggests that SCVs might be more adaptable and problematic that previously thought. They are capable of surviving as a slow-growing persistent form, before evolving into a significantly faster-growing form without sacrificing their antibiotic resistance phenotype.

  12. Information needs at the beginning of foraging: grass-cutting ants trade off load size for a faster return to the nest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bollazzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of information about food sources is essential for animals that forage collectively like social insects. Foragers deliver two commodities to the nest, food and information, and they may favor the delivery of one at the expenses of the other. We predict that information needs should be particularly high at the beginning of foraging: the decision to return faster to the nest will motivate a grass-cutting ant worker to reduce its loading time, and so to leave the source with a partial load.Field results showed that at the initial foraging phase, most grass-cutting ant foragers (Acromyrmex heyeri returned unladen to the nest, and experienced head-on encounters with outgoing workers. Ant encounters were not simply collisions in a probabilistic sense: outgoing workers contacted in average 70% of the returning foragers at the initial foraging phase, and only 20% at the established phase. At the initial foraging phase, workers cut fragments that were shorter, narrower, lighter and tenderer than those harvested at the established one. Foragers walked at the initial phase significantly faster than expected for the observed temperatures, yet not at the established phase. Moreover, when controlling for differences in the fragment-size carried, workers still walked faster at the initial phase. Despite the higher speed, their individual transport rate of vegetable tissue was lower than that of similarly-sized workers foraging later at the same patch.At the initial foraging phase, workers compromised their individual transport rates of material in order to return faster to the colony. We suggest that the observed flexible cutting rules and the selection of partial loads at the beginning of foraging are driven by the need of information transfer, crucial for the establishment and maintenance of a foraging process to monopolize a discovered resource.

  13. Context-aware event detection smartphone application for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Dave, Rakesh P.; McCartney, Matt; West, James A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-05-01

    The rise of social networking platforms like Twitter, Facebook, etc…, have provided seamless sharing of information (as chat, video and other media) among its user community on a global scale. Further, the proliferation of the smartphones and their connectivity networks has powered the ordinary individuals to share and acquire information regarding the events happening in his/her immediate vicinity in a real-time fashion. This human-centric sensed data being generated in "human-as-sensor" approach is tremendously valuable as it delivered mostly with apt annotations and ground truth that would be missing in traditional machine-centric sensors, besides high redundancy factor (same data thru multiple users). Further, when appropriately employed this real-time data can support in detecting localized events like fire, accidents, shooting, etc…, as they unfold and pin-point individuals being affected by those events. This spatiotemporal information, when made available for first responders in the event vicinity (or approaching it) can greatly assist them to make effective decisions to protect property and life in a timely fashion. In this vein, under SATE and YATE programs, the research team at AFRL Tec^Edge Discovery labs had demonstrated the feasibility of developing Smartphone applications, that can provide a augmented reality view of the appropriate detected events in a given geographical location (localized) and also provide an event search capability over a large geographic extent. In its current state, the application thru its backend connectivity utilizes a data (Text & Image) processing framework, which deals with data challenges like; identifying and aggregating important events, analyzing and correlating the events temporally and spatially and building a search enabled event database. Further, the smartphone application with its backend data processing workflow has been successfully field tested with live user generated feeds.

  14. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in [3H]TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves

  15. Insectivorous bats respond to vegetation complexity in urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Ille, Christina; Bruckner, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Structural complexity is known to determine habitat quality for insectivorous bats, but how bats respond to habitat complexity in highly modified areas such as urban green spaces has been little explored. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether a recently developed measure of structural complexity is as effective as field-based surveys when applied to urban environments. We assessed whether image-derived structural complexity (MIG) was as/more effective than field-based descriptors in this environment and evaluated the response of insectivorous bats to structural complexity in urban green spaces. Bat activity and species richness were assessed with ultrasonic devices at 180 locations within green spaces in Vienna, Austria. Vegetation complexity was assessed using 17 field-based descriptors and by calculating the mean information gain (MIG) using digital images. Total bat activity and species richness decreased with increasing structural complexity of canopy cover, suggesting maneuverability and echolocation (sensorial) challenges for bat species using the canopy for flight and foraging. The negative response of functional groups to increased complexity was stronger for open-space foragers than for edge-space foragers. Nyctalus noctula , a species foraging in open space, showed a negative response to structural complexity, whereas Pipistrellus pygmaeus , an edge-space forager, was positively influenced by the number of trees. Our results show that MIG is a useful, time- and cost-effective tool to measure habitat complexity that complemented field-based descriptors. Response of insectivorous bats to structural complexity was group- and species-specific, which highlights the need for manifold management strategies (e.g., increasing or reinstating the extent of ground vegetation cover) to fulfill different species' requirements and to conserve insectivorous bats in urban green spaces.

  16. Climate Local Information over the Mediterranean to Respond User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruti, P.

    2012-12-01

    CLIM-RUN aims at developing a protocol for applying new methodologies and improved modeling and downscaling tools for the provision of adequate climate information at regional to local scale that is relevant to and usable by different sectors of society (policymakers, industry, cities, etc.). Differently from current approaches, CLIM-RUN will develop a bottom-up protocol directly involving stakeholders early in the process with the aim of identifying well defined needs at the regional to local scale. The improved modeling and downscaling tools will then be used to optimally respond to these specific needs. The protocol is assessed by application to relevant case studies involving interdependent sectors, primarily tourism and energy, and natural hazards (wild fires) for representative target areas (mountainous regions, coastal areas, islands). The region of interest for the project is the Greater Mediterranean area, which is particularly important for two reasons. First, the Mediterranean is a recognized climate change hot-spot, i.e. a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming. Second, while a number of countries in Central and Northern Europe have already in place well developed climate service networks (e.g. the United Kingdom and Germany), no such network is available in the Mediterranean. CLIM-RUN is thus also intended to provide the seed for the formation of a Mediterranean basin-side climate service network which would eventually converge into a pan-European network. The general time horizon of interest for the project is the future period 2010-2050, a time horizon that encompasses the contributions of both inter-decadal variability and greenhouse-forced climate change. In particular, this time horizon places CLIM-RUN within the context of a new emerging area of research, that of decadal prediction, which will provide a strong potential for novel research.

  17. Socially desirable responding by bariatric surgery candidates during psychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, Suman; Boeka, Abbe G; Brown, Joshua D; Byrne, T Karl; Budak, Amanda R; Sarwer, David B; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Morey, Leslie C; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Most bariatric surgery programs in the United States require preoperative psychological evaluations for candidates for surgery. Among those who perform these evaluations is concern that many patients engage in "impression management" or minimizing the symptoms of distress to receive a recommendation to proceed with surgery from the mental health professional. We sought to assess the prevalence of socially desirable responding and its associations with measures of psychological functioning among bariatric surgery candidates at 2 academic medical centers in the United States. The participants were male (n = 66) and female (n = 293) bariatric surgery candidates who presented for psychological evaluation. The participants completed 2 measures of socially desirable response styles (Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale) and standardized measures of anxiety, depression, and alcohol-related problems. The participants exhibited elevated scores on the social desirability indicators, with 33.3-39.8% scoring above the recommended cut-score on the Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale and 62.3-67% scoring 1 standard deviation above the standardization mean on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale correlated inversely with the clinical measures of anxiety and depression, and the high/low scorers on the social desirability indices exhibited significant differences in anxiety and depression. Thus, elevated scores on the social desirability indices were associated with underreporting of certain clinical symptoms. A substantial proportion of bariatric surgery candidates appear to present themselves in an overly favorable light during the psychological evaluation. This response style is associated with less reporting of psychological

  18. Long distance migratory songbirds respond to extremes in arctic seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, N.; Asmus, A.; Chmura, H.; Krause, J.; Perez, J. H.; Sweet, S. K.; Gough, L.; Wingfield, J.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic regions are warming rapidly, with extreme weather events increasing in frequency, duration and intensity, as in other regions. Many studies have focused on how shifting seasonality in environmental conditions affect the phenology and productivity of vegetation, while far fewer have examined how arctic fauna responds. We studied two species of long-distance migratory songbirds, Lapland longspurs, Calcarius lapponicus, and White-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, across seven consecutive breeding seasons in northern Alaskan tundra. We aimed to understand how spring environmental conditions affected breeding cycle phenology, food availability, body condition, stress physiology, and ultimately, reproductive success. Spring temperatures, precipitation, storm frequency, and snow-free dates differed significantly among years, with 2013 characterized by unusually late snow cover, and 2015 and 2016 characterized by unusually early snow-free dates and several late spring snowstorms. In response, we found that relative to other study years, there was a significant delay in breeding cycle phenology for both study species in 2013, while breeding cycle phenology was significantly earlier in 2015 only. For both species, we also found significant variation among years in: the seasonal patterns of arthropod availability during the nesting stage; body condition, and; stress physiology. Finally, we found significant variation in reproductive success of both species across years, and that daily survival rates were decreased by snow storm events. Our findings suggest that arctic-breeding passerine communities may be able to adjust phenology to unpredictable shifts in the timing of spring, but extreme conditions during the incubation and nestling stages are detrimental to reproductive success.

  19. Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roel May; Jens Åström; Øyvind Hamre; Espen Lie Dahl

    2017-01-01

    Background: Concerns for bird collisions with wind turbines affect the deployment of onshore and offshore wind-power plants. To avoid delays in consenting processes and to streamline the construction and operation phase, func-tional mitigation measures are required which efficiently reduces bird mortality. Vision is the primary sensory system in birds, which for a number of species also includes the ultraviolet spectrum. Many bird species that are known to collide with offshore wind turbines are sensitive in the violet or ultraviolet spectrum. For species that are mainly active at lower ambient light levels, lighting may deter birds from the lit area. Utilizing (ultra)violet lights may in addition not disturb humans. However, we do not know whether UV-sensitive birds in flight actually respond behaviourally to UV lights. Methods: We therefore tested the efficacy of two types of lights within the violet (400 nm) and ultraviolet (365 nm) spectrum to deter birds from the lit area. These lights were placed vertically and monitored continuously between dusk and dawn using an avian radar system. Results: Relative to control nights, bird flight activity (abundance) was 27% lower when the ultraviolet light was on. Violet light resulted in a 12% decrease in overall abundance, and in addition, a vertical displacement was seen, increasing the average flight altitude by 7 m. Although temporal changes occurred, this effect persisted over the season below 40 m above sea level. Conclusions: Although the results from this pilot study are promising, we argue there still is a long way to go before a potentially functional design to mitigate collisions that has proven to be effective in situ may be in place.

  20. N-Terminal Domains in Two-Domain Proteins Are Biased to Be Shorter and Predicted to Fold Faster Than Their C-Terminal Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etai Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis of proteomes in all kingdoms of life reveals a strong tendency for N-terminal domains in two-domain proteins to have shorter sequences than their neighboring C-terminal domains. Given that folding rates are affected by chain length, we asked whether the tendency for N-terminal domains to be shorter than their neighboring C-terminal domains reflects selection for faster-folding N-terminal domains. Calculations of absolute contact order, another predictor of folding rate, provide additional evidence that N-terminal domains tend to fold faster than their neighboring C-terminal domains. A possible explanation for this bias, which is more pronounced in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, is that faster folding of N-terminal domains reduces the risk for protein aggregation during folding by preventing formation of nonnative interdomain interactions. This explanation is supported by our finding that two-domain proteins with a shorter N-terminal domain are much more abundant than those with a shorter C-terminal domain.