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Sample records for subjects responded faster

  1. Subjective thirst moderates changes in speed of responding associated with water consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jane Edmonds

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Participants (N=34 undertook a CANTAB battery on two separate occasions after fasting and abstaining from fluid intake since the previous evening. On one occasion they were offered 500 ml water shortly before testing, and on the other occasion no water was consumed prior to testing. Reaction times, as measured by Simple Reaction Time (SRT, were faster on the occasion on which they consumed water. Furthermore, subjective thirst was found to moderate the effect of water consumption on speed of responding. Response latencies in the SRT task were greater under the no water condition than under the water condition, but only for those participants with relatively high subjective thirst after abstaining from fluid intake overnight. For those participants with relatively low subjective thirst, latencies were unaffected by water consumption, and were similarly fast as those recorded for thirsty participants who had consumed water. These results reveal the novel finding that subjective thirst moderates the positive effect of fluid consumption on speed of responding. The results also showed evidence that practice also affected task performance. These results imply that, for speed of responding at least, the positive effects of water supplementation may result from an attenuation of the central processing resources consumed by the subjective sensation of thirst that otherwise impair the execution of speeded cognitive processes.

  2. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right. PMID:25852609

  3. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  4. Territorial black-capped chickadee males respond faster to high- than to low-frequency songs in experimentally elevated noise conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie E. LaZerte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency urban noise can interfere with avian communication through masking. Some species are able to shift the frequency of their vocalizations upwards in noisy conditions, which may reduce the effects of masking. However, results from playback studies investigating whether or not such vocal changes improve audibility in noisy conditions are not clear; the responses of free-ranging individuals to shifted signals are potentially confounded by functional trade-offs between masking-related audibility and frequency-dependent signal quality. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus naturally sing their songs at several different frequencies as they pitch-shift to match conspecifics during song-matching contests. They are also known to switch to higher song frequencies in response to experimental noise exposure. Each male produces both high- and low-frequency songs and absolute frequency is not a signal of aggression or dominance, making this an interesting species in which to test whether higher-frequency songs are more audible than lower-frequency songs in noisy conditions. We conducted playback studies across southern and central British Columbia, Canada, using paired song stimuli (high- vs low-frequency songs, n = 24 pairs embedded in synthetic background noise created to match typical urban sound profiles. Over the course of each playback, the signal-to-noise ratio of the song stimuli was gradually increased by raising the amplitude of the song stimuli while maintaining background noise at a constant amplitude. We evaluated variation in how quickly and aggressively territorial males reacted to each of the paired stimuli. We found that males responded more quickly to playbacks of high- than low-frequency songs when high-frequency songs were presented first, but not when low-frequency songs were first. This difference may be explained by high-frequency songs being more audible combined with a carry-over effect resulting in slower

  5. A Faster Triphosphorylation Ribozyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory F Dolan

    Full Text Available In support of the RNA world hypothesis, previous studies identified trimetaphosphate (Tmp as a plausible energy source for RNA world organisms. In one of these studies, catalytic RNAs (ribozymes that catalyze the triphosphorylation of RNA 5'-hydroxyl groups using Tmp were obtained by in vitro selection. One ribozyme (TPR1 was analyzed in more detail. TPR1 catalyzes the triphosphorylation reaction to a rate of 0.013 min-1 under selection conditions (50 mM Tmp, 100 mM MgCl2, 22°C. To identify a triphosphorylation ribozyme that catalyzes faster triphosphorylation, and possibly learn about its secondary structure TPR1 was subjected to a doped selection. The resulting ribozyme, TPR1e, contains seven mutations relative to TPR1, displays a previously unidentified duplex that constrains the ribozyme's structure, and reacts at a 24-fold faster rate than the parent ribozyme. Under optimal conditions (150 mM Tmp, 650 mM MgCl2, 40°C, the triphosphorylation rate of TRP1e reaches 6.8 min-1.

  6. The Brain is Faster than the Hand in Split-Second Intentions to Respond to an Impending Hazard: A Simulation of Neuroadaptive Automation to Speed Recovery to Perturbation in Flight Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Callan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to test the potential for neuroadaptive automation to improve response speed to a hazardous event by using a brain-computer interface (BCI to decode perceptual-motor intention. Seven participants underwent four experimental sessions while measuring brain activity with magnetoencephalograpy. The first three sessions were of a simple constrained task in which the participant was to pull back on the control stick to recover from a perturbation in attitude in one condition and to passively observe the perturbation in the other condition. The fourth session consisted of having to recover from a perturbation in attitude while piloting the plane through the Grand Canyon constantly maneuvering to track over the river below. Independent component analysis was used on the first two sessions to extract artifacts and find an event related component associated with the onset of the perturbation. These two sessions were used to train a decoder to classify trials in which the participant recovered from the perturbation (motor intention versus just passively viewing the perturbation. The BCI-decoder was tested on the third session of the same simple task and found to be able to significantly distinguish motor intention trials from passive viewing trials (mean = 69.8%. The same BCI-decoder was then used to test the fourth session on the complex task. The BCI-decoder significantly classified perturbation from no perturbation trials (73.3% with a significant time savings of 72.3ms (Original response time of 425.0ms to 352.7ms for BCI-decoder. The BCI-decoder model of the best subject was shown to generalize for both performance and time savings to the other subjects. The results of our off-line open loop simulation demonstrate that BCI based neuroadaptive automation has the potential to decode motor intention faster than manual control in response to a hazardous perturbation in flight attitude while ignoring ongoing motor and visual

  7. Mothers' electrophysiological, subjective, and observed emotional responding to infant crying: The role of secure base script knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Ashley M; Roisman, Glenn I; Haydon, Katherine C; Bost, Kelly; McElwain, Nancy; Garcia, Leanna; Hester, Colleen

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the extent to which secure base script knowledge-reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-relevant events are encountered, a clear need for assistance is communicated, competent help is provided and accepted, and the problem is resolved-is associated with mothers' electrophysiological, subjective, and observed emotional responses to an infant distress vocalization. While listening to an infant crying, mothers (N = 108, M age = 34 years) lower on secure base script knowledge exhibited smaller shifts in relative left (vs. right) frontal EEG activation from rest, reported smaller reductions in feelings of positive emotion from rest, and expressed greater levels of tension. Findings indicate that lower levels of secure base script knowledge are associated with an organization of emotional responding indicative of a less flexible and more emotionally restricted response to infant distress. Discussion focuses on the contribution of mothers' attachment representations to their ability to effectively manage emotional responding to infant distress in a manner expected to support sensitive caregiving.

  8. Writing faster Python

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Did you know that Python preallocates integers from -5 to 257 ? Reusing them 1000 times, instead of allocating memory for a bigger integer, can save you a couple of milliseconds of code’s execution time. If you want to learn more about this kind of optimizations then, … well, probably this presentation is not for you :) Instead of going into such small details, I will talk about more "sane" ideas for writing faster code. After a very brief overview of how to optimize Python code (rule 1: don’t do this; rule 2: don’t do this yet; rule 3: ok, but what if I really want to do this ?), I will show simple and fast ways of measuring the execution time and finally, discuss examples of how some code structures could be improved. You will see: - What is the fastest way of removing duplicates from a list - How much faster your code is when you reuse the built-in functions instead of trying to reinvent the wheel - What is faster than the good ol’ for loop - If the lookup is faster in a list or a set (and w...

  9. Symptomatic response to blocked and unblocked pentagastrin stimulation in functional dyspepsia - Comparison of responders and non-responders to omeprazole identified in a single-subject trial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.G.; Bytzer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The role of acid in functional dyspepsia is controversial and drug treatment trials indicate that only a subset of patients has acid-related symptoms. A novel single-subject trial design, the Random Starting Day trial (RSD trial), was developed to identify acid-related symptoms. We...... was expected not to be influenced by gastric acid stimulation or type of treatment. Methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated. Symptomatic response to pentagastrin (6 mu g/kg) was assessed twice in each patient following placebo and omeprazole (40 mg bid) treatment in a randomized, double-blind, cross......-over design. Epigastric pain was assessed every 15 for 90 min after stimulation using a 5-graded Likert scale and a VAS scale. A positive acid provocation test was defined as an increase of the Likert score of epigastric pain by at least one grade after pentagastrin stimulation during placebo treatment...

  10. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  11. Longer - Faster - Purer

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    The MR-ToF-MS, a new ion trap, has been integrated into ISOLTRAP, the experiment that performs accurate mass measurements on short-lived nuclides produced at ISOLDE. When used as a mass separator and spectrometer, it extends ISOLTRAP’s experimental reach towards the limits of nuclear stability.   Susanne Kreim, the ISOLTRAP local group leader at CERN in front of a part of the ISOLTRAP device. When mass measurement experiments like ISOLTRAP* are placed in an on-line radioactive ion-beam facility they face a major challenge: the efficient and fast transfer of the nuclide of interest to the location where the mass measurement is performed. The biggest yield of one selected nuclide, without contaminants, needs to be transferred to the set-up as quickly as possible in order to measure its mass with the greatest precision. Recently, the ISOLTRAP collaboration installed a new device that provides a faster separation of isobars.** It has significantly improved ISOLTRAP’s purificat...

  12. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  13. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  15. Zero bugs and program faster

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A book about programming, improving skill, and avoiding mistakes. The author spent two years researching every bug avoidance technique she could find. This book contains the best of them. If you want to program faster, with fewer bugs, and write more secure code, buy this book! "This is the best book I have ever read." - Anonymous reviewer "Four score and seven years ago this book helped me debug my server code." -Abraham Lincoln "Would my Javascript have memory leaks without this book? Would fishes fly without water?" -Socrates "This book is the greatest victory since the Spanish Armada, and the best about programming." -Queen Elizabeth

  16. Pigeons home faster through polluted air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2016-01-05

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals' response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  17. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  18. GO FASTER: Building Morpheme Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishley, Katelyn M.; Konrad, Moira; Hessler, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is an important foundation skill for reading across all subject areas. Because students with disabilities lag behind their peers in reading skills, there is a need for efficient and effective vocabulary interventions. Focusing on morpheme knowledge is one efficient approach to building vocabulary. This article describes an…

  19. Within-Subject Testing of the Signaled-Reinforcement Effect on Operant Responding as Measured by Response Rate and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Doughty, Adam H.

    2005-01-01

    Response rates under random-interval schedules are lower when a brief (500 ms) signal accompanies reinforcement than when there is no signal. The present study examined this signaled-reinforcement effect and its relation to resistance to change. In Experiment 1, rats responded on a multiple random-interval 60-s random-interval 60-s schedule, with…

  20. Do subjects with whiplash-associated disorders respond differently in the short-term to manual therapy and exercise than those with mechanical neck pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. METHODS : Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28...... with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after...... the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. RESULTS : Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability (P = 0...

  1. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  2. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  3. US habituation, like CS extinction, produces a decrement in conditioned fear responding that is NMDA dependent and subject to renewal and reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storsve, Andreas Berg; McNally, Gavan P; Richardson, Rick

    2010-05-01

    Just as fear can be learned, it can also be inhibited. The most common way of reducing learned fear is through extinction, where the conditioned stimulus (CS) previously paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) is repeatedly presented on its own. Another, much less commonly studied, way to inhibit learned fear is by habituating, or devaluing, the US. In this procedure, fear responding to a CS is reduced by repeatedly presenting the US in the absence of the CS following the conditioning phase. The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the effects of US habituation and CS extinction on a learned fear response (freezing). Experiment 1 demonstrated that US habituation given either after (Experiment 1A) or before (Experiment 1B) fear conditioning reduced freezing to the CS at test. We then showed that the reduction in freezing resulting from either US habituation or CS extinction was context-specific (i.e., a change in context led to a renewal of the learned fear response; Experiment 2) and, furthermore, was attenuated when a pre-test shock was given (i.e., reinstatement of fear was observed in both cases; Experiment 3). Finally, Experiment 4 demonstrated that an injection of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 prior to US habituation impaired long-term retention of the learning that takes place during this procedure. Together, these results suggest that the decrement in conditioned fear responses produced by US habituation and CS extinction could rely on overlapping processes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Can Light Travel Faster than Light?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Can Light Travel Faster than Light? Supurna Sinha. Research News Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 90-93. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/11/0090-0093 ...

  5. Faster than Nyquist signaling algorithms to silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Dasalukunte, Deepak; Rusek, Fredrik; Anderson, John B

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the challenges and design trade-offs arising during the hardware design of Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling transceivers. The authors describe how to design for coexistence between the FTN system described and Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, enabling readers to design FTN specific processing blocks as add-ons to the conventional transceiver chain.   • Provides a comprehensive introduction to Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling transceivers, covering both theory and hardware implementation; • Enables readers to design systems that achieve bandwidth efficiency by making better use of the available spectrum resources; • Describes design techniques to achieve 2x improvement in bandwidth usage with similar performance as that of an OFDM system.  

  6. Beyond the faster-is-slower effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticco, I. M.; Cornes, F. E.; Frank, G. A.; Dorso, C. O.

    2017-11-01

    The "faster-is-slower" effect arises when crowded people push each other to escape through an exit during an emergency situation. As individuals push harder, a statistical slowing down in the evacuation time can be achieved. The slowing down is caused by the presence of small groups of pedestrians (say, a small human cluster) that temporarily block the way out when trying to leave the room. The pressure on the pedestrians belonging to this blocking cluster increases for increasing anxiety levels and/or a larger number of individuals trying to leave the room through the same door. Our investigation shows, however, that very high pressures alter the dynamics in the blocking cluster and, thus, change the statistics of the time delays along the escaping process. A reduction in the long lasting delays can be acknowledged, while the overall evacuation performance improves. We present results on this phenomenon taking place beyond the faster-is-slower regime.

  7. Market Research: Faster, Smarter and Predictive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 40 Market Research Faster , Smarter and Predictive Kenyata Wesley n Farhad Chowdhury 41 Defense AT&L: July–August...Par-ticipation, Including Through More Effective Use of Market Research” Better Buying Power (BBP) 2.0 initiative, several ac- tions were completed to...acquisitions process with the desired goal of providing better value to both the taxpayer and the warfighter. An effective market research process

  8. Faster than light, slower than time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, R. (Randolph-Macon Women' s College, Lynchburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1981-10-01

    The problem with faster-than-light travel is that, in the framework of Special Relativity, it is logically equivalent to time-travel. The problem with time-travel is that it leads to two types of paradoxes. The paradoxes, and the various means of skirting them, are all discussed here. Virtually all the examples are drawn from science-fiction novels, which are a large and neglected source of thought-experiments.

  9. Better Faster Noise with the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyvill, Geoff; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    Filtered noise [Perlin 1985] has, for twenty years, been a fundamental tool for creating functional texture and it has many other applications; for example, animating water waves or the motion of grass waving in the wind. Perlin noise suffers from a number of defects and there have been many atte...... attempts to create better or faster noise but Perlin’s ‘Gradient Noise’ has consistently proved to be the best compromise between speed and quality. Our objective was to create a better noise cheaply by use of the GPU....

  10. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  11. Fast Physics Testbed for the FASTER Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W.; Liu, Y.; Hogan, R.; Neggers, R.; Jensen, M.; Fridlind, A.; Lin, Y.; Wolf, A.

    2010-03-15

    This poster describes the Fast Physics Testbed for the new FAst-physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project. The overall objective is to provide a convenient and comprehensive platform for fast turn-around model evaluation against ARM observations and to facilitate development of parameterizations for cloud-related fast processes represented in global climate models. The testbed features three major components: a single column model (SCM) testbed, an NWP-Testbed, and high-resolution modeling (HRM). The web-based SCM-Testbed features multiple SCMs from major climate modeling centers and aims to maximize the potential of SCM approach to enhance and accelerate the evaluation and improvement of fast physics parameterizations through continuous evaluation of existing and evolving models against historical as well as new/improved ARM and other complementary measurements. The NWP-Testbed aims to capitalize on the large pool of operational numerical weather prediction products. Continuous evaluations of NWP forecasts against observations at ARM sites are carried out to systematically identify the biases and skills of physical parameterizations under all weather conditions. The highresolution modeling (HRM) activities aim to simulate the fast processes at high resolution to aid in the understanding of the fast processes and their parameterizations. A four-tier HRM framework is established to augment the SCM- and NWP-Testbeds towards eventual improvement of the parameterizations.

  12. Towards a Faster Randomized Parcellation Based Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyos-Idrobo, Andrés; Varoquaux, Gaël; Thirion, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In neuroimaging, multi-subject statistical analysis is an essential step, as it makes it possible to draw conclusions for the population under study. However, the lack of power in neuroimaging studies combined with the lack of stability and sensitivity of voxel-based methods may lead to non-reproducible results. A method designed to tackle this problem is Randomized Parcellation-Based Inference (RPBI), which has shown good empirical performance. Nevertheless, the use o...

  13. Musicians react faster and are better multisensory integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Simon P; Champoux, François

    2017-02-01

    The results from numerous investigations suggest that musical training might enhance how senses interact. Despite repeated confirmation of anatomical and structural changes in visual, tactile, and auditory regions, significant changes have only been reported in the audiovisual domain and for the detection of audio-tactile incongruencies. In the present study, we aim at testing whether long-term musical training might also enhance other multisensory processes at a behavioural level. An audio-tactile reaction time task was administrated to a group of musicians and non-musicians. We found significantly faster reaction times with musicians for auditory, tactile, and audio-tactile stimulations. Statistical analyses between the combined uni- and multisensory reaction times revealed that musicians possess a statistical advantage when responding to multisensory stimuli compared to non-musicians. These results suggest for the first time that long-term musical training reduces simple non-musical auditory, tactile, and multisensory reaction times. Taken together with the previous results from other sensory modalities, these results strongly point towards musicians being better at integrating the inputs from various senses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Faster-X Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Meisel, Richard P.; John H Malone; Clark, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequences on X chromosomes often have a faster rate of evolution when compared to similar loci on the autosomes, and well articulated models provide reasons why the X-linked mode of inheritance may be responsible for the faster evolution of X-linked genes. We analyzed microarray and RNA-seq data collected from females and males of six Drosophila species and found that the expression levels of X-linked genes also diverge faster than autosomal gene expression, similar to the "faster-X" effe...

  15. Visual Motion Processing Subserves Faster Visuomotor Reaction in Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K; Mierau, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Athletes participating in ball or racquet sports have to respond to visual stimuli under critical time pressure. Previous studies used visual contrast stimuli to determine visual perception and visuomotor reaction in athletes and nonathletes; however, ball and racquet sports are characterized by motion rather than contrast visual cues. Because visual contrast and motion signals are processed in different cortical regions, this study aimed to determine differences in perception and processing of visual motion between athletes and nonathletes. Twenty-five skilled badminton players and 28 age-matched nonathletic controls participated in this study. Using a 64-channel EEG system, we investigated visual motion perception/processing in the motion-sensitive middle temporal (MT) cortical area in response to radial motion of different velocities. In a simple visuomotor reaction task, visuomotor transformation in Brodmann area 6 (BA6) and BA4 as well as muscular activation (EMG onset) and visuomotor reaction time (VMRT) were investigated. Stimulus- and response-locked potentials were determined to differentiate between perceptual and motor-related processes. As compared with nonathletes, athletes showed earlier EMG onset times (217 vs 178 ms, P < 0.001), accompanied by a faster VMRT (274 vs 243 ms, P < 0.001). Furthermore, athletes showed an earlier stimulus-locked peak activation of MT (200 vs 182 ms, P = 0.002) and BA6 (161 vs 137 ms, P = 0.009). Response-locked peak activation in MT was later in athletes (-7 vs 26 ms, P < 0.001), whereas no group differences were observed in BA6 and BA4. Multiple regression analyses with stimulus- and response-locked cortical potentials predicted EMG onset (r = 0.83) and VMRT (r = 0.77). The athletes' superior visuomotor performance in response to visual motion is primarily related to visual perception and, to a minor degree, to motor-related processes.

  16. The Gesell Institute Responds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Responding to Dr. Meisels' article concerning the uses and abuses of the Gesell readiness tests, the Gesell Institute of Child development maintains that the Gesell series of assessments are used by schools to gain a fuller developmental understanding of the child and have been predictive of school success. (BB)

  17. Responding to Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  18. Pain hypersensitivity in congenital blindness is associated with faster central processing of C-fibre input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, H.; Plaghki, L.; Ptito, M.

    2016-01-01

    that congenitally blind individuals detected significantly more C-fibre–mediated stimuli than sighted controls. A decomposition analysis of the reaction times indicated that the faster response times in the congenitally blind are due to more efficient central processing of C-fibre–mediated sensations. Conclusion......Background We have recently shown that visual deprivation from birth exacerbates responses to painful thermal stimuli. However, the mechanisms underlying pain hypersensitivity in congenital blindness are unclear. Methods To study the contribution of Aδ- and C-fibres in pain perception, we measured...... instructed to respond as quickly as possible when detecting a laser-induced sensation. We used a 650 ms cut-off criterion to distinguish fast Aδ- from slow C-fibre–mediated sensations. Results Congenitally blind participants showed significantly faster reaction times to C- but not to Aδ...

  19. Faster gradient descent and the efficient recovery of images

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui; Ascher, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Much recent attention has been devoted to gradient descent algorithms where the steepest descent step size is replaced by a similar one from a previous iteration or gets updated only once every second step, thus forming a {\\em faster gradient descent method}. For unconstrained convex quadratic optimization these methods can converge much faster than steepest descent. But the context of interest here is application to certain ill-posed inverse problems, where the steepest descent method is kno...

  20. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  1. Delivering Faster Congestion Feedback with the Mark-Front Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Jain, Raj

    2001-01-01

    Computer networks use congestion feedback from the routers and destinations to control the transmission load. Delivering timely congestion feedback is essential to the performance of networks. Reaction to the congestion can be more effective if faster feedback is provided. Current TCP/IP networks use timeout, duplicate Acknowledgement Packets (ACKs) and explicit congestion notification (ECN) to deliver the congestion feedback, each provides a faster feedback than the previous method. In this paper, we propose a markfront strategy that delivers an even faster congestion feedback. With analytical and simulation results, we show that mark-front strategy reduces buffer size requirement, improves link efficiency and provides better fairness among users. Keywords: Explicit Congestion Notification, mark-front, congestion control, buffer size requirement, fairness.

  2. Colder environments did not select for a faster metabolism during experimental evolution of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Lesley A; Condon, Catriona; White, Craig R; Angilletta, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the evolution of metabolism has been the subject of debate for a century; however, no consistent patterns have emerged from comparisons of metabolic rate within and among species living at different temperatures. We used experimental evolution to determine how metabolism evolves in populations of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to one of three selective treatments: a constant 16°C, a constant 25°C, or temporal fluctuations between 16 and 25°C. We tested August Krogh's controversial hypothesis that colder environments select for a faster metabolism. Given that colder environments also experience greater seasonality, we also tested the hypothesis that temporal variation in temperature may be the factor that selects for a faster metabolism. We measured the metabolic rate of flies from each selective treatment at 16, 20.5, and 25°C. Although metabolism was faster at higher temperatures, flies from the selective treatments had similar metabolic rates at each measurement temperature. Based on variation among genotypes within populations, heritable variation in metabolism was likely sufficient for adaptation to occur. We conclude that colder or seasonal environments do not necessarily select for a faster metabolism. Rather, other factors besides temperature likely contribute to patterns of metabolic rate over thermal clines in nature. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Faster in and faster out: accelerating insulin absorption and action by insulin infusion site warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Eda; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Sherr, Jennifer L; Tichy, Eileen M; Carria, Lori; Cappiello, Darryll; Steffen, Amy; Tamborlane, William V

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of an insulin infusion site warming device, the InsuPatch(40)(™) (IP(40)) (InsuLine Medical Ltd., Petach-Tikvah, Israel), on insulin aspart pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Seventeen subjects with type 1 diabetes (age, 15±1 years; hemoglobin A1c, 7.5±0.2% [58±2.2 mmol/mol]) underwent two euglycemic clamps performed on separate mornings with and without IP(40) activation with warming temperature at 40°C. On both days, the basal infusion was suspended, and glucose levels were maintained between 90 and 100 mg/dL by a variable rate dextrose infusion for up to 5 h after a 0.2 U/kg bolus of insulin aspart. Time to peak insulin action and time to half-maximal action occurred earlier with a greater early glucodynamic effect (area under the curve [AUC] for glucose infusion rate from 0 to 30 min) with IP(40) than without the IP(40), whereas the AUC for the time-action profile and the peak action did not differ with and without infusion site warming. PK parameters were in agreement with PD parameters, namely, a significantly earlier time to reach the maximum increment in insulin concentrations and greater early bioavailability (AUC for the change in insulin concentration from 0 to 30 min) with the IP(40). The tail of the plasma insulin response curve was also shortened with infusion site warming, with the time to reach baseline insulin concentration occurring significantly earlier (P=0.04). Our data demonstrate that skin warming around the infusion site to 40°C with the IP(40) is an effective means to accelerate absorption and action of rapid-acting insulin. These improvements in time-action responses have the potential to enhance the performance of open- and closed-loop insulin delivery systems.

  4. Evolution of faster development does not lead to greater fluctuating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Both strong directional selection and faster development are thought to destabilize development, giving rise to greater fluctuating asymmetry (FA), although there is no strong empirical evidence supporting this assertion. We compared. FA in sternopleural bristle number in four populations of Drosophila melanogaster ...

  5. New analytical approaches for faster or greener phytochemical analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chapter 1 provides a short introduction into the constraints of phytochemical analysis. In order to make them faster, less laborious and greener, there is a clear scope for miniaturized and simplified sample preparation, solvent-free extractions and the use

  6. Emergency Responder Personal Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Policy Directive SMS Short Message Service TASER Tomas A. Swift’s Electric Rifle (Electronic control device that causes neuro-muscular...another” (National Cancer Institute, 2005, p. 23). For example, TASER International introduced an electronic control device (the Thomas A. Swift’s...Electronic Rifle, commonly known as a TASER ). A few law enforcement agencies began using them to help control combative subjects with mostly

  7. Responding to Marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Y. Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an analysis of how refugee youths from Africa used and shifted languages and discourses in the United States. Drawing on sociocultural theories of language and utilizing ethnographic discourse and classroom observation data, the author illustrates the varied ways in which three high school–aged refugee youths used languages to make sense of who and where they are; respond to social, religious, and linguistic marginalization in the United States; and challenge narrow perceptions of African Muslims. This article brings to fore a group that, although facing a unique set of challenges in the United States, is rarely included in research on youth language practices and im/migration. Attention to their multilingual practices and the multilayered nature of their identity is central to understanding how refugee youths experience school in their new land, and how they see themselves and others. This understanding can guide school personnel, educational researchers, and community-based youth workers in their respective work with refugee students.

  8. Multiple Object Tracking Using the Shortest Path Faster Association Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghao Xi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the persistently multiple object tracking in cluttered environments, this paper presents a novel tracking association approach based on the shortest path faster algorithm. First, the multiple object tracking is formulated as an integer programming problem of the flow network. Then we relax the integer programming to a standard linear programming problem. Therefore, the global optimum can be quickly obtained using the shortest path faster algorithm. The proposed method avoids the difficulties of integer programming, and it has a lower worst-case complexity than competing methods but better robustness and tracking accuracy in complex environments. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm takes less time than other state-of-the-art methods and can operate in real time.

  9. Contribution to faster artifact classification by creating an expert database

    OpenAIRE

    Maričić, Sven; Perinić, Mladen; Kovačević Pavičić, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for faster classification of artifacts that appear during radiological recordings. Section images containing artifacts require significant additional post-processing time compared to other, artifact-free sections. The areas containing artifacts were identified and gradually analyzed in order to optimize the fabrication process. Guidelines for creation of an expert database are given. A suggestion is presented for defining a new expert knowledge database filling...

  10. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  11. Adrenaline in cardiac arrest: Prefilled syringes are faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Claire; Gillett, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Standard ampoules and prefilled syringes of adrenaline are widely available in Australasian EDs for use in cardiac arrest. We hypothesise that prefilled syringes can be administered more rapidly and accurately when compared with the two available standard ampoules. This is a triple arm superiority study comparing the time to i.v. administration and accuracy of dosing of three currently available preparations of adrenaline. In their standard packaging, prefilled syringes were on average more than 12 s faster to administer than the 1 mL 1:1000 ampoules and more than 16 s faster than the 10 mL 1:10,000 ampoules (P adrenaline utilising a Minijet (CSL Limited, Parkville, Victoria, Australia) is faster than using adrenaline in glass ampoules presented in their plastic packaging. Removing the plastic packaging from the 1 mL (1 mg) ampoule might result in more rapid administration similar to the Minijet. Resuscitation personnel requiring rapid access to adrenaline should consider storing it as either Minijets or ampoules devoid of packaging. These results might be extrapolatable to other clinical scenarios, including pre-hospital and anaesthesia, where other drugs are required for rapid use. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Robustness of a bisimulation-type faster-than preorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Iltgen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available TACS is an extension of CCS where upper time bounds for delays can be specified. Luettgen and Vogler defined three variants of bismulation-type faster-than relations and showed that they all three lead to the same preorder, demonstrating the robustness of their approach. In the present paper, the operational semantics of TACS is extended; it is shown that two of the variants still give the same preorder as before, underlining robustness. An explanation is given why this result fails for the third variant. It is also shown that another variant, which mixes old and new operational semantics, can lead to smaller relations that prove the same preorder.

  13. CSRtrack Faster Calculation of 3-D CSR Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Dohlus, Martin

    2004-01-01

    CSRtrack is a new code for the simulation of Coherent Synchrotron radiation effects on the beam dynamics of linear accelerators. It incorporates the physics of our previous code, TraFiC4, and adds new algorithms for the calculation of the CSR fields. A one-dimensional projected method allows quick estimates and a greens function method allows 3D calculations about ten times faster than with the `direct' method. The tracking code is written in standard FORTRAN77 and has its own parser for comfortable input of calculation parameters and geometry. Phase space input and the analysis of the traced particle distribution is done with MATLAB interface programs.

  14. Even Faster Web Sites Performance Best Practices for Web Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Souders, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Performance is critical to the success of any web site, and yet today's web applications push browsers to their limits with increasing amounts of rich content and heavy use of Ajax. In this book, Steve Souders, web performance evangelist at Google and former Chief Performance Yahoo!, provides valuable techniques to help you optimize your site's performance. Souders' previous book, the bestselling High Performance Web Sites, shocked the web development world by revealing that 80% of the time it takes for a web page to load is on the client side. In Even Faster Web Sites, Souders and eight exp

  15. Faster magnet sorting with a threshold acceptance algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, Steve; Carr, Roger

    1995-02-01

    We introduce here a new technique for sorting magnets to minimize the field errors in permanent magnet insertion devices. Simulated annealing has been used in this role, but we find the technique of threshold acceptance produces results of equal quality in less computer time. Threshold accepting would be of special value in designing very long insertion devices, such as long free electron lasers (FELs). Our application of threshold acceptance to magnet sorting showed that it converged to equivalently low values of the cost function, but that it converged significantly faster. We present typical cases showing time to convergence for various error tolerances, magnet numbers, and temperature schedules.

  16. Twin motion faster than the speed of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faran, Eilon; Shilo, Doron

    2010-04-16

    Twin growth is commonly thought to be bounded by the velocity of shear waves C(T) at which the information about this mechanical process travels in the material. Here, we report on experimental evidence of twin growth faster than the material's speed of sound. Driven by an electric field, needle twins in a ferroelectric crystal grew at intersonic speed, with an estimated average velocity close to square root(2) C(T). These results strengthen recent theoretical indications of intersonic dislocation motion, and contribute to the understanding of several twin motion-related processes.

  17. Relationships among attention networks and physiological responding to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapas, Casey; Weinberg, Anna; Langenecker, Scott A; Shankman, Stewart A

    2017-02-01

    Although researchers have long hypothesized a relationship between attention and anxiety, theoretical and empirical accounts of this relationship have conflicted. We attempted to resolve these conflicts by examining relationships of attentional abilities with responding to predictable and unpredictable threat - related but distinct motivational process implicated in a number of anxiety disorders. Eighty-one individuals completed a behavioral task assessing efficiency of three components of attention - alerting, orienting, and executive control (Attention Network Test - Revised). We also assessed startle responding during anticipation of both predictable, imminent threat (of mild electric shock) and unpredictable contextual threat. Faster alerting and slower disengaging from non-emotional attention cues were related to heightened responding to unpredictable threat, whereas poorer executive control of attention was related to heightened responding to predictable threat. This double dissociation helps to integrate models of attention and anxiety and may be informative for treatment development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Faster in-plane switching and reduced rotational viscosity characteristics in a graphene-nematic suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rajratan, E-mail: basu@usna.edu; Kinnamon, Daniel; Skaggs, Nicole; Womack, James [Soft Matter and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, The United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402 (United States)

    2016-05-14

    The in-plane switching (IPS) for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) was found to be considerably faster when the LC was doped with dilute concentrations of monolayer graphene flakes. Additional studies revealed that the presence of graphene reduced the rotational viscosity of the LC, permitting the nematic director to respond quicker in IPS mode on turning the electric field on. The studies were carried out with several graphene concentrations in the LC, and the experimental results coherently suggest that there exists an optimal concentration of graphene, allowing a reduction in the IPS response time and rotational viscosity in the LC. Above this optimal graphene concentration, the rotational viscosity was found to increase, and consequently, the LC no longer switched faster in IPS mode. The presence of graphene suspension was also found to decrease the LC's pretilt angle significantly due to the π-π electron stacking between the LC molecules and graphene flakes. To understand the π-π stacking interaction, the anchoring mechanism of the LC on a CVD grown monolayer graphene film on copper substrate was studied by reflected crossed polarized microscopy. Optical microphotographs revealed that the LC alignment direction depended on monolayer graphene's hexagonal crystal structure and its orientation.

  19. Faster in-plane switching and reduced rotational viscosity characteristics in a graphene-nematic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Rajratan; Kinnamon, Daniel; Skaggs, Nicole; Womack, James

    2016-05-01

    The in-plane switching (IPS) for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) was found to be considerably faster when the LC was doped with dilute concentrations of monolayer graphene flakes. Additional studies revealed that the presence of graphene reduced the rotational viscosity of the LC, permitting the nematic director to respond quicker in IPS mode on turning the electric field on. The studies were carried out with several graphene concentrations in the LC, and the experimental results coherently suggest that there exists an optimal concentration of graphene, allowing a reduction in the IPS response time and rotational viscosity in the LC. Above this optimal graphene concentration, the rotational viscosity was found to increase, and consequently, the LC no longer switched faster in IPS mode. The presence of graphene suspension was also found to decrease the LC's pretilt angle significantly due to the π-π electron stacking between the LC molecules and graphene flakes. To understand the π-π stacking interaction, the anchoring mechanism of the LC on a CVD grown monolayer graphene film on copper substrate was studied by reflected crossed polarized microscopy. Optical microphotographs revealed that the LC alignment direction depended on monolayer graphene's hexagonal crystal structure and its orientation.

  20. Neuromuscular strategies contributing to faster multidirectional agility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to first determine differences in neuromuscular strategy between a faster and slower agility performance, and second compare differences in muscle activation strategy employed when performing two closely executed agility movements. Participants recruited from an elite female basketball team completed an ultrasound to determine quadriceps muscle-cross sectional area; reactive isometric mid-thigh pull to determine the rate of muscle activation, rate of force development, pre-motor time and motor time; and multidirectional agility tests completing two directional changes in response to a visual stimulus. Peak and average relative muscle activation of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus and gastrocnemius were measured 100ms prior to heel strike (pre-heel strike) and across stance phase for both directional changes. Faster agility performance was characterized by greater pre-heel strike muscle activity and greater anterior muscle activation during stance phase resulting in greater hip and knee extension increasing propulsive impulse. Differences between directional changes appear to result from processing speed, where a greater delay in refractory times during the second directional change resulted in greater anterior muscle activation, decelerating the body while movement direction was determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Looming sounds are perceived as faster than receding sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhoff, John G

    2016-01-01

    Each year thousands of people are killed by looming motor vehicles. Throughout our evolutionary history looming objects have posed a threat to survival and perceptual systems have evolved unique solutions to confront these environmental challenges. Vision provides an accurate representation of time-to-contact with a looming object and usually allows us to interact successfully with the object if required. However, audition functions as a warning system and yields an anticipatory representation of arrival time, indicating that the object has arrived when it is still some distance away. The bias provides a temporal margin of safety that allows more time to initiate defensive actions. In two studies this bias was shown to influence the perception of the speed of looming and receding sound sources. Listeners heard looming and receding sound sources and judged how fast they were moving. Listeners perceived the speed of looming sounds as faster than that of equivalent receding sounds. Listeners also showed better discrimination of the speed of looming sounds than receding sounds. Finally, close sounds were perceived as faster than distant sounds. The results suggest a prioritization of the perception of the speed of looming and receding sounds that mirrors the level of threat posed by moving objects in the environment.

  2. Elastic coupling of limb joints enables faster bipedal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J C; Kuo, A D

    2009-06-06

    The passive dynamics of bipedal limbs alone are sufficient to produce a walking motion, without need for control. Humans augment these dynamics with muscles, actively coordinated to produce stable and economical walking. Present robots using passive dynamics walk much slower, perhaps because they lack elastic muscles that couple the joints. Elastic properties are well known to enhance running gaits, but their effect on walking has yet to be explored. Here we use a computational model of dynamic walking to show that elastic joint coupling can help to coordinate faster walking. In walking powered by trailing leg push-off, the model's speed is normally limited by a swing leg that moves too slowly to avoid stumbling. A uni-articular spring about the knee allows faster but uneconomical walking. A combination of uni-articular hip and knee springs can speed the legs for improved speed and economy, but not without the swing foot scuffing the ground. Bi-articular springs coupling the hips and knees can yield high economy and good ground clearance similar to humans. An important parameter is the knee-to-hip moment arm that greatly affects the existence and stability of gaits, and when selected appropriately can allow for a wide range of speeds. Elastic joint coupling may contribute to the economy and stability of human gait.

  3. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. ZKBoo: Faster Zero-Knowledge for Boolean Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomelli, Irene; Madsen, Jesper; Orlandi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe ZKBoo, a proposal for practically efficient zero-knowledge arguments especially tailored for Boolean circuits and report on a proof-of- concept implementation. As an highlight, we can generate (resp. verify) a non-interactive proof for the SHA-1 circuit in approximately 13...... variants of IKOS, which highlights their pros and cons for practically rele- vant soundness parameters; ◦ A generalization and simplification of their approach, which leads to faster Σ-protocols (that can be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic) for state- ments of the form “I know x...... such that y = φ (x)” (where φ is a circuit and y a public value); ◦ A case study, where we provide explicit protocols, implementations and benchmarking of zero-knowledge protocols for the SHA-1 and SHA-256 circuits....

  5. Faster modified protocol for first order reversal curve measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasi, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    In this work we present a faster modified protocol for first order reversal curve (FORC) measurements. The main idea of this procedure is to use the information of the ascending and descending branches constructed through successive sweeps of magnetic field. The new method reduces the number of field sweeps to almost one half as compared to the traditional method. The length of each branch is reduced faster than in the usual FORC protocol. The new method implies not only a new measurement protocol but also a new recipe for the previous treatment of the data. After of these pre-processing, the FORC diagram can be obtained by the conventional methods. In the present work we show that the new FORC procedure leads to results identical to the conventional method if the system under study follows the Stoner-Wohlfarth model with interactions that do not depend of the magnetic state (up or down) of the entities, as in the Preisach model. More specifically, if the coercive and interactions fields are not correlated, and the hysteresis loops have a square shape. Some numerical examples show the comparison between the usual FORC procedure and the propose one. We also discuss that it is possible to find some differences in the case of real systems, due to the magnetic interactions. There is no reason to prefer one FORC method over the other from the point of view of the information to be obtained. On the contrary, the use of both methods could open doors for a more accurate and deep analysis.

  6. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  7. Faster Horses...An Analysis of Country-Western Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippard, Paula

    This paper reports on a study of the content of the lyrics of 100 country-western songs. It presents findings concerning the primary subject matter of the songs, female and male roles portrayed, and the value system implicit in the song lyrics. Among the findings were that the single most-valued subject in country-western music is romantic love;…

  8. Innovations for competitiveness: European views on "better-faster-cheaper"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzei, A.; Groepper, P.; Novara, M.; Pseiner, K.

    1999-09-01

    The paper elaborates on " lessons learned" from two recent ESA workshops, one focussing on the role of Innovation in the competitiveness of the space sector and the second on technology and engineering aspects conducive to better, faster and cheaper space programmes. The paper focuses primarily on four major aspects, namely: a) the adaptations of industrial and public organisations to the global market needs; b) the understanding of the bottleneck factors limiting competitiveness; c) the trends toward new system architectures and new engineering and production methods; d) the understanding of the role of new technology in the future applications. Under the pressure of market forces and the influence of many global and regional players, applications of space systems and technology are becoming more and more competitive. It is well recognised that without major effort for innovation in industrial practices, organisations, R&D, marketing and financial approaches the European space sector will stagnate and loose its competence as well as its competitiveness. It is also recognised that a programme run according to the "better, faster, cheaper" philosophy relies on much closer integration of system design, development and verification, and draws heavily on a robust and comprehensive programme of technology development, which must run in parallel and off-line with respect to flight programmes. A company's innovation capabilities will determine its future competitive advantage (in time, cost, performance or value) and overall growth potential. Innovation must be a process that can be counted on to provide repetitive, sustainable, long-term performance improvements. As such, it needs not depend on great breakthroughs in technology and concepts (which are accidental and rare). Rather, it could be based on bold evolution through the establishment of know-how, application of best practices, process effectiveness and high standards, performance measurement, and attention to

  9. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  10. Learning Faster by Discovering and Exploiting Object Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Janež

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the question: “Is it possible to speed up the learning process of an autonomous agent by performing experiments in a more complex environment (i.e., an environment with a greater number of different objects?” To this end, we use a simple robotic domain, where the robot has to learn a qualitative model predicting the change in the robot's distance to an object. To quantify the environment's complexity, we defined cardinal complexity as the number of objects in the robot's world, and behavioural complexity as the number of objects' distinct behaviours. We propose Error reduction merging (ERM, a new learning method that automatically discovers similarities in the structure of the agent's environment. ERM identifies different types of objects solely from the data measured and merges the observations of objects that behave in the same or similar way in order to speed up the agent's learning. We performed a series of experiments in worlds of increasing complexity. The results in our simple domain indicate that ERM was capable of discovering structural similarities in the data which indeed made the learning faster, clearly superior to conventional learning. This observed trend occurred with various machine learning algorithms used inside the ERM method.

  11. Three-dimensional plasma actuation for faster transition to turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Arnob; Roy, Subrata

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate that a 3D non-linear plasma actuation method creates secondary instabilities by forming lambda vortices for a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer flow over a flat plate. Both bypass transition and controlled transition processes are numerically investigated using wall resolved modal discontinuous Galerkin based implicit large eddy simulation. The largest momentum thickness based Reynolds numbers ≤ft( R{{e}θ } \\right) tested are 1250 and 1100 for the bypass transition and the controlled transition, respectively. The 3D actuation method is based on a square serpentine plasma actuator (Durscher and Roy 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 035202). The transition is achieved via oblique wave transition by perturbing the flow at a frequency of 1 kHz with amplitude of 10% of the freestream velocity. Although the flow is perturbed at a single frequency, the instabilities arising due to the nonlinear interaction between the consecutive lambda vortices, creates subharmonic lambda vortices (half of the fundamental frequency), which finally break down into fully turbulent flow. These interactions have been thoroughly studied and discussed. Since the actuation creates oblique wave transition it will allow faster transition compared to the standard secondary instability mechanism with similar disturbance amplitude reducing the amount of energy input required for flow control.

  12. Bird on Your Smartphone: How to make identification faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, T.; Kurniawan, I. S.; Tapilow, F. S.

    2018-01-01

    Identification skills of students are needed in the field activities of animal ecology course. Good identification skills will help students to understand the traits, determine differences and similarities in order to naming of birds’ species. This study aims to describe the identification skill of students by using smart phone applications designed in such a way as a support in the field activities. Research method used was quasi experiment involving 60 students which were divided into two groups, one group that use smartphone applications (SA) and other group using a guidebook (GB). This study was carried out in the classroom and outside (the field). Instruments used in this research included tests and questionnaire. The identification skills were measured by tests, indicated by an average score (AS). The results showed that the identification skills of SA students were higher (AS = 3.12) than those of GB one (AS = 2.91). These results are in accordance with response of students. The most of students (90.08%) mentioned that the use of smart phone applications in identifying birds is helpful, more effective and convenience to make identification faster. For further implementation, however, performance of the smartphone used here need to be enhanced to improve the identification skills of students and for wider use.

  13. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-09-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  14. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R, E-mail: fvera@ucv.cl [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de ValparaIso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2011-09-15

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  15. Accurate object classification and detection by faster-RCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokanath, M.; Sai Kumar, K.; Sanath Keerthi, E.

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in object detection algorithms include fast and faster RCNN which made the detection times comparatively low with high accuracy. In this work we verify the integrity of a proposed algorithm which uses RPN (Region proposal networks) and Fast RCNN (Region based Convolutional Neural Networks) for the detection. The RPN provides region proposals from that we give the ROI (Regions of Interest) as input to the RCNN network, it can be further merged into a single network by sharing their convolutional features to detect a specific object in a given image. As we use a unified network there is no need to get the ROI from an external network which makes this process cost free. We trained VGGnet with two different data sets PASCAL VOC 2012 and MS COCO on a low cost GPU and verified the accuracies while comparing the outputs with increasing number of region proposals. As we increased the number of proposals we observed a significant increase in the mAP (Mean Average Precision) value till 2000 proposals from where it reached saturation. Our results are compared with the state of the art algorithm with an increase of 1.2% in terms of mAP for 1800 proposals.

  16. Faster, More Reproducible DESI-MS for Biological Tissue Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Wu, Vincen; Jones, Emrys A.; Pringle, Steven D.; Karancsi, Tamas; Dannhorn, Andreas; Veselkov, Kirill; McKenzie, James S.; Takats, Zoltan

    2017-10-01

    A new, more robust sprayer for desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is presented. The main source of variability in DESI is thought to be the uncontrolled variability of various geometric parameters of the sprayer, primarily the position of the solvent capillary, or more specifically, its positioning within the gas capillary or nozzle. If the solvent capillary is off-center, the sprayer becomes asymmetrical, making the geometry difficult to control and compromising reproducibility. If the stiffness, tip quality, and positioning of the capillary are improved, sprayer reproducibility can be improved by an order of magnitude. The quality of the improved sprayer and its potential for high spatial resolution imaging are demonstrated on human colorectal tissue samples by acquisition of images at pixel sizes of 100, 50, and 20 μm, which corresponds to a lateral resolution of 40-60 μm, similar to the best values published in the literature. The high sensitivity of the sprayer also allows combination with a fast scanning quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This provides up to 30 times faster DESI acquisition, reducing the overall acquisition time for a 10 mm × 10 mm rat brain sample to approximately 1 h. Although some spectral information is lost with increasing analysis speed, the resulting data can still be used to classify tissue types on the basis of a previously constructed model. This is particularly interesting for clinical applications, where fast, reliable diagnosis is required. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Japanese elderly persons walk faster than non-Asian elderly persons: a meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masataka; Kamide, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify ethnic differences in walking speed by comparing walking speed in both Japanese and non-Asian elderly individuals and to investigate the necessity of consideration of ethnic differences in walking speed. [Subjects and Methods] Articles that reported comfortable walking speeds for community-dwelling elderly individuals were identified from electronic databases. Articles that involved community-dwelling individuals who were 60 years old or older and well functioning were included in the study. Articles that involved Asians were excluded. Weighted means for 5-m walking times were calculated as walking speeds from the Japanese and non-Asian sample data. The effects of age, gender, and ethnicity on 5-m walking times were then investigated using meta-regression analysis. [Results] Twenty studies (34 groups) were included for Japanese, and 16 studies (28 groups) were included for non-Asians. The weighted mean 5-m walking time was estimated to be 4.15 sec (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.87-4.44) for Japanese and 4.24 sec (95% CI: 4.09-4.40) for non-Asians. Furthermore, using meta-regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the 5-m walking time was 0.40 sec faster (95% CI: 0.03-0.77) for Japanese than for non-Asian elderly individuals. [Conclusion] Walking speed appeared faster for Japanese community-dwelling elderly individuals than for non-Asian elderly individuals.

  18. Faster Development Covaries with Higher DNA Damage in Grasshoppers (Chorthippus albomarginatus) from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Ostermiller, Shanna; Beasley, De Anna E; Welch, Shane M; Møller, Anders P; Mousseau, Timothy A

    In Chernobyl, chronic exposure to radioactive contaminants has a variety of deleterious effects on exposed organisms, including genetic damage and mutation accumulation. However, the potential for such effects to be transmitted to the next generation is poorly understood. We captured lesser marsh grasshoppers (Chorthippus albomarginatus) in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone from sites varying in levels of environmental radiation by more than three orders of magnitude. We then raised their offspring in a common garden experiment in order to assess the effects of parental exposure to radiation on offspring development and DNA damage. Offspring that reached maturity at a younger age had higher levels of DNA damage. Contrary to our hypothesis, parental exposure to radioactive contamination did not affect DNA damage in their offspring possibly because of intervening adaptation or parental compensatory mechanisms. Our results suggest a trade-off between developmental rate and resistance to DNA damage, whereby offspring developing at faster rates do so at the cost of damaging their DNA. This result is consistent with and extends findings in other species, suggesting that faster growth rates cause increased oxidative damage and stress. We propose that growth rates are subject to stabilizing selection balancing the benefits of fast development and the competing need of buffering its damaging effects to macromolecules and tissues.

  19. Slower attentional disengagement but faster perceptual processing near the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tony; Sunny, Meera Mary

    2017-03-01

    Many recent studies have reported altered visual processing near the hands. However, there is no definitive agreement about the mechanisms responsible for this effect. One viewpoint is that the effect is predominantly attentional while others argue for the role of pre-attentive perceptual differences in the manifestation of the hand-proximity effect. However, in most of the studies pre-attentional and attentional effects have been conflated. We argue that it is important to dissociate the effect of hand proximity on perception and attention to better theorize and understand how visual processing is altered near the hands. We report two experiments using a visual search task where participants completed a visual search task with their hands either on the monitor or on their lap. When on the monitor, the target could appear near the hand or farther away. In experiment 1, a letter search task showed steeper search slope near the hand suggesting slower attentional disengagement. However, the intercept was smaller in the near hand condition suggesting faster perceptual processing. These results were also replicated in experiment 2 with a conjunction search task with target present and absent conditions and 4 set sizes. The results suggest that there are dissociable effects of hand proximity on perception and attention. Importantly, the pre-attentive advantage of hand proximity does not translate to attentional benefit, but a processing cost. The results of experiment 2 additionally indicate that the steeper slope does not arise from any spatial biases in how search proceeds, but an indicator of slower attentional processing near the hands. The results also suggest that the effect of hand proximity on attention is not spatially graded whereas its effect on perceptuo-motor processes seems to be. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Shampoo-clay heals diaper rash faster than calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-06-01

    Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and risk ratio. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O.

  1. Nanophotonic Devices; Spontaneous Emission Faster than Stimulated Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    frequency currents in the adjacent parts of the metal antenna. These currents are subject to Ohmic losses, cutting the antenna efficiency. Thus we have...losses, cutting the antenna efficiency. Thus we have been encouraging our competitors to place a secondary requirement on spontaneous emission...Schuck) U.S. Patent No. 8,984,661 (Mar. 17, 2015). Invited Presentations during Past Year: 1. Oliver Buckley Condensed Matter Physics Prize, 2015

  2. Responding to the Invisible Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Investigates what constitutes good reflection. Describes how one instructor used the Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) to explore her responses to the reflective writing produced by preservice English teachers. Concludes that the MBTI can provide insight into and improve how instructors assign, respond to, and evaluate student reflection.…

  3. CORRUPTION: HOW SHOULD CHRISTIANS RESPOND?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHRISTIANS RESPOND? ABSTRACT. The results of the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International indicate the seriousness of the worldwide corruption problem. Although recent decades have witnessed a global public awareness and an increase in attempts to eradicate corruption, it is an ongoing ...

  4. Sixty years of lithium responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grof, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It has been 60 years since Cade first described patients who responded to antimanic lithium treatment. Two decades later, responders to lithium stabilization emerged in larger numbers. The responses of many severely ill bipolar patients to lithium were striking and called for an explanation. Remarkable reactions to a simple ion generated hope for an uncomplicated laboratory test of response and an extensive search for suitable biological markers ensued. But despite promising reports, particularly from molecular genetics, we are still waiting for a biological elucidation of the stabilizing effects of lithium. The most useful predictor of lithium stabilization has to date been the patient's clinical profile, based on a comprehensive clinical assessment: complete remissions and other characteristics of episodic clinical course, bipolar family history, low psychiatric comorbidity and a characteristic presenting psychopathology. In brief, the responders approximate the classical Kraepelinian description of a manic-depressive patient. But the most intriguing findings have recently emerged from prospective observations of the next generation: the children of lithium responders, their counterparts coming from parents who did not respond to lithium and controls. Overall, they indicate that parents and offspring suffer from a comparable brain dysfunction that manifests clinically in distinct stages. If the child's predicament starts early in childhood, it presents with varied, nonaffective or subclinical manifestations that are usually nonresponsive to standard treatments prescribed according to the symptoms. The next stage then unfolds in adolescence, first with depressive and later with activated episodes. The observations have a potential to markedly enrich the prevailing understanding and management of mood disorders. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. What Makes You Go Faster?: The Effect of Reward on Speeded Action under Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-jie Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the potential reward and risk associated with a choice of action plays an important role in everyday decision making. However, the details behind how reward and risk affect the decisions for actions remain unclear. The present study investigates the influence of reward and risk on a decision to make a speeded motor response. One hundred and ten college students performed a Speed-Rewarded Go-NoGo task during which they were rewarded proportionally based on the speed and accuracy of their response. On each trial, the magnitude of potential reward and the probability of a forthcoming Go signal (Go-probability were presented prior to the Go or NoGo signal. Personality traits, such as risk taking and impulsive tendencies, were measured to determine their contribution in explaining individual differences in task performance. The results showed that larger amount of rewards can motivate people to respond faster, and this effect was modulated by the assessed risk, suggesting that decisions for actions are based on a systematic trade-off between rewards and risks. Moreover, when the assessed risk was high, individuals with greater risk taking and impulsive tendencies did not adequately adjust their behavior across different reward levels. These findings shed light on the mechanistic understanding of the effect of reward and risk on decisions for a speeded action.

  6. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaël Aubry

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR in endurance athletes.Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects before (Pre, and immediately after an overload training period (Mid and after a 2-week taper (Post. Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue. Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size. Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large, plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate. These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations.These findings suggest that i a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity.

  7. Faster heart rate and muscular oxygen uptake kinetics in type 2 diabetes patients following endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, Jessica; Drescher, Uwe; Brinkmann, Christian; Baum, Klaus; Schiffer, Thorsten; Latsch, Joachim; Brixius, Klara; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory kinetics were analyzed in type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 12-week endurance exercise-training intervention. It was hypothesized that muscular oxygen uptake and heart rate (HR) kinetics would be faster after the training intervention and that this would be detectable using a standardized work rate protocol with pseudo-random binary sequences. The cardiorespiratory kinetics of 13 male sedentary, middle-aged, overweight type 2 diabetes patients (age, 60 ± 8 years; body mass index, 33 ± 4 kg·m-2) were tested before and after the 12-week exercise intervention. Subjects performed endurance training 3 times a week on nonconsecutive days. Pseudo-random binary sequences exercise protocols in combination with time series analysis were used to estimate kinetics. Greater maxima in cross-correlation functions (CCFmax) represent faster kinetics of the respective parameter. CCFmax of muscular oxygen uptake (pre-training: 0.31 ± 0.03; post-training: 0.37 ± 0.1, P = 0.024) and CCFmax of HR (pre-training: 0.25 ± 0.04; post-training: 0.29 ± 0.06, P = 0.007) as well as peak oxygen uptake (pre-training: 24.4 ± 4.7 mL·kg-1·min-1; post-training: 29.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1, P = 0.004) increased significantly over the course of the exercise intervention. In conclusion, kinetic responses to changing work rates in the moderate-intensity range are similar to metabolic demands occurring in everyday habitual activities. Moderate endurance training accelerated the kinetic responses of HR and muscular oxygen uptake. Furthermore, the applicability of the used method to detect these accelerations was demonstrated.

  8. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  9. 211 Cortical Oscillations During Memory Encoding Are Reinstated on a Faster Time Scale During Memory Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhouni, Ammar; Yaffe, Robert; Inati, Sara; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2016-08-01

    Previous work has shown that successful recall of prior experiences is associated with reactivation of the same brain regions that were active during the encoding of these experiences. Here we quantify the time scale of the neural activity reinstatement and show that the brain replays its encoding dynamical activity on a faster time scale during recall. We collected data from 34 subjects with medication-resistant epilepsy who underwent intracranial electroencephalography while they participated in a verbal paired-associates memory task. The average spectral power for each brain region was computed in the theta and high gamma bands yielding an average encoding and retrieval power trace. A time-warping algorithm was then applied to the retrieval trace to best fit it to the encoding trace. For each region, we tabulated the time-scaling factor that led to the best correlation between the 2 traces. For each subject, the average scale factor was computed for all the regions that achieved a significant correlation. For theta and high gamma, the mean time-scaling factors of recall activity with encoding activity across subjects were 0.92 ± 0.03 and 0.95 ± 0.02. The mean scale factors for theta and high gamma were significantly smaller than 1, indicating that the brain replays its encoding activity during recall at a significantly faster scale. While this was true for the average data across all regions and subjects, few regions exhibited reversal of this pattern. Our results demonstrate that, on average, spectral dynamics are replayed on a faster time scale during memory retrieval. This complements previous animal work. However, further investigation is needed to explore the differences between replay time scale in different brain regions as well as its behavioral correlates.

  10. Faster health deterioration among nail technicians occupationally exposed to low levels of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grešner, Peter; Świercz, Radosław; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta

    2017-05-08

    The study has aimed at investigating the subjective assessment of an individual's health status and comparing the prevalence of selected work-related symptoms among nail technicians occupationally exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the one among control subjects. Associations between occupational exposure to VOCs and the incidence of adverse health effects were also analyzed. The study involved 145 female nail technicians and 152 control subjects. Data on the prevalence of adverse health effects was collected using the researcher- made questionnaire and then analyzed by means of survival analysis methods. Only 22% of nail technicians as compared to 45% of control subjects described their current health status as "excellent" or "very good" (odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2-0.6, p < 0.00005). In general, 61% of nail technicians confirmed to have experienced any out of all symptoms considered in the study since the commencement of the job, which was significantly higher as compared to 17% of control subjects (adjusted OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 2.1-3.7, p < 0.0001). Estimated median length of the employment period free of investigated symptoms was significantly shorter among nail technicians as compared to controls (12 years vs. 33 years, p < 0.0001), consistent with almost 4-times increased hazard of the occurrence of such symptoms among the technicians (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.7-5.7, p < 0.0001). Cox proportional hazard regression modeling revealed almost 5-times increased hazard of the occurrence of any symptoms among nail technicians exposed to higher levels of the mixture of VOCs as compared to those exposed to lower levels (HR = 4.9, 95% CI: 1-24.1, p = 0.05). All outcomes combined together indicate that nail technicians are subject to faster health deterioration, which may be assumed to be caused by occupational exposure to low levels of VOCs. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):469-483.

  11. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  12. Dishonest responding or true virtue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Moshagen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    management scores indeed reflect true virtues rather than dishonesty under such conditions. We found support for this idea by replicating previous correlations between impression management scores and virtue-related basic personality traits (including honesty-humility), and additionally provided conclusive...... behavioral evidence: We linked scores on an impression management scale administered under typical low demand condition to behavior in an incentivized, anonymous cheating task. The results clearly indicate that low scores in impression management are associated with more cheating. That is, high—and not low......—scores on the Impression Management scale of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding are aligned with more virtuous, honest behavior....

  13. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... on reproductive outcome. The rationale for asking this question lies in the existing scientific evidence derived from basic research and animal studies regarding the action of androgens during folliculogenesis, showing that their main effect in follicular development is defined during the earlier developmental...

  14. Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction and Agility Performance in Female Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U; Binetti, Molly; Hart, Nicolas H; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    Change of direction (COD) and agility require the integration of multiple components to produce a faster performance. However, the mechanisms contributing to a faster performance without the confounding factor of athlete expertise or gender is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess body composition, strength, and kinetic profile required for a faster COD and agility performance across multiple directional changes. Six faster and 6 slower (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat; eccentric and concentric only back squat; isometric midthigh pull; whole-body scan to determine lean, fat, and total mass; 505 COD test; T-test; and a multidirectional agility test over in-ground force plates to obtain relevant kinetic measures. Group (faster and slower) by test (2 × 3) multivariate analyses of variance with follow-up analyses of variance were conducted to examine differences between faster and slower groups and each COD and agility test (p ≤ 0.05). Faster athletes during the 505 COD test produced significantly greater vertical force (p = 0.002) and eccentric and isometric strength capacity (p = 0.001). Faster agility and T-test athletes demonstrated significantly shorter contact times (p = 0.001), greater propulsive impulse (p = 0.02), isometric strength, and relative lean mass compared with slower athletes. Differences between faster athletes across each test seem to be attributed to the mechanical demands of the directional change, increasing force and impulse application as the degree of directional change increased. These findings indicate that different mechanical properties are required to produce a faster COD and agility performances, and the importance of a greater strength capacity to enable greater mechanical adjustment through force production and body control, during different directional changes.

  15. The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoyan Angela; Koutstaal, Wilma; Engel, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    Familiar items are found faster than unfamiliar ones in visual search tasks. This effect has important implications for cognitive theory, because it may reveal how mental representations of commonly encountered items are changed by experience to optimize performance. It remains unknown, however, whether everyday items with moderate levels of exposure would show benefits in visual search, and if so, what kind of experience would be required to produce them. Here, we tested whether familiar product logos were searched for faster than unfamiliar ones, and also familiarized subjects with previously unfamiliar logos. Subjects searched for preexperimentally familiar and unfamiliar logos, half of which were familiarized in the laboratory, amongst other, unfamiliar distractor logos. In three experiments, we used an N-back-like familiarization task, and in four others we used a task that asked detailed questions about the perceptual aspects of the logos. The number of familiarization exposures ranged from 30 to 84 per logo across experiments, with two experiments involving across-day familiarization. Preexperimentally familiar target logos were searched for faster than were unfamiliar, nonfamiliarized logos, by 8 % on average. This difference was reliable in all seven experiments. However, familiarization had little or no effect on search speeds; its average effect was to improve search times by 0.7 %, and its effect was significant in only one of the seven experiments. If priming, mere exposure, episodic memory, or relatively modest familiarity were responsible for familiarity's effects on search, then performance should have improved following familiarization. Our results suggest that the search-related advantage of familiar logos does not develop easily or rapidly.

  16. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  17. Reading Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  18. Drug use among complete responders, partial responders and non-responders in a longitudinal survey of nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Rasmussen, Lotte; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In observational studies, non-response can limit representativity and introduce bias. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in the number of used drugs among complete responders, partial responders, and non-responders in a whole birth cohort of Danish nonagenarians participati...

  19. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  20. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube. Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  1. Identifying the Right Disease Targets to Develop Better Drugs, Faster | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Identifying the Right Disease Targets to Develop Better Drugs, Faster Past ... reason is that we're not selecting the right biological changes to target from the start. How ...

  2. Questions Students Ask: How Can a Downhill Skier Move Faster than a Sky Diver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenti, Angelo, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of gravity, coefficient of friction, surface area, and Newton's second law to explain the physics involved in downhill skiers being able to move faster than sky divers in free fall. (JM)

  3. Symbol detection in online handwritten graphics using Faster R-CNN

    OpenAIRE

    Julca-Aguilar, Frank D.; Hirata, Nina S. T.

    2017-01-01

    Symbol detection techniques in online handwritten graphics (e.g. diagrams and mathematical expressions) consist of methods specifically designed for a single graphic type. In this work, we evaluate the Faster R-CNN object detection algorithm as a general method for detection of symbols in handwritten graphics. We evaluate different configurations of the Faster R-CNN method, and point out issues relative to the handwritten nature of the data. Considering the online recognition context, we eval...

  4. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  5. Differences in change in coping styles between good responders, moderate responders and non-responders to pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilkova-Hartmann, Ana; Janssen, Daisy J A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise tolerance and health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data on the effects of PR on coping styles are limited. Aim of the present study was to compare changes in coping styles between patients who had a good, moderate and no improvement in either exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Coping styles of 439 COPD patients undergoing PR were assessed by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL) at baseline and after PR. Patients' pulmonary function, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D) were recorded. Good, moderate and non-responders were defined on the basis of minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for SGRQ total score and/or 6MWD. Overall, 54.0% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for good responders, while 22.1% were moderate responders. Change in passive reaction pattern coping style differed significantly between good responders and non-responders following PR (p coping styles after PR occurred among the good responders, whereas the majority of moderate responders' and non-responders' coping styles were not significantly influenced by PR. Good responders decreased their passive reaction pattern coping style in contrast to non-responders after PR. In general, PR did not change the coping among moderate and non-responders. Further research is warranted to determine whether including interventions targeting coping styles may modify coping behaviour of COPD patients, as well as improvement in exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. 24 CFR 103.202 - Notification of respondent; joinder of additional or substitute respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of additional or substitute respondents. 103.202 Section 103.202 Housing and Urban Development... Procedures § 103.202 Notification of respondent; joinder of additional or substitute respondents. (a) Within... may be joined as an additional or substitute respondent by service of a notice on the person under...

  8. Car Detection from Low-Altitude UAV Imagery with the Faster R-CNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzheng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV based traffic monitoring holds distinct advantages over traditional traffic sensors, such as loop detectors, as UAVs have higher mobility, wider field of view, and less impact on the observed traffic. For traffic monitoring from UAV images, the essential but challenging task is vehicle detection. This paper extends the framework of Faster R-CNN for car detection from low-altitude UAV imagery captured over signalized intersections. Experimental results show that Faster R-CNN can achieve promising car detection results compared with other methods. Our tests further demonstrate that Faster R-CNN is robust to illumination changes and cars’ in-plane rotation. Besides, the detection speed of Faster R-CNN is insensitive to the detection load, that is, the number of detected cars in a frame; therefore, the detection speed is almost constant for each frame. In addition, our tests show that Faster R-CNN holds great potential for parking lot car detection. This paper tries to guide the readers to choose the best vehicle detection framework according to their applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current framework to detect other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motorcycles, and bicycles.

  9. Responding to reviewers' comments as part of writing for publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a resource for authors to help them in getting their work published. The focus is on dealing with, and responding to, the comments of reviewers. The importance to research of nurses writing for publication is widely acknowledged. However, a number of significant barriers to nurses actively engaging in this form of dissemination has been identified. Ways in which nurses can avoid the pitfalls that would make their manuscripts more likely to be rejected have been the subjects of published articles. Significantly less attention has been devoted to providing authors with methods to assist them in responding when their manuscripts are rejected or major revisions are requested. This article provides a brief overview of the process of editorial review. It offers a practical but structured approach to responding to reviewers' comments when undertaking major revisions and to preparing a rejected manuscript for resubmission to another journal. Authors frequently respond negatively to reviewers' comments and this may result in their being dissuaded from writing for publication. A structured approach to dealing with reviewers' comments may help nurses in making the requested revisions and increase their chances of publication. The publication of research findings and other scholarly work are important for the professional advancement of nursing. Strategies to overcome the barriers to writing for publication are essential to achieving this goal. Helping authors to respond positively to reviewer critique and to make the necessary changes are important steps in this process.

  10. Dedicated workspaces: Faster resumption times and reduced cognitive load in sequential multitasking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that virtual desktops have become a widespread approach to window management within desktop environments. However, despite their success, there is no experimental evidence of their effect on multitasking. In this paper, we present an experimental study incorporating 16 participants...... to perform the same tasks. Results show that adopting virtual desktops as dedicated workspaces allows for faster task resumption (10 s faster on average) and reduced cognitive load during sequential multitasking. Within our experiment the majority of users already benefited from using dedicated workspaces...

  11. Socio Economic Assessment of Urban Forestry Respondents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigates the socio economic assessment of urban forestry respondents' income in Okitipupa, Nigeria. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and these were administered to 200 urban forestry respondents. Data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics viz: age, gender, marital status, ...

  12. Empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I differentiate among empathy, sympathy and personal distress and discuss the central role of empathy-related responding in positive (including moral) development. Empathy-related responding, especially sympathy, is likely an important source of prosocial, other-oriented motivation. In fact, empathy-related responding, especially sympathy, has been associated with prosocial behaviour (voluntary behaviour intended to benefit another, e.g. helping, sharing); this relation has been obtained for both specific instances of empathy-related responding and for dispositional sympathy. In addition, sympathy (or sometimes empathy) has been linked to relatively high levels of moral reasoning and social competence, and to low levels of aggression and antisocial behaviour. In my talk, I will review research on the relation of empathy-related responding to prosocial behaviour, the consistency of costly prosocial behaviour over time and the possible role of sympathy in its consistency, and the relation of empathy-related responding to moral reasoning, antisocial behaviour and social competence. Examples of research, including longitudinal research in our laboratory, are provided to illustrate these relations. Because of its close relations to social and prosocial responding, an understanding of empathy-related responding contributes to efforts to promote children's moral development.

  13. Respondents as Interlocutors: Translating Deliberative Democratic Principles to Qualitative Interviewing Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curato, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The epistemic interview is a conversational practice, which aims to generate knowledge by subjecting respondents' beliefs to dialectical tests of reasons. Developed by Svend Brinkmann, this model draws inspiration from Socratic dialogues where the interviewer asks confronting questions to press respondents to articulate the normative bases of…

  14. Think or Click? Student Preference for Overt vs. Covert Responding in Web-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggas, Amy M.; Hantula, Donald A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates undergraduate student preference for overt vs. covert responding in a Web-based tutorial using a within-subject design. Explains covert question format, which requires passive thinking, and overt format, which requires active responding; and discusses results which show a preference for the overt format. (Author/LRW)

  15. Scientists Deduced the Existence of Particles with Faster-than-Light Speeds Recently Discovered by CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pătraşcu I.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a short survey on Smarandache Hypothesis that there is no speed barrier in the universe and one can construct arbitrary speeds, hypothesis which has been partially confirmed by the recent CERN results of OPERA team led by Antonio Ereditato that experimentally found that neutrino particles travel faster than c.

  16. The fish is bad: negative food odors elicit faster and more accurate reactions than other odors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Frasnelli, J.; Gordon, A.; Lundstrom, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Dissociating between ‘good’ or ‘bad’ odors is arguable of crucial value for human survival, since unpleasant odors often signal danger. Therefore, negative odors demand a faster response in order to quickly avoid or move away from negative situations. We know from other sensory systems that this

  17. More Symmetrical Children Have Faster and More Consistent Choice Reaction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, David; Bates, Timothy C.; Dykiert, Dominika; Der, Geoff; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Greater cognitive ability in childhood is associated with increased longevity, and speedier reaction time (RT) might account for much of this linkage. Greater bodily symmetry is linked to both higher cognitive test scores and faster RTs. It is possible, then, that differences in bodily system integrity indexed by symmetry may underlie the…

  18. Pedestrian crowd dynamics in merging sections: Revisiting the ;faster-is-slower; phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhoseini, Zahra; Sarvi, Majid; Saberi, Meead

    2018-02-01

    The study of the discharge of active or self-driven matter in narrow passages has become of the growing interest in a variety of fields. The question has particularly important practical applications for the safety of pedestrian human flows notably in emergency scenarios. It has been suggested predominantly through simulation in some theoretical studies as well as through few experimentations that under certain circumstances, an elevated vigour to escape may exacerbate the outflow and cause further delay although the experimental evidence is rather mixed. The dimensions of this complex phenomenon known as the "faster-is slower" effect are of crucial importance to be understood owing to its potential practical implications for the emergency management. The contextual requirements of observing this phenomenon are yet to be identified. It is not clear whether a "do not speed up" policy is universally beneficial and advisable in an evacuation scenario. Here for the first time we experimentally examine this phenomenon in relation to the pedestrian flows at merging sections as a common geometric feature of crowd egress. Various merging angles and three different speed regimes were examined in high-density laboratory experiments. The measurements of flow interruptions and egress efficiency all indicated that the pedestrians were discharged faster when moving at elevated speed levels. We also observed clear dependencies between the discharge rate and the physical layout of the merging with certain designs clearly outperforming others. But regardless of the design, we observed faster throughput and greater avalanche sizes when we instructed pedestrians to run. Our results give the suggestion that observation of the faster-is-slower effect may necessitate certain critical conditions including passages being overly narrow relative to the size of participles (pedestrians) to create long-lasting blockages. The faster-is-slower assumption may not be universal and there may be

  19. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  20. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  1. Transurethral holmium laser enucleation versus transurethral resection of the prostate and simple open prostatectomy--which procedure is faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyai, Sascha A; Chun, Felix K H; Lehrich, Karin; Dahlem, Roland; Zacharias, Mario S; Fisch, Margit M; Kuntz, Rainer M

    2012-05-01

    The longer operative time of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate compared to transurethral resection of the prostate or simple open prostatectomy reported in the literature might have been biased by the unavailability of a soft tissue morcellator, limited surgical experience with holmium laser prostate enucleation or the fact that significantly more tissue was removed by enucleation than by resection. We objectively compared the resection speed of contemporary holmium laser enucleation vs transurethral resection of the prostate and of holmium laser enucleation vs simple open prostatectomy. The study cohort consisted of 100 cases of transurethral prostate resection and 60 of simple open prostatectomy from our previous randomized, controlled trials. These cases were subjected to matched pair analysis with greater than 1,000 from our prospective contemporary database on holmium laser prostate enucleation. Exact matches were made for the same amount of resected tissue. In all contemporary holmium laser enucleation cases a mechanical soft tissue morcellator was used. We calculated and compared the specific resection speed in gm per minute and operative time for the same amount of resected tissue. In groups 1 and 2 we matched 99 exact laser enucleation-transurethral resection pairs and 53 exact laser enucleation-simple open prostatectomy pairs, respectively. Resection speed and operative time for laser enucleation were statistically significantly faster than for resection (0.61 vs 0.51 gm per minute and 62 vs 73 minutes, p enucleation of the prostate is faster than transurethral resection of the prostate and similar to simple open prostatectomy. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Challenges to Leadership: Responding to Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Challenges to Leadership : Responding to Biological Threats Paul Rosenzweig Center for Technology and National Security Policy...Challenges to Leadership : Responding to Biological Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... theory , two other components to any program to reduce the threat of a biological attack: limiting access to source materials and technology and

  3. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-06-01

    The current study sets forth to provide descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers on the basis of their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12 months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt [OUCH] cohort; N = 302). Growth mixture modeling analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination. This study provides descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examines longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Demonstrating significantly different pain patterns from infancy, 25% of preschoolers are displaying suboptimal regulation trajectories. This considerable minority poses a significant concern because of the established trajectory of phobia onset in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional changes induced by bevacizumab combination therapy in responding and non-responding recurrent glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Staunstrup, Line Maersk; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2017-01-01

    expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was performed using RNA-sequencing.Results: By comparing pretreatment samples of responders with those of non-responders no significant difference was observed. In a paired comparison analysis of pre- and posttreatment samples of non...... distinct gene expression changes while responding tumors adaptively respond or progress by means of the same transcriptional changes. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the identified gene expression changes of responding tumors are associated to bevacizumab response or resistance mechanisms....

  5. Faster heme loss from hemoglobin E than HbS, in acidic pH: Effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report studies on loss of heme at or below pH 3.0 from two clinically important hemoglobin variants, HbE and HbS, in the presence and absence of phopholipid membranes. The kinetics of heme loss has been studied at pH 3.0 to simulate the same at a faster rate than at physiological pH, for spectroscopic investigation.

  6. Learning to Play in a Day: Faster Deep Reinforcement Learning by Optimality Tightening

    OpenAIRE

    He, Frank S.; Liu, Yang; Schwing, Alexander G.; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel training algorithm for reinforcement learning which combines the strength of deep Q-learning with a constrained optimization approach to tighten optimality and encourage faster reward propagation. Our novel technique makes deep reinforcement learning more practical by drastically reducing the training time. We evaluate the performance of our approach on the 49 games of the challenging Arcade Learning Environment, and report significant improvements in both training time and...

  7. Do Democracies Grow Faster? Revisiting the Institutions and Economic Performance Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jamus Jerome; Decker, Jessica Henson

    2007-01-01

    The recent empirical growth literature has proposed three underlying fundamental determinants of economic growth, namely, physical geography, economic integration, and institutional quality. This paper unpacks the final determinant into both political-economic institutions as well as the primarily political institution of democratic development. Using both cross-sectional and panel datasets, we show that, properly instrumented, there is no evidence that democracies grow faster or slower than ...

  8. A logical treatment of special relativity, with and without faster-than-light observers

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    There are three goals of this thesis. First: to present a concise yet accessible description of basic mathematical logic and model theory. Second: to develop an axiomatization of special relativity using only two undefined predicates. Ideally, these axioms should be empirically verifiable and supported by a large body of evidence. Finally: to weaken this axiomatization so as to allow for the existence of faster-than-light observers, which are normally excluded from the theory of special relat...

  9. Dependent Interviewing and Sub-Optimal Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eggs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.

  10. Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice / Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa – comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole – were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such results are in line with those found in the literature, which indicate the opposition between egalitarianism (suprapersonal vs. protestant ethic (achievement values so as to explicate the prejudice and the motivations that would prevent such attitude.

  11. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  12. Removal Tools are Faster and Produce Less Force and Torque on the Helmet Than Cutting Tools During Face-Mask Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Heather L; Valovich, Tamara C; Arnold, Brent L; Gansneder, Bruce M

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the retraction time, forces, and torques applied to the football helmet during removal of the face mask with different face-mask removal tools. DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects retracted the face mask of a football helmet mounted to a force platform in a laboratory setting. They removed a standard face mask by cutting or removing (or both) the lateral plastic loop straps using 4 different tools: the Trainer's Angel (TA), FM Extractor (FM), power screwdriver (SD), and Quick Release System (QR) in a counterbalanced fashion. SUBJECTS: Eighteen certified athletic trainers participated in this study. MEASUREMENTS: We started measuring time when the subject picked up the tool and ended when the face mask was in a fully retracted position. Maximum forces and torques were measured from the force platform during the retraction process. RESULTS: The SD and QR retracted the face mask significantly faster than the TA and FM. Forces producing superior-inferior translation were least with the SD. The SD and QR produced less lateral translation and rotation and lateral flexion moment than the TA and FM. The FM produced less torque in the lateral flexion moment than the TA. CONCLUSIONS: Tools that removed the loop straps (SD, QR) were faster and produced less force and torque on the helmet than the tools that cut through the loop straps (TA, FM).

  13. Transcriptional changes induced by bevacizumab combination therapy in responding and non-responding recurrent glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Staunstrup, Line Maersk; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2017-01-01

    and resistance to bevacizumab combination therapy.Methods: Recurrent glioblastoma patients who had biomarker-accessible tumor tissue surgically removed both before bevacizumab treatment and at time of progression were included. Patients were grouped into responders (n = 7) and non-responders (n = 14). Gene...... expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was performed using RNA-sequencing.Results: By comparing pretreatment samples of responders with those of non-responders no significant difference was observed. In a paired comparison analysis of pre- and posttreatment samples of non...

  14. Responding to Loneliness: Counseling the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, M. Honore

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a group on "Responding to Loneliness" for the elderly. Focuses on building positive self-esteem; learning social and personal skills; managing stress and anxiety; developing problem-solving strategies; and building a social network. (Author/JAC)

  15. Responding to Misinformation about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eva K.; Estow, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study examined responses to climate change misinformation and messages designed to counter misinformation. Participants (N = 406) first responded to a social media post denying the existence of global warming and then were randomly assigned to read one of three responses to the original post (correction, collaboration, control). Participants…

  16. Hemicrania continua: who responds to indomethacin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmura, M J; Silberstein, S D; Gupta, M

    2009-03-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a primary headache disorder characterized by a continuous, moderate to severe, unilateral headache and defined by its absolute responsiveness to indomethacin. However, some patients with the clinical phenotype of HC do not respond to indomethacin. We reviewed the records of 192 patients with the putative diagnosis of HC and divided them into groups based on their headaches' response to indomethacin. They were compared for age, gender, presence or absence of specific autonomic symptoms, medication overuse, rapidity of headache onset, and whether or not the headaches met criteria for migraine when severe. Forty-three patients had an absolute response and 122 patients did not respond to adequate doses of indomethacin. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, sex, presence of rapid-onset headache, or medication overuse. Autonomic symptoms, based on a questionnaire, did not predict response. Eighteen patients could not complete a trial of indomethacin due to adverse events. Nine patients could not be included in the HC group despite improvement with indomethacin: one patient probably had primary cough headache, another paroxysmal hemicrania; three patients improved but it was uncertain if they were absolutely pain free, and four patients dramatically improved but still had a baseline headache. We found no statistically significant differences between patients who did and did not respond to indomethacin. All patients with continuous, unilateral headache should receive an adequate trial of indomethacin. Most patients with unilateral headache suggestive of HC did not respond to indomethacin.

  17. Porphyria cutanea tarda responding to spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral spirulina - an alga rich in beta - carotene. The beta - carotene in the spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria-associated photosensitivity.

  18. What is wrong with non-respondents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and dif...

  19. Responding to organised environmental crimes: Collaborative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responding to organised environmental crimes: Collaborative approaches and capacity building. ... helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  20. Learning Games for Active Student Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Caren; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Instructional games can be used effectively when they require active student participation and high rates of student responding. The article describes principles of such games and suggests ways to turn typical games (such as "Bingo,""War,""Scrabble,""Boggle," paper/pencil games, and question/answer games) into active, high-response games. (JDD)

  1. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  2. Faster Smith-Waterman database searches with inter-sequence SIMD parallelisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognes Torbjørn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Smith-Waterman algorithm for local sequence alignment is more sensitive than heuristic methods for database searching, but also more time-consuming. The fastest approach to parallelisation with SIMD technology has previously been described by Farrar in 2007. The aim of this study was to explore whether further speed could be gained by other approaches to parallelisation. Results A faster approach and implementation is described and benchmarked. In the new tool SWIPE, residues from sixteen different database sequences are compared in parallel to one query residue. Using a 375 residue query sequence a speed of 106 billion cell updates per second (GCUPS was achieved on a dual Intel Xeon X5650 six-core processor system, which is over six times more rapid than software based on Farrar's 'striped' approach. SWIPE was about 2.5 times faster when the programs used only a single thread. For shorter queries, the increase in speed was larger. SWIPE was about twice as fast as BLAST when using the BLOSUM50 score matrix, while BLAST was about twice as fast as SWIPE for the BLOSUM62 matrix. The software is designed for 64 bit Linux on processors with SSSE3. Source code is available from http://dna.uio.no/swipe/ under the GNU Affero General Public License. Conclusions Efficient parallelisation using SIMD on standard hardware makes it possible to run Smith-Waterman database searches more than six times faster than before. The approach described here could significantly widen the potential application of Smith-Waterman searches. Other applications that require optimal local alignment scores could also benefit from improved performance.

  3. Faster native vowel discrimination learning in musicians is mediated by an optimization of mnemonic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Greber, Marielle; Pushparaj, Arethy; Kühnis, Jürg; Jäncke, Lutz

    2017-09-01

    The ability to discriminate phonemes varying in spectral and temporal attributes constitutes one of the most basic intrinsic elements underlying language learning mechanisms. Since previous work has consistently shown that professional musicians are characterized by perceptual and cognitive advantages in a variety of language-related tasks, and since vowels can be considered musical sounds within the domain of speech, here we investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of native vowel discrimination learning in a sample of professional musicians and non-musicians. We evaluated the contribution of both the neurophysiological underpinnings of perceptual (i.e., N1/P2 complex) and mnemonic functions (i.e., N400 and P600 responses) while the participants were instructed to judge whether pairs of native consonant-vowel (CV) syllables manipulated in the first formant transition of the vowel (i.e., from /tu/ to /to/) were identical or not. Results clearly demonstrated faster learning in musicians, compared to non-musicians, as reflected by shorter reaction times and higher accuracy. Most notably, in terms of morphology, time course, and voltage strength, this steeper learning curve was accompanied by distinctive N400 and P600 manifestations between the two groups. In contrast, we did not reveal any group differences during the early stages of auditory processing (i.e., N1/P2 complex), suggesting that faster learning was mediated by an optimization of mnemonic but not perceptual functions. Based on a clear taxonomy of the mnemonic functions involved in the task, results are interpreted as pointing to a relationship between faster learning mechanisms in musicians and an optimization of echoic (i.e., N400 component) and working memory (i.e., P600 component) functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computing with a single qubit faster than the computation quantum speed limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2018-02-01

    The possibility to save and process information in fundamentally indistinguishable states is the quantum mechanical resource that is not encountered in classical computing. I demonstrate that, if energy constraints are imposed, this resource can be used to accelerate information-processing without relying on entanglement or any other type of quantum correlations. In fact, there are computational problems that can be solved much faster, in comparison to currently used classical schemes, by saving intermediate information in nonorthogonal states of just a single qubit. There are also error correction strategies that protect such computations.

  5. Faster-than-light particles: a review of tachyon characteristics. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puscher, E.A.

    1980-10-01

    This report documents an analytical prediction of some of the characteristics which presently undiscovered faster-than-light sub-atomic particles (called tachyons) must possess if they are to exist without violating the Theory of Special Relativity. A brief review of necessary concepts from the Special Theory is included so that the reader might more readily understand the reasoning as it is developed. Necessary, but not all, characteristics of tachyons are then identified and presented. Finally, an interesting potential relationship between tachyons and anti-gravity is discussed.

  6. Content Specificity in Imaginal Exposure: Evaluation of Subjective and Physiological Responding in Patients with Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-18

    Diastolic Blood Pressure. Diagnostic Status Predicting Mean Arterial Pressure. Specific Focus Correlations. VI INTRODUCfION Ahhougb Freud described panic...Psychiatric illnesses in the mothers of school-phobic adolescents . British Journal of Psychiatry, 125,466-467. Bond, AJ., James, c., & Lader, M.H

  7. Factors at play in faster progression for female pathological gamblers: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Hermano; Martins, Silvia S; Lobo, Daniela S S; Silveira, Camila M; Gentil, Valentim; Hodgins, David C

    2003-04-01

    Previous studies reported a faster progression for alcohol dependence and pathological gambling among females as compared with males. This phenomenon was called the "telescoping effect." By comparing female gamblers with male gamblers regarding gambling preferences and comorbidity, the authors explored potential risk factors for telescoping. A consecutive sample of Brazilian treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (DSM-IV criteria) was recruited. Genders were contrasted regarding comorbidity and gambling behavior, controlling for demographics, gambling severity, and previous access to mental health services. Seventy female gamblers and 70 male gamblers were interviewed. A greater proportion of women than men reported electronic bingo and video lottery terminals as their main type of gambling. Gambling was divided in 3 progressive stages: "social gambling," "intense gambling," and "problem gambling." Faster progression for female gamblers was confirmed; female gender and preference for electronic bingo and/or video lottery terminals were risk factors for telescoping throughout all stages. Female gamblers presented a higher comorbidity with depression, whereas male gamblers had higher rates of alcohol dependence. Nevertheless, comorbidity profiles were not related to gambling progression. Two factors could be at play for treatment-seeking female gamblers in Brazil: (1) a potential gender vulnerability and (2) a cultural environment yielding them access to a narrower range of gambling games that includes mainly the most addictive ones.

  8. Faster recovery of a diatom from UV damage under ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaping; Campbell, Douglas A; Gao, Kunshan

    2014-11-01

    Diatoms are the most important group of primary producers in marine ecosystems. As oceanic pH declines and increased stratification leads to the upper mixing layer becoming shallower, diatoms are interactively affected by both lower pH and higher average exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation. The photochemical yields of a model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were inhibited by ultraviolet radiation under both growth and excess light levels, while the functional absorbance cross sections of the remaining photosystem II increased. Cells grown under ocean acidification (OA) were less affected during UV exposure. The recovery of PSII under low photosynthetically active radiation was much faster than in the dark, indicating that photosynthetic processes were essential for the full recovery of photosystem II. This light dependent recovery required de novo synthesized protein. Cells grown under ocean acidification recovered faster, possibly attributable to higher CO₂ availability for the Calvin cycle producing more resources for repair. The lower UV inhibition combined with higher recovery rate under ocean acidification could benefit species such as P.tricornutum, and change their competitiveness in the future ocean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Faster Proton dynamics of water on SnO2 compared to TiO2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nitin [ORNL; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-01-01

    Proton jump processes in the hydration layer on the iso-structural TiO2 rutile (110) and SnO2 cassiterite (110) surfaces were studied with density functional theory molecular dynamics. We find that the proton jump rate is more than three times faster on cassiterite compared with rutile. A local analysis based on the correlation between the stretching band of the O H vibrations and the strength of H-bonds indicates that the faster proton jump activity on cassiterite is produced by a stronger H-bond formation between the surface and the hydration layer above the surface. The origin of the increased H-bond strength on cassiterite is a combined effect of stronger covalent bonding and stronger electrostatic interactions due to differences of its electronic structure. The bridging oxygens form the strongest H-bonds between the surface and the hydration layer. This higher proton jump rate is likely to affect reactivity and catalytic activity on the surface. A better understanding of its origins will enable methods to control these rates. 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3509386

  10. Analysis of the faster-than-Nyquist optimal linear multicarrier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Alexandre; Siclet, Cyrille; Roque, Damien

    2017-02-01

    Faster-than-Nyquist signalization enables a better spectral efficiency at the expense of an increased computational complexity. Regarding multicarrier communications, previous work mainly relied on the study of non-linear systems exploiting coding and/or equalization techniques, with no particular optimization of the linear part of the system. In this article, we analyze the performance of the optimal linear multicarrier system when used together with non-linear receiving structures (iterative decoding and direct feedback equalization), or in a standalone fashion. We also investigate the limits of the normality assumption of the interference, used for implementing such non-linear systems. The use of this optimal linear system leads to a closed-form expression of the bit-error probability that can be used to predict the performance and help the design of coded systems. Our work also highlights the great performance/complexity trade-off offered by decision feedback equalization in a faster-than-Nyquist context. xml:lang="fr"

  11. The Development of Future Orientation is Associated with Faster Decline in Hopelessness during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giollabhui, Naoise; Nielsen, Johanna; Seidman, Sam; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2018-01-05

    Hopelessness is implicated in multiple psychological disorders. Little is known, however, about the trajectory of hopelessness during adolescence or how emergent future orientation may influence its trajectory. Parallel process latent growth curve modelling tested whether (i) trajectories of future orientation and hopelessness and (ii) within-individual change in future orientation and hopelessness were related. The study was comprised of 472 adolescents [52% female, 47% Caucasian, 47% received free lunch] recruited at ages 12-13 who completed measures of future orientation and hopelessness at five annual assessments. The results indicate that a general decline in hopelessness across adolescence occurs quicker for those experiencing faster development of future orientation, when controlling for age, sex, low socio-economic status in addition to stressful life events in childhood and adolescence. Stressful childhood life events were associated with worse future orientation at baseline and negative life events experienced during adolescence were associated with both an increase in the trajectory of hopelessness as well as a decrease in the trajectory of future orientation. This study provides compelling evidence that the development of future orientation during adolescence is associated with a faster decline in hopelessness.

  12. Ear Detection under Uncontrolled Conditions with Multiple Scale Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear detection is an important step in ear recognition approaches. Most existing ear detection techniques are based on manually designing features or shallow learning algorithms. However, researchers found that the pose variation, occlusion, and imaging conditions provide a great challenge to the traditional ear detection methods under uncontrolled conditions. This paper proposes an efficient technique involving Multiple Scale Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN to detect ears from 2D profile images in natural images automatically. Firstly, three regions of different scales are detected to infer the information about the ear location context within the image. Then an ear region filtering approach is proposed to extract the correct ear region and eliminate the false positives automatically. In an experiment with a test set of 200 web images (with variable photographic conditions, 98% of ears were accurately detected. Experiments were likewise conducted on the Collection J2 of University of Notre Dame Biometrics Database (UND-J2 and University of Beira Interior Ear dataset (UBEAR, which contain large occlusion, scale, and pose variations. Detection rates of 100% and 98.22%, respectively, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. RESPONDING PROFESSIONALLY TO REQUESTS FOR CESAREAN DELIVERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, F; McCullough, L

    2017-01-01

    Patients' requests for non-indicated cesarean delivery challenge the professionalism of obstetricians. This is because physicians should not provide clinical management in the absence of an evidence-based indication for it. The ethics of responding professionally to requests for non-indicated cesarean delivery would appear to be simple: just say "No." This paper presents an ethically and clinically more nuanced approach, on the basis of the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, emphasizinga preventive ethics approach. Preventive ethics deploys the informed consent process to minimize ethical conflict in clinical practice. This process should focus on when to recommend against cesarean delivery - rather than simply saying no. There is no evidence of net clinical benefit for pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients from non-indicated cesarean delivery. Obstetricians should therefore respond to such requests by recommending against cesarean delivery, recommending vaginal delivery, and explaining the evidence base for these recommendations.

  14. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Przybylski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908 provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  15. Responding to the Housing and Financial Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scanlon, Kathleen; Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The long period of house price growth in markets across the world ended with the US and global financial crisis of 2007/08. The crisis and the consequent recession had profound effects on mortgage market actors – including households, institutions and governments – in most advanced economies......, whether or not they participated in this rapid house price growth. Many of the trends observed during the boom, especially the innovations in financial instruments, were reversed. This paper presents evidence on how mortgage markets and stakeholders responded in the initial period after the crash....... In particular it reports on a 2009 survey of housing experts from 16 industrialised countries, which concentrated on how each country's mortgage system responded to the crisis and how governments addressed the problems of borrowers....

  16. Protecting Respondent Confidentiality in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen

    2009-01-01

    For qualitative researchers, maintaining respondent confidentiality while presenting rich, detailed accounts of social life presents unique challenges. These challenges are not adequately addressed in the literature on research ethics and research methods. Using an example from a study of breast cancer survivors, I argue that by carefully considering the audience for one’s research and by re-envisioning the informed consent process, qualitative researchers can avoid confidentiality dilemmas that might otherwise lead them not to report rich, detailed data. PMID:19843971

  17. Nuclear Fallout Decision Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-11

    If terrorists detonated an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an urban area, thousands of people would die from the blast, and many more would become sick or die from exposure to fallout radiation. Proper sheltering and evacuation can protect people from fallout and save lives. This project provides guidance to first responders as to when to evacuate and what route to take to protect themselves against fallout radiation.

  18. Preventing and responding to medical identity theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amori, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft.

  19. Amitriptyline Intoxication Responded to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldem Turan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The most severe effects in amitriptiline intoxications are related with central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Amitriptiline intoxication especially with high doses has severe cardiac effects and can result in cardiac arrest. Most favorable responses can be achieved with efficient and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We wanted to present a case ingested high dose of amitriptiline for attempt to suicide and responded to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  20. 77 GHz radar for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowsky, L. H.; Aronoff, A. D.; Ferraro, R.; Alland, S.; Fleischman, E.

    2017-02-01

    First responders have the dangerous task of responding to emergency situations in firefighting scenarios involving homes and offices. The importance of this radar is its ability to see through walls and into adjacent areas to provide the first responder with information to assess the status of a building fire, its occupants, and to supplement his thermal camera which is obstructed by the wall. For the firefighter looking into an adjacent room containing unknown objects including humans, the challenge is to recognize what is in that room, the configuration of the room, and potential escape routes. We have just concluded a series of experiments to illustrate the performance of 77GHz radar in buildings. The experiments utilized the Delphi Automotive radar as the mm wave sensor and included display software developed by L. H. Kosowsky and Associates. The system has demonstrated the capability of seeing through walls consisting of sheetrock separated by two by four pieces of wood. It has demonstrated the ability to see into the adjacent room and to display the existence of persons and furniture Based on published data, the radar will perform well in a smoke, haze, and/or fog environment.

  1. Heritability of Ultimatum Game Responder Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Björn Wallace; David Cesarini; Paul Lichtenstein; Magnus Johannesson

    2007-01-01

    ... cooperation among non-kin. Here we report the results of an ultimatum game, played for real monetary stakes, using twins recruited from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry as our subject pool...

  2. Some Thoughts on the Implications of Faster-Than-Light Interstellar Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, I. A.

    1995-09-01

    There are reasons for believing that faster-than-light (FTL) interstellar space travel may be consistent with the laws of physics, and a brief review of various FTL travel concepts is presented. It is argued that FTL travel would revolutionise the scientific exploration of the Universe, but would only significantly shorten the Galactic colonisation timescale from the 106 years estimated on the assumption of sub-light interstellar travel if the mass-production of FTL space vehicles proves to be practical. FTL travel would permit the development of interstellar social and political institutions which would probably be impossible otherwise, and may therefore strengthen the 'zoo hypothesis' as an explanation for the apparent absence of extraterrestrial beings in the Solar System.

  3. Experimental proof of Faster-is-Slower in multi-particle systems flowing through bottlenecks

    CERN Document Server

    Pastor, José M; Gago, Paula A; Peralta, Juan P; Martín-Gómez, César; Ferrer, Luis M; Maza, Diego; Parisi, Daniel R; Pugnaloni, Luis A; Zuriguel, Iker

    2015-01-01

    The "faster-is-slower" (FIS) effect was first predicted by computer simulations of the egress of pedestrians through a narrow exit [Helbing D, Farkas I J, Vicsek T, Nature 407:487-490 (2000)]. FIS refers to the finding that, under certain conditions, an excess of the individuals' vigor in the attempt to exit causes a decrease in the flow rate. In general, this effect is identified by the appearance of a minimum when plotting the total evacuation time of a crowd as a function of the pedestrian desired velocity. Here, we experimentally show that the FIS effect indeed occurs in three different systems of discrete particles flowing through a constriction: (a) humans evacuating a room, (b) a herd of sheep entering a barn and (c) grains flowing out a 2D hopper over a vibrated incline. This finding suggests that FIS is a universal phenomenon for active matter passing through a narrowing.

  4. Faster ramp of LHC for use as an FCC High Energy hadron Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Milanese, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    This note examines the feasibility of ramping the LHC magnets faster than the present operation, in view of a reuse of LHC as a High Energy hadron Booster. Such a synchrotron would inject 3.3 TeV beams into a larger Future Circular Collider. The main constraints are examined. The conclusion is that the ramp up could be shortened by a factor of 4, with the main dipoles ramping up at 50 A/s instead of 10 A/s and a modified formulation of the ramp function. On the hardware side this would require a voltage upgrade of the dipole power converters and a possible further splitting of the dipole circuits in halves. To make similar gains for the ramp down time, modifications to some of the one-quadrant power converters, would also be needed, including the main quadrupoles.

  5. Process Fragment Libraries for Easier and Faster Development of Process-based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schumm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “process fragment” is recently gaining momentum in business process management research. We understand a process fragment as a connected and reusable process structure, which has relaxed completeness and consistency criteria compared to executable processes. We claim that process fragments allow for an easier and faster development of process-based applications. As evidence to this claim we present a process fragment concept and show a sample collection of concrete, real-world process fragments. We present advanced application scenarios for using such fragments in development of process-based applications. Process fragments are typically managed in a repository, forming a process fragment library. On top of a process fragment library from previous work, we discuss the potential impact of using process fragment libraries in cross-enterprise collaboration and application integration.

  6. Structure emerges faster during cultural transmission in children than in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Gauvrit, Nicolas; Forsyth, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    How does children's limited processing capacity affect cultural transmission of complex information? We show that over the course of iterated reproduction of two-dimensional random dot patterns transmission accuracy increased to a similar extent in 5- to 8-year-old children and adults whereas algorithmic complexity decreased faster in children. Thus, children require more structure to render complex inputs learnable. In line with the Less-Is-More hypothesis, we interpret this as evidence that children's processing limitations affecting working memory capacity and executive control constrain the ability to represent and generate complexity, which, in turn, facilitates emergence of structure. This underscores the importance of investigating the role of children in the transmission of complex cultural traits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Faster is more different: mean-field dynamics of innovation diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ki Baek

    Full Text Available Based on a recent model of paradigm shifts by Bornholdt et al., we studied mean-field opinion dynamics in an infinite population where an infinite number of ideas compete simultaneously with their values publicly known. We found that a highly innovative society is not characterized by heavy concentration in highly valued ideas: Rather, ideas are more broadly distributed in a more innovative society with faster progress, provided that the rate of adoption is constant, which suggests a positive correlation between innovation and technological disparity. Furthermore, the distribution is generally skewed in such a way that the fraction of innovators is substantially smaller than has been believed in conventional innovation-diffusion theory based on normality. Thus, the typical adoption pattern is predicted to be asymmetric with slow saturation in the ideal situation, which is compared with empirical data sets.

  8. Diagnostic Value of Direct Antibiotic Susceptibility Test for Faster BacterialSusceptibility Reporting in Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebriarina Hapsari

    2012-12-01

    Methods: Bloods from positive BACTEC bottles which met inclusion and exclusion criteria were put into sterile tubes and centrifuged. The pellets were then used to make 0.5 McFarland bacterial suspensions and directly used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Interpretations of direct method were compared to standard method to count sensitivity, specificity, sensitive predictive value, resistant predictive value, accuracy, and kappa value. Results: From 58 samples (containing 22 gram negative, 36 gram positive bacteria, there were 309 total antibiotic susceptibility tests. Direct method showed sensitivity, specificity, sensitive predictive value, resistant predictive value, accuracy, and kappa value of 89.3%, 92.9%, 93.8%, 87.8%, 86.4%, and 0.82, respectively. Conclusion: Direct antibiotic susceptibility testing has a good agreement with the standard method so it can aid faster antibiotic susceptibility reporting in bacteraemia (Sains Medika, 4(2:174-181.

  9. His bundle activates faster than ventricular myocardium during prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Nathan; Li, Li; Dosdall, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    The Purkinje fiber system has recently been implicated as an important driver of the rapid activation rate during long duration ventricular fibrillation (VF>2 minutes). The goal of this study is to determine whether this activity propagates to or occurs in the proximal specialized conduction system during VF as well. An 8×8 array with 300 µm spaced electrodes was placed over the His bundles of isolated, perfused rabbit hearts (n = 12). Ventricular myocardial (VM) and His activations were differentiated by calculating Laplacian recordings from unipolar signals. Activation rates of the VM and His bundle were compared and the His bundle conduction velocity was measured during perfused VF followed by 8 minutes of unperfused VF. During perfused VF the average VM activation rate of 11.04 activations/sec was significantly higher than the His bundle activation rate of 6.88 activations/sec (pHis system activation rate (6.16, 5.53, 5.14, 5.22, 6.00, and 4.62 activations/sec significantly faster than the rate of the VM (4.67, 3.63, 2.94, 2.24, 3.45, and 2.31 activations/sec) (pHis system immediately decreased to 94% of the sinus rate during perfused VF then gradually decreased to 67% of sinus rhythm conduction at 8 minutes of unperfused VF. During prolonged VF the activation rate of the His bundle is faster than that of the VM. This suggests that the proximal conduction system, like the distal Purkinje system, may be an important driver during long duration VF and may be a target for interventional therapy.

  10. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Versus CT in Lung Ablation Procedure: Which is Faster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: r.cazzato@unicampus.it; Battistuzzi, Jean-Benoit, E-mail: j.battistuzzi@bordeaux.unicancer.fr; Catena, Vittorio, E-mail: vittoriocatena@gmail.com [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte, E-mail: b.zobel@unicampus.it [Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (Italy); Schena, Emiliano, E-mail: e.schena@unicampus.it [Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentations, Biomedical Engineering Laboratory (Italy); Buy, Xavier, E-mail: x.buy@bordeaux.unicancer.fr; Palussiere, Jean, E-mail: j.palussiere@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France)

    2015-10-15

    AimTo compare cone-beam CT (CBCT) versus computed tomography (CT) guidance in terms of time needed to target and place the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode on lung tumours.Materials and MethodsPatients at our institution who received CBCT- or CT-guided RFA for primary or metastatic lung tumours were retrospectively included. Time required to target and place the RFA electrode within the lesion was registered and compared across the two groups. Lesions were stratified into three groups according to their size (<10, 10–20, >20 mm). Occurrences of electrode repositioning, repositioning time, RFA complications, and local recurrence after RFA were also reported.ResultsForty tumours (22 under CT, 18 under CBCT guidance) were treated in 27 patients (19 male, 8 female, median age 67.25 ± 9.13 years). Thirty RFA sessions (16 under CBCT and 14 under CT guidance) were performed. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that CBCT was faster than CT to target and place the electrode within the tumour independently from its size (β = −9.45, t = −3.09, p = 0.004). Electrode repositioning was required in 10/22 (45.4 %) tumours under CT guidance and 5/18 (27.8 %) tumours under CBCT guidance. Pneumothoraces occurred in 6/14 (42.8 %) sessions under CT guidance and in 6/16 (37.5 %) sessions under CBCT guidance. Two recurrences were noted for tumours receiving CBCT-guided RFA (2/17, 11.7 %) and three after CT-guided RFA (3/19, 15.8 %).ConclusionCBCT with live 3D needle guidance is a useful technique for percutaneous lung ablation. Despite lesion size, CBCT allows faster lung RFA than CT.

  11. Toward faster OPC convergence: advanced analysis for OPC iterations and simulation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnas, Mohamed; Al-Imam, Mohamed; Tawfik, Tamer

    2008-10-01

    Achieving faster Turn-Around-Time (TAT) is one of the most attractive objectives for the silicon wafer manufacturers despite the technology node they are processing. This is valid for all the active technology nodes from 130nm till the cutting edge technologies. There have been several approaches adopted to cut down the OPC simulation runtime without sacrificing the OPC output quality, among them is using stronger CPU power and Hardware acceleration which is a good usage for the advancing powerful processing technology. Another favorable approach for cutting down the runtime is to look deeper inside the used OPC algorithm and the implemented OPC recipe. The OPC algorithm includes the convergence iterations and simulation sites distribution, and the OPC recipe is in definition how to smartly tune the OPC knobs to efficiently use the implemented algorithm. Many previous works were exposed to monitoring the OPC convergence through iterations and analyze the size of the shift per iteration, similarly several works tried to calculate the amount of simulation capacity needed for all these iterations and how to optimize it for less amount. The scope of the work presented here is an attempt to decrease the number of optical simulations by reducing the number of control points per site and without affecting OPC accuracy. The concept is proved by many simulation results and analysis. Implementing this flow illustrated the achievable simulation runtime reduction which is reflected in faster TAT. For its application, it is not just runtime optimization, additionally it puts some more intelligence in the sparse OPC engine by eliminating the headache of specifying the optimum simulation site length.

  12. Faster but not smarter: effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on alertness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Smith, Jessica E

    2013-03-01

    Despite 100 years of psychopharmacological research, the extent to which caffeine consumption benefits human functioning remains unclear. To measure the effects of overnight caffeine abstinence and caffeine administration as a function of level of habitual caffeine consumption. Medium-high (n = 212) and non-low (n = 157) caffeine consumers completed self-report measures and computer-based tasks before (starting at 10:30 AM) and after double-blind treatment with either caffeine (100 mg, then 150 mg) or placebo. The first treatment was given at 11:15 AM and the second at 12:45 PM, with post-treatment measures repeated twice between 1:45 PM and 3:30 PM. Caffeine withdrawal was associated with some detrimental effects at 10:30 AM, and more severe effects, including greater sleepiness, lower mental alertness, and poorer performance on simple reaction time, choice reaction time and recognition memory tasks, later in the afternoon. Caffeine improved these measures in medium-high consumers but, apart from decreasing sleepiness, had little effect on them in non-low consumers. The failure of caffeine to increase mental alertness and improve mental performance in non-low consumers was related to a substantial caffeine-induced increase in anxiety/jitteriness that offset the benefit of decreased sleepiness. Caffeine enhanced physical performance (faster tapping speed and faster simple and choice reaction times) in both medium-high and non-low consumers. While caffeine benefits motor performance and tolerance develops to its tendency to increase anxiety/jitteriness, tolerance to its effects on sleepiness means that frequent consumption fails to enhance mental alertness and mental performance.

  13. Infant differential behavioral responding to discrete emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J

    2017-10-01

    Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  15. Safety Risk Management for Homeland Defense and Security Responders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyers, Tommey H

    2005-01-01

    ...) report on responder safety, this thesis explores the issues associated with creating a safety risk management capability that will enable HLDS responders to better protect themselves from harm...

  16. Brain Changes in Responders versus Non-Responders in Chronic Migraine: Markers of Disease Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S Hubbard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify structural and functional brain changes that accompanied the transition from chronic (CM; ≥ 15 headache days/month to episodic (EM; < 15 headache days/month migraine following prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA. Specifically, we examined whether CM patients responsive to prophylaxis (responders; n = 11, as evidenced by a reversal in disease status (defined by at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency and < 15 headache days/month, compared to CM patients whose migraine frequency remained unchanged (non-responders; n = 12, showed differences in cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry. We also investigated whether areas showing group differences in cortical thickness displayed altered resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC using seed-to-voxel analyses. Migraine characteristics measured across groups included disease duration, pain intensity and headache frequency. Patient reports’ of headache frequency over the four weeks prior to (pre-treatment and following (post-treatment prophylaxis were compared (post minus pre and this measure served as the clinical endpoint that determined group assignment. All patients were scanned within two weeks of the post-treatment visit. Results revealed that responders showed significant cortical thickening in the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI and anterior insula, and left superior temporal gyrus and pars opercularis compared to non-responders. In addition, disease duration was negatively correlated with cortical thickness in fronto-parietal and temporo-occipital regions in responders but not non-responders, with the exception of the primary motor cortex (MI that showed the opposite pattern; disease duration was positively associated with MI cortical thickness in responders versus non-responders. Our seed-based RS-FC analyses revealed anti-correlations between the SI seed and lateral occipital (LOC and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices

  17. How tree roots respond to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing climate change is characterised by increased temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. In addition, there has been an increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as drought. Episodes of drought induce a series of interconnected effects, all of which have the potential to alter the carbon balance of forest ecosystems profoundly at different scales of plant organisation and ecosystem functioning. During recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how aboveground parts of trees respond to drought and how these responses affect carbon assimilation. In contrast, processes of belowground parts are relatively underrepresented in research on climate change. In this review, we describe current knowledge about responses of tree roots to drought. Tree roots are capable of responding to drought through a variety of strategies that enable them to avoid and tolerate stress. Responses include root biomass adjustments, anatomical alterations, and physiological acclimations. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are characterized to some extent, and involve stress signalling and the induction of numerous genes, leading to the activation of tolerance pathways. In addition, mycorrhizas seem to play important protective roles. The current knowledge compiled in this review supports the view that tree roots are well equipped to withstand drought situations and maintain morphological and physiological functions as long as possible. Further, the reviewed literature demonstrates the important role of tree roots in the functioning of forest ecosystems and highlights the need for more research in this emerging field.

  18. Why Do the Relativistic Masses and Momenta of Faster-than-Light Particles Decrease as their Speeds Increase?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madarász, Judit X

    2014-01-01

    ... on the Stückelberg-Feynman-Sudarshan-Recami ''switching principle'' that Einstein's relativistic dynamics is logically consistent with the existence of interacting faster-than-light inertial particles...

  19. Identifying Airborne Pathogens in Time to Respond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-25

    Among the possible terrorist activities that might threaten national security is the release of an airborne pathogen such as anthrax. Because the potential damage to human health could be severe, experts consider 1 minute to be an operationally useful time limit for identifying the pathogen and taking action. Many commercial systems can identify airborne pathogenic microbes, but they take days or, at best, hours to produce results. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other U.S. government agencies are interested in finding a faster approach. To answer this national need, a Livermore team, led by scientist Eric Gard, has developed the bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) system--the only instrument that can detect and identify spores at low concentrations in less than 1 minute. BAMS can successfully distinguish between two related but different spore species. It can also sort out a single spore from thousands of other particles--biological and nonbiological--with no false positives. The BAMS team won a 2005 R&D 100 Award for developing the system. Livermore's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program funded the biomedical aspects of the BAMS project, and the Department of Defense's Technical Support Working Group and Defense Advanced Research Project Agency funded the biodefense efforts. Developing a detection system that can analyze small samples so quickly has been challenging. Livermore engineer Vincent Riot, who worked on the BAMS project, explains, ''A typical spore weighs approximately one-trillionth of a gram and is dispersed in the atmosphere, which contains naturally occurring particles that could be present at concentrations thousands of times higher. Previous systems also had difficulty separating benign organisms from those that are pathogenic but very similar, which has resulted in false alarms''.

  20. UK medicines regulation: responding to current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Natalie; Hudson, Ian

    2016-12-01

    The medicines regulatory environment is evolving rapidly in response to the changing environment. Advances in science and technology have led to a vast field of increasingly complicated pharmaceutical and medical device products; increasing globalization of the pharmaceutical industry, advances in digital technology and the internet, changing patient populations, and shifts in society also affect the regulatory environment. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) regulates medicines, medical devices and blood products to protect and improve public health, and supports innovation through scientific research and development. It works closely with other bodies in a single medicines network across Europe and takes forward UK health priorities. This paper discusses the range of initiatives in the UK and across Europe to support innovation in medicines regulation. The MHRA leads a number of initiatives, such as the Innovation Office, which helps innovators to navigate the regulatory processes to progress their products or technologies; and simplification of the Clinical Trials Regulations and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme, to bring innovative medicines to patients faster. The Accelerated Access Review will identify reforms to accelerate access for National Health Service patients to innovative medicines and medical technologies. PRIME and Adaptive Pathways initiatives are joint endeavours within the European regulatory community. The MHRA runs spontaneous reporting schemes and works with INTERPOL to tackle counterfeiting and substandard products sold via the internet. The role of the regulator is changing rapidly, with new risk-proportionate, flexible approaches being introduced. International collaboration is a key element of the work of regulators, and is set to expand. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Electroencephalographic brain dynamics following manually responded visual targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Makeig

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp-recorded electroencephalographic (EEG signals produced by partial synchronization of cortical field activity mix locally synchronous electrical activities of many cortical areas. Analysis of event-related EEG signals typically assumes that poststimulus potentials emerge out of a flat baseline. Signals associated with a particular type of cognitive event are then assessed by averaging data from each scalp channel across trials, producing averaged event-related potentials (ERPs. ERP averaging, however, filters out much of the information about cortical dynamics available in the unaveraged data trials. Here, we studied the dynamics of cortical electrical activity while subjects detected and manually responded to visual targets, viewing signals retained in ERP averages not as responses of an otherwise silent system but as resulting from event-related alterations in ongoing EEG processes. We applied infomax independent component analysis to parse the dynamics of the unaveraged 31-channel EEG signals into maximally independent processes, then clustered the resulting processes across subjects by similarities in their scalp maps and activity power spectra, identifying nine classes of EEG processes with distinct spatial distributions and event-related dynamics. Coupled two-cycle postmotor theta bursts followed button presses in frontal midline and somatomotor clusters, while the broad postmotor "P300" positivity summed distinct contributions from several classes of frontal, parietal, and occipital processes. The observed event-related changes in local field activities, within and between cortical areas, may serve to modulate the strength of spike-based communication between cortical areas to update attention, expectancy, memory, and motor preparation during and after target recognition and speeded responding.

  2. IS BLOOD LACTATE REMOVAL DURING WATER IMMERSED CYCLING FASTER THAN DURING CYCLING ON LAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízio Di Masi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare lactate removal during active recovery performed during cycling in water immersion (CW and during cycling on land (CL, after a similar exercise bout in male adults. Eleven healthy and physically active men, aged between 20 and 26 years old participated in the experiment. Before the experimental tests, the ventilatory threshold of the subjects was determined. Each subject completed the experimental tests twice, with one week separating the two periods of experiment. The subjects exercised on the treadmill during 6 min at a speed 10% above the speed corresponding to their ventilatory threshold. Subsequently, the subjects recovered from the exercise bout either on a stationary bike (CL or on a aquatic-specific bike (CW. On the subsequent week the subjects performed the same protocol but with a different recovery condition. Recovery condition assignment for the first test was counterbalanced (six subjects started with one condition and five with the other. Capillary blood samples were collected after each test and during the recovery period (at 3, 6, 9 and 15 minutes and blood lactate was measured. The blood lactate values during CW were lower than during CL and significant differences were observed at the 6th minute (p < 0.05 and at the 15th minute of recovery (p < 0.05. Therefore, we may conclude that active recovery using cycling in water immersion may be more efficient than cycling on land for blood lactate removal.

  3. Teaching innovation system applied in business management subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rosillo

    2017-06-01

    Blunder offers a fun mobile training. We can know which student learns faster, learns more or learns better a particular topic. If a student plays the subject that the teacher has explained in class the level of learning affects to the final evaluation positively.

  4. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  5. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  6. Metastatic urachal cancer responding to FOLFOX chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ben; McKendrick, Joe

    2010-04-01

    Metastatic urachal cancer is a rare disease and subsequently, does not have a defined systemic treatment. Although urachal cancer is most commonly adenocarcinoma and histologically similar to colon cancer, treatment selection is usually based upon location (the proximity of the urachus to the bladder) with bladder cancer regimens the most commonly prescribed. We report a case of metastatic urachal cancer where the immunohistochemical profile's similarities to colon cancer led to treatment with colon cancer specific chemotherapy. Our case is the first to report urachal cancer treated with and responding to modified FOLFOX6. In the age of targeted therapy, where molecular biology drives treatment selection, our case highlights that in rare tumors, when evidence is often lacking, a common sense approach can often prevail.

  7. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on how to operationalize these essential capabilities. By definition true uncertainty represents environmental conditions that are hard to foresee, which can catch the unprepared by surprise while presenting opportunities to the conscious organization. We demonstrate that organizations relying...... on aggregation of stakeholder sensing and predictions of emergent strategic issues can positively influence the two capabilities and help the firm adapt in the face of uncertainty and unpredictability. Robust measures predicating performance based on information from key stakeholders involved in the firm’s core...

  8. Methods of responding to healthcare security incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnell, S; Gritzalis, D; Katsikas, S; Mavroudakis, K; Sanders, P; Warren, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the increasing requirement for security in healthcare IT systems and, in particular, identifies the need for appropriate means by which healthcare establishments (HCEs) may respond to incidents. The main discussion focuses upon two significant initiatives that have been established in order to improve understanding and awareness of healthcare security issues. The first is the establishment of a dedicated Incident Reporting Scheme (IRS) for HCEs, enabling the level and types of security incidents faced within the healthcare community to be monitored and advice appropriately targeted. The second aspect presents a description of healthcare security World Wide Web service, which provides a comprehensive source of advice and guidance for establishments when trying to address and prevent IT security breaches. The discussion is based upon work that is currently being undertaken with the ISHTAR (Implementing Secure Healthcare Telematics Applications in Europe) project, as part of the Telematics Applications for Health programme of the European Commission.

  9. How to define responders in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Bardin, Thomas; Berenbaum, Francis; Flamion, Bruno; Jonsson, Helgi; Kanis, John A.; Pelousse, Franz; Lems, Willem F.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Reiter, Susanne; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular cartilage and involvement of other joint structures. Scope Regulatory agencies require relevant clinical benefit on symptoms and structure modification for registration of a new therapy as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). An international Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and International Osteoporosis Foundation was convened to explore the current burden of osteoarthritis, review current regulatory guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials, and examine the concept of responder analyses for improving drug evaluation in osteoarthritis. Findings The ESCEO considers that the major challenges in DMOAD development are the absence of a precise definition of the disease, particularly in the early stages, and the lack of consensus on how to detect structural changes and link them to clinically meaningful endpoints. Responder criteria should help identify progression of disease and be clinically meaningful. The ideal criterion should be sensitive to change over time and should predict disease progression and outcomes such as joint replacement. Conclusion The ESCEO considers that, for knee osteoarthritis, clinical trial data indicate that radiographic joint space narrowing >0.5 mm over 2 or 3 years might be a reliable surrogate measure for total joint replacement. On-going research using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical markers may allow the identification of these patients earlier in the disease process. PMID:23557069

  10. Why mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection: metabolic rate constrains the evolution of sperm size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomendio, Montserrat; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2011-10-22

    The hypothesis that sperm competition should favour increases in sperm size, because it results in faster swimming speeds, has received support from studies on many taxa, but remains contentious for mammals. We suggest that this may be because mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection, owing to major differences in body size, which are associated with differences in mass-specific metabolic rate. Recent evidence suggests that cellular metabolic rate also scales with body size, so that small mammals have cells that process energy and resources from the environment at a faster rate. We develop the 'metabolic rate constraint hypothesis' which proposes that low mass-specific metabolic rate among large mammals may limit their ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size, while this constraint does not exist among small mammals. Here we show that among rodents, which have high mass-specific metabolic rates, sperm size increases under sperm competition, reaching the longest sperm sizes found in eutherian mammals. By contrast, mammalian lineages with large body sizes have small sperm, and while metabolic rate (corrected for body size) influences sperm size, sperm competition levels do not. When all eutherian mammals are analysed jointly, our results suggest that as mass-specific metabolic rate increases, so does maximum sperm size. In addition, species with low mass-specific metabolic rates produce uniformly small sperm, while species with high mass-specific metabolic rates produce a wide range of sperm sizes. These findings support the hypothesis that mass-specific metabolic rates determine the budget available for sperm production: at high levels, sperm size increases in response to sexual selection, while low levels constrain the ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size. Thus, adaptive and costly traits, such as sperm size, may only evolve under sexual selection when metabolic rate does not constrain cellular

  11. Reconsidering Dispersion Potentials: Reduced Cutoffs in Mesh-Based Ewald Solvers Can Be Faster Than Truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isele-Holder, Rolf E; Mitchell, Wayne; Hammond, Jeff R; Kohlmeyer, Axel; Ismail, Ahmed E

    2013-12-10

    Long-range dispersion interactions have a critical influence on physical quantities in simulations of inhomogeneous systems. However, the perceived computational overhead of long-range solvers has until recently discouraged their implementation in molecular dynamics packages. Here, we demonstrate that reducing the cutoff radius for local interactions in the recently introduced particle-particle particle-mesh (PPPM) method for dispersion [Isele-Holder et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 137, 174107] can actually often be faster than truncating dispersion interactions. In addition, because all long-range dispersion interactions are incorporated, physical inaccuracies that arise from truncating the potential can be avoided. Simulations using PPPM or other mesh Ewald solvers for dispersion can provide results more accurately and more efficiently than simulations that truncate dispersion interactions. The use of mesh-based approaches for dispersion is now a viable alternative for all simulations containing dispersion interactions and not merely those where inhomogeneities were motivating factors for their use. We provide a set of parameters for the dispersion PPPM method using either ik or analytic differentiation that we recommend for future use and demonstrate increased simulation efficiency by using the long-range dispersion solver in a series of performance tests on massively parallel computers.

  12. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zac H. Forsman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2 fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  13. Faster poleward range shifts in moths with more variable colour patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anders; Betzholtz, Per-Eric; Franzén, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Range shifts have been documented in many organisms, and climate change has been implicated as a contributing driver of latitudinal and altitudinal range modifications. However, little is known about what species trait(s) allow for faster environmental tracking and improved capacity for distribution expansions. We used data for 416 species of moths, and show that range limits in Sweden have shifted to the north by on average 52.4 km per decade between 1973 and 2014. When also including non-expanding species, average expansion rate was 23.2 km per decade. The rate of boundary shifts increased with increasing levels of inter-individual variation in colour patterns and decreased with increasing latitude. The association with colour patterns indicate that variation in this functionally important trait enables species to cope with novel and changing conditions. Northern range limits also increased with average abundance and decreased with increasing year-to-year abundance fluctuations, implicating production of dispersers as a driver of range dynamics. Studies of terrestrial animals show that rates of poleward shifts differ between taxonomic groups, increase over time, and depend on study duration and latitude. Knowledge of how distribution shifts change with time, location, and species characteristics may improve projections of responses to climate change and aid the protection of biodiversity.

  14. Booze, Bars, and Bystander Behavior: People who Consumed Alcohol Help Faster in the Presence of Others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eVan Bommel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available People help each other less often and less quickly when bystanders are present. In this paper, we propose that alcohol consumption could attenuate or reverse this so-called bystander effect. Alcohol impairs people cognitively and perceptually, leading them to think less about the presence of others and behave less inhibited. Moreover, alcohol makes people more prone to see the benefits of helping and not the costs. To provide an initial test of these lines of reasoning, we invited visitors of bars in Amsterdam to join our study at a secluded spot at the bar. We manipulated bystander presence, and at the end of the study, we measured alcohol consumption. When participants took their seats, the experimenter dropped some items. We measured how many items were picked up and how quickly participants engaged in helping. Results revealed that alcohol did not influence the bystander effect in terms of the amount of help given. But importantly, it did influence the bystander effect in terms of response times: People who consumed alcohol actually came to aid faster in the presence of others.

  15. Rate of fat gain is faster in girls undergoing early adiposity rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Goulding, Ailsa; Lewis-Barned, Nick J; Williams, Sheila M

    2004-08-01

    To determine the changes in body composition (fat and lean mass) occurring in children during adiposity rebound (AR). Thirty-nine girls, 3 to 6 years of age at baseline, underwent yearly DXA scans for 2 years. An additional DXA scan was obtained 4 to 5 years after baseline. Age at AR was determined by modeling, and the velocity of change in height, weight, fat mass, and lean mass was estimated for each child using random coefficient models. Girls with an AR or =5 years were classified as late AR. Although body composition was similar at age 5, by age 9, girls with an early AR were significantly taller (3.5% more) and heavier (14.4%), with greater fat mass (50%) and percentage body fat (27%) than girls with a later AR. In addition, more girls were overweight according to BMI (18% vs. 6%) or percentage body fat (29% vs. 11%) at this time, despite no differences at baseline. Annual velocity of fat mass gain was over 2-fold higher in early compared with late rebounders (17.1% vs. 6.5%, p < 0.0001), with no difference in lean mass velocity (13.1% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.116). Differences in BMI during AR were caused specifically by alterations in body fat and not by alterations in lean mass or height. Children undergoing early AR gained fat at a faster rate than children who rebounded at a later age.

  16. Faster R-CNN: Towards Real-Time Object Detection with Region Proposal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shaoqing; He, Kaiming; Girshick, Ross; Sun, Jian

    2017-06-01

    State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet [1] and Fast R-CNN [2] have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. The RPN is trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. We further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutional features-using the recently popular terminology of neural networks with 'attention' mechanisms, the RPN component tells the unified network where to look. For the very deep VGG-16 model [3] , our detection system has a frame rate of 5 fps (including all steps) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012, and MS COCO datasets with only 300 proposals per image. In ILSVRC and COCO 2015 competitions, Faster R-CNN and RPN are the foundations of the 1st-place winning entries in several tracks. Code has been made publicly available.

  17. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  18. Smash-simulation software: Teaching algorithms to be faster at simulating particle-collision events

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Student: Elena Orlova Physicists widely use a software toolkit called GEANT4 to simulate what will happen when a particular kind of particle hits a particular kind of material in a particle detector. In fact, this toolkit is so popular that it is also used by researchers in other fields who want to predict how particles will interact with other matter: it’s used to assess radiation hazards in space, for commercial air travel, in medical imaging, and even to optimise scanning systems for cargo security. An international team, led by researchers at CERN, is now working to develop a new version of this simulation toolkit, called GeantV. This work is supported by a CERN openlab project with Intel on code modernisation. GeantV will improve physics accuracy and boost performance on modern computing architectures. The team behind GeantV is currently implementing a ‘deep-learning' tool that will be used to make simulation faster. The goal of this project is to write a flexible mini-application that can be used to...

  19. Gender, Social Networks, and Stroke Preparedness in the Stroke Warning Information and Faster Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Tracy E; Roberts, Eric T; Kuczynski, Heather; Goldmann, Emily; Parikh, Nina S; Boden-Albala, Bernadette

    2017-08-11

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the association between social networks and stroke preparedness as measured by emergency department (ED) arrival within 3 hours of symptom onset. As part of the Stroke Warning Information and Faster Treatment study, baseline data on demographics, social networks, and time to ED arrival were collected from 1193 prospectively enrolled stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients at Columbia University Medical Center. Logistic regression was conducted with arrival to the ED ≤3 hours as the outcome, social network characteristics as explanatory variables, and gender as a potential effect modifier. Men who lived alone or were divorced were significantly less likely to arrive ≤3 hours than men who lived with a spouse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: .31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .15-0.64) or were married (aOR: .45, 95% CI: .23-0.86). Among women, those who lived alone or were divorced had similar odds of arriving ≤3 hours compared with those who lived with a spouse (aOR: 1.25, 95% CI: .63-2.49) or were married (aOR: .73, 95% CI: .4-1.35). In patients with stroke/TIA, living with someone or being married improved time to arrival in men only. Behavioral interventions to improve stroke preparedness should incorporate gender differences in how social networks affect arrival times. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Soft robotics: a review and progress towards faster and higher torque actuators (presentation video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Last year, nearly 160,000 industrial robots were shipped worldwide—into a total market valued at 26 Bn (including hardware, software, and peripherals).[1] Service robots for professional (e.g., defense, medical, agriculture) and personal (e.g., household, handicap assistance, toys, and education) use accounted for 16,000 units, 3.4 Bn and 3,000,000 units, $1.2 Bn respectively.[1] The vast majority of these robotic systems use fully actuated, rigid components that take little advantage of passive dynamics. Soft robotics is a field that is taking advantage of compliant actuators and passive dynamics to achieve several goals: reduced design, manufacturing and control complexity, improved energy efficiency, more sophisticated motions, and safe human-machine interactions to name a few. The potential for societal impact is immense. In some instances, soft actuators have achieved commercial success; however, large scale adoption will require improved methods of controlling non-linear systems, greater reliability in their function, and increased utility from faster and more forceful actuation. In my talk, I will describe efforts from my work in the Whitesides group at Harvard to prove sophisticated motions in these machines using simple controls, as well capabilities unique to soft machines. I will also describe the potential for combinations of different classes of soft actuators (e.g., electrically and pneumatically actuated systems) to improve the utility of soft robots. 1. World Robotics - Industrial Robots 2013, 2013, International Federation of Robotics.

  1. Males do not senesce faster in large herbivores with highly seasonal rut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidière, Morgane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Gimenez, Olivier; Clauss, Marcus; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    Patterns of actuarial senescence vary among long-lived species. A proposed explanation of the evolution of species-specific senescence patterns is that increased levels of energy allocation to intra-male competition decrease the amount of energy available for somatic maintenance, leading to earlier or faster actuarial senescence. Previous studies did not provide support for such relationships, but did not focus on the intensity of allocation likely to shape inter-specific variation in actuarial senescence in males. Here, by analyzing data from 56 species of captive large herbivores, we tested whether actuarial senescence is more pronounced in species displaying a well-defined 'rut' period than in species with year-round reproduction. Using an original quantitative metric of the annual duration of reproductive activity, we demonstrated that the length of the mating season has no detectable effect on actuarial senescence. On the other hand, both diet and body mass are important factors shaping actuarial senescence patterns in male captive herbivores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Viscous drops bounce faster: prompt tumbling-rebound from a sublimating slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Carlo; Jung, Stefan; Wetzel, Andreas; Heer, Emmanuel; Schoch, Philippe; Mazloomi, M. Ali; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Ilya; Marengo, Marco; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    We discovered a new drop rebound regime, characteristic of highly viscous liquids impacting onto tilted sublimating surfaces. By focusing on non-axisymmetric impact conditions at increasing viscosity, we demonstrate that low viscous drops show a ``slide, spread, recoil and rebound'' behavior, whereas viscous drops exhibit a ``prompt tumbling-rebound'' behavior. As such, viscous glycerol drops surprisingly rebound faster than three orders of magnitude less viscous water drops. This is made possible by a small conversion of translational to rotational kinetic energy, at non-axisymmetric impact conditions, as also confirmed by additional Lattice Boltzmann simulations: a rapid transition of the internal angular velocity prior to rebound to a constant value, as in a tumbling solid body, promotes a rapid rebound of more viscous drops, which are capable to rebound without recoiling. By studying drop impact dynamics, we explore the drop behavior in contactless and frictionless conditions, and identify the Ohnesorge number as the primary parameter to predict the transition between different impact regimes on tilted sublimating slopes, with tumbling observed for Ohnesorge numbers higher than unity.

  3. Phosphorus accumulates faster than nitrogen globally in freshwater ecosystems under anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengbing; Han, Wenxuan; Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Elser, James J; Du, Enzai; Reich, Peter B; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-10-01

    Combined effects of cumulative nutrient inputs and biogeochemical processes that occur in freshwater under anthropogenic eutrophication could lead to myriad shifts in nitrogen (N):phosphorus (P) stoichiometry in global freshwater ecosystems, but this is not yet well-assessed. Here we evaluated the characteristics of N and P stoichiometries in bodies of freshwater and their herbaceous macrophytes across human-impact levels, regions and periods. Freshwater and its macrophytes had higher N and P concentrations and lower N : P ratios in heavily than lightly human-impacted environments, further evidenced by spatiotemporal comparisons across eutrophication gradients. N and P concentrations in freshwater ecosystems were positively correlated and N : P was negatively correlated with population density in China. These results indicate a faster accumulation of P than N in human-impacted freshwater ecosystems, which could have large effects on the trophic webs and biogeochemical cycles of estuaries and coastal areas by freshwater loadings, and reinforce the importance of rehabilitating these ecosystems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Bupropion and venlafaxine responders differ in pretreatment regional cerebral metabolism in unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John T; Ketter, Terence A; Kimbrell, Tim A; Dunn, Robert T; Benson, Brenda E; Willis, Mark W; Luckenbaugh, David A; Post, Robert M

    2005-02-01

    Pretreatment functional brain imaging was examined for never-hospitalized outpatients with unipolar depression compared with control subjects in a crossover treatment trial involving bupropion or venlafaxine monotherapy. Patients (n = 20) with unipolar depression received baseline (medication-free) fluorine-18 deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan and then at least 6 weeks of bupropion or venlafaxine monotherapy in a single-blind crossover trial. Age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 20) also received baseline FDG PET scans. For each medication PET data from patients compared with control subjects was analyzed as a function of treatment response (defined as moderate to marked improvement on the Clinical Global Impression Scale). Treatment response rates were similar for buproprion (32%) and venlafaxine (33%). Compared with control subjects, responders but not nonresponders, to both drugs demonstrated frontal and left temporal hypometabolism. Selectively, compared with control subjects bupropion responders (n = 6) also had cerebellar hypermetabolism, whereas venlafaxine responders (n = 7) showed bilateral temporal and basal ganglia hypometabolism. These data suggest that pretreatment frontal and left temporal hypometabolism in never-hospitalized depressed outpatients compared with control subjects is linked to positive antidepressant response and that additional alterations in regional metabolism may be linked to differential responsivity to bupropion and venlafaxine monotherapy.

  5. Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal conhecer em que medida as motivações interna e externa para responder sem preconceito frente aos negros se correlacionam com os valores humanos. Para tanto, contou-se com a participação de 308 pessoas da cidade de João Pessoa (PB, distribuídas entre estudantes do ensino médio e universitário, bem como pessoas da população geral. Estes responderam, além de questões demográficas, o Questionário dos Valores Básicos, Escala de Desejabilidade Social e a Escala de Motivação Interna e Externa para Responder sem Preconceito. De acordo com os resultados, a motivação interna se correlacionou de modo positivo principalmente com os valores suprapessoais, como maturidade, beleza e conhecimento. No caso da motivação externa, esta o fez unicamente com os valores de realização, destacando-se entre eles prestígio e privacidade. Estes resultados são coerentes com aqueles apresentados na literatura, que indicam a oposição entre os valores de igualitarismo (suprapessoais vs. ética protestante (realização para explicar o preconceito e as motivações para não apresentar este tipo de atitude.The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa - comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole - were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such

  6. Examining the Content Validity of the WHOQOL-BRF from Respondents' Perspective by Quantitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Grace; Wu, Chia-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2008-01-01

    Content validity, the extent to which a measurement reflects the specific intended domain of content, is a basic type of validity for a valid measurement. It was usually examined qualitatively and relied on experts' subjective judgments, not on respondents' responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce and demonstrate how to use…

  7. Faster, better, and cheaper” at NASA: Lessons learned in managing and accepting risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Larry J.

    2007-11-01

    Can Earth observing missions be done "better, faster and cheaper"? In this paper I explore the management and technical issues that arose from the attempt to do things "faster, better and cheaper" at NASA. The FBC mantra lead to some failures and, more significantly, an increase in the cadence of missions. Mission cadence is a major enabler of innovation and the driver for the training and testing of the next generation of managers, engineers, and scientists. A high mission cadence is required to maintain and develop competence in mission design, management, and execution and, for an exploration-driven organization, to develop and train the next generation of leaders: the time between missions must be short enough that careers span the complete life of more than a few missions. This process reduces risk because the "lessons learned" are current and widely held. Increasing the cadence of missions has the added benefit of reducing the pressure to do everything on one particular mission thus reducing mission complexity. Since failures are inevitable in such a complex endeavor, a higher mission cadence has the advantage of providing some resiliency to the scientific program the missions support. Some failures are avoidable (often only in hindsight) but most are due to some combination of interacting factors. This interaction is often only appreciated as a potential failure mode after the fact. There is always the pressure to do more with less: the scope of the project may become too ambitious or the management and oversight of the project may be reduced to fit the money allocated, or the project time line may be lengthened due to external factors (launcher availability, budgetary constraints) without a concomitant increase in the total funding. This leads to increased risk. Risks are always deemed acceptable until they change from a "risk" to a "failure mode". Identifying and managing those risks are particularly difficult when the activities are dispersed

  8. Chromatin proteins: key responders to stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen T Smith

    Full Text Available Environments can be ever-changing and stresses are commonplace. In order for organisms to survive, they need to be able to respond to change and adapt to new conditions. Fortunately, many organisms have systems in place that enable dynamic adaptation to immediate stresses and changes within the environment. Much of this cellular response is coordinated by modulating the structure and accessibility of the genome. In eukaryotic cells, the genome is packaged and rolled up by histone proteins to create a series of DNA/histone core structures known as nucleosomes; these are further condensed into chromatin. The degree and nature of the condensation can in turn determine which genes are transcribed. Histones can be modified chemically by a large number of proteins that are thereby responsible for dynamic changes in gene expression. In this Primer we discuss findings from a study published in this issue of PLoS Biology by Weiner et al. that highlight how chromatin structure and chromatin binding proteins alter transcription in response to environmental changes and stresses. Their study reveals the importance of chromatin in mediating the speed and amplitude of stress responses in cells and suggests that chromatin is a critically important component of the cellular response to stress.

  9. Faster onset of action with topical levocabastine than with oral cetirizine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel A. Drouin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This international multicentre, open-label, parallel-group trial was undertaken to compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of topical levocabastine and oral cetirizine in patients with perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, with particular reference to the comparative onset of action of the two drugs. A total of 207 patients were randomized to receive either levocabastine nasal spray (0.5 mg/ml, two sprays in each nostril twice daily plus levocabastine eye drops as required (0.5 mg/ml, one drop in each eye twice daily p.r.n. or cetirizine orally (10 mg once daily with a treatment duration of 2 weeks. Onset of action was found to be significantly more rapid with levocabastine than with cetirizine for both nasal and ocular symptoms (p < 0.001. Within 15 min of study drug administration, 36% of levocabastine-treated patients reported relief from nasal symptoms and 32% relief from ocular symptoms compared with 10% and 17% of patients on cetirizine, respectively. At 1 h, the percentages of patients reporting relief were 76% and 38% for nasal symptoms, and 81% and 48% for ocular symptoms in the levocabastine and cetirizine treatment groups, respectively. At 8 h there were no differences between the two treatments. Overall therapeutic efficacy was found to be comparable in the two treatment groups over the 2-week study period with no significant intergroup differences in symptom severity or global therapeutic efficacy. Both drugs were well tolerated with no significant differences in the incidence or type of adverse reactions between the two groups. In conclusion, levocabastine eye drops and nasal spray are as effective and well tolerated as oral cetirizine for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with the advantage of a significantly faster onset of action for both nasal and ocular symptoms.

  10. Automated PDF highlighting to support faster curation of literature for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honghan; Oellrich, Anika; Girges, Christine; de Bono, Bernard; Hubbard, Tim J P; Dobson, Richard J B

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease are devastating and costly illnesses, a source of major global burden. In order to provide successful interventions for patients and reduce costs, both causes and pathological processes need to be understood. The ApiNATOMY project aims to contribute to our understanding of neurodegenerative disorders by manually curating and abstracting data from the vast body of literature amassed on these illnesses. As curation is labour-intensive, we aimed to speed up the process by automatically highlighting those parts of the PDF document of primary importance to the curator. Using techniques similar to those of summarisation, we developed an algorithm that relies on linguistic, semantic and spatial features. Employing this algorithm on a test set manually corrected for tool imprecision, we achieved a macro F 1 -measure of 0.51, which is an increase of 132% compared to the best bag-of-words baseline model. A user based evaluation was also conducted to assess the usefulness of the methodology on 40 unseen publications, which reveals that in 85% of cases all highlighted sentences are relevant to the curation task and in about 65% of the cases, the highlights are sufficient to support the knowledge curation task without needing to consult the full text. In conclusion, we believe that these are promising results for a step in automating the recognition of curation-relevant sentences. Refining our approach to pre-digest papers will lead to faster processing and cost reduction in the curation process. https://github.com/KHP-Informatics/NapEasy.

  11. Responses of cardiac natriuretic peptides after paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia: ANP surges faster than BNP and CNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Wang, An-Mei; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Chen, Chun-Yen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Yeh, Hung-I

    2016-03-15

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion increases after 30 min of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). Whether this phenomenon also applies to brain or C-type natriuretic peptides (BNP or CNP) remains unknown. Blood samples of 18 patients (41 ± 11 yr old; 4 men) with symptomatic PSVT and normal left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction 65 ± 6%) were collected from the coronary sinus (CS) and the femoral artery (FA) before and 30 min after the induction, and 30 min after the termination of PSVT. The results showed that the ANP levels rose steeply after the PSVT and then reduced at 30 min after the termination (baseline vs. post-PSVT vs. posttermination: CS: 34.0 ± 29.6 vs. 74.1 ± 42.3 vs. 46.1 ± 32.9; FA: 5.9 ± 3.24 vs. 28.2 ± 20.7 vs. 10.0 ± 4.6 pg/ml; all P ANP, the increases of BNP and CNP in CS after the PSVT were less sharp, but continued to rise after the termination of tachycardia (BNP, 10.2 ± 6.4 vs. 11.3 ± 7.1 vs. 11.8 ± 7.9; CNP, 4.5 ± 1.2 vs. 4.9 ± 1.4 vs. 5.0 ± 1.4 pg/ml; all P ANP increased greater after a 30-min induced PSVT, but dropped faster after termination of PSVT, compared with BNP and CNP. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bingham, Philip R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Systems and methods are described for faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms. A method includes of obtaining multiple spatially-heterodyned holograms, includes: digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a first angle between a first reference beam and a first object beam; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a second angle between a second reference beam and a second object beam; and applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result, wherein digitally recording the first spatially-heterodyned hologram is completed before digitally recording the second spatially-heterodyned hologram and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  13. Slower Perception Followed by Faster Lexical Decision in Longer Words: A Diffusion Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Froehlich, Eva; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Hofmann, Markus J; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of stimulus length on reaction times (RTs) in the lexical decision task are the topic of extensive research. While slower RTs are consistently found for longer pseudo-words, a finding coined the word length effect (WLE), some studies found no effects for words, and yet others reported faster RTs for longer words. Moreover, the WLE depends on the orthographic transparency of a language, with larger effects in more transparent orthographies. Here we investigate processes underlying the WLE in lexical decision in German-English bilinguals using a diffusion model (DM) analysis, which we compared to a linear regression approach. In the DM analysis, RT-accuracy distributions are characterized using parameters that reflect latent sub-processes, in particular evidence accumulation and decision-independent perceptual encoding, instead of typical parameters such as mean RT and accuracy. The regression approach showed a decrease in RTs with length for pseudo-words, but no length effect for words. However, DM analysis revealed that the null effect for words resulted from opposing effects of length on perceptual encoding and rate of evidence accumulation. Perceptual encoding times increased with length for words and pseudo-words, whereas the rate of evidence accumulation increased with length for real words but decreased for pseudo-words. A comparison between DM parameters in German and English suggested that orthographic transparency affects perceptual encoding, whereas effects of length on evidence accumulation are likely to reflect contextual information and the increase in available perceptual evidence with length. These opposing effects may account for the inconsistent findings on WLEs.

  14. Action-effect congruence during observational learning leads to faster action sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared C; Gray, Zachary; Schilberg, Lukas; Vidrin, Ilya; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Common coding theory suggests that any action (pressing a piano key) is intimately linked with its resultant sensory effect (an auditory musical tone). We conducted two experiments to explore the effect of varying auditory action-effect patterns during complex action learning. In Experiment 1, participants were assigned to 1 of 4 groups, watched a silent video of a hand playing a sequence on a piano keyboard with no auditory action effect (observation) and were asked to practise and perform the sequence on an identical keyboard with varying action effects (reproduction). During reproduction, Group 1 heard no auditory tones (identical to observed video), Group 2 heard typical scale-ascending piano tones with each key press, Group 3 heard fixed but out-of-sequence piano tones with each key press, and Group 4 heard random piano tones with each key press. In Experiment two, new participants were assigned to 1 of 2 groups and watched an identical video; however, the video in this experiment contained typical, scale-ascending piano sounds. During reproduction, Group 1 heard no auditory tones while Group 2 heard typical, scale-ascending piano tones with each key press (identical to observed video). Our results showed that participants whose action-effect patterns during reproduction matched those in the observed video learned the action sequence faster than participants whose action-effect patterns during reproduction differed from those in the observed video. Additionally, our results suggest that adding an effect during reproduction (when one is absent during observation) is somewhat more detrimental to action sequence learning than removing an effect during reproduction (when one is present during observation).

  15. Male brain ages faster: the age and gender dependence of subcortical volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, András; Szabó, Nikoletta; Tóth, Eszter; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Kocsis, Krisztián; Must, Anita; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Effects of gender on grey matter (GM) volume differences in subcortical structures of the human brain have consistently been reported. Recent research evidence suggests that both gender and brain size influences volume distribution in subcortical areas independently. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the interplay between brain size, gender and age contributing to volume differences of subcortical GM in the human brain. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 53 healthy males and 50 age-matched healthy females. Total GM volume was determined using voxel-based morphometry. We used model-based subcortical segmentation analysis to measure the volume of subcortical nuclei. Main effects of gender, brain volume and aging on subcortical structures were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. No significant difference was found in total brain volume between the two genders after correcting for total intracranial volume. Our analysis revealed significantly larger hippocampus volume for females. Additionally, GM volumes of the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus displayed a significant age-related decrease in males as compared to females. In contrast to this only the thalamic volume loss proved significant for females. Strikingly, GM volume decreases faster in males than in females emphasizing the interplay between aging and gender on subcortical structures. These findings might have important implications for the interpretation of the effects of unalterable factors (i.e. gender and age) in cross-sectional structural MRI studies. Furthermore, the volume distribution and changes of subcortical structures have been consistently related to several neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, etc.). Understanding these changes might yield further insight in the course and prognosis of these disorders.

  16. Computing exponentially faster: implementing a non-deterministic universal Turing machine using DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Andrew; Korovin, Konstantin; Ababi, Maria; Roper, Katherine; Kell, Douglas B; Day, Philip J; King, Ross D

    2017-03-01

    The theory of computer science is based around universal Turing machines (UTMs): abstract machines able to execute all possible algorithms. Modern digital computers are physical embodiments of classical UTMs. For the most important class of problem in computer science, non-deterministic polynomial complete problems, non-deterministic UTMs (NUTMs) are theoretically exponentially faster than both classical UTMs and quantum mechanical UTMs (QUTMs). However, no attempt has previously been made to build an NUTM, and their construction has been regarded as impossible. Here, we demonstrate the first physical design of an NUTM. This design is based on Thue string rewriting systems, and thereby avoids the limitations of most previous DNA computing schemes: all the computation is local (simple edits to strings) so there is no need for communication, and there is no need to order operations. The design exploits DNA's ability to replicate to execute an exponential number of computational paths in P time. Each Thue rewriting step is embodied in a DNA edit implemented using a novel combination of polymerase chain reactions and site-directed mutagenesis. We demonstrate that the design works using both computational modelling and in vitro molecular biology experimentation: the design is thermodynamically favourable, microprogramming can be used to encode arbitrary Thue rules, all classes of Thue rule can be implemented, and non-deterministic rule implementation. In an NUTM, the resource limitation is space, which contrasts with classical UTMs and QUTMs where it is time. This fundamental difference enables an NUTM to trade space for time, which is significant for both theoretical computer science and physics. It is also of practical importance, for to quote Richard Feynman 'there's plenty of room at the bottom'. This means that a desktop DNA NUTM could potentially utilize more processors than all the electronic computers in the world combined, and thereby outperform the world

  17. Faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2006-10-03

    Systems and methods are described for faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms. A method includes of obtaining multiple spatially-heterodyned holograms, includes: digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a first angle between a first reference beam and a first, object beam; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a second angle between a second reference beam and a second object beam; and applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result, wherein digitally recording the first spatially-heterodyned hologram is completed before digitally recording the second spatially-heterodyned hologram and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  18. Faster but Less Careful Prehension in Presence of High, Rather than Low, Social Status Attendees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee's peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee.

  19. Faster Synthesis of Beta-Diketonate Ternary Europium Complexes: Elapsed Times & Reaction Yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathalia B D; Silva, Anderson I S; Gerson, P C; Gonçalves, Simone M C; Simas, Alfredo M

    2015-01-01

    β-diketonates are customary bidentate ligands in highly luminescent ternary europium complexes, such as Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2, where L stands for a nonionic ligand. Usually, the syntheses of these complexes start by adding, to an europium salt such as EuCl3(H2O)6, three equivalents of β-diketonate ligands to form the complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2. The nonionic ligands are subsequently added to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. However, the Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 intermediates are frequently both difficult and slow to purify by recrystallization, a step which usually takes a long time, varying from days to several weeks, depending on the chosen β-diketonate. In this article, we advance a novel synthetic technique which does not use Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 as an intermediate. Instead, we start by adding 4 equivalents of a monodentate nonionic ligand L straight to EuCl3(H2O)6 to form a new intermediate: EuCl3(L)4(H2O)n, with n being either 3 or 4. The advantage is that these intermediates can now be easily, quickly, and efficiently purified. The β-diketonates are then carefully added to this intermediate to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. For the cases studied, the 20-day average elapsed time reduced to 10 days for the faster synthesis, together with an improvement in the overall yield from 42% to 69%.

  20. Perfect Hamming code with a hash table for faster genome mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yoichi; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo

    2011-11-30

    With the advent of next-generation sequencers, the growing demands to map short DNA sequences to a genome have promoted the development of fast algorithms and tools. The tools commonly used today are based on either a hash table or the suffix array/Burrow-Wheeler transform. These algorithms are the best suited to finding the genome position of exactly matching short reads. However, they have limited capacity to handle the mismatches. To find n-mismatches, they requires O(2n) times the computation time of exact matches. Therefore, acceleration techniques are required. We propose a hash-based method for genome mapping that reduces the number of hash references for finding mismatches without increasing the size of the hash table. The method regards DNA subsequences as words on Galois extension field GF(2²) and each word is encoded to a code word of a perfect Hamming code. The perfect Hamming code defines equivalence classes of DNA subsequences. Each equivalence class includes subsequence whose corresponding words on GF(2²) are encoded to a corresponding code word. The code word is used as a hash key to store these subsequences in a hash table. Specifically, it reduces by about 70% the number of hash keys necessary for searching the genome positions of all 2-mismatches of 21-base-long DNA subsequence. The paper shows perfect hamming code can reduce the number of hash references for hash-based genome mapping. As the computation time to calculate code words is far shorter than a hash reference, our method is effective to reduce the computation time to map short DNA sequences to genome. The amount of data that DNA sequencers generate continues to increase and more accurate genome mappings are required. Thus our method will be a key technology to develop faster genome mapping software.

  1. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  2. Climatic niche evolution is faster in sympatric than allopatric lineages of the butterfly genus Pyrgus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pitteloud, C.; Arrigo, N.; Suchan, T.; Mastretta-Yanes, A.; Vila, R.; Dincă, V.; Hernández-Roldán, J.; Brockmann, E.; Chittaro, Y.; Klečková, Irena; Fumagalli, L.; Buerki, S.; Pellissier, L.; Alvarez, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 1852 (2017), č. článku 20170208. ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climatic niche * macro-evolutionary processes * parametric biogeography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1852/20170208

  3. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  4. Accommodation Responds to Optical Vergence and Not Defocus Blur Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Esteve-Taboada, José J; Kruger, Philip B; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether changes in wavefront spherical curvature (optical vergence) are a directional cue for accommodation. Nine subjects participated in this experiment. The accommodation response to a monochromatic target was measured continuously with a custom-made adaptive optics system while astigmatism and higher-order aberrations were corrected in real time. There were two experimental open-loop conditions: vergence-driven condition, where the deformable mirror provided sinusoidal changes in defocus at the retina between -1 and +1 diopters (D) at 0.2 Hz; and blur-driven condition, in which the level of defocus at the retina was always 0 D, but a sinusoidal defocus blur between -1 and +1 D at 0.2 Hz was simulated in the target. Right before the beginning of each trial, the target was moved to an accommodative demand of 2 D. Eight out of nine subjects showed sinusoidal responses for the vergence-driven condition but not for the blur-driven condition. Their average (±SD) gain for the vergence-driven condition was 0.50 (±0.28). For the blur-driven condition, average gain was much smaller at 0.07 (±0.03). The ninth subject showed little to no response for both conditions, with average gain Vergence-driven condition gain was significantly different from blur-driven condition gain (P = 0.004). Accommodation responds to optical vergence, even without feedback, and not to changes in defocus blur alone. These results suggest the presence of a retinal mechanism that provides a directional cue for accommodation from optical vergence.

  5. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  6. Factors influencing healthcare provider respondent fatigue answering a globally administered in-app survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas N. O’Reilly-Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Methods Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Results Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Discussion Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the

  7. Functional imaging in obese children responding to long-term sports therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, M; Lotze, M; Davids, S; Domin, M; Thoms, K; Wendt, J; Hirschfeld, H; Hamm, A; Lauffer, H

    2014-10-01

    Functional imaging studies on responders and non-responders to therapeutic interventions in obese children are rare. We applied fMRI before and after a one-year sports therapy in 14 obese or overweight children aged 7-16 years. During scanning, participants observed a set of standardized pictures from food categories, sports, and pleasant and neutral images. We were interested in alterations of the cerebral activation to food images in association with changes in the BMI-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) after therapy and therefore separated the observation group into two outcome subgroups. One with reduction of BMI-SDS >0.2 (responder group) and one without (non-responder group). Before therapy fMRI-activation between groups did not differ. After therapy we found the following results: in response to food images, obese children of the responder group showed increased activation in the left putamen when compared with the non-responder group. Pleasant images evoked increased insula activation in the responder group. Only the responder group showed enhanced activity within areas known to store trained motor patterns in response to sports images. Both the putamen and the insula are involved in the processing of emotional valence and were only active for the therapy responders during the observation of food or pleasant stimuli. Elevated activity in these regions might possibly be seen in the context of an increase of dopaminergic response to emotional positive stimuli during intervention. In addition, sport images activated motor representations only in those subjects who profited from the sports therapy. Overall, an altered response to rewarding and pleasant images and an increased recruitment of motor engrams during observations of sports pictures indicates a more normal cerebral processing in response to these stimuli after successful sports therapy in obese children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A faster running speed is associated with a greater body weight loss in 100-km ultra-marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Alexander Rüst, Christoph; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In 219 recreational male runners, we investigated changes in body mass, total body water, haematocrit, plasma sodium concentration ([Na(+)]), and urine specific gravity as well as fluid intake during a 100-km ultra-marathon. The athletes lost 1.9 kg (s = 1.4) of body mass, equal to 2.5% (s = 1.8) of body mass (P muscle mass (P fat mass (P 0.05). In conclusion, faster runners lost more body mass, runners lost more body mass when they drank less fluid, and faster runners drank more fluid than slower runners.

  9. An Adaptive Tuning Mechanism for Phase-Locked Loop Algorithms for Faster Time Performance of Interconnected Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Interconnected renewable energy sources (RES) require fast and accurate fault ride through (FRT) operation, in order to support the power grid, when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive phase-locked loop (adaptive dαβPLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response...... simulation and experimental results. Furthermore, the benefits of using a faster synchronization method on the control of the GSC of RES are also demonstrated in this paper. Additionally, a new synchronization technique named frequency–phase decoupling (FPD)-dαβ PLL is presented,which applies an FPD...

  10. Lysosomal adaptation: How cells respond to lysosomotropic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuyan; Sung, Tae; Lin, Nianwei; Abraham, Robert T.; Jessen, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic organelles essential for degradation and cellular homoeostasis and recently lysosomes have been shown as signaling hub to respond to the intra and extracellular changes (e.g. amino acid availability). Compounds including pharmaceutical drugs that are basic and lipophilic will become sequestered inside lysosomes (lysosomotropic). How cells respond to the lysosomal stress associated with lysosomotropism is not well characterized. Our goal is to assess the lysosomal changes and identify the signaling pathways that involve in the lysosomal changes. Eight chemically diverse lysosomotropic drugs from different therapeutic areas were subjected to the evaluation using the human adult retinal pigmented epithelium cell line, ARPE-19. All lysosomotropic drugs tested triggered lysosomal activation demonstrated by increased lysosotracker red (LTR) and lysosensor green staining, increased cathepsin activity, and increased LAMP2 staining. However, tested lysosomotropic drugs also prompted lysosomal dysfunction exemplified by intracellular and extracellular substrate accumulation including phospholipid, SQSTM1/p62, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and opsin. Lysosomal activation observed was likely attributed to lysosomal dysfunction, leading to compensatory responses including nuclear translocation of transcriptional factors TFEB, TFE3 and MITF. The adaptive changes are protective to the cells under lysosomal stress. Mechanistic studies implicate calcium and mTORC1 modulation involvement in the adaptive changes. These results indicate that lysosomotropic compounds could evoke a compensatory lysosomal biogenic response but with the ultimate consequence of lysosomal functional impairment. This work also highlights a pathway of response to lysosomal stress and evidences the role of TFEB, TFE3 and MITF in the stress response. PMID:28301521

  11. Faster metabolite (1H transverse relaxation in the elder human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Marjańska

    Full Text Available (1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is unique among imaging modalities because signals from several metabolites are measured during a single examination period. Each metabolite reflects a distinct intracellular process. Furthermore transverse (T2 relaxation times probe the viability of the cell microenvironment, e.g., the viscosity of the cellular fluids, the microscopic susceptibility distribution within the cells, and the iron content. In this study, T2s of brain metabolites were measured in the occipital lobe of eighteen young and fourteen elderly subjects at a field strength of 4 tesla. The T2s of N-acetylaspartate, total creatine, and total choline were 23%, 16% and 10% shorter in elderly than in young subjects. The findings of this study suggest that noninvasive detection of T2 provides useful biological information on changes in the cellular microenvironment that take place during aging.

  12. Evidence for shifts to faster growth strategies in the new ranges of invasive alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Michelle R; Cooke, Julia; Richardson, David M; Newman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    novel environment commonly results in a reduction in the top-down constraint imposed by herbivores on growth, allowing plants to shift towards a faster growth strategy which may result in an increase in population size and spread and consequently to invasive success. PMID:25558090

  13. Community first responders and responder schemes in the United Kingdom: systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Viet-Hai; Trueman, Ian; Togher, Fiona; Orner, Roderick; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2017-06-19

    Community First Responder (CFR) schemes support lay people to respond to medical emergencies, working closely with ambulance services. They operate widely in the UK. There has been no previous review of UK literature on these schemes. This is the first systematic scoping review of UK literature on CFR schemes, which identifies the reasons for becoming a CFR, requirements for training and feedback and confusion between the CFR role and that of ambulance service staff. This study also reveals gaps in the evidence base for CFR schemes. We conducted a systematic scoping review of the published literature, in the English language from 2000 onwards using specific search terms in six databases. Narrative synthesis was used to analyse article content. Nine articles remained from the initial search of 15,969 articles after removing duplicates, title and abstract and then full text review. People were motivated to become CFRs through an altruistic desire to help others. They generally felt rewarded by their work but recognised that the help they provided was limited by their training compared with ambulance staff. There were concerns about the possible emotional impact on CFRs responding to incidents. CFRs felt that better feedback would enhance their learning. Ongoing training and support were viewed as essential to enable CFRs to progress. They perceived that public recognition of the CFR role was low, patients sometimes confusing them with ambulance staff. Relationships with the ambulance service were sometimes ambivalent due to confusion over roles. There was support for local autonomy of CFR schemes but with greater sharing of best practice. Most studies dated from 2005 and were descriptive rather than analytical. In the UK and Australia CFRs are usually lay volunteers equipped with basic skills for responding to medical emergencies, whereas in the US they include other emergency staff as well as lay people. Opportunities for future research include exploring

  14. Support Framework for First Responder Family Members: A Proposed Model for Increasing Responder Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    always been consistent regarding disaster preparedness. The International Pentecostal Holiness Church article titled Family Preparedness for Disaster...prepared by developing a family disaster plan and when a disaster occurs, work the prearranged plan (International Pentecostal Holiness Church, n.d...would fall under the auspices of “first responder.” It was also noted that there is movement with a blue card certification process for first

  15. Eyetracking of social preference choices reveals normal but faster processing in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Alma; Mier, Daniela; Adolphs, Ralph; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been reported to show atypical attention and evaluative processing, in particular for social stimuli such as faces. The usual measure in these studies is an explicit, subjective judgment, which is the culmination of complex-temporally extended processes that are not typically dissected in detail. Here we addressed a neglected aspect of social decision-making in order to gain further insight into the underlying mechanisms: the temporal evolution of the choice. We investigated this issue by quantifying the alternating patterns of gaze onto faces, as well as nonsocial stimuli, while subjects had to decide which of the two stimuli they preferred. Surprisingly, the temporal profile of fixations relating to choice (the so-called "gaze cascade") was entirely normal in ASD, as were the eventual preference choices. Despite these similarities, we found two key abnormalities: people with ASD made choices more rapidly than did control subjects across the board, and their reaction times for social preference judgments were insensitive to choice difficulty. We suggest that ASD features an altered decision-making process when basing choice on social preferences. One hypothesis motivated by these data is that a choice criterion is reached in ASD regardless of the discriminability of the options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  17. 16 CFR 5.62 - Hearing rights of respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing rights of respondent. 5.62 Section 5.62 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE... rights of respondent. In any hearing under this subpart, the respondent shall have the right: (a) To be...

  18. Happier, faster: Developmental changes in the effects of mood and novelty on responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Positive mood ameliorates several cognitive processes: It can enhance cognitive control, increase flexibility, and promote variety seeking in decision making. These effects of positive mood have been suggested to depend on frontostriatal dopamine, which is also associated with the detection of novelty. This suggests that positive mood could also affect novelty detection. In the present study, children and adults saw either a happy or a neutral movie to induce a positive or neutral mood. After that, they were shown novel and familiar images. On some trials a beep was presented over headphones either at the same time as the image or at a 200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and the task of the participant was to detect these auditory targets. Children were slower in responding than adults. Positive mood, however, speeded responses, especially in children, and induced facilitatory effects of novelty. These effects were consistent with increased arousal. Although effects of novelty were more consistent with an attentional response, in children who had watched a happy movie the novel images evoked a more liberal response criterion, suggestive of increased arousal. This suggests that mood and novelty may affect response behaviour stronger in children than in adults.

  19. Personal distress and the influence of bystanders on responding to an emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortensius, Ruud; Schutter, Dennis J L G; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous helping behavior during an emergency is influenced by the personality of the onlooker and by social situational factors such as the presence of bystanders. Here, we sought to determine the influences of sympathy, an other-oriented response, and personal distress, a self-oriented response, on the effect of bystanders during an emergency. In four experiments, we investigated whether trait levels of sympathy and personal distress predicted responses to an emergency in the presence of bystanders by using behavioral measures and single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sympathy and personal distress were expected to be associated with faster responses to an emergency without bystanders present, but only personal distress would predict slower responses to an emergency with bystanders present. The results of a cued reaction time task showed that people who reported higher levels of personal distress and sympathy responded faster to an emergency without bystanders (Exp. 1). In contrast to our predictions, perspective taking but not personal distress was associated with slower reaction times as the number of bystanders increased during an emergency (Exp. 2). However, the decrease in motor corticospinal excitability, a direct physiological measure of action preparation, with the increase in the number of bystanders was solely predicted by personal distress (Exp. 3). Incorporating cognitive load manipulations during the observation of an emergency suggested that personal distress is linked to an effect of bystanders on reflexive responding to an emergency (Exp. 4). Taken together, these results indicate that the presence of bystanders during an emergency reduces action preparation in people with a disposition to experience personal distress.

  20. When to Blink and when to Think: Preference for Intuitive Decisions Results in Faster and Better Tactical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; Laborde, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    Intuition is often considered an effective manner of decision making in sports. In this study we investigated whether a preference for intuition over deliberation results in faster and better lab-based choices in team handball attack situations with 54 male and female handball players of different expertise levels. We assumed that intuitive…

  1. Resurgence of responding after the cessation of response-independent reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R; Skinner, B F

    1980-10-01

    In an autoshaping experiment, food-deprived pigeons pecked rapidly at a moving dot that preceded the delivery of food. When the moving dot and food were no longer correlated, the rate of pecking dropped nearly to zero. When, subsequently, no food was given, pecking reappeared at a high rate (nearly 200 pecks per min for each subject), the rate dropping again in subsequent sessions. In two other experiments, designed to clarify relevant variables, the effect was replicated. The data suggest that although response-independent reinforcement produces a decrement in responding, it does not reduce a tendency to respond under other conditions.

  2. CIRUN: Climate Information Responding to User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by

  3. The Auditory P3 in Antidepressant Pharmacotherapy Treatment Responders, Non-Responders and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Natalia; De Somma, Elisea; Blondeau, Claude; Tessier, Pierre; Norris, Sandhaya; Fusee, Wendy; Smith, Dylan; Blier, Pierre; Knott, Verner

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, can index electrocortical activity related to cognitive operations. The fronto-central P3a ERP is involved in involuntary processing of novel auditory information, whereas the parietal P3b indexes controlled attention processing. The amplitude of the auditory P3b has been found to be decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have examined the relationship between the P3b, the related P3a, and antidepressant treatment response. We tested 53 unmedicated individuals (25 females) with MDD as well as 43 non-depressed controls (23 females) on the novelty oddball task, wherein infrequent deviant (target) and frequent standard (non-target) tones were presented, along with infrequent novel (non-target/distractor) sounds. The P3a and P3b ERPs were assessed to the novel and target sounds, respectively, as were accompanying behavioural performance measures. Depression ratings and antidepressant response status were assessed following 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy with three different regimens. Antidepressant treatment non-responders had smaller baseline P3a/b amplitudes than responders and healthy controls. Baseline P3b amplitude also weakly predicted the extent of depression rating changes by week 12. Females exhibited larger P3a/b amplitudes than males. With respect to task performance, controls had more target hits than treatment non-responders. ERP measures correlated with clinical changes in males and with behavioural measures in females. These results suggest that greater (or control-like) baseline P3a/b amplitudes are associated with a positive antidepressant response, and that gender differences characterize the P3 and, hence, basic attentive processes. PMID:23664712

  4. Auditory P3 in antidepressant pharmacotherapy treatment responders, non-responders and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Natalia; De Somma, Elisea; Blondeau, Claude; Tessier, Pierre; Norris, Sandhaya; Fusee, Wendy; Smith, Dylan; Blier, Pierre; Knott, Verner

    2013-11-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, can index electrocortical activity related to cognitive operations. The fronto-central P3a ERP is involved in involuntary processing of novel auditory information, whereas the parietal P3b indexes controlled attention processing. The amplitude of the auditory P3b has been found to be decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have examined the relations between the P3b, the related P3a, and antidepressant treatment response. We tested 53 unmedicated individuals (25 females) with MDD, as well as 43 non-depressed controls (23 females) on the novelty oddball task, wherein infrequent deviant (target) and frequent standard (non-target) tones were presented, along with infrequent novel (non-target/distractor) sounds. The P3a and P3b ERPs were assessed to novel and target sounds, respectively, as were their accompanying behavioral performance measures. Depression ratings and the antidepressant response status were assessed following 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy with three different regimens. Antidepressant treatment non-responders had smaller baseline P3a/b amplitudes than responders and healthy controls. Baseline P3b amplitude also weakly predicted the extent of depression rating changes by week 12. Females exhibited larger P3a/b amplitudes than males. With respect to task performance, controls had more target hits than treatment non-responders. ERP measures correlated with clinical changes in males and with behavioral measures in females. These results suggest that greater (or control-like) baseline P3a/b amplitudes are associated with a positive antidepressant response, and that gender differences characterize the P3 and, by extension, basic attentive processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Basic and translational evaluation of renewal of operant responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael E; Liddon, Clare J; Ribeiro, Aurelia; Greif, Abigail E; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment relapse, defined as the reemergence of problem behavior after treatment, is a serious difficulty faced by clinicians. Failures of treatment integrity (i.e., failure to implement interventions as intended) are often invoked to explain the reemergence of problem behavior. Basic studies suggest that the prevailing stimulus context might also contribute. We conducted 2 experiments in which reinforcement for a target response was followed by 2 phases of extinction with different or identical stimulus contexts relative to baseline (ABA renewal). In Experiment 1, pigeons served as subjects using procedures typical of those used in basic behavioral research. Experiment 2 was designed as a translational replication of Experiment 1, and children who had been diagnosed with autism served as participants. Returning to the previously reinforced stimulus context in both species produced a clear and immediate increase of extinguished responding. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that both reinforcement contingencies and stimulus context influence the reemergence of extinguished behavior. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    movement control and a functional mobility test to investigate overall functional locomotor ability. Postflight sessions were given on days 1, 2, 4, 7 after their return. Subjects walked on a treadmill driven at 1.8 m/s while performing a visual task. Motion data from head and trunk segmental motion data were obtained to calculate the angular head pitch (HP) movements during walking trials while subjects performed the visual task, to estimate the contributions of vestibular reflexive mechanisms in HP movements. Astronauts showed a heterogeneous response pattern of both increases and decreases in the amplitude of HP movement. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of this heterogeneity in postflight responses in head movement control by examining data obtained using the same experimental test paradigm on a vestibular clinical population (VC) and in normal subjects undergoing adaptation to acute body load support unloading. Results showed that exposure to unloaded locomotion caused a significant increase in HP movements, whereas in the VC patients the HP movements were significantly decreased. We infer that BLS-mediated somatosensory input centrally modulates vestibular input and can adaptively modify head-movement control during locomotion. Thus, space flight may cause a central adaptation of the converging vestibular and body load-sensing somatosensory systems. To investigate changes in functional mobility astronaut subjects walked at their preferred pace around an obstacle course consisting of several pylons and obstacles set up on a foam floor, which provided an unstable walking surface. Subjects were instructed to walk around the course as fast as possible without touching any of the objects on the course for a total of six individual trials per test session. One of the dependent measures was time to complete the course (TCC, sec). The learning rate over the six trials performed on preflight and the first day after landing (micro curve) was used to characterize the

  7. A family history of Type 1 alcoholism differentiates alcohol consumption in high cortisol responders to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Sejla; Söderpalm, Bo; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The differentiation between high and low cortisol responders to stress is of interest in determining the risk factors which may, along with genetic vulnerability, influence alcohol intake. Thirty-two healthy volunteers, family history positive to alcoholism (FHP, n = 16) and family history negative (FHN, n = 16) attended two laboratory sessions during which alcohol or placebo was offered. There were no differences in consumption of alcohol or placebo between FHP and FHN subjects. STUDY 2: Fifty-eight healthy social drinkers, FHP (n = 27) and FHN (n = 31) attended two laboratory sessions. They were administered either alcohol or placebo in both sessions they attended. All subjects underwent either a stress task (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a stress-free period, at two separate occasions, before being offered beverage. After the salivary cortisol analysis, subjects in each group were divided into high (HCR) or low (LCR) cortisol responders. After stress, subjects who were FHP-HCR consumed more alcohol than FHN-HCR. There were no differences in the placebo intake between FHP and FHN subjects regardless of their cortisol response. This result indicates that stress promotes alcohol consumption only in subjects with a family history of Type 1 alcoholism who show an increase in cortisol response to stress. This behaviour is similar to that previously observed in alcohol dependent individuals after stress and thus could represent an endophenotype posing a risk for future development of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  9. All-day performance variations in normal and narcoleptic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, R; Montplaisir, J

    1986-01-01

    This study compared the performance of narcoleptic and control subjects on one psychomotor task, examined the recuperative power of naps in narcoleptic subjects, and evaluated the respective recuperative values of REM and NREM sleep. Ten untreated narcoleptic and eight control subjects repeatedly responded to a choice reaction time task during days with and days without napping. Narcoleptic subjects exhibited low performance levels relative to control subjects on all variables. Napping improved the performance of narcoleptic subjects except for the number of long latency (reaction time greater than 1,000 ms) responses. Finally, performance, particularly on accuracy measures, was better, although not significantly, after NREM naps when compared with REM naps.

  10. Better, faster and cheaper energy facades for transformation of multi-storey blocks built between 1960 and 1976

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The intention of presenting the project ´Better, Cheaper and Faster energy facades´ is to spread information and knowledge about an ongoing process concerning industrial prefabricated energy facades for renovation projects and to spread information of how to develop the project through an innovat......The intention of presenting the project ´Better, Cheaper and Faster energy facades´ is to spread information and knowledge about an ongoing process concerning industrial prefabricated energy facades for renovation projects and to spread information of how to develop the project through...... analysis to other projects - discussions on the level of industrialized building process - reflections through comparable renovation initiatives from Austria - literature studies The result achieved will prove that because a well-defined tender an industrial upgrading of the process can be lifted to a very...

  11. Faster activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in resistant mice during early innate response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, C; Kobayashi, O

    2004-01-01

    bacterial clearance in the lungs of C3H/HeN mice could be explained by faster activation of the PMNs, as indicated by the higher up-regulation of CD11b. The severe lung inflammation in BALB/c mice may be caused by the early higher content of G-CSF in the sera mobilizing PMNs from the bone marrow...... was decreased 1 day after bacterial challenge, whereas the expression was increased after 2 days of challenge on PMNs of C3H/HeN mice only. These changes were accompanied by a more severe lung inflammation in BALB/c mice and faster clearance of the bacteria in C3H/HeN mice. In conclusion, the rapid early...

  12. Rapid and Deep Proteomes by Faster Sequencing on a Benchtop Quadrupole Ultra-High-Field Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Christian D; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Batth, Tanveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage is evalu......Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage...... in less than 24 hours of analysis time by offline high pH reversed-phase peptide fractionation from which we identify more than 140,000 unique peptide sequences. This is comparable to state-of-the-art multi-day, multi-enzyme efforts. Finally the acquisition methods are evaluated for single-shot...

  13. Rapid and Deep Proteomes by Faster Sequencing on a Benchtop Quadrupole Ultra-High-Field Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Christian D; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Batth, Tanveer Singh

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage is evalu......Shotgun proteomics is a powerful technology for global analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. Here, we investigate faster sequencing speed of the latest Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer, which features an ultra-high-field Orbitrap mass analyzer. Proteome coverage...... per second or up to 600 new peptides sequenced per gradient minute. We identify 4400 proteins from one microgram of HeLa digest using a one hour gradient, which is an approximately 30% improvement compared to previous instrumentation. In addition, we show very deep proteome coverage can be achieved...

  14. POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS IN JAVANESE

    OpenAIRE

    Sukarno Sukarno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:  Javanese has been studied from many different perspectives. However, no one discusses how Javanese respond to compliments politely. The aim of this study is to investigate the politeness strategies as applied to respond to compliments by the Javanese people in Jember, East Java. The notion of politeness plays crucial role in the realization of speech acts (utterances and verbal communication) in Javanese, such as responding to compliements. As utterances and verbal communications s...

  15. Connecting, Protecting, and Informing the Next Generation of First Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) First Responder Group‘s (FRG) cutting-edge Next Generation First Responder...smartphones, responders have access to a powerful computer that has potential far beyond smartphones’ conventional uses. Michael Flood, a developer...for flight on an indoor-capable drone required a collaboration of aero, electrical, controls, and mechanical engineers and physicists .” Complementing

  16. Faster Array Training and Rapid Analysis for a Sensor Array Intended for an Event Monitor in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, A. V.; Fonollosa, J.; Huerta, R.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental monitoring, in particular, air monitoring, is a critical need for human space flight. Both monitoring and life support systems have needs for closed loop process feedback and quality control for environmental factors. Monitoring protects the air environment and water supply for the astronaut crew and different sensors help ensure that the habitat falls within acceptable limits, and that the life support system is functioning properly and efficiently. The longer the flight duration and the farther the destination, the more critical it becomes to have carefully monitored and automated control systems for life support. There is an acknowledged need for an event monitor which samples the air continuously and provides near real-time information on changes in the air. Past experiments with the JPL ENose have demonstrated a lifetime of the sensor array, with the software, of around 18 months. We are working on a sensor array and new algorithms that will incorporate transient sensor responses in the analysis. Preliminary work has already showed more rapid quantification and identification of analytes and the potential for faster training time of the array. We will look at some of the factors that contribute to demonstrating faster training time for the array. Faster training will decrease the integrated sensor exposure to training analytes, which will also help extend sensor lifetime.

  17. Green-lighting green fluorescent protein: faster and more efficient folding by eliminating a cis-trans peptide isomerization event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, David J; Huang, Yao-ming; Xia, Ke; Fraser, Keith; Jones, Victoria E; Lamberson, Colleen M; Van Roey, Patrick; Colón, Wilfredo; Bystroff, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Wild-type green fluorescent protein (GFP) folds on a time scale of minutes. The slow step in folding is a cis-trans peptide bond isomerization. The only conserved cis-peptide bond in the native GFP structure, at P89, was remodeled by the insertion of two residues, followed by iterative energy minimization and side chain design. The engineered GFP was synthesized and found to fold faster and more efficiently than its template protein, recovering 50% more of its fluorescence upon refolding. The slow phase of folding is faster and smaller in amplitude, and hysteresis in refolding has been eliminated. The elimination of a previously reported kinetically trapped state in refolding suggests that X-P89 is trans in the trapped state. A 2.55 Å resolution crystal structure revealed that the new variant contains only trans-peptide bonds, as designed. This is the first instance of a computationally remodeled fluorescent protein that folds faster and more efficiently than wild type. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  18. Bispectral index monitoring for conscious sedation in intervention: better, safer, faster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.K.; Laasch, H.-U.; Wilbraham, L.; England, R.E.; Morris, J.A.; Martin, D.F. E-mail: derrick.martin@smtr.nhs.uk

    2004-12-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare subjective (Ramsay sedation score, RSS) with objective electroencephalogram-based bispectral index (BIS) assessment, and to validate the appropriate BIS range for measurement of conscious sedation in interventional procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sedo-analgesia (midazolam and fentanyl) for interventional gastrointestinal procedures were divided into two groups. In group A (n=30) sedation was guided by the RSS with the operator blinded to the BIS recording. In group B (n=70) the operator titrated intravenous sedation to maintain an optimal BIS, predetermined from the results in group A. Recovery time, procedure duration, physiological parameters and unplanned events were recorded in both groups. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the BIS and RSS (p<0.001). BIS values of 87.2 and 80.9 corresponded to an RSS of 3 and 4, respectively. The optimal BIS level was defined as 80-85. Fifty-seven point five percent of readings were within this range in group B compared with 26.5% in group A (p<0.001). Sedation approaching general anaesthesia (BIS<60) occurred in 5.5% of patients in group A but not in group B. Mean recovery time, duration of procedure, midazolam and fentanyl doses were significantly reduced in group B. Unplanned events were reduced from 27 to 17%, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring enables more effective titration of sedatives to maintain a suitable level of consciousness, whilst reducing procedure time. The BIS offers an objective, safe and reliable measure of sedation, without disturbing either patient or operator. BIS monitoring raises the standard of patient care, and in our view, should be used to augment standard assessment.

  19. An integrated command control and communications center for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Vidacic, Dragan; Melnyk, Pavlo

    2005-05-01

    First responders to a major incident include many different agencies. These may include law enforcement officers, multiple fire departments, paramedics, HAZMAT response teams, and possibly even federal personnel such as FBI and FEMA. Often times multiple jurisdictions respond to the incident which causes interoperability issues with respect to communication and dissemination of time critical information. Accurate information from all responding sources needs to be rapidly collected and made available to the current on site responders as well as the follow-on responders who may just be arriving on scene. The creation of a common central database with a simple easy to use interface that is dynamically updated in real time would allow prompt and efficient information distribution between different jurisdictions. Such a system is paramount to the success of any response to a major incident. First responders typically arrive in mobile vehicles that are equipped with communications equipment. Although the first responders may make reports back to their specific home based command centers, the details of those reports are not typically available to other first responders who are not a part of that agencies infrastructure. Furthermore, the collection of information often occurs outside of the first responder vehicle and the details of the scene are normally either radioed from the field or written down and then disseminated after significant delay. Since first responders are not usually on the same communications channels, and the fact that there is normally a considerable amount of confusion during the first few hours on scene, it would be beneficial if there were a centralized location for the repository of time critical information which could be accessed by all the first responders in a common fashion without having to redesign or add significantly to each first responders hardware/software systems. Each first responder would then be able to provide information

  20. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  1. Senp1 drives hypoxia-induced polycythemia via GATA1 and Bcl-xL in subjects with Monge's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Priti; Zhao, Huiwen W; Cabrales, Pedro J; Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Poulsen, Orit; Appenzeller, Otto; Hsiao, Yu Hsin; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2016-11-14

    In this study, because excessive polycythemia is a predominant trait in some high-altitude dwellers (chronic mountain sickness [CMS] or Monge's disease) but not others living at the same altitude in the Andes, we took advantage of this human experiment of nature and used a combination of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, genomics, and molecular biology in this unique population to understand the molecular basis for hypoxia-induced excessive polycythemia. As compared with sea-level controls and non-CMS subjects who responded to hypoxia by increasing their RBCs modestly or not at all, respectively, CMS cells increased theirs remarkably (up to 60-fold). Although there was a switch from fetal to adult HgbA0 in all populations and a concomitant shift in oxygen binding, we found that CMS cells matured faster and had a higher efficiency and proliferative potential than non-CMS cells. We also established that SENP1 plays a critical role in the differential erythropoietic response of CMS and non-CMS subjects: we can convert the CMS phenotype into that of non-CMS and vice versa by altering SENP1 levels. We also demonstrated that GATA1 is an essential downstream target of SENP1 and that the differential expression and response of GATA1 and Bcl-xL are a key mechanism underlying CMS pathology. © 2016 Azad et al.

  2. Simultaneous development of laparoscopy and robotics provides acceptable perioperative outcomes and shows robotics to have a faster learning curve and to be overall faster in rectal cancer surgery: analysis of novice MIS surgeon learning curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melich, George; Hong, Young Ki; Kim, Jieun; Hur, Hyuk; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Nam Kyu; Sender Liberman, A; Min, Byung Soh

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopy offers some evidence of benefit compared to open rectal surgery. Robotic rectal surgery is evolving into an accepted approach. The objective was to analyze and compare laparoscopic and robotic rectal surgery learning curves with respect to operative times and perioperative outcomes for a novice minimally invasive colorectal surgeon. One hundred and six laparoscopic and 92 robotic LAR rectal surgery cases were analyzed. All surgeries were performed by a surgeon who was primarily trained in open rectal surgery. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Operative time and CUSUM plots were used for evaluating the learning curve for laparoscopic versus robotic LAR. Laparoscopic versus robotic LAR outcomes feature initial group operative times of 308 (291-325) min versus 397 (373-420) min and last group times of 220 (212-229) min versus 204 (196-211) min-reversed in favor of robotics; major complications of 4.7 versus 6.5 % (NS), resection margin involvement of 2.8 versus 4.4 % (NS), conversion rate of 3.8 versus 1.1 (NS), lymph node harvest of 16.3 versus 17.2 (NS), and estimated blood loss of 231 versus 201 cc (NS). Due to faster learning curves for extracorporeal phase and total mesorectal excision phase, the robotic surgery was observed to be faster than laparoscopic surgery after the initial 41 cases. CUSUM plots demonstrate acceptable perioperative surgical outcomes from the beginning of the study. Initial robotic operative times improved with practice rapidly and eventually became faster than those for laparoscopy. Developing both laparoscopic and robotic skills simultaneously can provide acceptable perioperative outcomes in rectal surgery. It might be suggested that in the current milieu of clashing interests between evolving technology and economic constrains, there might be advantages in embracing both approaches.

  3. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  4. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0295] Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum. SUMMARY: PHMSA is co-sponsoring a one-day Emergency Responder Forum with the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  5. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  6. 45 CFR 612.4 - Responding to requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responding to requests. 612.4 Section 612.4 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.4 Responding to requests. (a) Monitoring of requests. The NSF Office of the... General, that Office will control incoming requests made directly or referred to it, dispatch response...

  7. Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

  8. Collaboration and interaction of first responders with the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, M. van; Dinesen, C.; Rijk, R. van; Bird, M.; Wester, M.; Hansen, L.J.; Vinther-Larsen, L.; Padron, C.; Boswinkel, R.; Ven, J. van de

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased focus on the need for collaboration between first responders and the general public. This type of collaboration requires soft skills that are not necessarily included in more traditional command and control trainings for first responders. Learning to collaborate with the

  9. Responding to the double implication of telemarketers' opinion queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazeland, H

    During a call, telemarketers sometimes solicit respondent's opinions about a product or service. This turns out to be a query with multiple implications, and respondents are alive to them. On the one hand, the recipient orients to a local preference to evaluate the telemarketer's product positively.

  10. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  11. Responding electronically to student drafts on campus: Dis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an investigation into whether writing centre (WC) respondents at an institution of Higher Education (HE) encourage or discourage draft dialogue (a conversation in writing) with students submitting drafts electronically to the WC for feedback. The writing respondents insert local feedback responses or ...

  12. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  13. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  14. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  15. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  16. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  17. Dissociating indifferent, directional, and extreme responding in personality data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W B; Hülsheger, Ute R

    2015-01-01

    supporting the hypothesis that Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. CONCLUSION: In Likert-based personality data, applying the three-process model can unveil individual differences in the response process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......- and observer reports of personality traits. The three-process model captures indifferent, directional, and extreme responding. Substantively, we hypothesize that, and test whether, trait Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. METHOD: We applied the three-process model to personality data...... of N = 577 dyads (self- and observer reports of the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised) of Dutch and German respondents. RESULTS: First, we provide evidence that indifferent, directional, and extreme responding can be separated from each other in personality data through the use of the three...

  18. Agreement among response to intervention criteria for identifying responder status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Amy E; Stuebing, Karla K; Anthony, Jason L; Denton, Carolyn A; Mathes, Patricia G; Fletcher, Jack M; Francis, David J

    2008-09-01

    In order to better understand the extent to which operationalizations of response to intervention (RTI) overlap and agree in identifying adequate and inadequate responders, an existing database of 399 first grade students was evaluated in relation to cut-points, measures, and methods frequently cited for the identification of inadequate responders to instruction. A series of 543 2x2 measures of association (808 total comparisons) were computed to address the agreement of different operationalizations of RTI. The results indicate that agreement is generally poor and that different methods tend to identify different students as inadequate responders, although agreement for identifying adequate responders is higher. Approaches to the assessment of responder status must use multiple criteria and avoid formulaic decision making.

  19. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  20. Health information exchange associated with improved emergency department care through faster accessing of patient information from outside organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Jordan; Kocher, Keith E; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2017-04-01

    To assess whether electronic health information exchange (HIE) is associated with improved emergency department (ED) care processes and utilization through more timely clinician viewing of information from outside organizations. Our data included 2163 patients seen in the ED of a large academic medical center for whom clinicians requested and viewed outside information from February 14, 2014, to February 13, 2015. Outside information requests w.ere fulfilled via HIE (Epic's Care Everywhere) or fax/scan to the electronic health record (EHR). We used EHR audit data to capture the time between the information request and when a clinician accessed the data. We assessed whether the relationship between method of information return and ED outcomes (length of visit, odds of imaging [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs] and hospitalization, and total charges) was mediated by request-to-access time, controlling for patient demographics, case mix, and acuity. In multivariate analysis, there was no direct association between return of information via HIE vs fax/scan and ED outcomes. HIE was associated with faster outside information access (58.5 minutes on average), and faster access was associated with changes in ED care. For each 1-hour reduction in access time, visit length was 52.9 minutes shorter, the likelihood of imaging was lower (by 2.5, 1.6, and 2.4 percentage points for CT, MRI, and radiographs, respectively), the likelihood of admission was 2.4 percentage points lower, and average charges were $1187 lower ( P  ≤ .001 for all). The relationship between HIE and improved care processes and reduced utilization in the ED is mediated by faster accessing of information from outside organizations.

  1. Acoustic and perceptual correlates of faster-than-habitual speech produced by speakers with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Christina; Tjaden, Kris; Sussman, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic-perceptual characteristics of a faster-than-habitual rate (Fast condition) were examined for speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Judgments of intelligibility for sentences produced at a habitual rate (Habitual condition) and at a faster-than-habitual rate (Fast condition) by 46 speakers with PD or MS as well as a group of 32 healthy speakers revealed that the Fast condition was, on average, associated with decreased intelligibility. However, some speakers' intelligibility did not decline. To further understand the acoustic characteristics of varied intelligibility in the Fast condition for speakers with dysarthria, a subgroup of speakers with PD or MS whose intelligibility did not decline in the Fast condition (no decline group, n=8) and a subgroup of speakers with significantly declined intelligibility (decline group, n=8) were compared. Acoustic measures of global speech timing, suprasegmental characteristics, and utterance-level segmental characteristics for vocalics were examined for the two subgroups. Results suggest acoustic contributions to intelligibility under rate modulation are complex. Potential clinical relevance and implications for the acoustic bases of intelligibility are discussed. Readers will be able to (1) discuss existing evidence for the use of rate change to facilitate intelligibility, (2) describe acoustic-perceptual characteristics of a faster-than-habitual rate among speakers with mild dysarthria, (3) discuss the relationships between rate, intelligibility, suprasegmental variables, and segmental variables, (4) identify the need to further investigate the acoustic basis for intelligibility and its potential theoretical and clinical implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing Choral Responding and a Choral Responding Plus Mnemonic Device during Geography Lessons for Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Todd; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Alter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Four male 9th-grade students with mild to moderate disabilities participated in a single case design that compared choral responding (CR) and a choral responding plus mnemonic device (CR+) during geography lessons. The authors used an alternating treatments design to evaluate the effects of the two strategies on students' on-task behavior and…

  3. Responders and non-responders to drug treatment in social phobia : Differences at baseline and prediction of response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaap, BR; Westenberg, HGM; DenBoer, JA

    1996-01-01

    Differences between responders and non-responders to drug therapy were investigated in social phobia. Two previously published studies were pooled to obtain data of 30 patients who were treated for 12 weeks with brofaromine or fluvoxamine. Four criterion variables were used to divide patients in

  4. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  5. International Scavenging for First Responder Guidance and Tools: IAEA Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berthelot, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-05

    In fiscal years (FY) 2016 and 2017, with support from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) examined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) radiological emergency response and preparedness products (guidance and tools) to determine which of these products could be useful to U.S. first responders. The IAEA Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC), which is responsible for emergency preparedness and response, offers a range of tools and guidance documents for responders in recognizing, responding to, and recovering from radiation emergencies and incidents. In order to implement this project, BNL obtained all potentially relevant tools and products produced by the IAEA IEC and analyzed these materials to determine their relevance to first responders in the U.S. Subsequently, BNL organized and hosted a workshop at DHS National Urban Security Technology Laboratory (NUSTL) for U.S. first responders to examine and evaluate IAEA products to consider their applicability to the United States. This report documents and describes the First Responder Product Evaluation Workshop, and provides recommendations on potential steps the U.S. federal government could take to make IAEA guidance and tools useful to U.S. responders.

  6. Characterizing hospital workers' willingness to respond to a radiological event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran D Balicer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Terrorist use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD, or "dirty bomb", which combines a conventional explosive device with radiological materials, is among the National Planning Scenarios of the United States government. Understanding employee willingness to respond is critical for planning experts. Previous research has demonstrated that perception of threat and efficacy is key in the assessing willingness to respond to a RDD event. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was used to evaluate the willingness of hospital employees to respond to a RDD event. Agreement with a series of belief statements was assessed, following a methodology validated in previous work. The survey was available online to all 18,612 employees of the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January to March 2009. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 3426 employees (18.4%, whose demographic distribution was similar to overall hospital staff. 39% of hospital workers were not willing to respond to a RDD scenario if asked but not required to do so. Only 11% more were willing if required. Workers who were hesitant to agree to work additional hours when required were 20 times less likely to report during a RDD emergency. Respondents who perceived their peers as likely to report to work in a RDD emergency were 17 times more likely to respond during a RDD event if asked. Only 27.9% of the hospital employees with a perception of low efficacy declared willingness to respond to a severe RDD event. Perception of threat had little impact on willingness to respond among hospital workers. CONCLUSIONS: Radiological scenarios such as RDDs are among the most dreaded emergency events yet studied. Several attitudinal indicators can help to identify hospital employees unlikely to respond. These risk-perception modifiers must then be addressed through training to enable effective hospital response to a RDD event.

  7. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (Oct-Nov 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-21

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  8. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  9. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  10. The induction of CD80 and apoptosis on B cells and CD40L in CD4+ T cells in response to seasonal influenza vaccination distinguishes responders versus non-responders in healthy controls and aviremic ART-treated HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anna M; Luo, Zhenwu; Martin, Lisa; Wan, Zhuang; Ma, Lei; Liao, Guoyang; Song, Yuxia; Li, Xiaochun; Michael Kilby, J; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Studies have shown that HIV infection is associated with an impaired influenza vaccine response. We examined the role of cellular phenotypes and function in influenza vaccine responsiveness in healthy controls and aviremic HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART). 16 healthy controls and 26 ART+ aviremic HIV+ subjects were enrolled in the current study. Blood was collected at pre-vaccination (D0), and on days 7-10 (D7) and 14-21 (D14) following the 2013-2014 seasonal influenza vaccine administrations. Subjects were classified as responders if neutralizing titers against H1N1 virus increased ⩾4-fold at D14 compared to D0. A serial analysis of B and CD4+ T cell frequencies and activation was performed on D0 and D7 by flow cytometry. 9 of 26 (34.6%) HIV-infected individuals and 7 of 16 (43.8%) healthy controls were classified as responders to influenza vaccines. Total B cell apoptosis (annexin V) was increased on D7 post-vaccination in non-responders but not in responders among both controls and HIV+ subjects. Surface CD80 expression on memory B cells and intracellular CD40L expression on memory CD4+ T cells were induced on D7 in responders of controls but not in non-responders. The CD80 and CD40L induction was not demonstrable in HIV-infected subjects regardless of responders and non-responders. Memory CD4+ T cell cycling tended to increase on D7 in the four study groups but did not achieve significance. All the other parameters were indistinguishable between responders and non-responders, regardless of HIV-infection status. The perturbation of activation and apoptotic induction on B cells or CD4+ T cells after seasonal influenza vaccination in non-responders and HIV-infected subjects may help understand the mechanism of impaired vaccine responsiveness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Acoustic and perceptual correlates of faster-than-habitual speech produced by speakers with Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Christina; Tjaden, Kris; Sussman, Joan E.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic-perceptual characteristics of a faster-than-habitual rate (Fast condition) were examined for speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Judgments of intelligibility for sentences produced at a habitual rate (Habitual condition) and at a faster-than-habitual rate (Fast condition) by 46 speakers with PD or MS as well as a group of 32 healthy speakers revealed that the Fast condition was, on average, associated with decreased intelligibility. However, some speakers' intelligibility did not decline. To further understand the acoustic characteristics of varied intelligibility in the Fast condition for speakers with dysarthria, a subgroup of speakers with PD or MS whose intelligibility did not decline in the Fast condition (No Decline group, n = 8) and a subgroup of speakers with significantly declined intelligibility (Decline group, n = 8) were compared. Acoustic measures of global speech timing, suprasegmental characteristics, and utterance-level segmental characteristics for vocalics were examined for the two subgroups. Results suggest acoustic contributions to intelligibility under rate modulation are complex. Potential clinical relevance and implications for the acoustic bases of intelligibility are discussed. PMID:25287378

  12. Male Sex Is Independently Associated with Faster Disability Accumulation in Relapse-Onset MS but Not in Primary Progressive MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ann Ribbons

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis is more common in women than men and females have more relapses than men. In a large international cohort we have evaluated the effect of gender on disability accumulation and disease progression to determine if male MS patients have a worse clinical outcome than females.Using the MSBase Registry, data from 15,826 MS patients from 25 countries was analysed. Changes in the severity of MS (EDSS were compared between sexes using a repeated measures analysis in generalised linear mixed models. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to test for sex difference in the time to reach EDSS milestones 3 and 6 and the secondary progressive MS.In relapse onset MS patients (n = 14,453, males progressed significantly faster in their EDSS than females (0.133 vs 0.112 per year, P<0.001,. Females had a reduced risk of secondary progressive MS (HR (95% CI = 0.77 (0.67 to 0.90 P = 0.001. In primary progressive MS (n = 1,373, there was a significant increase in EDSS over time in males and females (P<0.001 but there was no significant sex effect on the annualized rate of EDSS change.Among registrants of MSBase, male relapse-onset patients accumulate disability faster than female patients. In contrast, the rate of disability accumulation between male and female patients with primary progressive MS is similar.

  13. Faster paleospin and deep-seated uncompensated mass as possible explanations for Ceres' present-day shape and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaochen; McKinnon, William B.

    2018-01-01

    We show that Ceres' measured degree-2 zonal gravity, J2, is smaller by about 10% than that derived assuming Ceres' rotational flattening, as measured by Dawn, is hydrostatic. Irrespective of Ceres' radial density variation, as long as its internal structure is hydrostatic the J2 predicted from the shape model is consistently larger than measured. As an explanation, we suggest that Ceres' current shape may be a fossil remnant of faster rotation in the geologic past. We propose that up to ∼7% of Ceres' previous spin angular momentum has been removed by dynamic perturbations such as a random walk due to impacts or a loss of satellite that slowed Ceres spin as it tidally evolved outward. As an alternative, we also consider a formal degree-2 admittance solution, from which we infer a range of possible non-hydrostatic contributions to J2 from uncompensated, deep-seated density anomalies. We show that such density anomalies could be due to low order convection or upwelling. The normalized moments-of-inertia derived for the two explanations - faster paleospin and deep-seated density anomalies - range between 0.353 ± 0.009 and 0.375 ± 0.001 for a spherically equivalent Ceres, which can be used as constraints on more complex Ceres interior models.

  14. Faster Proton Transfer Dynamics of Water on SnO2 Compared to TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nitin [ORNL; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-01-01

    Proton jump processes in the hydration layer on the isostructural TiO2 rutile (110) and SnO2 cassiterite (110) surfaces were studied with density functional theory molecular dynamics. We find that the proton jump rate is more than three times faster on cassiterite compared with rutile. A local analysis based on the correlation between the stretching band of the O-H vibrations and the strength of H-bonds indicates that the faster proton jump activity on cassiterite is produced by a stronger H-bond formation between the surface and the hydration layer above the surface. The origin of the increased H-bond strength on cassiterite is a combined effect of stronger covalent bonding and stronger electrostatic interactions due to differences of its electronic structure. The bridging oxygens form the strongest H-bonds between the surface and the hydration layer. This higher proton jump rate is likely to affect reactivity and catalytic activity on the surface. A better understanding of its origins will enable methods to control these rates.

  15. Faster proton transfer dynamics of water on SnO2 compared to TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Kent, Paul R. C.; Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Wesolowski, David J.; Cole, David R.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Proton jump processes in the hydration layer on the iso-structural TiO2 rutile (110) and SnO2 cassiterite (110) surfaces were studied with density functional theory molecular dynamics. We find that the proton jump rate is more than three times faster on cassiterite compared with rutile. A local analysis based on the correlation between the stretching band of the O-H vibrations and the strength of H-bonds indicates that the faster proton jump activity on cassiterite is produced by a stronger H-bond formation between the surface and the hydration layer above the surface. The origin of the increased H-bond strength on cassiterite is a combined effect of stronger covalent bonding and stronger electrostatic interactions due to differences of its electronic structure. The bridging oxygens form the strongest H-bonds between the surface and the hydration layer. This higher proton jump rate is likely to affect reactivity and catalytic activity on the surface. A better understanding of its origins will enable methods to control these rates.

  16. Faster proton transfer dynamics of water on SnO2 compared to TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Kent, Paul R C; Bandura, Andrei V; Kubicki, James D; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Sofo, Jorge O

    2011-01-28

    Proton jump processes in the hydration layer on the iso-structural TiO(2) rutile (110) and SnO(2) cassiterite (110) surfaces were studied with density functional theory molecular dynamics. We find that the proton jump rate is more than three times faster on cassiterite compared with rutile. A local analysis based on the correlation between the stretching band of the O-H vibrations and the strength of H-bonds indicates that the faster proton jump activity on cassiterite is produced by a stronger H-bond formation between the surface and the hydration layer above the surface. The origin of the increased H-bond strength on cassiterite is a combined effect of stronger covalent bonding and stronger electrostatic interactions due to differences of its electronic structure. The bridging oxygens form the strongest H-bonds between the surface and the hydration layer. This higher proton jump rate is likely to affect reactivity and catalytic activity on the surface. A better understanding of its origins will enable methods to control these rates.

  17. A faster method to detect norovirus in oysters using probe hybridization to isolate target RNA before RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xunyan; Ellender, Rudolph D; Wang, Shiao Y

    2013-04-01

    Human Noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most frequent cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis following the ingestion of raw or improperly cooked oysters. Although highly sensitive methods to detect HuNoV in oysters using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are available, rapid methods to process samples for RT-PCR are still needed. The conventional approach is to concentrate the virus first before RNA purification to maximize assay sensitivity, but the procedures used are cumbersome. We developed a new hybridization method that is much faster and more effective compared to existing technology. The procedure includes an initial extraction of total RNA from the digestive diverticula of oysters using TRI Reagent, followed by HuNoV RNA purification using a capture probe and then HuNoV detection by real-time RT-PCR. The detection limit is approximately 100 PCR detection units of HuNoV per sample. Compared to published methods that require an initial virus concentration step before RNA extraction, the new method is much faster to complete. Approximately 3 h are needed to purify HuNoV RNA using the new method compared to at least 8 h using conventional methods. Coupled with real-time RT-PCR, the new method can detect HuNoV in contaminated oysters within 8 h. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated using live artificially contaminated oysters and wild oysters.

  18. A faster and more reliable data acquisition system for the full performance of the SciCRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, Y., E-mail: sasaiyoshinori@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Matsubara, Y.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Kawabata, T.; Lopez, D.; Hikimochi, R.; Tsuchiya, A. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ikeno, M.; Uchida, T.; Tanaka, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Nakamura, Y.; Oshima, T.; Koike, T. [Department of Physics, Shinshu University, Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Kozai, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Shibata, S.; Oshima, A.; Takamaru, H. [College of Engineering, Chubu University, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); and others

    2017-06-11

    The SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) is a massive scintillator tracker to observe cosmic rays at a very high-altitude environment in Mexico. The fully active tracker is based on the Scintillator Bar (SciBar) detector developed as a near detector for the KEK-to-Kamioka long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment (K2K) in Japan. Since the data acquisition (DAQ) system was developed for the accelerator experiment, we determined to develop a new robust DAQ system to optimize it to our cosmic-ray experiment needs at the top of Mt. Sierra Negra (4600 m). One of our special requirements is to achieve a 10 times faster readout rate. We started to develop a new fast readout back-end board (BEB) based on 100 Mbps SiTCP, a hardware network processor developed for DAQ systems for high energy physics experiments. Then we developed the new BEB which has a potential of 20 times faster than the current one in the case of observing neutrons. Finally we installed the new DAQ system including the new BEBs to a part of the SciCRT in July 2015. The system has been operating since then. In this paper, we describe the development, the basic performance of the new BEB, the status after the installation in the SciCRT, and the future performance.

  19. Recovery from hybrid breakdown in a marine invertebrate is faster, stronger and more repeatable under environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, A S; Pritchard, V L; Edmands, S

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how environmental stress alters the consequences of hybridization is important, because the rate of hybridization and the likelihood of hybrid speciation both appear elevated in harsh, disturbed or marginal habitats. We assessed fitness, morphometrics and molecular genetic composition over 14 generations of hybridization between two highly divergent populations of the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus. Replicated, experimental hybrid populations in both control and high-salinity conditions showed a decline in fitness, followed by a recovery. Recovery was faster in the salinity stress treatment, returning to parental levels up to two generations earlier than in the control. This recovery was stable in the high-salinity treatment, whereas in the control treatment, fitness dropped back below parental levels at the final time point. Recovery in the high-salinity treatment was also stronger in terms of competitive fitness and heat-shock tolerance. Finally, consequences of hybridization were more repeatable under salinity stress, where among-replicate variance for survivorship and molecular genetic composition was lower than in the control treatment. In a system with low effective population sizes (estimates ranged from 17 to 63), where genetic drift might be expected to be the predominate force, strong selection under harsh environmental conditions apparently promoted faster, stronger and more repeatable recovery from depressed hybrid fitness. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Public transportation's role in responding to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the role public transportation has in responding to the challenge of climate change. It collects and analyzes data from across the country on public transportation fuel use, vehicles deployed, rides taken, and other key metrics, dr...

  1. Enhancing Syndromic Surveillance With Online Respondent-Driven Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Mart L; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Buskens, Vincent; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Koppeschaar, Carl E; Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Kretzschmar, MEE

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the feasibility of combining an online chain recruitment method (respondent-driven detection) and participatory surveillance panels to collect previously undetected information on infectious diseases via social networks of participants. METHODS: In 2014, volunteers from 2

  2. Enhancing syndromic surveillance with online respondent-driven detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Mart L.; Van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Buskens, Vincent; Van Der Heijden, Peter G M; Koppeschaar, Carl E.; Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the feasibility of combining an online chain recruitment method (respondent-driven detection) and participatory surveillance panels to collect previously undetected information on infectious diseases via social networks of participants. Methods. In 2014, volunteers from 2

  3. Climate change 101 : understanding and responding to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To inform the climate change dialogue, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the Pew Center on the States have developed a series of brief reports entitled Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change. These reports...

  4. Respondents characteristics, their awareness and benefits of Sukur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of investigation into the socio–economic characteristics of the respondents showed that the average monthly income across all the respondents that ranged from N12, 611.11 – N15, 736.11 was less than N18, 500.00 which is the Nigerian civil service minimum wage. The major values of the study area in order of ...

  5. Microbial communities respond to experimental warming, but site matters

    OpenAIRE

    Cregger, Melissa A.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R.; Classen, Aimée T.

    2014-01-01

    Because microorganisms are sensitive to temperature, ongoing global warming is predicted to influence microbial community structure and function. We used large-scale warming experiments established at two sites near the northern and southern boundaries of US eastern deciduous forests to explore how microbial communities and their function respond to warming at sites with differing climatic regimes. Soil microbial community structure and function responded to warming at the southern but not th...

  6. Knowing what to respond in the future does not cancel the influence of past events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Elisabet; López-Moliner, Joan

    2009-05-29

    Everyday tasks seldom involve isolate actions but sequences of them. We can see whether previous actions influence the current one by exploring the response time to controlled sequences of stimuli. Specifically, depending on the response-stimulus temporal interval (RSI), different mechanisms have been proposed to explain sequential effects in two-choice serial response tasks. Whereas an automatic facilitation mechanism is thought to produce a benefit for response repetitions at short RSIs, subjective expectancies are considered to replace the automatic facilitation at longer RSIs, producing a cost-benefit pattern: repetitions are faster after other repetitions but they are slower after alternations. However, there is not direct evidence showing the impact of subjective expectancies on sequential effects. By using a fixed sequence, the results of the reported experiment showed that the repetition effect was enhanced in participants who acquired complete knowledge of the order. Nevertheless, a similar cost-benefit pattern was observed in all participants and in all learning blocks. Therefore, results of the experiment suggest that sequential effects, including the cost-benefit pattern, are the consequence of automatic mechanisms which operate independently of (and simultaneously with) explicit knowledge of the sequence or other subjective expectancies.

  7. Knowing what to respond in the future does not cancel the influence of past events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Tubau

    Full Text Available Everyday tasks seldom involve isolate actions but sequences of them. We can see whether previous actions influence the current one by exploring the response time to controlled sequences of stimuli. Specifically, depending on the response-stimulus temporal interval (RSI, different mechanisms have been proposed to explain sequential effects in two-choice serial response tasks. Whereas an automatic facilitation mechanism is thought to produce a benefit for response repetitions at short RSIs, subjective expectancies are considered to replace the automatic facilitation at longer RSIs, producing a cost-benefit pattern: repetitions are faster after other repetitions but they are slower after alternations. However, there is not direct evidence showing the impact of subjective expectancies on sequential effects. By using a fixed sequence, the results of the reported experiment showed that the repetition effect was enhanced in participants who acquired complete knowledge of the order. Nevertheless, a similar cost-benefit pattern was observed in all participants and in all learning blocks. Therefore, results of the experiment suggest that sequential effects, including the cost-benefit pattern, are the consequence of automatic mechanisms which operate independently of (and simultaneously with explicit knowledge of the sequence or other subjective expectancies.

  8. Faster, cleaner, better, cheaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonailo, G. [Sandwell, Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1998-04-01

    Coal terminal stockyards provide an invaluable link in the transportation of coal from producer to consumer. This article describes the role of the stockyard in the transportation system, important design considerations, and recent developments. Recently improved equipment includes: belt conveyors, and stackers and reclaimers. Improvements have also been made in covered storage, noise abatement and waste water handling. Several case studies are given. 13 figs.

  9. Shaping Faster Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lloyd O.

    To test a hypothesis that question answering speed and accuracy can be increased by an automated shaping procedure, a film, "The Analysis of Behavior," was presented individually by a teaching machine during twice-per-week sessions to one high school student and 12 junior college students. Six of the students were informed of monetary rewards for…

  10. Why not walk faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherwood, James Richard

    2005-09-22

    Bipedal walking following inverted pendulum mechanics is constrained by two requirements: sufficient kinetic energy for the vault over midstance and sufficient gravity to provide the centripetal acceleration required for the arc of the body about the stance foot. While the acceleration condition identifies a maximum walking speed at a Froude number of 1, empirical observation indicates favoured walk-run transition speeds at a Froude number around 0.5 for birds, humans and humans under manipulated gravity conditions. In this study, I demonstrate that the risk of 'take-off' is greatest at the extremes of stance. This is because before and after kinetic energy is converted to potential, velocities (and so required centripetal accelerations) are highest, while concurrently the component of gravity acting in line with the leg is least. Limitations to the range of walking velocity and stride angle are explored. At walking speeds approaching a Froude number of 1, take-off is only avoidable with very small steps. With realistic limitations on swing-leg frequency, a novel explanation for the walk-run transition at a Froude number of 0.5 is shown.

  11. Controlling chaos faster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Christian [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience (BCCN), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Mathematics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); Kolodziejski, Christoph [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); III. Physical Institute—Biophysics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Timme, Marc [Network Dynamics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPIDS), 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Institute for Nonlinear Dynamics, Georg–August–Universität Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.

  12. Computing compound distributions faster

    OpenAIRE

    Iseger, P.; Smith, M.A.J.; Dekker, Rommert

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of Panjer's algorithm has meanwhile become a widespread standard technique for actuaries (Kuon et al., 1955). Panjer's recursion formula is used for the evaluation of compound distributions and can be applied to life and general insurance problems. The discrete version of Panjer's recursion formula is often applied to continuous distributions by discretizing the

  13. Computing compound distributions faster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. den Iseger; M.A.J. Smith; R. Dekker (Rommert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of Panjer's algorithm has meanwhile become a widespread standard technique for actuaries (Kuon et al., 1955). Panjer's recursion formula is used for the evaluation of compound distributions and can be applied to life and general insurance problems. The discrete version of

  14. Faster scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); O. de Moor; M.I. Schwartzbach

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  15. Faster Scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  16. HPV-FASTER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, F Xavier; Robles, Claudia; Díaz, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related screening technologies and HPV vaccination offer enormous potential for cancer prevention, notably prevention of cervical cancer. The effectiveness of these approaches is, however, suboptimal owing to limited implementation of screening programmes and restricted...... indications for HPV vaccination. Trials of HPV vaccination in women aged up to 55 years have shown almost 90% protection from cervical precancer caused by HPV16/18 among HPV16/18-DNA-negative women. We propose extending routine vaccination programmes to women of up to 30 years of age (and to the 45-50-year...... age groups in some settings), paired with at least one HPV-screening test at age 30 years or older. Expanding the indications for HPV vaccination and much greater use of HPV testing in screening programmes has the potential to accelerate the decline in cervical cancer incidence. Such a combined...

  17. The Influence of Agreeableness and Ego Depletion on Emotional Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Anna J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2017-10-01

    Agreeable individuals report more intense withdrawal-oriented negative emotions across aversive situations. Two studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory depletion (i.e., ego depletion) moderates the relationship between trait Agreeableness and negative emotional responding. Ego depletion was manipulated using a writing task. Emotional responding was measured with startle eye-blink responses (Study 1, N = 71) and self-reported valence, arousal, and empathic concern (Study 2, N = 256) during emotional picture viewing. Trait Agreeableness was measured using a questionnaire. In Study 1, Agreeableness predicted especially large startle responses during aversive images and especially small startles during appetitive images. After exercising self-control, the relationship between startle magnitudes and Agreeableness decreased. In Study 2, Agreeableness predicted more empathic concern for aversive images, which in turn predicted heightened self-reported negative emotions. After exercising self-control, the relationship between Agreeableness and empathic concern decreased. Agreeable individuals exhibit heightened negative emotional responding. Ego depletion reduced the link between Agreeableness and negative emotional responding in Study 1 and moderated the indirect effect of Agreeableness on negative emotional responding via empathic concern in Study 2. Empathic concern appears to be a resource-intensive process underlying heightened responding to aversive stimuli among agreeable persons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Serotonin Antagonism Improves Platelet Inhibition in Clopidogrel Low-Responders after Coronary Stent Placement: An In Vitro Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerschmied, Daniel; Ahrens, Ingo; Mauler, Maximilian; Brandt, Christoph; Weidner, Stefanie; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Increased residual platelet reactivity remains a burden for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who received a coronary stent and do not respond sufficiently to treatment with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. We hypothesized that serotonin antagonism reduces high on-treatment platelet reactivity. Whole blood impedance aggregometry was performed with arachidonic acid (AA, 0.5 mM) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 6.5 µM) in addition to different concentrations of serotonin (1–100 µM) in whole blood from 42 CAD patients after coronary stent placement and 10 healthy subjects. Serotonin increased aggregation dose-dependently in CAD patients who responded to clopidogrel treatment: After activation with ADP, aggregation increased from 33.7±1.3% to 40.9±2.0% in the presence of 50 µM serotonin (pclopidogrel low-responders (from 59.9±3.1% to 37.4±3.5, pclopidogrel responders. These results were confirmed with light transmission aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma in a subset of patients. Serotonin hence increased residual platelet reactivity in patients who respond to clopidogrel after coronary stent placement. In clopidogrel low-responders, serotonin receptor antagonism improved platelet inhibition, almost reaching responder levels. This may justify further investigation of triple antiplatelet therapy with anti-serotonergic agents. PMID:22384279

  19. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  20. Responding for conditioned reinforcement in C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice, and Sprague-Dawley rats: Effects of methylphenidate and amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J D Caleb; Soko, Ashlie D; Fletcher, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of responding for conditioned reinforcement in mice is important to implement genetic tools in examining the neurobiological mechanisms underlying reward-related learning and incentive motivation. Inbred C57BL/6 mice, outbred CD-1 mice, and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats underwent Pavlovian conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with saccharin. Subsequently, subjects were allowed to respond for that CS in tests of responding for conditioned reinforcement. Experiments measured the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and amphetamine (AMPH) on lever pressing for conditioned reinforcement in mice and rats. We further examined the stability of responding for conditioned reinforcement in mice after repeated testing and the extinction of this behaviour following omission of the reinforcer. We also determined whether the CS exhibited reinforcing properties if it was not paired with saccharin. C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice learned to respond for a conditioned reinforcer similarly to rats, and the behaviour was stable over time. MPH increased responding in CD-1 mice and rats, but not in C57BL/6 mice. AMPH only increased responding in rats. Responding was reduced following omission of the conditioned reinforcer, and responding was only established when the CS was paired with saccharin. These experiments characterize a conditioned reinforcement test which produces stable responding in two different mouse backgrounds. These findings also show that dopaminergic psychomotor stimulants can differently affect rats and mice in tests of responding for conditioned reinforcement.

  1. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  2. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  3. High Fidelity, “Faster than Real-Time” Simulator for Predicting Power System Dynamic Behavior - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueck, Alex [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The “High Fidelity, Faster than Real­Time Simulator for Predicting Power System Dynamic Behavior” was designed and developed by Illinois Institute of Technology with critical contributions from Electrocon International, Argonne National Laboratory, Alstom Grid and McCoy Energy. Also essential to the project were our two utility partners: Commonwealth Edison and AltaLink. The project was a success due to several major breakthroughs in the area of large­scale power system dynamics simulation, including (1) a validated faster than real­ time simulation of both stable and unstable transient dynamics in a large­scale positive sequence transmission grid model, (2) a three­phase unbalanced simulation platform for modeling new grid devices, such as independently controlled single­phase static var compensators (SVCs), (3) the world’s first high fidelity three­phase unbalanced dynamics and protection simulator based on Electrocon’s CAPE program, and (4) a first­of­its­ kind implementation of a single­phase induction motor model with stall capability. The simulator results will aid power grid operators in their true time of need, when there is a significant risk of cascading outages. The simulator will accelerate performance and enhance accuracy of dynamics simulations, enabling operators to maintain reliability and steer clear of blackouts. In the long­term, the simulator will form the backbone of the newly conceived hybrid real­time protection and control architecture that will coordinate local controls, wide­area measurements, wide­area controls and advanced real­time prediction capabilities. The nation’s citizens will benefit in several ways, including (1) less down time from power outages due to the faster­than­real­time simulator’s predictive capability, (2) higher levels of reliability due to the detailed dynamics plus protection simulation capability, and (3) more resiliency due to the three­ phase unbalanced simulator’s ability to

  4. Temporal Learning and Rhythmic Responding: No Reduction in the Proportion Easy Effect with Variable Response-Stimulus Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Schmidt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present report further investigates the proportion easy effect, a conflict-free version of the proportion congruent effect. In the proportion easy paradigm, it is observed that the difference in performance between easy (high contrast and hard (low contrast items is smaller in a task with mostly hard items relative to a task with mostly easy items. This effect has been interpreted as evidence for temporal learning: participants learn a faster pace (i.e., rhythm of responding in the mostly easy context, which boosts the contrast effect, and a slower pace in the mostly hard context. In the present experiment, intervals between trials were either fixed or randomly varied from trial to trial. Interestingly, the proportion easy effect was still present with variable intervals. These data suggest that participants do not learn the regularity in timing from one response to the next (which was highly inconsistent with variable intervals. As one alternative, participants might be learning the intervals between stimulus onset and responses, which were not manipulated. They could then use this learned timing information to prepare for responding at the anticipated time, resulting in rhythmic responding. The results further imply that variable response-stimulus intervals are insufficient for controlling for rhythmic biases.

  5. Fast, faster, poorest decisions?: A practical theological exploration of the role of a speedy mobinomic world in decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Albert van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a digital world, it seems as if the boundaries between rich and poor are becoming increasingly blurred. A mobinomic world is created through the use of cellular telephones, which plays an important role on multiple levels of socioeconomic understanding. Various advantages are created through the interplay between the power of mobility and the convergence of various forms of media. Considering the immediate accessibility of an overflow of data in various forms as well as time pressure, decision-making is increasingly becoming associated with living in the fast lane of the digital world. Unfortunately, the cost of faster decision-making is that it could potentially result in individuals making poor decisions on various levels. A practical-theological exploration, as embedded in a transversal rational engagement, entails a preliminary investigation and description of this digital reality, especially as portrayed in the dynamics of decision-making associated with the social media platform Twitter.

  6. An adaptive Phase-Locked Loop algorithm for faster fault ride through performance of interconnected renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Interconnected renewable energy sources require fast and accurate fault ride through operation in order to support the power grid when faults occur. This paper proposes an adaptive Phase-Locked Loop (adaptive dαβPLL) algorithm, which can be used for a faster and more accurate response of the grid...... side converter control of a renewable energy source, especially under fault ride through operation. The adaptive dαβPLL is based on modifying the control parameters of the dαβPLL according to the type and voltage characteristic of the grid fault with the purpose of accelerating the performance...... results. Furthermore, the benefits of using the proposed adaptive PLL on the control of the GSC of RES are also demonstrated in this paper....

  7. Unequivocal Proof Supergirl is Faster Than Superman or The Flash: Inclusion of Women and Minorities in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Jim

    2012-03-01

    Diversity in physics and engineering, including inclusion of women, is a problem that has been discussed for several decades yet has not found adequate systemic solutions. It is presumed that most physicists and engineers today agree, as evidence supports, that women and minorities have as much intrinsic ability to succeed as men and majority students although some prejudice continues to exist. Therefore, the primary question today becomes how to improve inclusion. Other STEM disciplines, particularly mathematics and medicine, have made great strides including women and it appears inclusion of minorities is improving at a slow rate. In this talk, a review of papers reporting department practices in STEM fields that successfully improved inclusion will be presented. Also specific practices to improve inclusion will be reviewed and presented including the example proving Supergirl is faster than either Superman or The Flash.

  8. Platelet-rich fibrin, "a faster healing aid" in the treatment of combined lesions: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parupalli Karunakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically the pulp and periodontium are connected through apical foramen, and the lateral, accessory, and furcal canals. Diseases of one tissue may affect the other. In the present case report with two cases, a primary periodontal lesion with secondary endodontic involvement is described. In both cases, root canal treatment was done followed by periodontal therapy with the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF as the regenerative material of choice. PRF has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of tissue healing. It is used to achieve faster healing of the intrabony defects. Absence of an intraradicular lesion, pain, and swelling, along with tooth stability and adequate radiographic bone fill at 9 months of follow-up indicated a successful outcome.

  9. Fast, faster, poorest decisions?: A practical theological exploration of the role of a speedy mobinomic world in decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Albert van den Berg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a digital world, it seems as if the boundaries between rich and poor are becoming increasingly blurred. A mobinomic world is created through the use of cellular telephones, which plays an important role on multiple levels of socioeconomic understanding. Various advantages are created through the interplay between the power of mobility and the convergence of various forms of media. Considering the immediate accessibility of an overflow of data in various forms as well as time pressure, decision-making is increasingly becoming associated with living in the fast lane of the digital world. Unfortunately, the cost of faster decision-making is that it could potentially result in individuals making poor decisions on various levels. A practical-theological exploration, as embedded in a transversal rational engagement, entails a preliminary investigation and description of this digital reality, especially as portrayed in the dynamics of decision-making associated with the social media platform Twitter.

  10. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  11. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  12. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  13. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  14. Planning for operating room efficiency and faster anesthesia wake-up time in open major upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hou-Chuan; Chan, Shun-Ming; Lu, Chueng-He; Wong, Chih-Shung; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Wu, Zhi-Fu

    2017-02-01

    Reducing anesthesia-controlled time (ACT) may improve operation room (OR) efficiency result from different anesthetic techniques. However, the information about the difference in ACT between desflurane (DES) anesthesia and propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) techniques for open major upper abdominal surgery under general anesthesia (GA) is not available in the literature.This retrospective study uses our hospital database to analyze the ACT of open major upper abdominal surgery without liver resection after either desflurane/fentanyl-based anesthesia or TIVA via target-controlled infusion with fentanyl/propofol from January 2010 to December 2011. The various time intervals including waiting for anesthesia time, anesthesia time, surgical time, extubation time, exit from OR after extubation, total OR time, and postanesthetic care unit (PACU) stay time and percentage of prolonged extubation (≥15 minutes) were compared between these 2 anesthetic techniques.We included data from 343 patients, with 159 patients receiving TIVA and 184 patients receiving DES. The only significant difference is extubation time, TIVA was faster than the DES group (8.5 ± 3.8 vs 9.4 ± 3.7 minutes; P = 0.04). The factors contributed to prolonged extubation were age, gender, body mass index, DES anesthesia, and anesthesia time.In our hospital, propofol-based TIVA by target-controlled infusion provides faster emergence compared with DES anesthesia; however, it did not improve OR efficiency in open major abdominal surgery. Older, male gender, higher body mass index, DES anesthesia, and lengthy anesthesia time were factors that contribute to extubation time.

  15. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties.

  16. Osmium Atoms and Os2 Molecules Move Faster on Selenium-Doped Compared to Sulfur-Doped Boronic Graphenic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Nicolas P E; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Tran, Johanna; Spencer, Simon E F; Johansen, Adam M; Sanchez, Ana M; Dove, Andrew P; O'Reilly, Rachel K; Deeth, Robert J; Beanland, Richard; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-07-28

    We deposited Os atoms on S- and Se-doped boronic graphenic surfaces by electron bombardment of micelles containing 16e complexes [Os(p-cymene)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecarborane-1,2-diselenate/dithiolate)] encapsulated in a triblock copolymer. The surfaces were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and electron energy loss spectroscopy of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). Os atoms moved ca. 26× faster on the B/Se surface compared to the B/S surface (233 ± 34 pm·s(-1) versus 8.9 ± 1.9 pm·s(-1)). Os atoms formed dimers with an average Os-Os distance of 0.284 ± 0.077 nm on the B/Se surface and 0.243 ± 0.059 nm on B/S, close to that in metallic Os. The Os2 molecules moved 0.83× and 0.65× more slowly than single Os atoms on B/S and B/Se surfaces, respectively, and again markedly faster (ca. 20×) on the B/Se surface (151 ± 45 pm·s(-1) versus 7.4 ± 2.8 pm·s(-1)). Os atom motion did not follow Brownian motion and appears to involve anchoring sites, probably S and Se atoms. The ability to control the atomic motion of metal atoms and molecules on surfaces has potential for exploitation in nanodevices of the future.

  17. Thermal acclimation in rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax, leads to faster myotomal muscle contractile properties and improved swimming performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Woytanowski

    2013-01-01

    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax display an impressive ability to acclimate to very cold water temperatures. These fish express both anti-freeze proteins and glycerol in their plasma, liver, muscle and other tissues to avoid freezing at sub-zero temperatures. Maintenance of glycerol levels requires active feeding in very cold water. To understand how these fish can maintain activity at cold temperatures, we explored thermal acclimation by the myotomal muscle of smelt exposed to cold water. We hypothesized that cold-acclimated fish would show enhanced swimming ability due to shifts in muscle contractile properties. We also predicted that shifts in swimming performance would be associated with changes in the expression patterns of muscle proteins such as parvalbumin (PV and myosin heavy chain (MyHC. Swimming studies show significantly faster swimming by smelt acclimated to 5°C compared to fish acclimated to 20°C when tested at a common test temperature of 10°C. The cold-acclimated fish also had faster muscle contractile properties, such as a maximum shortening velocity (Vmax almost double that of warm-acclimated fish at the same test temperature. Cold-acclimation is associated with a modest increase in PV levels in the swimming muscle. Fluorescence microscopy using anti-MyHC antibodies suggests that MyHC expression in the myotomal muscle may shift in response to exposure to cold water. The complex set of physiological responses that comprise cold-acclimation in smelt includes modifications in muscle function to permit active locomotion in cold water.

  18. Thermal acclimation in rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax, leads to faster myotomal muscle contractile properties and improved swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woytanowski, John R; Coughlin, David J

    2013-03-15

    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) display an impressive ability to acclimate to very cold water temperatures. These fish express both anti-freeze proteins and glycerol in their plasma, liver, muscle and other tissues to avoid freezing at sub-zero temperatures. Maintenance of glycerol levels requires active feeding in very cold water. To understand how these fish can maintain activity at cold temperatures, we explored thermal acclimation by the myotomal muscle of smelt exposed to cold water. We hypothesized that cold-acclimated fish would show enhanced swimming ability due to shifts in muscle contractile properties. We also predicted that shifts in swimming performance would be associated with changes in the expression patterns of muscle proteins such as parvalbumin (PV) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC). Swimming studies show significantly faster swimming by smelt acclimated to 5°C compared to fish acclimated to 20°C when tested at a common test temperature of 10°C. The cold-acclimated fish also had faster muscle contractile properties, such as a maximum shortening velocity (Vmax) almost double that of warm-acclimated fish at the same test temperature. Cold-acclimation is associated with a modest increase in PV levels in the swimming muscle. Fluorescence microscopy using anti-MyHC antibodies suggests that MyHC expression in the myotomal muscle may shift in response to exposure to cold water. The complex set of physiological responses that comprise cold-acclimation in smelt includes modifications in muscle function to permit active locomotion in cold water.

  19. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Janhunen

    Full Text Available Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma. While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  20. Factors associated with the intention of health care personnel to respond to a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan B

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, numerous groups of researchers have studied the willingness of health care personnel (HCP) to respond when a disaster threatens the health of a community. Not one of those studies reported that 100% of HCP were willing to work during a public-health event (PHE). The objective of this study was to explore factors associated with the intent of HCP to respond to a future PHE. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) framed this cross-sectional study. Data were obtained via a web-based survey from 305 HCP. Linear associations between the TPB-based predictor and outcome variables were examined using Pearson's correlations. Differences between two groups of HCP were calculated using independent t tests. A model-generating approach was used to develop and assess a series of TBP-based observed variable structural equation models for prediction of intent to respond to a future PHE and to explore moderating and mediating effects. The beginning patterns of relationships identified by the correlation matrix and t tests were evident in the final structural equation model, even though the patterns of prediction differed from those posited by the theory. Outcome beliefs had both a significant, direct effect on intention and an indirect effect on intention that was mediated by perceived behavioral control. Control beliefs appeared to influence intention through perceived behavioral control, as posited by the TPB, and unexpectedly through subjective norm. Subjective norm not only mediated the relationship between control beliefs and intention, but also the relationship between referent beliefs and intention. Additionally, professional affiliation seemed to have a moderating effect on intention. The intention to respond was influenced primarily by normative and control factors. The intent of nurses to respond to a future PHE was influenced most by the control factors, whereas the intent of other HCP was shaped more by the normative factors. Health care educators

  1. Asperger's Syndrome, Subjectivity and the Senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badone, Ellen; Nicholas, David; Roberts, Wendy; Kien, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Situated at the intersection of anthropological work on illness narratives and research on the anthropology of autism, this paper is a close reading of an autobiographical narrative recounted by Peter, a young man diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, a type of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Responding to Solomon's (2010a:252) call for phenomenologically grounded accounts of "the subjective, sensory, and perceptual experiences of autism … based on personal narratives and practices of being and self-awareness," this paper calls into question key assumptions in the clinical and popular literature about ASD relating to theory of mind, empathy, capacity for metaphorical thinking, and ASD as a life-long condition.

  2. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....

  3. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....

  4. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Kamp Justesen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  5. Subjective oral health in Dutch adults

    OpenAIRE

    Verrips, G.H.W.; Schuller, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH) of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14). Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the mo...

  6. A Data-Driven Approach to Responder Subgroup Identification after Paired Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonio Heidegger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modulation of cortical excitability by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is used for investigating human brain functions. A common observation is the high variability of long-term depression (LTD-like changes in human (motor cortex excitability. This study aimed at analyzing the response subgroup distribution after paired continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS as a basis for subject selection.Methods: The effects of paired cTBS using 80% active motor threshold (AMT in 31 healthy volunteers were assessed at the primary motor cortex (M1 corresponding to the representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle of the left hand, before and up to 50 min after plasticity induction. The changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs were analyzed using machine-learning derived methods implemented as Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM and computed ABC analysis.Results: The probability density distribution of the MEP changes from baseline was tri-modal, showing a clear separation at 80.9%. Subjects displaying at least this degree of LTD-like changes were n = 6 responders. By contrast, n = 7 subjects displayed a paradox response with increase in MEP. Reassessment using ABC analysis as alternative approach led to the same n = 6 subjects as a distinct category.Conclusion: Depressive effects of paired cTBS using 80% AMT endure at least 50 min, however, only in a small subgroup of healthy subjects. Hence, plasticity induction by paired cTBS might not reflect a general mechanism in human motor cortex excitability. A mathematically supported criterion is proposed to select responders for enrolment in assessments of human brain functional networks using virtual brain lesions.

  7. A Data-Driven Approach to Responder Subgroup Identification after Paired Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Tonio; Hansen-Goos, Onno; Batlaeva, Olga; Annak, Onur; Ziemann, Ulf; Lötsch, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    Background: Modulation of cortical excitability by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used for investigating human brain functions. A common observation is the high variability of long-term depression (LTD)-like changes in human (motor) cortex excitability. This study aimed at analyzing the response subgroup distribution after paired continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) as a basis for subject selection. Methods: The effects of paired cTBS using 80% active motor threshold (AMT) in 31 healthy volunteers were assessed at the primary motor cortex (M1) corresponding to the representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of the left hand, before and up to 50 min after plasticity induction. The changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were analyzed using machine-learning derived methods implemented as Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM) and computed ABC analysis. Results: The probability density distribution of the MEP changes from baseline was tri-modal, showing a clear separation at 80.9%. Subjects displaying at least this degree of LTD-like changes were n = 6 responders. By contrast, n = 7 subjects displayed a paradox response with increase in MEP. Reassessment using ABC analysis as alternative approach led to the same n = 6 subjects as a distinct category. Conclusion: Depressive effects of paired cTBS using 80% AMT endure at least 50 min, however, only in a small subgroup of healthy subjects. Hence, plasticity induction by paired cTBS might not reflect a general mechanism in human motor cortex excitability. A mathematically supported criterion is proposed to select responders for enrolment in assessments of human brain functional networks using virtual brain lesions.

  8. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  9. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  10. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding Short Form (BIDR-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Hart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-report studies often call for assessment of socially desirable responding. Many researchers use the Marlowe–Crowne Scale for its brief versions; however, this scale is outdated, and contemporary models of social desirability emphasize its multi-dimensional nature. The 40-item Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR incorporates Self-Deceptive Enhancement (honest but overly positive responding and Impression Management (bias toward pleasing others. However, its length limits its practicality. This article introduces the BIDR-16. In four studies, we shorten the BIDR from 40 items to 16 items, while retaining its two-factor structure, reliability, and validity. This short form will be invaluable to researchers wanting to assess social desirability when time is limited.

  11. Microbial communities respond to experimental warming, but site matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cregger, Melissa A; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R; Classen, Aimée T

    2014-01-01

    Because microorganisms are sensitive to temperature, ongoing global warming is predicted to influence microbial community structure and function. We used large-scale warming experiments established at two sites near the northern and southern boundaries of US eastern deciduous forests to explore how microbial communities and their function respond to warming at sites with differing climatic regimes. Soil microbial community structure and function responded to warming at the southern but not the northern site. However, changes in microbial community structure and function at the southern site did not result in changes in cellulose decomposition rates. While most global change models rest on the assumption that taxa will respond similarly to warming across sites and their ranges, these results suggest that the responses of microorganisms to warming may be mediated by differences across the geographic boundaries of ecosystems.

  12. Microbial communities respond to experimental warming, but site matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Cregger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Because microorganisms are sensitive to temperature, ongoing global warming is predicted to influence microbial community structure and function. We used large-scale warming experiments established at two sites near the northern and southern boundaries of US eastern deciduous forests to explore how microbial communities and their function respond to warming at sites with differing climatic regimes. Soil microbial community structure and function responded to warming at the southern but not the northern site. However, changes in microbial community structure and function at the southern site did not result in changes in cellulose decomposition rates. While most global change models rest on the assumption that taxa will respond similarly to warming across sites and their ranges, these results suggest that the responses of microorganisms to warming may be mediated by differences across the geographic boundaries of ecosystems.

  13. Volumes and Breathing Patterns during Speech in Healthy and Asthmatic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Robert G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Lung volumes and ventilatory patterns used by 10 healthy and 14 asthmatic subjects during conversation, monologue, and counting at two loudness levels were studied. Asthmatics were found to favor respiratory over communications needs. They used a greater percentage of their reduced vital capacity, with slower inspiratory and faster expiratory flow…

  14. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  15. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  16. A novel K+ competitive acid blocker, YH4808, sustains inhibition of gastric acid secretion with a faster onset than esomeprazole: randomised clinical study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S; Lee, H; Jang, S B; Byun, H M; Yoon, S H; Cho, J-Y; Jang, I-J; Yu, K-S

    2017-08-01

    YH4808, a K+ -competitive acid blocker, is under clinical development for the treatment of acid-related disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. To determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of YH4808, compared to placebo and esomeprazole. This double-blind, randomised, placebo- and active comparator (esomeprazole)-controlled study was conducted with 123 healthy male volunteers. We evaluated YH4808 (30-800 mg) properties, administered in single (N=55) and multiple (N=24) oral doses, and recorded the effects on 24-hour intragastric acidity. Results were compared to placebo (N=20) and esomeprazole 40 mg (N=24). Plasma YH4808 exposure increased dose-proportionally and declined in a multi-phasic manner. YH4808 ≥200 mg/d maintained intragastric acidity at pH >4 for longer times than esomeprazole during both day and night (%Time at pH >4: >70% vs 58% of a 24-hour period, respectively; and >50% vs 33% of a 9-hour night respectively). A twice-daily regimen of YH4808 more effectively controlled intragastric pH at night than a once-daily regimen. In evaluating the mean areas under the intragastric pH-time curves in 15-minute intervals for 2 hours after dosing, we found that YH4808 had a faster onset than esomeprazole. Moreover, unlike esomeprazole, YH4808 PK and PD were not significantly affected by the CYP2C19 genotype of the subjects. YH4808 was well-tolerated at all doses administered. This study showed that YH4808 produced a rapid, sustained suppression of gastric secretion with good tolerability. The results at YH4808 ≥200 mg/d provide a rationale for further clinical investigations in populations with acid-related diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS IN JAVANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarno Sukarno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Javanese has been studied from many different perspectives. However, no one discusses how Javanese respond to compliments politely. The aim of this study is to investigate the politeness strategies as applied to respond to compliments by the Javanese people in Jember, East Java. The notion of politeness plays crucial role in the realization of speech acts (utterances and verbal communication in Javanese, such as responding to compliements. As utterances and verbal communications should be interpreted based on the sosio-cultural background, the politeness strategies in responding to compliments in Javanese cannot be separated from the concepts of the Javanese culture, such as: andhap-asor (lowering oneself, while exalting the others and tanggap ing sasmita (understanding the hidden meaning. First, as a Javanese, one must be able to apply the concept of andhap-asor in responding to compliments by denigrating himself. Second, a good Javanese should also have a sense of tanggap ing sasmita while responding to compliments. Consequently, failure to apply one of the cultural factors can be detrimental to the speaker, reducing the harmony of the conversation. This paper examines how politeness is manifested and conveyed within the major framework of the Javanese culture. This study is about socio-cultural pragmatics in which utterances are discussed in relation to their situations, and the cultural background which support them. The data are in the form of dialogues among students-teachers, and students-students which show the different social status among the interlocutors. The data of this research were collected by recording, and by note taking (for the parts in which recording is not possible. The data are aimed to generate the strategies used by the Javanese (in Jember, Indonesia to build politeness strategies in responding to compliments. Finally, the data of this research are examined both from the general theory of politeness, and

  18. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  19. Considering Time in Orthophotography Production: from a General Workflow to a Shortened Workflow for a Faster Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G.

    2015-08-01

    This article overall deals with production time with orthophoto imagery with medium size digital frame camera. The workflow examination follows two main parts: data acquisition and post-processing. The objectives of the research are fourfold: 1/ gathering time references for the most important steps of orthophoto production (it turned out that literature is missing on this topic); these figures are used later for total production time estimation; 2/ identifying levers for reducing orthophoto production time; 3/ building a simplified production workflow for emergency response: less exigent with accuracy and faster; and compare it to a classical workflow; 4/ providing methodical elements for the estimation of production time with a custom project. In the data acquisition part a comprehensive review lists and describes all the factors that may affect the acquisition efficiency. Using a simulation with different variables (average line length, time of the turns, flight speed) their effect on acquisition efficiency is quantitatively examined. Regarding post-processing, the time references figures were collected from the processing of a 1000 frames case study with 15 cm GSD covering a rectangular area of 447 km2; the time required to achieve each step during the production is written down. When several technical options are possible, each one is tested and time documented so as all alternatives are available. Based on a technical choice with the workflow and using the compiled time reference of the elementary steps, a total time is calculated for the post-processing of the 1000 frames. Two scenarios are compared as regards to time and accuracy. The first one follows the "normal" practices, comprising triangulation, orthorectification and advanced mosaicking methods (feature detection, seam line editing and seam applicator); the second is simplified and make compromise over positional accuracy (using direct geo-referencing) and seamlines preparation in order to achieve

  20. CONSIDERING TIME IN ORTHOPHOTOGRAPHY PRODUCTION: FROM A GENERAL WORKFLOW TO A SHORTENED WORKFLOW FOR A FASTER DISASTER RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lucas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article overall deals with production time with orthophoto imagery with medium size digital frame camera. The workflow examination follows two main parts: data acquisition and post-processing. The objectives of the research are fourfold: 1/ gathering time references for the most important steps of orthophoto production (it turned out that literature is missing on this topic; these figures are used later for total production time estimation; 2/ identifying levers for reducing orthophoto production time; 3/ building a simplified production workflow for emergency response: less exigent with accuracy and faster; and compare it to a classical workflow; 4/ providing methodical elements for the estimation of production time with a custom project. In the data acquisition part a comprehensive review lists and describes all the factors that may affect the acquisition efficiency. Using a simulation with different variables (average line length, time of the turns, flight speed their effect on acquisition efficiency is quantitatively examined. Regarding post-processing, the time references figures were collected from the processing of a 1000 frames case study with 15 cm GSD covering a rectangular area of 447 km2; the time required to achieve each step during the production is written down. When several technical options are possible, each one is tested and time documented so as all alternatives are available. Based on a technical choice with the workflow and using the compiled time reference of the elementary steps, a total time is calculated for the post-processing of the 1000 frames. Two scenarios are compared as regards to time and accuracy. The first one follows the “normal” practices, comprising triangulation, orthorectification and advanced mosaicking methods (feature detection, seam line editing and seam applicator; the second is simplified and make compromise over positional accuracy (using direct geo-referencing and seamlines preparation in

  1. Analysing how plants in coastal wetlands respond to varying tidal regimes throughout their life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian; Cui, Baoshan; Li, Shanze

    2017-10-15

    Important to conserve plant species in coastal wetlands throughout their life cycle. All life stages in these habitats are exposed to varying tidal cycles. It is necessary to investigate all life stages as to how they respond to varying tidal regimes. We examine three wetlands containing populations of an endangered halophyte species, each subjected to different tidal regimes: (1). wetlands completely closed to tidal cycles; (2). wetlands directly exposed to tidal cycles (3). wetlands exposed to a partially closed tidal regime. Our results showed that the most threatened stage varied between wetlands subjected to these varying tidal regimes. We hypothesis that populations of this species have adapted to these different tidal regimes. Such information is useful in developing management options for coastal wetlands and modifying future barriers restricting tidal flushing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandre, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    "Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry" was the title of the 2011 Master Class in Children's Literature. Woven into this session were the insights of poets Joyce Sidman and Pat Mora who shared their creative processes and the voices that inspire their poetry. In addition, Barbara Kiefer provided advice regarding how to connect…

  3. Knowledge, attitude and perception of respondents in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The study showed that respondents in the study community had an understanding of when urine colour is normal or abnormal. They are also aware that it could be caused by diseases and would therefore require treatment in a health facility. However, they did not know that it could cause anuria in some cases.

  4. Increasing Students' Opportunities to Respond: A Strategy for Supporting Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Holly M.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a rationale for using a low-intensity support, increasing opportunities to respond, to promote students' academic engagement and decrease disruptive behaviors. A step-by-step guide to implementing this strategy in the classroom setting is presented.

  5. Responding to Student Unrest: A Guide for Administrators and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James; Miller, William

    The aim of this essay is to help educators understand, respond to, and survive student militancy. The author analyzes the problem of student unrest; discusses programs for reducing militancy; and explains why student involvement is necessary and how it helps accomplish the purposes of education, stimulates interest, and reduces dropouts and…

  6. Training Emergency Responders: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. An Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Science Associates, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This manual was developed to help instructors train police and emergency medical technicians, who often are the first persons to arrive at the scene of a death (first responders), to serve families who lose a child to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The manual begins with an introduction that discusses the purpose of the training and…

  7. Responding to LGBT forced migration in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitta Zomorodi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the passage of Uganda’s Anti-Homosexuality Act in December 2013, hundreds of LGBT individuals fled to Kenya seeking safety. A variety of interventions is needed in both Uganda and Kenya to respond effectively.

  8. Strengthening Capacity to Respond to Computer Security Incidents ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Capacity to Respond to Computer Security Incidents in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Internet has become a crucial tool for companies and individuals to conduct all sorts of social and economic transactions. Unfortunately, the increasing virtualization of the economy and society comes with significant ...

  9. Policy options to respond to rapid climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Marinova, N.A.; Bakker, S.; Tilburg, van X.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing research on climate change indicates that we cannot rule out the possibility of extreme climatic changes, beyond current IPCC scenarios. The thinking about policy responses to address these risks is still in its infancy. This study explores the possibilities for responding to extreme

  10. Responding to Intimacies and Crises in Students' Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Marti

    1990-01-01

    Notes that even specific journal writing assignments tend to elicit intimate feelings and expressions from students. Notes that English teachers often question their ability to respond in positive ways to such intimacies. Argues that English teachers should learn about legal implications, response options, and their own individual values to…

  11. Arthritis associated with recurrent erythema multiforme responding to oral acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, I; Matulis, M

    2002-09-01

    Erythema multiforme is a skin condition frequently associated with herpes simplex virus and has a tendency to recur. Oral acyclovir has been successful in suppression of the disease. Here we report a patient who had recurrent erythema multiforme associated with recurrent polyarthritis that responded to oral acyclovir suppression therapy.

  12. Malawi faith communities responding to HIV/AIDS: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi faith communities responding to HIV/AIDS: preliminary findings of a knowledge translation and participatory-action research (PAR) project. ... For example, FC leaders wish to know how the message of condom promotion (a behavioural and technical argument) might be grafted onto what they would posit as a moral ...

  13. Dense graph limits under respondent-driven sampling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siva Athreya

    Hypothesis Testing: H0: Graph is a linkedin network. H1: Graph is a facebook network. Page 6. A Method: Respondent Driven Sampling. • Used to obtain estimates about properties of so-called. “hidden” or “hard-to-reach” populations. • Start with a convenient sample of participants. • Ask the participants for referrals among ...

  14. Transcultural nursing: how do nurses respond to cultural needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Aru

    The aim of the study was to explore how nurses responded to the cultural needs of their clients. From the transcultural point of view, healthcare providers must deliver a service that is culturally sensitive and appropriate. However, for a variety of reasons, there is growing concern that the cultural healthcare needs of minority ethnic groups are not met adequately. This study was done to outline nurses' activity in transcultural care. Empirical data were obtained from a sample of registered nurses (n = 126) who were invited to complete questionnaires pertaining to cultural care. As a result of data analysis, the quantitative findings are presented as tables and the qualitative data as categories and themes. The findings suggest that most respondents felt that patients' cultural needs should be given consideration. Cultural aspects of care seem to be a feature of the overall nursing picture within a multicultural context of health care. Many participants claimed that they responded to the cultural needs of patients. Some felt that patients' cultural needs are adequately met; such needs are perceived as religious practices, diets, communication, dying, prayer and culture. Furthermore, a significant number of respondents suggested that they would like further education in meeting the cultural needs of their patients. This study offers some insights into transcultural healthcare practice, and, in accordance with the findings, identifies strategies for improving these practices for nursing and nurse education.

  15. Emergence of Intraverbal Responding Following Tact Instruction with Compound Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Bailey; Carp, Charlotte L.; Hiett, Kiley A.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Effective intraverbal responding often requires control by multiple elements of a verbal stimulus. The purpose of this study was to examine the emergence of such intraverbal relations following tact instruction with compound stimuli and to analyze any resulting error patterns. Participants were seven typically developing children between 3 and…

  16. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  17. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  18. Editor's Note Responding to suggestions from the research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Editor's Note. Responding to suggestions from the research fellowship of the Institute of African Studies for a re-branding of the. Research Review, which began publication in the early 1960s soon after the establishment of the Institute, the old title has now been replaced with a new title — Contemporary Journal of African ...

  19. Responding to Individual Differences in Inclusive Classrooms in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Waterworth, David; Brady, Trish

    2014-01-01

    Responding to individual differences in classrooms in which there is increasing diversity is one of the challenges of inclusive education in Australia. The linking of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and assistive technologies (ATs) is one way in which this challenge can be addressed. This article describes an initiative, known as…

  20. Authors' Rejoinder to Respondents (Shulman, Steinberg, & Piquero, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Respondents, in "A Mistaken Account of the Age-Crime Curve: Response to Males and Brown," dispute our finding that virtually all of the discrepancy in violent crime rates between adolescents/emerging adults versus older adults is explained not by young age per se but by higher poverty levels among the young. Our rejoinder argues that…

  1. Responding to Suicidal Calls: Does Trait Anxiety Hinder or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marceline Moulin; Range, Lillian M.

    2005-01-01

    To see if trait anxiety and suicidality interfered with the ability to respond to suicidal crisis calls, 279 undergraduates completed measures of trait anxiety and suicidality in the past week, and the revised Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-2). Unexpectedly, trait anxiety (but not suicidality) correlated with better SIRI-2 scores.…

  2. Responding To An Income Shock Through Increasing Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responding To An Income Shock Through Increasing Forest Extraction: Survey Evidence From Ethiopian Coffee Farmers. ... There is however inadequate knowledge with respect to mechanisms used by resource poor coffee farmers to stave off situations of economic hardship. Using cross-sectional household survey data ...

  3. respondents characteristics, their awareness and benefits of sukur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    and awareness of the respondents of the existence of Sukur – Wanuki hills was negative (r= -0.038) at 0.05 level of significance, those of income and awareness ... makes him a direct enemy of his environment as a result of the measures he adopts to .... Source: Field Survey (2014). * Number outside parenthesis represents ...

  4. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis. Ruoxue Liu Beibei Lü Xiaomeng Wang Chunling Zhang Shuping Zhang Jun Qian Lei Chen Haojie Shi Hansong Dong. Articles Volume 35 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 435-450 ...

  5. Fire service and first responder thermal imaging camera (TIC) advances and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsin, Lawrence S.; Nixdorff, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Fire Service and First Responder Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) applications are growing, saving lives and preventing injury and property damage. Firefighters face a wide range of serious hazards. TICs help mitigate the risks by protecting Firefighters and preventing injury, while reducing time spent fighting the fire and resources needed to do so. Most fire safety equipment is covered by performance standards. Fire TICs, however, are not covered by such standards and are also subject to inadequate operational performance and insufficient user training. Meanwhile, advancements in Fire TICs and lower costs are driving product demand. The need for a Fire TIC Standard was spurred in late 2004 through a Government sponsored Workshop where experts from the First Responder community, component manufacturers, firefighter training, and those doing research on TICs discussed strategies, technologies, procedures, best practices and R&D that could improve Fire TICs. The workshop identified pressing image quality, performance metrics, and standards issues. Durability and ruggedness metrics and standard testing methods were also seen as important, as was TIC training and certification of end-users. A progress report on several efforts in these areas and their impact on the IR sensor industry will be given. This paper is a follow up to the SPIE Orlando 2004 paper on Fire TIC usage (entitled Emergency Responders' Critical Infrared) which explored the technological development of this IR industry segment from the viewpoint of the end user, in light of the studies and reports that had established TICs as a mission critical tool for firefighters.

  6. Biometric verification of a subject through eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhola, Martti; Zhang, Youming; Rasku, Jyrki

    2013-01-01

    Matching digital fingerprint, face or iris images, biometric verification of persons has advanced. Notwithstanding the progress, this is no easy computational task because of great numbers of complicated data. Since the 1990s, eye movements previously only applied to various tests of medicine and psychology are also studied for the purpose of computer interfaces. Such a short one-dimensional measurement signal contains less data than images and may therefore be simpler and faster to recognize. Using saccadic eye movements we developed a computational verification method to reliably distinguish a legitimate person or a subject in general from others. We tested features extracted from signals recorded from saccade eye movements. We used saccades of 19 healthy subjects and 21 otoneurological patients recorded with electro-oculography and additional 40 healthy subjects recorded with a videocamera system. Verification tests produced high accuracies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  8. Behaviorally-inhibited temperament is associated with severity of PTSD symptoms and faster eyeblink conditioning in veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; McAuley, J. Devin; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have sometimes demonstrated facilitated acquisition of classically-conditioned responses and/or resistance to extinction in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unclear whether these behaviors are acquired as a result of PTSD or exposure to trauma, or reflect pre-existing risk factors that confer vulnerability for PTSD. Here, we examined classical eyeblink conditioning and extinction in veterans self-assessed for current PTSD symptoms, exposure to combat, and the personality trait of behavioral inhibition (BI), a risk factor for PTSD. 128 veterans were recruited (mean age 51.2 years; 13.3% female); 126 completed self-assessment, with 25.4% reporting a history of exposure to combat and 30.9% reporting severe, current PTSD symptoms (PTSS). PTSD symptom severity was correlated with current BI (R2=0.497) and PTSS status could be predicted based on current BI and combat history (80.2% correct classification). A subset of the veterans (n=87) also completed eyeblink conditioning. Among veterans without PTSS, childhood BI was associated with faster acquisition; veterans with PTSS showed delayed extinction, under some conditions. These data demonstrate a relationship between current BI and PTSS, and suggest that the facilitated conditioning sometimes observed in PTSD patients may partially reflect personality traits such as childhood BI that pre-date and contribute to vulnerability for PTSD. PMID:21790343

  9. Rats that acquire a THC discrimination more rapidly are more sensitive to THC and faster in reaching operant criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, M F; Means, L W; Porter, J H; Rosecrans, J A; Mokler, D J

    1988-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from saline in a two-lever operant task using successive training criteria. Untreated animals were first shaped to barpress for a milk reward with one lever available. As each animal reached criterion the second lever was installed, the first lever was removed, and the animal was treated with 3.0 mg/kg THC 30 min prior to barpress training. When criterion on the second lever was reached the rats were trained to discriminate THC from vehicle injections with both levers available. Following acquisition of the discrimination, test doses of THC at 0.00, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg revealed that the half of the 24 rats who reached criterion (STC) more rapidly exhibited significantly greater sensitivity to THC at the 0.75 mg/kg test dose than did the 12 slow-learner rats; the former group generated an ED50 of 0.77 mg/kg, whereas the ED50 for the later group was 1.63 mg/kg. The fast learners acquired both the initial barpress response and the discrimination more rapidly than did slow-learners. Results suggest that some animals are inherently more sensitive to THC and faster in meeting learning criteria.

  10. Non-uniformly weighted sampling for faster localized two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy of the brain in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Chawla, Sanjeev; Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Iqbal, Zohaib; Albert Thomas, M.; Poptani, Harish

    2017-04-01

    Two-dimensional localized correlated spectroscopy (2D L-COSY) offers greater spectral dispersion than conventional one-dimensional (1D) MRS techniques, yet long acquisition times and limited post-processing support have slowed its clinical adoption. Improving acquisition efficiency and developing versatile post-processing techniques can bolster the clinical viability of 2D MRS. The purpose of this study was to implement a non-uniformly weighted sampling (NUWS) scheme for faster acquisition of 2D-MRS. A NUWS 2D L-COSY sequence was developed for 7T whole-body MRI. A phantom containing metabolites commonly observed in the brain at physiological concentrations was scanned ten times with both the NUWS scheme of 12:48 duration and a 17:04 constant eight-average sequence using a 32-channel head coil. 2D L-COSY spectra were also acquired from the occipital lobe of four healthy volunteers using both the proposed NUWS and the conventional uniformly-averaged L-COSY sequence. The NUWS 2D L-COSY sequence facilitated 25% shorter acquisition time while maintaining comparable SNR in humans (+0.3%) and phantom studies (+6.0%) compared to uniform averaging. NUWS schemes successfully demonstrated improved efficiency of L-COSY, by facilitating a reduction in scan time without affecting signal quality.

  11. Faster wound healing with topical negative pressure therapy in difficult-to-heal wounds: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Erik H E W; van den Boogaard, Mark H W A; Spauwen, Paul H M; van Kuppevelt, Dirk H J M; van Goor, Harry; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2011-12-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness and safety of topical negative pressure therapy in patients with difficult-to-heal wounds. A total of 24 patients were randomly assigned to either treatment with topical negative pressure therapy or treatment with conventional dressing therapy with sodium hypochlorite. The study end point was 50% reduction in wound volume. The maximum follow-up time was 6 weeks. The median treatment time to 50% reduction of wound volume in the topical negative pressure group was 2.0 weeks (interquartile range = 1) versus 3.5 weeks (interquartile range = 1.5) in the sodium hypochlorite group (P < 0.001). The unadjusted hazard rate ratio for the time until 50% wound volume reduction was 0.123 (P < 0.001). After adjustment for relevant baseline characteristics in a Cox proportional hazards model treatment group, membership was found as the only and statistically significant indicator for the time to 50% wound volume reduction (hazard rate ratio of 0.117 [P < 0.001]). Subgroup analysis of spinal cord injured patients with severe pressure ulcers showed similar statistically significant results as in the total wound group. Topical negative pressure resulted in almost 2 times faster wound healing than treatment with sodium hypochlorite, and is safe to use in patients with difficult-to-heal wounds.

  12. Visual input that matches the content of visual working memory requires less (not faster) evidence sampling to reach conscious access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Surya; van Maanen, Leendert; Heilbron, Micha; Paffen, Chris L E; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The content of visual working memory (VWM) affects the processing of concurrent visual input. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimuli are released from interocular suppression faster when they match rather than mismatch a color that is memorized for subsequent recall. In order to investigate the nature of the interaction between visual representations elicited by VWM and visual representations elicited by retinal input, we modeled the perceptual processes leading up to this difference in suppression durations. We replicated the VWM modulation of suppression durations, and fitted sequential sampling models (linear ballistic accumulators) to the response time data. Model comparisons revealed that the data was best explained by a decrease in threshold for visual input that matches the content of VWM. Converging evidence was obtained by fitting similar sequential sampling models (shifted Wald model) to published datasets. Finally, to confirm that the previously observed threshold difference reflected processes occurring before rather than after the stimuli were released from suppression, we applied the same procedure to the data of an experiment in which stimuli were not interocularly suppressed. Here, we found no decrease in threshold for stimuli that match the content of VWM. We discuss our findings in light of a preactivation hypothesis, proposing that matching visual input taps into the same neural substrate that is already activated by a representation concurrently maintained in VWM, thereby reducing its threshold for reaching visual awareness.

  13. Human actuarial aging increases faster when back ground death rates are lower: a consequence of differential heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Kristen; Smith, Ken R.; Blevins, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Many analyses of human populations have found that age-specific mortality rates increase faster across most of adulthood when overall mortality levels decline. This contradicts the relationship often expected from Williams′ classic hypothesis about the effects of natural selection on the evolution of senescence. More likely, much of the within-species difference in actuarial aging is not due to variation in senescence, but to the strength of filters on the heterogeneity of frailty in older survivors. A challenge to this differential frailty hypothesis was recently posed by an analysis of life tables from historical European populations and traditional societies that reported variation in actuarial aging consistent with Williams′ hypothesis after all. To investigate the challenge, we reconsidered those cases and aging measures. Here we show that the discrepancy depends on Ricklefs′ aging rate measure,ω, which decreases as mortality levels drop because it is an index of mortality level itself, not the rate of increase in mortality with age. We also show unappreciated correspondence among the parameters of Gompertz–Makeham and Weibull survival models. Finally, we compare the relationships among mortality parameters of the traditional societies and the historical series, providing further suggestive evidence that differential heterogeneity has strong effects on actuarial aging. PMID:22220868

  14. Evolution of invasive traits in nonindigenous species: increased survival and faster growth in invasive populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Lindsey W; Lodge, David M

    2014-09-01

    The importance of evolution in enhancing the invasiveness of species is not well understood, especially in animals. To evaluate evolution in crayfish invasions, we tested for differences in growth rate, survival, and response to predators between native and invaded range populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus). We hypothesized that low conspecific densities during introductions into lakes would select for increased investment in growth and reproduction in invasive populations. We reared crayfish from both ranges in common garden experiments in lakes and mesocosms, the latter in which we also included treatments of predatory fish presence and food quality. In both lake and mesocosm experiments, O. rusticus from invasive populations had significantly faster growth rates and higher survival than individuals from the native range, especially in mesocosms where fish were present. There was no influence of within-range collection location on growth rate. Egg size was similar between ranges and did not affect crayfish growth. Our results, therefore, suggest that growth rate, which previous work has shown contributes to strong community-level impacts of this invasive species, has diverged since O. rusticus was introduced to the invaded range. This result highlights the need to consider evolutionary dynamics in invasive species mitigation strategies.

  15. [Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation and Fast-track Rehabilitation after Knee Replacement: Faster, Better, Cheaper? A Survey and Systematic Review of Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quack, V; Ippendorf, A V; Betsch, M; Schenker, H; Nebelung, S; Rath, B; Tingart, M; Lüring, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of multidisciplinary rehabilitation after total knee replacement (TKA) is to reduce postoperative complications and costs and enable faster convalescence. The goals of fast-track rehabilitation, as a multidisciplinary concept, are to reduce the length of hospital stay and achieve early functional improvements by optimizing the perioperative setting. A literature review was carried out for the years 1960-2013. The search terms were: "rehabilitation", "training", "physiotherapy", "physical therapy", "recovery", "exercise program", "knee surgery", "TKA", "total knee replacement", "arthroplasty", "intensive", "multidisciplinary", "accelerated", "rapid" or "fast track". Only randomized controlled trials and metaanalyses were included. A survey was also performed to assess care as actually offered in orthopaedic rehabilitation clinics in North Rhine-Westphalia. A total of 729 articles were identified of which 11 studies were included. Fast-track rehabilitation can significantly reduce both the duration of hospital stay and costs after TKA. Current studies showed that a better short-/middle-term clinical outcome might be achieved with multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, a difference in the long-term outcome could not be observed. Our survey shows that most patients are admitted to a rehabilitation clinic in a state of poor general condition as well as decreased mobility and knee range of motion. Fast-track rehabilitation facilitates a shortened hospital stay as well as cost saving. It probably can be used to optimize the condition of the patient before admission to a rehabilitation facility. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Submergence Causes Similar Carbohydrate Starvation but Faster Post-Stress Recovery than Darkness in Alternanthera philoxeroides Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qi Ye

    Full Text Available Carbon assimilation by submerged plants is greatly reduced due to low light levels. It is hypothesized that submergence reduces carbohydrate contents and that plants recover from submergence in the same way as darkness-treated plants. To test this hypothesis, the responses of plants to submergence and darkness were studied and compared. Plants of a submergence-tolerant species, Alternanthera philoxeroides, were exposed to well drained and illuminated conditions, complete submergence conditions or darkness conditions followed by a recovery growth period in a controlled experiment. The biomass maintenance and accumulation, carbohydrate content dynamics and respiration rate in the plants were assessed to quantify the carbohydrate utilization rate and regrowth. The submerged plants maintained higher chlorophyll contents, more green leaf tissue and more biomass; recovered more quickly; and accumulated more carbohydrates and biomass than darkness-treated plants. The respiration rate was continuously reduced in the same pattern under both stress conditions but was maintained at a significantly lower level in the submerged plants; the total soluble sugar and total fructan contents were decreased at approximately the same rate of decrease, reaching similar low levels, in the two stress treatments. The A. philoxeroides plants were more tolerant of submergence than darkness. The faster recovery of desubmerged plants could not be explained by the similar carbohydrate contents at the start of recovery. Other types of carbon reserves besides carbohydrates or other mechanisms such as higher post-stress photosynthetic performance might be involved.

  17. Response amendment in fencing: differences between elite and novice subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L R; Walmsley, A

    2000-08-01

    Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), total response time (RMT), and accuracy of 3 elite and 3 novice fencers were studied under a dual response paradigm requiring a full lunge. Electromyographic activity (EMG) from selected arm and leg muscles was used to compare response profiles of the two groups. Although the elite subjects had slower MTs, their faster RTs resulted in significantly shorter total response times. The EMG analysis showed that in comparison to the novice subjects, onset of muscle activity was significantly faster for the elite group in five of the six muscles studied. In addition, the elite subjects showed more coherent muscle synergies and more consistent patterns of muscle coordination. Although the requirement to change targets (signalled by the arrival of a second stimulus) led to slightly more target misses for the elite group, the overall frequency was low, which indicates that it did not pose difficulty for either group. The present findings show that measures of response timing and neuromuscular coordination differentiate skill level in the fencing lunge and draw attention to practical implications for skill assessment and training.

  18. Analyzing Trends in Subjective Well-Being in 15 European Countries, 1973-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous empirical research has been unable to find a sufficient correlation between subjective well-being and per capita income, being hampered by limited longitudinal information and an inability to account for the predictions of competing theories. We bring new evidence to this question......-being, accelerations in GDP growth do. In addition, faster GDP growth and faster growth of government consumption than in neighbouring countries induces positive trends in life satisfaction. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of aspirations theory and the theory of reference group comparisons.  ...

  19. [Phenomenon of Perceived Duration in the Subjective Present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Ikuya

    2017-11-01

    Among phenomena involving the subjective present, duration perception is especially worth discussing from the viewpoints of psychophysics, cognitive neuroscience, and computational modeling of underlying mechanisms. First, several situations in which moving visual stimuli appear to last longer are reported. Second, the phenomenon of illusory time compression, which occurs in a moving stimulus after prolonged observation of another stimulus moving at a faster speed, is described. Third, how an attended visual stimulus appears to last longer and how a stimulus appears to last for a shorter duration when attention is directed away are explained. Finally, possible underlying mechanisms in relation to the stages of hierarchical visual information processing are discussed.

  20. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective: The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method: Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34 to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST. Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results: Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions: The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area.

  1. What Is This Thing Called Love? The Subjective Experience and Communication of Romantic Love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Peter J.; And Others

    A study examined the subjective experience of love (the feelings associated with love and the meanings attributed to these feelings) and the manners in which love is communicated. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 76 respondents (ages ranged from 21 to 54, with 52% over 30 years old). In the first part of the interview, respondents were…

  2. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  3. How Do Business Interest Groups Respond to Political Challenges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Social scientists dealing with business and politics have tended to focus mostly on the power of business and less on the political challenges and constraints that business interest groups face. This paper analyses how business interest groups respond to political initiatives that challenge...... their interests, using four episodes of political conflict in Germany. The paper elaborates a model of response strategies and their likely impact on political outcomes. The model suggests that business interest groups can respond to political challenges in two ways: by seeking confrontation or by pursuing...... adaptation. The paper illustrates these two response strategies with four episodes of political conflict in the political-economic history of Germany: (i) the adoption of social insurance under Bismarck, (ii) the adoption of unemployment insurance in the 1920s, (iii) the adoption of board-level...

  4. Responding to aggression and reactive behaviours in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Rachel V; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2017-01-01

    Behaviours such as hitting, spitting, swearing and kicking can be a common response to personal, social and environmental challenges experienced by people with dementia. Little attention, however, has been given to how partners in care experience and respond to these behaviours in the home. This paper examines the emerging theme of 'aggression,' in seven interviews with nine former partners in care of people with dementia in Ontario, Canada. We explore how partners in care talk about, interpret and respond to these behaviours drawing on recent conceptualizations of structural and interpersonal violence in health and social geography and contributing to the growing body of research on relational care. We discuss the responses to, and implications of, these behaviours at a range of spatial scales and identify important considerations for future research.

  5. Detection of random responding on the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, R A; Ballenger, J; Berry, D T; Wetter, M W

    1997-02-01

    We examined random responding on the MMPI-A in 106 adolescents from the general population. Participants were asked to report on the frequency, location, and reasons for any random responses occurring during a standard administration of the MMPI-A. Relationships between self-reported random responding and validity indices (F1, F2, F, and Variable Response Inconsistency [VRIN] scale) were examined. In addition, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups, with each group completing an assigned portion (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%) of an MMPI-A answer sheet without access to the test booklet, and the utility of the validity scales in discriminating standard protocols from all or partially random protocols was investigated. Most adolescents acknowledged one or more random responses correlated significantly with F but not VRIN. Validity scales were sensitive to all or partially random protocols, and produced high classification rates when discriminating among groups.

  6. Feeling good: autonomic nervous system responding in five positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Michelle N; Neufeld, Samantha L; Yeung, Wan H; Moser, Stephanie E; Perea, Elaine F

    2011-12-01

    Although dozens of studies have examined the autonomic nervous system (ANS) aspects of negative emotions, less is known about ANS responding in positive emotion. An evolutionary framework was used to define five positive emotions in terms of fitness-enhancing function, and to guide hypotheses regarding autonomic responding. In a repeated measures design, participants viewed sets of visual images eliciting these positive emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, attachment love, nurturant love, amusement, and awe) plus an emotionally neutral state. Peripheral measures of sympathetic and vagal parasympathetic activation were assessed. Results indicated that the emotion conditions were characterized by qualitatively distinct profiles of autonomic activation, suggesting the existence of multiple, physiologically distinct positive emotions. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol or sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  8. An alternative framework for responding to the amphibian crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Volumes of data illustrate the severity of the crisis affecting amphibians, where > 32% of amphibians worldwide are threatened with declining populations. Although there have been isolated victories, the current approach to the issue is unsuccessful. We suggest that a radically different approach, something akin to human emergency response management (i.e. the Incident Command System), is one alternative to addressing the inertia and lack of cohesion in responding to amphibian issues. We acknowledge existing efforts and the useful research that has been conducted, but we suggest that a change is warranted and that the identification of a new amphibian chytrid provides the impetus for such a change. Our goal is to recognize that without a centralized effort we (collectively) are likely to fail in responding to this challenge.

  9. Correlates of cyberbullying and how school nurses can respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying is one of many online risks that affect an increasing number of children and teenagers. This form of abuse often occurs under the radar of adults as it usually takes place outside of school and away from adult supervision. Moreover, bystanders and victims are often reluctant to report what they have experienced. School nurses might be among the first to witness the real-life consequences of this virtual behavior, as involvement in cyberbullying is often correlated with psychological and behavioral problems. For this reason, school nurses should know how to recognize the warning signs so that they can respond and intervene appropriately. This article provides a discussion of what cyberbullying is and a summary of research on factors associated with cyberbullying, in terms of both victimization and perpetration. It also provides school nurses with evidence-based strategies for responding effectively. © 2014 The Author(s).

  10. Social adjustment among treatment responder patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serretti, Alessandro; Chiesa, Alberto; Souery, Daniel; Calati, Raffaella; Sentissi, Othman; Kasper, Siegfried; Akimova, Elena; Marsano, Agnese; Balestri, Martina; Alberti, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; Amital, Daniela; Montgomery, Stuart; Mendlewicz, Julien

    2013-09-25

    Patients with major depression (MD) show reduced social adjustment when compared with healthy controls. However, even among treatment responders, significant differences in social adjustment occur. The main aim of the present work is to study several socio-demographic and clinical variables possibly influencing social adjustment in MD patients who responded to treatment. Two hundred and eleven MD patients experiencing a depressive episode who responded to their current treatment were recruited within the context of a large European multicentre project. Our primary outcome measure was the association between 19 socio-demographic and clinical variables and total social adjustment scores, as measured with the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS). Secondary outcome measures included the associations between the same variables and SAS sub-scales, and the associations between these variables and self-esteem, as measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A co-morbidity with anxiety disorders and the severity of residual depression symptoms were the strongest independent factors associated with poorer social adjustment, in terms of total and most sub-areas' SAS scores. Other variables associated with total and sub-areas' SAS scores were identified as well, although some variations across different areas were observed. The cross-sectional design, the retrospective assessment of data and the lack of a placebo control group. Our results confirm that a co-morbidity with anxiety disorders and higher residual depression symptoms could reduce social adjustment among responder MD patients. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital (“visual”) brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4–17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). ...

  12. Can the Indian Navy respond to a growing Chinese fleet?

    OpenAIRE

    Quidachay, VIncent J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether the Indian Navy can respond to a growing Chinese fleet by analyzing the historical development of the Indian Navy since independence. Three naval expansion periods are identified, and three causal factors are measured to determine the effects of each factor on Indian naval expansion. The three factors are (1) responses to a perceived threat, (2) India's economic condition, and (3) the benefits of foreign military aid. The saidy shows that res...

  13. Willingness, ability, and intentions of health care workers to respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couig, Mary Pat

    2012-01-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are a critical component of the emergency management cycle (prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery). The potential for large numbers of injured from either a man-made or natural disaster has resulted in the development of surge capacity plans and attempts to predict how many HCWs will be available to respond. Since 1991 (with the majority of the research published in 2002 and later), researchers have been conducting studies to learn about the willingness, ability, and intentions of HCWs to respond to disasters. Potential and real barriers to disaster response are being explored as well. This chapter focuses on research authored or coauthored by nurses. Nurse-authored research is just a portion of the growing body of knowledge in this area; however, the findings are consistent with other published works. HCWs are more likely to be willing and able to respond to natural disasters and less likely to be willing and able during infectious outbreaks or incidents with potential exposure to harmful agents (biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological). HCW concerns include safety of self and family, availability of protective equipment, medicines and vaccines, and caretaking responsibilities (children, elders, and pets).

  14. NARAC Dispersion Model Product Integration With RadResponder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work on enhanced cooperation and interoperability of Nuclear Incident Response Teams (NIRT) is a joint effort between DHS/FEMA, DOE/NNSA and EPA. One such effort was the integration between the RadResponder Network, a resource sponsored by FEMA for the management of radiological data during an emergency, and the National Atmospheric Advisory Center (NARAC), a DOE/NNSA modeling resource whose predictions are used to aid radiological emergency preparedness and response. Working together under a FEMA-sponsored project these two radiological response assets developed a capability to read and display plume model prediction results from the NARAC computer system in the RadResponder software tool. As a result of this effort, RadResponder users have been provided with NARAC modeling predictions of contamination areas, radiological dose levels, and protective action areas (e.g., areas warranting worker protection or sheltering/evacuation) to help guide protective action decisions and field monitoring surveys, and gain key situation awareness following a radiological/nuclear accident or incident (e.g., nuclear power plant accident, radiological dispersal device incident, or improvised nuclear detonation incident). This document describes the details of this integration effort.

  15. Measurement of the nonuniformity of first responder thermal imaging cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Andrew; Amon, Francine

    2008-04-01

    Police, firefighters, and emergency medical personnel are examples of first responders that are utilizing thermal imaging cameras in a very practical way every day. However, few performance metrics have been developed to assist first responders in evaluating the performance of thermal imaging technology. This paper describes one possible metric for evaluating the nonuniformity of thermal imaging cameras. Several commercially available uncooled focal plane array cameras were examined. Because of proprietary property issues, each camera was considered a 'black box'. In these experiments, an extended area black body (18 cm square) was placed very close to the objective lens of the thermal imaging camera. The resultant video output from the camera was digitized at a resolution of 640x480 pixels and a grayscale depth of 10 bits. The nonuniformity was calculated using the standard deviation of the digitized image pixel intensities divided by the mean of those pixel intensities. This procedure was repeated for each camera at several blackbody temperatures in the range from 30° C to 260° C. It has observed that the nonuniformity initially increases with temperature, then asymptotically approaches a maximum value. Nonuniformity is also applied to the calculation of Spatial Frequency Response as well providing a noise floor. The testing procedures described herein are being developed as part of a suite of tests to be incorporated into a performance standard covering thermal imaging cameras for first responders.

  16. Total knee replacement; minimal clinically important differences and responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, A; García Pérez, L; Herrera-Espiñeira, C; Aizpuru, F; Sarasqueta, C; Gonzalez Sáenz de Tejada, M; Quintana, J M; Bilbao, A

    2013-12-01

    To provide new data on minimally clinical important difference (MCID) and percentages of responders on pain and functional dimensions of Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in patients who have undergone total knee replacement (TKR). 1-year prospective multicentre study with two different cohorts. Consecutive patients on the waiting list were recruited. There were 415 and 497 patients included. Pain and function were collected by the reverse scoring option of the WOMAC (0-100, worst to best). Transition items (five point scale) were collected at 1-year and MCID was calculated through mean change in patients somewhat better, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and two other questions about satisfaction. Analysis was performed in the whole sample and by tertiles of baseline severity. Likewise were calculated the percentages of patients who attained cut-off values. Global MCID for pain were about 30 in both cohorts and 32 for. By ROC these values were about 20 and 24 respectively. According to the other two transitional questions these values were for pain 27 and 20 for function. By tertiles the worst the baseline score the higher the cut-off values. Percentage of responders does not change when comparing responders to the global MCID with their own tertile MCID and were about 61% for pain and 50% for function. Due to the wide variations, MCID estimates should be calculated and used according to the baseline severity score. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Endoscopic Ultrasound to Guide Adalimumab Treatment in Perianal Crohn's Disease Results in Faster Fistula Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Dawn M; Beaulieu, Dawn; Slaughter, James C; Horst, Sara; Wagnon, Julie; Duley, Caroline; Annis, Kim; Nohl, Anne; Herline, Alan; Muldoon, Roberta; Geiger, Tim; Wise, Paul E; Schwartz, David A

    2015-07-01

    Perianal disease is a manifestation of Crohn's disease (CD) that has poor long-term treatment outcomes. The aim was to determine if rectal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided therapy with adalimumab (ADA) can improve outcomes for patients with perianal fistulizing CD. This is a randomized prospective study comparing serial EUS guidance of fistula treatment versus standard of care in fistulizing perianal CD. At enrollment, all patients underwent a rectal EUS and an EUA with seton placement and/or I&D. Treatment was maximized with immunomodulators, antibiotics, and ADA induction. Surgical interventions were determined by the surgeon's discretion in the control group and assisted by every 12th week EUS in the intervention group. Primary and secondary endpoints where complete drainage cessation at week 48 was fistula status per EUS, respectively. Twenty patients were enrolled: 11 control and 9 EUS guidance. At 24 weeks, 7/9 (78%) in EUS group and 3/11 (27%) in control group had drainage cessation (P = 0.04). This significant difference was lost at week 48 (P = 0.44). Three patients in the EUS and 1 in the control group had additional surgical intervention. Those in the EUS group had more rapid escalation of ADA dosing (P = 0.003). There was no difference in the change in PDAI at week 48 versus baseline (P = 0.81). Rectal EUS-guided ADA therapy for CD perianal fistulas showed an initial benefit at 24 weeks, which was lost at week 48. This is likely due to small sample size and higher fistula closure in the controls. However, the faster rate of fistula resolution is a clinically significant finding.

  18. Primary dermal fibroblasts derived from sdc-1 deficient mice migrate faster and have altered alphav integrin function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Liu, Yueyuan; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Stepp, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The goal of this study is to determine whether dermal fibroblasts lacking syndecan-1 (sdc1) show differences in integrin expression and function that could contribute to the delayed skin and corneal wound healing phenotypes seen in sdc-1 null mice. Using primary dermal fibroblasts, we show that after 3 days in culture no differences in alpha-smooth muscle actin were detected but sdc-1 null cells expressed significantly more alphav and beta1 integrin than wildtype (wt) cells. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) treatment at day 3 increased alphav- and beta1-integrin expression in sdc-1 null cells at day 5 whereas wt cells showed increased expression only of alphav-integrin. Using time-lapse studies, we showed that the sdc-1 null fibroblasts migrate faster than wt fibroblasts, treatment with TGFbeta1 increased these migration differences, and treatment with a TGFbeta1 antagonist caused sdc-1 null fibroblasts to slow down and migrate at the same rate as untreated wt cells. Cell spreading studies on replated fibroblasts showed altered cell spreading and focal adhesion formation on vitronectin and fibronectin-coated surfaces. Additional time lapse studies with beta1- and alphav-integrin antibody antagonists, showed that wt fibroblasts expressing sdc-1 had activated integrins on their surface that impeded their migration whereas the null cells expressed alphav-containing integrins which were less adhesive and enhanced cell migration. Surface expression studies showed increased surface expression of alpha2beta1 and alpha3beta1 on the sdc-1 null fibroblasts compared with wt fibroblasts but no significant differences in surface expression of alpha5beta1, alphavbeta3, or alphavbeta5. Taken together, our data indicates that sdc-1 functions in the activation of alphav-containing integrins and support the hypothesis that impaired wound healing phenotypes seen in sdc-1 null mice could be due to integrin-mediated defects in fibroblast migration after injury.

  19. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youjun; Yu, Laura; Yung, Ka-Fu; Leung, Dennis Yc; Sun, Feng; Lim, Boon L

    2012-04-02

    Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

  20. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youjun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2 promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

  1. Faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart related to cytosolic inorganic phosphate (Pi) accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A model of the cell bioenergetic system was used to compare the effect of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiencies in a broad range of moderate ATP demand in skeletal muscle and heart. Computer simulations revealed that kinetic properties of the system are similar in both cases despite the much higher mitochondria content and “basic” OXPHOS activity in heart than in skeletal muscle, because of a much higher each-step activation (ESA) of OXPHOS in skeletal muscle than in heart. Large OXPHOS deficiencies lead in both tissues to a significant decrease in oxygen consumption (V̇o2) and phosphocreatine (PCr) and increase in cytosolic ADP, Pi, and H+. The main difference between skeletal muscle and heart is a much higher cytosolic Pi concentration in healthy tissue and much higher cytosolic Pi accumulation (level) at low OXPHOS activities in the former, caused by a higher PCr level in healthy tissue (and higher total phosphate pool) and smaller Pi redistribution between cytosol and mitochondria at OXPHOS deficiency. This difference does not depend on ATP demand in a broad range. A much greater Pi increase and PCr decrease during rest-to-moderate work transition in skeletal muscle at OXPHOS deficiencies than at normal OXPHOS activity significantly slows down the V̇o2 on-kinetics. Because high cytosolic Pi concentrations cause fatigue in skeletal muscle and can compromise force generation in skeletal muscle and heart, this system property can contribute to the faster and stronger manifestation of mitochondrial diseases in skeletal muscle than in heart. Shortly, skeletal muscle with large OXPHOS deficiencies becomes fatigued already during low/moderate exercise. PMID:27283913

  2. The science of mud : new technologies for drilling fluids are helping operators drill deeper, faster, with less formation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2006-01-15

    A review of drilling fluid technology was presented. Selecting the optimal drilling fluids is crucial to the health and productivity of a well. Solutions are often too expensive to use given the anticipated pay-off, as is the case with clean-burning natural gas being used to remove bitumen that needs a great deal of processing. The rheology of drilling fluid is specifically designed for particular applications. The advent of chemical polymer technology allowed companies to adjust the viscosity of the drilling fluids used to hold back the pressure of the well without adding solids, thereby minimizing damage to formations. Invert emulsion systems are being applied to wells in western Canada to reduce the specific gravity of the fluid so that drilling can be made faster. This type of drilling is also used in the technique called underbalanced drilling, which refers to the balance between the reservoir pressure at any given depth and the pressure of the fluids and gases being pumped down the well to keep the sides from collapsing. Canadian operators meet environmental requirement standards by using a closed tank system to contain hydrocarbons released by drilling activities. Water and oil are drawn into storage tanks, and solids are assessed on a continuous basis to guide drilling. Fluids are then re-injected into the wells. The amount of water now used to drill a well is significantly smaller than it used to be. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) Guide 50 has recently updated the disposal criteria and regulations concerning drilling waste management and disposal. Biodiesels as a drilling fluid base are becoming appealing as a drilling fluid base due to stricter environmental regulations. However, biodiesels will need to be engineered to cool the drill bit, carry cuttings back to the surface and lubricate the drill steam at a wide range of temperatures. 2 figs.

  3. Characterization of P-channel power trench MOSFETs with polycrystalline silicon germanium gate electrode for faster switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rohit; Daggubati, Manmohan

    2012-02-01

    Electrical switching characteristics using polycrystalline silicon-germanium (poly-Si l-xGe x) gate for P-channel power trench MOSFETs was investigated. Switching time reduction of over 22% was observed when the boron-doped poly-Si gate was replaced with a similarly boron-doped poly-SiGe gate on the P-channel power MOSFETs. The fall time ( T f) on MOSFETs with poly-SiGe gate, was found to be ˜11 ns lesser than the poly-Si gate MOSFET which is ˜60% improvement in switching performance. However, all the switching improvement was observed during the fall times ( T f). The reason could be the higher series resistance in the switching test circuit masking any reduction in the rise times ( T r). Faster switching is achieved due to a lower gate resistance ( R g) offered by the poly-SiGe gate electrode as compared to poly-silicon (pSi) material. The pSi gate resistance was found to be 6.25 Ω compared to 3.75 Ω on the poly-SiGe gate measured on the same device. Lower gate resistance ( R g) also means less power is lost during switching thereby less heat is generated in the device. A very uniform boron doping profile was achieved with-in the pSiGe gate electrode, which is critical for uniform die turn on and better thermal response for the power trench MOSFET. pSiGe thin film optimization, properties and device characteristics are discussed in details in the following sections.

  4. Potential and Challenges in Collecting Social and Behavioral Data on Adolescent Alcohol Norms: Comparing Respondent-Driven Sampling and Web-Based Respondent-Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Janina; Burns, Sharyn; Zhao, Yun; Lobo, Roanna; Howat, Peter; Allsop, Steve; Maycock, Bruce

    2015-12-24

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method successfully used to research hard-to-access populations. Few studies have explored the use of the Internet and social media with RDS, known as Web-based RDS (WebRDS). This study explored the use of combining both "traditional" RDS and WebRDS to examine the influences on adolescent alcohol use. This paper reports on the recruitment processes and the challenges and enablers of both RDS and WebRDS. It details comparative recruitment data and provides a summary of the utility of both methods for recruiting adolescents to participate in an online survey investigating youth alcohol norms. Process evaluation data collected from research staff throughout the study were used to assess the challenges and solutions of RDS and WebRDS. Pearson chi-square test (Fisher's exact test if applicable) was used to compare the differences in sociodemographics and drinking behavior between data collected by RDS and WebRDS. Of the total sample (N=1012), 232 adolescents were recruited by RDS and 780 by WebRDS. A significantly larger proportion of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (P<.001) participants who spoke English as their main language at home (P=.03), and of middle and lower socioeconomic status (P<.001) was found in the RDS sample. The RDS sample was also found to have a higher occurrence of past 7-day drinking (P<.001) and past 7-day risky drinking (P=.004). No significant differences in gender, age, past month alcohol use, and lifetime alcohol use were observed between the RDS and WebRDS samples. This study revealed RDS and WebRDS used similar lengths of chains for recruiting participants; however, WebRDS conducted a faster rate of recruitment at a lower average cost per participant compared to RDS. Using WebRDS resulted in significant improvements in the recruitment rate and was a more effective and efficient use of resources than the traditional RDS method. However, WebRDS resulted in partially different sample characteristics to

  5. From Data to Knowledge — Faster: GOES Early Fire Detection System to Inform Operational Wildfire Response and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, A.; Quayle, B.; Prins, E. M.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fire managers at various levels require near-real-time, low-cost, systematic, and reliable early detection capabilities with minimal latency to effectively respond to wildfire ignitions and minimize the risk of catastrophic development. The GOES satellite images collected for vast territories at high temporal frequencies provide a consistent and reliable source for operational active fire mapping realized by the WF-ABBA algorithm. However, their potential to provide early warning or rapid confirmation of initial fire ignition reports from conventional sources remains underutilized, partly because the operational wildfire detection has been successfully optimized for users and applications for which timeliness of initial detection is a low priority, contrasting to the needs of first responders. We present our progress in developing the GOES Early Fire Detection (GOES-EFD) system, a collaborative effort led by University of California-Davis and USDA Forest Service. The GOES-EFD specifically focuses on first detection timeliness for wildfire incidents. It is automatically trained for a monitored scene and capitalizes on multiyear cross-disciplinary algorithm research. Initial retrospective tests in Western US demonstrate significantly earlier identification detection of new ignitions than existing operational capabilities and a further improvement prospect. The GOES-EFD-β prototype will be initially deployed for the Western US region to process imagery from GOES-NOP and the rapid and 4 times higher spatial resolution imagery from GOES-R — the upcoming next generation of GOES satellites. These and other enhanced capabilities of GOES-R are expected to significantly improve the timeliness of fire ignition information from GOES-EFD.

  6. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  7. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  8. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  9. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  10. EEG, autonomic and subjective correlates of the risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, L O; Hesselbrock, V M

    1993-09-01

    Electroencephalographic, autonomic and subjective reactions to alcohol were examined among 78 young nonalcoholic men, cross-classified with respect to the presence/absence of a family history of alcoholism (FH) and the presence/absence of a personal history of antisocial personality disorder (ASP). Both an alcohol placebo and alcohol (0.32 ml/kg) were administered in a single laboratory session. The four groups of subjects were compared at baseline, and at several discrete time points before and after consumption of placebo and alcoholic beverages. During the baseline period, ASP+ subjects exhibited significantly more body sway and faster frontal EEG activity than their ASP- counterparts. The combination of ASP with FH was associated, at baseline, with an excessive amount of high frequency (18.6-27.6 Hz) beta activity in the right frontal EEG. After beverage consumption, several significant FH effects emerged that were independent of the effects of ASP. After placebo consumption, FH+ subjects exhibited significantly more fast alpha (10.9-12.5 Hz) activity at the right frontal electrode than FH- subjects. This difference persisted until blood alcohol concentrations began to rise, at which time fast alpha activity in FH+ subjects declined to FH- levels. Differences between the two FH groups were also apparent in their subjective reactions to the placebo and alcoholic beverages. Relative to FH- subjects, FH+ subjects rated themselves as more intoxicated after consuming the placebo but less intoxicated after consuming alcohol. FH+ subjects expressed greater confidence in their ability to resist the offer of an alcoholic drink across most time points.

  11. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  12. 32 CFR 725.6 - Authority to determine and respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regs., art. 0327 (1990) 5 , shall be referred to the cognizant Command Counsel under, and subject to... Counsel, Navy Litigation Office, 720 Kennon Street SE, Bldg 36 Room 233, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20374...

  13. Recruitment of faster motor units is associated with greater rates of fascicle strain and rapid changes in muscle force during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; de Boef Miara, Maria; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2013-01-15

    Animals modulate the power output needed for different locomotor tasks by changing muscle forces and fascicle strain rates. To generate the necessary forces, appropriate motor units must be recruited. Faster motor units have faster activation-deactivation rates than slower motor units, and they contract at higher strain rates; therefore, recruitment of faster motor units may be advantageous for tasks that involve rapid movements or high rates of work. This study identified motor unit recruitment patterns in the gastrocnemii muscles of goats and examined whether faster motor units are recruited when locomotor speed is increased. The study also examined whether locomotor tasks that elicit faster (or slower) motor units are associated with increased (or decreased) in vivo tendon forces, force rise and relaxation rates, fascicle strains and/or strain rates. Electromyography (EMG), sonomicrometry and muscle-tendon force data were collected from the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscles of goats during level walking, trotting and galloping and during inclined walking and trotting. EMG signals were analyzed using wavelet and principal component analyses to quantify changes in the EMG frequency spectra across the different locomotor conditions. Fascicle strain and strain rate were calculated from the sonomicrometric data, and force rise and relaxation rates were determined from the tendon force data. The results of this study showed that faster motor units were recruited as goats increased their locomotor speeds from level walking to galloping. Slow inclined walking elicited EMG intensities similar to those of fast level galloping but different EMG frequency spectra, indicating that recruitment of the different motor unit types depended, in part, on characteristics of the task. For the locomotor tasks and muscles analyzed here, recruitment patterns were generally associated with in vivo fascicle strain rates, EMG intensity and tendon force. Together, these data provide

  14. The faster internal clock in ADHD is related to lower processing speed: WISC-IV profile analyses and time estimation tasks facilitate the distinction between real ADHD and pseudo-ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walg, Marco; Hapfelmeier, Gerhard; El-Wahsch, Daniel; Prior, Helmut

    2017-10-01

    Alterations in temporal processing may represent a primary cause of key symptoms in ADHD. This study is aimed at investigating the nature of time-processing alterations in ADHD and assessing the possible utility of testing time estimation for clinical diagnostics. Retrospective verbal time estimation in the range of several minutes was examined in 50 boys with ADHD and 53 boys with other mental disorders. All participants (age 7-16) attended an outpatient clinic for ADHD diagnostics. The diagnostic assessment included the WISC-IV. Subjects with ADHD made longer and less accurate duration estimates than the clinical control group. The ADHD group showed a specific WISC-IV profile with processing speed deficits. In the ADHD group there was a correlation between processing speed and quality of time estimation that was not observed in the comparison group: higher processing speed indices were related to more accurate duration estimates. The findings provide support for the presence of a faster internal clock in subjects with ADHD and lend further support to the existence of a specific WISC-IV profile in subjects with ADHD. The results show that analyzing WISC-IV profiles and time estimation tasks are useful differential diagnosis tools, particularly when it comes to distinguishing between "real ADHD" and pseudo-ADHD.

  15. Preparation of {sup 123}l and {sup 131}l mlBG by ascorbate reduction: A faster, safer method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.J. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Full text: Meta-iodobenzylguanidine labelled with {sup 123}l or {sup 131}l has been prepared in a number of hospital radiopharmacies by the method of van Dormalen and Janssen (Method 1), which uses a copper catalysed exchange reaction accomplished by heating at 140 degree C in a heavy walled glass vial. The product is purified by passage through a small anion exchange column to remove unreacted iodine. More recently, the method of Rossouw (Method 2) has become available which utilizes ascorbic acid and copper (II) ions to effect the iodination at 100 deg C. Since the latter method has a number of potential advantages, the object of this work was to compare the results obtained from each method under conditions of routine preparation. Analysis of preparations using Method 1 gave the following results: {sup 131}l, yield 89.3 {+-} 10.4% (n = 54); {sup 123}l, yield 85.5 {+-} 10.6% (n = 5). The radiochemical purity was determined by both chromatography on Whatman No.1 / butanol, acetic acid, water (60:15:25) and cellulose acetate electrophoresis with the following results (mean values from both techniques): {sup 131}l-mlBG 99.8 {+-} 0.1%;{sup 131}l- iodine 0.2 {+-} -0.1%. For {sup 123}l, {sup 123}l-mlBG 99.2 {+-} 0.2%; {sup 123}l-iodine 0.6 {+-} 0.2%. When prepared by Method 2, the results were: {sup 131}I, yield 86.0 {+-} 9.8% (n = 5); {sup 123}l, yield 97.0 {+-} 5.0% (n = 6). Radiochemical analyses were as follows: {sup 131}l-mlBG 98.9 {+-} 0.1%;{sup 131}l-iodine 1.0 {+-} 0.2%. For {sup 123}l, {sup 123}l-mlBG 97.8 {+-} 0.7%; {sup 123}l-iodine 2.1 {+-} 0.6%. It is concluded that although Method 2 resulted in products of slightly lower purity, the small increase in free iodide for both radionuclides can be tolerated in view of the routine use of thyroid blockade with Lugol`s solution. This method is much preferred as it removes the risk of explosion during the heating step. It is also considerably faster and reduces the chance of spillage as there is no need for passage

  16. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-08-19

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital ("visual") brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4-17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). We find that "visual" cortices of young blind (but not sighted) children respond to sound. Responses to nonlanguage sounds increased between the ages of 4 and 17. By contrast, occipital responses to spoken language were maximal by age 4 and were not related to Braille learning. These findings suggest that occipital plasticity for spoken language is independent of plasticity for Braille and for sound. We conclude that in the absence of visual input, spoken language colonizes the visual system during brain development. Our findings suggest that early in life, human cortex has a remarkably broad computational capacity. The same cortical tissue can take on visual perception and language functions. Studies of plasticity provide key insights into how experience shapes the human brain. The "visual" cortex of adults who are blind from birth responds to touch, sound, and spoken language. To date, all existing studies have been conducted with adults, so little is known about the developmental trajectory of plasticity. We used fMRI to study the emergence of "visual" cortex responses to sound and spoken language in blind children and adolescents. We find that "visual" cortex responses to sound increase between 4 and 17 years of age. By contrast, responses to spoken language are present by 4 years of age and are not related to Braille-learning. These findings suggest that, early in development, human cortex can take on a strikingly wide range of functions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511674-08$15.00/0.

  17. Immunotherapy for non-responders among patients of spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ayush; Gupta, Ajay; Kumar, Awkash; Arora, Sumit

    2016-04-01

    Combined chemo- and immunotherapy are the major advancement in the treatment of tuberculosis. Immunotherapy supposedly increases cure rate while reducing the duration of treatment and tissue damage. Non-responders are those patients of tuberculosis who do not respond to anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) in the desired manner despite the mycobacteria showing sensitivity to the given drugs. The role of immunotherapy in the treatment of this particular subset of patients has been investigated scarcely. The present study included a retrospective review of prospectively collected clinico-radiological data of 14 non-responder patients who were taking ATT for spinal tuberculosis for a mean duration of 10.3 months. An immunotherapeutic regime comprising of single intramuscular injection of vitamin D 600,000IU, 3 days course of oral albendazole 200mg daily, salmonella vaccine 0.5ml intramuscular and influenza vaccine 0.5ml intramuscular were added to ATT. The vaccines and the course of oral albendazole were repeated after a month. Before immunotherapy, seven patients were partially dependent while other seven were completely dependent on others for activities of daily living. All except one patient after treatment became independent till last follow-up (p value <0.01). Post immunotherapy, ATT was continued for mean duration of 4.9 months with mean follow-up of 22.4 months. All patients showed good clinical response within 2-6 weeks after the initiation of immunotherapy. The crux to success of the immunotherapy regime is its potential to restore the existing Th1 Th2 imbalance and to provide substitute to the anergic and dysfunctional immune cells. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Called to respond: The potential of unveiling hiddens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Black

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interested in exploring how personal stories and aesthetic modes of representing experiences can nudge open academic and educational spaces, this article/collection of particles seeks to document our encounters of being affected and called to respond to things the other has written and represented. As a way of engaging with questions about what research and research data might be and become, our attention has been drawn to stories and images from our lives that we have not shaken off – and to how, as we have opened these to the other, making once private moments public, our hiddens have morphed tenderly into a shared knowing and being. As we have acted on the call we have felt to respond we have found ourselves entering spaces of collaboration, communion, contemplation, and conversation – spaces illuminated by what we have not been able to – and cannot – set aside. Using visual and poetic materials we explore heartfelt and heartbroken aspects of our educational worlds and lives, to be present with each other and our (reemerging personal and professional meanings. We see the shared body (of work, of writing, of image that develops from the taking of brave steps and the risky slipping off of academic masks and language, as a manifestation of the trusted and nurturing spaces that can be generated through collaborative opportunities to gather together. These steps towards unveiling hiddens are producing in us and of us a friendship, fluency, and fluidity as we write new ways of becoming. In turn, we hope the uncovering and revealing of our dialogue in the public gathering of this journal might supports readers’ telling of their own life stories through what calls them to respond.

  19. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  20. Application of PLM processes to respond to mechanical SMEs needs

    CERN Document Server

    Duigou, Julien Le; Perry, Nicolas; Delplace, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    PLM is today a reality for mechanical SMEs. Some companies implement PLM systems very well but others have more difficulties. This paper aims to explain why some SMEs do not success to integrated PLM systems analyzing the needs of mechanical SMEs, the processes to implement to respond to those needs and the actual PLM software functionalities. The proposition of a typology of those companies and the responses of those needs by PLM processes will be explain through the applications of a demonstrator applying appropriate generic data model and modelling framework.

  1. Psychological Aspects of Responding to Feedback in the Coaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Fornalczyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses ways in which individuals respond to feedback received in the coaching process. In the first part, the author discusses different response styles to feedback and their consequences. She focuses especially on the defensive, dominating, manipulative, and improvement-oriented behaviors of the coached. In the second part, she addresses psychological determinants of effective feedback reception by the coaching participants, including their dispositional determinants. The author concludes emphasizing that for the coached to correct their behavior, the provision of feedback by coaches must be founded on the knowledge of the mechanisms and the dispositional determinants of human functioning.

  2. Phantom Extremity Pain Responding to Stellate Ganglion Blockage: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edip Gonullu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phantom extremity pain is that which continues to be felt in a non-existent extremity after amputation. The pathophysiological mechanism and etiology of phantom extremity pain are not exactly known, Phantom extremity pain affects the patients in physical and psycho-social aspects. This paper presents a patient with phantom extremity pain that had not responded to medical treatment. A stellate ganglion blockage was performed using lidocaine, bupivacaine and fentanyl and the patient%u2019s pain was observed to be reduced.

  3. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  4. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...... than 0.001), but 24% of the patients developed slight portal inflammation (p = 0.039) or slight portal fibrosis (p = 0.063). Patients developing portal fibrosis had a higher degree of fatty change at entry (p = 0.029), a more pronounced reduction of fatty change (p = 0.014) and a faster weight loss (p...... = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions....

  5. Identification of random responding on the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R P; Elkins, D E

    1999-12-01

    Although substantial research literature on the effects of random responding on the MMPI-2 exists, there is very limited data available on this issue with the MMPI-A. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of selected MMPI-A validity scales in detecting differences in response patterns between protocols produced by 354 adolescents assessed in clinical settings and a group of 354 randomly produced MMPI-A protocols. Results indicate that MMPI-A validity and basic clinical scales differ significantly between random and clinical groups and that MMPI-A validity Scales F, F1, F2, and VRIN appear to be most useful in correctly identifying protocols from actual clinical participants versus randomly generated response patterns. Findings are discussed in terms of the dramatic effects of the sample base rate for random responding on overall classification accuracy results. Furthermore, it was noted that the optimal cutting scores for MMPI-A Scales F, F1, F2, and VRIN were largely consistent with interpretive recommendations found in the test manual (Butcher et al., 1992) when the relative frequency of random response protocols to clinical protocols was evaluated at a ratio of 1:10. Finally, future recommendations for evaluation of the F1-F2 difference score and the TRIN scale are offered in terms of the most relevant research designs to evaluate these measures.

  6. The Sensitivity of Respondent-driven Sampling Method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xin; Britton, Tom; Camitz, Martin; Kim, Beom Jun; Thorson, Anna; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in many scientific fields make inferences from individuals to larger groups. For many groups however, there is no list of members from which to take a random sample. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new sampling methodology that circumvents this difficulty by using the social networks of the groups under study. The RDS method has been shown to provide unbiased estimates of population proportions given certain conditions. The method is now widely used in the study of HIV-related high-risk populations globally. In this paper, we test the RDS methodology by simulating RDS studies on the social networks of a large LGBT web community. The robustness of the RDS method is tested by violating, one by one, the conditions under which the method provides unbiased estimates. Results reveal that the risk of bias is large if networks are directed, or respondents choose to invite persons based on characteristics that are correlated with the study outcomes. If these two problems are absent, the RD...

  7. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transcription Machinery: Ready To Respond to Host Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentie, Kelly; Garner, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    Regulating responses to stress is critical for all bacteria, whether they are environmental, commensal, or pathogenic species. For pathogenic bacteria, successful colonization and survival in the host are dependent on adaptation to diverse conditions imposed by the host tissue architecture and the immune response. Once the bacterium senses a hostile environment, it must enact a change in physiology that contributes to the organism's survival strategy. Inappropriate responses have consequences; hence, the execution of the appropriate response is essential for survival of the bacterium in its niche. Stress responses are most often regulated at the level of gene expression and, more specifically, transcription. This minireview focuses on mechanisms of regulating transcription initiation that are required by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to respond to the arsenal of defenses imposed by the host during infection. In particular, we highlight how certain features of M. tuberculosis physiology allow this pathogen to respond swiftly and effectively to host defenses. By enacting highly integrated and coordinated gene expression changes in response to stress, M. tuberculosis is prepared for battle against the host defense and able to persist within the human population. PMID:26883824

  9. Perceptions of Hunting and Hunters by U.S. Respondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Byrd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public acceptance of hunting and hunting practices is an important human dimension of wildlife management in the United States. Researchers surveyed 825 U.S. residents in an online questionnaire about their views of hunting, hunters, and hunting practices. Eighty-seven percent of respondents from the national survey agreed that it was acceptable to hunt for food whereas 37% agreed that it was acceptable to hunt for a trophy. Over one-quarter of respondents did not know enough about hunting over bait, trapping, and captive hunts to form an opinion about whether the practice reduced animal welfare. Chi-square tests were used to explore relationships between perceptions of hunters and hunting practices and demographics. Those who knew hunters, participated in hunting-related activities, visited fairs or livestock operations, or were males who had more favorable opinions on hunting. A logistic regression model showed that not knowing a hunter was a statistically significant negative predictor of finding it acceptable to hunt; owning a pet was statistically significant and negative for approving of hunting for a trophy.

  10. Niacin-respondent subset of schizophrenia – a therapeutic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X J; Jiang, G S

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that niacin deficiency manifests with several psychiatric manifestations. Also historically evidence has accumulated that niacin augmentation can be used for treatment of schizophrenia. However, the etiopathological associations between niacin deficiency and schizophrenia as well as the mechanism of action of niacin in its treatment. More importantly, the subgroups of schizophrenia which will respond to niacin augmentation has never been highlighted in the literature. In this article, we review three of the mechanisms in which niacin deficiency could lead to schizophrenic symptoms: (1) Niacin deficiency neurodegeneration (2) Membrane phospholipid deficiency hypothesis and (3) Adrenochrome hypothesis. We will further move towards the clinical as well as treatment related associations as reviewed from the literature. Here, we propose a model that a subset of schizophrenia can respond to niacin augmentation therapy better than other subsets because these patients have contributions in their psychotic manifestations from the neural degeneration resulting from niacin deficiency. We present a short description of our case report which showed rapid improvement in schizophrenic psychotic symptoms subsequent to administration of niacin as an augmentation therapy. We, thus, propose that niacin deficiency is a contributory factor in schizophrenia development in some patients and symptom alleviation in these patients will benefit from niacin augmentation, especially in some particular psychotic features.

  11. Adhesion and migration of cells responding to microtopography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Maruxa; Martínez, Elena; Yarwood, Stephen J; Dalby, Matthew J; Samitier, Josep

    2015-05-01

    It is known that cells respond strongly to microtopography. However, cellular mechanisms of response are unclear. Here, we study wild-type fibroblasts responding to 25 µm(2) posts and compare their response to that of FAK(-/-) fibroblasts and fibroblasts with PMA treatment to stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) and the small g-protein Rac. FAK knockout cells modulated adhesion number and size in a similar way to cells on topography; that is, they used more, smaller adhesions, but migration was almost completely stalled demonstrating the importance of FAK signaling in contact guidance and adhesion turnover. Little similarity, however, was observed to PKC stimulated cells and cells on the topography. Interestingly, with PKC stimulation the cell nuclei became highly deformable bringing focus on these surfaces to the study of metastasis. Surfaces that aid the study of cellular migration are important in developing understanding of mechanisms of wound healing and repair in aligned tissues such as ligament and tendon. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Life Threatening Idiopathic Recurrent Angioedema Responding to Cannabis

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    Amit Frenkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 27-year-old man with recurrent episodes of angioedema since he was 19, who responded well to treatment with medical grade cannabis. Initially, he responded to steroids and antihistamines, but several attempts to withdraw treatment resulted in recurrence. In the last few months before prescribing cannabis, the frequency and severity of the attacks worsened and included several presyncope events, associated with scrotal and neck swelling. No predisposing factors were identified, and extensive workup was negative. The patient reported that he was periodically using cannabis socially and that during these periods he was free of attacks. Recent data suggest that cannabis derivatives are involved in the control of mast cell activation. Consequently, we decided to try a course of inhaled cannabis as modulators of immune cell functions. The use of inhaled cannabis resulted in a complete response, and he has been free of symptoms for 2 years. An attempt to withhold the inhaled cannabis led to a recurrent attack within a week, and resuming cannabis maintained the remission, suggesting a cause and effect relationship.

  13. Using facebook for medical education: will students respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, S

    2015-02-01

    There is little information about the willingness of medical students to participate in Facebook for education. I analyzed my interactions with students for the past 14 months to estimate the quantity of student interaction. A Facebook Group was created. Students friend requests were accepted, but "friending" was never solicited. Questions were created around a clinical situation and posted. Forty questions were posted. 5/40 questions were about physics/chemistry. 24 questions focused on basic medical sciences. 11 questions were primarily about clinical medicine. In fourteen months, 533/810 (66%) college students joined the Group. In all, 163/533 students (30%) responded at least once. Half of all responses were comments; the rest were clicks on the "like" button. The average number of responses was 9.5 unique students/question. If participation is voluntary, and targeted students are large in number, one can expect about 66% of students to become members of a site, and about 30% of these to interact. For any given question posted on the site, about 2% of members will respond, regardless of the nature of question: clinically oriented or basic.

  14. Enabling complex genetic circuits to respond to extrinsic environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Shopera, Tatenda; Hinman, Kristina; Creamer, John Philip; Moon, Tae Seok

    2017-07-01

    Genetic circuits have the potential to improve a broad range of metabolic engineering processes and address a variety of medical and environmental challenges. However, in order to engineer genetic circuits that can meet the needs of these real-world applications, genetic sensors that respond to relevant extrinsic and intrinsic signals must be implemented in complex genetic circuits. In this work, we construct the first AND and NAND gates that respond to temperature and pH, two signals that have relevance in a variety of real-world applications. A previously identified pH-responsive promoter and a temperature-responsive promoter were extracted from the E. coli genome, characterized, and modified to suit the needs of the genetic circuits. These promoters were combined with components of the type III secretion system in Salmonella typhimurium and used to construct a set of AND gates with up to 23-fold change. Next, an antisense RNA was integrated into the circuit architecture to invert the logic of the AND gate and generate a set of NAND gates with up to 1168-fold change. These circuits provide the first demonstration of complex pH- and temperature-responsive genetic circuits, and lay the groundwork for the use of similar circuits in real-world applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1626-1631. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

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    Masse Jeff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days.

  16. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  17. SUBJECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: RELATIONSHIPS RECONSIDERED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

  18. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  19. Faster Forgetting Contributes to Impaired Spatial Memory in the PDAPP Mouse: Deficit in Memory Retrieval Associated with Increased Sensitivity to Interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumas, Stephanie; Sandin, Johan; Chen, Karen S.; Kobayashi, Dione; Tulloch, Jane; Martin, Stephen J.; Games, Dora; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of faster forgetting by PDAPP mice (a well-established model of Alzheimer's disease as reported by Games and colleagues in an earlier paper). Experiment 1, using mice aged 13-16 mo, confirmed the presence of a deficit in a spatial reference memory task in the water maze by hemizygous…

  20. Visual input that matches the content of vist of visual working memory requires less (not faster) evidence sampling to reach conscious access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayet, S.; van Maanen, L.; Heilbron, M.; Paffen, C.L.E.; Van Der Stigchel, S.

    2016-01-01

    The content of visual working memory (VWM) affects the processing of concurrent visual input. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimuli are released from interocular suppression faster when they match rather than mismatch a color that is memorized for subsequent recall. In order to investigate

  1. Evolution and plasticity: Divergence of song discrimination is faster in birds with innate song than in song learners in Neotropical passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Montgomery, Graham A; Schluter, Dolph

    2017-09-01

    Plasticity is often thought to accelerate trait evolution and speciation. For example, plasticity in birdsong may partially explain why clades of song learners are more diverse than related clades with innate song. This "song learning" hypothesis predicts that (1) differences in song traits evolve faster in song learners, and (2) behavioral discrimination against allopatric song (a proxy for premating reproductive isolation) evolves faster in song learners. We tested these predictions by analyzing acoustic traits and conducting playback experiments in allopatric Central American sister pairs of song learning oscines (N = 42) and nonlearning suboscines (N = 27). We found that nonlearners evolved mean acoustic differences slightly faster than did leaners, and that the mean evolutionary rate of song discrimination was 4.3 times faster in nonlearners than in learners. These unexpected results may be a consequence of significantly greater variability in song traits in song learners (by 54-79%) that requires song-learning oscines to evolve greater absolute differences in song before achieving the same level of behavioral song discrimination as nonlearning suboscines. This points to "a downside of learning" for the evolution of species discrimination, and represents an important example of plasticity reducing the rate of evolution and diversification by increasing variability. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Responders to Wide-Pulse, High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Show Reduced Metabolic Demand: A 31P-MRS Study in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wegrzyk

    Full Text Available Conventional (CONV neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES (i.e., short pulse duration, low frequencies induces a higher energetic response as compared to voluntary contractions (VOL. In contrast, wide-pulse, high-frequency (WPHF NMES might elicit--at least in some subjects (i.e., responders--a different motor unit recruitment compared to CONV that resembles the physiological muscle activation pattern of VOL. We therefore hypothesized that for these responder subjects, the metabolic demand of WPHF would be lower than CONV and comparable to VOL. 18 healthy subjects performed isometric plantar flexions at 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction force for CONV (25 Hz, 0.05 ms, WPHF (100 Hz, 1 ms and VOL protocols. For each protocol, force time integral (FTI was quantified and subjects were classified as responders and non-responders to WPHF based on k-means clustering analysis. Furthermore, a fatigue index based on FTI loss at the end of each protocol compared with the beginning of the protocol was calculated. Phosphocreatine depletion (ΔPCr was assessed using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Responders developed four times higher FTI's during WPHF (99 ± 37 × 10(3 N.s than non-responders (26 ± 12 × 10(3 N.s. For both responders and non-responders, CONV was metabolically more demanding than VOL when ΔPCr was expressed relative to the FTI. Only for the responder group, the ∆PCr/FTI ratio of WPHF (0.74 ± 0.19 M/N.s was significantly lower compared to CONV (1.48 ± 0.46 M/N.s but similar to VOL (0.65 ± 0.21 M/N.s. Moreover, the fatigue index was not different between WPHF (-16% and CONV (-25% for the responders. WPHF could therefore be considered as the less demanding NMES modality--at least in this subgroup of subjects--by possibly exhibiting a muscle activation pattern similar to VOL contractions.

  3. Prevention of incorrect responding for establishing instruction following behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, P C

    1981-03-01

    A comparison of two techniques for teaching instruction-following to severely retarded children was the purpose of the present study. The design consisted of a cross-over design involving a cross-over of techniques for each of the three subjects. Within the experimental condition the instructions were presented by physically preventing the subject from making an incorrect response, that is, interrupting an incorrect movement. The results were in favour of the experimental condition in comparison with a trial-and-error approach. The data obtained in this investigation provide further evidence for the notion of errorless-discrimination learning.

  4. High levels of the type III inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) can confer faster cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongsfelt, Iben Boutrup [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Byskov, Kristina [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Lene, E-mail: LP@mb.au.dk [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Hematology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2014-08-01

    The inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 (SLC20A1) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. We recently showed that overexpression of human PiT1 was sufficient to increase proliferation of two strict density-inhibited cell lines, murine fibroblastic NIH3T3 and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, and allowed the cultures to grow to higher cell densities. In addition, upon transformation NIH3T3 cells showed increased ability to form colonies in soft agar. The cellular regulation of PiT1 expression supports that cells utilize the PiT1 levels to control proliferation, with non-proliferating cells showing the lowest PiT1 mRNA levels. The mechanism behind the role of PiT1 in increased cell proliferation is not known. We, however, found that compared to control cells, cultures of NIH3T3 cells overexpressing PiT1 upon seeding showed increased cell number after 24 h and had shifted more cells from G0/G1 to S+G2/M within 12 h, suggesting that an early event may play a role. We here show that expression of human PiT1 in NIH3T3 cells led to faster cell adhesion; this effect was not cell type specific in that it was also observed when expressing human PiT1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also show for NIH3T3 that PiT1 overexpression led to faster cell spreading. The final total numbers of attached cells did, however, not differ between cultures of PiT1 overexpressing cells and control cells of neither cell type. We suggest that the PiT1-mediated fast adhesion potentials allow the cells to go faster out of G0/G1 and thereby contribute to their proliferative advantage within the first 24 h after seeding. - Highlights: • Effects of elevated levels of the inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1 were studied. • The density-inhibited murine cell lines NIH3T3 and MC3T3-E1 showed faster adhesion. • NIH3T3 cells showed faster spreading. • We suggest that the faster adhesion/spreading contributes to faster proliferation.

  5. Television watching increases motivated responding for food and energy intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L; Giacomelli, April M; Kent, Kristine M; Roemmich, James N; Epstein, Leonard H

    2007-02-01

    Sedentary activities, such as watching television, may disrupt habituation to food cues, thereby increasing motivation to eat and energy intake. These experiments were designed to examine the effect of television watching on habituation of ingestive behavior in children. In experiment 1, all children worked for access to cheeseburgers in trials 1-7 (habituating stimulus). In trials 8-10, children in the control group continued to work for cheeseburgers without any dishabituating stimuli, whereas children in the other groups received either a novel food (French fries) or television as dishabituating stimuli. Responding for food and amount of food eaten were measured. In experiment 2, all children had access to 1000 kcal of a preferred snack food. One group watched a continuous television show, and the control groups either watched no television or watched a repeated segment of a television show, which controls for the television stimulus but requires reduced allocation of attention. In experiment 1, both the novel food and the television watching groups reinstated responding for food (P = 0.009) and increased the amount of energy earned (P = 0.018) above the level of the control subjects. In experiment 2, the continuous television group spent more time eating (P television and the repeated segment groups (P = 0.007). These experiments show that television watching can dishabituate eating or disrupt the development of habituation, which may provide a mechanism for increased energy intake associated with watching television.

  6. Plasma cytokine profiles in depressed patients who fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients with depression fail to respond to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Few studies have attempted to define these patients from a biological perspective. Studies suggest that overall patients with depression show increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in patients who were SSRI resistant. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha and sIL-6R were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in DSM-1V major depressives who were SSRI resistant, in formerly SSRI resistant patients currently euthymic and in healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with SSRI-resistant depression had significantly higher production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (p=0.01) and TNF-alpha (p=0.004) compared to normal controls. Euthymic patients who were formerly SSRI resistant had proinflammatory cytokine levels which were similar to the healthy subject group. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels did not differ across the 3 groups. CONCLUSION: Suppression of proinflammatory cytokines does not occur in depressed patients who fail to respond to SSRIs and is necessary for clinical recovery.

  7. Urachal Carcinoma Shares Genomic Alterations with Colorectal Carcinoma and May Respond to Epidermal Growth Factor Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Lorduy, Ana; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Wang, Li; Patel, Vaibhav; Iyer, Gopa; Jordan, Emmet; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Leonard, Issa; Oh, William K; Zhu, Jun; McBride, Russell B; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Solit, David B; Sfakianos, John P; Galsky, Matthew D

    2016-11-01

    Metastatic urachal carcinoma is a rare, understudied, and aggressive malignancy with limited treatment options. Histologically, urachal carcinomas resemble enteric adenocarcinomas and anecdotally respond to systemic therapies utilized in colorectal cancer. Targeted exome sequencing of archival primary tumor tissue from a patient with metastatic urachal cancer revealed EGFR amplification and wild-type KRAS. The patient was treated with cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against EGFR, as a single agent, and achieved a response lasting more than 8 mo. Subsequent whole-exome sequencing revealed no additional alterations likely to be associated with cetuximab sensitivity. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from nine additional urachal cancers were subjected to targeted exome sequencing. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway mutations were found in four of the nine samples, but no EGFR amplification was detected. Importantly, APC mutations were detected in two of the nine patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a response to single-agent cetuximab in a patient with metastatic urachal cancer and of molecular analysis to probe the basis for sensitivity. On the basis of these findings and the histologic, and now genomic, similarities with colorectal cancer, monoclonal antibodies directed at EGFR could be used in the treatment of metastatic urachal cancer. Urachal cancers are morphologically and genomically similar to colon adenocarcinomas and may respond to drugs targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preserved antigen-specific immune response in patients with multiple sclerosis responding to IFNβ-therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Mehling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferon-beta (IFNβ regulates the expression of a complex set of pro- as well as anti-inflammatory genes. In cohorts of MS patients unstratified for therapeutic response to IFNβ, normal vaccine-specific immune responses have been observed. Data capturing antigen-specific immune responses in cohorts of subjects defined by response to IFNβ-therapy are not available. OBJECTIVE: To assess antigen-specific immune responses in a cohort of MS patients responding clinically and radiologically to IFNβ. METHODS: In 26 MS patients, clinical and MRI disease activity were assessed before and under treatment with IFNβ. Humoral and cellular immune response to influenza vaccine was prospectively characterized in these individuals, and 33 healthy controls by influenza-specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Enzyme Linked Immuno Spot Technique (ELISPOT. RESULTS: Related to pre-treatment disease activity, IFNβ reduced clinical and radiological MS disease-activity. Following influenza vaccination, frequencies of influenza-specific T cells and concentrations of anti-influenza A and B IgM and IgG increased comparably in MS-patients and in healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: By showing in a cohort of MS-patients responding to IFNβ vaccine-specific immune responses comparable to controls, this study indicates that antigen-specific immune responses can be preserved under successful IFNβ-therapy.

  9. RESPONDING AND ANALYSING: STAGES OF TEACHING FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR IN INDONESIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Bumela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper offers an alternative to the teaching of a functional grammar course in Indonesian TEFL tertiary level context. An issue raised here is whether the course should directly require students to undertake textual analysis or provide them first with subjective reading experiences.  This issue is inspired by Jones and Lock¹s approach to teaching grammar in context (2011. This paper reports on a study that focused on two related phases of dealing with texts: responding and analyzing.  In the first phase, students were encouraged to take a personalised approach in responding to written English texts.  They had the freedom to decide whether the texts were meaningful for them in certain ways. Mckee (2003 and Lehtonen (2000 posit that as the sole decision maker in meaning negotiation, readers perceive the meaningfulness of texts in very diverse ways. In the second phase of the study, the students undertook an individual analysis of different text types.  This study reveals that a successful textual analysis is determined by how students make sense of the texts. The analysis of context of situation, for example, becomes meaningful to students after they demonstrate a proper position as a reader.  This, in turn, helps them in gaining insights into the structure and grammar of those texts.   Keywords: systemic functional linguistics, genre-based approach, textual analysis

  10. Emotion regulation difficulties in social anxiety disorder and their specific contributions to anxious responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; Rusch, Silke; Lincoln, Tania M

    2015-03-01

    Recent theories emphasize the contribution of emotion regulation (ER) difficulties to psychopathology. The present study sought to identify patterns of ER difficulties in social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to test the predictive value of these difficulties for actual anxious responding during the anticipation of a social evaluative task. Participants diagnosed with SAD (n = 67) and healthy controls (n = 59) completed self-ratings of ER difficulties (DERS) and depressive symptoms. This was followed by the announcement of an impromptu speech. During the anticipation period, subjective ratings of anxiety and arousal were assessed. Compared to healthy controls, SAD participants reported significantly higher levels of ER difficulties. With the exception of "lack of emotional awareness," these differences remained significant when controlling for depression. ER difficulties also contributed to anxious responding during the stress test; but this held true only for nonclinical participants. SAD is characterized by a wide range of ER deficits. However, the associations between ER difficulties and symptoms of anxiety remain poorly understood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Commentary: Considering Assumptions in Associations Between Music Preferences and Empathy-Related Responding

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    Susan A O'Neill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary considers some of the assumptions underpinning the study by Clark and Giacomantonio (2015. Their exploratory study examined relationships between young people's music preferences and their cognitive and affective empathy-related responses. First, the prescriptive assumption that music preferences can be measured according to how often an individual listens to a particular music genre is considered within axiology or value theory as a multidimensional construct (general, specific, and functional values. This is followed by a consideration of the causal assumption that if we increase young people's empathy through exposure to prosocial song lyrics this will increase their prosocial behavior. It is suggested that the predictive power of musical preferences on empathy-related responding might benefit from a consideration of the larger pattern of psychological and subjective wellbeing within the context of developmental regulation across ontogeny that involves mutually influential individual—context relations.

  12. Towards an understanding of resilience: responding to health systems shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Mayhew, Susannah; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Martineau, Frederick; Karanikolos, Marina; Blanchet, Karl; Liverani, Marco; Yei Mokuwa, Esther; McKay, Gillian; Balabanova, Dina

    2018-01-09

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has drawn attention to the role and responsiveness of health systems in the face of shock. It brought into sharp focus the idea that health systems need not only to be stronger but also more 'resilient'. In this article, we argue that responding to shocks is an important aspect of resilience, examining the health system behaviour in the face of four types of contemporary shocks: the financial crisis in Europe from 2008 onwards; climate change disasters; the EVD outbreak in West Africa 2013-16; and the recent refugee and migration crisis in Europe. Based on this analysis, we identify '3 plus 2' critical dimensions of particular relevance to health systems' ability to adapt and respond to shocks; actions in all of these will determine the extent to which a response is successful. These are three core dimensions corresponding to three health systems functions: 'health information systems' (having the information and the knowledge to make a decision on what needs to be done); 'funding/financing mechanisms' (investing or mobilising resources to fund a response); and 'health workforce' (who should plan and implement it and how). These intersect with two cross-cutting aspects: 'governance', as a fundamental function affecting all other system dimensions; and predominant 'values' shaping the response, and how it is experienced at individual and community levels. Moreover, across the crises examined here, integration within the health system contributed to resilience, as does connecting with local communities, evidenced by successful community responses to Ebola and social movements responding to the financial crisis. In all crises, inequalities grew, yet our evidence also highlights that the impact of shocks is amenable to government action. All these factors are shaped by context. We argue that the '3 plus 2' dimensions can inform pragmatic policies seeking to increase health systems resilience. © The Author

  13. Pregabalin in fibromyalgia - responder analysis from individual patient data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paine Jocelyn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population mean changes are difficult to use in clinical practice. Responder analysis may be better, but needs validating for level of response and treatment duration. A consensus group has defined what constitutes minimal, moderate, and substantial benefit based on pain intensity and Patient Global Impression of Change scores. Methods We obtained individual patient data from four randomised double blind trials of pregabalin in fibromyalgia lasting eight to 14 weeks. We calculated response for all efficacy outcomes using any improvement (≥ 0%, minimal improvement (≥ 15%, moderate improvement (≥ 30%, substantial improvement (≥ 50%, and extensive improvement (≥ 70%, with numbers needed to treat (NNT for pregabalin 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg daily compared with placebo. Results Information from 2,757 patients was available. Pain intensity and sleep interference showed reductions with increasing level of response, a significant difference between pregabalin and placebo, and a trend towards lower (better NNTs at higher doses. Maximum response rates occurred at 4-6 weeks for higher levels of response, and were constant thereafter. NNTs (with 95% confidence intervals for ≥ 50% improvement in pain intensity compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 22 (11 to 870 for pregabalin 300 mg, 16 (9.3 to 59 for pregabalin 450 mg, and 13 (8.1 to 31 for pregabalin 600 mg daily. NNTs for ≥ 50% improvement in sleep interference compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 13 (8.2 to 30 for pregabalin 300 mg, 8.4 (6.0 to 14 for pregabalin 450 mg, and 8.4 (6.1 to 14 for pregabalin 600 mg. Other outcomes had fewer respondents at higher response levels, but generally did not discriminate between pregabalin and placebo, or show any dose response. Shorter duration and use of 'any improvement' over-estimated treatment effect compared with longer duration and higher levels of response. Conclusions Responder analysis is useful in fibromyalgia

  14. Look at this: the neural correlates of initiating and responding to bids for joint attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eRedcay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When engaging in joint attention, one person directs another person’s attention to an object (Initiating Joint Attention, IJA, and the second person’s attention follows (Responding to Joint Attention, RJA. As such, joint attention must occur within the context of a social interaction. This ability is critical to language and social development; yet the neural bases for this pivotal skill remain understudied. This paucity of research is likely due to the challenge in acquiring functional MRI data during a naturalistic, contingent social interaction. To examine the neural bases of both IJA and RJA we implemented a dual-video set-up that allowed for a face-to-face interaction between subject and experimenter via video during fMRI data collection. In each trial, participants either followed the experimenter’s gaze to a target (RJA or cued the experimenter to look at the target (IJA. A control condition, solo attention (SA, was included in which the subject shifted gaze to a target while the experimenter closed her eyes. Block and event-related analyses were conducted and revealed common and distinct regions for IJA and RJA. Distinct regions included the ventromedial prefrontal cortex for RJA and intraparietal sulcus and middle frontal gyrus for IJA (as compared to SA. Conjunction analyses revealed overlap in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS for IJA and RJA (as compared to SA for the event analyses. Functional connectivity analyses during a resting baseline suggest joint attention processes recruit distinct but interacting networks, including social-cognitive, voluntary attention orienting, and visual networks. This novel experimental set-up allowed for the identification of the neural bases of joint attention during a real-time interaction and findings suggest that whether one is the initiator or responder, the dMPFC and right pSTS, are selectively recruited during periods of joint

  15. Occupation as a factor of personality subjective wellbeing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetyan L.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines personality subjective well-being and describes its psychological structure, general components and characteristics. An overview of foreign theories and studies on subjective well-being is presented. Correlations among related concepts such as happiness, life satisfaction and subjective well-being are also described. Subjective well-being is seen as a multivariate construction of a stable nature in mobile equilibrium. It is argued that a type of professional activity can have great importance and a positive impact on an individual’s social life, health, identity shaping and psychological wellness. This article’s findings are substantiated by the survey administered to 2229 respondents divided into groups according to their area of business: students, psychologists, doctors, teachers, engineering and technical staff, representatives of service industries, workers, military men, and prisoners. The descriptors identified two types of natures: positive, directed to a person’s inner world (happy, lucky, optimistic and to the outer world (trustworthy, competent, successful, and negative (pessimistic, unhappy, envious. This division of nature type was categorized according to the participants’ subjective well-being index. Empirical evidence has shown that occupational specificity influences a person’s subjective well-being. A substantial difference was found in subjective well-being index of the respondents. A higher index is typical of students and military men. Educators and industrial intelligentsia also demonstrate an increased level of subjective well-being, whereas prisoners tend to have a low level of subjective well-being. The same low index is characteristic of servicing trade representatives and psychologists.

  16. How Biology Teachers Can Respond to Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Teachers of biology and related subjects are increasingly meeting objections from students and their parents to the teaching of evolution and the exclusion of what is called the theory of Intelligent Design. This paper attempts to draw together arguments and evidence which may be used by such teachers. Four lessons are drawn from the 1982…

  17. Geriatric Respondents and Non-Respondents To Probiotic Intervention Can Be Differentiated By Inherent Gut Microbiome Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja eSenan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Probiotic interventions are known to have been shown to influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota in geriatrics. The growing concern is the apparent variation in response to identical strain dosage among human volunteers. One factor that governs this variation is the host gut microbiome. In this study, we attempted to define a core gut metagenome which could act as a predisposition signature marker of inherent bacterial community that can help predict the success of a probiotic intervention. Methods and Results: To characterize the geriatric gut microbiome we designed primers targeting the 16S rRNA hypervariable region V2-V3 followed by semiconductor sequencing using Ion Torrent PGM. Among respondents and non- respondents the chief genera of phylum Firmicutes that showed significant differences are Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Eubacterium, and Blautia (q< 0.002 while in the genera of phylum Proteobacteria included Shigella, Escherichia, Burkholderia and Camphylobacter (q <0.002. Conclusion: We have identified potential microbial biomarkers and taxonomic patterns that correlate with a positive response to probiotic intervention in geriatric volunteers. Future work with larger cohorts of geriatrics with diverse dietary influences could reveal the potential of the signature patterns of microbiota for personalized nutrition.

  18. Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI. As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI. Actually, in it’s implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, among others, were expensive anda require modern infrastructure, require a qualified teacher, SBI criteria and English implementation in education not yet possessed constitutional base. With RSBI it will form a national school with national education standards that have international quality and its graduates are able to compete internationally

  19. Misery loves company: mood-congruent emotional responding to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Patrick G; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Griffith, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    We examined emotional responding to music after mood induction. On each trial, listeners heard a 30-s music excerpt and rated how much they liked it, whether it sounded happy or sad, and how familiar it was. When the excerpts sounded unambiguously happy or sad (Experiment 1), the typical preference for happy-sounding music was eliminated after inducing a sad mood. When the excerpts sounded ambiguous with respect to happiness and sadness (Experiment 2), listeners perceived more sadness after inducing a sad mood. Sad moods had no influence on familiarity ratings (Experiments 1 and 2). These findings imply that "misery loves company." Listeners in a sad mood fail to show the typical preference for happy-sounding music, and they perceive more sadness in music that is ambiguous with respect to mood.

  20. Responding to the refusal of care in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind; Davenport, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The emergency department (ED) serves as the primary gateway for acute care and the source of health care of last resort. Emergency physicians are commonly expected to rapidly assess and treat patients with a variety of life-threatening conditions. However, patients do refuse recommended therapy, even when the consequences are significant morbidity and even mortality. This raises the ethical dilemma of how emergency physicians and ED staff can rapidly determine whether patient refusal of treatment recommendations is based on intact decision-making capacity and how to respond in an appropriate manner when the declining of necessary care by the patient is lacking a basis in informed judgment. This article presents a case that illustrates the ethical tensions raised by the refusal of life-sustaining care in the ED and how such situations can be approached in an ethically appropriate manner.

  1. Respondents, Operants, and Emergents: Toward an Integrated Perspective on Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Daune M.; Washburn, David A.; Hillix, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A triarchic organization of behavior, building on Skinner's description of respondents and operants, is proposed by introducing a third class of behavior called 'emergents.' Emergents are new responses, never specifically reinforced, that require operations more complex than association. Some of these operations occur naturally only in animals above a minimum level of brain complexity, and are developed in an interaction between treatment and organismic variables. (Here complexity is defined in terms of relative levels of hierarchical integration made possible both by the amount of brain, afforded both by brain-body allometric relationships and by encephalization, and, also, the elaboration of dendritic and synaptic connections within the cortex and connections between various parts/regions of the brain.) Examples of emergents are discussed to advance this triarchic view, of behavior. The prime example is language. This triarchic view reflects both the common goals and the cumulative nature of psychological science.

  2. Plants respond to leaf vibrations caused by insect herbivore chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, H M; Cocroft, R B

    2014-08-01

    Plant germination and growth can be influenced by sound, but the ecological significance of these responses is unclear. We asked whether acoustic energy generated by the feeding of insect herbivores was detected by plants. We report that the vibrations caused by insect feeding can elicit chemical defenses. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) rosettes pre-treated with the vibrations caused by caterpillar feeding had higher levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin defenses when subsequently fed upon by Pieris rapae (L.) caterpillars than did untreated plants. The plants also discriminated between the vibrations caused by chewing and those caused by wind or insect song. Plants thus respond to herbivore-generated vibrations in a selective and ecologically meaningful way. A vibration signaling pathway would complement the known signaling pathways that rely on volatile, electrical, or phloem-borne signals. We suggest that vibration may represent a new long distance signaling mechanism in plant-insect interactions that contributes to systemic induction of chemical defenses.

  3. Groupthink: How Should Clinicians Respond to Human Trafficking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, William Polk

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a pervasive problem that exceeds the capacity of social and organizational resources to restrain and for which guidelines are inadequate to assist medical professionals in responding to the special needs of victims when they present as patients. One obstacle to appropriate disagreement with an inadequate status quo is the lure of group cohesion. "Groupthink" is a social psychological phenomenon in which presumed group consensus prevails despite potentially adverse consequences. In the context of the medical response to human trafficking, groupthink may foster complacency, rationalize acquiescence with inaction on the basis of perceived futility, create an illusion of unanimity, and accommodate negative stereotyping. Despite these inhibiting influences, even in apparently futile situations, medical professionals have unique opportunities to be a force for good. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Facing Change in Southeastern North Carolina: How Do We Respond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Hossfeld

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Once referred to as the "vale of humility between two mountains of conceit," North Carolina has transformed itself from its humble origins to a progressive state embracing the new millennium. From the boom of the Research Triangle to the financial banking hub of Charlotte, the state stands out on many indicators of progress, prosperity and leadership. Yet the very problems that have plagued the state for centuries endure, and the residue of these is the very issue Southeastern North Carolinians must address. Persistent poverty, affordable housing, low incomes and enduring racial inequalities are the age-old problems plaguing our region. Coupled with remarkable population growth and a growing immigrant population, the face of Down East is changing – and how we respond is critical to our future. A number of suggestions on economic development for areas of poverty are suggested.

  5. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Properties of solitary tract neurones responding to peripheral arterial chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, J F; Deuchars, J; Li, Y W; Kasparov, S

    2001-01-01

    Despite the highly integrated pattern of response evoked by peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation, limited information exists regarding the neurones within the nucleus of the solitary tract that mediate this reflex. Using a working heart-brainstem preparation, we describe evoked synaptic response patterns, some intrinsic membrane properties, location, morphology and axonal projections of physiologically characterised 'chemoreceptive' neurones located in the solitary tract nucleus in the rat. From 172 whole cell recordings, 56 neurones were identified as chemoreceptive since they responded to aortic injections of low doses of sodium cyanide (2-5 microg). Chemoreceptive neurones had a mean resting membrane potential of -52+/-1 mV and input resistance was 297+/-15 M(Omega) (n=56). Synaptic responses evoked included excitatory synaptic potentials alone, excitatory-inhibitory post-synaptic potential complexes, inhibitory synaptic potentials alone and central respiratory modulated synaptic potentials. Synaptic response latency data were obtained by stimulating electrically the solitary tract: the mean excitatory synaptic latency was 5.2+/-0.4 ms (range 2.5-8.0 ms; n=17). Chemoreceptive neurones showed a heterogeneity in their intrinsic membrane properties: neurones displayed either steady state, augmenting or adapting firing responses to depolarising current injection and, in some neurones, either delayed excitation or rebound activity following hyperpolarising pulses. Eleven chemoreceptive neurones were labelled and provided the first morphological data of these cells. Labelled somata were detected dorsomedial or medial to the solitary tract spanning the obex. Neurones typically had three to eight primary dendrites which often entered the solitary tract as well as extending across the ipsilateral region of the nucleus of the solitary tract. Axons were mostly unmyelinated with boutons of the en passant variety and often ramified within the solitary tract nucleus as well

  7. Freeze-all cycle for all normal responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the freeze-all strategy in subgroups of normal responders, to assess whether this strategy is beneficial regardless of ovarian response, and to evaluate the possibility of implementing an individualized embryo transfer (iET) based on ovarian response. This was an observational, cohort study performed in a private IVF center. A total of 938 IVF cycles were included in this study. The patients were submitted to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and a cleavage-stage day 3 embryo transfer. We performed a comparison of outcomes between the fresh embryo transfer (n = 523) and the freeze-all cycles (n = 415). The analysis was performed in two subgroups of patients based on the number of retrieved oocytes: Group 1 (4-9 oocytes) and Group 2 (10-15 oocytes). In Group 1 (4-9 retrieved oocytes), the implantation rates (IR) were 17.9 and 20.5% (P = 0.259) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively; the ongoing pregnancy rates (OPR) were 31 and 33% (P = 0.577) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively. In Group 2 (10-15 oocytes), the IR were 22.1 and 30.1% (P = 0.028) and the OPR were 34 and 47% (P = 0.021) in the fresh and freeze-all groups, respectively. Although the freeze-all policy may be related to better in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in normal responders, these potential advantages decrease with worsening ovarian response. Patients with poorer ovarian response do not benefit from the freeze-all strategy.

  8. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  9. The Subjective Well-Being of the Homeless, and Lessons for Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas-Diener, Robert; Diener, Ed

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the subjective well-being of a broad spectrum of homeless people. One-hundred-and-eighty-six homeless people from the streets of Calcutta (India), California, and a tent camp in Portland (Oregon) were interviewed, and responded to measures of subjective well-being. They answered questions about life satisfaction,…

  10. Internal and External Factors Shaping Educational Beliefs of High School Teachers of "Sacred" Subjects to Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluz, Shira; Rich, Yisrael

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated pedagogical beliefs of teachers of "sacred" school subjects, curricular topics that the school community deems culturally valued, unassailable and inviolate. Two hundred and fifty-five teachers of girls only who taught sacred or secular subjects in Jewish modern religious high schools responded to questionnaires focusing…

  11. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if

  12. Academic Work—Faster, Higher, Further? On the (Missing Proportion of Work to Spare Time in the (Cultural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Dressel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We make the practices of the academic production of knowledge a subject of critical discussion by focusing on the world of academic work and the academics themselves. Based on interviews with academics in the field of cultural sciences we conclude that with regard to their daily routines, their annual schedules, and their life-courses the so-called private life (family life, leisure time etc. becomes dominated by the social and cultural logics of the working sphere. Although it might appear exaggerated, we will refer to the humanities as a "total institution" which entails social, physical, and mental costs for its "inmates" as well as for those who never managed to become "inmates" (in spite of their efforts and those who don’t belong to the institution any more. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801385

  13. Family Medicine in Croatia: Quality Measured by Patients’ Subjective Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić, Arsen; Stevanović, Ranko; Pristaš, Ivan; Tiljak, Hrvoje; Benković, Vanesa; Krčmar, Nevenka; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jurlina, Nataša; Nott, Teodora

    2007-01-01

    A survey of the subjective assessment of quality in the fi eld of family medicine was conducted on a random sample of 50 family medicine teams distributed proportionally across all Croatian counties, and both rural and urban areas. It measured the satisfaction of insurants/patients, i.e. healthcare service users, on the basis of the completed EUROPEP questionnaire. The survey included 7.271 respondents (the response rate to 15.000 distributed questionnaires was 48.47%). O...

  14. A Longitudinal Item Response Theory Model to Characterize Cognition Over Time in Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkamp, Björn; Krahnke, Tillmann; Mielke, Johanna; Monsch, Andreas; Quarg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    For drug development in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, it is important to understand which cognitive domains carry the most information on the earliest signs of cognitive decline, and which subject characteristics are associated with a faster decline. A longitudinal Item Response Theory (IRT) model was developed for the Basel Study on the Elderly, in which the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease – Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (with additions) and the California Verbal Learning Test were measured on 1,750 elderly subjects for up to 13.9 years. The model jointly captured the multifaceted nature of cognition and its longitudinal trajectory. The word list learning and delayed recall tasks carried the most information. Greater age at baseline, fewer years of education, and positive APOEɛ4 carrier status were associated with a faster cognitive decline. Longitudinal IRT modeling is a powerful approach for progressive diseases with multifaceted endpoints. PMID:28643388

  15. tweezercalib 2.0: Faster version of MatLab package for precise calibration of optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Poul Martin; Tolić-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2006-03-01

    format: tar. gz Nature of physical problem: Calibrate optical tweezers with precision by fitting theory to experimental power spectrum of position of bead doing Brownian motion in incompressible fluid, possibly near microscope cover slip, while trapped in optical tweezers. Thereby determine spring constant of optical trap and conversion factor for arbitrary-units-to-nanometers for detection system. Method of solution: Elimination of cross-talk between quadrant photo-diode's output channels for positions (optional). Check that distribution of recorded positions agrees with Boltzmann distribution of bead in harmonic trap. Data compression and noise reduction by blocking method applied to power spectrum. Full accounting for hydrodynamic effects: Frequency-dependent drag force and interaction with nearby cover slip (optional). Full accounting for electronic filters (optional), for "virtual filtering" caused by detection system (optional). Full accounting for aliasing caused by finite sampling rate (optional). Standard non-linear least-squares fitting. Statistical support for fit is given, with several plots facilitating inspection of consistency and quality of data and fit. Summary of revisions: A faster fitting routine, adapted from [J. Nocedal, Y.x. Yuan, Combining trust region and line search techniques, Technical Report OTC 98/04, Optimization Technology Center, 1998; W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes. The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986], is applied. It uses fewer function evaluations, and the remaining function evaluations have been vectorized. Calls to routines in Toolboxes not included with a standard MatLab license have been replaced by calls to routines that are included in the present package. Fitting parameters are rescaled to ensure that they are all of roughly the same size (of order 1) while being fitted. Generally, the program package has been updated to comply with Mat

  16. The interaction of nicotine withdrawal and panic disorder in the prediction of panic-relevant responding to a biological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyro, Teresa M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    The current investigation evaluated nicotine withdrawal symptoms elicited by 12 hours of smoking deprivation on anxious and fearful responding to bodily sensations among daily smokers with and without panic disorder (PD). It was hypothesized that smokers with PD who were experiencing greater levels of nicotine withdrawal would experience the greatest levels of fearful responding to, and delayed recovery from, a 10% carbon dioxide-enriched air (CO₂) biological challenge procedure. Participants were 58 adults who reported smoking 19.72 cigarettes daily (SD = 7.99). Results indicated that nicotine withdrawal and PD status interacted to predict greater postchallenge panic attack symptoms. Also, individuals with PD initially evidenced a quicker decrease in subjective anxiety following the challenge, but their rate of recovery decelerated over time as compared to those without PD. There was, however, no significant interaction for change in subjective anxiety pre- to postchallenge. Results are discussed in relation to the role of nicotine withdrawal in anxious and fearful responding for smokers with PD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  18. Subjectivity and professional vocational counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marina

    2004-01-01

    In this work, I shall deal with the psychodynamic approach to subjectivity in P.V.C. To this effect, I want to develop the concept of subject and subjectivity, its variation and historical-social construction and its approach in counselling, from a psychodynamic conceptual framework in P.V.C. with a short reference to the theoretical sources on which this approach is founded. Departamento de Psicología

  19. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  20. Responder safety and health: preparing for future disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissman, Dori B; Howard, John

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews lessons learned about managing the safety and health of workers who were involved in disaster response, recovery, and cleanup after the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. The first two sections review ongoing responder health burdens and the tragic toll of this disaster from a worker safety and health perspective. The remaining sections address changes in federal infrastructure, response planning, and resources for protection of response and recovery personnel. Proper preparation includes pre-event and "just-in-time" disaster-worker training on likely hazards, organizational assets for hazard monitoring, and hands-on instruction in the use of assigned protective equipment. Good planning includes predeployment medical review to ensure "fitness for duty" and considers the following: (1) personal risk factors, (2) hazards likely to be associated with particular field locations, and (3) risks involved with assigned tasks (eg, workload and pace, work/rest cycles, available resources, and team/supervisory dynamics). Planning also should address worker health surveillance, medical monitoring, and availability of medical care (including mental health services). Disaster safety managers should anticipate likely hazards within planning scenarios and prepare asset inventories to facilitate making timely safety decisions. Disaster safety management begins immediately and provides ongoing real-time guidance to incident leadership at all levels of government. Robust standards must be met to reliably protect workers/responders. An integrated and measurable multiagency safety management function must be built into the incident command system before an incident occurs. This function delineates roles and responsibilities for rapid exposure assessments, ensuring cross-agency consistency in data interpretation, and timely, effective communication of information and control strategies. The ability to perform this safety management function should be tested and