WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjects read passages

  1. Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

    2005-01-01

    This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

  2. Effects of Repeated Reading and Listening Passage Preview on Oral Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristine D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Conley, Perry

    2017-01-01

    This case study examined the effectiveness of three fluency interventions (i.e., repeated reading, audio listening passage preview and teacher modeled listening passage preview) with a fifth grade student struggling with fluency skills. When compared to baseline, each intervention increased oral reading fluency by the end of the 7 weeks of…

  3. "The Caterpillar": A Novel Reading Passage for Assessment of Motor Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rupal; Connaghan, Kathryn; Franco, Diana; Edsall, Erika; Forgit, Dory; Olsen, Laura; Ramage, Lianna; Tyler, Emily; Russell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A review of the salient characteristics of motor speech disorders and common assessment protocols revealed the need for a novel reading passage tailored specifically to differentiate between and among the dysarthrias (DYSs) and apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: "The Caterpillar" passage was designed to provide a contemporary, easily read,…

  4. Using Necessary Information to Identify Item Dependence in Passage-Based Reading Comprehension Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldonado, Angela Argo; Svetina, Dubravka; Gorin, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Applications of traditional unidimensional item response theory models to passage-based reading comprehension assessment data have been criticized based on potential violations of local independence. However, simple rules for determining dependency, such as including all items associated with a particular passage, may overestimate the dependency…

  5. An Analysis of the Text Complexity of Leveled Passages in Four Popular Classroom Reading Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Yukie; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the complexity of leveled passages used in four classroom reading assessments. A total of 167 passages leveled for Grades 1-6 from these assessments were analyzed using four analytical tools of text complexity. More traditional, two-factor measures of text complexity found a general trend of fairly consistent across-grade…

  6. Reading Passages For The Course Of Semantics: Tests For Students

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara H. Partee; Vinogradova, Olga I.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and describe a teaching tool for linguistics students who are learning English, a tool which furthers their linguistic education at the same time as it gives them some challenging experience with reading practice with the kinds of tests they will encounter in the main international English language examinations, mainly, IELTS and TOEFL, and with English academic writing. The selected reading material introduces the foundations of formal semantics thro...

  7. Acoustic variation during passage reading for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Christina; Tjaden, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic variation in a passage read by speakers with dysarthria and healthy speakers was examined. 15 speakers with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), 12 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 14 healthy speakers were studied. Acoustic variables included measures of global speech timing (e.g., articulation rate, pause characteristics), vocal intensity (e.g., mean sound pressure level and intensity modulation), and segmental articulation (i.e., utterance-level second formant interquartile range (F2 IQR)). Acoustic measures were obtained from three segments operationally defined to represent the beginning, middle, and end of a reading passage. Two speaking conditions associated with common treatment techniques for dysarthria were included for comparison to a habitual speaking condition. These conditions included a slower-than-habitual rate (Slow) and greater-than-habitual intensity (Loud). There was some degree of acoustic variation across the three operationally-defined segments of the reading passage. The Slow, Loud and Habitual conditions yielded comparable characteristics of variation. Patterns of acoustic variation across the three passage segments also were largely similar across speaker groups. Within-task acoustic variation during passage reading should be considered when making decisions regarding speech sampling in clinical practice and research. The contributions of speech disorder severity and linguistic variables to within-task acoustic change warrant further investigation. Readers will be able to (1) discuss the motivation for studying and understanding within-task variation in contextual speech, (2) describe patterns of acoustic variation for speakers with dysarthria and healthy speakers during passage reading, (3) discuss the relationship between non-habitual speaking conditions and within-task variation, (4) understand the need to consider within-speaker, within-task variation in speech sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Haribalan; Jain, Ravi; Douglas, Richard G; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2016-01-01

    .... Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects...

  9. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-12-17

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  10. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective. PMID:26694439

  11. Time Perception in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Interval Length and Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Sara; Guerreiro, Manuela; Chester, Catarina; Silva, Dina; Maroco, João; Coelho, Miguel; Paglieri, Fabio; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may have difficulties in time perception, which in turn might contribute to some of their symptoms, especially memory deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of interval length and subjective passage of time in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. Fifty-five MCI patients and 57 healthy controls underwent an experimental protocol for time perception on interval length, a questionnaire for the subjective passage of time and a neuropsychological evaluation. MCI patients presented no changes in the perception of interval length. However, for MCI patients, time seemed to pass more slowly than it did for controls. This experience was significantly correlated with memory deficits but not with performance in executive tests, nor with complaints of depression or anxiety. Memory deficits do not affect the perception of interval length, but are associated with alterations in the subjective passage of time. (JINS, 2016, 22, 755-764).

  12. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haribalan Kumar

    Full Text Available Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics.

  13. Time perception in mild cognitive impairment: Interval length and subjective passage of time

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Sara; Guerreiro, Manuela; Chester, Catarina Carapeto da Silva; Silva, Dina Lúcia Gomes da, 1981-; Maroco, João; Coelho, Miguel; Paglieri, Fabio; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may have difficulties in time perception, which in turn might contribute to some of their symptoms, especially memory deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of interval length and subjective passage of time in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. Methods: Fifty-five MCI patients and 57 healthy controls underwent an experimental protocol for time perception on interval length, a questionnaire for...

  14. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  15. The emotion potential of words and passages in reading Harry Potter--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M; Citron, Francesca M M; Conrad, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggested that the emotional connotation of single words automatically recruits attention. We investigated the potential of words to induce emotional engagement when reading texts. In an fMRI experiment, we presented 120 text passages from the Harry Potter book series. Results showed significant correlations between affective word (lexical) ratings and passage ratings. Furthermore, affective lexical ratings correlated with activity in regions associated with emotion, situation model building, multi-modal semantic integration, and Theory of Mind. We distinguished differential influences of affective lexical, inter-lexical, and supra-lexical variables: differential effects of lexical valence were significant in the left amygdala, while effects of arousal-span (the dynamic range of arousal across a passage) were significant in the left amygdala and insula. However, we found no differential effect of passage ratings in emotion-associated regions. Our results support the hypothesis that the emotion potential of short texts can be predicted by lexical and inter-lexical affective variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Normal movement reading in Asperger subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avikainen, S; Kulomäki, T; Hari, R

    1999-11-26

    Patients with autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) are impaired in mindreading and imitation skills. One possibility would be that their 'mirror neuron' system, which matches action execution and observation, does not function properly. To test this hypothesis we compared action-viewing related motor cortex functions in an AS group (one autistic and four AS subjects) and eight control subjects. In both groups viewing hand actions modified the neuromagnetic approximately 20 Hz oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex to the same extent. Thus impaired mindreading and imitation skills found in AS and autism do not seem to result from dysfunction of the motor cortex part of the action execution/observation system.

  17. Lip-reading abilities in a subject with congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathour, J; Decat, M; Vander Linden, F; Deggouj, N

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of an individual with congenital prosopagnosia or "face blindness", a disorder where the ability to recognize faces is impaired. We studied the lip-reading ability and audiovisual perception of this subject using a DVD with four conditions (audiovisual congruent, auditory, visual, and audiovisual incongruent) and compared results with a normal patient cohort. The patient had no correct responses in the visual lip-reading task; whereas, he improved in the audiovisual congruent task. In the audiovisual incongruent task, the patient provided one response; thus, he was able to lip-read. (He was able to use lip-reading/to use labial informations) This patient perceived only global dynamic facial movements, not the fine ones. He had a sufficient complementary use of lip-reading in audiovisual tasks, but not visual ones. These data are consistent with abnormal development of the pathways used for visual speech perception and associated with second-order face processing disorders and normal development of the audiovisual network for speech perception.

  18. Gender differences in implicit and explicit memory for affective passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Leslie A; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was repeated three times, and alternated with other previously unread passages. The Implicit Affective and Neutral passages had strong affective or neutral content, respectively. The Explicit Tasks were administered at the end of testing, and consisted of multiple choice questions regarding the passages. Priming effects in terms of more rapid reading speed for the target compared to non-target passages were seen for both the Implicit Affective Task and the Implicit Neutral Task. Overall reading speed was faster for the passages with neutral compared to affective content, consistent with studies of the emotional Stroop effect. For the Explicit memory tasks, overall performance was better on the items from the repeated passage, and on the Affective compared to Neutral Task. The male subjects showed greater priming for affective material than female subjects, and a greater gain than female subjects in explicit memory for affective compared to neutral material.

  19. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter......-individual scatter was pronounced and unpredictable from the hypertensive organ damages. It is argued, that home readings should be used to greater extent in the evaluation of patients with hypertension....

  20. Monocular and binocular reading performance in subjects with normal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan; Pansell, Tony; Ygge, Jan; Seimyr, Gustaf Öqvist

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that problems with binocular vision can cause issues for reading; less known is to what extent binocular vision improves reading performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of binocularity by directly comparing monocular and binocular reading in subjects with typical reading skills and normal binocular vision. A secondary purpose was to assess any asymmetry in monocular performance and its association with the sighting dominant eye. In a balanced repeated measures experiment, 18 subjects read paragraphs of text under monocular and binocular conditions. All subjects went through an optometric examination before inclusion. Reading speed and eye movements were recorded with an eye tracker. The mean difference in reading speed (2.1 per cent) between monocular (dominant and non-dominant eye averaged) and binocular reading speed was not significant. A significant difference in reading speed was found between binocular and the non-dominant eye, as determined by the far sighting test (p = 0.03). Monocular reading showed significantly increased (8.9 per cent) fixation duration (p binocular vision, there is no marked enhancement in reading performance by binocular vision when reading paragraphs of text. Furthermore, the monocular reading performance appears to be close to equal and any small differences in performance appear not to be strongly associated with ocular dominance. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  1. Increasing Elementary-Aged Students' Reading Fluency with Small-Group Interventions: A Comparison of Repeated Reading, Listening Passage Preview, and Listening Only Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeny, John C.; Krouse, Hailey E.; Ross, Sarah G.; Mitchell, R. Courtney

    2009-01-01

    Although reading fluency is one of the five essential early-reading skills students must develop, many elementary-aged students in the United States do not read age-appropriate material fluently. As such, small-group interventions are practical and often more time efficient than individualized interventions aimed to address this problem. However,…

  2. Soil conservation under climate change: use of recovery biomasses on agricultural soil subjected to the passage of agricultural machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonzoli, S.; Beni, C.; Servadio, P.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass administration is a good practice to preserve the soil fertility in climate change conditions. A test regarding the use of compost derived by wine distillation residues was conducted in the coastal area sited west of Rome, on a sandy soil in continuous cropping with carrot, two cycles per year, with a consequent deep environmental impact. The soil was fertilized with different systems: T = unfertilized soil; F = fertigation 200 kg N ha-1; FC = fertigation 100 kg N ha-1 plus half agronomic dose of compost 4 t ha-1; C2 = double compost dose 16 t ha-1; C4 = quadruple compost dose 32 t ha-1. The functional qualities of the soil, subjected to the passage of agricultural machineries, were determined through the following parameters: bulk density, shear strength, water infiltration rate, organic matter and nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity. At the summer harvest, yield of carrots, their sugar content, firmness and nutrients concentration were determined. The plots only amended (C2 and C4), compared to other treatments, presented lower bulk density (1.36 and 1.28 Mg m-3 respectively), higher shear strength (9 and 8 kPa respectively), as well as increased hydraulic conductivity. In these treatments (C2 and C4), in addition, occurred a higher content of organic matter (0.95 and 1.07% respectively) and nitrogen (0.11 and 0.12% respectively) and increased CEC (541 and 556 respectively) respect to the T treatment that was 521 meq 100g-1. In plots T and F, the organic matter content was reduced at the end of the field test. The yield of carrots increased in FC, C2, and C4, compared to the other treatments. In plots C4, however, morphological changes were induced in approximately 30% of tap-roots, due to the excessive compost dose. In treatments C2 and C4 was observed a reduction of the concentration of Na in the roots, as opposed to the higher concentration of Ca and K and trace elements. The administration of compost has also induced the increase of soluble

  3. The Relationship between Phonological Features in Oral Reading and Reading Comprehension of Black West Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundre, Donna; Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated the relationship between phonological features in the oral reading of black West Indians and their reading comprehension. Subjects were 54 college students at the College of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas. Each subject was recorded reading two passages and completed two cloze tests. The tapes then were analyzed for nine…

  4. Effects of Chunked Reading among Learning Disabled Students: An Experimental Comparison of Computer and Traditional Chunked Passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clifton A.

    1989-01-01

    This study compared the effects of chunking sentences on the retention and comprehension of two groups of learning disabled high school students, who received chunked reading via computer assisted instruction (CAI) or traditional methods. Both experimental groups performed better on the posttest than the control group, who received CAI without…

  5. Reading in schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eryl O; Proudlock, Frank A; Martin, Kate; Reveley, Michael A; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated eye movement abnormalities during smooth pursuit and antisaccadic tasks in schizophrenia. However, eye movements have not been investigated during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives show eye movement abnormalities during reading. Reading rate, number of saccades per line, amplitudes of saccades, percentage regressions (reverse saccades), and fixation durations were measured using an eye tracker (EyeLink, SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany) in 38 schizophrenic volunteers, 14 nonaffected first-degree relatives, and 57 control volunteers matched for age and National Adult Reading Test scores. Parameters were examined when volunteers read full pages of text and text was limited to progressively smaller viewing areas around the point of fixation using a gaze-contingent window. Schizophrenic volunteers showed significantly slower reading rates (P = .004), increase in total number of saccades (P ≤ .001), and a decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .025) while reading. Relatives showed a significant increase in total number of saccades (P = .013) and decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .020). Limitation of parafoveal information by reducing the amount of visible characters did not change the reading rate of schizophrenics but controls showed a significant decrease in reading rate with reduced parafoveal information (P reading of schizophrenic volunteers and their first-degree relatives suggest that visual integration of foveal and parafoveal information may be reduced in schizophrenia. Reading abnormalities in relatives suggest a genetic influence in reading ability in schizophrenia and rule out confounding effects of medication.

  6. Does Computer Screen Color Affect Reading Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausing, Carolyn S.; Schmitt, Dorren R.

    A study investigated differences in reading rate and comprehension scores of 8th grade students on a cloze reading exercise involving the reading of a cloze passage from 10 different modes of text presentation (8 different computer screen formats and 2 different paper formats). Subjects, 300 students in computer literacy classes from 7 schools in…

  7. Description and Validation of a Test to Evaluate Sustained Silent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramulu, Pradeep Y.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Jefferys, Joan L.; Rubin, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To construct and validate a test of sustained silent reading. Methods. Standardized 7300 and 7600 word passages were written to evaluate sustained silent reading. Two hundred forty subjects validated whether comprehension questions could discriminate subjects who did and did not read the passage. To evaluate test–retest properties, 49 subjects silently read the standardized passages on separate days. Sixty glaucoma suspect controls and 64 glaucoma subjects had their out loud reading evaluated with the MNRead card and an International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) passage, and their silent reading measured using the 7300 word passage. Sustained silent reading parameters included reading speed and reading speed slope over time. Results. Comprehension questions distinguished individuals who had and had not read passage materials. Bland-Altman analyses of intersession sustained reading speed and reading speed slope demonstrated 95% coefficients of repeatability of 57 words per minute (wpm) and 2.76 wpm/minute. Sustained silent reading speed was less correlated with MNRead (r = 0.59) or IReST passage (r = 0.68) reading speeds than the correlation of these two measures of out loud reading speed with each other (r = 0.72). Sustained silent reading speed was more likely to differ from IReST reading speed by more than 50% in rapid silent readers (odds ratio [OR] = 29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10–87), and comparisons of sustained and out loud reading speeds demonstrated proportional error in Bland-Altman analyses. Conclusions. Tests of out loud reading do not accurately reflect silent reading speed in individuals with normal vision or glaucoma. The described test offers a standardized way to evaluate the impact of eye disease and/or visual rehabilitation on sustained silent reading. PMID:23258146

  8. Description and validation of a test to evaluate sustained silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramulu, Pradeep Y; Swenor, Bonnielin K; Jefferys, Joan L; Rubin, Gary S

    2013-01-23

    To construct and validate a test of sustained silent reading. Standardized 7300 and 7600 word passages were written to evaluate sustained silent reading. Two hundred forty subjects validated whether comprehension questions could discriminate subjects who did and did not read the passage. To evaluate test-retest properties, 49 subjects silently read the standardized passages on separate days. Sixty glaucoma suspect controls and 64 glaucoma subjects had their out loud reading evaluated with the MNRead card and an International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) passage, and their silent reading measured using the 7300 word passage. Sustained silent reading parameters included reading speed and reading speed slope over time. Comprehension questions distinguished individuals who had and had not read passage materials. Bland-Altman analyses of intersession sustained reading speed and reading speed slope demonstrated 95% coefficients of repeatability of 57 words per minute (wpm) and 2.76 wpm/minute. Sustained silent reading speed was less correlated with MNRead (r = 0.59) or IReST passage (r = 0.68) reading speeds than the correlation of these two measures of out loud reading speed with each other (r = 0.72). Sustained silent reading speed was more likely to differ from IReST reading speed by more than 50% in rapid silent readers (odds ratio [OR] = 29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10-87), and comparisons of sustained and out loud reading speeds demonstrated proportional error in Bland-Altman analyses. Tests of out loud reading do not accurately reflect silent reading speed in individuals with normal vision or glaucoma. The described test offers a standardized way to evaluate the impact of eye disease and/or visual rehabilitation on sustained silent reading.

  9. Effects of Studying to Music and Post-Study Relaxation on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Ptasnik, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Twenty female and 20 male college students studied a passage in quiet surroundings or while listening to preferred music and then either relaxed or read unrelated material. Reading comprehension of the passage was facilitated by silent study for subjects who seldom listen to music and by poststudy relaxation. (Author)

  10. The Influence of Psychophysiological Variables on Aged Subjects' Functional Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Terry

    A study investigated the effects of selected psychophysiological factors known to affect cognitive functioning on the reading achievement of older adults. The subjects, 34 noninstitutionalized adults ranging in age from 50 to 88 years, completed measures of (1) self-reported mental and physical health, (2) nonverbal intelligence, (3) reading…

  11. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  12. Oral reading fluency analysis in patients with Alzheimer disease and asymptomatic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; García-Sevilla, J; Carro, J; Arana, J M

    2013-01-01

    Many studies highlight that an impaired ability to communicate is one of the key clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study temporal organisation of speech in an oral reading task in patients with AD and in matched healthy controls using a semi-automatic method, and evaluate that method's ability to discriminate between the 2 groups. A test with an oral reading task was administered to 70 subjects, comprising 35 AD patients and 35 controls. Before speech samples were recorded, participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. There were no differences between groups with regard to age, sex, or educational level. All of the study variables showed impairment in the AD group. According to the results, AD patients' oral reading was marked by reduced speech and articulation rates, low effectiveness of phonation time, and increases in the number and proportion of pauses. Signal processing algorithms applied to reading fluency recordings were shown to be capable of differentiating between AD patients and controls with an accuracy of 80% (specificity 74.2%, sensitivity 77.1%) based on speech rate. Analysis of oral reading fluency may be useful as a tool for the objective study and quantification of speech deficits in AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The interpupillary distance in adult Caucasian subjects, with reference to 'readymade' reading spectacle centration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Jonathan S

    2012-07-01

    The magnitude of the far interpupillary distance (FIPD) has recognized significance within and beyond clinical optometry. Quantitative information regarding the lesser-reported near parameter (NIPD) would similarly be of interest, and could be of relevance with regard to the visual comfort obtained with 'readymade' reading spectacles. Mensuration statistics relating to the FIPD and NIPD are presented, as collated from the spectacle dispensing records of n = 1354 healthy Caucasian presbyopic subjects. The FIPD data were partitioned across 4 age bands (by decade, 41-80 years of age): the NIPD data were distributed across seven nominal reading powers (in 0.50 D steps, +1.00 to +4.00 D). The results of these analyses are considered here, along with their potential application. Consistent gender (male > female) and classification (far > near) differences in IPD (both of approximately 3 mm) were confirmed throughout these data. The magnitude of the adult FIPD is in accord with previously published results; this dimension is now supplemented by NIPD values, whose relationship with total near power is also described. This new anthropometric survey indicates that inter- and intra-gender interocular facial measurement stability is a characteristic of presbyopic subjects. It is suggested that across the anticipated range of age and total reading power requirement of Caucasian (White Northern European) wearers of 'readymade' reading spectacles, adoption of a standard optical centration distance of 61 mm would be universally appropriate. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  14. Inter-subject variability in the use of two different neuronal networks for reading aloud familiar words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, M L; Lee, H L; Schofield, T; Ellis, C L; Price, C J

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive models of reading predict that high frequency regular words can be read in more than one way. We investigated this hypothesis using functional MRI and covariance analysis in 43 healthy skilled readers. Our results dissociated two sets of regions that were differentially engaged across subjects who were reading the same familiar words. Some subjects showed more activation in left inferior frontal and anterior occipito-temporal regions while other subjects showed more activation in right inferior parietal and left posterior occipito-temporal regions. To explore the behavioural correlates of these systems, we measured the difference between reading speed for irregularly spelled words relative to pseudowords outside the scanner in fifteen of our subjects and correlated this measure with fMRI activation for reading familiar words. The faster the lexical reading the greater the activation in left posterior occipito-temporal and right inferior parietal regions. Conversely, the slower the lexical reading the greater the activation in left anterior occipito-temporal and left ventral inferior frontal regions. Thus, the double dissociation in irregular and pseudoword reading behaviour predicted the double dissociation in neuronal activation for reading familiar words. We discuss the implications of these results which may be important for understanding how reading is learnt in childhood or re-learnt following brain damage in adulthood.

  15. DISGNOSIS BABEL AND SCHOOL INCLUSION OF SUBJECTS WITH AUTISM AND CHILD PSYCHOSIS: ACTS OF A READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vasques

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This text addresses the schooling of children and adolescents with serious developmental impairment or with atypical structuring, such as autism or psychosis. That field is vast and complex, the perspective adopted builds on Freud-lacanian psychoanalysis, philosophical-hermeneutics, special education and inclusive processes. Specifically, a reflection is posed on the place the diagnosis has in the construction of (impossibilities within school based on the analysis of academic and scientific production on the issue for the past 28 years. The proposition is that diagnosis in central in the establishment of educational pathways for such subjects. Diagnosis is often identified as an act of unveiling and/or decoding. From another perspective, it is defended that the relationship diagnosis-schooling implies the construction of a reading, the invention of possibilities. As it is not possible to determine the veracity of diverse theories, a schooling process includes constitutive unknowing. As there is no path pre-established guaranteed and anticipated bythe diagnosis, teachers and school are responsible for their choices aiming their students school experience. Thus, the basis of their action is ethics, not a method or technique. As a metaphor of the interpretative work. I present the image of a library that is constructed, offers, inscribes and subscribes to the meeting between text and reader. Placing the library as a privileged space of such argumentation implies in taking language and reading as the center of discussions. It is a displacement of the focus of attention of the subject with autism or psychosis to the teacher, the other, who reads, interprets and builds schooling (inpossibilities. Key words: Autism; Child psychosis; Diagnosis; School inclusion.

  16. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Kretzschmar

    Full Text Available In the rapidly changing circumstances of our increasingly digital world, reading is also becoming an increasingly digital experience: electronic books (e-books are now outselling print books in the United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, many readers still view e-books as less readable than print books. The present study thus used combined EEG and eyetracking measures in order to test whether reading from digital media requires higher cognitive effort than reading conventional books. Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded. The results of a debriefing questionnaire replicated previous findings in that participants overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the two electronic devices as their preferred reading medium. Online measures, by contrast, showed shorter mean fixation durations and lower EEG theta band voltage density--known to covary with memory encoding and retrieval--for the older adults when reading from a tablet computer in comparison to the other two devices. Young adults showed comparable fixation durations and theta activity for all three devices. Comprehension accuracy did not differ across the three media for either group. We argue that these results can be explained in terms of the better text discriminability (higher contrast produced by the backlit display of the tablet computer. Contrast sensitivity decreases with age and degraded contrast conditions lead to longer reading times, thus supporting the conclusion that older readers may benefit particularly from the enhanced contrast of the tablet. Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices.

  17. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Pleimling, Dominique; Hosemann, Jana; Füssel, Stephan; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In the rapidly changing circumstances of our increasingly digital world, reading is also becoming an increasingly digital experience: electronic books (e-books) are now outselling print books in the United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, many readers still view e-books as less readable than print books. The present study thus used combined EEG and eyetracking measures in order to test whether reading from digital media requires higher cognitive effort than reading conventional books. Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded. The results of a debriefing questionnaire replicated previous findings in that participants overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the two electronic devices as their preferred reading medium. Online measures, by contrast, showed shorter mean fixation durations and lower EEG theta band voltage density--known to covary with memory encoding and retrieval--for the older adults when reading from a tablet computer in comparison to the other two devices. Young adults showed comparable fixation durations and theta activity for all three devices. Comprehension accuracy did not differ across the three media for either group. We argue that these results can be explained in terms of the better text discriminability (higher contrast) produced by the backlit display of the tablet computer. Contrast sensitivity decreases with age and degraded contrast conditions lead to longer reading times, thus supporting the conclusion that older readers may benefit particularly from the enhanced contrast of the tablet. Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices.

  18. Analysis of Blink Rate Variability during reading and memory testing

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrehiwot, Temesgen; Paprocki, Rafal; Lenskiy, Artem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigated how statistical properties of the blink rate variability changes during two mental tasks: reading a passage and memory testing. To construct time series of inter-blink intervals (blink rate variability) we detected exact blink time in EEG recordings using our blink detection algorithm. We found that among 13 subjects, all subjects blinked less during reading session. Moreover, standard deviation of the blink rate variability is higher during reading. Thus, we con...

  19. Different alternative splicing patterns are subject to opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Trees-Juen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing (AS has been regarded capable of altering selection pressure on protein subsequences. Particularly, the frequency of reading frame preservation (FRFP, as a measure of selection pressure, has been reported to be higher in alternatively spliced exons (ASEs than in constitutively spliced exons (CSEs. However, recently it has been reported that different ASE types – simple and complex ASEs – may be subject to opposite selection forces. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate the evolutionary effects of such splicing patterns on frame preservation. Results Here we show that simple and complex ASEs, respectively, have higher and lower FRFPs than CSEs. Since complex ASEs may alter the ends of their flanking exons, the selection pressure on frame preservation is likely relaxed in this ASE type. Furthermore, conservation of the ASE/CSE splicing pattern increases the FRFPs of simple ASEs but decreases those of complex ASEs. Contrary to the well-recognized concept of strong selection pressure on conserved ASEs for protein reading frame preservation, our results show that conserved complex ASEs are relaxed from such pressure and the frame-disrupting effect caused by the insertion of complex ASEs can be offset by compensatory changes in their flanking exons. Conclusion In this study, we find that simple and complex ASEs undergo opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation, with CSEs in-between. Simple ASEs have much higher FRFPs than complex ones. We further find that the FRFPs of complex ASEs coupled with flanking exons are close to those of simple ASEs, indicating that neighboring exons of an ASE may evolve in a coordinated way to avoid protein dysfunction. Therefore, we suggest that evolutionary analyses of AS should take into consideration the effects of different splicing patterns and the joint effects of multiple AS events.

  20. Reading virtual slide using web viewers: results of subjective experience with three different solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marcial García; Gallardo, Antonio J; González, Lucía; Peces, Carlos; Murillo, Cristina; González, Jesús; Sacristán, Jose

    2008-07-15

    Virtual slides are viewed using interactive software that enables the user to simulate the behaviour of a conventional optical microscope, like adjusting magnifications and navigating to any portion of the image. Nowadays, information about the performance and features of web-based solutions for reading slides in real environments is still scarce. The objective of this study is analyzing the subjective experience of pathologists with virtual slides, comparing the time needed to read slides using different web viewers and different network connections. Eight slides were randomly selected (4 biopsies and 2 cytologies) from Hospital General de Ciudad Real (HGCR) archives. Three different virtual slide web-viewing solutions were analyzed: Aperio web server, Olympus NetImage Server, and Aurora mScope. Five pathologists studied to time needed to access images of each virtual slide, selecting a panoramic view, 10 low magnification fields, and 20 high magnification fields. Aperio viewer is very efficient in overview images. Aurora viewer is especially efficient in lower magnifications (10x). For larger magnifications (20x and 40x) no significant differences were found between different vendors. Olympus was found to be the most user-friendly interface. When comparing Internet with intranet connections, despite being slower, users also felt comfortable using virtual slides through Internet connection. Available web solutions for virtual slides have different advantages, mainly in functionalities and optimization for different magnifications. Pathologists should select the solutions adapted to their needs.

  1. Subvocal speech, reading rate, and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, A R

    1996-06-01

    The relationship of subvocal speech and reading rate to comprehension of 25 children, ranging from 8 to 15 years of age, was investigated by means of electromyographic (EMG) recordings taken while the subjects silently read two meaningful passages. The first was orthographically regular, and the second was composed of approximately sixty percent homophones, Labial muscle action recordings, latencies, and comprehension measures were obtained. Variables derived from these measures were used to predict reading age. Profiles derived from the EMGs provided information about how each reader processed the information from the reading passages. The empirical results of the study provide strong support for the valuable role of subvocal speech in the extraction of information and the importance of readers demonstrating the ability to use flexibility of the reading process when reading for meaning.

  2. Reading the Club as Colonial Island in E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India and George Orwell’s Burmese Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Crane

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the “island effect” in two enormously influential colonial fictions published in the final decades of the British Empire in India. Through a detailed analysis of the Club scene in Forster’s A Passage to India (1924 and Orwell’s pervasive use of the Kyauktada Club in Burmese Days (1934, this paper brings critical focus to the phenomenon of the Club in British India. It explores the way the Club functions as an ‘island’ microcosm within a larger framework of colonial isolation, and the way intimate colonial relations prevail within its walls and sustain an isolated community which fears for its survival outside its enclosing border.

  3. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as a subject of flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  4. Effects of Motivation, Subject Activity, and Readability on the Retention of Prose Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Warren; Schumacher, Gary M.

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates read a prose passage and were tested on its contents. Difficulty, permission to underline key phrases, and financial motivation were varied. Non-highly motivated subjects performed better on the easy version; underlining aided highly motivated subjects and those reading the difficult version. (Author/RD)

  5. The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varao Sousa, Trish L.; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Smilek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: (1) reading a passage aloud, (2) listening to a passage being read to them, and (3) reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage participants also rated how interesting it was and completed a content recognition test. Results showed that reading aloud led to the least amount of mind wandering, while listening to the passage led to the most mind wandering. Listening to the passage was also associated with the poorest memory performance and the least interest in the material. Finally, within the silent reading and listening encounters we observed negative relations between mind wandering and both memory performance and interest in the material, replicating previous findings. Taken together, the present findings improve our understanding of the nature of mind wandering while reading, and have potentially important implications for readers seeking to take advantage of the convenience of audiobooks and podcasts. PMID:24348444

  6. Passage of chloroquine into semen.

    OpenAIRE

    Ette, E I; Ogonor, J I; Essien, E E

    1988-01-01

    The passage of chloroquine into semen was investigated in four healthy men following the oral administration of four chloroquine sulphate tablets (600 mg base) to each subject. Chloroquine was found to be excreted into semen with a slow transfer rate constant of 0.0002 min-1, and the semen/plasma ratio based on regression analysis was 0.40 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- s.d.). It is concluded that the passage of chloroquine from plasma to semen occurs by passive diffusion.

  7. Reading Comprehension, Extended Processing and Attention Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; Stolzenberg, Jonathan

    This study investigated the role of executive function in children with attention deficit disorders (ADD) by comparing differences resulting when diagnostic measures of reading comprehension consisting of either short or long passages were used. Subjects (all in grades 1-12) were grouped as having an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and not taking…

  8. Comparison of textbook passages, nonfiction trade book passages and fiction trade book passages as instructional tools for learning science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    This study examined the impact of different types of text on student achievement in elementary school science. Gender was also examined to see if the type of text passage read had any differential effect on boys' and girls' achievement. This study was a pretest/posttest/retention test design. Eighty-four fourth grade students from a public charter elementary school in South Florida were randomly assigned a passage from a physical science textbook, a physical science nonfiction trade book, a physical science fiction trade book, a biological science textbook or a biological science nonfiction trade book. Results in the physical science content area revealed that students in the textbook passage group had higher posttest and retention test results than students in the nonfiction and fiction trade book passage groups. There was no difference on the posttest results of students in the biological science textbook and nonfiction trade book passage groups. Students in the biological science textbook passage group had higher retention results than students in the biological science nonfiction passage group. Gender results in the physical science content area revealed that boys had a higher retention score than girls in the fiction trade book passage group. There were no gender achievement differences as a result of the text passage read in the biological science content area. It was concluded that no definitive answer as to the efficacy of textbooks versus trade books was possible based upon results of the study. Recommendations for future research include examining the effects of different types of texts in conjunction with other authentic teaching methods.

  9. The relative effects of reading interventions on reading and understanding from science text for high school students with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kathleen Louise

    High school teachers require their students to gain information independently from text; however, up to 40% of high school students are unable to do so. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the need for teaching reading at the secondary level. Twenty tenth-graders with learning disabilities participated in this study. The independent variable was the type of reading intervention: text reading, vocabulary learning, a combination or text reading and vocabulary learning, and no intervention. The dependent variables were reading fluency, vocabulary knowledge, and science knowledge. Student participants were assigned to conditions in a counter-balanced order using a within-subject design, and passages were coupled with intervention so that each passage appeared equally across interventions. Instructional reading passages were taken from a standard biology text, and treatment was conducted on these passages only. Two weeks following treatment, measures on generalization passages were taken. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results from this study could have implications in furthering the body of research for teaching reading to adolescents.

  10. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we asses...

  11. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  12. Reading speed does not benefit from increased line spacing in AMD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L; Jarvis, Samuel H; Woo, Stanley Y; Hanson, Kara; Jose, Randall T

    2008-09-01

    Crowding, the adverse spatial interaction due to the proximity of adjacent targets, has been suggested as an explanation for slow reading in peripheral vision. Previously, we showed that increased line spacing, which presumably reduces crowding between adjacent lines of text, improved reading speed in the normal periphery (Chung, Optom Vis Sci 2004;81:525-35). The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not individuals with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) would benefit from increased line spacing for reading. Experiment 1: Eight subjects with AMD read aloud 100-word passages rendered at five line spacings: the standard single spacing, 1.5x, 2x, 3x, and 4x the standard spacing. Print sizes were 1x and 2x of the critical print size. Reading time and number of reading errors for each passage were measured to compute the reading speed. Experiment 2: Four subjects with AMD read aloud sequences of six 4-letter words, presented on a computer monitor using the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Target words were presented singly, or flanked above and below by two other words that changed in synchrony with the target word, at various vertical word separations. Print size was 2x the critical print size. Reading speed was calculated based on the RSVP exposure duration that yielded 80% of the words read correctly. Averaged across subjects, reading speeds for passages were virtually constant for the range of line spacings tested. For sequences of unrelated words, reading speeds were also virtually constant for the range of vertical word separations tested, except at the smallest (standard) separation at which reading speed was lower. Contrary to the previous finding that reading speed improved in normal peripheral vision, increased line spacing in passages, or increased vertical separation between words in RSVP, did not lead to improved reading speed in people with AMD.

  13. Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

  14. Subjectivity and Ideological Interpellation: An Althusserian Reading of Bozorg Alavi’s Her Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktiar Sadjadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to critically investigate Bozorg Alavi’s celebrated Persian novel, Čašmhāyaš (Her Eyes, in terms of Louis Althusser’s concepts of ideology, interpellation and, most significantly, the subject/Subject model. Althusser developed the notion of ‘interpellation,’ that is the procedure through which individuals become subjects by what he called Ideological State Apparatuses. Accordingly, there exist ‘subjects’ and ‘the Subject’ at work precisely in the way ‘ideologies’ and ‘Ideology’ are present in the process of subjectivization. The subject is the individual who turns into being interpellated whereas the Subject is required by ideology. Bozorg Alavi’s Her Eyes, considered as chef-d’oeuvre in the realm of modern Persian realist fiction, portrays a protagonist who is wholeheartedly attached to his ideological Cause, a character who dedicated his whole life to socialist ideals. Alavi’s masterful depiction of the protagonist, Master Makan, and other major characters including Farangis in particular, demonstrates the way individuals are both consciously and unconsciously recruited by ideology, a process through which the subjects attempt to impersonate the Subject. Structurally, the ideological devotion in the protagonist, here to the communist Tudeh Party, entangles the subjects with a closed domain in a destructive manner that leads to their downfall.

  15. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  16. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Dysli

    Full Text Available Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls.Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus.Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades.Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity might be the primary causes for reading impairment.

  17. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Muriel; Abegg, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls. Methods Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus. Results Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades. Conclusions Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity) might be the primary causes for reading impairment. PMID:27391149

  18. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Muriel; Abegg, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls. Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus. Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades. Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity) might be the primary causes for reading impairment.

  19. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Pleimling, Dominique; Hosemann, Jana; Füssel, Stephan; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    .... Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded...

  20. Passage Retrieval: A Probabilistic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Massimo

    1998-01-01

    Presents a probabilistic technique to retrieve passages from texts having a large size or heterogeneous semantic content. Results of experiments comparing the probabilistic technique to one based on a text segmentation algorithm revealed that the passage size affects passage retrieval performance; text organization and query generality may have an…

  1. Good/Bad Girls Read Together: Pre-Adolescent Girls' Co-Authorship of Feminine Subject Positions during a Shared Reading Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Patricia E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses reading with pre-teens Francine Pascal's "Sweet Valley Twins: Best Friends," one of a series of pre-romance novels featuring identical twin sisters. Interviews six girls using the Symbolic Representation Interview (SRI) about the good girl/bad girl dichotomy in novels and other media. Provides comments by Tom Romano and Diana Mitchell.…

  2. The Influence of Subject Knowledge and Second Language Proficiency on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific and Technical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…

  3. Extending Research on Oral Reading Fluency Measures, Reading Speed, and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher H.; Cazzell, Samantha; Ciancio, Dennis; Ruddy, Jonah; Thompson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Middle-school students completed a comprehension assessment. The following day, they read four, 120-word passages, two standard and two non-standard ransom-note passages with altered font sizes. Altering font sizes increased students' reading time (i.e., reduced reading speed) by an average of 3 s and decreased students' words correct per minute…

  4. Teaching Grammar and Reading

    OpenAIRE

    高棹, 聰子

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore what effectiveness of teaching grammar would be expected in reading, analyzing the statistical data. The data show the lack of the students' motivation and their reluctance about reading the whole passage. In conclusion, we should think out the problems caused by methodology as well as course design.

  5. Sherlock Holmes and the Strange Case of the Missing Attribution: A Historical Note on "The Grandfather Passage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Fisher, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In 1963, Charles Van Riper published "My Grandfather," a short reading passage that has evolved into a ubiquitous metric of reading ability and speech intelligibility. In this historical note, we describe several heretofore unacknowledged similarities between "The Grandfather Passage" (Darley, Aronson, & Brown, 1975) and a portion of "The…

  6. Alternatives and passages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2010-01-01

    While much research into serious games focus on following teaching and/or learning activities, and particularly the human and institutional actors involved in these, the central actors of game based learning research (i.e. the games) seldom get much attention (unless the focus is so-called "techn...... and Technology Studies (STS) and Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) inspired approach to researching emerging passages between beginning English teaching and learning and Mingoville.......-called "technological"). This brief positioning paper takes point of departure in an ongoing postdoc project following circulations and establishments of http://www.mingoville.com/ , which is a virtual universe with game based elements developed for beginning English teaching and learning.  The paper presents a Science......While much research into serious games focus on following teaching and/or learning activities, and particularly the human and institutional actors involved in these, the central actors of game based learning research (i.e. the games) seldom get much attention (unless the focus is so...

  7. Teaching Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability Who Are Emergent Readers to Comprehend Passages of Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Diane M.; Hudson, Melissa E.; Wood, Alyson Leah

    2013-01-01

    A modified system of least intrusive prompting was used to teach middle school students with moderate intellectual disability who were emergent readers to comprehend short passages of text. Text passages were summaries of the chapters of age-appropriate novels rewritten for a beginning reading level. Time delay was used to teach the participants…

  8. Reading Ease of Bilingual Annual Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtis, John K.; Hassan, Salleh

    2002-01-01

    Examines reading ease between the English and Chinese versions of 65 corporate annual reports in Hong Kong and the English and Malay versions of 53 annual reports in Malaysia. Notes that the English passages in Malaysian annual reports are easier to read than the English passages in Hong Kong annual reports. Suggests that different language…

  9. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as an object of a flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills; reveals selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in a form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  10. An Examination of Test-Retest, Alternate Form Reliability, and Generalizability Theory Study of the easyCBM Word and Passage Reading Fluency Assessments: Grade 3. Technical Report #1218

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This technical report is one in a series of five describing the reliability (test/retest and alternate form) and G-Theory/D-Study research on the easyCBM reading measures, grades 1-5. Data were gathered in the spring of 2011 from a convenience sample of students nested within classrooms at a medium-sized school district in the Pacific Northwest.…

  11. Does Content Knowledge Affect TOEFL iBT[TM] Reading Performance? A Confirmatory Approach to Differential Item Functioning. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-09-29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Schedl, Mary; Malloy, Jeanne; Kong, Nan

    2009-01-01

    The TOEFL iBT[TM] has increased the length of the reading passages in the reading section compared to the passages on the TOEFL[R] computer-based test (CBT) to better approximate academic reading in North American universities, resulting in a reduced number of passages in the reading test. A concern arising from this change is whether the decrease…

  12. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  13. Subjectively homogeneous noise over written text as a tool to investigate the perceptual mechanisms involved in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Frédéric J A M; Gosselin, Frédéric; Arguin, Martin

    2013-09-24

    In an effort to understand the factors influencing text legibility in natural reading, we adapted the visual spread method (Poirier, Gosselin, & Arguin, 2008) to natural text. Stimuli were sentences conforming to MNREAD standards (Legge, Ross, Luebker, & LaMay 1989) mixed with dynamic probabilistic noise-i.e., each pixel in the image is associated with a probability that its polarity is inverted on a given refresh cycle of the display screen. Noise level varied continuously over the image as initially determined by Gaussian-filtered noise. Participants adjusted noise levels in the text using the mouse until the text appeared homogenously noisy. We assume that participants increased (or decreased) noise at locations where stimulus features were easy (or difficult) to encode and thus that local noise settings correlate with legibility. Data from 11 participants and 30 sentences revealed interesting effects, demonstrating the validity of the method for assessing the impact of various factors on noise resistance in natural text. For example, participants increased noise over (a) spaces and adjacent letters, (b) the second half of words, (c) words with more orthographic neighbors but fewer phonological neighbors, (d) less useful word types, (e) less complex letters, and (f) diagnostic letters (a novel metric). Our observations also offer significant insights on constraints acting upon letter identification as well as on higher-level processes that are involved in reading.

  14. Reading Amount as a Mediator of the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…

  15. Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students’ Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Ortlieb

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of an elementary school teacher is equipping students with comprehension strategies that transfer to all content areas. With stable levels of reading achievement over the last two decades in the United States, it is necessary that further research be conducted on methods of increasing students’ comprehension proficiencies. This experimental research study explores the use of an anticipatory reading guide with third grade struggling readers across multiple subject areas. Findings indicate that the experimental treatment group outperformed the control group by a statistically significant rate on both reading and content area measures, indicating that when struggling readers practice and use strategies to explicitly think what will be asked of them after reading the passage they perform at higher levels.

  16. The Relation of Word Reading Fluency Initial Level and Gains with Reading Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jean Louise M.; Cummings, Kelli D.; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Alonzo, Julie; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research brief is to present results from a study investigating the relation between word reading fluency (both initial level and fall-winter gain scores), passage reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Word reading fluency data were collected in the fall and winter; outcome measures were administered in the spring of…

  17. Repeated readings using audiotaped material enhances oral reading in children with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, R; Humphreys, R

    1989-02-01

    The method of repeated readings using audiotaped material was implemented in the present study by having poor readers aged 9-13 years listen to and read audiotaped stories until the passages could be read fluently without the tape. A same-age control group with similar reading difficulties was given an alternative reading program that was similar to that received by the experimental group (with respect to creative writing, spelling, phonics, and vocabulary development), but which differed in terms of passage reading exercises (controls read from basal readers, whereas the experimental group did repeated readings of audiotaped material). Only students in the repeated readings of audiotaped material group showed a significant effect of treatment on oral reading, whereas controls showed significantly larger gains in word attack skills. There were no between-group differences in silent reading, a close comprehension test, or isolated word recognition. The pattern of findings suggested that repeated readings of audiotaped material enhances oral reading ability of students with reading difficulties, but the effects of treatment do not generalize to a wide range of reading measures.

  18. The Interplay of Processing Task, Text Type, and Proficiency in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mami

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of how particular processing tasks influence L2 reading in relation to text type effects and L2 reading proficiency. Two groups of Japanese university EFL students (N = 103), varying in English reading proficiency, read a narrative passage and an expository passage in one of three task conditions: outlining,…

  19. Braille Reading Is Less Efficient Than Visual Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Leon E.; And Others

    The reading performances of fifteen blind readers and fifteen sighted readers were compared by evaluating the reading performances of each reader reading at instructional level from Lippincott's "Basic Reading Series" and from Form A of the "Gray Oral Reading Test." Nine matched pairs of subjects read at grade one first reader level and six pairs…

  20. Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote…

  1. Fish passage report : Baca National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fish passage report was prepared for the Colorado Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office to inform them of possible fish passage issues on streams that provide...

  2. [The biopolitical production "impaired" subjects within the scope of "Action T4" - a re-reading of "I accuse"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The history of the Nazi "euthanasia programme" named "Aktion T4" has been examined from a biopolitical perspective for some time. However, these studies have not focused on the analytics of biopolitical practices of subjectivization as an essential element of the Foucaultian concept. The use of such a theoretical approach can be used in combination with new and substantial empirical research results. The Heidelberg DFG research programme evaluated the "T4" medical records statistically in order to conclusively determine which features had significant importance for selection by the "T4" experts. The inability to work or having an incurable mental illness were the criteria by which psychiatrists and "T4" experts subjectivized patients as "lives not worth living". Considering these new results and a biopolitical approach as starting point, it is time to reconsider the Nazi "euthanasia" propaganda movie "Ich klage an" ("I Accuse", 1941). When scholars began to study the production process of the movie in the 1980s, they looked at the narrative and the movie characters from an instrumental perspective. In other words, they examined how the "T4" protagonists and filmmakers sought to create a film which affected the viewers' opinion in a specific way intentionally influenced by them. According to that line of thought, the character Hanna was neglected because she was considered to be the morally inoffensive disguise of the intended propaganda massage. However, two works from the 1990s which were gender history-oriented finally focused on Hanna and the way the film narrative turns her into a subject "not worth living". Based on these considerations, this article states its thesis. The criteria of the film to subjectivize Hanna share many basic characteristics with those of the subjectivization process of the "T4" victims. To prove this statement, the analytics of the movie are combined with the results of the DFG project. Through the combination of both types of sources

  3. Neural correlates of individual differences in fixation duration during natural reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, John M; Choi, Wonil; Luke, Steven G; Schmidt, Joseph

    2017-05-16

    Reading requires integration of language and cognitive processes with attention and eye movement control. Individuals differ in their reading ability, but little is known about the neurocognitive processes associated with these individual differences. To investigate this issue, we combined eyetracking and fMRI, simultaneously recording eye movements and BOLD activity while subjects read text passages. We found that the variability and skew of fixation duration distributions across individuals, as assessed by ex-Gaussian analyses, decreased with increasing neural activity in regions associated with the cortical eye movement control network (Left FEF, Left IPS, Left IFG, and Right IFG). The results suggest that individual differences in fixation duration during reading are related to underlying neurocognitive processes associated with the eye movement control system and its relationship to language processing. The results also show that eye movements and fMRI can be combined to investigate the neural correlates of individual differences in natural reading.

  4. RITES OF PASSAGE AND SUSTANABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rites of passage: A necessary step towards wholeness. In Mahdi, L. C.,. Christopher, N. G. & Meade, M. (Eds.). Crossroads: The quest for contemporary rites of passage. Peru,11: Carus. Iborra, A. & Markstrom C. (2003). Adolescence identity formation and rites of passage: The. The sacred and the profane: The nature of.

  5. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior passage. 3280.108 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.108 Interior passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not...

  6. "Passageless" administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: associations with IQ and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.

  7. Girls on the Borderline: Rewriting the Rite of Passage Film

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Girl protagonists in rite of passage films regularly come to be burdened with a sobering maturity that sees them acquire a dysphoric subjective position under an oppressive patriarchal paradigm. According to Oedipal logics, both genders, in extricating themselves from the imaginary fullness of the maternal bond, come to be subjects of lack, but culturally entrenched patriarchal fictions concur in fostering masculine narcissism at the expense of the feminine. This practice-based research asks ...

  8. Single-passage read-out of atomic quantum memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiurasek, J; Sherson, J; Opatrny, T

    2005-01-01

    Retrieving quantum information, collective atomic spin systems, quantum memory Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb.......Retrieving quantum information, collective atomic spin systems, quantum memory Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb....

  9. Recorded Readings: A Taped Parent-Tutoring Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupzyk, Sara; McCurdy, Merilee; Hofstadter, Kristi L.; Berger, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Parent tutoring has been successfully used to increase children's oral reading fluency. However, commonly used procedures pose a challenge for parents who are not proficient in reading or who speak English as a second language. A taped reading program that included listening passage preview, repeated reading, and performance feedback was developed…

  10. Assessing Reading Rate in the Primary Grades (1-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Darrell; Trathen, Woodrow; Gill, Tom; Schlagal, Robert; Ward, Devery; Frye, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we explore students' reading rates in grades 1-3. We begin with a short history of reading rate as an assessment measure in the early grades. Next, we share rate data from a recent study (N = 305) where children's contextual reading was assessed with a traditional passage-reading inventory. A comparison of our average grade-level…

  11. The Danish version of the Radner Reading Chart: design and empirical testing of sentence optotypes in subjects of varying educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Jørgensen, Astrid-Helene Ravn; Radner, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    To develop 28 short texts to be used as sentence optotypes in a Danish version of the Radner Reading Chart for the measurement of reading acuity and speed. Forty-six short texts of comparable lexical and grammatical difficulty were constructed. The short texts were tested together with two longer reference texts in 100 persons with visual acuity 6/6, of which 50 were university students (age: 24.7 ± 3.1 years, 36% males) and 50 were blue-collar workers (37.2 ± 13.4 years, 54% males). Study parameters were mean reading speed and error rate per participant, and mean reading time, variance and number of errors per short text. The students read the short texts faster than the blue-collar workers (184 ± 21.4 words per minute (wpm) versus 163 ± 26.3 wpm, p errors was eight. Twenty-eight short texts were selected for sentence optotypes with mean reading times between 4.6 s and 5.2 s, a mean standard deviation of 1.2 s or less and a number of errors of 17 per 100 persons or less. Reading time uniformity in the Danish version of the Radner Reading Chart was comparable to that of the original German version. Education had an influence on reading performance that may warrant stratification for this parameter when reading tests are used in clinical trials. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ANALYSIS OF DYSLEXIC STUDENTS READING DISORDER WITH EYE MOVEMENT TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Bayram,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we examine and compare dyslexic and normal readers, reading habits and eye movements during reading passages and pseudowords. Participants were 15 Turkish dyslexic students, suffering mainly from reading disorder. In addition there were 15 Turkish students who were regular readers and who did not have problems with reading. During reading passages and pseudowords, the eye movements of participants were recorded. For both text and pseudoword reading, the dyslexic readers exhibited more and much longer fixations, but relatively few regressions. An increased length of words and pseudowords led to a greater increase in the number of fixations for dyslexics rather than normal readers.

  13. "Pills" and the air passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpeli, Elif; Khemasuwan, Danai; Lee, Pyng; Mehta, Atul C

    2013-08-01

    Aspiration of a medication in the airways in any form produces a variety of adverse effects, both local and systemic. Furthermore, specific reaction of the airways to each type of pill strongly affects the outcome. It is crucial for pulmonologists and emergency medicine specialists to acknowledge this clinical entity. In addition, airways have been increasingly used to deliver medications such as insulin and prostacycline. These aerosolized medications can also cause local as well as systemic side effects. We review the local and systemic reactions of these "pills" accessing the airways either by incidental aspiration or iatrogenic administration. We address clinical presentation, mechanism of injury, diagnosis, and management of complications of these pills in the air passages.

  14. California Fish Passage Assessment Database [ds69

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Passage Assessment Database shapefile contains locations of known and potential barriers to salmonid migration in California streams with additional information...

  15. Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  16. 76 FR 34692 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... containing a single 600-kilowatt turbine/generator unit; (7) a small switchyard located adjacent to the... Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, and supplemented on May 18, 2011, the Inside Passage Electric Cooperative filed an application...

  17. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  18. Turbulence spectra measured during fire front passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisuke Seto; Craig B. Clements; Warren E. Heilman

    2013-01-01

    Four field experiments were conducted over various fuel and terrain to investigate turbulence generation during the passage of wildland fire fronts. Our results indicate an increase in horizontal mean winds and friction velocity, horizontal and vertical velocity variances as well as a decreased degree of anisotropy in TKE during fire front passage (FFP) due to fire-...

  19. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G.; Blaye, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading. PMID:24966842

  20. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hansen, Bruce P.

    2012-01-01

    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars (for example, U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001). In recent years, passage at hundreds of crossings has been restored, primarily by replacing barrier road culverts with bridges or stream simulation culverts designed to pass all species and all life stages of aquatic life and simulate natural hydro-geomorphic processes (U.S. Forest Service, 2008). The current situation has motivated two general questions: 1. Are current design standards for stream simulation culverts adequately re-establishing passage for aquatic biota? and 2. How do we monitor and evaluate effectiveness of passage restoration? To address the latter question, a national workshop was held in March 2010, in Portland, Oregon. The workshop included experts on aquatic organism passage from across the nation (see table of participants, APPENDIX) who addressed four classes of methods for monitoring effectiveness of aquatic organism passage—individual movement, occupancy, demography, and genetics. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream crossings. The report outlines basic methods for evaluating road-stream crossing passage impairment and restoration and discusses under what circumstances and conditions each method will be useful; what questions each method can potentially answer; how to design and implement an evaluation study; and points out the fundamental reality that most evaluation projects will require special funding and partnerships among researchers and resource managers. The report is organized into the following sections, which can be read independently: 1. Historical context: In this section, we provide a brief history of events leading up to the present situation

  1. Reading problems in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W G; Love, R J

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-five aphasic subjects who were 1 year or longer post onset of brain injury were given a battery of reading tests which was composed of recognition and oral reading tests for letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs, and comprehension tests for sentences and paragraphs. Results indicated a residual reading disorder or alexia in all subjects, with comprehension tests producing the highest error rate, oral reading tests second, and then recognition tests. Reading ability was found to be related to overall language skill, level of education, and oral reading ability. Results are discussed in light of current theories of reading and future research needs.

  2. Dispositional mindfulness and subjective time in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eWeiner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How a human observer perceives duration depends on the amount of events taking place during the timed interval, but also on psychological dimensions, such as emotional-wellbeing, mindfulness, impulsivity, and rumination. Here we aimed at exploring these influences on duration estimation and passage of time judgments. 117 healthy individuals filled out mindfulness (FFMQ, impulsivity (BIS-11, rumination (RRS, and depression (BDI-sf questionnaires. Participants also conducted verbal estimation and production tasks in the multiple seconds range. During these timing tasks, subjects were asked to read digits aloud that were presented on a computer screen. Each condition of the timing tasks differed in terms of the interval between the presentation of the digits, i.e., either short (4-sec or long (16-sec. Our findings suggest that long empty intervals (16-sec are associated with a relative underestimation of duration, and to a feeling that the time passes slowly, a seemingly paradoxical result. Also, regarding more mindful individuals, such a dissociation between duration estimation and passage of time judgments was also found, but only when empty intervals were short (4-sec. Relatively speaking, more mindful subjects showed an increased overestimation of durations, but felt that time passed more quickly. These results provide further evidence for the dissociation between duration estimation and the feeling of the passage of time. We discuss these results in terms of an alerting effect when empty intervals are short and events are more numerous, which could mediate the effect of dispositional mindfulness.

  3. The Fish Bowl: A Strategy for Assessing Independent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2001-01-01

    Explains Fish Bowl, an activity for upper elementary and middle school students to share what they read and a method for teachers to assess student understanding of a book. Discusses benefits of reading aloud a summary of the book, reading a passage from the book, asking appropriate questions, and answering questions. (LRW)

  4. University Students' Reading of Their First-Year Mathematics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mary D.; Selden, Annie; Selden, John

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the observed behaviors and difficulties that 11 precalculus and calculus students exhibited in reading new passages from their mathematics textbooks. To gauge the "effectiveness" of these students' reading, we asked them to attempt straightforward mathematical tasks, based directly on what they had just read. The…

  5. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  6. Three Reading Comprehension Strategies: TELLS, Story Mapping, and QARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Adrian L.

    1990-01-01

    Three reading comprehension strategies are presented to assist learning-disabled students: an advance organizer technique called "TELLS Fact or Fiction" used before reading a passage, a schema-based technique called "Story Mapping" used while reading, and a postreading method of categorizing questions called…

  7. Reading Ability and Reading Engagement in Older Adults With Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Angeline M.; van Landingham, Suzanne W.; Massof, Robert W.; Rubin, Gary S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on reading ability and reading engagement in 10 reading activities. Methods. A total of 63 glaucoma patients and 59 glaucoma suspect controls self-rated their level of reading difficulty for 10 reading items, and responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine reading ability. Reading engagement was assessed by asking subjects to report the number of days per week they engaged in each reading activity. Reading restriction was determined as a decrement in engagement. Results. Glaucoma subjects more often described greater reading difficulty than controls for all tasks except puzzles (P reading tasks involved puzzles, books, and finances, while the least difficult reading tasks involved notes, bills, and mail. In multivariable weighted least squares regression models of Rasch-estimated person measures of reading ability, less reading ability was found for glaucoma patients compared to controls (β = −1.60 logits, P reading ability was associated with more severe visual field (VF) loss (β = −0.68 logits per 5-dB decrement in better-eye VF mean deviation [MD], P reading on 18% fewer days (P = 0.003) and newspaper reading on 10% fewer days (P = 0.008). No statistically significant reading restriction was observed for other reading activities (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Glaucoma patients have less reading ability and engage less in a variety of different reading activities, particularly those requiring sustained reading. Future work should evaluate the mechanisms underlying reading disability in glaucoma to determine how patients can maintain reading ability and engagement. PMID:25052992

  8. Evaluation of attention training and metacognitive facilitation to improve reading comprehension in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaime B; Moore Sohlberg, McKay

    2013-05-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week intervention using Attention Process Training-3 (APT-3). The primary outcome measure was a maze reading task. Pre- and posttesting included attention and reading comprehension measures. Visual inspection of graphed performance data across conditions was used as the primary method of analysis. Treatment effect sizes were calculated for changes in reading comprehension probes from baseline to maintenance phases. Two of the study's 4 participants demonstrated improvements in maze reading, with corresponding effect sizes that were small in magnitude according to benchmarks for aphasia treatment research. All 4 participants made improvements on select standardized measures of attention. Interventions that include a metacognitive component with direct attention training may elicit improvements in participants' attention and allocation of resources. Maze passage reading is a repeated measure that appears sensitive to treatment-related changes in reading comprehension. Issues for future research related to measurement, candidacy, and clinical delivery are discussed.

  9. Accurate reading comprehension rate as an indicator of broad reading in students in first, second, and third grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Dennis; Thompson, Kelly; Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reading comprehension rate measures and broad reading skill development was examined using data from approximately 1425 students (grades 1-3). Students read 3 passages, from a pool of 30, and answered open-ended comprehension questions. Accurate reading comprehension rate (ARCR) was calculated by dividing the percentage of questions answered correctly (%QC) by seconds required to read the passage. Across all 30 passages, ARCR and its two components, %QC correct and time spent reading (1/seconds spent reading the passage), were significantly correlated with broad reading scores, with %QC resulting in the lowest correlations. Two sequential regressions supported previous findings which suggest that ARCR measures consistently produced meaningful incremental increases beyond %QC in the amount of variance explained in broad reading skill; however, ARCR produced small or no incremental increases beyond reading time. Discussion focuses on the importance of the measure of reading time embedded in brief accurate reading rate measures and directions for future research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Skeptical notes on a physics of passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Nick

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Factors for improved fish passage waterway construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Streambeds are important fish passageways in Oregon; they provide for the necessary habitats and spawning cycles of a healthy fish population. Oregon state law requires that hydraulic structures located in water properly provide fish passage. Increas...

  12. Do Specific Classroom Reading Activities Predict English Language Learners' Later Reading Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Kudo, Milagros Fatima

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between elementary classroom (N = 50) reading activities in Year 1 and reading performance (i.e., passage comprehension, letter-word identification, and word attack) 1 year later for English language learners (ELLs; N = 270). A cross-classification hierarchical model indicated that compared to other reading…

  13. [The intra bone passage and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Hoyos, Rafael; Ibarretxe Marcos, J R; Gil Martín, F J; Pérez Ordoñez, A

    2004-05-01

    The authors confirm the utility of the intra bone passage as a means of emergency vascular access when the installation of a peripheral and/or central venous passage is difficult or impossible when attending critically ill patients as another additional technique available to Nursing when caring for a critically ill patient. From the reference articles reviewed, the authors deduce that intra bone vascular access provides a passage to the vascular system which permits rapid, easy and efficient access, especially when attending children under the age of six. The use of the intra bone passage is justified whenever medical personnel take more than 90 seconds or have three failed tries to insert a peripheral venous tube in patients who are critically ill or unstable. The anatomical zones which are the most appropriate to puncture in children are the proximal and distal part of the tibia and the distal section of the femur. This intra bone passage permits the administering of liquids and drugs, just as a peripheral venous passage does. Both the complications and the countermeasures are minimal.

  14. Can Students Really Multitask? An Experimental Study of Instant Messaging while Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Laura L.; Levine, Laura E.; Waite, Bradley M.; Gendron, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Students often "multitask" with electronic media while doing schoolwork. We examined the effects of one form of media often used in such multitasking, instant messaging (IM). We predicted that students who engaged in IMing while reading a typical academic psychology passage online would take longer to read the passage and would perform more poorly…

  15. Influence of Gender and Academic Ability in a Computer-Based Spanish Reading Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory; Nikolova, Ofelia

    2004-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of gender and scholastic ability on vocabulary retention and reading comprehension in a foreign language, 181 men and women enrolled in a first-year Spanish course were asked to either read a passage in Spanish on a computer and create annotations for a list of words found in the passage (experimental group), or…

  16. "Bottom-up" and "top-down" effects on reading saccades: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, N J; Hodgson, T L; Plant, G T; Wise, R J S; Leff, A P

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the role right foveal/parafoveal sparing plays in reading single words, word arrays, and eye movement patterns in a single case with an incongruous hemianopia. The patient, a 48-year-old right handed male with a macular sparing hemianopia in his left eye and a macular splitting hemianopia in his right eye, performed various reading tasks. Single word reading speeds were monitored using a "voice-trigger" system. Eye movements were recorded while reading three passages of text, and PET data were gathered while the subject performed a variety of reading tasks in the camera. The patient was faster at reading single words and text with his left eye compared with his right. A small word length effect was present in his right eye but not his left. His eye movement patterns were more orderly when reading text with his left eye, making fewer saccades. The PET data provided evidence of "top-down" processes involved in reading. Binocular single word reading produced activity in the representation of foveal V1 bilaterally; however, text reading with the left eye only was associated with activation in left but not right parafoveal V1, despite there being visual stimuli in both visual fields. The presence of a word length effect (typically associated with pure alexia) can be caused by a macular splitting hemianopia. Right parafoveal vision is not critically involved in single word identification, but is when planning left to right reading saccades. The influence of top-down attentional processes during text reading can be visualised in parafoveal V1 using PET.

  17. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Keir X X; Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Leff, Alexander P; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-28

    We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%-270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. A Study on the Development of Reading Skills of the Students Having Difficulty in Reading: Enrichment Reading Program

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati AKYOL; Ahmet ÇAKIROĞLU; Hayriye Gül KURUYER

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the reading skills of the students having difficulty in reading through an enrichment reading program. The current study was conducted by means of one-subject research technique and between-subjects multiple-starting levels model belonging to this technique. The study was carried out with three participants from fifth grade. In order to collect data for the study, word recognition test, reading texts, Ekwall and Shanker reading inventory and reading compreh...

  19. Neural activations correlated with reading speed during reading novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Norio; Munetsuna, Shinji; Sasaki, Toyofumi; Hayakawa, Tomoe; Ihara, Aya; Wei, Qiang; Terazono, Yasushi; Murata, Tsutomu

    2009-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural activations in subjects instructed to silently read novels at ordinary and rapid speeds. Among the 19 subjects, 8 were experts in a rapid reading technique. Subjects pressed a button to turn pages during reading, and the interval between turning pages was recorded to evaluate the reading speed. For each subject, we evaluated activations in 14 areas and at 2 instructed reading speeds. Neural activations decreased with increasing reading speed in the left middle and posterior superior temporal area, left inferior frontal area, left precentral area, and the anterior temporal areas of both hemispheres, which have been reported to be active for linguistic processes, while neural activation increased with increasing reading speed in the right intraparietal sulcus, which is considered to reflect visuo-spatial processes. Despite the considerable reading speed differences, correlation analysis showed no significant difference in activation dependence on reading speed with respect to the subject groups and instructed reading speeds. The activation reduction with speed increase in language-related areas was opposite to the previous reports for low reading speeds. The present results suggest that subjects reduced linguistic processes with reading speed increase from ordinary to rapid speed.

  20. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Visuospatial cues for reinstating mental models in working memory during interrupted reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W; Dixon, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Reading involves constructing a mental representation in long-term working memory of the world described by the text. Disrupting short-term working memory can interfere with the maintenance of mental models (sets of retrieval cues) needed to access these representations, producing detrimental effects on reading time. In two experiments, subjects read passages that included pairs of coreferential sentences interrupted by unrelated text. As in previous research, reading times increased for the first sentence after the interruption, likely reflecting a reinstatement process for mental models in working memory. In the present research, pictures were provided as visuospatial cues to aid the reinstatement process. The interruption effect was found to be smaller with pictures related to the passages than with unrelated pictures (Experiment 1) or titles (Experiment 2); however, both of these effects occurred only for slow readers. The authors hypothesize that slow readers take the time needed to integrate visuospatial information into their mental models, providing more resilient access to long-term working memory.

  2. Academic Reading ability of first-year students: what's high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both groups were administered a pre-test and post-test of academic reading ability. The dependent variable was academic reading ability and the independent variables were matric grade and prior exposure. Two measures of reading ability were used, namely a reading comprehension and a cloze passage. An analysis of ...

  3. Eye Movements of Dyslexic Children when Reading in a Regular Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Florian; Wimmer, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Participants were German dyslexic readers (13-year-olds) who--compared to English dyslexic readers--suffer mainly from slow laborious reading and less from reading errors. The eye movements of eleven dyslexic boys and age-matched controls were recorded during reading of text passages and pseudoword lists. For both text and pseudoword reading, the…

  4. First-passage time for superstatistical Fokker-Planck models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A.; Cáceres, Manuel O.

    2018-01-01

    The first-passage-time (FPT) problem is studied for superstatistical models assuming that the mesoscopic system dynamics is described by a Fokker-Planck equation. We show that all moments of the random intensive parameter associated to the superstatistical approach can be put in one-to-one correspondence with the moments of the FPT. For systems subjected to an additional uncorrelated external force, the same statistical information is obtained from the dependence of the FPT moments on the external force. These results provide an alternative technique for checking the validity of superstatistical models. As an example, we characterize the mean FPT for a forced Brownian particle.

  5. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  6. Adaptive luminance contrast for enhancing reading performance and visual comfort on smartphone displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Nooree; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-11-01

    This study developed a model for setting the adaptive luminance contrast between text and background for enhancing reading performance and visual comfort on smartphone displays. The study was carried out in two experiments. In Experiment I, a user test was conducted to identify the optimal luminance contrast with regard to subjects' reading performance, measured by lines of text reading and visual comfort, assessed by self-report after the reading. Based on the empirical results of the test, an ideal adaptive model which decreases the luminance contrast gradually with passage of time was developed. In Experiment II, a validation test involving reading performance, visual comfort, and physiological stress measured by a brainwave analysis using an electroencephalogram confirmed that the proposed adaptive luminance contrast is adequate for prolonged text reading on smartphone displays. The developed model enhances both reading performance and visual comfort as well as reduces the energy consumption of a smartphone; hence, it is expected that this study will be applied to diverse kinds of visual display terminals.

  7. Do Major Field of Study and Cultural Familiarity Affect TOEFL[R] iBT Reading Performance? A Confirmatory Approach to Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia

    2011-01-01

    The TOEFL[R] iBT has increased the length of each reading passage to better approximate academic reading at North American universities, resulting in a reduction in the number of passages on the reading section of the test. One of the concerns brought about by this change is whether the decrease in topic variety increases the likelihood that an…

  8. a Passage to the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Exciting Week Ahead for Winners of Unique Astronomy Contest Following the very successful events of 1993 and 1994 [1], ESO again opens its doors for an `educational adventure' next week. It takes place within the framework of the `Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture', initiated and supported by the European Commission. On Tuesday, November 14, 1995, about forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers will converge towards Munich from all corners of Europe. They are the happy winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest (`Europe Towards the Stars') that took place during the summer and early autumn. Their prize is a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. During this time they will work with professional astronomers and get a hands-on experience within modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres. In particular, the participants will be exposed to the scientific method by carrying through a research programme of their own, all the way from conception to interpretation of the data. The culmination of the stay will be the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two major telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile, including the very advanced 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT). The European Contest This year's EU/ESO programme was devised as a contest between joint teams of secondary school students and their teachers. The teams had to choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work, and all with strong scientific and technological components. One subject was to devise an observational programme with an existing telescope and instrument and to discuss the resulting data in order to arrive at a scientific conclusion. This was the preferred subject by many teams. For instance, the winning German team observed the moons of Jupiter and the Danish team studied a star cluster in order to

  9. Reading Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  10. READING THEORIES AND READING COMPREHENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Novary Ngabut

    2015-01-01

    In this article several reading theories in their relations to reading comprehension teachers and lecturers of English need to know are reviewed. At the theory level, three other Models of Reading, namely Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Interactive are previously discussed to the Schema Theory. In reviewing the reading comprehension, the history of reading instruction, types and purposes of reading, and cognitive reading skills are discussed. Finally, it reviews six variables involved in the compreh...

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ability makes easier to decode a message not only in English language but in Spanish language as well. LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES AUTORAS: DIRECCIÓN PARA CORRESPONDENCIA: Departamento de Idiomas. Universidad de Las Tunas, Cuba. E-mail graciela@ult.edu.cu Fecha de recepción: 21\t-\t08\t-\t2013 Fecha de aceptación:\t30\t-\t11\t-\t2013 RESUMEN La comprensión lectora es una de las habilidades generales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma inglés, esta constituye un instrumento de trabajo y de cultura y es la base que facilita el aprendizaje de un gran cúmulo de conocimientos. La presente alternativa metodológica facilita el desarrollo de la habilidad de comprensión lectora pues parte de un sistema de ejercicios jerárquicamente organizados, lo que conllevan al estudiante a una decodificación más acertada del mensaje expresado en los textos. El desarrollo de esta habilidad les permite la decodificación de información tanto en la lengua inglesa como en la lengua materna.

  12. Inversion produced and reversed by adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedenbaum, C.; Stolte, S.; Reuss, J.

    1989-06-01

    This report deals with non-linear effects produced in molecules by strong laser fields. The molecules experience these laser fields during their passage through the laser waists. We present results on rapid adiabatic passage processes which move the molecules up and down the energy ladder, the latter due to stimulated emission. Experimentally, stimulated emission is observed by opto-thermal detection of a molecular beam where de-excitation by stimulated emission leads to negative signals as compared to straightforward excitation processes. Two-level, three-level and multi-level systems are covered by the following discussion.

  13. The Effects of the Allain Reading System on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Althea Saizan

    Five hundred second-grade pupils participated in a study of the effect of the Allain Color Pack reading system on reading achievement. Subjects were divided into equal treatment and control groups; each group was stratified according to low, average, and high reading ability determined on the basis of pretests of vocabulary and comprehension. The…

  14. Drawing Inferences from a Passage of Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, George R.

    The present series of experiments was designed to examine the factors affecting the ability of people to draw inferences from a passage of text. It was found that, using a true-false recognition test, proportion correct was higher and reaction time shorter on inferred information than on information that was actually presented. This was the case…

  15. Navigable windows of the Northwest Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-he; Ma, Long; Wang, Jia-yue; Wang, Ye; Wang, Li-na

    2017-09-01

    Artic sea ice loss trends support a greater potential for Arctic shipping. The information of sea ice conditions is important for utilizing Arctic passages. Based on the shipping routes given by ;Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report;, the navigable windows of these routes and the constituent legs were calculated by using sea ice concentration product data from 2006 to 2015, by which a comprehensive knowledge of the sea ice condition of the Northwest Passage was achieved. The results showed that Route 4 (Lancaster Sound - Barrow Strait - Prince Regent Inlet and Bellot Strait - Franklin Strait - Larsen Sound - Victoria Strait - Queen Maud Gulf - Dease Strait - Coronation Gulf - Dolphin and Union Strait - Amundsen Gulf) had the best navigable expectation, Route 2 (Parry Channel - M'Clure Strait) had the worst, and the critical legs affecting the navigation of Northwest Passage were Viscount Melville Sound, Franklin Strait, Victoria Strait, Bellot Strait, M'Clure Strait and Prince of Wales Strait. The shortest navigable period of the routes of Northwest Passage was up to 69 days. The methods used and the results of the study can help the selection and evaluation of Arctic commercial routes.

  16. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. The microclimate within a Neolithic passage grave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klenz Larsen, Poul; Aasbjerg Jensen, Lars; Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Microclimate measurements in a Neolithic passage grave in Denmark have shown that natural ventilation through the open entrance destabilizes the relative humidity (RH), whereas a sealed entrance gives a much more stable RH, above 90%. Episodes of condensation occur on the stone surfaces in summer...

  18. Comparison of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Oral and Written Retellings and Passage Review as Strategies for Comprehending Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisler, Rebecca; Joseph, Laurice M.; Konrad, Moira; Alber-Morgan, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the instructional effectiveness and efficiency of oral retelling, written retelling, and passage review comprehension strategies on third-grade students' accuracy and rate of answering reading comprehension questions. A modified alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of oral retelling,…

  19. Relative effectiveness of reading practice or word-level instruction in supplemental tutoring: how text matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F; Sanders, Elizabeth A; Peyton, Julia A

    2005-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, which is part of a series of investigations on supplemental reading tutoring variations, the relative effectiveness of more intense decoding instruction or text reading practice was examined. Fifty-seven first-grade students scoring in the lowest quartile for reading skills received either classroom reading instruction or one of two treatments: tutoring in word study with text reading practice, or word study tutoring alone. Individual instruction was provided by trained paraprofessional tutors. At the end of first grade, treatment students significantly outperformed their nontutored peers on measures of reading accuracy, reading comprehension, reading efficiency, passage reading fluency, and spelling. Differential treatment effects on passage reading fluency are examined, taking into consideration pretest skill levels and text reading practice characteristics.

  20. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  1. Device for improving quantification of reading acuity and reading speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexl, Alois K; Schlögel, Horst; Wolfbauer, Michael; Grabner, Günther

    2010-09-01

    To present a new device, the Salzburg Reading Desk (SRD), for the standardized testing of reading acuity and reading speed at a subjectively convenient reading distance (best distance). First, in a systematic experimental setup, testing for validity and reliability was performed at 450 simulated reading distances (90 different test situations, each repeated 5 times) between 16 and 70 cm. The distance read-outs by the SRD software were correlated to the distances measured with a meter ruler. Second, reading distance and reading speed of 27 naturally emmetropic and presbyopic patients were evaluated using the log-scaled Radner Reading Charts implemented in the SRD. In the experimental setup, an overall mean difference of the SRD distance read-out-compared to a standard distance measurement with a meter ruler-of 0.08±0.13 cm was observed. In the presbyopic patients, overall mean reading distance was 49.74±4.43 cm. Patients were able to read with their own subjectively convenient reading distance. A constant mean reading speed of sentences with bigger typeface (between 152.4±22.6 words/minute [wpm] and 157.3±15.8 wpm) was found, but reading speed gradually diminished over time when reading sentences with smaller typeface. The SRD seems to be a valid and reliable device for testing reading acuity at the best reading distance in an experimental setup as well as in clinical use in presbyopic patients. The SRD may be used whenever a detailed comparison of different methods for correcting presbyopia is required. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. College Students in an Experimental Study Took Longer to Achieve Comprehension when Instant Messaging while Reading. A Review of: Bowman, L. L., Levine, L. E., Waite, B. M., & Gendron, M. (2010. Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. Computers & Education, 54, 927-931.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan von Isenburg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine the effects of multitasking while doing school work. The experiment specifically measured total time spent reading a simulated textbook passage and tested comprehension in students who received instant messages before reading, while reading, or not at all.Design – Experimental design in which one group of students read an online text while receiving and responding to instant messages. Comparison groups either received instant messages (IMs prior to reading the text passage or did not receive any IMs during the task.Setting – General psychology department at Central Connecticut State University, United States.Subjects – Eighty-nine college students enrolled in general psychology courses. The participants included 43 women and 46 men and were between 17 and 46 years old. Most students were full time students (91%, most were European / White (74% and in their first (46% or second (33% year of college. Participants’ academic majors represented all the schools in the university.Methods – Researchers created a simulated environment in which a passage from a psychology textbook was displayed on five consecutive screens. For the experimental group, an IM appeared on each of the five screens preceded by an alert sound. Messages were written to reflect the types of questions students might ask each other when they first meet, such as “What do you like to do in your spare time?”Subjects were randomized to three situations: receiving IMs before reading, receiving IMs during reading, or not receiving any IMs. Subjects were told that they would either receive IMs before reading, while reading, or not at all. Messages received during reading appeared one per screen after a specified time spent on each page (after 17, 15, 29, 20 and 26 seconds, respectively. Students could take as long as necessary to read the passage and to respond to IMs.After reading the passage, students were given a multiple choice test with 25

  3. Simultaneously Uncovering the Patterns of Brain Regions Involved in Different Story Reading Subprocesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Leila; Murphy, Brian; Talukdar, Partha; Fyshe, Alona; Ramdas, Aaditya; Mitchell, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Story understanding involves many perceptual and cognitive subprocesses, from perceiving individual words, to parsing sentences, to understanding the relationships among the story characters. We present an integrated computational model of reading that incorporates these and additional subprocesses, simultaneously discovering their fMRI signatures. Our model predicts the fMRI activity associated with reading arbitrary text passages, well enough to distinguish which of two story segments is being read with 74% accuracy. This approach is the first to simultaneously track diverse reading subprocesses during complex story processing and predict the detailed neural representation of diverse story features, ranging from visual word properties to the mention of different story characters and different actions they perform. We construct brain representation maps that replicate many results from a wide range of classical studies that focus each on one aspect of language processing and offer new insights on which type of information is processed by different areas involved in language processing. Additionally, this approach is promising for studying individual differences: it can be used to create single subject maps that may potentially be used to measure reading comprehension and diagnose reading disorders. PMID:25426840

  4. Simultaneously uncovering the patterns of brain regions involved in different story reading subprocesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Wehbe

    Full Text Available Story understanding involves many perceptual and cognitive subprocesses, from perceiving individual words, to parsing sentences, to understanding the relationships among the story characters. We present an integrated computational model of reading that incorporates these and additional subprocesses, simultaneously discovering their fMRI signatures. Our model predicts the fMRI activity associated with reading arbitrary text passages, well enough to distinguish which of two story segments is being read with 74% accuracy. This approach is the first to simultaneously track diverse reading subprocesses during complex story processing and predict the detailed neural representation of diverse story features, ranging from visual word properties to the mention of different story characters and different actions they perform. We construct brain representation maps that replicate many results from a wide range of classical studies that focus each on one aspect of language processing and offer new insights on which type of information is processed by different areas involved in language processing. Additionally, this approach is promising for studying individual differences: it can be used to create single subject maps that may potentially be used to measure reading comprehension and diagnose reading disorders.

  5. Reliability of Ratings of Children's Expressive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Gary P.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Wilcox, Brad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined ratings of fourth graders' oral reading expression. Randomly assigned participants (n = 36) practiced repeated readings using narrative or informational passages for 7 weeks. After this period raters used the "Multidimensional Fluency Scale" (MFS) on two separate occasions to rate students' expressive…

  6. Speed and Comprehension in Reading Chinese: Romanization vs. Characters Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Michael E.

    1988-01-01

    First-year students of Chinese at the United States Air Force Academy (n=60) were tested for reading speed and comprehension of Chinese passages presented either in characters or romanization. Students read faster and understood more in romanization than in characters. (LMO)

  7. The Contribution of General Reading Ability to Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea J.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the reading ability and science achievement of students in grades 5, 8, and 9. Reading ability was assessed with four measures: word recognition, vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, and comprehension (23% of all passages were on science topics). Science achievement was assessed with state…

  8. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  9. The golden fleece as rite of passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Nebojša J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borislav Pekić's novel 'The Golden Fleece' has been so far - since its complex poetics allowed it - interpreted in many ways. This is the first time that his seven volume novel is analyzed as a rite of passage, based on the works of the ethnologist Arnold van Gennep. The most important rite of passage we have found in The Golden Fleece was, of course, death. It is conceptualized as a gate toward a timeless mythical past. This concept has allowed us to conclude that Pekić immerged his literary heroes and their fate in numerous myths, mystical and esoteric teachings, including ancient Greek and Roman mythology and Masonic rites.

  10. Boundary mixing in Orkney Passage outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. L.; Garabato, A. C. Naveira; Abrahamsen, E. P.; Jullion, L.; Meredith, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most remarkable features of contemporary oceanic climate change is the warming and contraction of Antarctic Bottom Water over much of global ocean abyss. These signatures represent changes in ventilation mediated by mixing and entrainment processes that may be location-specific. Here we use available data to document, as best possible, those mixing processes as Weddell Sea Deep and Bottom Waters flow along the South Orkney Plateau, exit the Weddell Sea via Orkney Passage and fill the abyssal Scotia Sea. First, we find that an abrupt transition in topography upstream of Orkney Passage delimits the extent of the coldest waters along the Plateau's flanks and may indicate a region of especially intense mixing. Second, we revisit a control volume budget by Heywood et al. (2002) for waters trapped within the Scotia Sea after entering through Orkney Passage. This budget requires extremely vigorous water mass transformations with a diapycnal transfer coefficient of 39>(±10>)×10-4 m2 s-1. Evidence for such intense diapycnal mixing is not found in the abyssal Scotia Sea interior and, while we do find large rates of diapycnal mixing in conjunction with a downwelling Ekman layer on the western side of Orkney Passage, it is insufficient to close the budget. This leads us to hypothesize that the Heywood budget is closed by a boundary mixing process in which the Ekman layer associated with the Weddell Sea Deep Water boundary current experiences relatively large vertical scale overturning associated with tidal forcing along the southern boundary of the Scotia Sea.

  11. The Experimental Effects of the Strategic Adolescent Reading Intervention (STARI) on a Scenarios-Based Reading Comprehension Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James; Hemphill, Lowry; Troyer, Margaret; Jones, Stephanie; LaRusso, Maria; Kim, Ha-Yeon; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of U.S. eighth graders score below basic on national assessments of reading (NCES, 2013) and are poorly equipped for the reading demands of secondary school. Struggling adolescent readers cannot summarize a simple passage, use context to determine word meanings, and have difficulties making text-based inferences. In addition,…

  12. A Comparison of Four Reading Interventions from Struggling Elementary Students Using Brief Experimental Analysis and Extended Intervention Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Kristi W.; Mong, Michael D.; Henington, Carlen; Doggett, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Brief experimental analyses (BEA) have been used to identify reading interventions to increase the oral reading fluency (ORF) of students having difficulty learning to read. Four interventions, repeated reading, listening passage preview, phrase drill, and contingent reinforcement were implemented with four elementary aged students performing…

  13. A Canine Audience: The Effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Reading Progress among Students Identified with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griess, Julie Omodio

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the use of animal-assisted therapy with students identified with a learning disability and limited reading success. Initially, reading progress was defined as the participants' comprehension rate obtained from an oral Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) passage. The nature of the Informal Reading Inventory requires the…

  14. Methods for determination of passage rates of, fibre in tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Passage rates were estimated in vivo using five rumen fistulated non-pregnant dairy heifers. Rumen evacuation technique (RET), and chromium mordanted fibre (CR-MF) method were used to estimate passage rates in 5 x 5 Latin Square experiment. Passage rates measured using CR-MF and RET showed high variabiltiy ...

  15. Scientific Versus Humanistic Approaches to Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark E.

    The scientific approach with humans is usually subject to many human and environmental variables that are difficult to control. Reading behavior and reading disability are two of the most researched topics in education and psychology, yet reading research continues to abound with contradictions. Standardized tests, speed reading, and computer…

  16. Mental juggling: when does multitasking impair reading comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kit W; Altarriba, Jeanette; Popiel, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the conditions under which multitasking impairs reading comprehension. Participants read prose passages (the primary task), some of which required them to perform a secondary task. In Experiment 1, we compared two different types of secondary tasks (answering trivia questions and solving math problems). Reading comprehension was assessed using a multiple-choice test that measured both factual and conceptual knowledge. The results showed no observable detrimental effects associated with multitasking. In Experiment 2, the secondary task was a cognitive load task that required participants to remember a string of numbers while reading the passages. Performance on the reading comprehension test was lower in the cognitive load conditions relative to the no-load condition. The present study delineates the conditions under which multitasking can impair or have no effect on reading comprehension. These results further our understanding of our capacity to multitask and have practical implications in our technologically advanced society in which multitasking has become commonplace.

  17. A Study on the Development of Reading Skills of the Students Having Difficulty in Reading: Enrichment Reading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hayati; Çakiroglu, Ahmet; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the reading skills of the students having difficulty in reading through an enrichment reading program. The current study was conducted by means of one-subject research technique and between-subjects multiple-baseline levels model belonging to this technique. The study was carried out with three participants from…

  18. Reading Expressively and Understanding Thoroughly: An Examination of Prosody in Adults with Low Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Katherine S.; Tighe, Elizabeth; Jiang, Yue; Kaftanski, Katharine; Qi, Cynthia; Ardoin, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between prosody, which is the expressive quality of reading out loud, and reading comprehension in adults with low literacy skills compared to skilled readers. All participants read a passage orally, and we extracted prosodic measures from the recordings. We examined pitch changes…

  19. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  20. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  1. Developing Reading Ability in the Content Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    Subject-area teachers are not expected to be reading experts, but they can help students overcome reading difficulties. Students often fail to meet the subject-matter demands due to lack of purpose in reading content, unfamiliarity with technical vocabulary, and the heavy concept load and idea density in the material. Teachers can use reading…

  2. Summer Reading: Predicting Adolescent Word Learning from Aptitude, Time Spent Reading, and Text Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Joshua Fahey

    2009-01-01

    Mostly low-income African American and Hispanic teens (N = 192) were tested in (a) passage comprehension, (b) vocabulary ability, (c) cloze task performance, and (d) listening comprehension in the spring and vocabulary in the fall. Students were surveyed about reading (a) narrative, (b) expository, (c) teen culture, and (d) online texts.…

  3. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  4. Selection of the optimum font type and size interface for on screen continuous reading by young adults: an ergonomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jayeeta; Bhattacharyya, Moushum

    2011-12-01

    There is a rapid shifting of media: from printed paper to computer screens. This transition is modifying the process of how we read and understand text. The efficiency of reading is dependent on how ergonomically the visual information is presented. Font types and size characteristics have been shown to affect reading. A detailed investigation of the effect of the font type and size on reading on computer screens has been carried out by using subjective, objective and physiological evaluation methods on young adults. A group of young participants volunteered for this study. Two types of fonts were used: Serif fonts (Times New Roman, Georgia, Courier New) and Sans serif fonts (Verdana, Arial, Tahoma). All fonts were presented in 10, 12 and 14 point sizes. This study used a 6 X 3 (font type X size) design matrix. Participants read 18 passages of approximately the same length and reading level on a computer monitor. Reading time, ranking and overall mental workload were measured. Eye movements were recorded by a binocular eye movement recorder. Reading time was minimum for Courier New l4 point. The participants' ranking was highest and mental workload was least for Verdana 14 point. The pupil diameter, fixation duration and gaze duration were least for Courier New 14 point. The present study recommends using 14 point sized fonts for reading on computer screen. Courier New is recommended for fast reading while for on screen presentation Verdana is recommended. The outcome of this study will help as a guideline to all the PC users, software developers, web page designers and computer industry as a whole.

  5. Examining Reliability of Reading Comprehension Ratings of Fifth Grade Students' Oral Retellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernfeld, L. Elizabeth Shirley; Morrison, Timothy G.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Wilcox, Brad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to rate oral retellings of fifth graders to determine how passages, raters, and rating occasions affect those ratings, and to identify what combination of those elements produce reliable retelling ratings. A group of 36 fifth grade students read and orally retold three contemporary realistic fiction passages. Two…

  6. Fluency and reading comprehension in students with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Tânia Augusto; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Kida, Adriana de Souza Batista; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the performance of students with reading difficulties in decoding and reading comprehension tasks as well as to investigate the possible correlations between them. Sixty students (29 girls) from 3rd to 5th grades of public Elementary Schools were evaluated. Thirty students (Research Group - RG), ten from each grade, were nominated by their teachers as presenting evidences of learning disabilities. The other thirty students were indicated as good readers, and were matched by gender, age and grade to the RG, composing the Comparison Group (CG). All subjects were assessed regarding the parameters of reading fluency (rate and accuracy in words, pseudowords and text reading) and reading comprehension (reading level, number and type of ideas identified, and correct responses on multiple choice questions). The RG presented significantly lower scores than the CG in fluency and reading comprehension. Different patterns of positive and negative correlations, from weak to excellent, among the decoding and comprehension parameters were found in both groups. In the RG, low values of reading rate and accuracy were observed, which were correlated to low scores in comprehension and improvement in decoding, but not in comprehension, with grade increase. In CG, correlation was found between different fluency parameters, but none of them was correlated to the reading comprehension variables. Students with reading and writing difficulties show lower values of reading fluency and comprehension than good readers. Fluency and comprehension are correlated in the group with difficulties, showing that deficits in decoding influence reading comprehension, which does not improve with age increase.

  7. Comparison of reading speed with 3 different log-scaled reading charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buari, Noor Halilah; Chen, Ai-Hong; Musa, Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    A reading chart that resembles real reading conditions is important to evaluate the quality of life in terms of reading performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the reading speed of UiTM Malay related words (UiTM-Mrw) reading chart with MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart. Fifty subjects with normal sight were randomly recruited through randomized sampling in this study (mean age=22.98±1.65 years). Subjects were asked to read three different near charts aloud and as quickly as possible at random sequence. The charts were the UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart, respectively. The time taken to read each chart was recorded and any errors while reading were noted. Reading performance was quantified in terms of reading speed as words per minute (wpm). The mean reading speed for UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart was 200±30wpm, 196±28wpm and 194±31wpm, respectively. Comparison of reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and MNread Acuity Chart showed no significant difference (t=-0.73, p=0.72). The same happened with the reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart (t=-0.97, p=0.55). Bland and Altman plot showed good agreement between reading speed of UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart with MNread Acuity Chart with the Colenbrander Reading Chart. UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart in Malay language is highly comparable with standardized charts and can be used for evaluating reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Teaching Reading in High School: Improving Reading in Content Areas. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    Designed for prospective and practicing secondary school teachers, this volume examines several aspects of reading in the content areas: the general reading problem in high schools, the development of programs for reading in specific subject areas, the psychology of reading instruction in the content areas, the improvement of diagnostic teaching,…

  9. Bird of passage recollections of a physicist

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Here is the intensely personal and often humorous autobiography of one of the most distinguished theoretical physicists of his generation, Sir Rudolf Peierls. Born in Germany in 1907, Peierls was indeed a bird of passage," whose career of fifty-five years took him to leading centers of physics--including Munich, Leipzig, Zurich, Copenhagen, Cambridge, Manchester, Oxford, and J. Robert Oppenheimer''s Los Alamos. Peierls was a major participant in the revolutionary development of quantum mechanics in the 1920s and 1930s, working with some of the pioneers and, as he puts it, "some of the great characters" in this field. Originally published in 1988. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of- print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Libr...

  10. The microclimate within a Neolithic passage grave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klenz Larsen, Poul; Aasbjerg Jensen, Lars; Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    with too much ventilation and in winter with too little ventilation. Soil moisture measurements above, below, and beside the grave mound indicate that rainfall on the mound is not a significant source of moisture to the chamber, whereas the ground below the sealed chamber is constantly moist. The chamber......Microclimate measurements in a Neolithic passage grave in Denmark have shown that natural ventilation through the open entrance destabilizes the relative humidity (RH), whereas a sealed entrance gives a much more stable RH, above 90%. Episodes of condensation occur on the stone surfaces in summer...... can be kept dry all year by putting a moisture barrier membrane over the floor. Apart from the more variable climate within the open chamber, there is also a significant penetration of ozone, which is absent in the sealed chamber. The ozone may have deteriorated the folds of birch bark put between...

  11. Deep temperature variability in Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firing, Yvonne L.; McDonagh, Elaine L.; King, Brian A.; Desbruyères, Damien G.

    2017-01-01

    Observations made on 21 occupations between 1993 and 2016 of GO-SHIP line SR1b in eastern Drake Passage show an average temperature of 0.53°C deeper than 2000 dbar, with no significant trend, but substantial year-to-year variability (standard deviation 0.08°C). Using a neutral density framework to decompose the temperature variability into isopycnal displacement (heave) and isopycnal property change components shows that approximately 95% of the year-to-year variance in deep temperature is due to heave. Changes on isopycnals make a small contribution to year-to-year variability but contribute a significant trend of -1.4 ± 0.6 m°C per year, largest for density (γn) > 28.1, south of the Polar Front (PF). The heave component is depth-coherent and results from either vertical or horizontal motions of neutral density surfaces, which trend upward and northward around the PF, downward for the densest levels in the southern section, and downward and southward in the Subantarctic Front and Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). A proxy for the locations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) fronts is constructed from the repeat hydrographic data and has a strong relationship with deep ocean heat content, explaining 76% of deep temperature variance. The same frontal position proxy based on satellite altimeter-derived surface velocities explains 73% of deep temperature variance. The position of the PF plays the strongest role in this relationship between ACC fronts and deep temperature variability in Drake Passage, although much of the temperature variability in the southern half of the section can be explained by the position of the SACCF.

  12. Reading fiction and reading minds: the role of simulation in the default network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Andrew B.; Dodell-Feder, David; Mitchell, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Research in psychology has suggested that reading fiction can improve individuals’ social-cognitive abilities. Findings from neuroscience show that reading and social cognition both recruit the default network, a network which is known to support our capacity to simulate hypothetical scenes, spaces and mental states. The current research tests the hypothesis that fiction reading enhances social cognition because it serves to exercise the default subnetwork involved in theory of mind. While undergoing functional neuroimaging, participants read literary passages that differed along two dimensions: (i) vivid vs abstract and (ii) social vs non-social. Analyses revealed distinct subnetworks of the default network respond to the two dimensions of interest: the medial temporal lobe subnetwork responded preferentially to vivid passages, with or without social content; the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) subnetwork responded preferentially to passages with social and abstract content. Analyses also demonstrated that participants who read fiction most often also showed the strongest social cognition performance. Finally, mediation analysis showed that activity in the dmPFC subnetwork in response to the social content mediated this relation, suggesting that the simulation of social content in fiction plays a role in fiction’s ability to enhance readers’ social cognition. PMID:26342221

  13. Reading fiction and reading minds: the role of simulation in the default network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Diana I; Bricker, Andrew B; Dodell-Feder, David; Mitchell, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    Research in psychology has suggested that reading fiction can improve individuals' social-cognitive abilities. Findings from neuroscience show that reading and social cognition both recruit the default network, a network which is known to support our capacity to simulate hypothetical scenes, spaces and mental states. The current research tests the hypothesis that fiction reading enhances social cognition because it serves to exercise the default subnetwork involved in theory of mind. While undergoing functional neuroimaging, participants read literary passages that differed along two dimensions: (i) vivid vs abstract and (ii) social vs non-social. Analyses revealed distinct subnetworks of the default network respond to the two dimensions of interest: the medial temporal lobe subnetwork responded preferentially to vivid passages, with or without social content; the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) subnetwork responded preferentially to passages with social and abstract content. Analyses also demonstrated that participants who read fiction most often also showed the strongest social cognition performance. Finally, mediation analysis showed that activity in the dmPFC subnetwork in response to the social content mediated this relation, suggesting that the simulation of social content in fiction plays a role in fiction's ability to enhance readers' social cognition. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  15. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension.

  16. Bilingual Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

    This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

  17. First passage time statistics of Brownian motion with purely time dependent drift and diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Molini, Annalisa; Talkner, Peter; Katul, Gabriel G.; Porporato, Amilcare

    2010-01-01

    Systems where resource availability approaches a critical threshold are common to many engineering and scientific applications and often necessitate the estimation of first passage time statistics of a Brownian motion (Bm) driven by time-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients. Modeling such systems requires solving the associated Fokker-Planck equation subject to an absorbing barrier. Transitional probabilities are derived via the method of images, whose applicability to time dependent pr...

  18. Test Score Equating Using Discrete Anchor Items versus Passage-Based Anchor Items: A Case Study Using "SAT"® Data. Research Report. ETS RR-14-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Zu, Jiyun; Curley, Edward; Carey, Jill

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of discrete anchor items versus passage-based anchor items on observed score equating using empirical data.This study compares an "SAT"® critical reading anchor that contains more discrete items proportionally, compared to the total tests to be equated, to another anchor that…

  19. Possible Reasons for Students' Ineffective Reading of Their First-Year University Mathematics Textbooks. Technical Report. No. 2011-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mary D.; Selden, Annie; Selden, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the observed behaviors and difficulties that eleven precalculus and calculus students exhibited in reading new passages from their mathematics textbooks. To gauge the effectiveness of these students' reading, we asked them to attempt straightforward mathematical tasks, based directly on what they had just read. These …

  20. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  1. Improving Iranian High School Students' Reading Comprehension Using the Tenets of Genre Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Adelnia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate impact of using a technique, namely, genre-based approach on improving reading ability on Iranian EFL learners' achievement. Therefore, an attempt was made to compare genre-based approach to teaching reading with traditional approaches. For achieving this purpose, by administering the Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT 80 female EFL learners were chosen. We assigned the participants to an experimental and a control group randomly. A reading test was administered on the whole population as the pretest. 10 reading passages were taught using the tenets of genre based instruction, while the same reading passages were taught to the participants in the control group traditionally. After 10 sessions of instruction when all the passages were taught, the participants sat for a posttest. The research hypothesis according to which using genre-based approach to teaching reading does not significantly improve reading ability of Iranian EFL learners was rejected at 0.05 level of significance. Differently stated, using genre-based approach to teach reading can improve EFL learners’ performance in their reading classes. The result also showed that there is a meaningful difference between the performance of students who go under a traditional approach in teaching reading comprehension and those who are instructed using genre-based approach. The outcomes of this study can be used by English language teachers to consider the importance of a genre-based instruction. Keywords: Genre-Based Instruction (GBI, Reading comprehension, Iranian EFL learners, Reading comprehension

  2. From Expressive Reading to Rapid Reading: The Rise in Reading Rate During the Efficiency Movement (1910-1925)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Reading rate, a component of reading not closely attended to by educators and researchers prior to the 20th century, quickly became the subject of considerable research shortly after the turn of the century. This article uses historical content analysis to examine primary source documents from that period (1910-1925) to explore why reading rate…

  3. Vocabulary Analysis On Reading Texts Used By EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sutarsyah

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The vocabulary in the texts is the aspect that needs to identify. It is claimed that the condition of the words in a text has a great influence to readers' comprehension. It is also commonly believed that compre­hension depends on the extent that the words in a text are familiar to the readers. This case study was carried out in the English Education De­partment of University of Malang. The aim of the study is to identify and describe the vocabulary in the text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. The reading materials under investigation were a collection of reading passages based on the syllabus (Reading Com­prehension I and limited to the passages that were used in class during the second semester, 1999. Based on the nature of the investigation, a descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used. They were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. The vocabulary analy­ses in the texts reveal some constrains. It was found that the texts, con­taining 7,945 words of 20 different texts, are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. In terms of high frequency words occurring in the texts, function words dominate the texts. Of the 50 most frequent words, only two content words (people and say were found. In the case of word level, it was found that the texts being used have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the run­ning words in the texts. Based on the findings, some conclusions were drawn, it is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are

  4. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  5. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  6. Unfrozen sea : sailing the northwest passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, M. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). ArcticNet

    2007-05-15

    This article described the author's journey into the Canadian Arctic that documented the shrinking sea of Canada's Arctic region. It emphasized the loss of ecosystem and animal habitat. It addressed issues regarding Canada's claims of Arctic sovereignty over disputed waters, such as the Northwest Passage. In March 2006, the area covered during the winter by sea-ice was at an all-time low, namely 300,000 square kilometres less than the previous year. At this rate the Arctic could lose all of its sea-ice by 2030. The article also discussed phytoplankton in the Arctic which, removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Since the waters they live in are so cold, the phytoplankton sink into the ocean depths when they die, without decomposing. The carbon they removed from the atmosphere remains at the bottom of the sea for hundreds of years. However, as water warms up, the activity of marine bacteria that feed on the dead plankton will increase, releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere. Issues related to international shipping, navigation, ownership of Arctic islands, military presence and boats in the northern channels, and political promises with respect to the Canadian Coast Guard and northern waterways were also discussed. 1 fig.

  7. The Impact of Topic Congruence on Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Sadeghpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study scrutinized the impact of congruent topics on the quality of L2 reading comprehension. 56 Iranian advanced-level students read 2 texts on a controversial topic, one on the advantages of child gender selection, and the other on disadvantages. Quality analysis of immediate and delayed recall tasks, defined as the amount of high and low-level information recalled correctly, was performed by analysis of variance. Results revealed that topic congruence affected immediate recall of both high and low-level information, and also delayed recall of low-level information. Findings showed that the effect of congruent topics on reading recall was detrimental; participants recalled less information from the passage with congruent topic than a passage with incongruent topic. Outcomes of the study suggest that controversial topics should be selected more cautiously, because they may not truly reflect L2 readers’ reading comprehension.

  8. Reading in Colette: Domination, Resistance, Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel Cummins

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The act of reading on the part of Colette's characters reveals itself as a dynamic involving domination and resistance. A study of passages from two of her semi-autobiographical works, La Maison de Claudine and Sido , brings to light both a positively connoted model of reading, exemplified by the character 'Colette,' and a negatively connoted model, exemplified by the older sister Juliette. While Juliette approaches texts with no sense of self, and seeks instead to be defined by the texts she reads, 'Colette' remains in relation to texts and to the discourses they contain, and resists them. Gender complicates the process. Both father and mother intervene in 'Colette's' apprenticeship as reader. While the censorship that constitutes the father's intervention proves both debilitating and disempowering, the mother's modeling of reading as dialogue and resistance empowers 'Colette,' both as a reader and a female being.

  9. Does E-Reading Enhance Reading Fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Rahima S.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Dashti, Abdulmohsin A.; Sadeq, Taiba M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is reading as much as possible, for one's own pleasure, at a difficulty level at which one can read smoothly and quickly. In the domain of reading, this paper investigates the effect of extensive reading from e-books, through utilizing a number of downloadable reading application programs on the students' e-devices, as opposed to…

  10. Reading printed versus online texts. A study of EFL learners strategic reading behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Noelia Ruiz-Madrid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the WWW and Internet, hyperreading has become an issue for discussion in the educational field and more specifically in the field of English as a second or foreign language. Yet, very little is known about its nature concerning the reading process. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine whether the hypertextual medium affects learners’ reading comprehension and, second, to analyze learners’ use of strategies in hard copy and online reading contexts. Fifty university students from the discipline of Tourism read a research article in English taken from an online journal. Half the students (n = 25 read it in a printed format and the other half (n = 25 read it in its online version. Materials included an English academic reading test to measure learners’ comprehension of the academic passage and a reading strategy questionnaire to determine which strategies were employed by students. Statistical analyses revealed that the hypertextual medium 1 did not affect learners’ overall reading comprehension, and 2 promoted the use of reading strategies, including both top-down and bottom-up strategies. These results are discussed and suggestions for further research are given.

  11. The Effect of Background Music While Silent Reading on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sakineh sahebdel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effect of background music while silent reading on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The participants were 57 Iranian EFL learners between the ages of 14 and 16 in two 3rd grade high schoolclasses at pre-intermediate proficiency level. Before treatment,both experimental and control groups took a reading comprehension pretest. In the experimental group, the researchers played Mozart sonatas as background music and asked them to read the passage silently and then answer the reading comprehension questions. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but no music was played while silent reading by the students. After ten sessions, the students of both groups were asked to answer another independent but parallel form of reading section of PET as their post-test. The independent samples t-testresultsindicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in reading comprehension posttest, and listening to background music while silent reading had a significantly positive effect on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The results of the present study have implications for EFL students, teachers, and teacher educators as well as syllabus designers and materials developers.

  12. Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Michele [Fish Passage Center of the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Authority

    2008-11-25

    and McNary dams), whereas prior to 2005 spill was terminated at these projects after the spring period. In addition, the 2007 operations agreement provided regardless of flow conditions. For the first time spill for fish passage was provided in the low flow conditions that prevailed in the Snake River throughout the spring and summer migration periods. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) monitoring continued throughout the spill period. A higher incidence of rank 1, GBT signs were observed in late arriving steelhead smolts arriving after the 95% passage date had occurred. During this time dissolved gas levels were generally below the 110% water quality standard in the forebay where fish were sampled. This occurrence was due to prolonged exposure and extended travel times due to low migration flows. The 2007 migration conditions differed from any year in the historic record. The migration conditions combined low river flows in the Snake River with spill throughout the spring and summer season. The juvenile migration characteristics observed in 2007 were unique compared to past years in that high levels of 24 hour spill for fish passage were provided in low flow conditions, and with a delayed start to the smolt transportation program a smaller proportion of the total run being transported. This resulted in relatively high spring juvenile survival despite the lower flows. The seasonal spring average flow in the Snake River was 61 Kcfs much lower than the spring time average of 120 Kcfs that occurred in 2006. However juvenile steelhead survival through the Lower Granite to McNary reach in 2007 was nearly 70% which was similar to the juvenile steelhead survival seen in 2006 under higher migration flows. The low flows in the May-July period of 2007 were similar to the 2001 low flow year, yet survival for fall chinook juveniles in this period in 2007 was much higher. In 2001 the reach survival estimate for juvenile fall Chinook from Lower Granite to McNary Dam ranged from 0

  13. Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; Levinstein, Irwin

    2011-08-01

    Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers' comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect ("What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?") or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a "proof of concept" and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies.

  14. Multifractals of Normalized First Passage Time in Sierpinski Gasket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Choi, J.; Kong, Y.

    1998-05-01

    The multifractal behavior of the normalized first passage time is investigated on the two dimensional Sierpinski gasket with both absorbing and reflecting barriers. The normalized first passage time for Sinai model and the logistic model to arrive at the absorbing barrier after starting from an arbitrary site, especially obtained by the calculation via the Monte Carlo simulation, is discussed numerically. The generalized dimension and the spectrum are also estimated from the distribution of the normalized first passage time, and compared with the result on a finitely square lattice.

  15. Fundamental Bounds on First Passage Time Fluctuations for Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Todd R.; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2017-10-01

    Current is a characteristic feature of nonequilibrium systems. In stochastic systems, these currents exhibit fluctuations constrained by the rate of dissipation in accordance with the recently discovered thermodynamic uncertainty relation. Here, we derive a conjugate uncertainty relationship for the first passage time to accumulate a fixed net current. More generally, we use the tools of large-deviation theory to simply connect current fluctuations and first passage time fluctuations in the limit of long times and large currents. With this connection, previously discovered symmetries and bounds on the large-deviation function for currents are readily transferred to first passage times.

  16. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  17. Synthesis of Biological Reports on Juvenile Fish Passage and Survival at Bonneville Dam through 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, Gary E.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Johnson, Richard L.; Stevenson, John R.; Schilt, Carl R.; Johnson, Peter N.; Patterson, Deborah S.

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a review of available literature on juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam from 1939 through 2005. Studies of interest included project-wide fish-passage efficiency (FPE) studies by radio telemetry and fixed-aspect hydroacoustics, fish survival studies (direct and indirect), FGE studies, powerhouse and unit (by netting, hydroacoustics, and radio telemetry), predation studies in the forebay and tailrace, behavioral studies on forebay approach and egress, and surface-bypass studies. The FPE effort will include a review of available distribution data (horizontal, diel, and vertical) for juvenile salmon. This study does not repeat the results of previous review and synthesis studies but cites them. Where no previous review exists for a subject area, all reports were reviewed and synthesized. The report includes an annotated bibliography summarizing each of the documents reviewed and a DVD disk containing all of the original papers and reports along with an HTML index to the documents.

  18. What we 'see' when we read: Visualization and vividness in reading fictional narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Renate

    2017-08-24

    Visualization is defined as the production of mental images in the process of reading (Esrock 2005: 633). This article is concerned with varieties of visualization during an absorbing reading of a fictional narrative, the mental images that range from an indistinct and largely automatic default visualization to the much more vivid images that occur at significant stages in the narrative. Neuroscientific studies of vision have collected a large and impressively varied body of experimental evidence for two major processing streams - the dorsal and the ventral-specialized for vision-for-action and vision for-perception respectively. Further experiments distinguish different dispositional specializations: visualizers with a high spatial visualizing ability demonstrating a more efficient use of resources in the dorsal pathway, and those with a high object visualization and more efficient use of the ventral pathway (Kozhevnikov et al., 2010: 29). We can assume that both types of mental processing will be prompted in fictional narratives with differences in prominence depending on their authors' inclinations and the design and purpose of the narrative text. According to Amedeo D'Angiulli (2013: 7), who conducted elaborate tests of vividness in mental imagery using written descriptive passages as stimulus, dynamic imagery was significantly less vivid than static imagery. These results confirm traditional literary criticism based on introspection which argues that detailed description of static objects elicits an especially lively imagination. However, narratives can provoke even stronger visualizations by rendering subjective moments of seeing in which a fictional character is emotionally involved. In encouraging readers to shift now and then from the default mode of motion-oriented visualizing to a more affective and more conscious object visualization, literary fictions exercise their power to evoke imaginings that one would not generate by oneself. This may indicate

  19. An African hermeneutic reading of Luke 9:18–22 in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... The approach employed is an African hermeneutic reading of Luke 9:18–22 in which the clergy's leadership ... reading (AHR) of this passage is therefore a reflection on how Jesus' leadership approach, as well as the conflict ..... depicts the image of the PCC clergy in a context where social, economic and ...

  20. Development and Use of an EFL Reading Practice Application for an Android Tablet Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yasushige; Smith, Craig; Kondo, Mutsumi; Akano, Ichiro; Maher, Kate; Wada, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of an English-language reading practice application for an android tablet computer operating system with students who are not native speakers of English. The application materials for vocabulary learning in reading-passage contexts were created to include words from a database of low-frequency and technical noun-verb…

  1. L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2…

  2. Development and Use of an EFL Reading Practice Application for an Android Tablet Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yasushige; Smith, Craig; Kondo, Mutsumi; Akano, Ichiro; Maher, Kate; Wada, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of an English-language reading practice application for an Android tablet computer with students who are not native speakers of English. The application materials for vocabulary learning in reading-passage contexts were created to include words from a database of low-frequency and technical noun-verb collocations…

  3. L1 Glosses: Effects on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Hsueh; Good, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of 3 kinds of glosses--first-language (L1) Chinese glosses plus second-language (L2) English example sentences, L1 in-text glosses, and L1 marginal glosses--in comparison with a no-gloss condition in reading an English passage, to explore whether providing glosses can facilitate reading comprehension and…

  4. Improving Reading Prosody and Oral Retell Fluency: A Comparison of Three Intervention Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity; Joseph, Laurice M.; Watson, Mackenzie

    2014-01-01

    Phrase drill, listening passage preview, and repeated reading are instructional methods that have been effective in improving reading accuracy and fluency. However, little research has examined these techniques' effects on prosody and retell. This study did so using a modified alternating treatments design. Four students who recently completed…

  5. Cohesion Features in ESL Reading: Comparing Beginning, Intermediate and Advanced Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakans, Lia; Bilki, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    This study of English as a second language (ESL) reading textbooks investigates cohesion in reading passages from 27 textbooks. The guiding research questions were whether and how cohesion differs across textbooks written for beginning, intermediate, and advanced second language readers. Using a computational tool called Coh-Metrix, textual…

  6. Reading Comprehension in Children with ADHD: Cognitive Underpinnings of the Centrality Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amanda C.; Keenan, Janice M.; Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    We examined reading comprehension in children with ADHD by assessing their ability to build a coherent mental representation that allows them to recall central and peripheral information. We compared children with ADHD (mean age 9.78) to word reading-matched controls (mean age 9.89) on their ability to retell a passage. We found that even though…

  7. Eye Movement Control during Reading: The Effect of Word Units. Technical Report No. 310.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkie, George W.; Zola, David

    To examine the nature of forward saccadic eye movements in reading, eye movement records were collected from college students as they read a short passage. Forward saccades from this data set were analyzed to determine factors influencing the likelihood of any given letter in the text being the recipient of the next fixation. Data indicated that…

  8. Teaching Text Structure to Improve Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Bonnie B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explains the details of a method of teaching text structure that proved successful in improving both reading comprehension and summary writing of fifth graders. Reports that students quickly learned how to attend to and remember main ideas from problem-solution passages in their textbooks and how to write summaries. (MG)

  9. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins by sediment passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruetzmacher, G.; Boettcher, G.; Chorus, I.; Bartel, H.

    2003-04-01

    Cyanbacterial toxins ("Cyanotoxins") comprise a wide range of toxic substances produced by cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"). Cyanobacteria occur in surface water word wide and can be found in high concentrations during so-called algal blooms when conditions are favourable (e.g. high nutrient levels, high temperatures). Some cyanobacteria produce hepato- or neurotoxins, of which the hepatotoxic microcystins are the most common in Germany. The WHO guideline value for drinking water was set at 1 μg/L. However, maximum concentrations in surface water can reach 25 mg/L, so that a secure method for toxin elimination has to be found when this water is used as source water for drinking water production. In order to assess if cyanotoxins can be removed by sediment passage the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) conducted laboratory- and field scale experiments as well as observations on bank filtration field sites. Laboratory experiments (batch- and column experiments for adsorption and degradation parameters) were conducted in order to vary a multitude of experimental conditions. These experiments were followed by field scale experiments on the UBA's experimental field in Berlin. This plant offers the unique possibility to conduct experiments on the behaviour of various agents - such as harmful substances - during infiltration and bank filtration under well-defined conditions on a field scale, and without releasing these substances to the environment. Finally the development of microcystin concentrations was observed between infiltrating surface water and a drinking water well along a transsecte of observation wells. The results obtained show that infiltration and bank filtration normally seem to be secure treatment methods for source water contaminated by microcystins. However, elimination was shown to be difficult under the following circumstances: - dying cyanobacterial population due to insufficient light and / or nutrients, low temperatures or application of

  10. A babel diagnóstica e a escolarização de sujeitos com autismo e psicose infantil: atos de uma leitura / Disgnosis babel and school inclusion of subjects with autism and child psychosis: acts of a reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla K. Vasques

    2009-01-01

    and complex, the perspective adopted builds on Freud-lacanian psychoanalysis, philosophical-hermeneutics, special education and inclusive processes. Specifically, a reflection is posed on the place the diagnosis has in the construction of (impossibilitieswithin school based on the analysis of academic and scientific production on the issue for the past 28 years. The proposition is that diagnosis in central in the establishment of educationalpathways for such subjects. Diagnosis is often identified as an act of unveiling and/or decoding. From another perspective, it is defended that the relationship diagnosis-schoolingimplies the construction of a reading, the invention of possibilities. As it is not possible to determine the veracity of diverse theories, a schooling process includes constitutive unknowing. As there is no path pre-established guaranteed and anticipated by the diagnosis, teachers and school are responsible for their choices aiming their students school experience. Thus, the basis of their action is ethics, not a method or technique. As a metaphor of the interpretative work. I present the image of a library that is constructed, offers, inscribes and subscribes to the meeting between text and reader. Placing the library as a privileged space of such argumentation implies in taking language and reading as the center of discussions. It is a displacement of the focus of attention of the subject with autism or psychosis to the teacher, the other, who reads, interprets and builds schooling(inpossibilities.

  11. Reading Disorders:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon. PMID:28569728

  12. First passage time statistics for two-channel diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Godec, Aljaz

    2016-01-01

    We present rigorous results for the mean first passage time and first passage time statistics for two-channel Markov additive diffusion in a 3-dimensional spherical domain. Inspired by biophysical examples we assume that the particle can only recognise the target in one of the modes, which is shown to effect a non-trivial first passage behaviour. We also address the scenario of intermittent immobilisation. In both cases we prove that despite the perfectly non-recurrent motion of two-channel Markov additive diffusion in 3 dimensions the first passage statistics at long times do not display Poisson-like behaviour if none of the phases has a vanishing diffusion coefficient. This stands in stark contrast to the standard (one-channel) Markov diffusion counterpart. We also discuss the relevance of our results in the context of cellular signalling.

  13. The birth of spacetime atoms as the passage of time

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, Fay

    2014-01-01

    The view that the passage of time is physical finds expression in the classical sequential growth models of Rideout and Sorkin in which a discrete spacetime grows by the partially ordered accretion of new spacetime atoms.

  14. Culvert roughness elements for native Utah fish passage : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Native fishes have become an increasingly important concern when designing fish passable culverts. Many operational culverts constrict waterways which increase velocities and prevent upstream passage of small fish species. The current method to ensur...

  15. Development of a Nebraska culvert aquatic organism passage screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Culverts channelize water relative to natural stream reaches, which can increase the velocity of water passing through them. Increased water velocities can alter stream morphology and create a possible barrier or obstacle to fish passage, which may a...

  16. An Economic Analysis of Container Shipping Through Canadian Northwest Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqin Lu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers Canada's sovereignty in matters of navigation over the waters at the Arctic Archipelago, in the form of a toll fee for passage usage. We concluded that the NWP has an advantage over the Panama Canal if it is open for free international passage, regardless of ship size. However, if it is not free, its advantages depend on its toll fee. The lower the toll fee is, the more advantages the NWP will boast.

  17. Planning Guide for Fish Passage at Pittsburgh District Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Biology Department. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. 2009. Santee cooper anadromous fish: Fish passage and restoration. Stuart, I. G...A. P. Berghuis, P. E. Long, and M. Mallen- Cooper . 2007. Do fish locks have potential in tropical rivers? River Research and Applications 23:269-286...Stuart, I. G., L. J. Baumgartner, and B. P. Zampatti. 2008. Lock gates improve passage of small-bodied fish and crustaceans in a low gradient

  18. Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.

  19. Parameter estimation from observations of first-passage times of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Feller process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne Dalager; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2008-01-01

    -passage times. In this paper the hidden process is first anticipated as a non-stationary Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process with unknown parameters that have to be estimated only by use of the information contained in a sample of first-passage times. The estimation method is a direct application of the Fortet...... integral equation of the OU process. A non-stationary Feller process is considered subsequently. As the OU process the Feller process has a known transition probability distribution that allows the formulation of the integral equation. The described integral equation estimation method also provides...... a subjective graphical test of the applicability of the OU process or the Feller process when applied to a reasonably large sample of observed first-passage data. These non-stationary processes have several applications in biomedical research, for example as idealized models of the neuron membrane potential...

  20. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  1. READING COMPREHENSION. NOTION OF READING AND USE OF MACRORREGLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Montes-Salas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the NMS has been relevant to investigate the notion of reading and how reading comprehension skills are developed as they are the basis of learning. According to Frida Diaz Barriga and Hernandez (2002 critical and reflective understanding of the composition of texts written are nodal activities in the construction of meanings. We now know that the skills of reading and typesetting apprentices develop in subjects strategically and self-regulated, thanks to this research. Promote the development of communication skills contributes to the foundation of the curriculum consists of educating for students to acquire skills that allow them to face problems collaboratively and competently.

  2. Reading Rembrandt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and

  3. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...

  4. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  5. The Uses of Reading and Study Skills: Individualized Inservice Packet Number IX. Teaching Teen Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Nancy A.; Lloyd, Margaret V.

    Consisting of nine individualized inservice packets, the Teaching Teen Reading Series describes reading procedures applicable to instruction in all subjects in the elementary, middle, and secondary school. This ninth packet is designed to enable the teacher to help students read for information and pleasure and includes sections discussing ways to…

  6. Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy of Incarcerated Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lise Oen; Varberg, Jeanette; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Asbjornsen, Arve

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to examine the Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy Scale among incarcerated adults. The aim was to examine whether performance of reading and spelling tests (Reading Speed, Nonsense Words and Spelling) explained individual differences in the participants' efficacy beliefs in reading and writing. Six hundred subjects rated…

  7. Using Performance Methods to Enhance Students' Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Valadez, Corinne; Gandara, Cori

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-experimental study examined the effects of pairing Rock and Read with Readers Theater and only Rock and Read on second grade students' reading fluency scores. The 51 subjects were pre- and post-tested on five different reading fluency measures. A series of 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVAs revealed statistically significant interaction…

  8. Reorganizing the instructional reading components: could there be a better way to design remedial reading programs to maximize middle school students with reading disabilities' response to treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, Mary Beth; Sandow, Alexia; Hunter, Charles V

    2010-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore if there could be a more beneficial method in organizing the individual instructional reading components (phonological decoding, spelling, fluency, and reading comprehension) within a remedial reading program to increase sensitivity to instruction for middle school students with reading disabilities (RD). Three different modules (Alternating, Integrated, and Additive) of the Reading Achievement Multi-Modular Program were implemented with 90 middle school (sixth to eighth grades) students with reading disabilities. Instruction occurred 45 min a day, 5 days a week, for 26 weeks, for approximately 97 h of remedial reading instruction. To assess gains, reading subtests of the Woodcock Johnson-III, the Gray Silent Reading Test, and Oral Reading Fluency passages were administered. Results showed that students in the Additive module outperformed students in the Alternating and Integrated modules on phonological decoding and spelling and students in the Integrated module on comprehension skills. Findings for the two oral reading fluency measures demonstrated a differential pattern of results across modules. Results are discussed in regards to the effect of the organization of each module on the responsiveness of middle school students with RD to instruction.

  9. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 2nd graders and 974 3rd graders. Participants were assessed using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) Passage Comprehension subtest. Results from this study further illuminate the significant relationships between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and grade-specific guidelines for appropriate error rate levels. Low oral reading fluency and high error rates predict the level of passage comprehension performance. For second grade students below benchmark, a fall assessment error rate of 28% predicts that student comprehension performance will be below average. For third grade students below benchmark, the fall assessment cut point is 14%. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Eye-tracking as a tool in process-oriented reading test validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddny Judith Solheim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the continuous need for methodological reflection on how to validate inferences made on the basis of test scores. Validation is a process that requires many lines of evidence. In this article we discuss the potential of eye tracking methodology in process-oriented reading test validation. Methodological considerations are highlighted and special significance is placed on the importance of studying the first reading of a text as well as reading while answering questions about it. This point of view expands the traditional scope of eye-tracking methodology in reading research. We conducted a small-scale study in which 18 12-year olds read and answered questions about a multimodal text. In this study comprehension scores were related to allocation of visual attention in two conditions: (i reading a text passage for the first time; and (ii rereading of the text passage while answering questions about it.

  11. Eye-tracking as a tool in process-oriented reading test validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddny Judith SOLHEIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the continuous need for methodological reflection on how to validate inferences made on the basis of test scores. Validation is a process that requires many lines of evidence. In this article we discuss the potential of eye tracking methodology in process-oriented reading test validation. Methodological considerations are highlighted and special significance is placed on the importance of studying the first reading of a text as well as reading while answering questions about it. This point of view expands the traditional scope of eye-tracking methodology in reading research. We conducted a small-scale study in which 18 12-year olds read and answered questions about a multimodal text. In this study comprehension scores were related to allocation of visual attention in two conditions: (i reading a text passage for the first time; and (ii rereading of the text passage while answering questions about it.

  12. Development and validation of a new Chinese reading chart for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Josephine P Y; Liu, Dilys S K; Lam, Catherine C C; Cheong, Allen M Y

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a new Chinese reading chart for children. The characteristics of reading profiles among Hong Kong children were also investigated. A new reading chart was developed using the design principles of the MNREAD chart. Children (N = 169) aged seven to 11 years with normal vision and no developmental or reading difficulties were recruited from four local Hong Kong primary schools located in four different districts. Reading performance was measured using three versions of the new Chinese reading chart for children as well as six short passages. Repeated reading measures were conducted for 79 participants 4-8 weeks later. A linear mixed-model analysis was performed for the reading measures to identify the contribution of each source of variation (individual participant, among-charts within-session and between-sessions, and error) to the total variance. Three reading parameters were derived from the Chinese reading chart for children - maximum reading speed (MRS), critical print size (CPS) and reading acuity (RA). Results from the linear mixed-model and Bland and Altman analyses revealed that all three versions of the chart were reproducible, with little variability among-charts and between-sessions (p reading speed measured by the chart and ordinary children's reading passages confirmed the usefulness of the chart for assessing children's reading performance (Rc = 0.67, 95% CI of 0.60-0.73). We developed and validated a new Chinese reading chart for children for quantifying reading performance in Chinese children with normal reading ability. This standardised clinical test can be reliably used to measure the MRS, CPS and RA in Chinese-speaking children. Further research is needed to evaluate the validity of this chart for assessing reading performance in Chinese children with reading difficulties, dyslexia or low vision. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  13. The Effects of Narrow Reading of Authentic Texts on Interest and Reading Ability in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Sook; Ahn, Kyoung-Ok; Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Narrow reading means reading in only one genre, one subject matter, or the work of one author. The case for narrow reading was first presented over twenty years ago (Krashen, 1981). Narrow reading, it was argued, has the advantage of providing the developing reader with a familiar context, that is, familiar background knowledge that helps make…

  14. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Pli de passage fronto-pariétal moyen of broca separates the motor homunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, H; Kollias, Spyros S

    2004-05-01

    The complete form of the pli de passage fronto-pariétal moyen of Broca, a gyrus connecting the pre- and postcentral gyri at the level of the presumable primary motor (M1) hand area, represents a rare anatomic variation. By using functional MR imaging in a healthy subject incidentally found to harbor this configuration, we attempted to determine whether such an accessory gyrus would be functionally active and what effect it has on the complex somatotopic within-arm organization of M1. We found a specific and consistent activation pattern along the lateral and medial cortical boundaries of the pli de passage fronto-pariétal moyen. The gyrus completely segregated the M1 finger from the M1 elbow representation, one being laterally and the other medially located. Furthermore the M1 wrist representation was consistently split by the pli de passage fronto-pariétal moyen into a medial and lateral activation cluster. These findings demonstrate that this accessory gyrus not only contains functionally active neurons, but also leads to a functional separation of the motor homunculus at the level of the M1 wrist representation. This is a remarkable finding, because the region of within-arm representations in M1 was previously thought to be necessarily organized in a complex and intermingled fashion, without a topographic segregation between single body parts.

  16. First passage time statistics of Brownian motion with purely time dependent drift and diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molini, A.; Talkner, P.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A.

    2011-06-01

    Systems where resource availability approaches a critical threshold are common to many engineering and scientific applications and often necessitate the estimation of first passage time statistics of a Brownian motion (Bm) driven by time-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients. Modeling such systems requires solving the associated Fokker-Planck equation subject to an absorbing barrier. Transitional probabilities are derived via the method of images, whose applicability to time dependent problems is shown to be limited to state-independent drift and diffusion coefficients that only depend on time and are proportional to each other. First passage time statistics, such as the survival probabilities and first passage time densities are obtained analytically. The analysis includes the study of different functional forms of the time dependent drift and diffusion, including power-law time dependence and different periodic drivers. As a case study of these theoretical results, a stochastic model of water resources availability in snowmelt dominated regions is presented, where both temperature effects and snow-precipitation input are incorporated.

  17. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  18. The Decline of Comprehension-Based Silent Reading Efficiency in the United States: A Comparison of Current Data with Performance in 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichtig, Alexandra N.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Vorstius, Christian; Pascoe, Jeffrey P.; Pearson, P. David; Radach, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The present study measured the comprehension-based silent reading efficiency of U.S. students in grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Students read standardized grade-level passages while an eye movement recording system was used to measure reading rate, fixations (eye stops) per word, fixation durations, and regressions (right-to-left eye movements)…

  19. Improving oral reading fluency: a brief experimental analysis of combining an antecedent intervention with consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Daly, Edward J; Martens, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    A brief experimental analysis was used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of combining two consequences (contingent reinforcement or performance feedback) with an antecedent intervention (listening passage preview and repeated readings) on the oral reading fluency of 6 elementary students. The antecedent intervention increased the number of correctly read words per minute for all 6 students. For 4 of the students, pairing the antecedent intervention with either of the consequences resulte...

  20. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  1. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey-Long Liu

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

  2. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rey-Long

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling) that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references) in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no) articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations. PMID:26440794

  3. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rey-Long

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling) that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references) in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no) articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

  4. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-01-01

    A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation....

  5. Reading for Pleasure: A Reading Resource Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, Jane; Tambuscio, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    A reading resource room was developed for 59 deaf and hard-of-hearing secondary-level students, to improve vocabulary and reading skills and encourage reading for pleasure. Books of interest to teenagers with limited reading levels were located from several publishing companies and were arranged in a space with shelves and comfortable seating.…

  6. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  7. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  8. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  9. A Comparison of Cloze and Multiple Choice Tests for Measuring the English Reading Comprehension of Southeast Asian Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Milagros D.

    1975-01-01

    This investigation seeks to determine: the validity and reliability of cloze tests for measuring reading comprehension; the relation of cloze scores to difficulty levels of reading passages; the relation of cloze test performance to length of English training; and the merits of judgmental vs. random word deletion in test construction. (DB)

  10. Research on family reading: an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Train, B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents a summary of international research in the field of family reading, a subject which refers both to the development of the literacy skills of family members, and to their shared process of reading. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – It begins by defining the key terms in family reading, then introduces the research methods employed in research in this area. \\ud \\ud Findings – Research specifically focusing on parents is presented, with particular reference to y...

  11. Early reading instruction for children with reading difficulties: meeting the needs of diverse learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K; Edwards, Lana L; Starosta, Kristin; Sacks, Gabriell; Jacobson, Lisa A; Choutka, Claire M

    2004-01-01

    Several multiple-probe-across-participants design studies were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of a supplemental tutoring intervention using Read Well (Sprick, Howard, & Fidanque, 1998-2000). In Year 1, we conducted two studies with 7 first-, second-, and third-grade children (1 girl and 6 boys), who were classified as having learning disabilities, having attention-deficit disorder, or being English language learners and were identified by their teachers as poor readers. The results of the two studies indicated that 3 of the 5 children who received Read Well instruction showed improvement in passage fluency. Student performance on other measures of reading and comprehension was varied. Differences in student characteristics and in the amount of Read Well instruction received (2 to 7 weeks) seemed to account for the differences in performance. In Year 2, we implemented the same tutoring intervention for a longer duration (up to 16 weeks) and included 5 children in second and third grades (2 girls and 3 boys) with reading difficulties. Two of these children had previously participated in the Year 1 studies. The results indicated growth in reading, spelling, and comprehension for most children. Overall, the findings from Year 1 and 2 studies indicate the benefits of increased instructional intensity and duration for children who struggle with emerging reading skills.

  12. Teaching Literature and Reading Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    2011-01-01

     Insight into learning conceptions and interpretation strategies This article deals with the relations between different approaches to literature teaching and the resulting reading performance among Danish students in upper secondary school (16-19 year olds; the Danish Gymnasium). It looks into how...... the reading of literature is respectively supported and hindered in literature lessons in upper secondary school. The aim is to investigate the relation between the teacher's conception of learning and knowledge within the subject combined with the student's conception of learning and of reading...... and interpreting literary texts in the subject of Danish literature in order to create a broader insight to teachers and students into the underlying factors in a classroom with regard to knowledge and conceptions of learning (Marton, Dall'Alba et al. 1993; Boulton-Lewis, Smith et al. 2001). Furthermore the  aim...

  13. Modelling of digesta passage rates in grazing and browsing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dataset was composed of observations of domestic and wild ruminants of variable body mass (1.5 to 1238 kg) from 74 studies and 17 ruminant species from various climatic regions. Observations were ... Liquid and solid prediction passage rate models had no linear and mean bias in prediction. This study developed ...

  14. Nonstationary Narrow-Band Response and First-Passage Probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The notion of a nonstationary narrow-band stochastic process is introduced without reference to a frequency spectrum, and the joint distribution function of two consecutive maxima is approximated by use of an envelope. Based on these definitions the first passage problem is treated as a Markov po...

  15. Providing Aquatic Organism Passage in Vertically Unstable Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JanineM Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organism passage barriers have been identified as one of the key impediments to recovery of salmonids and other migratory aquatic organisms in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. As such, state and federal agencies invest millions of dollars annually to address passage barriers. Because many barriers function as ad hoc grade control structures, their removal and/or replacement can unwittingly set off a cascade of effects that can negatively impact the very habitat and passage that project proponents seek to improve. The resultant vertical instability can result in a suite of effects that range from floodplain disconnection and loss of backwater and side channel habitat, to increased levels of turbidity. Risk assessment, including an evaluation of both the stage of stream evolution and a longitudinal profile analysis, provides a framework for determining if grade control is warranted, and if so, what type of structure is most geomorphically appropriate. Potential structures include placement of large wood and roughness elements, and constructed riffles, step-pools, and cascades. The use of structure types that mimic natural reach scale geomorphic analogues should result in improved aquatic organism passage, increased structural resilience, and reduced maintenance.

  16. Rites of passage and sustainable development in traditional Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of rites of passage inAfrican ontological scene has been widely discussed due to its glaring place in sustaining all-round development. Yet, its practice in the contemporary Igbo land in particular and Africa in general continues to dwindle which is attributed to the consequences of globalization despite the fact that ...

  17. Nurse Educators' Leadership Styles and Nurse Graduates' Licensure Passage Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dianna Bailey

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to examine the relationship between leadership styles of community college nurse educators in Texas and licensure passage rates of nursing community college graduates in Texas. Surveys were conducted to obtain the nurse educators' demographic data. The Multifactor Leadership…

  18. Re-Founding Childhood Education: Passages in Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood represents the passage into and through constrained notions of spatio-temporal identity and normative constructions. The role of education is too frequently understood as the shaping of life and purpose in the service of democratic ideology. I propose another examination embracing historical anthropologies of education troubling…

  19. The Tyranny of Democracy: Deconstructing the Passage of Racist Propositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Zulmara; Necochea, Juan; Rios, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    This article examines race-based propositions and the movidas used to garner electorate support for these initiatives, which amount to the "tyranny of the majority" trampling on the rights of the minority as has happened so many times during our nation's history in the name of democracy. Specifically, the passage of Proposition 227 in California…

  20. Enloe Dam Passage Project, Volume I, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, M.L.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses issues related to the provision of fish passage facilities at Enloe Dam and the introduction of anadromous salmonid fish to the upper Similkameen River basin. The species of fish being considered is a summer run of steelhead trout adapted to the upper Columbia basin. (ACR)

  1. Passage Times for Polymer Translocation Pulled through a Narrow Pore

    CERN Document Server

    Panja, Debabrata

    2007-01-01

    We study the passage times of a translocating polymer of length $N$ in three dimensions, while it is pulled through a narrow pore with a constant force $F$ applied to one end of the polymer. At small to moderate forces, satisfying the condition $FN^{\

  2. First-Passage-Time Distribution for Variable-Diffusion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Liberty; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2017-05-01

    First-passage-time distribution, which presents the likelihood of a stock reaching a pre-specified price at a given time, is useful in establishing the value of financial instruments and in designing trading strategies. First-passage-time distribution for Wiener processes has a single peak, while that for stocks exhibits a notable second peak within a trading day. This feature has only been discussed sporadically—often dismissed as due to insufficient/incorrect data or circumvented by conversion to tick time—and to the best of our knowledge has not been explained in terms of the underlying stochastic process. It was shown previously that intra-day variations in the market can be modeled by a stochastic process containing two variable-diffusion processes (Hua et al. in, Physica A 419:221-233, 2015). We show here that the first-passage-time distribution of this two-stage variable-diffusion model does exhibit a behavior similar to the empirical observation. In addition, we find that an extended model incorporating overnight price fluctuations exhibits intra- and inter-day behavior similar to those of empirical first-passage-time distributions.

  3. Improving passage retrieval in question answering using NLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiedemann, J; Bento, C; Cardoso, A; Dias, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the integration of linguistic information in passage retrieval in an open-source question answering system for Dutch. Annotation produced by the wide-coverage dependency parser Alpino is stored in multiple index layers to be matched with natural language question

  4. Reading with a simulated 60-channel implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ePerez Fornos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available First generation retinal prostheses containing 50-60 electrodes are currently in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the theoretical upper limit (best possible reading performance attainable with a state-of-the-art 60-channel retinal implant and to find the optimum viewing conditions for the task. Four normal volunteers performed full-page text reading tasks with a low resolution, 60-pixel viewing window that was stabilized in the central visual field. Two parameters were systematically varied: (1 spatial resolution (image magnification and (2 the orientation of the rectangular viewing window. Performance was measured in terms of reading accuracy (% of correctly read words and reading rates (words/min. Maximum reading performances were reached at spatial resolutions between 3.6 and 6 pixels/char. Performance declined outside this range for all subjects. In optimum viewing conditions (4.5 pixels/char, subjects achieved almost perfect reading accuracy and mean reading rates of 26 words/min for the vertical viewing window and of 34 words/min for the horizontal viewing window. These results suggest that, theoretically, some reading abilities can be restored with actual state-of-the-art retinal implant prototypes if image magnification is within an optimum range. Future retinal implants providing higher pixel resolutions, thus allowing for a wider visual span might allow faster reading rates.

  5. Prestige Factors Influencing Evaluative Level Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda L.

    Prestige-suggestion, the effect that the prestige or reputation of a source has on a receiver, is the subject of this paper. Three research studies which have been done recently by researchers in reading are reported. These studies asked the following questions: If consumers evaluate products by means of reading store advertisements, will they be…

  6. Effect of Piracetam on Dyslexic's Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Forty-six dyslexic boys (aged eight to 13) were administered Piracetam or placebo in a double-blind, parallel experiment. Although, overall, there were no significant group effects, the within-subject design revealed improvements in reading speed and accuracy in Piracetam Ss. Dyslexics with higher reading ages improved significantly compared to…

  7. The Feeling Dimension in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    The feeling dimension of students cannot be ignored in teaching and learning situations. Feelings are there and must not be ignored. Reading stresses word recognition, comprehension of subject matter at diverse levels of complexity, and application of what has been learned. A major ingredient so frequently left out is student appreciation of the…

  8. Formation of Hyaline Cartilage Tissue by Passaged Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Vanessa J; Weber, Joanna F; Waldman, Stephen D; Backstein, David; Kandel, Rita A

    2017-02-01

    When serially passaged in standard monolayer culture to expand cell number, articular chondrocytes lose their phenotype. This results in the formation of fibrocartilage when they are used clinically, thus limiting their use for cartilage repair therapies. Identifying a way to redifferentiate these cells in vitro is critical if they are to be used successfully. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) family members are known to be crucial for regulating differentiation of fetal limb mesenchymal cells and mesenchymal stromal cells to chondrocytes. As passaged chondrocytes acquire a progenitor-like phenotype, the hypothesis of this study was that TGFβ supplementation will stimulate chondrocyte redifferentiation in vitro in serum-free three-dimensional (3D) culture. Human articular chondrocytes were serially passaged twice (P2) in monolayer culture. P2 cells were then placed in high-density (3D) culture on top of membranes (Millipore) and cultured for up to 6 weeks in chemically defined serum-free redifferentiation media (SFRM) in the presence or absence of TGFβ. The tissues were evaluated histologically, biochemically, by immunohistochemical staining, and biomechanically. Passaged human chondrocytes cultured in SFRM supplemented with 10 ng/mL TGFβ3 consistently formed a continuous layer of articular-like cartilage tissue rich in collagen type 2 and aggrecan and lacking collagen type 1 and X in the absence of a scaffold. The tissue developed a superficial zone characterized by expression of lubricin and clusterin with horizontally aligned collagen fibers. This study suggests that passaged human chondrocytes can be used to bioengineer a continuous layer of articular cartilage-like tissue in vitro scaffold free. Further study is required to evaluate their ability to repair cartilage defects in vivo.

  9. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  10. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Osborne

    Full Text Available Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm and elevated face temperature (0.7°C (P<0.001 above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05 and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01 and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05 in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05 relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  11. Text-to-speech technology effects on reading rate and comprehension by adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Scott, Nikki; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the comprehension, rate and perceptions and reading preferences of adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) when reading passages with and without computerized text-to-speech (TTS) support. Nine adults with severe TBI read 24 passages in two conditions: with and without TTS support. The researchers compared reading rate and comprehension accuracy across conditions. Also, participants rated their perceived performance and reading preferences via a follow-up questionnaire. Comparison to normative data revealed that all nine participants read slower than average neurotypical readers. As a group, participants read significantly faster with TTS support than without such support, even though the TTS reading rate was roughly comparable to the oral rather than silent reading rate of neurotypical adults. No significant differences in comprehension resulted between the two conditions. Over half of the participants preferred the TTS condition over the no-TTS condition. In general, participants were inaccurate in judging their relative reading rates and comprehension accuracy across conditions. TTS may improve reading efficiency without compromising reading comprehension accuracy for adults with TBI. Given this finding, some survivors may find use of TTS technology contributes to increased participation in and efficiency when performing reading activities.

  12. Various Models for Reading Comprehension Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Babashamsi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years reading can be viewed as a process, as a form of thinking, as a true experience, and as a tool subject. As a process, reading includes visual discrimination, independent recognition of word, rhythmic progression along a line of print, precision in the return sweep of the eyes, and adjustment of rate. In the same line, the present paper aims at considering the various models of reading process. Moreover, the paper will take a look at various factors such as schema and vocabulary knowledge which affect reading comprehension process.

  13. Individual Differences in Sensitivity to Style During Literary Reading: Insights from Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel van den Hoven

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Style is an important aspect of literature, and stylistic deviations are sometimes labeled foregrounded, since their manner of expression deviates from the stylistic default. Russian Formalists have claimed that foregrounding increases processing demands and therefore causes slower reading – an effect called retardation. We tested this claim experimentally by having participants read short literary stories while measuring their eye movements. Our results confirm that readers indeed read slower and make more regressions towards foregrounded passages as compared to passages that are not foregrounded. A closer look, however, reveals significant individual differences in sensitivity to foregrounding. Some readers in fact do not slow down at all when reading foregrounded passages. The slowing down effect for literariness was related to a slowing down effect for high perplexity (unexpected words: those readers who slowed down more during literary passages also slowed down more during high perplexity words, even though no correlation between literariness and perplexity existed in the stories. We conclude that individual differences play a major role in processing of literary texts and argue for accounts of literary reading that focus on the interplay between reader and text.

  14. Performance of fish passage structures at upstream barriers to migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, C.M.; Castro-Santos, T.; Haro, A.

    2012-01-01

    Attraction and passage efficiency were reviewed and compared from 19 monitoring studies that produced data for evaluations of pool-and-weir, Denil, vertical-slot and nature-like fishways. Data from 26 species of anadromous and potamodromous fishes from six countries were separated by year and taxonomic family into a matrix with 101 records. Attraction performance was highly variable for the following fishway structures: pool-and-weir (attraction range = 29–100%, mean = 77%, median = 81%), vertical-slot (attraction range = 0–100%, mean = 63%, median = 80%), Denil (attraction range = 21–100%, mean = 61%, median = 57%) and nature-like (attraction range = 0–100%, mean = 48%, median = 50%). Mean passage efficiency was inversely related to mean attraction efficiency by fishway structure type, with the highest passage for nature-like fishways (range = 0–100%, mean = 70%, median = 86%), followed by Denil (range = 0–97%, mean = 51%, median = 38%), vertical-slot (range = 0–100%, mean = 45%, median = 43%) and pool-and-weir (range = 0–100%, mean = 40%, median = 34%). Principal components analysis and logistic regression modelling indicated that variation in fish attraction was driven by biological characteristics of the fish that were studied, whereas variation in fish passage was related to fishway type, slope and elevation change. This meta-analysis revealed that the species of fish monitored and structural design of the fishways have strong implications for both attraction and passage performance, and in most cases, existing data are not sufficient to support design recommendations. Many more fishway evaluations are needed over a range of species, fishway types and configurations to characterize, to optimize and to design new fishways. Furthermore, these studies must be performed in a consistent manner to identify the relative contributions of fish attraction and

  15. Text-to-speech accommodations for the reading challenges of adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This study's purpose was two-fold: (a) to confirm differences in silent reading rates of individuals with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) and (b) to determine the effect of text-to-speech (TTS) on reading comprehension and efficiency by individuals with TBI. Ten adults with severe TBI answered comprehension questions about written passages presented in three conditions: reading only (RO), listening to TTS presentation only (LO) or reading and listening to TTS simultaneously (RL). The researchers compared reading rate, comprehension accuracy and comprehension rate (efficiency) across conditions. Analysis revealed significantly slower silent reading rates for the participants with TBI than for readers without TBI (n = 75). Also, participants with TBI achieved higher comprehension accuracy for factual than inferential questions; however, no significant main effect for comprehension accuracy emerged across reading conditions. In contrast, using comprehension rate as the dependent measure, analysis confirmed a significant main effect for reading condition and question type; post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that the RL condition yielded higher comprehension rate scores than the RO condition. As a group, adults with TBI appear to benefit in reading efficiency when simultaneously listening to and reading written passages; however, differences exist that reinforce the importance of individualizing treatment.

  16. How does reading direction modulate perceptual asymmetry effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Harry K S; Liu, Joyce Y W; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-08-01

    Left-side bias effects refer to a bias towards the left side of the stimulus/space in perceptual/visuospatial judgments, and are argued to reflect dominance of right hemisphere processing. It remains unclear whether reading direction can also account for the bias effect. Previous studies comparing readers of languages read from left to right with those read from right to left (e.g., French vs. Hebrew) have obtained inconsistent results. As a language that can be read from left to right or from right to left, Chinese provides a unique opportunity for a within-culture examination of reading direction effects. Chinese participants performed a perceptual judgment task (with both face and Chinese character stimuli; Experiment 1) and two visuospatial attention tasks (the greyscales and line bisection tasks; Experiment 2) once before and once after a reading task, in which they read Chinese passages either from left to right or from right to left for about 20 min. After reading from right to left, participants showed significantly reduced left-side bias in Chinese character perceptual judgments but not in the other three tasks. This effect suggests that the role of reading direction on different forms of left-side bias may differ, and its modulation may be stimulus-specific.

  17. Teaching Adults to Read with Reading Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmeister, Michele Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Many adult students have basic reading skills, but they are inexperienced readers who need to learn skills beyond the basics to equip them for success in college and career. How do educators face such adults with optimism and an eagerness to help improve specific reading skills so that these students can read and understand a variety of materials?…

  18. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  19. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study applied a reading comprehension pre-test and post-test design, as well as three-minute reading speed preand post-tests. Using SPSS statistical analysis, three paired-samples t-tests were administered and the progress from the reading speed pre-test to the post-test was found to be significant. Study results ...

  20. Developing Students' Reading Ability through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanshao

    2009-01-01

    A good reading competence is a necessity for those studying English for academic and occupational purposes. Based on the results of previous research, theory and practice on L2 Extensive Reading, this paper analyses current situation for teaching and learning reading in our Chinese universities and proposes practical applications of extensive…

  1. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  2. The contribution of phonological awareness and receptive and expressive english to the reading ability of deaf students with varying degrees of exposure to accurate english.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran

    2003-01-01

    This study was planned with the knowledge that the tasks of reading require the same acquisition of skills, whether a child is hearing or deaf, monolingual, or bilingual. Reading and language research literature was reviewed. Subjects were 31 deaf students (7.9-17.9 years of age) who attended one of three U.S. programs. Performance on 15 language and literacy measures was analyzed. Results were that students who scored highest on a passage-comprehension measure also were more able (a) to provide synonyms, antonyms, and analogies of read words and phrases, (b) to read more listed words, and (c) to substitute one phoneme more correctly for another to create new words than were readers with lower scores. Two groups of students also were compared: a Longer Exposure to English Group (n = 22) who used Signing Exact English (SEE) for 5 years or more and a Shorter Exposure Group (n = 8) exposed to SEE for less than 2 years. A correlational analysis revealed that there were no significant relationships among 14 background variables with the exception of "age of identification of hearing loss," a variable then covaried in subsequent analysis of covariance. Students in the Longer Exposure Group scored higher on all measures. Significant differences were found between groups for short-term memory, receptive and expressive English, and five phonological subtests. Mini-case studies and the performance of eight students in the Longer Exposure Group who scored lowest on the comprehension measure also are discussed.

  3. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation. The strategy was evolved in the continuity of reading. Students were encouraged to read extensively in and outside class. The findings indicated that the implementation could improve students’ reading readability.This attainment demonstrated that students’ reading readabilityis frosted through the continuity of reading. Other facts showed that students enjoyed reading. Students’ curiosity was also a significant factor. Their high curiosity explained why students continued reading though they realized that materials they read were difficult enough. Students’ self-confidence was also built as they were required to write a retelling story and to share their previous reading. Instead of their retelling and summarizing, students felt to be appreciated as readers. This appreciation indirectly helped students to improve the reading fondness.

  4. Mean Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport measured in Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, K. A.; Tracey, K. L.; Watts, D. R.; Chidichimo, M. P.; Chereskin, T. K.

    2016-11-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is an important component of the global climate system connecting the major ocean basins as it flows eastward around Antarctica, yet due to the paucity of data, it remains unclear how much water is transported by the current. Between 2007 and 2011 flow through Drake Passage was continuously monitored with a line of moored instrumentation with unprecedented horizontal and temporal resolution. Annual mean near-bottom currents are remarkably stable from year to year. The mean depth-independent or barotropic transport, determined from the near-bottom current meter records, was 45.6 sverdrup (Sv) with an uncertainty of 8.9 Sv. Summing the mean barotropic transport with the mean baroclinic transport relative to zero at the seafloor of 127.7 Sv gives a total transport through Drake Passage of 173.3 Sv. This new measurement is 30% larger than the canonical value often used as the benchmark for global circulation and climate models.

  5. Entropy Minimization Design Approach of Supersonic Internal Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid machinery operating in the supersonic regime unveil avenues towards more compact technology. However, internal supersonic flows are associated with high aerodynamic and thermal penalties, which usually prevent their practical implementation. Indeed, both shock losses and the limited operational range represent particular challenges to aerodynamic designers that should be taken into account at the initial phase of the design process. This paper presents a design methodology for supersonic passages based on direct evaluations of the velocity field using the method of characteristics and computation of entropy generation across shock waves. This meshless function evaluation tool is then coupled to an optimization scheme, based on evolutionary algorithms that minimize the entropy generation across the supersonic passage. Finally, we assessed the results with 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes calculations.

  6. Man Thou Art Dust: Rites of Passage in Austere Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Deirdre M; Szmigin, Isabelle; McEachern, Morven G; Barbosa, Belem; Karantinou, Kalipso; Fernández-Moya, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In response to recent calls for further cross-disciplinary research on austerity and a deeper sociological understanding of the impact and aftermath of the economic crisis on individuals and societies, this article builds on extant austerity literature through an exploration of its effects on European men. Informed by theories of liminality and rites of passage, this qualitative investigation examines the experience of austerity from the perspective of 11 men through the three liminal stages of separation, transition and reaggregation and investigates its impact on their identity, responsibilities and expectations. Our findings reveal the negative experiences of alienation and outsiderhood alongside positive experiences of communitas, solidarity and comradeship. The study provides a nuanced understanding of modern male Europeans and their 'rites of passage' through austere times.

  7. Anchoring effect on first passage process in Taiwan financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing; Liao, Chi-Yo; Ko, Jing-Yuan; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2017-07-01

    Empirical analysis of the price fluctuations of financial markets has received extensive attention because a substantial amount of financial market data has been collected and because of advances in data-mining techniques. Price fluctuation trends can help investors to make informed trading decisions, but such decisions may also be affected by a psychological factors-the anchoring effect. This study explores the intraday price time series of Taiwan futures, and applies diffusion model and quantitative methods to analyze the relationship between the anchoring effect and price fluctuations during first passage process. Our results indicate that power-law scaling and anomalous diffusion for stock price fluctuations are related to the anchoring effect. Moreover, microscopic price fluctuations before switching point in first passage process correspond with long-term price fluctuations of Taiwan's stock market. We find that microscopic trends could provide useful information for understanding macroscopic trends in stock markets.

  8. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  9. Readability of comprehension passages in Junior High School (JHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding what is read is essential to academic success in general and literacy development in particular. The aim of any textbook, especially English language textbooks for second language learners is to help readers improve their English language competence. This aim is defeated when students cannot read texts ...

  10. Case Report - Rupture diaphragmatique droite avec passage total et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report - Rupture diaphragmatique droite avec passage total et isolé du foie en intrathoracique. M Turki, MH Barhoumi, H Hajji, H Chemchik, B M'barek. Abstract. La rupture traumatique de la coupole diaphragmatique droite avec hernie du foie dans le thorax est une lésion rare. Elle est souvent intégrée dans le cadre ...

  11. Universality for first passage percolation on sparse random graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Bhamidi, Shankar; Hofstad, van der, RW Remco; Hooghiemstra, G Gerard

    2012-01-01

    We consider first passage percolation on the configuration model with $n$ vertices, and general independent and identically distributed edge weights assumed to have a density. Assuming that the degree distribution satisfies a uniform $X^{2}\\log{X}$-condition, we analyze the asymptotic distribution for the minimal weight path between a pair of typical vertices, as well the number of edges on this path namely the hopcount. ¶ Writing $L_{n}$ for the weight of the optimal path, we show that...

  12. Pleasure Reading by College Students: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Charlene; And Others

    A study examined how much time college students spend reading for pleasure, when they do the most pleasure reading, and whether or not parental encouragement plays a role in pleasure reading habits. Subjects, 219 female and 113 male college seniors at a small public liberal arts university, completed three questionnaires as part of the…

  13. Reading Skills and Development for Effective use of Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimable value of reading calls for the need to master the skills by the individual. A competent reader is obviously a competent learner. Since reading is the tool for all subjects in all content fields, it is pertinent to master the skills at all developmental stages of a child. This paper presented the analysis of reading skills ...

  14. Computational study of fish passage through circular culverts in Northeast Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    An investigation has been carried out in Northeast Ohio to determine the percentage of culverts that act : as barriers for fish passage and to identify the design parameters that can be associated with passage : success through stream simulation in t...

  15. Is motivation important to brook trout passage through culverts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Culverts can restrict movement of stream-dwelling fish. Motivation to enter and ascend these structures is an essential precursor for successful passage. However, motivation is challenging to quantify. Here, we use attempt rate to assess motivation of 447 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) entering three culverts under a range of hydraulic, environmental, and biological conditions. A passive integrated transponder system allowed for the identification of passage attempts and success of individual fish. Attempt rate was quantified using time-to-event analysis allowing for time-varying covariates and recurrent events. Attempt rate was greatest during the spawning period, at elevated discharge, at dusk, and for longer fish. It decreased during the day and with increasing number of conspecifics downstream of the culvert. Results also show a positive correlation between elevated motivation and successful passage. This study enhances understanding of factors influencing brook trout motivation to ascend culverts and shows that attempt rate is a dynamic phenomenon, variable over time and among individuals. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate other species’ motivation to pass natural or anthropogenic barriers.

  16. Reading Journal as A Way to Improve Students’ Comprehension toward A Textbook Reading Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menik Winiharti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading journal is one way to record students’ independent learning based on text they read. This study was conducted to find out the students’ level of reading comprehension through some notes written in the reading journal, the extent to which the activity of writing reading journals improved students’ reading comprehension, whether the students got benefit from reading journal. There were 104 respondents coming from four different departments in Bina Nusantara University were asked to read a text related to the subject they learned in a certain session. Then they were assigned to write a journal that records the things they had read. When this task was finished, the lecturer ran a quiz containing related questions to check whether they really understood the content of the text. Afterwards, students were to fill in a questionnaire regarding their opinion on the impact of the reading journal toward their reading comprehension. The findings indicate that more than half of the participants appear to understand the material well, and the task plays a certain role in improving students’ understanding. The most crucial thing is that most students think they get benefit by writing the reading journal.

  17. Reading charts in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of logarithmic reading charts has sparked interest in standardized reading performance analyses. Such reading charts have been developed according to the standards of the International Council of Ophthalmology. The print size progression in these calibrated charts is in accordance with the mathematical background of EN ISO 8596. These reading charts are: the Bailey-Lovie Word Reading Chart, the Colenbrander English Continuous Text Near Vision Cards, the Oculus Reading Probe II, the MNREAD Charts, the SKread Charts, and the RADNER Reading Charts. The test items used for these reading charts differ among the charts and are standardized to various extents. The Bailey-Lovie Charts, MNREAD Charts, SKread Charts, and RADNER Charts are also meant to measure reading speed and allow determination of further reading parameters such as reading acuity, reading speed based on reading acuity, critical print size, reading score, and logMAR/logRAD ratio. Such calibrated reading charts have already provided valuable insights into the reading performance of patients in many research studies. They are available in many languages and thus facilitate international communication about near visual performance. In the present review article, the backgrounds of these modern reading charts are presented, and their different levels of test-item standardization are discussed. Clinical research studies are mentioned, and a discussion about the immoderately high number of reading acuity notations is included. Using the logReading Acuity Determination ([logRAD] = reading acuity equivalent of logMAR) measure for research purposes would give reading acuity its own identity as a standardized reading parameter in ophthalmology.

  18. 76 FR 20707 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project. The...

  19. Using Speed Reading and Extensive Reading Activities to Improve Students’ Reading Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Wardani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study examines the implementation of Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities to improve students’ reading fluency of students. Using a Classroom Action Research, Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities was applied in 2 cycles with 2 x 45 minutes per week. Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities were taught using three phase techniques: Pre-Reading, Whilst-Reading, and Post-Reading. Speed Reading was implemented through some techniques including scanning, sk...

  20. mRNA expression pattern of selected candidate genes differs in bovine oviductal epithelial cells in vitro compared with the in vivo state and during cell culture passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh Mesgaran, Sadjad; Sharbati, Jutta; Einspanier, Ralf; Gabler, Christoph

    2016-08-15

    The mammalian oviduct provides the optimal environment for gamete maturation including sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of the early embryo. Various cell culture models for primary bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) were established to reveal such physiological events. The aim of this study was to evaluate 17 candidate mRNA expression patterns in oviductal epithelial cells (1) in transition from in vivo cells to in vitro cells; (2) during three consecutive cell culture passages; (3) affected by the impact of LOW or HIGH glucose content media; and (4) influenced by different phases of the estrous cycle in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the release of a metabolite and proteins from BOEC at two distinct cell culture passage numbers was estimated to monitor the functionality. BOEC from 8 animals were isolated and cultured for three consecutive passages. Total RNA was extracted from in vivo and in vitro samples and subjected to reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to reveal mRNA expression of selected candidate genes. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), oviduct-specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8) by BOEC was measured by EIA or ELISA after 24 h. Almost all candidate genes (prostaglandin synthases, enzymes of cellular metabolism and mucins) mRNA expression pattern differed compared in vivo with in vitro state. In addition, transcription of most candidate genes was influenced by the number of cell culture passages. Different glucose medium content did not affect mRNA expression of most candidate genes. The phase of the estrous cycle altered some candidate mRNA expression in BOEC in vitro at later passages. The release of PGE2 and OVGP1 between passages did not differ. However, BOEC in passage 3 released significantly higher amount of IL8 compared with cells in passage 0. This study supports the hypothesis that candidate mRNA expression in BOEC was influenced by transition from the in vivo situation

  1. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  2. Improving Student's Reading Comprehension Through Question-answer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Mayasari, Asti; Pudjobroto, Handoko; Wahyuni, Dewi Sri

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss whether Question-Answer Relationships can improve the students' reading comprehension. The objectives of the prior research are: 1) Improving student's reading comprehension and to know the extent of the improvement of student's reading comprehension through Question Answer Relationships. 2) Describingthe situation when Question-Answer Relationships is applied in reading class. The research was a classroom action carried out in SMP Negeri 8 Surakarta. The subject o...

  3. The Effect of the Reader's Background on Reading Comprehension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Saadoon Mohammed Al-Noori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at measuring the amount of the effect of the reader's background knowledge on performance in reading comprehension tests through the assessment of information gained in reading comprehension (RC tests across-four testing techniques, short answer questions ,true-false items , multiple - choice items , and cloze test and re-test. This technique involves the examinees in two types of tasks, i.e. pre-reading and post -reading task. Two hypotheses have been proposed to achieve the aims of this study. They are  1-There are no significant differences between the pre-reading and post-reading performances of examinees on reading comprehension(RC. 2-There are no significant differences in information gain scores across the different techniques of testing reading comprehension (RC in EFL. To verify the validity of these two hypotheses, a number of statistical procedures have been used such as arithmetical mean, t-test for correlated and independent samples to analyze the performance of third and fourth year College students studying at the Department of English at University of Baghdad /Ibn Rushd College of Education for Humanities on two reading passages taken from TOEFL practice tests (2011. The analysis of the data has shown the following results: 1-The background knowledge has an effect on the performance on reading comprehension (RC. 2-There is a significant difference in students' performance on reading comprehension (RC. 3-The effect of background knowledge is investable on reading comprehension (RC tests, but it can be identified or neutralized. Based on these conclusions, the researcher presented a number of recommendations.

  4. Psychometric validation of the Sentence Verification Technique to assess L2 reading comprehension ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Pichette

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English teachers use the Sentence Verification Technique (Royer et al., 1979 to determine the readability of written material for their classes. This process requires students to read short passages from a book, followed by isolated sentences. These sentences can be either identical or different from the original passages, in their meaning as well as in their form. For each sentence, students must indicate whether or not itscontent corresponds to that of the original passage. This paper reports on the design and assessment of an SVT test created for measuring reading comprehension ability, based on four English texts. The instrument was administered to 171 adult English learners, of various levels of English proficiency. The data were analysed using both traditional psychometric methods and the Raschmodel. Results indicate that the test shows high internal consistency, that it respects the basic assumptions behind the Rasch model, and that it is in the recommended range of difficulty for that technique.

  5. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  6. Mobile app reading speed test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, Alec; Wolffsohn, James S

    2015-04-01

    To validate the accuracy and repeatability of a mobile app reading speed test compared with the traditional paper version. Twenty-one subjects wearing their full refractive correction glasses read 14 sentences of decreasing print size between 1.0 and -0.1 logMAR, each consisting of 14 words (Radner reading speed test) at 40 cm with a paper-based chart and twice on iPad charts. Time duration was recorded with a stop watch for the paper chart and on the App itself for the mobile chart allowing critical print size (CPS) and optimal reading speed (ORS) to be derived objectively. The ORS was higher for the mobile app charts (194±29 wpm; 195±25 wpm) compared with the paper chart (166±20 wpm; F=57.000, preading speed test is as good (ORS) or better (CPS) than previous studies on the paper test. While the results are not interchangeable with paper-based charts, mobile app tablet-based tests of reading speed are reliable and rapid to perform, with the potential to capture functional visual ability in research studies and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  8. Ways students read texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersee, James H.

    College students responding to the Preferred Method of Study (PMOS) questionnaire explained how they approach reading a new textbook chapter for comprehension. Results indicated that a significant positive correlation exists between the number of passes a student makes at new textbook material and his/her college grade-point average. Women showed a significant preference for adopting a single method of study. Less than half of the students queried construct organizational tools such as outlines or diagrams as they study a textbook. Students said they would alter their textbook strategies in response to the type of test they expected significantly more often than they would for the type of subject matter being studied. Only 6% of the students said they make a conscious effort to link the new concepts in the text to prior knowledge. There was no discernable relationship between the study strategies undergraduate college students employ and their college grade level (freshman through senior).

  9. Affective/motivational factors in the recall of prose passages by alcoholic Korsakoff patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, D A; Butters, N; Gerstman, L J; Zurif, E; Paul, I H; Mattis, S

    1984-01-01

    The present study assessed the role of motivational/affective factors in the recall of short stories by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. On both immediate and delayed recall, the Korsakoff patients remembered proportionately more of stories with a sexual theme than of passages which were neutral or aggressive in content. In contrast to the Korsakoff patients, the emotional theme of the story had no effect upon the recall performance of alcoholic (non-Korsakoff) and normal control subjects. While the two control groups evidenced no forgetting of textual material between immediate and delayed recall, the alcoholic Korsakoff patients showed a rapid and equivalent rate of forgetting of all three story types. These findings suggest that while motivational/affective factors may influence the alcoholic Korsakoff patients' selective attention and immediate recall, they have little or no influence upon the patients' inability to retain verbal information. The importance of this conclusion for encoding theories of amnesia is discussed.

  10. Difficulty of Text as a Factor in the History of Reading. Program Report 86-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollinger, William V.; Kaestle, Carl F.

    This study assessed the readability of popular print material (newspapers, magazines, and books) published in 1920. Selected passages from these books and articles were analyzed using the Flesch Reading Ease test and other, more theoretically interesting and relevant, readability formulas. Results indicated that "highbrow" publications…

  11. Lexical Competence and Reading Comprehension: A Pilot Study with Heritage Language Learners of Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Edna

    2016-01-01

    The basic questions that guide this study are: (a) what percentage of vocabulary from a passage would a Spanish learner need to know to demonstrate "adequate" (a score of 70 out of 100) comprehension of it? And, (b) what type of curve would best describe the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension? Fifty-three…

  12. Associations of reading posture, gaze angle and reading distance with myopia and myopic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärssinen, Olavi; Kauppinen, Markku

    2016-12-01

    To study the associations of habitual reading posture, gaze angle in reading and reading distance with myopia and changes in myopia among myopic children. A total of 240 myopic schoolchildren (mean age 10.9 years), with no previous spectacles, were recruited during 1983-1984 to a randomized 3-year clinical trial of bifocal treatment of myopia. Three annual examinations with subjective cycloplegic refraction were conducted for 237-238 subjects. A further examination was conducted at the mean age of 23.2 years for 178 subjects. Habitual reading posture was elicited by questionnaire at study outset. Reading distance was measured with a Clement Clark accommodometer and gaze angle with an angle scale at baseline and all three annual follow-ups. Height was measured by a school nurse. The connections between the variables were studied with the standard statistical methods. Higher myopia was connected with shorter reading distance among girls at follow-ups 2 and 3, but not at the other examinations. The correlation of spherical equivalent with height was non-significant at each follow-up. Myopic progression across the whole follow-up was highest among those who read sitting down at baseline (-3.58 ± 1.75 D) and lowest among those who read face up lying down (-2.35 ± 1.53 D) (p = 0.021). Reading with eyes at a more downward angle was slightly connected with greater myopic progression (r = -0.166, p = 0.028). Reading in a sitting posture at myopia onset predicted the greatest myopic progression to adulthood and reading face up on one's back the lowest. Reading with eyes on turned more downwards was slightly connected with greater myopic progression. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Impact of Multiple Fluency Interventions on a Single Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Jennifer; Tracey, Dianne H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of multiple fluency interventions on a single subject in grade three. Fluency interventions, including choral reading, echo reading, repeated reading, audio book modeling, and teacher modeling were implemented over a period of eight weeks. Results indicated that using multiple fluency strategies, rather…

  14. The effects of question types in textual reading upon retention of biology concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; Lowery, Lawrence F.

    Do instructional questions to students enhance learning? If so, do certain types of questions cause greater learning outcomes than others? The area of instructional questions and questioning strategies has generated much research over the past two decades. A number of studies have found instructional questions to account for a large fraction of teaching time (Bellack et al., 1963; Schreiber, 1967; Moyer, 1967). Teacher use of oral questions in instruction, especially higher level cognitive questions, has consistently shown positive effects on student achievement (Redfield & Rousseau, 1981). Questions asked after oral prose presentations in psychology have been found to enhance recall of factual information (Sefkow & Meyers, 1980). Some large teacher training programs have specific instruction in questioning strategies (Lanier & Davis, 1972; Lowery, 1974). Questioning in textual reading has also been investigated, especially in the social sciences and languages, with respect to both the presence of questions in a text and the position and type of such questions. Although there are conflicting results, in general, questions placed within text materials have appeared to cause significantly higher performance than reading the materials without questions (Rothkopf & Bisbicos, 1967; Rothkopf & Bloom, 1970; Watts & Anderson, 1971; Quellmalz, 1972; Reynolds, Standiford, & Anderson, 1979; Corrozi, 1971). Questions placed after the reading have been found to be significantly more productive than prequestions, or questions placed immediately before the reading passages (Rothkopf & Bisbicos, 1967; Frase, Patrick, & Schumer, 1970; Watts & Anderson, 1971). In one study, placing questions before the associated information reduced paragraph reading time from the time required when questions followed the information passage (Morasky & Wilcox, 1970). Finally, higher level cognitive post- and prequestions (comprehensive and application) have consistently produced more learning than

  15. The Effects of Pre-Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Nemati Moghaddam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of three types of pre-reading activities (movie-watching, vocabulary presentation, and pre-reading summarization on the reading comprehension of 76 elementary-level EFL Iranian learners. The participants were randomly assigned to one control and three experimental conditions and then a pretest was given to them. After completing the initial stages, participants in all groups read the same passages under different conditions for seven sessions. Each group was then given a posttest. After that, Paired-samples T-tests were run to find out if the participants had made any significant gains from the pretests to the posttests, which proved to be the case. Results of a One-way ANOVA also revealed that students who had received treatments were better in performance than those who had not received any treatment. Finally, the Split-plot ANOVA test run on the results of the posttest and delayed posttest indicated that there was a slight decrease overtime in scores of the students in two of the experimental conditions which was the result of both instruction or class type and its interaction with time but not time itself. Keywords: movie watching, vocabulary presentation, pre-reading summarization

  16. THE 2011 PERIASTRON PASSAGE OF THE Be BINARY {delta} Scorpii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170 (United States); Pasechnik, A. V. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-21500 Puekkioe (Finland); Manset, N. [CFHT Corporation, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Carciofi, A. C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rivinius, Th. [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Stefl, S. [ESO/ALMA, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Gvaramadze, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskij Pr. 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Ribeiro, J. [Observatorio do Instituto Geografico do Exercito, Lisboa (Portugal); Fernando, A. [ATALAIA.org Group, Lisboa (Portugal); Garrel, T. [Observatoire de Juvignac, 19 avenue de Hameau du Golf F-34990, Juvignac (France); Knapen, J. H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Buil, C. [Castanet Tolosan Observatory, 6 place Clemence Isaure F-31320 Castanet Tolosan (France); Heathcote, B. [Barfold Observatory, Glenhope, Victoria 3444 (Australia); Pollmann, E. [Emil-Nolde-Str. 12, D-51375, Leverkusen (Germany); Mauclaire, B. [Observatoire du Val d' Arc, route de Peynier F-13530, Trets (France); Thizy, O. [Shelyak Instruments, 1116 route de Chambery, F-38330, Saint-Ismier (France); Martin, J. [Barber Research Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Illinois-Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Zharikov, S. V. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Okazaki, A. T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); and others

    2013-04-01

    We describe the results of the world-wide observing campaign of the highly eccentric Be binary system {delta} Scorpii 2011 periastron passage which involved professional and amateur astronomers. Our spectroscopic observations provided a precise measurement of the system orbital period at 10.8092 {+-} 0.0005 yr. Fitting of the He II 4686 A line radial velocity curve determined the periastron passage time on 2011 July 3, UT 9:20 with a 0.9-day uncertainty. Both these results are in a very good agreement with recent findings from interferometry. We also derived new evolutionary masses of the binary components (13 and 8.2 M{sub Sun }) and a new distance of 136 pc from the Sun, consistent with the HIPPARCOS parallax. The radial velocity and profile variations observed in the H{alpha} line near the 2011 periastron reflected the interaction of the secondary component and the circumstellar disk around the primary component. Using these data, we estimated a disk radius of 150 R{sub Sun }. Our analysis of the radial velocity variations measured during the periastron passage time in 2000 and 2011 along with those measured during the 20th century, the high eccentricity of the system, and the presence of a bow shock-like structure around it suggest that {delta} Sco might be a runaway triple system. The third component should be external to the known binary and move on an elliptical orbit that is tilted by at least 40 Degree-Sign with respect to the binary orbital plane for such a system to be stable and responsible for the observed long-term radial velocity variations.

  17. Compulsory Book Reading at School and within Leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with attitudes of secondary school pupils towards compulsory book reading at school, being the integral part of the subject Croat language and literature teaching subject, and its possible impact on their book (not-)reading in their leisure time. It is based on the research carried out through five-point Likert-type scale in…

  18. An Assessment of the Speed Reading Ability of Sandwich Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the concept and usefulness of rapid reading. It also reports a study in which the Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria Sandwich students formed the subjects. Their pre-training reading speed and comprehension scores were determined through a pre-test, after which they were subjected to ...

  19. Designing single-qutrit quantum gates via tripod adiabatic passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amniat-Talab

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique to implement single-qutrit quantum gates in tripod systems. It is shown by using the Morris-Shore (MS transformation, the six-state problem with 5 pulsed fields can be reduced to a basis that decouples two states from the others. This imposes three pulses not connected to the initial condition with have the same shape. Using this method, the six-state penta-pod system is reduced to a tripod system. We can design single-qutrit quantum gates by ignoring the fragile dynamical phase, and by suitable design of Rabi frequencies of the effective Hamiltonian

  20. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  1. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  2. Predicting the reading skill of Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Tatsuya; Hanafusa, Kaoru; Morooka, Teruko; Takeuchi, Akihito; Oka, Makio; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2017-02-01

    To clarify cognitive processes underlining the development of reading in children speaking Japanese as their first language, we examined relationships between performances of cognitive tasks in the preschool period and later reading abilities. Ninety-one normally developing preschoolers (41 girls and 50 boys; 5years 4months to 6years 4months, mean 5years 10months) participated as subjects. We conducted seven cognitive tasks including phonological awareness tasks, naming tasks, and working memory tasks in the preschool period. In terms of reading tasks, the hiragana naming task was administered in the preschool period; the reading times, which is a composite score of the monomoraic syllable reading task, the word and the non-word reading tasks, and the single sentence reading task, was evaluated in first and second grade; and the kanji reading task (naming task) was tested in second grade. Raven's colored progressive matrices and picture vocabulary test revised were also conducted in first grade. Correlation analyses between task scores and stepwise multiple regression analyses were implemented. Tasks tapping phonological awareness, lexical access, and verbal working memory showed significant correlations with reading tasks. In the multiple regression analyses the performances in the verbal working memory task played a key role in predicting character naming task scores (the hiragana naming task and the kanji reading task) while the digit naming task was an important predictor of reading times. Unexpectedly, the role of phonological (mora) awareness was modest among children speaking Japanese. Cognitive functions including phonological awareness, digit naming, and verbal working memory (especially the latter two) were involved in the development of reading skills of children speaking Japanese. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Scotoma Visibility and Reading Rate with Bilateral Central Scotomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Joshua D; Stevenson, Scott B; Bedell, Harold E

    2017-03-01

    In this experiment, we tested whether perceptually delineating the scotoma location and border with a gaze contingent polygon overlay improves reading speed and reading eye movements in patients with bilateral central scotomas. Eight patients with age-related macular degeneration and bilateral central scotomas read aloud MNRead style sentences with their preferred eye. Eye movement signals from an EyeLink II eyetracker were used to create a gaze contingent display in which a polygon overlay delineating the area of the patient's scotoma was superimposed on the text during 18 of the 42 trials. Blocks of six trials with the superimposed polygon were alternated with blocks of six trials without the polygon. Reading speed and reading eye movements were assessed before and after the subjects practiced reading with the polygon overlay. All of the subjects but one showed an increase in reading speed. A paired-samples t-test for the group as a whole revealed a statistically significant increase in reading speed of 0.075 ± 0.060 (SD) log wpm after reading with the superimposed polygon. Individual subjects demonstrated significant changes in reading eye movements, with the greatest number of subjects demonstrating a shift in the average vertical fixation locus. Across subjects, there was no significant difference between the initial and final reading eye movements in terms of saccades per second, average fixation duration, average amplitude of saccades, or proportion of non-horizontal saccades. The improvement in reading speed (0.075 log wpm or 19%) over the short experimental session for the majority of subjects indicates that making the scotoma location more visible is potentially beneficial for improving reading speed in patients with bilateral central scotomas. Additional research to examine the efficacy of more extended training with this paradigm is warranted.

  4. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level.

  5. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level. PMID:24954951

  6. Edwin Austin Abbey's The Passage of the Hours: Astronomy as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Passage of the Hours (1909-1911) in the Pennsylvania State Capitol at Harrisburg is one of the most original and least known astronomical ceilings in the United States. Designed by the American artist Edwin Austin Abbey (1852-1911) to complement the Italian Renaissance style architecture of the House of Representatives, the mural combines two classical traditions of representing the night sky: a celestial map with the constellations of the zodiac and the personifications of the Hours. Set in a shallow dome twenty-four feet in diameter, Abbey's constellation figures float in a dazzling firmament where the Milky Way streams between the Sun and the Moon. The artist placed the Horae of Greek mythology around the dome's circumference in the position of the numbers on an astronomical clock. In the tradition of Italian Renaissance architecture, the celestial ceiling in the House of Representatives was part of an iconographic program affirming the cosmological origin of a polity. The astronomical theme relates to Abbey's murals in the House Chamber of the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 from David Rittenhouse's observatory in Philadelphia, which the astronomer constructed to study the transit of Venus in 1769. The artist included a portrait of Rittenhouse holding his telescope among the worthies in the adjacent mural of The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania. Contemporary as well as historical events encouraged Abbey's use of astronomical imagery: the depiction of a comet may record the much-anticipated return of Halley's Comet in 1910.

  7. CAPITAL, SUBJECT, AND CITY. READINGS OF THE CITY AND THE HUMANISTIC CRISIS: THE MEDELLIN CASE. CAPITAL, SUJETO Y CIUDAD. LECTURAS DE LA CIUDAD Y LA CRISIS HUMANISTA. EL CASO MEDELLÍN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Insuasty Rodriguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This current text presents a result of analysis of the resulting information of the First Urban Counter-Hegemonic Forum, held in the city of Medellin, as a culmination of a series of city discussions carried out during the year 2013. It deals with an input that was thought in four sections, where downtown is the relationship among city, capitalism, war, and subjects in the city of Medellin. Likewise, it emphasizes the presence of the war more explicitly and it exposes how the capitalism that enters in a forceful way, undergoes transformations linked to the model of the city marketing, the city of the services, and the strong presence of a globalizing discourse, that also has effects on the urban screen and the social classes, subjects, and / or popular sectors. The text ends up trying to characterize the subjects, that in the previous dynamics, produce as being alienated, exploited, or oppressed, but also as resistance and/or emancipation in order to close with approaches - challenges, corresponding to the social research. RESUMEN: El presente texto presenta un resultado del análisis de la información resultante del I Foro Contra-Hegemónico Urbano, realizado en la ciudad de Medellín, culmen de una serie de conversatorios de ciudad realizados durante el año 2013, se trata de un insumo que se pensó en cuatro apartes donde el centro es la relación entre ciudad, capitalismo, guerra y sujetos en la ciudad de Medellín, así mismo, se enfatiza en la presencia de la guerra de manera más explícita y se expone cómo el capitalismo que ingresa de manera contundente, sufre trasformaciones ligadas al modelo de las city marketing, la ciudad de los servicios y la fuerte presencia de un discurso globalizador, que también tiene efectos en la retícula urbana y las clases sociales, sujetos y/o sectores populares. Finaliza el texto intentando una caracterización de los sujetos que las dinámicas anteriores producen como alienados, explotados u

  8. The Relations Among Oral and Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Middle School: Implications for Identification and Instruction of Students With Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations among oral and silent reading fluency and reading comprehension for students in Grades 6 to 8 (n = 1,421) and the use of fluency scores to identify middle school students who are at risk for failure on a high-stakes reading test. Results indicated moderate positive relations between measures of fluency and comprehension. Oral reading fluency (ORF) on passages was more strongly related to reading comprehension than ORF on word lists. A group-administered silent reading sentence verification test approximated the classification accuracy of individually administered ORF passages. The correlation between a maze task and comprehension was weaker than has been reported for elementary students. The best predictor of a high-stakes reading comprehension test was the previous year’s administration of the grade-appropriate test; fluency and verbal knowledge measures accounted for only small amounts of unique variance beyond that accounted for by the previous year’s administration. PMID:21637727

  9. Whole Language-Based English Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Erlina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This Research and Development (R&D aims at developing English reading materials for undergraduate EFL students of Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Raden Fatah Palembang, Indonesia. Research data were obtained through questionnaires, tests, and documents. The results of the research show that the existing materials are not relevant to the students’ need, so there is a need for developing new materials based on whole language principles. In general, the new developed materials are considered reliable by the experts, students, and lecturers. The materials are also effective in improving students’ reading achievement. The final product of the materials consists of a course book entitled Whole Language Reading (WLR and a teacher’s manual. WLR provides rich input of reading strategies, variety of topics, concepts, texts, activities, tasks, and evaluations. Using this book makes reading more holistic and meaningful as it provides integration across language skills and subject areas.

  10. Surface wetting effects on drop passage through a confining orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, Ankur; Longmire, Ellen

    2013-11-01

    The motion of gravity-driven drops (Bo ~ 2-10) through a sharp-edged confining orifice is studied in a liquid/liquid system for both hydrophobic (HPB) and hydrophilic (HPL) orifice surfaces. The drop interface is tracked by high-speed imaging, and fluid velocity fields are obtained by PIV. When a drop impacts the leading edge of the orifice, the drop fluid contacts the solid surface immediately, and the resulting interfacial contact lines begin propagating away from the edge. The final drop outcome (capture, release or break-up) is influenced by the motion of the contact lines as well as the contact force between the drop fluid and the orifice surface. In the HPB case, the contact line motion is limited, and the contact force acting against drop passage is weak. In the HPL case, the contact line motion strongly inhibits drop passage by spreading fluid across the upper surface of the orifice plate. For drops that break into multiple volumes, the wettability influences both the break-up location and fractional volume of the resulting satellite drop. Supported by DOE (DOE EERE-PMC-10EE0002764).

  11. Wireless Sensor Network Deployment for Monitoring Wildlife Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Vicente López-Bao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures. This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to establish safe ways for animals to cross transportation infrastructures. In addition, it allows target identification through the use of video sensors connected to strategically deployed nodes. This deployment is designed on the basis of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, but it increases the lifetime of the nodes through an appropriate scheduling. The system has been evaluated for the particular scenario of wildlife monitoring in passages across roads. For this purpose, different schemes have been simulated in order to find the most appropriate network operational parameters. Moreover, a novel prototype, provided with motion detector sensors, has also been developed and its design feasibility demonstrated. Original software modules providing new functionalities have been implemented and included in this prototype. Finally, main performance evaluation results of the whole system are presented and discussed in depth.

  12. First Passage Times, Lifetimes, and Relaxation Times of Unfolded Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Sengupta, Anirvan M; Levy, Ronald M

    2015-07-24

    The dynamics of proteins in the unfolded state can be quantified in computer simulations by calculating a spectrum of relaxation times which describes the time scales over which the population fluctuations decay to equilibrium. If the unfolded state space is discretized, we can evaluate the relaxation time of each state. We derive a simple relation that shows the mean first passage time to any state is equal to the relaxation time of that state divided by the equilibrium population. This explains why mean first passage times from state to state within the unfolded ensemble can be very long but the energy landscape can still be smooth (minimally frustrated). In fact, when the folding kinetics is two-state, all of the unfolded state relaxation times within the unfolded free energy basin are faster than the folding time. This result supports the well-established funnel energy landscape picture and resolves an apparent contradiction between this model and the recently proposed kinetic hub model of protein folding. We validate these concepts by analyzing a Markov state model of the kinetics in the unfolded state and folding of the miniprotein NTL9 (where NTL9 is the N-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9), constructed from a 2.9 ms simulation provided by D. E. Shaw Research.

  13. Placental passage of antiepileptic drugs at delivery and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Anna M; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Ritchie, James C; Pennell, Page B

    2017-05-01

    Children of women treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk of adverse outcomes detectable in the neonatal period, which may be associated with the amount of AEDs in the fetal circulation. Placental passage of AEDs can be measured by calculating the ratio of umbilical cord to maternal AED concentrations collected at delivery. The aims of this study were to determine the umbilical cord concentrations and umbilical-to-maternal ratios for AEDs, and whether higher cord concentrations are associated with increased risk of neonatal complications. AED cord and maternal blood concentrations from 70 mother-newborn dyads and neonatal complications were recorded. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between AED concentrations and complications. Mean umbilical-to-maternal ratios for total concentrations ranged from 0.79 for carbamazepine to 1.20 for valproic acid, and mean umbilical-to-maternal ratios for free concentrations ranged from 0.86 for valproic acid to 1.42 for carbamazepine, indicating complete placental passage. Neither umbilical cord concentrations nor umbilical-to-maternal ratios were associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Additional investigations are warranted to delineate the relationship between quantified fetal AED exposure and neonatal complications. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Downstream migration and multiple dam passage by Atlantic Salmon smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, D.; McCormick, Stephen; Greenberg, L.; Ardren, W.R.; Bergman, E.; Calles, O.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate behavior and survival of radio-tagged wild and hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar smolts as they migrated past three hydropower dams equipped with fish bypass solutions in the Winooski River, Vermont. Among hatchery-reared smolts, those released early were more likely to initiate migration and did so after less delay than those released late. Once migration was initiated, however, the late-released hatchery smolts migrated at greater speeds. Throughout the river system, hatchery-reared fish performed similarly to wild fish. Dam passage rates varied between the three dams and was highest at the dam where unusually high spill levels occurred throughout the study period. Of the 50 fish that did migrate downstream, only 10% managed to reach the lake. Migration success was low despite the presence of bypass solutions, underscoring the need for evaluations of remedial measures; simply constructing a fishway is not synonymous with providing fish passage.

  15. The Genetic and Environmental Foundation of the Simple View of Reading in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Suk-Han Ho

    Full Text Available The Simple View of Reading (SVR in Chinese was examined in a genetically sensitive design. A total of 270 pairs of Chinese twins (190 pairs of monozygotic twins and 80 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins were tested on Chinese vocabulary and word reading at the mean age 7.8 years and reading comprehension of sentences and passages one year later. Results of behavior-genetic analyses showed that both vocabulary and word reading had significant independent genetic influences on reading comprehension, and the two factors together accounted for most but not all of the genetic influences on reading comprehension. In addition, sentence comprehension had a stronger genetic correlation with word reading while passage comprehension showed a trend of stronger genetic overlap with vocabulary. These findings suggest that the genetic foundation of the SVR in Chinese is largely supported in that language comprehension and decoding are two core skills for reading comprehension in nonalphabetic as well as alphabetic written languages.

  16. Oral Reading Intonation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated whether fluency in oral reading, as indicated by proper intonation, could be used as a measure of college students' reading comprehension. The study was designed to look at the three features of intonation--pitch, stress, and juncture--separately and in combination to determine whether any one or a combination of all the…

  17. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome…

  18. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  19. 34 CFR 300.10 - Core academic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.10 Core academic subjects. Core academic subjects means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government...

  20. Children's Reading Ability in Early Primary Schooling: Challenges for a Kenyan Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwoma, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    School outcomes and good performance in different subjects depends on children's ability to read. Thus teaching children on how to read during early grades is critical in promoting learning to read. More advanced skills acquired in later grades depend on early grade learning, so children who do not acquire these reading skills in their early…

  1. Analysis of physiological impact while reading stereoscopic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Yasuko Y.; Tajima, Takashi; Kuwabara, Takao; Hasegawa, Akira; Natsui, Nobutaka; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Hatada, Toyohiko

    2011-03-01

    A stereoscopic viewing technology is expected to improve diagnostic performance in terms of reading efficiency by adding one more dimension to the conventional 2D images. Although a stereoscopic technology has been applied to many different field including TV, movies and medical applications, physiological fatigue through reading stereoscopic radiographs has been concerned although no established physiological fatigue data have been provided. In this study, we measured the α-amylase concentration in saliva, heart rates and normalized tissue hemoglobin index (nTHI) in blood of frontal area to estimate physiological fatigue through reading both stereoscopic radiographs and the conventional 2D radiographs. In addition, subjective assessments were also performed. As a result, the pupil contraction occurred just after the reading of the stereoscopic images, but the subjective assessments regarding visual fatigue were nearly identical for the reading the conventional 2D and stereoscopic radiographs. The α-amylase concentration and the nTHI continued to decline while examinees read both 2D and stereoscopic images, which reflected the result of subjective assessment that almost half of the examinees reported to feel sleepy after reading. The subjective assessments regarding brain fatigue showed that there were little differences between 2D and stereoscopic reading. In summary, this study shows that the physiological fatigue caused by stereoscopic reading is equivalent to the conventional 2D reading including ocular fatigue and burden imposed on brain.

  2. [Reading poems to oneself affects emotional state and level of distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Haruka; Sugamura, Genji

    2014-12-01

    Bibliotherapy has occasionally been used as a counseling technique. However, most reports are basically single-case studies and the psychological effect of this approach remains unclear. Two experiments using 96 healthy college volunteers were conducted to determine how the reading of emotionally positive, negative, or neutral passages affect one's mood and level of distraction. Study 1 revealed that participants felt more relaxed after reading positive poems with either personal or social content than after reading negativie ones, and they felt least refreshed and calm after reading negative poems with personal content. Study 2 showed that participants reported less depressed feelings, both after reading an excerpt from an explanatory leaflet and after a controlled rest period. These results were discussed in terms of the mood congruence effect. Future research may evaluate the effects of reading novels, manga, and life teachings on self-narratives and views of life in normal and clinical populations.

  3. Involvement of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension: a DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Wang, Yingying; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2014-09-25

    The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from diffusion tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SELF-PACED READING AND THE ACHIEVEMENT OF PERSIAN EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Toghyani Khorasgani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effects of reading goals on L2 reading comprehension in a computer-mediated environment when reading is self-paced by the learners and students are responsible for their own comprehension. Sixty participants (30 males & 30 females in three groups of 20 were involved. A computer program, written in C#.NET program, presented the text on the screen four lines at a time, and measured the amount of time students would spend on each page initially, how many times students re-read pages, and how much time students would spend re-reading pages. L2 learners’ comprehension and learning strategies were measured in three ways: recall of materials, time spent reading each page of the text and time spent re-reading pages, and the number of times pages were re-read. Finally, after one month from the first test a posttest was administered to determine which group could remember materials better. The results revealed that recall of materials was significantly greater for the teaching-goal group than the other two groups in both first and second tests. Time spent re-reading was significantly greater for the teaching-goal group as well. These findings suggest that reading goals do have an effect on comprehension and recalling in a computer-mediated environment and students with a different reading goal performed differently while reading passages.

  5. Various Models for Reading Comprehension Process

    OpenAIRE

    Parastoo Babashamsi; Saeideh Bolandifar; Nahid Shakib

    2013-01-01

    In recent years reading can be viewed as a process, as a form of thinking, as a true experience, and as a tool subject. As a process, reading includes visual discrimination, independent recognition of word, rhythmic progression along a line of print, precision in the return sweep of the eyes, and adjustment of rate. In the same line, the present paper aims at considering the various models of reading process. Moreover, the paper will take a look at various factors such as schema and vocabular...

  6. [A scientific reading method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, D

    1999-09-01

    To provide high quality services, nursing professionals must be prepared to update their knowledge constantly. To achieve this, various methods are available such as courses, conferences and research projects. All of these methods share one essential intellectual activity, scientific reading. Scientific reading is a complex and demanding activity that requires more than basic reading skills. Many nurses find it boring and arduous, probably because it gives them no pleasure, but especially because they lack a method. In this article, the author proposes a scientific reading method consisting of three stages: an overview approach to the text, a superficial reading, and an in-depth reading of the text. This method is simple, easy to use, and entirely appropriate for scientific reading. The author hopes that this method will give more nurses the desire to read and use scientific literature in the practice of their profession.

  7. Reading sentences in Serbian: Effects of alphabet and reading mode in self-paced reading task

    OpenAIRE

    Vejnović Dušan; Jovanović Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the influence of alphabet (Cyrillic vs. Latin) and reading mode (silent reading vs. reading aloud) on sentence reading speed in Serbian. Entire-sentence and single-word reading times were obtained from the moving window paradigm in the self-paced sentence reading task. Sentences printed in Latin took less time for reading than sentences printed in Cyrillic and silent reading was more rapid than reading aloud. Single-word processing results followed the pattern observe...

  8. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  9. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  10. Reading to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  11. Time for Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, William R.

    1989-01-01

    Reading for pleasure and enlightenment is a critical, and endangered, element in a well-informed citizenry. As a basis for intellectual growth, reading is threatened by media misuse and lack of encouragement of recreational reading. Solutions include emphasis on integrated skills, improved time allocation, and cooperation among parents, teachers,…

  12. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  13. Reading for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Peter

    Designed to give parents an overview of reading and some suggestions on how they can help their children, this guide has been used in parent classes and workshops throughout Illinois since 1976. The nine sections of the guide cover the following areas: a general definition of reading, some causes of reading difficulty, various techniques used in…

  14. Perceptual Issues in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Jerome

    Perception has become an important term in recent literature on reading problems and their solutions. However, the relationship between perception and reading has not been clarified. Tests of visual perception often focus on skills such as copying geometric designs which have little or nothing to do with reading skills or readiness. Researchers…

  15. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  16. Reading as a Whole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Constance

    Underlying virtually all of the basal reading series available in the United States today is the assumption that learning to read is a skill-by-skill and word-by-word process. This part-to-whole approach to teaching reading is based on principles of behavioral psychology and "scientific management" developed a half century ago and treats…

  17. Family Reading Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  18. Coordinating Supplemental Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…

  19. Free Voluntary Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless to say, the contribution of reading skill to first and second language acquisition is enormous. From one‟s speaking and writing we can more or less conclude how much s/he has read. We can list the characteristics of good readers as follows: rich vocabulary knowledge advanced reading comprehension, accurate grammar usage, broad general knowledge, correct spelling and punctuation, writing ability, and so on. If reading is so powerful, why cannot we promote reading books in our society, particularly among young people? The fact that we are imposed to read books which we think are necessary or compulsory rather than the ones which we would like to read voluntarily, is the main reason why many of us are not able to develop a life-time reading habit. Since compulsory books, such as teacher-selected books are outside one‟s interest; they are destined to be forgotten sometime, or they suffer form shallow reading, or they are mostly returned to their place on the shelf after browsing the initial pages. However, if people of all ages, especially children would read self-selected books they enjoy, they would be surprised to notice the great change inside them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to revitalize free voluntary reading by referring to Krashen‟s well-known hypotheses. Also, it aims to revive the reader‟s belief in free voluntary reading with theoretical and practical examples

  20. Reading in Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Nancy

    In a bilingual education program, reading should be introduced in the child's stronger language. Reading in the second language should be delayed until the child has become fully literate in the first language. Ideally that point should be determined for each child individually. The relative emphasis given to reading in each language is based on…

  1. Improving reading comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Komariah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discovering the benefits of the Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM in the reading classroom, finding out the achievements of students after four comprehension training sessions of using RTM, and exploring the perceptions of students on the use of RTM. This method uses four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, to help learners monitor their development of reading comprehension by themselves. Students work in groups of four or five and the members are divided into five roles which are the leader, predictor, clarifier, questioner, and summarizer. The subjects were 24 students from the twelfth grade at a high school in Banda Aceh. Observations, tests, documents and interviews were collected to get the data. The results showed that the students were more active and productive in the reading classroom after RTM sessions and their reading proficiency improved. They learnt how to apply several of the strategies from RTM while reading. The results also showed that they preferred this method for teaching-learning reading compared to the conventional one. Therefore, teachers are suggested to consider using this method for teaching reading that instils the students on how to apply the four comprehension strategies used in reading.

  2. Teaching Community College Students Strategies for Learning Unknown Words as They Read Expository Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Craigo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate methods that enable college students to learn the meaning of unknown words as they read discipline-specific academic text. Forty-one college students read specific passages aloud during three sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to three vocabulary learning interventions or a control condition. The interventions involved applying context, morphemic, and syntactic strategies; applying definitions; or applying both strategies and definitions to determine word meanings. Word learning and comprehension were measured during the interventions and in a transfer task to assess treatment effects on independent text reading. Results revealed that students in all three intervention groups outperformed controls in learning words and comprehending passages. However, the treatment groups did not differ from controls on the transfer task. Teaching both strategies and definitions was especially effective for learning unknown words and comprehending text containing those words.

  3. Using Dialogic Reading to Enhance Emergent Literacy Skills of Young Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an early reading intervention on preschool-age dual language learners' (DLL) early literacy skills. Instruction in phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge was embedded in interactive reading strategies, also known as dialogic reading. A single subject multiple baseline across subjects design was applied to…

  4. The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) Model in the ELL and LD Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Yi

    2010-01-01

    The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) framework, constructed by Heerman (2002), was made up of the instructional goals designed for reading-learning integrations in subject matter classrooms. ELL and LD students often fail to have sufficient reading skills to succeed within their different academic subjects, consequently it is important for…

  5. Reading Performances between Novices and Experts in Different Media Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Robertson, Tip; Lee, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study investigated connections between subject expertise and multitasking ability among college students. One hundred thirty college students participated in the study. Participants were assessed on their subject expertise and reading tasks under three conditions: (a) reading only (silence condition), (b) reading with a video…

  6. Elaboração e validação de tabela MNREAD para o idioma português Development and validation of the MNREAD reading acuity chart in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Tamaki Monteiro de Castro

    2005-12-01

    with simple vocabulary. A total of 110 sentences were generated. The sentences were presented to 36 subjects (20 adults and 16 children and mistakes and reading time were marked. 38 sentences were selected for a prototype (MNREAD-P. Sentences with extreme high and low mean reading time, large standard deviation, and with persistent mistakes by subjects were excluded. Validation: Twenty subjects with normal vision (logMAR 0 or 20/20 or better, with best refractive correction were tested with the MNREAD-P and read a passage of text, representing normal, day-to-day reading. Reading speeds in words per minute were recorded for both the MNREAD and the text passage. RESULTS: Sentences in the MNREAD Portuguese chart are sufficiently consistent to provide reliable measures of reading abilities. Reading speeds for the passage (logMar = 0.6 were 197.8 words/minute and the maximum reading speeds calculated by the MNREAD-P were 200.1 words/minute. The correlation between the two measures was r = 0.82. CONCLUSION: The MNREAD-P was tested on normal vision subjects and the results were the same from the original Minnesota Low Vision Reading Test. The reading speed measured on the MNREAD-P was statistically equivalent to the reading speed of the passage.

  7. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  8. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  9. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ; Gonca DEMİRTAŞ

    2016-01-01

    Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple s...

  10. Test Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Janice M.; Meenan, Chelsea E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. We had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, we found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are due to weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables - word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill – to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

  11. Perspective: Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage: The status after 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Klaas; Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Shore, Bruce W.

    2015-05-01

    The first presentation of the STIRAP (stimulated Raman adiabatic passage) technique with proper theoretical foundation and convincing experimental data appeared 25 years ago, in the May 1st, 1990 issue of The Journal of Chemical Physics. By now, the STIRAP concept has been successfully applied in many different fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. In this article, we comment briefly on the initial motivation of the work, namely, the study of reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited small molecules, and how this initial idea led to the documented success. We proceed by providing a brief discussion of the physics of STIRAP and how the method was developed over the years, before discussing a few examples from the amazingly wide range of applications which STIRAP now enjoys, with the aim to stimulate further use of the concept. Finally, we mention some promising future directions.

  12. The passage of a star by a massive black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolthenius, R. A.; Katz, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    The gridless, smoothed particle hydrodynamic method of Lucy (1977) and Gingold and Monaghan (1977, 1980, a, b, 1981) is used to solve the three-dimensional problem posed by the effects on a 1.0 solar mass star of a 10,000 solar mass black hole's passage, in an initially parabolic orbit with a variety of pericenter distances. It is found that the tidal forces induce rotation and radial and nonradial pulsations in the star, and that the loss of orbital energy to these internal motions leads to the star's capture by the black hole. While the outer layers of the star are disrupted at small pericenter distances, the entire star is destroyed at even smaller distances. These results are applicable to X-ray sources, active galactic nuclei, and quasars

  13. [Placental passage of macromolecules: transport pathway and mode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challier, J C; Bintein, T

    1989-09-01

    In vivo and in vitro data have recently shown that macromolecules cross the hemochorial placenta. This feature contrats with the size selectivity of the sheep placenta which exclude molecules of 0.45 nm radius. Macromolecules moves by diffusion or endocytosis. In addition to size selectivity, the electrical charges of the macromolecules might be involved in placental transfer. The main resistance to placental transfer lie in the trophoblastic layer and the pathways of specific or unspecific transcytosis are not elicited. Membrane or fluid phase markers (peroxydases), carrier molecules (LDL, transferrin...), hormones and growth factors (insuline, EGF) are internalized by endocytosis into the trophoblast and further degraded or recycled. Immunoglobulins G, which are protected from degradation, reach the fetal circulation. The endothelial layer looks less selective and permits passage either by interendothelial diffusion or transcytosis.

  14. Spatial non-adiabatic passage using geometric phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Kiely, Anthony; Ruschhaupt, Andreas [University College Cork, Department of Physics, Cork (Ireland); Zhang, Yongping [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa (Japan); Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2017-12-15

    Quantum technologies based on adiabatic techniques can be highly effective, but often at the cost of being very slow. Here we introduce a set of experimentally realistic, non-adiabatic protocols for spatial state preparation, which yield the same fidelity as their adiabatic counterparts, but on fast timescales. In particular, we consider a charged particle in a system of three tunnel-coupled quantum wells, where the presence of a magnetic field can induce a geometric phase during the tunnelling processes. We show that this leads to the appearance of complex tunnelling amplitudes and allows for the implementation of spatial non-adiabatic passage. We demonstrate the ability of such a system to transport a particle between two different wells and to generate a delocalised superposition between the three traps with high fidelity in short times. (orig.)

  15. First-passage time of Brownian motion with dry friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaming; Just, Wolfram

    2014-02-01

    We provide an analytic solution to the first-passage time (FPT) problem of a piecewise-smooth stochastic model, namely Brownian motion with dry friction, using two different but closely related approaches which are based on eigenfunction decompositions on the one hand and on the backward Kolmogorov equation on the other. For the simple case containing only dry friction, a phase-transition phenomenon in the spectrum is found which relates to the position of the exit point, and which affects the tail of the FPT distribution. For the model containing as well a driving force and viscous friction the impact of the corresponding stick-slip transition and of the transition to ballistic exit is evaluated quantitatively. The proposed model is one of the very few cases where FPT properties are accessible by analytical means.

  16. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  17. The passage and initial implementation of Oregon's Measure 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, L.; Glantz, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To prepare a history of the passage and early implementation of Ballot Measure 44, "An Act to Support the Oregon Health Plan", and tobacco control policymaking in Oregon. Measure 44 raised cigarette taxes in Oregon by US$0.30 per pack, and dedicated 10% of the revenues to tobacco control.
METHODS—Data were gathered from interviews with members of the Committee to Support the Oregon Health Plan, Measure 44's campaign committee, as well as with state and local officials, and tobacco control advocates. Additional information was obtained from public documents, internal memoranda, and news reports.
RESULTS—Although the tobacco industry outspent Measure 44's supporters 7 to 1, the initiative passed with 56% of the vote. Even before the election, tobacco control advocates were working to develop an implementation plan for the tobacco control programme. They mounted a successful lobbying campaign to see that the legislature did not divert tobacco control funds to other uses. They also stopped industry efforts to limit the scope of the programme. The one shortcoming of the tobacco control forces was not getting involved in planning the initiative early enough to influence the amount of money that was devoted to tobacco control. Although public health groups provided 37% of the money it cost to pass Measure 44, only 10% of revenues were devoted to tobacco control.
CONCLUSIONS—Proactive planning and aggressive implementation can secure passage of tobacco control initiatives and see that the associated implementing legislation follows good public health practice.


Keywords: advocacy; legislation; implementation; tobacco tax PMID:10599577

  18. Consequences of the Solar System passage through dense interstellar clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yeghikyan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Several consequences of the passage of the solar system through dense interstellar molecular clouds are discussed. These clouds, dense (more than 100 cm-3, cold (10–50 K and extended (larger than 1 pc, are characterized by a gas-to-dust mass ratio of about 100, by a specific power grain size spectrum (grain radii usually cover the range 0.001–3 micron and by an average dust-to-gas number density ratio of about 10-12. Frequently these clouds contain small-scale (10–100 AU condensations with gas concentrations ranging up to 10 5 cm-3. At their casual passage over the solar system they exert pressures very much enhanced with respect to today’s standards. Under these conditions it will occur that the Earth is exposed directly to the interstellar flow. It is shown first that even close to the Sun, at 1 AU, the cloud’s matter is only partly ionized and should mainly interact with the solar wind by charge exchange processes. Dust particles of the cloud serve as a source of neutrals, generated by the solar UV irradiation of dust grains, causing the evaporation of icy materials. The release of neutral atoms from dust grains is then followed by strong influences on the solar wind plasma flow. The behavior of the neutral gas inflow parameters is investigated by a 2-D hydrodynamic approach to model the interaction processes. Because of a reduction of the heliospheric dimension down to 1 AU, direct influence of the cloud’s matter to the terrestrial environment and atmosphere could be envisaged.Key words. Interplanetary physics (heliopause and solar wind termination; interplanetary dust; interstellar gas

  19. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

  20. Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutaya, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

  1. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  2. Extended passaging increases the efficiency of neural differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koehler Karl R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs for the functional replacement of damaged neurons and in vitro disease modeling is of great clinical relevance. Unfortunately, the capacity of iPSC lines to differentiate into neurons is highly variable, prompting the need for a reliable means of assessing the differentiation capacity of newly derived iPSC cell lines. Extended passaging is emerging as a method of ensuring faithful reprogramming. We adapted an established and efficient embryonic stem cell (ESC neural induction protocol to test whether iPSCs (1 have the competence to give rise to functional neurons with similar efficiency as ESCs and (2 whether the extent of neural differentiation could be altered or enhanced by increased passaging. Results Our gene expression and morphological analyses revealed that neural conversion was temporally delayed in iPSC lines and some iPSC lines did not properly form embryoid bodies during the first stage of differentiation. Notably, these deficits were corrected by continual passaging in an iPSC clone. iPSCs with greater than 20 passages (late-passage iPSCs expressed higher expression levels of pluripotency markers and formed larger embryoid bodies than iPSCs with fewer than 10 passages (early-passage iPSCs. Moreover, late-passage iPSCs started to express neural marker genes sooner than early-passage iPSCs after the initiation of neural induction. Furthermore, late-passage iPSC-derived neurons exhibited notably greater excitability and larger voltage-gated currents than early-passage iPSC-derived neurons, although these cells were morphologically indistinguishable. Conclusions These findings strongly suggest that the efficiency neuronal conversion depends on the complete reprogramming of iPSCs via extensive passaging.

  3. Quantum gates in mesoscopic atomic ensembles based on adiabatic passage and Rydberg blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Beterov, I. I.; Saffman, M.; Yakshina, E. A.; Zhukov, V. P.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Mansell, C. W.; MacCormick, C.; Bergamini, S.; Fedoruk, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present schemes for geometric phase compensation in adiabatic passage which can be used for the implementation of quantum logic gates with atomic ensembles consisting of an arbitrary number of strongly interacting atoms. Protocols using double sequences of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) or adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) pulses are analyzed. Switching the sign of the detuning between two STIRAP sequences, or inverting the phase between two ARP pulses, provides state transfer wit...

  4. Behaviour and locomotor activity of a migratory catostomid during fishway passage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana T Silva

    Full Text Available Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations.

  5. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles Dam during summer 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion, dam passage survival is required to be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam and through the tailrace to 2 km downstream of the dam, forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required by the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  6. Modulation of cortical activity during comprehension of familiar and unfamiliar text topics in speed reading and speed listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2014-12-01

    Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is that the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Teaching Phonemic Awareness by Means of Direct Instruction on Reading Achievement of Students with Reading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sharifi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phonemic awareness is one of the most important predictors of reading skills that has been taught by different procedures. One of the procedures is implementation of direct instruction in instruction of phonemic awareness. Current study is one of the unique studies in Iran that investigate impact of direct instruction in phonemic awareness on reading achievement of students with reading disorder.Case: Three male second grade elementary students with reading disorder in a regular school in district six of the office of education in Tehran were selected. Multiple-baseline across subjects was selected as a research design. The following tests were used as diagnostic criteria: reading and dyslexia test and Wechsler intelligence scale for children-revised. Moreover, a reading inventory consisting of 100 words was developed by researchers to assess the reading ability of the subjects. Data were collected in three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. During the intervention phase, the intervention strategies were used while during baseline and follow-up, data were collected without any intervention. Comparing three phases of the study, we may conclude that intervention package consisting of direct instruction of phonological awareness was an effective strategy in reading achievement of all three students. In addition, follow-up data indicated that the effects of the intervention procedures were stable across time.Conclusion: Direct instruction of phonological awareness was effective in reading achievement of students with reading disorder in elementary school and increasing their abilities in reading.

  8. Reading fluency in monolingual and bilingual primary school children: cognitive mechanisms and remediation of difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Laura Mary

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is reading fluency. Reading fluency is a critical component of skilled reading, and has been the subject of much investigation in recent years. Despite this surge in interest, we are still challenged to explain a number of pertinent issues related to reading fluency which are in need of further research. The current study adopted a traditional, broad definition of reading fluency, which includes speed, accuracy, and prosody as its facets. The construct was operational...

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  10. Do Absence and Mobility (Transience Affect Reading Literacy Achievement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Rintaningrum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading literacy has been regarded as an important subject taught at the primary school level as it is the foundation for learning across all subject. Australia, as a developed country, has placed great emphasis on the importance of reading literacy in primary schools by establishing various educational policies and undertaking various programs, both for teachers and students, to improve the teaching of reading literacy in school. However, different students have different levels of skill in acquiring reading comprehension. The findings of some studies suggest that there are a number of reasons why some children perform better in reading literacy than others do. Absence and mobility are two factors that are considered to have effect on reading achievement. Both Australia, America and International studies have shown that there is negative relationship between absence, mobility and school achievement.

  11. Examining the impact of feedback and repeated readings on oral reading fluency: let's not forget prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoin, Scott P; Morena, Laura S; Binder, Katherine S; Foster, Tori E

    2013-12-01

    Although extensive research supports repeated readings (RR) as an intervention for improving reading fluency, it largely ignores reading prosody, which is a key component of reading fluency. The current study extends the RR literature by examining the impact of RR on prosody and whether the content of directions and feedback might impact what components of fluency are improved. Elementary students (N = 76) were randomly assigned to either a rate- or prosody-focused RR intervention. The study differs from existing RR research in that (a) students were average as opposed to struggling students, (b) prosody was evaluated, and (c) measures of prosody were objective as opposed to subjective. Results support previous research suggesting that RR improves fluency but indicate that the nature of the instruction and performance feedback provided to students influences the components of reading fluency (i.e., rate or prosody) that are improved. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Training for developing reading comprehension and reading for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pribac, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a readed text is the aim of reading at school. A reader reads to understand the meaning of a readed text and possibly use acquired informations in new sizuations. Student books and other written material is commonly used at schools. Reading comprehension difficulties lead toward loweer grades and consequently, to learning insuccess. Among students whit reading comprehension difficulties are some whit lacks in specific learning areas, such as difficulties at reading and writt...

  13. The cultural evolution of mind reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia M; Frith, Chris D

    2014-06-20

    It is not just a manner of speaking: "Mind reading," or working out what others are thinking and feeling, is markedly similar to print reading. Both of these distinctly human skills recover meaning from signs, depend on dedicated cortical areas, are subject to genetically heritable disorders, show cultural variation around a universal core, and regulate how people behave. But when it comes to development, the evidence is conflicting. Some studies show that, like learning to read print, learning to read minds is a long, hard process that depends on tuition. Others indicate that even very young, nonliterate infants are already capable of mind reading. Here, we propose a resolution to this conflict. We suggest that infants are equipped with neurocognitive mechanisms that yield accurate expectations about behavior ("automatic" or "implicit" mind reading), whereas "explicit" mind reading, like literacy, is a culturally inherited skill; it is passed from one generation to the next by verbal instruction. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Writing and reading in a multicultural classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    2007-01-01

    linguistic minority. The few students with a Danish origin all come from backgrounds with a limited tradition for reading fiction. Another aim of the study was to investigate a possible relation between the students? conception of learning and of reading and interpreting literary texts in the subject...... of Danish literature in order to give teachers broader insight into the underlying factors in a multicultural classroom with regard to writing and reading on the one hand and conceptions of learning on the other.......The study investigates how interpretive reading skills and literary understanding may be enhanced through initial narrative writing tasks. In the class in question the majority of students are children of migrant workers in Denmark. The class in question belongs to what is called an ethnic...

  15. Standardized assessment of reading performance: the New International Reading Speed Texts IReST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne; Dietz, Klaus

    2012-08-13

    There is a need for standardized texts to assess reading performance, for multiple equivalent texts for repeated measurements, and for texts equated across languages for multi-language studies. Paragraphs are preferable to single sentences for accurate speed measurement. We developed such texts previously in 6 languages. The aim of our current study was to develop texts in more languages for a wide range of countries and users, and to assess the reading speeds of normally-sighted readers. Ten texts were designed for 17 languages each by a linguist who matched content, length, difficulty, and linguistic complexity. The texts then were used to assess reading speeds of 436 normally-sighted native speakers (age 18-35 years, 25 per language, 36 in Japanese), presented at a distance of 40 cm and size 1 M, that is 10-point Times New Roman font. Reading time (aloud) was measured by stopwatch. For all 17 languages, average mean reading speed was 1.42 ± 0.13 texts/min (±SD), 184 ± 29 words/min, 370 ± 80 syllables/min, and 863 ± 234 characters/min. For 14 languages, mean reading time was 68 ms/character (95% confidence interval [CI] 65-71 ms). Our analysis focussed on words per minute. The variability of reading speed within subjects accounts only for an average of 11.5%, between subjects for 88.5%. The low within-subject variability shows the equivalence of the texts. The IReST (second edition) can now be provided in 17 languages allowing standardized assessment of reading speed, as well as comparability of results before and after interventions, and is a useful tool for multi-language studies (for further information see www.amd-read.net).

  16. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Peffects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pchewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  17. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  18. Influence of live mass, rate of passage and site of digestion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy metabolism and digestion of dietary fibre in growing ostrich chicks were studied at different live masses (5-50 kg) by means of a total excreta collection method and a radioactive indicator method Passage rate of digesta particles through the digestive tract and site of digestion were also investigated. Passage rate ...

  19. Dissolved Fe across the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage: impact of DFe on nutrient uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, M.B.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Middag, R.; Neven, I.; Van Ooijen, J.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reports the first full depth distributions of dissolved iron (DFe) over a high-resolution Weddell Sea and Drake Passage transect. Very low dissolved DFe concentrations (0.01-0.1 nM range) were observed in the surface waters of the Weddell Sea, and within the Drake Passage polar

  20. Dissolved Fe across the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage : Impact of DFe on nutrient uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, M. B.; Laan, P.; De Baar, H. J. W.; Middag, R.; Neven, I.; Van Ooijen, J.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript reports the first full depth distributions of dissolved iron (DFe) over a high-resolution Weddell Sea and Drake Passage transect. Very low dissolved DFe concentrations (0.01-0.1 nM range) were observed in the surface waters of the Weddell Sea, and within the Drake Passage polar

  1. First passage of time-reversible spectrally negative Markov additive processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovs, J.; Mandjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the first passage process of a spectrally negative Markov additive process (MAP). The focus is on the background Markov chain at the times of the first passage. This process is a Markov chain itself with a transition rate matrix Λ. Assuming time reversibility, we show that all the

  2. Fast and accurate calculations for cumulative first-passage time distributions in Wiener diffusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, Steven Paul; Kesselmeier, M.; Gondan, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    related work on the density of first-passage times [Navarro, D.J., Fuss, I.G. (2009). Fast and accurate calculations for first-passage times in Wiener diffusion models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53, 222-230]. Two representations exist for the distribution, both including infinite series. We...

  3. Passage kinetics of concentrates in dairy cows measured with carbon stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Fractional passage rates form a fundamental element within modern feed evaluation systems for ruminants, but knowledge on feed-specific fractional passage is largely lacking. Commonly applied tracer techniques based on externally applied markers, such as chromium-mordanted neutral detergent fibre

  4. Stable isotope-labelled feed nutrients to assess nutrient-specific feed passage kinetics in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of digesta passage kinetics in ruminants is essential to predict nutrient supply to the animal in relation to optimal animal performance, environmental pollution and animal health. Fractional passage rates (FPR) of feed are widely used in modern feed evaluation systems and mechanistic

  5. Passage of 13C-labelled feed components through the digestive tract of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, W.F.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: fractional passage rate, grass, silage, 13 C-isotope, internal markers, dairy cowsThe main aim of this thesis was to acquire knowledge on the feed specific fractional passage rates of feedstuffs and feed components through different compartments of the

  6. Amnesia in an actor: Learning and re-learning of play passages despite severe autobiographical amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Michael D; Morton, John

    2015-06-01

    We describe the case of an accomplished actor, whom we term AB, who suffered severe amnesia following a cardiac arrest and hypoxic brain damage, affecting medial temporal and thalamic structures. His performance on standard episodic memory tests, and on measures of retrograde amnesia, including autobiographical memory, was severely impaired. When presented with passages from plays he had not appeared in, AB showed a severe impairment at the first learning trial, but thereafter showed a 'normal' learning curve for this semantically and syntactically complex material. On being presented with passages from plays he had performed in the past, AB did not show any recognition of them whatsoever, as one might expect from his severe episodic memory impairment. However, AB showed a striking benefit (savings score) in relearning passages he had previously performed, compared with new passages, despite not having any autobiographical recall of having performed the relearned passages before. Moreover, although his initial recall performance in learning these passages was impaired compared with healthy control actors of similar age and experience, AB demonstrated the same incremental learning rate on subsequent learning trials of the passages as did the controls. We conclude that, although severely impaired at the first learning trial (on both 'new' and 'old' passages), AB was able to employ his long-established semantic and procedural skills to attempt the task, and that thereafter he showed a 'normal' rate of incremental learning from a lower baseline. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptation of plum pox virus to a herbaceous host (Pisum sativum) following serial passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher M; Stone, Andrew L; Sherman, Diana J; Damsteegt, Vernon D; Gildow, Fred E; Schneider, William L

    2007-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) populations from peaches are able to adapt consistently to herbaceous hosts, characterized by a reduction in time to symptom development, increases in inoculation efficiency and increased titres. PPV adaptation was studied by using pea (Pisum sativum) as an alternative host. Two isolates of PPV from peaches were inoculated and passaged in peas ten times using either aphid or mechanical inoculation, generating four independent passage lines. Mechanical-transmission efficiency from peach to pea improved from 3 % at passage 1 to 100 % by serial passage 4 on peas. Inoculation using aphid vectors required six to ten serial passages in pea to reach a peak of 50-60 % transmission efficiency. Sequence analyses of all four PPV population lines inoculated sequentially to pea identified a specific mutation occurring consistently in the NIb gene when compared with the same PPV isolates passaged in parallel in peach. The mutation allowed PPV to replicate up to 20 times faster in the new host. Pea-adapted strains of PPV at every passage were also tested for their ability to infect the original host, peach. Regardless of the number of previous passages, all pea-adapted PPV strains consistently infected peach at low levels using aphid inoculation.

  8. Observed Score Equating Using Discrete and Passage-Based Anchor Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Jiyun; Liu, Jinghua

    2010-01-01

    Equating of tests composed of both discrete and passage-based multiple choice items using the nonequivalent groups with anchor test design is popular in practice. In this study, we compared the effect of discrete and passage-based anchor items on observed score equating via simulation. Results suggested that an anchor with a larger proportion of…

  9. Getting Ready to Stay Dead : Rites of Passage in William Faulkner's Novels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Irene

    2012-01-01

    This article uses concepts from anthropology to explore the representation of rites of passage as crucial episodes in William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying (1930), The Sound and the Fury (1929), and Light in August (1932). Rites of passage, as conceptualized by anthropologists, are transformative and

  10. 75 FR 60804 - Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River, California AGENCY... Hatchery Fish Passage Project (Project). The purpose of the Project is to create and maintain a reliable system for collecting adult fish at the Nimbus Fish Hatchery (Hatchery). Reclamation maintains the...

  11. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  12. Universal Visual Features Might Be Necessary for Fluent Reading. A Longitudinal Study of Visual Reading in Braille and Cyrillic Alphabets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Radziun, Dominika; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Sowa, Joanna E; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Szwed, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that efficient reading is possible because all reading scripts have been matched, through cultural evolution, to the natural capabilities of the visual cortex. This matching has resulted in all scripts being made of line-junctions, such as T, X, or L. Our aim was to test a critical prediction of this hypothesis: visual reading in an atypical script that is devoid of line-junctions (such as the Braille alphabet read visually) should be much less efficient than reading in a "normal" script (e.g., Cyrillic). Using a lexical decision task, we examined Visual Braille reading speed and efficiency in sighted Braille teachers. As a control, we tested learners of a natural visual script, Cyrillic. Both groups participated in a two semester course of either visual Braille or Russian while their reading speed and accuracy was tested at regular intervals. The results show that visual Braille reading is slow, prone to errors and highly serial, even in Braille readers with years of prior reading experience. Although subjects showed some improvements in their visual Braille reading accuracy and speed following the course, the effect of word length on reading speed (typically observed in beginning readers) was remained very sizeable through all testing sessions. These results are in stark contrast to Cyrillic, a natural script, where only 3 months of learning were sufficient to achieve relative proficiency. Taken together, these results suggest that visual features such as line junctions and their combinations might be necessary for efficient reading.

  13. First Passage Time for Random Walks in Heterogeneous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S.; Lee, D.-S.; Kahng, B.

    2012-08-01

    The first passage time (FPT) for random walks is a key indicator of how fast information diffuses in a given system. Despite the role of FPT as a fundamental feature in transport phenomena, its behavior, particularly in heterogeneous networks, is not yet fully understood. Here, we study, both analytically and numerically, the scaling behavior of the FPT distribution to a given target node, averaged over all starting nodes. We find that random walks arrive quickly at a local hub, and therefore, the FPT distribution shows a crossover with respect to time from fast decay behavior (induced from the attractive effect to the hub) to slow decay behavior (caused by the exploring of the entire system). Moreover, the mean FPT is independent of the degree of the target node in the case of compact exploration. These theoretical results justify the necessity of using a random jump protocol (empirically used in search engines) and provide guidelines for designing an effective network to make information quickly accessible.

  14. MULTIAGENT PLANNING OF INTERSECTION PASSAGE BY AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a traffic management system for autonomous vehicles that are agents at the intersection. In contrast to the known solutions based on the usage of semiautonomous control systems in assembly with the control unit, this algorithm is based on the principles of decentralized multiagent control. The best travel plan for intersection passage is produced by means of optimization methods jointly by all agents belonging to a dynamic collaboration of autonomous vehicles. The order of road intersection optimal for a given criterion is determined by the agents in the process of information exchange about themselves and environment. Our experiments show that this protocol can reduce significantly the traffic density as compared to the traditional systems of traffic management. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm increases with increasing density of road traffic. In addition, the absence of the critical object, that is the control unit, in the control system, reduces significantly the effectiveness of possible failures and hacker attacks on the intersection control system.

  15. The passage of a diffusible indicator through a microvascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kislukhin Victor V

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim. (1 To develop a mathematical model of the passage of a diffusible indicator through microcirculation based on a stochastic description of diffusion and flow; (2 To use Goresky transform of the dilution curves of the diffusible indicators for the estimation of the permeability of a tissue-capillary barrier. The method. We assume that there are two causes for flow to be stochastic: (a All microvessels are divided between open and closed microvessels. There exists random exchange between the two groups. (b The flow through open microvessels is also random. We assume that each diffusing tracer has a probability to leave the intravascular space, and has a probability to return. We also assume that all considered processes are stationary (stability of microcirculation. Conclusion. (a The distribution of the time to pass microcirculation by diffusing indicator is given by a compound Poisson distribution; (b The permeability of tissue-capillary barrier can be obtained from the means, delay, and dispersions of the dilutions of intravascular and diffusing traces.

  16. The passage of a diffusible indicator through a microvascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislukhin, Victor V

    2013-02-13

    (1) To develop a mathematical model of the passage of a diffusible indicator through microcirculation based on a stochastic description of diffusion and flow; (2) To use Goresky transform of the dilution curves of the diffusible indicators for the estimation of the permeability of a tissue-capillary barrier. We assume that there are two causes for flow to be stochastic: (a) All microvessels are divided between open and closed microvessels. There exists random exchange between the two groups. (b) The flow through open microvessels is also random. We assume that each diffusing tracer has a probability to leave the intravascular space, and has a probability to return. We also assume that all considered processes are stationary (stability of microcirculation). (a) The distribution of the time to pass microcirculation by diffusing indicator is given by a compound Poisson distribution; (b) The permeability of tissue-capillary barrier can be obtained from the means, delay, and dispersions of the dilutions of intravascular and diffusing traces.

  17. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  18. Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  19. Spark PRM: Using RRTs within PRMs to efficiently explore narrow passages

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Kensen

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) have been successful for many high-dimensional motion planning problems. However, they encounter difficulties when mapping narrow passages. While many PRM sampling methods have been proposed to increase the proportion of samples within narrow passages, such difficult planning areas still pose many challenges. We introduce a novel algorithm, Spark PRM, that sparks the growth of Rapidly-expanding Random Trees (RRTs) from narrow passage samples generated by a PRM. The RRT rapidly generates further narrow passage samples, ideally until the passage is fully mapped. After reaching a terminating condition, the tree stops growing and is added to the roadmap. Spark PRM is a general method that can be applied to all PRM variants. We study the benefits of Spark PRM with a variety of sampling strategies in a wide array of environments. We show significant speedups in computation time over RRT, Sampling-based Roadmap of Trees (SRT), and various PRM variants.

  20. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3, 221-228.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1 the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2 strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3 use of personalized information services; 4 determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5 personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007 in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC, which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing donewas sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information

  1. An evaluation of reading comprehension of expository text in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Griffiths, Gina G; Fickas, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    This project was conducted to obtain information about reading problems of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with mild-to-moderate cognitive impairments and to investigate how these readers respond to reading comprehension strategy prompts integrated into digital versions of text. Participants from 2 groups, adults with TBI (n = 15) and matched controls (n = 15), read 4 different 500-word expository science passages linked to either a strategy prompt condition or a no-strategy prompt condition. The participants' reading comprehension was evaluated using sentence verification and free recall tasks. The TBI and control groups exhibited significant differences on 2 of the 5 reading comprehension measures: paraphrase statements on a sentence verification task and communication units on a free recall task. Unexpected group differences were noted on the participants' prerequisite reading skills. For the within-group comparison, participants showed significantly higher reading comprehension scores on 2 free recall measures: words per communication unit and type-token ratio. There were no significant interactions. The results help to elucidate the nature of reading comprehension in adults with TBI with mild-to-moderate cognitive impairments and endorse further evaluation of reading comprehension strategies as a potential intervention option for these individuals. Future research is needed to better understand how individual differences influence a person's reading and response to intervention.

  2. Instruction in metacognitive strategies to increase deaf and hard-of-hearing students' reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kendra M; Rivera, Maria C; Antia, Shirin D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this intervention study was to examine the use of a metacognitive strategy--the Comprehension, Check, and Repair Strategy--on strategic reading behavior, nonstrategic reading behavior, and reading comprehension of students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). A multiple baseline design was used across 3 teacher-student dyads. Frequency data were collected on students' strategic reading behavior. Reading comprehension was assessed by counting the number of details the students retold after reading a content area passage. Results showed (a) an increase in strategic reading behavior for Students A, B, and C; and (b) an increase in reading comprehension for Student A, and possibly for Student B. Social validity data indicated high acceptability of the intervention. Teachers not only continued to use the strategy with their students after the study ended but also introduced it to other students with whom they worked. Instruction in metacognitive strategies to increase strategic reading behavior may be an effective means by which to increase reading comprehension for D/HH students. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  4. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  5. Developmental Relations Between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  6. Developmental Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Swart, Nicole M.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural…

  7. Enhanced text spacing improves reading performance in individuals with macular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Blackmore-Wright

    Full Text Available The search by many investigators for a solution to the reading problems encountered by individuals with no central vision has been long and, to date, not very fruitful. Most textual manipulations, including font size, have led to only modest gains in reading speed. Previous work on spatial integrative properties of peripheral retina suggests that 'visual crowding' may be a major factor contributing to inefficient reading. Crowding refers to the fact that juxtaposed targets viewed eccentrically may be difficult to identify. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of line spacing and word spacing on the ability of individuals with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD to read short passages of text that were printed with either high (87.5% or low contrast (17.5% letters. Low contrast text was used to avoid potential ceiling effects and to mimic a possible reduction in letter contrast with light scatter from media opacities. For both low and high contrast text, the fastest reading speeds we measured were for passages of text with double line and double word spacing. In comparison with standard single spacing, double word/line spacing increased reading speed by approximately 26% with high contrast text (p < 0.001, and by 46% with low contrast text (p < 0.001. In addition, double line/word spacing more than halved the number of reading errors obtained with single spaced text. We compare our results with previous reading studies on ARMD patients, and conclude that crowding is detrimental to reading and that its effects can be reduced with enhanced text spacing. Spacing is particularly important when the contrast of the text is reduced, as may occur with intraocular light scatter or poor viewing conditions. We recommend that macular disease patients should employ double line spacing and double-character word spacing to maximize their reading efficiency.

  8. [Increase in the abdominal respiratory movements during the sudden passage from a conversational voice to a loud voice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayreyre, Fl; Akl, L; Amy de la Bretèque, B; Ouaknine, M; Giovanni, A

    2005-01-01

    The passage of the simple conversational voice to a loud voice is accompanied by an increase in the muscular tensions as well as increase in the mobilized volumes of air. We sought to know if these additional volumes were mobilized rather by a thoracic breathing or an abdominal breathing and if this effort were accompanied by a reduction in the variability of the movements. The study presented is a prospective experimental study undertaken on healthy subjects (10 subjects) of which we analyzed the spontaneous vocal behavior (conversation with the experimenter) in the medium of vocal spots lures (production of vowels) in a calm environment allowing a conversational voice (condition 1) and in a noisy environment obliging the subjects abruptly to use a strong voice (condition 2). Thoracic and abdominal volumes were recorded using belts provided with pressure pick-ups, while the voice was synchronized with the recordings. The results show a reduction in the number of rheses realized with abdominal volumes and a reduction in the abdominal volumes mobilized in condition 2, testifying to a preferential use of thoracic breathing in loud voice. They also show a reduction in the number of movements of the inspiratory type (increase in the thoracic diameter or reduction in the abdominal diameter) during the phonatory phase in condition 2, which testifies to a reduction in the variability of the strategies used by the subjects. The sudden passage to a loud voice because of the appearance of an ambient noise leads to an increase of the use of thoracic breathing, which is in agreement with the concept of voice of distress or of emergency suggested by Le Huche.

  9. Reading, writing and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    Aim This paper offers a discussion of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review. Background Although increasingly popular, systematic review has engendered a critique of the claims made for it as a more objective method for summing up research findings than other kinds of reviews. Discussion An alternative understanding of systematic review is as a highly subjective, albeit disciplined, engagement between resisting readers and resistant texts. Reviewers of research exemplify the resisting reader when they exclude reports on grounds of relevance, quality, or methodological difference. Research reports exemplify resistant texts as they do not simply yield their findings, but rather must be made docile to review. These acts of resistance make systematic review possible, but challenge claims of its greater capacity to control bias. Conclusion An understanding of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review still holds truth and objectivity as regulative ideals, but is aware of the reading and writing practices that both enable and challenge those ideals. PMID:18721156

  10. VOCABULARY CONSTRAINT ON READING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucu Sutarsyah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify and describe the vocabulary in reading materials and to seek if the texts are useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. Some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the texts are dominated by low frequency words which compose 16.97% of the words in the texts. In terms of high frequency words occurring in the texts, function words dominate the texts. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts being used have very limited number of words from GSL (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only comprises 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words constitute account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also impede the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  11. Lip reading using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbande, Dhananjay; Mishra, Akassh A.; Patil, Sanjivani; Nirgudkar, Sneha; Patel, Prashant

    2011-10-01

    Computerized lip reading, or speech reading, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a speaking person to written text. It has several applications like teaching deaf and dumb to speak and communicate effectively with the other people, its crime fighting potential and invariance to acoustic environment. We convert the video of the subject speaking vowels into images and then images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like fast speech, bad pronunciation, and poor illumination, movement of face, moustaches and beards make lip reading difficult. Contour tracking methods and Template matching are used for the extraction of lips from the face. K Nearest Neighbor algorithm is then used to classify the 'speaking' images and the 'silent' images. The sequence of images is then transformed into segments of utterances. Feature vector is calculated on each frame for all the segments and is stored in the database with properly labeled class. Character recognition is performed using modified KNN algorithm which assigns more weight to nearer neighbors. This paper reports the recognition of vowels using KNN algorithms

  12. Using Arabic in Testing Reading Comprehension in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Jihad; Diab, Turki

    A study examined the role of the native language (Arabic) in assessing the reading comprehension of learners of English as a second language. Subjects were 60 secondary school students in two comparable classes in Jordan. After receiving instruction for one month using reading material in the prescribed textbook, students were administered a…

  13. Leisure reading among the undergraduates of Adekunle Ajasin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that all the research subjects read mostly pornographic and sexual materials during their leisure hours. Results also showed that gender and students' faculty of study were significantly related to the materials the students read for leisure. Besides, there was no significant relationship between the students' ...

  14. Learner Reading Problems: A Case of Khoe Learners at Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, which was qualitative, used questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, students' artefacts, and teachers' schemes and records of work to explore the subjects' reading skills. The findings indicate that Khoe learners lack comprehension strategies, have difficulties understanding implicit reading ...

  15. Developing a Model of Teaching Reading Comprehension for EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, Arifuddin; Syatriana, Eny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at designing a model of teaching reading comprehension based on the objectives of teaching reading at the senior high school and the teachers' understanding of the school curriculum and to describe the implementation of the model. The subject consisted of 24 teachers, 167 students of five SMAs (senior high schools) in South…

  16. A Continuous Learning and Developmental Reading Program. Elementary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Sue; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Reading. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide is organized according to grade levels. Materials for K-6 have been organized under four broad color-coded topics: Kindergarten, Word Attack Skills, Comprehension, and Research Reading Levels. Each topic for each grade level is divided into…

  17. Promoting the Reading Culture Towards Human Capital and Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, M. O.; Akanmode, O. A.; Alaiyemola, A. T.; Babatunde, O. T.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that a country cannot be fully developed without large-scale investment in her educational scheme since the breakthrough of a country is directly proportional to her educational level. Since the acquisition of effective reading skills has a positive effect on all school subjects, then reading is sine-qua-non for human capital…

  18. Developing Teachers' Capacity for Teaching Pupils' Initial Reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Primary school teachers that teach English language /mother tongue were not equipped with the knowledge and skills to teach initial reading in these languages. ▫ Reading is not taught as a subject in the primary education system, particularly the state public schools. ▫ Teachers in the lower basic level lack knowledge of ...

  19. Cum latranti/fraganti nomine: a possible reading of Plautus Casina 31-34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Sapere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The title of the comedy transmitted as Casina has been discussed by the main Plautine critics, especially because of the enigmatic verses 31-34, which offer an alternative translation of the original Greek title (Sortientes and, moreover, describe as “barking” (latranti a name that, from its etymology, recalls a spice and seems to have no connection with dogs. Our paper aims to contribute to the discussion, holding the view that the name Casina may be explained as an anagram of the words casia and canis, which remit to the semantic fields of scents and animals, and are related all over the comedy with two female characters: the elusive and ideal Casina, and the too concrete and real Cleostrata. Assuming the authenticity of the transmitted title, we suggest reading this passage of the prologue as a clue of the central subject of the comedy: the substitution of the matrona for the pleasing lover, with the resulting mockery and punishment of the senex.

  20. Phonic Analysis Training and Beginning Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Jerome

    The purposes of the study were to determine whether phonic analysis training could be used to prepare children to be successful on the Auditory Analysis Test (AAT) of phonic skills and to then relate phonic knowledge to reading performance. Subjects were 40 first graders in suburban Pittsburgh who had attended kindergarten together. A group of 16…

  1. Reading for national development: Catching them young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also discussed the impact of illiteracy and inefficient use of reading skills in an era of world's advanced technology. Some agencies that ... The reader therefore should be helped by making books of different subjects available at home, in the school and in public libraries with well trained librarians. The publishers should ...

  2. How Are Researching and Reading Interwieved during Retrieval from Hierarchically Structured Documents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Lalmas, M.; Frøkjær, Erik

    2001-01-01

    in the structure. Based on an experiment where 83 subjects solved 20 tasks each, we find that the subjects spend at least one third of their time reading, irrespective of whether the system they use offers browsing and/or querying. The subjects prefer reading the text in chunks that span multiple levels...

  3. Increase in resistance to fluconazole and itraconazole in Trichophyton rubrum clinical isolates by sequential passages in vitro under drug pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryncewicz-Gwóźdź, Anita; Kalinowska, Katarzyna; Plomer-Niezgoda, Ewa; Bielecki, Jacek; Jagielski, Tomasz

    2013-08-01

    Trichophyton rubrum, an anthropophilic dermatophyte fungus, is the predominant causative agent of superficial skin infections in human population. There are only scanty reports on drug susceptibility profiling of T. rubrum. Neither mechanisms for drug resistance development nor correlation between in vitro drug susceptibility and in vivo response to treatment is known for that species. In this study, changes in the in vitro susceptibilities to fluconazole (FLZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) among thirty T. rubrum clinical strains subjected to sequential passages in the presence or absence of the azoles were investigated. Each strain was passaged 12 times at 4-week intervals as three parallel cultures, maintained on a drug-free medium (1), and a medium containing FLZ (2) or ITZ (3) at subinhibitory concentrations. Susceptibility to FLZ and ITZ of the original strain and its 3 subcultures was determined by microdilution method. The MIC values of the two azoles remained unaltered for all T. rubrum strains tested, after 12 passages on a drug-free medium. Among the strains grown with FLZ, an increase in the MICs of FLZ and ITZ was noted in 17 (56.7 %) and 19 (63.3 %) strains, respectively. Increased MICs of ITZ and FLZ were demonstrated for 24 (80 %) and 20 (66.7 %) strains that were propagated with ITZ. The results indicate the capacity of T. rubrum to develop resistance toward the azoles after prolonged exposure to these drugs. Resistance of T. rubrum to azoles plays an important role in therapy failures and consequently contributes to persistence and chronicity of the infections.

  4. Limites, passages et transformations en jeu dans l’architecture / Limits, passages and transformations involved in Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younès, Chris

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La manière de tracer des limites et d’opérer des passages par transferts, incursions, interférences notamment, rend compte du mode d’expression propre à l’architecture et de sa façon d’agencer le stable et l’instable, le délimité et l’illimité, la mesure et l’incommensurable, la continuité et la discontinuité. L’art de les mettre en œuvre par le projet architectural, urbain et paysager est une des problématiques de recherche du laboratoire interdisciplinaire Gerjau (philosophie architecture urbain qui a conduit différentes études sur ce sujet et en particulier du point de vue des rapports entre nature et culture./The way in which limits are drawn and passageways are operated for transfers, incursions, and specially interferences, show how architecture has it’s own way of expression that deals with the stable and the unstable, the limited and the unlimited, etc.

  5. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  6. Reading, Writing, and Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Vicki A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how secondary-school content-area teachers can improve student comprehension of text material by incorporating reading and writing strategies into their classroom instruction. Illustrates relationships among reading, writing, and understanding. Suggests framework for staff-development program. (Contains 14 references.) (PKP)

  7. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  8. Teaching Reading in Homeschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambo, Idalia

    This paper discusses the home-schooling trend and identifies reading instructional methods used by home-schooling parents. Interviews were conducted with 5 home-schooling families of children ranging in age from 1 to 14 years. Parents reported that they began reading instruction with their child at about age 5 and agreed that instruction in…

  9. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  10. Toddler Reading Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Toddler Reading Time KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddler Reading Time Print A A A What's in this article? ... Kids make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, ...

  11. Read Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawyer, Kirsten K. N.; Johnson, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists read, and so should students. Unfortunately, many high school teachers overlook science texts as a way to engage students in the work of scientists. This article addresses how to help students develop literacy skills by strategically reading a variety of science texts. Unfortunately, most science teachers aren't trained to teach…

  12. Novel Reading Maturity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Carol

    Designed to assess the maturity level of the novels which students read, the Novel Reading Maturity Scale (NRMS) is based on the notion that fiction of high quality is characterized by a number of themes or topics. The list of 22 topics in NRMS came from a survey of several guides on books for teenagers. To explore the reliability of the scale,…

  13. Read across the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Carl A., II; Satterlee, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project between several year-round elementary schools in Indianapolis (Indiana) to promote reading, based on the National Education Association's campaign using Dr. Seuss books. Discusses planning with library media specialists, activities that included writing about reading, volunteers and funding, and evaluation. (LRW)

  14. Television and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

  15. Effective Beginning Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the National Reading Panel is too narrow in its presentation of scientifically valid reading research. Presents a sample of practices that enjoy support but were ignored by the panel and qualitative research that was out of bounds because of the methodological guidelines of the panel. Concludes that most of the cutting edge of the…

  16. READING--A THINKING PROCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAUFFER, RUSSELL G.

    IN ORDER TO TEACH READING AS A THINKING PROCESS, TEACHERS SHOULD BELIEVE THAT CHILDREN CAN THINK AND CAN BE TAUGHT TO READ CRITICALLY, EVEN AT A VERY YOUNG AGE. THREE ASPECTS OF THE READING-THINKING PROCESS INCLUDE DECLARATION OF PURPOSES, REASONING, AND JUDGMENT. THE NATURE OF THE PURPOSES DETERMINES WHAT IS TO BE READ AND HOW IT IS TO BE READ.…

  17. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  18. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  19. To Read or Not to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    primary purpose of raising the literacy of Navy recruits who have difficulty absorbing military training because of a readingl dis- ability. TIhe desired...intelligent decisions, and read with a high jegree of understanding. Navy school curricula are designed to teach the skil !. needed to operate, maintain

  20. TEACHING READING USING MAGAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.

  1. Passaging protocols for mammalian neural stem cells in suspension bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Arindom; Kallos, Michael S; Behie, Leo A

    2002-01-01

    Mammalian neural stem cells (NSC) offer great promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. As a consequence of the large numbers of cells that will be needed for drug testing and transplantation studies, it is necessary to develop protocols for the large-scale expansion of mammalian NSC. Neural stem cells and early progenitor cells can be expanded in vitro as aggregates in controlled bioreactors using carefully designed media. The first objective of this study was to determine if it is possible to maintain a population of murine neural stem and progenitor cells as aggregates in suspension culture bioreactors over extended periods of time. We discovered that serial passaging of a mixture of aggregates sizes resulted in high viabilities, high viable cell densities, and good control of aggregate diameter. When the NSC aggregates were serially subcultured three times without mechanical dissociation, a total multiplication ratio of 2.9 x 10(3) was achieved over a period of 12 days, whereas the aggregate size was controlled (mean diameter less than 150 microm) below levels at which necrosis would occur. Moreover, cell densities of 1.0 x 10(6) cells/mL were repeatedly achieved in batch culture with viabilities exceeding 80%. The second objective was to examine the proliferative potential of single cells shed from the surface of these aggregates. We found that the single cells, when subcultured, retained the capacity to generate new aggregates, gave rise to cultures with high viable cell densities and were able to differentiate into all of the primary cell phenotypes in the central nervous system.

  2. The Stillbirth Classification System for the Safe Passage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Theonia K; Wright, Colleen A; Odendaal, Hein J; Elliott, Amy J; Sens, Mary Ann; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Roberts, Drucilla J; Kinney, Hannah C

    2017-01-01

    Objective Describe the classification system for assigning the cause of stillbirth in the Safe Passage Study, an international, multi-institutional, prospective analysis conducted by the NIAAA/NICHD-funded Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Research Network. The study mission is to determine the role of prenatal alcohol and/or cigarette smoke exposure in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, in a high-risk cohort of 12,000 maternal/fetal dyads. Methods The PASS Network classification system is based upon 5 "sites of origin" for cause of stillbirth, further subdivided into mechanism subcategories; both are employed to assign an ultimate cause of death. Each PASS stillbirth was assigned a cause of death and status of sporadic versus recurrent. Adjudication involved review of maternal and obstetrical records; fetal autopsy and placental findings; and required complete consensus in each case. Two published classification systems, ie, INCODE and ReCoDe, were used for comparison. Results Causes of stillbirth classified were fetal (26%), placental (53%), external (5%), and undetermined (16%). Nine cases (47%) had placental causes of death due to maternal disorders that carry recurrence risks. There was full agreement for cause of death across the 3 classification systems in 26% of cases and partial agreement among them in 42% of cases. Conclusions The proposed PASS schema employs a user-friendly classification that provides comparable information to previously published systems. Advantages include its simplicity, mechanistic formulations, tight clinicopathologic integration, provision for an undetermined category, and its wide applicability to perinatal mortality review boards with access to information routinely collected during clinicopathologic evaluations.

  3. Meconium passage in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetze, W H; Palazzolo, V L; Bowling, D; Behnke, M; Burchfield, D J; Neu, J

    1993-01-01

    The timing of the first meconium stool has been considered a marker for proper gastrointestinal functioning in the term infant. There is limited information on the meconium passage patterns of very-low-birth-weight infants of less than 32 weeks' gestation. It is unknown whether feeding practices influence the timing of the first stool in these infants. We retrospectively studied 47 very-low-birth-weight infants with birth weights of 1250 g or less who were previously enrolled in a study of gastrointestinal (GI) priming. Infants whose mothers desired to breast feed (n = 7) were given GI priming with their own mother's milk. The remaining infants had been randomly assigned to receive total parenteral nutrition alone (n = 21) or GI priming with infant formula (n = 19) during the first 14 days of life. We attempted to advance all infants to full enteral nutrition by 21 days of age. There was no statistically significant difference in timing of the first stool among the three groups. The overall median age at first stool was 43 hours, and the 75th percentile was 10 days. The range was 1/2 hour to 27 days. There was no concordance between time of first stool and birth weight within the range studied. There was no concordance between time of first stool and necrotizing enterocolitis, although there was little statistical power to detect this. There was also very little concordance with feeding tolerance. Other than necrotizing enterocolitis, no significant GI disease developed in any of the infants studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Ebola virus genome plasticity as a marker of its passaging history: a comparison of in vitro passaging to non-human primate infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Kugelman

    Full Text Available To identify polymorphic sites that could be used as biomarkers of Ebola virus passage history, we repeatedly amplified Ebola virus (Kikwit variant in vitro and in vivo and performed deep sequencing analysis of the complete genomes of the viral subpopulations. We then determined the sites undergoing selection during passage in Vero E6 cells. Four locations within the Ebola virus Kikwit genome were identified that together segregate cell culture-passaged virus and virus obtained from infected non-human primates. Three of the identified sites are located within the glycoprotein gene (GP sequence: the poly-U (RNA editing site at position 6925, as well as positions 6677, and 6179. One site was found in the VP24 gene at position 10833. In all cases, in vitro and in vivo, both populations (majority and minority variants were maintained in the viral swarm, with rapid selections occurring after a few passages or infections. This analysis approach will be useful to differentiate whether filovirus stocks with unknown history have been passaged in cell culture and may support filovirus stock standardization for medical countermeasure development.

  5. From Single Words to Passages: Contextual Effects on Predictive Power of Vocabulary Measures for Assessing Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, David D.

    2008-01-01

    In the last 15 years or so, language testing practitioners have increasingly favored assessing vocabulary in context. The discrete-point vocabulary measure used in the old version of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) has long been criticized for encouraging test candidates to memorize wordlists out of context although test items…

  6. Size as a determinant of reading speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, I.; Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-03-01

    The speed of reading unrelated words as a function of luminance, size, and contrast, was measured with an eye movement monitor for fifteen young adults. Subjects read up to 5,000 words in a test session, with the exact number depending upon their acuity. The size of the smallest legible print at a given luminance and contrast for these subjects was found to fit well to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data above about 1 minute of arc. At lower sizes inclusion of a resolution size term provided an excellent fit. Reading speed was fit to a number of visual performance models. It was found that for most subjects that a ratio of the print size to an estimate of the threshold print size (a VL{sub size}) gave the best fits to the data. The threshold size was computed with a fit to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data, modified to include a resolution size term as above. For the sole remaining subject a slightly better fit was obtained with a VL{sub contrast} model, where again the thresholds were modified by a limiting size term. The implication of these results for visual performance modeling is discussed. The reading speed for all subjects varied rapidly with size near the acuity limit, but became almost independent of visibility parameters as long as size is two times the acuity limit. These results show that size is a powerful determinant of reading speed, and suggest that minification of about 1/2 power could be used as a field test for adequate visibility.

  7. Size as a determinant of reading speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, I.; Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-03-01

    The speed of reading unrelated words as a function of luminance, size, and contrast, was measured with an eye movement monitor for fifteen young adults. Subjects read up to 5,000 words in a test session, with the exact number depending upon their acuity. The size of the smallest legible print at a given luminance and contrast for these subjects was found to fit well to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data above about 1 minute of arc. At lower sizes inclusion of a resolution size term provided an excellent fit. Reading speed was fit to a number of visual performance models. It was found that for most subjects that a ratio of the print size to an estimate of the threshold print size (a VL[sub size]) gave the best fits to the data. The threshold size was computed with a fit to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data, modified to include a resolution size term as above. For the sole remaining subject a slightly better fit was obtained with a VL[sub contrast] model, where again the thresholds were modified by a limiting size term. The implication of these results for visual performance modeling is discussed. The reading speed for all subjects varied rapidly with size near the acuity limit, but became almost independent of visibility parameters as long as size is two times the acuity limit. These results show that size is a powerful determinant of reading speed, and suggest that minification of about 1/2 power could be used as a field test for adequate visibility.

  8. Gender differences in severity of writing and reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nielsen, Kathleen H; Abbott, Robert D; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy

    2008-04-01

    Gender differences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Gender differences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men were more impaired in handwriting and composing than were girls and women, but men, who were more impaired in those writing skills, were also more impaired in spelling than women. Men were more impaired than women in accuracy and rate of reading passages orally, but boys were not more impaired than girls on any of the reading measures. Males were consistently more impaired than females in orthographic skills, which may be the source of gender differences in writing, but not motor skills. Population-based studies that report gender differences in reading in children with dyslexia may be confounding reading and writing disorders--the latter being the true source of gender differences in both children and adults with dyslexia.

  9. Physical passaging of embryoid bodies generated from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Son

    Full Text Available Spherical three-dimensional cell aggregates called embryoid bodies (EBs, have been widely used in in vitro differentiation protocols for human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Recent studies highlight the new devices and techniques for hEB formation and expansion, but are not involved in the passaging or subculture process. Here, we provide evidence that a simple periodic passaging markedly improved hEB culture condition and thus allowed the size-controlled, mass production of human embryoid bodies (hEBs derived from both hESCs and hiPSCs. hEBs maintained in prolonged suspension culture without passaging (>2 weeks showed a progressive decrease in the cell growth and proliferation and increase in the apoptosis compared to 7-day-old hEBs. However, when serially passaged in suspension, hEB cell populations were significantly increased in number while maintaining the normal rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis and the differentiation potential. Uniform-sized hEBs produced by manual passaging using a 1∶4 split ratio have been successfully maintained for over 20 continuous passages. The passaging culture method of hEBs, which is simple, readily expandable, and reproducible, could be a powerful tool for improving a robust and scalable in vitro differentiation system of human pluripotent stem cells.

  10. Deglacial changes in flow and frontal structure through the Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; McCave, I. N.; McClymont, E. L.; Kender, S.; Hillenbrand, C.-D.; Matano, R.; Hodell, D. A.; Peck, V. L.

    2017-09-01

    The oceanic gateways of the Drake Passage and the Agulhas Current are critical locations for the inflow of intermediate-depth water masses to the Atlantic, which contribute to the shallow return flow that balances the export of deep water from the North Atlantic. The thermohaline properties of northward flowing intermediate water are ultimately determined by the inflow of water through oceanic gateways. Here, we focus on the less well-studied ;Cold Water Route; through the Drake Passage. We present millennially-resolved bottom current flow speed and sea surface temperature records downstream of the Drake Passage spanning the last 25,000 yr. We find that prior to 15 ka, bottom current flow speeds at sites in the Drake Passage region were dissimilar and there was a marked anti-phasing between sea surface temperatures at sites upstream and downstream of the Drake Passage. After 14 ka, we observe a remarkable convergence of flow speeds coupled with a sea surface temperature phase change at sites upstream and downstream of Drake Passage. We interpret this convergence as evidence for a significant southward shift of the sub-Antarctic Front from a position north of Drake Passage. This southward shift increased the through-flow of water from the Pacific, likely reducing the density of Atlantic Intermediate Water. The timing of the southward shift in the sub-Antarctic Front is synchronous with a major re-invigoration of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, with which, we argue, it may be linked.

  11. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  12. Migratory delay leads to reduced passage success of Atlantic salmon smolts at a hydroelectric dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Daniel; Greenberg, L.; Goerig, E.; Calles, O.; Bergman, E.; Ardren, William R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Passage of fish through hydropower dams is associated with mortality, delay, increased energy expenditure and migratory failure for migrating fish and the need for remedial measures for both upstream and downstream migration is widely recognised. A functional fish passage must ensure safe and timely passage routes that a substantial portion of migrating fish will use. Passage solutions must address not only the number or percentage of fish that successfully pass a barrier, but also the time it takes to pass. Here, we used radiotelemetry to study the functionality of a fish bypass for downstream-migrating wild-caught and hatchery-released Atlantic salmon smolts. We used time-to-event analysis to model the influence of fish characteristics and environmental variables on the rates of a series of events associated with dam passage. Among the modelled events were approach rate to the bypass entry zone, retention rates in both the forebay and the entry zone and passage rates. Despite repeated attempts, only 65% of the tagged fish present in the forebay passed the dam. Fish passed via the bypass (33%), via spill (18%) and via turbines (15%). Discharge was positively related to approach, passage and retention rates. We did not detect any differences between wild and hatchery fish. Even though individual fish visited the forebay and the entry zone on multiple occasions, most fish passed during the first exposures to these zones. This study underscores the importance of timeliness to passage success and the usefulness of time-to-event analysis for understanding factors governing passage performance.

  13. The effects of teacher read-alouds and student silent reading on predominantly bilingual high school seniors’ learning and retention of social studies content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah K.; Swanson, Elizabeth; Petscher, Yaacov; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Teacher read-alouds (TRA) are common in middle and high school content area classes. Because the practice of reading the textbook out loud to students is often used out of concern about students’ ability to understand and learn from text when reading silently (SR), this randomized controlled trial was designed to experimentally manipulate text reading while blocking on all other instructional elements to determine the relative effects on learning content. Predominantly Spanish–English bilingual twelfth-graders (n = 123) were randomly assigned to either a TRA or SR condition and provided 1 week of high quality instruction in US history. Daily lessons included teaching key terms in the passage, previewing text headings, and conducting comprehension checks. Results of immediate, 1-week delayed, and 1-month delayed assessments of content learning revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Students were also asked to rate the method of reading they believed best helped them understand and remember information. Students in the SR condition more consistently agreed that reading silently was beneficial. Findings suggest low performing adolescents of different linguistic backgrounds can learn content as well when reading appropriately challenging text silently as when the teacher reads the text aloud to them. PMID:26346215

  14. The effects of teacher read-alouds and student silent reading on predominantly bilingual high school seniors' learning and retention of social studies content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah K; Swanson, Elizabeth; Petscher, Yaacov; Vaughn, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Teacher read-alouds (TRA) are common in middle and high school content area classes. Because the practice of reading the textbook out loud to students is often used out of concern about students' ability to understand and learn from text when reading silently (SR), this randomized controlled trial was designed to experimentally manipulate text reading while blocking on all other instructional elements to determine the relative effects on learning content. Predominantly Spanish-English bilingual twelfth-graders (n = 123) were randomly assigned to either a TRA or SR condition and provided 1 week of high quality instruction in US history. Daily lessons included teaching key terms in the passage, previewing text headings, and conducting comprehension checks. Results of immediate, 1-week delayed, and 1-month delayed assessments of content learning revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Students were also asked to rate the method of reading they believed best helped them understand and remember information. Students in the SR condition more consistently agreed that reading silently was beneficial. Findings suggest low performing adolescents of different linguistic backgrounds can learn content as well when reading appropriately challenging text silently as when the teacher reads the text aloud to them.

  15. IMPACTS OF URBAN PASSAGES ON FORMATION OF IRANIAN BAZAARS: Case Study of the Historic Bazaar of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Nejad Ebrahimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bazaars have long since been of the most influential components of the traditional Iranian cities, having significant impacts on the formation and development of many Iranian cities. This study was motivated by the fact that the subject of bazaar and its mutual relationship with the formation of Iranian civilization has not yet been taken into account well. The study adapted an interpretive-historical research approach that utilized archival research as well as field studies and validated the findings through triangulation of findings with the seminal literature. It chose the historical bazaar of Tabriz as the case of study. Findings proposed  that among the important components of the traditional Iranian cities, urban passages and organs have had the highest impacts on the formation and development of bazaars. The study concluded that in the context of Tabriz, traditional urban passages and the bazaar have had significant impacts on the formation of each other. This was a unique and  significant study, which  discovered new aspects of the important roles of bazaars in formation of Islamic cities and cultures.

  16. The effect of alcohol administration on human timing: a comparison of prospective timing, retrospective timing and passage of time judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Ruth S; Wearden, John H; Gallagher, Denis T; Montgomery, Catharine

    2011-09-01

    Previous research suggests that human timing may be affected by alcohol administration. The current study aimed to expand on previous research by examining the effect of alcohol on prospective timing, retrospective timing and passage of time judgements. A blind between-subjects design was employed in which participants were either administered 0 g of alcohol per kilogramme of body weight (placebo), 0.4 g/kg (low dose) or 0.6g/kg (high dose). Participants completed four types of temporal task; verbal estimation and temporal generalisation, a retrospective timing task and a passage of time judgement task. A high dose of alcohol resulted in overestimations of duration relative to the low dose and placebo group in the verbal estimation task. A high dose of alcohol was also associated with time passing more quickly than normal. Alcohol had no effect on retrospective judgements. The results suggest that a high dose of alcohol increases internal clock speed leading to over-estimations of duration on prospective timing tasks, and the sensation of time passing more quickly than normal. The absence of an effect of alcohol on retrospective timing supports the suggestion that retrospective judgements are not based on the output of an internal clock. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening for Dyslexia Using Eye Tracking during Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Nilsson Benfatto

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental reading disability estimated to affect 5-10% of the population. While there is yet no full understanding of the cause of dyslexia, or agreement on its precise definition, it is certain that many individuals suffer persistent problems in learning to read for no apparent reason. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for children with dyslexia, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of school. Here we show that it is possible to identify 9-10 year old individuals at risk of persistent reading difficulties by using eye tracking during reading to probe the processes that underlie reading ability. In contrast to current screening methods, which rely on oral or written tests, eye tracking does not depend on the subject to produce some overt verbal response and thus provides a natural means to objectively assess the reading process as it unfolds in real-time. Our study is based on a sample of 97 high-risk subjects with early identified word decoding difficulties and a control group of 88 low-risk subjects. These subjects were selected from a larger population of 2165 school children attending second grade. Using predictive modeling and statistical resampling techniques, we develop classification models from eye tracking records less than one minute in duration and show that the models are able to differentiate high-risk subjects from low-risk subjects with high accuracy. Although dyslexia is fundamentally a language-based learning disability, our results suggest that eye movements in reading can be highly predictive of individual reading ability and that eye tracking can be an efficient means to identify children at risk of long-term reading difficulties.

  18. Screening for Dyslexia Using Eye Tracking during Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Benfatto, Mattias; Öqvist Seimyr, Gustaf; Ygge, Jan; Pansell, Tony; Rydberg, Agneta; Jacobson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental reading disability estimated to affect 5-10% of the population. While there is yet no full understanding of the cause of dyslexia, or agreement on its precise definition, it is certain that many individuals suffer persistent problems in learning to read for no apparent reason. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for children with dyslexia, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of school. Here we show that it is possible to identify 9-10 year old individuals at risk of persistent reading difficulties by using eye tracking during reading to probe the processes that underlie reading ability. In contrast to current screening methods, which rely on oral or written tests, eye tracking does not depend on the subject to produce some overt verbal response and thus provides a natural means to objectively assess the reading process as it unfolds in real-time. Our study is based on a sample of 97 high-risk subjects with early identified word decoding difficulties and a control group of 88 low-risk subjects. These subjects were selected from a larger population of 2165 school children attending second grade. Using predictive modeling and statistical resampling techniques, we develop classification models from eye tracking records less than one minute in duration and show that the models are able to differentiate high-risk subjects from low-risk subjects with high accuracy. Although dyslexia is fundamentally a language-based learning disability, our results suggest that eye movements in reading can be highly predictive of individual reading ability and that eye tracking can be an efficient means to identify children at risk of long-term reading difficulties.

  19. Feed consumption and food passage time in mink (Mustela vison) and European ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleavins, M R; Aulerich, R J

    1981-06-01

    The amount of feed consumed per day and the rate of food passage was measured in mink and European ferrets. Daily feed consumption averaged 40 and 42 g dry matter per kg body weight for male mink and ferrets and 53 and 49 g dry matter per kg body weight for female mink and ferrets, respectively. Using ferric oxide as a feed marker, no differences were observed in food passage time between mink and ferrets or between males and females within each species. The mean time of food passage was 187 minutes for mink and 182 minutes for European ferrets.

  20. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  1. Leapover lengths and first passage time statistics for Lévy flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koren, Tal; Lomholt, Michael A; Chechkin, Aleksei V

    2007-01-01

    Exact results for the first passage time and leapover statistics of symmetric and one-sided Lévy flights (LFs) are derived. LFs with a stable index alpha are shown to have leapover lengths that are asymptotically power law distributed with an index alpha for one-sided LFs and, surprisingly......, with an index alpha/2 for symmetric LFs. The first passage time distribution scales like a power law with an index 1/2 as required by the Sparre-Andersen theorem for symmetric LFs, whereas one-sided LFs have a narrow distribution of first passage times. The exact analytic results are confirmed by extensive...

  2. Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate dam passage and route specific survival rates for subyearling Chinook salmon smolts to a primary survival-detection array located 81 km downstream of the dam, evaluate a BGS located in the B2 forebay, and evaluate effects of two spill treatments. The 2010 study also provided estimates of forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and spill + B2 Corner Collector (B2CC) efficiency, as required in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. In addition, the study estimated forebay passage survival and survival of fish traveling from the forebay entrance array, through the dam and downstream through 81 km of tailwater.

  3. Eye movements and reading in glaucoma: observations on patients with advanced visual field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Robyn; Smith, Nicholas D; Crabb, David P

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between reading speed and eye movements in patients with advanced glaucomatous visual field (VF) defects and age-similar visually healthy people. Eighteen patients with advanced bilateral VF defects (mean age: 71, standard deviation [SD]: 7 years) and 39 controls (mean age: 67, SD: 8 years) had reading speed measured using short passages of text on a computer set-up incorporating eye tracking. Scanpaths were plotted and analysed from these experiments to derive measures of 'perceptual span' (total number of letters read per number of saccades) and 'text saturation' (the distance between the first and last fixation on lines of text). Another eye movement measure, termed 'saccadic frequency' (total number of saccades made to read a single word), was derived from a separate lexical decision task, where words were presented in isolation. Significant linear association was demonstrated between perceptual span and reading speed in patients (R (2) = 0.42) and controls (R (2) = 0.56). Linear association between saccadic frequency during the LDT and reading speed was also found in patients (R (2) = 0.42), but not in controls (R (2) = 0.02). Patients also exhibited greater average text saturation than controls (P = 0.004). Some, but not all, patients with advanced VF defects read slower than controls using short text passages. Differences in eye movement behaviour may partly account for this variability in patients. These patients were shown to saturate lines of text more during reading, which may explain previously-reported difficulties with sustained reading.

  4. Demystifying the Effect of Narrow Reading on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Recall and Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of narrow reading on English as foreign language (EFL learners’ vocabulary recall and retention. To this end, 60 senior high school students studying at Tarbiyat High School in Mahshahr, Iran, were selected from four intact classes. The participants were then divided into two equal groups, experimental and control. Ten words which were unknown to the participants were selected as target words. The experimental group received thematically related passages while the control group was given reading passages of different topics. The immediate posttest was given to the participants two days after the treatment. Afterwards, two delayed posttests were administered with two week intervals. The scores were analyzed through two-way repeated measures ANOVA, Bonferroni pairwise comparisons, and independent samples t-tests. The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in all posttests. The implications arising from the findings and suggestions for future research were explained.

  5. Microsaccades during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norick R Bowers

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading. Our findings show that microsaccade characteristics differ from those measured during sustained fixation: microsaccades are larger in size and primarily leftwards during reading, i.e. they move the line of sight backward on the text. Analysis of how microsaccades shift gaze relative to the text suggests that these movements serve two important functions: (1 a corrective function, by moving the gaze regressively within longer words when the preceding saccade lands too far toward the end of these words, and (2 an exploratory function, by shifting the gaze on adjacent words to gain additional information before the execution of the next saccade. Thus, microsaccades may benefit reading by enhancing the visibility of nearby words. This study highlights the importance of examining fine oculomotor behavior in reading, and calls for further research to investigate the possible roles of microsaccades in reading difficulties.

  6. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  7. Microsaccades during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Norick R; Poletti, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading. Our findings show that microsaccade characteristics differ from those measured during sustained fixation: microsaccades are larger in size and primarily leftwards during reading, i.e. they move the line of sight backward on the text. Analysis of how microsaccades shift gaze relative to the text suggests that these movements serve two important functions: (1) a corrective function, by moving the gaze regressively within longer words when the preceding saccade lands too far toward the end of these words, and (2) an exploratory function, by shifting the gaze on adjacent words to gain additional information before the execution of the next saccade. Thus, microsaccades may benefit reading by enhancing the visibility of nearby words. This study highlights the importance of examining fine oculomotor behavior in reading, and calls for further research to investigate the possible roles of microsaccades in reading difficulties.

  8. Reading between eye saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Caroline; Fiset, Daniel; Arguin, Martin; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bub, Daniel; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2009-07-30

    Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  9. Using Eye Tracking to Assess Reading Performance in Patients with Glaucoma: A Within-Person Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient’s worse eye (most VF damage when compared to their better eye (least VF damage. Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P<0.001 in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8 dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma.

  10. Early listening and speaking skills predict later reading proficiency in pediatric cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Linda J; Oleson, Jacob J

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that children who use cochlear implants (CIs) tend to achieve higher reading levels than their peers with profound hearing loss who use hearing aids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of auditory information provided by the CI on the later reading skills of children born with profound deafness. The hypothesis was that there would be a positive and predictive relationship between earlier speech perception, production, and subsequent reading comprehension. The speech perception and production skills at the vowel, consonant, phoneme, and word level of 72 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss were assessed after 48 mos of CI use. The children's reading skills were subsequently assessed using word and passage comprehension measures after an average of 89.5 mos of CI use. A regression analysis determined the amount of variance in reading that could be explained by the variables of perception, production, and socioeconomic status. Regression analysis revealed that it was possible to explain 59% of the variance of later reading skills by assessing the early speech perception and production performance. The results indicated that early speech perception and production skills of children with profound hearing loss who receive CIs predict future reading achievement skills. Furthermore, the study implies that better early speech perception and production skills result in higher reading achievement. It is speculated that the early access to sound helps to build better phonological processing skills, which is one of the likely contributors to eventual reading success.

  11. Reading the Bible for guidance, comfort, and strength during stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill B; Moore, Angelo D; Johnson, Khishaana A; Koenig, Harold G

    2013-01-01

    The use of religious practices to promote mental health among African Americans is well documented. African Americans are more likely to report strong religious affiliations and to use religion over prescribed medications for mental health problems. However, few studies have explored how African Americans use religious practices in response to stressful life events. The aim of this study is to examine how African American women and men find comfort in using scripture passages from The Bible. Fifty-four African American adults residing in the Southeastern United States participated in a qualitative descriptive study using open-ended semistructured interviews. Participants were asked to describe their use of scripture passages from The Bible and the personal meanings associated with these scriptures in the context of a family death or life-threatening illness. These participants used scripture passages categorized as God as Protector, God as Beneficent, Praise and Thanksgiving, God as Healer, Memory of Forefathers, Prayers to God, and Life after Death. Few gender differences were noted. However, women were more likely to use scripture passages of God as Protector and Life after Death, whereas men were more likely to use God as Beneficent and God as Healer. The religious practice of reading scripture passages from The Bible is a mental health-promoting strategy used during stressful life events. The findings of this study have practical uses for nurses and can be used to inform acceptable and sensitive approaches in addressing mental health issues and spiritual care needs in African American patients.

  12. Attention and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time.

  13. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  14. Passage kinetics of 13C-labeled corn silage components through the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Fractional passage rates form a fundamental element within modern feed evaluation systems for ruminants but knowledge on feed type and feed component specific passage rates are largely lacking. This study describes the use of carbon stable isotopes (13C) to assess component-specific passage kinetics

  15. 76 FR 54531 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... to pipeline facilities caused by the passage of Hurricanes. ADDRESSES: This document can be viewed on...-related issues that can result from the passage of hurricanes. That includes the potential for damage to...

  16. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  17. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  18. Does silent reading involve articulation? Evidence from tongue twisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, L R; Haber, R N

    1982-01-01

    To demonstrate an interfering effect of subvocal articulation on otherwise silent reading, college-student subjects were asked to repeatedly read, either silently or aloud, both tongue-twister sentences and control sentences matched for syntactic complexity, syllable count, and sentential stress pattern. A technique was developed to measure the amount of time needed for each repetition of a sentence whether done silently or aloud. A significant difference in reading time for tongue twisters as compared to their matched controls was found for both silent as well as out-loud reading. A variety of different kinds of articulatory errors occurred in the oral repetitions, and the number of such errors was highly correlated with oral reading time. While errors could not be measured in silent reading, this correlation suggested that comparable articulatory disturbances accounted for the slower time to silently repeat tongue twisters.

  19. Effect of Home Video on the Reading Habit of Literate Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    mastery of all school subjects, and a sure road to formal learning. There is no doubt that reading opens up every frontier of knowledge, and exposes ... of what is read. Krashen (2004) views reading as the only way, through which we become good readers, develop a good writing style, acquire more vocabulary, build.

  20. Content-Based Recreational Book Reading and Taiwanese Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Yen; Chang, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Shih Ruey

    2017-01-01

    The linkage between reading for pleasure and language ability has been well established, but the relationship between content-based recreational reading and academic achievement in various subject areas has rarely been explored. To investigate whether reading literature, social studies, and science trade books for pleasure is related to students'…