Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.
Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal
German A. Ivanov
Full Text Available In this paper the problem of interdependence between power and language is viewed. The authors point out that the problem may be investigated in two aspects: from the point of view of a conscious use of language as a political instrument and from the point of view of an unconscious dependence of an individual on language and ideology. In this context, the authors investigate the ideas expressed by Louis Althusser and Michel Pźcheux. The theory of Ideological State Apparatuses by Althusser is represented here as one of possible conceptual bases for defining gender distribution of power. In this paper the specificity of the Pźcheux’s discourse analysis is revealed: discourse is viewed by Pźcheux as a sphere of intersection of language and extra-linguistic restrictions created by ideology.
This article explores the rhetoric of the four official languages (English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil) in Singapore and the domestic aversion towards Chinese "dialects" and colloquial "Singlish". The "Speak Mandarin Campaign" alongside the "Speak Good English Movement" represent a display of intercultural…
The logical language PROLOG is used for the definition and characterization of groups of subjects. The groups are firstly defined by sets of variables with comparable scales. Secondly, the single members of the groups are characterized by logically structured combinations of variables which do not necessarily have comparable scales. The performance of the characterizations is estimated by determining the rates sensitivity and specificity. The new classification method is applied in a follow-up study including the assessment of the activity of 76 healthy subjects during two controlled experiments. The classification with PROLOG is then compared with the methods of logistic regression and with discriminant analysis. The comparisons demonstrate that, under similar conditions, the results of a classification with PROLOG parallel the results of statistically based classification procedures. In addition, PROLOG permits characterizations of single subjects based on variables from different scientific disciplines.
Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior
Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.
Full Text Available The article deals with the main aspects and problems of teaching vocational subjects in a foreign language (English at various degrees of education focusing mainly on secondary and concisely on tertiary learning. The main principles and methods have been outlined, supported by longstanding experience in teaching under the CLIL mode. The answers to both language-related and subject-related questions are sought.
Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.
Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne
Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.
Duvall, Emily D.
Student diversity and inclusion presents a unique set of challenges to foreign language teachers. In fact, it has long been recognized that children with learning disabilities, especially those whose difficulties are language-based, will be challenged by foreign language education. Including children with disabilities in a foreign language class…
This study demonstrates the ways in which discourses in a state-sponsored volunteer program incited transformations of individual subjectivities, focusing on a group of Japanese language teacher volunteers training in Japan to become teachers of Japanese as a heritage language for the country's diaspora (Nikkei) population in South America. As…
Anson, Daniel W. J.
This paper investigates the language of the 2009 NSW Stage 6 English Syllabus. I argue that the language of the syllabus aims to create two distinct subjects: Subject English, that is, what students learn; and the subject position of its students, that is, what students are expected to become. Analysis reveals themes of personal development and…
Wei, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the distributive effect when producing subject-verb agreement in English as a second language (L2) when the participant's first language either does or does not require subject-verb agreement. Both Chinese-English and Uygur-English bilinguals were included in Experiment 1. Chinese has no required subject-verb agreement, whereas Uygur does. Results showed that the distributive effect was observed in Uygur-English bilinguals but not in Chinese-English bilinguals, indicating that this particular first language (L1) syntactic feature is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. Experiment 2 further investigated the matter by choosing Chinese-English participants with higher L2 proficiency. Still, no distributive effect was observed, suggesting that the absence of distributive effect in Chinese-English bilinguals in Experiment 1 was not due to low proficiency in the target language. Experiment 3 changed the way the stimuli were presented, highlighting the singular or distributive nature of the subject noun phrases, and the distributive effect was observed in Chinese-English bilinguals. Altogether, the results show that the L1 syntactic feature of subject-verb agreement is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. More specifically, distributive effects rarely occur in L2 when L1 has no requirement on subject-verb agreement, whereas distributive effects are more likely to occur in L2 when the L1 also has required subject-verb agreement.
Hoedemaekers, C.; Keegan, A.
We draw on Lacan’s notion of language to study employee subjectivity in a public sector organization (Publica) in the Netherlands. Our main contribution lies in using Lacan’s theorization of language and subjectivity as a basis for a detailed textual analysis of how local organizational discourses
Alexis, Gerhard T.
Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…
Socrates articulated it best, "Speak, so I may see you." Indeed, language represents an invisible probe into the mind. It is the medium through which we express our deepest thoughts, our aspirations, our views, our feelings, our inner reality. From the beginning of artificial intelligence, researchers have sought to impart human like…
Abdulmuttalip I ŞIDAN
Full Text Available As in other languages there ar e many issues which cause debate among linguists in Arabis Language. One of the issues that is constantly the subject of debate among linguists in the Arabic language is the Ezdad topic. Ezdad is to use the two words interchangeably for the same word. Ezda d in other words antonyms available in all languages but it varies in Arabic Language. Ezdad subject is discussed in studies related to Quran studies, fiqh studies and worship studies and also tafseer area benefited from this subject. The importance of Ezd ad is hidden in the implementation of Holy Quran words. The linguists fell into disagreement on Ezdad subject. Some linguists think that Ezdad is the beauty of Arabic Language while the other think it moves away from Fusha Language. The concept of Ezdad an d the şmportance of Arabic Language will be discussed in the introduction of this study. And then definition of Ezdad and differences between old and new definition of Ezdad. After that the views of the linguists who accepts and who rejects the concept of Ezdad. Then the requirements of a word to be Ezdad will be discussed. Then the reasons of occurence Ezdad will be discussed. And at the end the opinions about Ezdad subject will be presented.
and degrees and diplomas in particular foreign languages. However in this case, the students are not inscribed as students of foreign languages. Their subjectivity process is thus not that of a student of French or German, but rather of pedagogy, cultural studies, economics, development studies or other...... educational programmes situated within the two faculties. As a consequence, we are trying to meet and influence the subjectivity processes that the students go through as they enter university. This article offers a presentation of how we work with the notion of subjectivity and interlanguage in the ongoing...
Andreja Retelj, Karmen Pižorn
Full Text Available Content based language learning as a second language learning approach that has spread in Europe and in several countries became a part of the national curriculum, has in Slovenia not yet been formally established and is present only in the form of pilot projects. It includes a set of different teaching approaches and methods which combine two objec tives: focus on language and focus on content. Such ways of second language learning not only increase the student's language skills, but also affect his cognitive development. Given the added value that these approaches provide to the student, from practical use of second language to familiarizing with language diversity through all his schooling, we should find solutions for its implementation in Slovenian school system.
González Rey, Fernando
This paper discusses the philosophical roots of the concept of sense in Russian philosophy and linguistic, analyzing its consequences for the social sciences, in particular for psychology. Starting from the relevance of the Vygotsky's definition of sense, through which that concept became psychological, is discussed its relevance for advancing forward in a proposal about subjectivity from a cultural historical approach. Advancing on this proposal, the concept of subjective sense is defined as a subjective unity whose focus, rather than being on the unity between word and psychological elements, as Vygotsky stated, is on the unity between symbolical processes and emotions. This theoretical account leads to a different representation of the relation between language, subject and subjectivity, which support a non rationalistic reductionism concerning subjectivity. Finally, on the basis of this non individualistic and non essentialist definition of subjectivity are discussed some of its implications for the development of a non rationalistic approach in psychotherapy.
Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni
In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.
Full Text Available In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1 and children (Experiment 2-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish; while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish. Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.
Hilt, Line Torbjørnsen
This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social systems…
This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social systems investigates how these systems construct meaning and what consequences these constructions have for inclusion and exclusion processes. This article will ...
Chandio, Muhammad Tufail; Jafferi, Saima
English is a second language (L2) in Sindh, Pakistan. Most of the public sector schools in Sindh teach English as a subject rather than a language. Besides, they do not distinguish between generic pedagogy and distinctive approaches used for teaching English as a first language (L1) and second language (L2). In addition, the erroneous traditional…
Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne
Background: Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical…
Full Text Available The paper presents a review of syntactic-semantic structures with the so-called subject genitive, it describes and in a specific way compares all syntactic-semantic models with this type of genitive and discusses the necessary syntactic-semantic conditions which influence its appearance with the comment on the necessary pragmatic conditions where it is relevant. In comparison with the interpretations existing so far, this category is somewhat extended, and the appearance of genitive in specific models mentioned by other authors, too - is explicitly classified into this category, which has not been the case before. Subject genitive, as an exponent of the grammatical subject in the deep predication (full verbal lexeme [condensed by the deverbal noun] or copulative with the adjective as a semantic core [condensed by the deadjectival noun], or the predication of the reduced relative clause in the function of the restrictive identifier of the basic noun of the type nomina loci and nomina collectiva or as a denotator of the semantic subject, in both cases with the meaning of agent - the direct performer of the activity or an intermediary, but also a pseudo-agent, e.g. the indicator of a characteristic, of existence, objects instrument, of the entity created in the process of the verb activity possessor, causer, indicator of a state or feeling, disponent (temporary possessor - is realized equally in nominal and verbal structures, and in a particular instance also in the occasional variant of the sentence with one type of modal particles (evo, eto, eno, gle in a specific pragmatic situation. In the Standard Serbian Language the subject genitive is the element of the secondary syntactic-semantic structures - generated from the basic deep, prototypical, structures (all models except the model with the personal and the model with the medial predication, or the element of the basic syntactic-semantic structures but so-called converse structures (the model
Social bilinguals (second language learners in a linguistic minority) and cultural bilinguals (foreign language learners) often learn side by side in the same classroom, making syllabus planning and choice of teaching methodology difficult. Adopting a bilingual approach and exploring the semantic and discourse aspects of language can overcome the…
Verma, Manindra K., Ed.
The following papers on subject in South Asian languages are compiled here: (1) "Subject in Sanskrit" by George Cardona; (2) "Is Sinhala a Subject Language? (or, How Restricted is Your PNP?)" by James W. Gair; (3) "Some Syntactic Reflexes of Sub-Categories of Agent in Hindi" by Peter Edwin Hook; (4) "The Notion…
Full Text Available This article compares subject-predicate sentence and subject-predicate-object sentence forms with extended sentence of the Kazakh language. It compares Chinese and Kazakh sentences with subject-predicate sentence structure and studies differences of verb-predicate sentences word order. Detailed comparative study of Chinese and Kazakh language differences and characteristics. Morphology structure of Chinese language belongs to radical language, and Kazakh language belongs to the type of adhesive language, syntax of Chinese and Kazakh Languages in the same syntactic structure often used in different ways, the morphological role in Chinese and Kazakh language is also not the same, and even the same kind of grammatical means in Chinese and Kazakh languages are various. According to the analysis of languages, the different positions of word order, the function of words and grammatical word order are different too. The same syntax is very considerable, and lead to different syntactic structures. Chinese thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - action- object. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - predicate - object. Kazakh thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - object - action. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - object - predicate. Chinese and Kazakh predicate and object places in a sentence are different, but their dominance relationship is the same.
Shows how language and subject teachers in London secondary schools are positioned differently through their discursive performance of pedagogues and knowledge and how members of classroom communities view language and subject teachers as unequal. Data analysis dew on ethnography of communication and semiotic functional approaches to explain the…
Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders
Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to
The extent to which the imaginary or realm of images is construed by Lacan as being the order of identification and a (spurious) sense of unity of the ego or self, is contrasted with the symbolic (or linguistic) order as that of the subject and of desire, in fact, of the subject of desire. The place and meaning of the enigmatic third ...
This paper proposes a new model for null subjects, and focuses on its implications for language development. The literature on pro-drop generally considers that not allowing null subjects is, informally speaking, the "default" option in natural languages, and appeals to particular morphosyntactic mechanisms in order to account for those languages in which the subject can be omitted. Shifting the perspective, the inverse approach postulates that pro-drop is (almost) a default grammatical setting, and that non-pro-drop results from the intervention of independent factors that block pro-drop in the derivation. The paper explores the consequences of the inverse approach in the domain of language acquisition, arguing that this model allows to account for a number of properties of child languages. It opens an avenue of research worth exploring, one that could give new solutions to old problems.
This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…
This article attempts to highlight the importance of theoretical linguistics and empirical cognitive linguistics studies for the practical teaching of Spanish as a second language. Looking at the domain of subject pronominal use as an example, I endeavor to show how formal linguistics can be useful to language instructors. This is a significant…
Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set
Full Text Available The present article addresses the issue of syntactic transfer in child L2 acquisition, by presenting a two-part study in which Romanian monolinguals are compared to Romanian-Hebrew balanced bilinguals in two spontaneous production tasks. The main research question concerns the influence of Hebrew as a second L1 on the (resetting of the Null Subject Parameter in English-L2, as Hebrew exhibits the same subject and verb morphology pattern as English for certain persons and tenses. The collected data provide evidence in favour of both access to UG and syntactic transfer, supporting the Full Access Full Transfer Hypothesis.
Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Mingant, Anne
Although aphasia rehabilitation should include significant others, it is currently unknown how this recommendation is adopted in speech-language therapy practice. Speech-language therapists' (SLTs) experience of including significant others in aphasia rehabilitation is also understudied, yet a better understanding of clinical reality would be necessary to facilitate implementation of best evidence pertaining to family interventions. To explore the process through which SLTs work with significant others of people with aphasia in rehabilitation settings. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight SLTs who had been working with persons with aphasia in rehabilitation centres for at least 1 year. Grounded theory principles were applied in analysing interview transcripts. A theoretical model was developed representing SLTs' process of working with significant others of persons with aphasia in rehabilitation. Including significant others was perceived as challenging, yet a bonus to their fundamental patient-centred approach. Basic interventions with significant others when they were available included information sharing. If necessary, significant others were referred to social workers or psychologists or the participants collaborated with those professionals. Participants rarely and only under specific conditions provided significant others with language exercises or trained them to communicate better with the aphasic person. As a result, even if participants felt satisfied with their efforts to offer family and friends interventions, they also had unachieved ideals, such as having more frequent contacts with significant others. If SLTs perceived work with significant others as a feasible necessity, rather than as a challenging bonus, they could be more inclined to include family and friends within therapy with the aim to improve their communication with the person with aphasia. SLTs could also be more satisfied with their practice. In order to
Gleeson, Margaret; Davison, Chris
Secondary schools in Australia have long benefited from state policies aiming to increase the academic success of English language learners (ELLs). Complementary pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes have been implemented to raise the expertise of subject teachers who teach ELL students. However, subject teachers may not be…
Mar Gutiérrez-Colon Plana
Full Text Available This study analyses the use of English in the e-mail messages of students taking English language as a subject at the UOC. The study is based mainly on the hedges (a strategy by which the learners mitigate and tone down their discourse appearing in their texts. The article begins by describing the general theoretical framework of the study and the objective of the research carried out. A description is then given of the taxonomy used in the research, along with a description of the subjects studied. The results obtained from the study of the messages are shown, and the conclusions drawn from all the research data are then explained in detail. Essentially, after evaluating all the data obtained from this research, it can be said that the UOC fosters and boosts the process of English language learning, due to the nature of the messages in the subject, as these promote the autonomy and critical awareness of the students.
Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho
Although an impact noise level is objectively evaluated the same according to current standards, a lightweight floor structure is often subjectively judged more annoying than a heavy homogeneous structure. The hypothesis of the present investigation is that the subjective judgment of impact noise...
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to determine which early non-finite verbal form is the Root Infinitive analogue in Romanian, an Inflection-licensed null subject language. In particular, we investigate whether the RI-analogue is the imperative, as predicted by Salustri and Hyams’s (2003 hypothesis, or whether it is a language specific underspecified form, overused during the early stages of acquisition, as predicted by Wexler et al. (2004.
Muhammad Tufail Chandio
Full Text Available English is a second language (L2 in Sindh, Pakistan. Most of the public sector schools in Sindh teach English as a subject rather than a language. Besides, they do not distinguish between generic pedagogy and distinctive approaches used for teaching English as a first language (L1 and second language (L2. In addition, the erroneous traditional assessment focuses on only writing and reading skills and the listening and speaking skills of L2 remain excluded. There is a great emphasis on summative assessments, which contribute to a qualification; however, formative assessments, which provide timely and continuous appraisal and feedback, remain ignored. Summative assessment employs only paper-and- pencil based test, while the other current means of alternative assessments like self-assessment, peer-assessment, and portfolio assessment have not been incorporated, and explored yet. Teaching English as a subject not as a language, employing summative assessment not formative, depending on paper-and-pencil based test, and not using the alternative modes of assessment are some of the questions this study will deal with. The study under discussion suggests that current approaches employed for teaching English are misplaced as these take a subject teaching approach rather than a language teaching approach. It also argues for the paradigm shift from a product to process approach to assessment by administering modern alternative assessments.
Martino, Juan; Velasquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Gomez, Elsa
Modern sign languages used by deaf people are fully expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. The literature contains little data concerning human brain organization in conditions of deficient sensory information such as deafness. A deaf-mute patient underwent surgery of a left temporoinsular low-grade glioma. The patient underwent awake surgery with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, allowing direct study of the cortical and subcortical organization of sign language. We found a similar distribution of language sites to what has been reported in mapping studies of patients with oral language, including 1) speech perception areas inducing anomias and alexias close to the auditory cortex (at the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus); 2) speech production areas inducing speech arrest (anarthria) at the ventral premotor cortex, close to the lip motor area and away from the hand motor area; and 3) subcortical stimulation-induced semantic paraphasias at the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus at the temporal isthmus. The intraoperative setup for sign language mapping with intraoperative electrical stimulation in deaf-mute patients is similar to the setup described in patients with oral language. To elucidate the type of language errors, a sign language interpreter in close interaction with the neuropsychologist is necessary. Sign language is perceived visually and produced manually; however, this case revealed a cross-modal recruitment of auditory and orofacial motor areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan
Product engineering involves designing and dimensioning a product, including geometric modeling and scientific simulation and analysis to fulfill predetermined requirements. Therefore, the engineering design effort requires a multidisciplinary analysis that is based on a multitude of different models, each of which require a different kind of representation of the same product geometry. The proposed approach uses a design language and a design compiler to translate an abstract source geometry in an abstract representation scheme into an arbitrary target format. With this approach, all models are generated automatically and are consistent with each other.
Full Text Available A longstanding debate in cognitive neuroscience pertains to the innate nature of language development and the underlying factors that determine this faculty. We explored the neural correlates associated with language processing in a unique individual who is early blind, congenitally deaf, and possesses a high level of language function. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we compared the neural networks associated with the tactile reading of words presented in Braille, Print on Palm (POP, and a haptic form of American Sign Language (haptic ASL or hASL. With all three modes of tactile communication, indentifying words was associated with robust activation within occipital cortical regions as well as posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal language areas (lateralized within the left hemisphere. In a normally sighted and hearing interpreter, identifying words through hASL was associated with left-lateralized activation of inferior frontal language areas however robust occipital cortex activation was not observed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-based tractography revealed differences consistent with enhanced occipital-temporal connectivity in the deaf-blind subject. Our results demonstrate that in the case of early onset of both visual and auditory deprivation, tactile-based communication is associated with an extensive cortical network implicating occipital as well as posterior superior temporal and frontal associated language areas. The cortical areas activated in this deaf-blind subject are consistent with characteristic cortical regions previously implicated with language. Finally, the resilience of language function within the context of early and combined visual and auditory deprivation may be related to enhanced connectivity between relevant cortical areas.
Kim, Su Yeong; Hou, Yang; Shen, Yishan; Zhang, Minyu
Language brokering occurs frequently in immigrant families and can have significant implications for the well-being of family members involved. The present study aimed to develop and validate a measure that can be used to assess multiple dimensions of subjective language brokering experiences among Mexican American adolescents. Participants were 557 adolescent language brokers (54.2% female, Mage.wave1 = 12.96, SD = .94) in Mexican American families. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we were able to identify 7 reliable subscales of language brokering: linguistic benefits, socioemotional benefits, efficacy, positive parent-child relationships, parental dependence, negative feelings , and centrality . Tests of factorial invariance show that these subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial strict invariance across time and across experiences of translating for mothers and fathers, and in most cases, also across adolescent gender, nativity, and translation frequency. Thus, in general, the means of the subscales and the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different occasions and groups. Tests of criterion-related validity demonstrated that these subscales correlated, concurrently and longitudinally, with parental warmth and hostility, parent-child alienation, adolescent family obligation, depressive symptoms, resilience, and life meaning. This reliable and valid subjective language brokering experiences scale will be helpful for gaining a better understanding of adolescents' language brokering experiences with their mothers and fathers, and how such experiences may influence their development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the dilemmas that confront an author who chooses to write in an African language. (Language choice remains a particularly vexing issue in African literature. On the one hand a language that he is a master of gives him the freedom to assert himself and oppose the imperial way of thinking, which is liberating. On the other hand choice of language confines his work to a specific audience and a particular set of literary canons. Sometimes certain influential gatekeepers overtly prescribe boundaries and limit the possibilities of transcending them. On the other hand, as a case study of Sesotho literature shows, the literature itself manifests generic and thematic propensities that limit the freedom of literary expression. From the subjective and privileged position of being a writer in Sesotho himself the author in the end makes a number of suggestions on how to overcome this stifling status quo.
Askeland, Norunn; Maagero, Eva
In the first part of this article we will briefly point out the learning areas in the Norwegian Framework plan for contents and tasks in kindergartens from 2006, and argue that the introduction of these areas means a large potential for focusing on different kinds of subject-oriented language in kindergarten. We will present some features of…
Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard
Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…
Rivard, Léonard P.
The study investigated achievement status as a factor determining the use of language-based activities for learning science. A total of 154 eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to four groups, all stratified for gender and achievement level. The treatments involved various combinations of talk and writing, and descriptive and explanatory tasks. The dependent measures included scores on multiple choice tests obtained at three times during the study. Records of student talk and writing were also analyzed to identify patterns of differences between groups of achievers. The findings suggested that low achievers complete more problems, and develop better understanding and comprehension of ecology concepts when they have engaged in peer discussions of explanatory tasks. In comparison, high achievers benefit more from writing than talking, and writing explanations enhances comprehension more than restricted writing activities.
Hsiao, Yaling; Gao, Yannan; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
Interference effects from semantically similar items are well-known in studies of single word production, where the presence of semantically similar distractor words slows picture naming. This article examines the consequences of this interference in sentence production and tests the hypothesis that in situations of high similarity-based interference, producers are more likely to omit one of the interfering elements than when there is low semantic similarity and thus low interference. This work investigated language production in Mandarin, which allows subject noun phrases to be omitted in discourse contexts in which the subject entity has been previously mentioned in the discourse. We hypothesize that Mandarin speakers omit the subject more often when the subject and the object entities are conceptually similar. A corpus analysis of simple transitive sentences found higher rates of subject omission when both the subject and object were animate (potentially yielding similarity-based interference) than when the subject was animate and object was inanimate. A second study manipulated subject-object animacy in a picture description task and replicated this result: participants omitted the animate subject more often when the object was also animate than when it was inanimate. These results suggest that similarity-based interference affects sentence forms, particularly when the agent of the action is mentioned in the sentence. Alternatives and mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:25278915
Bockstael, Annelies; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Maes, Leen; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Vinck, Bart
The microphone in real ear (MIRE) protocol allows the assessment of hearing protector's (HPD) attenuation in situ by measuring the difference between the sound pressure outside and inside the ear canal behind the HPD. Custom-made earplugs have been designed with an inner bore to insert the MIRE probe containing two microphones, the reference microphone measuring the sound pressure outside and the measurement microphone registering the sound pressure behind the HPD. Previous research on a head and torso simulator reveals a distinct difference, henceforth called transfer function, between the sound pressure at the MIRE measurement microphone and the sound pressure of interest at the eardrum. In the current study, similar measurements are carried out on humans with an extra microphone to measure the sound pressure at the eardrum. The resulting transfer functions confirm the global frequency dependency found earlier, but also show substantial variability between the ears with respect to the exact frequency and amplitude of the transfer functions' extrema. In addition, finite-difference time-domain numerical models of an ear canal with earplug are developed for each individual ear by including its specific geometrical parameters. This approach leads to a good resemblance between the simulations and their corresponding measurements.
Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward
In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan
In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. An SLI group (6-8 years old), an age-matched group with typical development, and a language-matched, younger, typically developing (TD) group participated in the study. Using an elicitation task, the authors tested use of third person singular inflection after verbs that ended in obstruents (plosive, fricative) or nonobstruents (sonorant). The authors used a self-paced listening task to test sensitivity to subject-verb agreement violations. Omission was more frequent after obstruents than nonobstruents; the younger TD group used inflection less often after plosives than fricatives, unlike the SLI group. The SLI group did not detect subject-verb agreement violations if the ungrammatical structure contained a frequent error (omission), but if the ungrammatical structure contained an infrequent error (substitution), subject-verb agreement violations were noticed. The use of agreement inflection by children with TD or SLI is affected by verb phonology. Differential effects in the 2 groups are consistent with a delayed development in Dutch SLI. Parallels between productive and receptive abilities point to weak lexical agreement inflection representations in Dutch SLI.
Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)
To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)
Full Text Available Hermetic textbook language poses a significant problem in education of the young in our country. The goal of this paper is to point out to the complexity of vocabulary in textbooks, which contributes to students' lack of understanding of what they are reading. Since we established that textbooks in narrative subjects - history, geography and biology - are mostly used during studying and that students mark them as especially difficult for understanding, the subject of this research is precisely the analysis of words which seventh-grade students from primary school state as unfamiliar on a randomly selected, but balanced in terms of length, textbook text of those subjects. The results of frequency analysis indicate that there are a lot of unfamiliar expert words, and frequently the same number, or even more, of common Serbian words in textbook texts, especially in history. Approximately the same or even larger number of unfamiliar words occurs in familiar texts when compared to unfamiliar, which indicates that the previous usage of texts does not contribute to their understanding. Based on correlation analysis referring to the number of unfamiliar words, frequency of textbook usage, perception of difficulty of the text in textbook, general and the achievement in the particular subject, it was determined that unfamiliar words are not only mentioned by students with low grades, although they do it more often, nor that only these students are the ones complaining how difficult textbooks are to them. Based on regression analysis, the number of unfamiliar words, especially in the history textbook, even figures as a predictor of success, which seems contradictory and can be interpreted differently. The results point out to the fact that inaccessibility of textbook language mostly does not guide the students to learn new words, but causes revolt and thus disables the development of language, scientific concepts and acquiring professional terminology
Gonthier, Isabelle; Desrochers, Alain; Thompson, Glenn; Landry, Dominique
This study aimed at providing subjective frequency and imageability norms for a sample of 1,760 monosyllabic French words and thereby, increasing the pool of normative data available for research in cognitive science and language processing. The results indicate that the reliability of the estimates is high, with coefficients ranging between .93 and .99 for the frequency and imageability ratings. External validity was investigated by calculating correlations with ratings drawn from all similar studies and for which the number of shared items was sufficient. These coefficients vary between .73 and .88 for subjective frequency and between .64 and .97 for imageability. The correlation between subjective frequency and imageability in the present study was significant and relatively high (r = .64). The implications of these results for the selection of experimental stimuli for research are discussed.
Full Text Available Since all theories of knowing deal with the being of subjects, objects, instruments and environments, they can be viewed as onto-epistemological. This chapter examines key ideas that emerge from the work of Julia Kristeva – 'the speaking subject', 'materiality of language' and 'heterogeneity' – to demonstrate how ontology and epistemology are inextricably entwined in knowledge production. Kristeva also affirms both the agency of matter and the dimension of human/subjective agency implicated in cultural production. This is contrasted with Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s account creative practice. The article also draws on the artistic work of researcher-practitioner Brian Martin, and his account of the relationship between Indigenous Australian art and culture to demonstrate that in an Indigenous world view, the real, the immaterial, the imaginary and the representational occur concurrently.
Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Zhu, Jinxin; Law, Cecilia Lai Kwan
This study aimed to explore the cross-lagged association of achievements in mathematics and languages. While the effect of language on achievements in mathematics is well-documented, few studies have examined the reciprocal relationships among mathematics, the Chinese language and the English language in the same study. This study conducted a…
A report on a study of a large number of subjects afflicted with sensory aphasia. Topics covered are: the distributional pattern of grammatical categories; paraphasia; a statistical analysis of associated syndromes; possible relationship to the location of the lesion. Some examples of spontaneous language are included. (Text is in French.) (AMH)
Salem, L C; Vogel, Asmus Mejling; Ebstrup, J
functions were assessed with the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE), and symptoms of depression were rated with Major Depression Inventory (MDI). All interviews and the diagnostic conclusion were blinded to the SMC score. RESULTS: We found that young patients......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the quantity and profile of subjective cognitive complaints in young patients as compared with elderly patients referred to a memory clinic. METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the Copenhagen University Hospital Memory Clinic at Rigshospitalet....... In total, 307 patients and 149 age-matched healthy controls were included. Patients were classified in 4 diagnostic groups: dementia, mild cognitive impairment, affective disorders and no cognitive impairment. Subjective memory was assessed with subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. Global cognitive...
Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Sheng, Elisa; Imel, Zac E.; Baer, John; Atkins, David C.
Empathy is a basic psychological process that involves the development of synchrony in dyads. It is also a foundational ingredient in specific, evidence-based behavioral treatments like motivational interviewing (MI). Ratings of therapist empathy typically rely on a gestalt, “felt sense” of therapist understanding and the presence of specific verbal behaviors like reflective listening. These ratings do not provide a direct test of psychological processes like behavioral synchrony that are theorized to be an important component of empathy in psychotherapy. To explore a new objective indicator of empathy, we hypothesized that synchrony in language style (i.e., matching how statements are phrased) between client and therapists would predict gestalt ratings of empathy over and above the contribution of reflections. We analyzed 122 MI transcripts with high and low empathy ratings based on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) global rating scale. Linguistic inquiry and word count was used to estimate language style synchrony (LSS) of adjacent client and therapist talk turns. High empathy sessions showed greater LSS across 11 language style categories compared to low empathy sessions (p empathy vs. low empathy sessions (d = 0.62). Regression analyses showed that LSS was predictive of empathy ratings over and above reflection counts; a 1 SD increase in LSS is associated with 2.4 times increase in the odds of a high empathy rating, controlling for therapist reflections (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.36, 4.24, p empathy ratings are related to synchrony in language style, over and above synchrony of content as measured by therapist reflections. Novel indicators of therapist empathy may have implications for the study of MI process as well as the training of therapists. PMID:25892166
This paper advocates the introduction of the concept of intelligence in the Romanian language, in order to fill the current methodological gap. The need for a new concept emerged in the activity of Romanian intelligence services over a decade ago, when „intelligence” started to be used in parallel with „information” in external and internal missions.Our approach is focused on three dimensions, which we consider fundamental for our demarche: formulating a definition of intelligence, establishi...
Kurth, Lori Ann
In light of continuing poor performance by American students in school science, feminists and sociocultural researchers have demonstrated that we need to look beyond content to address the science needs of all school children. In this study I examined issues of discourse norms, knowledge, language and subjectivities (meaning personal and social observations and characteristics) in elementary science. Over a two-year period, I used an interpretive methodological approach to investigate science experiences in two first-second and second grade classrooms. I first established some of the norms and characteristics of the discourse communities through case studies of new students attempting to gain entry to whole class conversations. I then examined knowledge, a central focus of science education addressed by a variety of theoretical approaches. In these classrooms students co-constructed and built knowledge in their whole class science conversations sometimes following convergent (similar knowledge) and, at other times, divergent (differing knowledge) paths allowing for broader discourse. In both paths, there was gendered construction of knowledge in which same gender students elaborated the reasoning of previous speakers. In conjunction with these analyses, I examined what knowledge sources the students used in their science conversations. Students drew on a variety of informal and formal knowledge sources including personal experiences, other students, abstract logic and thought experiments, all of which were considered valid. In using sources from both in and out of school, students' knowledge bases were broader than traditional scientific content giving greater access and richness to their conversations. The next analysis focused on students' use of narrative and paradigmatic language forms in the whole class science conversations. Traditionally, only paradigmatic language forms have been used in science classrooms. The students in this study used both narrative and
Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Juphard, Alexandra [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Cousin, Emilie [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bas, Jean Francois Le [Unite IRM, CHU Grenoble (France)
We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.
Jesús Vega Encabo
Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation.
at other classes, the material of which concern the studied subjects at integrated specified rate An integrated approach in object-language direction has great advantages comparing with the communicative one, because there is a complete immersion of students into foreign language environment, enriching vocabulary through terminology. The most valuable is the fact that children get a complete picture of the world which is necessary for successful socialization of young learners.
Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.
This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb
Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.
This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the…
Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M
The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.
Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.
Background Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., 2009) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication, and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. Method To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (N = 145). Results Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications, and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed, and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. PMID:23841828
Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J
Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.
The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.
Артур Нарманович Мамедов
Full Text Available Informative capacity of participial construction of source and target languages contributes to a more complex and multi aspect image of an expensive car. Dangling participles and attributive clauses placed after the determined word are being used in translation of extended adjectives with participles I and II. These grammatical transformations connected with reconstruction of semantic structure remain logically rational argumentation of an advertising text of the source language.
Branco, Paulo; Seixas, Daniela; Castro, São Luís
Resting-state fMRI is a well-suited technique to map functional networks in the brain because unlike task-based approaches it requires little collaboration from subjects. This is especially relevant in clinical settings where a number of subjects cannot comply with task demands. Previous studies using conventional scanner fields have shown that resting-state fMRI is able to map functional networks in single subjects, albeit with moderate temporal reliability. Ultra-high resolution (7T) imaging provides higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spatial resolution and is thus well suited to assess the temporal reliability of mapping results, and to determine if resting-state fMRI can be applied in clinical decision making including preoperative planning. We used resting-state fMRI at ultra-high resolution to examine whether the sensorimotor and language networks are reliable over time - same session and one week after. Resting-state networks were identified for all subjects and sessions with good accuracy. Both networks were well delimited within classical regions of interest. Mapping was temporally reliable at short and medium time-scales as demonstrated by high values of overlap in the same session and one week after for both networks. Results were stable independently of data quality metrics and physiological variables. Taken together, these findings provide strong support for the suitability of ultra-high field resting-state fMRI mapping at the single-subject level. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi
In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved...
Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders
Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language--a meta-language--for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and…
Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Barsties, Ben; Roy, Nelson
The Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) is a relatively new clinical method to quantify dysphonia severity. Since it partially relies on continuous speech, its performance may vary with voice-related phonetic differences and thus across languages. The present investigation therefore assessed the AVQI's performance in English, Dutch, German, and French. Fifty subjects were recorded reading sentences in the four languages, as well as producing a sustained vowel. These recordings were later edited to calculate the AVQI. The samples were also perceptually rated on overall dysphonia severity by three experienced voice clinicians. The AVQI's cross-linguistic concurrent validity and diagnostic precision were assessed. The results support earlier data, and confirm good cross-linguistic validity and diagnostic accuracy. Although no statistical differences were observed between languages, the AVQI performed better in English and German and less well in French. These results validate the AVQI as a potentially robust and objective dysphonia severity measure across languages.
This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of "wh"-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded "wh"-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality…
Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.
We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…
Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.
Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…
de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.
This volume in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Learners series was designed to deepen teacher's knowledge and provides instructional approaches and practices for supporting grades 6-12 ELLs as they meet the ambitious expectations of the CCSS for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. This…
Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010
The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects ("the Standards") are the culmination of an extended, broad-based effort to fulfill the charge issued by the states to create the next generation of K-12 standards in order to help ensure that all students…
Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the European level. Challenged by questions as to whether language learning should be prioritised as a human right or as human capital building, how host/mainstream language learning can be reinforced while respecting language diversity, and other problems, member countries still need to find solutions. Confronting these dilemmas, this study analyses the relationship and interactions between language learning and immigrants' social inclusion in different contexts. It explores the potential of enhancing the effectiveness of language policies via a dialogue between policies and practices in different national contexts and research studies in the field of language and social inclusion. The research data are derived from two databases created by a European policy for active social inclusion project called INCLUDE. This project ran from 2013 to 2016 under the EU's lifelong learning programme, with funding support from the European Commission. Through an analysis of these two project databases, the paper reviews recent national language policies and their effect on the social inclusion of migrants. In the second part of her article, the author interprets the process of language learning and social inclusion using poststructuralist theories of language and identity.
Spurgeon, Laura; Clarke, Carl E.; Sackley, Cath
Purpose. Parkinson’s disease can produce a range of speech-language pathologies, which may require intervention. While evaluations of speech-language therapy have been undertaken, no work has been undertaken to capture patients’ experiences of therapy. This was the aim of the present study. Methods. Semistructured interviews, using themes derived from the literature, were conducted with nine Parkinson’s disease patients, all of whom had undergone speech-language therapy. Participants’ respons...
Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny
This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.
Moritz, S; Andresen, B; Domin, F; Martin, T; Probsthein, E; Kretschmer, G; Krausz, M; Naber, D; Spitzer, M
Previous studies on semantic priming have suggested that schizophrenic patients with language disturbances demonstrate enhanced semantic and indirect semantic priming effects relative to controls. However, the interpretation of semantic priming studies in schizophrenic patients is obscured by methological problems and several artefacts (such as length of illness). We, therefore, used a psychometric high-risk approach to test whether healthy subjects reporting language disturbances resembling those of schizophrenics (as measured by the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire subscale 'language') display increased priming effects. In addition, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was used to cover symptoms of schizotypal personality. Enhanced priming was expected to occur under conditions favouring automatic processes. One hundred and sixty healthy subjects performed a lexical decision semantic priming task containing two different stimulus onset asynchronicities (200 ms and 700 ms) with two experimental conditions (semantic priming and indirect semantic priming) each. Analyses of variance revealed that the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-' language' high scorers significantly differed from low scorers in three of the four priming conditions indicating increased automatic spreading activation. No significant results were obtained for the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and subscales scores. In line with Maher and Spitzer it is suggested that increased automatic spreading activation underlies schizophrenia-typical language disturbances which in our study cannot be attributed to confounding variables such as different reaction time baselines, medication or length of illness. Finally, results confirm that the psychometric high-risk approach is an important tool for investigating issues relevant to schizophrenia.
Te reo Maori, the Indigenous language of Aotearoa (New Zealand), remains 'endangered' despite concentrated ongoing efforts to reverse declining numbers of speakers. Most of these efforts have focused on te reo Maori immersion education settings as these were considered the most effective means to ensure the survival of the language (May &…
Brown, Tony; Heywood, David
Following Husserl's speculations on how geometry originated, we suggest that spatial perception is "seduced" by language as a result of human attempts to capture, signify and share its concepts. And this language traps geometry and humans themselves in to the forms that have guided and regulated past practices, thereby obscuring possibilities for…
Bernstein, Katie A.
The past two decades have seen a proliferation of studies investigating, complicating, and reimagining the relationship between second language learning and identity. Yet, with only a handful of exceptions, these studies are limited to adolescent and adult second language learners. In this article, the author proposes that identity research with…
South African learners perform poorly in national and international tests aimed at measuring literacy and numeracy skills. One of the reasons for their performance is a lack of critical academic language skills in English as the Language of Learning and Teaching (LOLT). This is noted against the background of previously ...
Spurgeon, Laura; Clarke, Carl E; Sackley, Cath
.... This was the aim of the present study. Methods. Semistructured interviews, using themes derived from the literature, were conducted with nine Parkinson's disease patients, all of whom had undergone speech-language therapy...
Raboyeau, Gaëlle; Marie, Nathalie; Balduyck, Sébastien; Gros, Hélène; Démonet, Jean-François; Cardebat, Dominique
To investigate the neural correlates of word learning in adults, 10 right-handed French subjects who had learned English without mastering it performed an English and a French naming task during two PET sessions, one before (PET1) and the second after (PET2) a 4-week lexical training in English. Behavioral performance was collected during the two PET exams and 2 months after (T3). At T2, performance on English naming increased in all subjects; this improvement persisted at T3, with no correlation between English performance at T2 and T3. Cerebral activation during French naming mainly showed a left frontal temporal network. The pattern specifically associated with English lexical learning included, in addition to the anterior cingulate cortex involved in attentional processing and BAs 4/6 reflecting speech output, the right cerebellum and the left insular cortex that are linked to speech gesture learning, and the right medial temporal regions, likely to reflect the involvement of episodic memory during verbal learning. Correlations between English T2/T1 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes reinforced the hypothesis of intervention of episodic memory since they interested right frontal, hippocampal, and lateral temporal regions. 'Predictive' correlations between English T3/T2 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes showed, in good reminders, increased activities in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal cortex probably related to efficient semantic storage of learned words.
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Disability insurance benefits for federal...
Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth
Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spurgeon, Laura; Clarke, Carl E; Sackley, Cath
Purpose. Parkinson's disease can produce a range of speech-language pathologies, which may require intervention. While evaluations of speech-language therapy have been undertaken, no work has been undertaken to capture patients' experiences of therapy. This was the aim of the present study. Methods. Semistructured interviews, using themes derived from the literature, were conducted with nine Parkinson's disease patients, all of whom had undergone speech-language therapy. Participants' responses were analysed in accordance with Thematic Network Analysis. Results. Four themes emerged: emotional reactions (frustration, embarrassment, lack of confidence, disappointment, and anxiety); physical impact (fatigue, breathing and swallowing, and word production); practical aspects (cost of treatment, waiting times, and the actual clinical experience); and expectations about treatment (met versus unmet). Conclusions. While many benefits of speech-language therapy were reported, several negative issues emerged which could impact adversely on rehabilitation. Parkinson's disease is associated with a range of psychological and physical sequelae, such as fatigue and depression; recognising any individual experiences which could exacerbate the existing condition and incorporating these into treatment planning may improve rehabilitation outcomes.
Andriani Putu Fika
Full Text Available Autonomous learning is a concept in which the learner has the ability to take charge of their own learning. It becomes a notable aspect that should be perceived by students. The aim of this research is for finding out the strategies used by grade two teachers in Bali Kiddy Primary School to promote autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning in science and maths subjects. This study was designed in the form of descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document study. The result of the study shows that there are some strategies of promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of CLIL in Science and Maths subjects. Those strategies are table of content training, questioning & presenting, journal writing, choosing activities, and using online activity. Those strategies can be adopted or even adapted as the way to promote autonomous learning in English subject.
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Aged benefits for federal fiscal year...
This historical study reflects on history curriculum debates over the last 20 years in Taiwan. To open up possibilities for contemporary Taiwanese to rethink themselves in terms of national culture and subjectivity, this paper explores the construction of Taiwanese subjectivity in the past. It focuses on the history of Taiwan under Japanese…
Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi
Full Text Available In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved. For this purpose, by using Persian journals articles that have had English abstracts, Persian phrases and subject terms with their English equivalent were extracted. In three class us, thirty number of phrases and subject terms of agriculture area were extracted: First class, subject phrases that only in agriculture are used; Secondary, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too; Third class, agriculture subject terms that out of this field are considered as public term. Then by these phrases and terms, documents were searched, and relevance amount of search results are investigated. Results of study showed that google cross-language retrieval tools for two classes of phrases and terms, in cross-language retrieval of relevance document about agriculture subject area, aren`t succeed: one class, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too. other class, agriculture subject terms that out of agriculture field are considered as public term. Google cross-language retrieval tools about subject phrase and terms that only in agriculture field are used, are performance rather desirable than other two class of phrase and terms
Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is considered to be the standard method regarding non-invasive language mapping. However, repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) gains increasing importance with respect to that purpose. However, comparisons between both methods are sparse. We performed fMRI and rTMS language mapping of the left hemisphere in 40 healthy, right-handed subjects in combination with the tasks that are most commonly used in the neurosurgical context (fMRI: word-generation = WGEN task; rTMS: object-naming = ON task). Different rTMS error rate thresholds (ERTs) were calculated, and Cohen's kappa coefficient and the cortical parcellation system (CPS) were used for systematic comparison of the two techniques. Overall, mean kappa coefficients were low, revealing no distinct agreement. We found the highest agreement for both techniques when using the 2-out-of-3 rule (CPS region defined as language positive in terms of rTMS if at least 2 out of 3 stimulations led to a naming error). However, kappa for this threshold was only 0.24 (kappa of <0, 0.01-0.20, 0.21-0.40, 0.41-0.60, 0.61-0.80 and 0.81-0.99 indicate less than chance, slight, fair, moderate, substantial and almost perfect agreement, respectively). Because of the inherent differences in the underlying physiology of fMRI and rTMS, the different tasks used and the impossibility of verifying the results via direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in the population of healthy volunteers, one must exercise caution in drawing conclusions about the relative usefulness of each technique for language mapping. Nevertheless, this study yields valuable insights into these two mapping techniques for the most common language tasks currently used in neurosurgical practice.
Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo
To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.
Sanden, Guro Refsum
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...
Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Sung Hwa; Shim, Miseon; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Cho, Hyun-Sang
Disturbances in thought, speech, and linguistic processing are frequently observed in bipolar manic patients, but the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are not well understood. P600 is a distinct, positive event-related potential component elicited by syntactic violations. Using the P600 ERP, we examined neural processing of syntactic language comprehension in patients with bipolar mania compared to patients with schizophrenia and healthy people. P600s were recorded from 21 manic patients with bipolar disorder, 26 patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy subjects during the presentation of 120 auditory sentences with syntactic violations or non-violations. Subjects were asked to judge whether each sentence was correct or incorrect. Patients with mania and schizophrenia had significantly smaller P600 amplitudes associated with syntactic violations compared with healthy subjects. There was no difference in P600 amplitude between patient groups. For behavioral performance, patients with schizophrenia had significantly less accurate rates and longer reaction times compared with healthy subjects, whereas manic patients exhibited no significant differences in accuracy and only showed increased reaction times in comparison with healthy subjects. Psychotropic drug usage and small sample size. Patients with bipolar mania have reduced P600 amplitude, comparable to patients with schizophrenia. Our findings may represent the first neurophysiological evidence of abnormal syntactic linguistic processing in bipolar mania. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dmitry Nikolayevich Chernov
Full Text Available Studying of role of «the parent – the child» and «the teacher – the child» generalities, developing as the collective subject, in formation of the language competence of the senior preschooler is the research purpose. Research is executed in a paradigm of the subject-activity approach. The Heidelbergtest of the child language development was applied to studying of the language competence. Experimental procedure of diagnostics of language learning and its results with use of the Vygotskian principle of a zone of the proximal development is offered. Procedure allows to form a generality «the teacher – the child» as the collective subject. For studying of a child-parental generality as collective subject the special methodical complex consisting of seven techniques was used.Essential component of structure of child-parental relations is formation of collective subject «parent – child» with the style of parental relation «the indulging hyperpatronage». This generality positively causes development of speech-linguistic competence spheres. The collective subject «the teacher – the child», generated on the basis of realization of a principle of a zone of the proximal development, allows to create psychological-pedagogical conditions for adequate learning diagnostics and, simultaneously, for achievement of high level language competence. Experience of the subject-subject interrelations with the parent is the precondition of formation the subject-subject interrelations with the teacher in a situation of formation of the language competence.Results can be used for the organization and carrying out of correction-preventive work on formation optimum sociocultural situation of child development for formation of the language competence of the senior preschool child.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-30
In 2007, the Flemish minister of Education sounded the alarm on language and writing skills. He felt that students were getting “sloppy”, and teachers displayed an “all too accepting didactic attitude”. Furthermore, the minister worried over the 2006 PISA results, which showed that nowhere in Europe the school performance gap between low and high SES students was as wide as in Flanders. A lack of language competencies, the minister argued, was at the root of the problem. He urged the institut...
This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of wh-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded wh-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality judgment task. The learners demonstrated a subject advantage in the headed RCs and headless RCs, but an object advantage in the embedded wh-questions, which suggests that they treat embedded wh-questions differently from headed relatives and headless relatives despite the similarities in surface forms. The learners further demonstrated the order of developing headless RCs followed by embedded wh-questions, and subsequently headed RCs, which supports the primacy of headless relatives as a simple nominal in L2 development.
Rispens, J; Roeleven, S; Koster, C
The principle aim of this paper was to investigate sensitivity to subject-verb agreement morphology in children with developmental dyslexia. An auditory grammaticality judgement task was used to compare morphosyntactic abilities of primary school dyslexic children relative to normally developing
Hartsuiker, R.J.; Barkhuysen, Pashiera
In order to study the role of working memory in sentence formulation, we elicited errors of subject-verb agreement in spoken sentence completion, while speakers did or did not maintain an extrinsic memory load (a word list). We compared participants with low and high speaking spans (a measure of
Mellet, E; Zago, L; Jobard, G; Crivello, F; Petit, L; Joliot, M; Mazoyer, B; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N
The present study reappraised the relationship between hemispheric specialization strength and cognitive skills in a sample of 297 individuals including 153 left-handers. It additionally assessed the interaction with manual laterality factors, such as handedness, asymmetry of hand motor skills, and familial sinistrality. A Hemispheric Functional Lateralization Index (HFLI) for language was derived from fMRI. Through mixture Gaussian modeling, three types of language hemispheric lateralization were defined: typical (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI), ambilateral (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0), and strongly-atypical (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values). Three cognitive scores were derived from 12 tests covering various aspects of verbal and spatial cognition. Compared to both typical and strongly-atypical participants, those ambilateral for language production had lower performances in verbal and non-verbal domains, indicating that hemispheric specialization and cognitive skills are related in adults. Furthermore, this relationship was independent from handedness and asymmetry for motor skills, as no interaction was observed between these factors. On the other hand, the relationship between familial sinistrality and cognitive skills tended to differ according to language lateralization type. In contrast to previous reports in children, in the present adult population, we found no linear correlation between HFLI and cognitive skills, regardless of lateralization type. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper, the writer analyzed the objective of English learning at Azkia Integrated Islamic Primary School and the pupils’ needs in learning English. The paper described pupils’ needs, which are divided into the target needs and the learning needs. The study employed qualitative method, which used phenomenology approach. The data were collected from classroom observations, interviews, and documentary analysis, and then were analyzed and classified into the target needs and the learning needs. The findings showed that the pupils’ needs to be fulfilled in learning English are introducing English at the early stage, coping English language in the classroom and the daily lives, emphasizing vocabulary building and its development, applying recognizable topics to support vocabulary mastery, giving a wide range of instruments which stimulates the pupils using English in their daily lives. Further, learning English can be easier for the pupils when the concrete objects are utilized well and visual aids are made available.
Rafael Martín García
Full Text Available This article describes the experiences, projects and activities conducted by three teachers with their students of Literature and Language, and based on the construction and use of PLEs.The construction of the virtual spaces and the activities they designed and took into practice were relatively simple, and took advantage of free, user-friendly tools available on the Internet. All the activities explained in this article had been previously performed using “traditional techniques”; when the PLE concept was applied on the classroom and the academic activities were taken into virtual environments, there were important changes in the student's learning process and approach, on intellectual, social, and integrative levels, related both to the technological skills and to the information management. We conclude that the use of PLEs in this context helps both teachers and students realize the potential and importance of these tools when applied to their learning process, and that guidance is needed to implement this approach in the classroom
Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida Machado
Full Text Available TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressignificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem.BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by
Abbott, Frank C., Ed.
Programs of education and research on international economy and trade, foreign cultures and languages, and other aspects of international affairs and located in the western states are listed in an annotated directory. The units are of varying types and include informal interdepartmental committees within academic institutions, well-established…
Franklin Yessid Arias Bedoya
Full Text Available Competency Based Education is a curricular approach that, in addition to the controversy it arises, establishes practices and specific thoughts in schools: its origin from behavioral theories and their connection to the economic field disclose formation objectives that highlight the need of thinking about teaching practices and institutional curricula. These goals linked to projects such as work-oriented education and the propaedeutic cycles reveal the implicit intentions in the education system, where students’ specific characteristics yield to national economic imperatives. This reflection paper seeks to explore and define the ‘conceptual gap’ between an education based on the ideals of trade logic, and one directed to the aesthetic and socio-political formation of the subject, on the basis of legal documents as the Curricular Guidelines, Skill Standards for Spanish Language, Law 39 of 1903, General Law of Education and texts by various educational theorists such as Paulo Freire and Gimeno Sacristan.
Moreno, Doris Hupfeld; Andrade, Laura Helena
Identifying the bipolar (BP) spectrum, including the classic Bipolar I subtype (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II) and subthreshold bipolar disorders not meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria has raised growing interest, as these softer expressions of bipolar spectrum have been underdiagnosed in spite of clinical consequences. Data are from the Sao Paulo Epidemiological Catchment Area Study (N=1464). Non-affective controls were compared to BP spectrum groups, based on DSM-IIIR and on the "clinical significance" criteria: Subsyndromal Hypomania (SSH) and Manic Symptoms (MS). The lifetime prevalence of BP subgroups was 8.3% (N=122). All BP-I and -II and around 75% of SSH and MS subjects had a lifetime depressive syndrome. Compared to controls and MS subjects, BP-I, BP-II and SSH groups searched more medical help and mental health services. SSH group displayed higher rates of clinical significance than BP-I subjects, and suicidality was higher in BP groups compared to controls. Even the softer MS group had higher rate of suicide attempts than SSH subjects. This is a cross-sectional study and interviews were conducted by lay personnel. Replication in bigger community samples using a mood spectrum approach is necessary to confirm these findings. However, our findings were very similar to those obtained by other authors. Softer expressions of BP disorders appear in 6.6% of this community sample and have serious clinical consequences, which supports the importance of including these categories in the BP spectrum.
Asaumi, Yasue; Morita, Kiichiro; Nakashima, Youko; Muraoka, Akemi; Uchimura, Naohisa
In the present study, the P300 component of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in response to photographs of babies crying or smiling was measured to evaluate cognitive function in elderly subjects, including those with dementia. The subjects were 48 elderly people who consulted a memory disorder clinic. The visual event-related potential was measured using oddball tasks. Brain waves were recorded from four sites. We analyzed the P300 amplitude and latency. Subjects were divided into three groups (the dementia with Alzheimer's disease group [ADG]; the intermediate group [MG], and the healthy group [HG]) based on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, Mini-mental State Examination scores and the Clinical Dementia Rating. For all subjects, there was a significant positive correlation between P300 latency and Z-score of voxel-based specific regional analysis for Alzheimer's disease for crying or smiling faces. There was a negative correlation between P300 amplitude and Z-score for the crying face. MG subjects were divided into two groups (high risk: HRMG, low risk: LRMG) based on Z-scores (HRMG ≥ 2.0). The P300 amplitude of ADG was significantly smaller than that of HG, and the P300 latency of ADG was significantly longer than those of other groups for crying or smiling faces. The P300 latency of HRMG was significantly longer than that of LRMG for the smiling face. Furthermore, the P300 latency for the crying face was significantly shorter than that for the smiling face in HG and ADG. These findings suggest that analysis of P300 components of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential may be a useful neuropsychological index for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and high-risk subjects. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Л Л Салехова
Full Text Available Recently there is a need for training of the competitive experts of a technical profile capable to carry out oral and written communication within professional communication. Training of this sort of experts can be carried out on the basis of the integrated subject and language training - Content and LanguageIntegrated Learning. In article the essence of this concept reveals, its social and constructivist orientation is considered, examples of use of information and communication technologies are given.
Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)
A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.
Lu, Junfeng; Zhang, Han; Hameed, N U Farrukh; Zhang, Jie; Yuan, Shiwen; Qiu, Tianming; Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Jinsong
As a noninvasive and "task-free" technique, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been gradually applied to pre-surgical functional mapping. Independent component analysis (ICA)-based mapping has shown advantage, as no a priori information is required. We developed an automated method for identifying language network in brain tumor subjects using ICA on rs-fMRI. In addition to standard processing strategies, we applied a discriminability-index-based component identification algorithm to identify language networks in three different groups. The results from the training group were validated in an independent group of healthy human subjects. For the testing group, ICA and seed-based correlation were separately computed and the detected language networks were assessed by intra-operative stimulation mapping to verify reliability of application in the clinical setting. Individualized language network mapping could be automatically achieved for all subjects from the two healthy groups except one (19/20, success rate = 95.0%). In the testing group (brain tumor patients), the sensitivity of the language mapping result was 60.9%, which increased to 87.0% (superior to that of conventional seed-based correlation [47.8%]) after extending to a radius of 1 cm. We established an automatic and practical component identification method for rs-fMRI-based pre-surgical mapping and successfully applied it to brain tumor patients.
Catalina Malagón M
features of alzheimer disease are essentially: memory deficits and changes in language, behavior, attention and loss of visuospatial skills. Objetive: to make a descriptive analysis of the performance in language skills in 23 Alzheimer disease subjects. Methods: subjects were included if: meet Alzheimer disease criteria; right handed; a minimal of five years of formal school and were able to complete the language tests. We dichotomize the group in mild and moderate according to global deterioration scale (GDS and clinical dementia rating (CDR classification. The performance in the subtests of language of the Minimal Mental State Examination (MMSE, denomination, semantic and phonological fluency was compared between groups. The linguistic deterioration was analyzed in both steps of DTA. Results: in the mild stadium, light deficits are demonstrated in all the tests. Nevertheless dominium with poorer performance were phonological and semantic fluency. In moderate state differences in performance were observed. Tasks on denomination, and semantic and phonological fluency had the poorer performance. Conclusion: language is a compromised neuropsychological dominium in Alzheimer disease. Our results reflect a progressive deterioration of linguistic skills, noted in a wide range of frequency between the mild and the moderated level of dementia and suggests a similar profile of deterioration in mild and moderate levels but with different patterns in specific tasks.
Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.
The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically.
Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel, Ina
Reanalysis in language comprehension provides a window on how superficially similar processes of conflict resolution may differ depending on the context in which they are initiated. Thus, previous ERP studies have shown that reanalyses towards object-initial orders in German sentences with dative-active verbs (e.g., folgen, 'to follow') engender N400 effects, while reanalyses with accusative verbs (e.g., besuchen, 'to visit') elicit P600 effects. This difference appears surprising since these two verb classes are both associated with a subject-initial base order. The present paper reports two ERP experiments designed to shed further light on the nature of the conflict resolution processes involved in each case by examining structures in which word order disambiguation is separated from verb class disambiguation. Experiment 1 contrasted dative-active verbs with accusative verbs, while Experiment 2 compared dative-active and dative object-experiencer verbs (which are associated with an object-initial base order). Our results show that the reanalysis pattern for dative-active constructions is context-dependent: when verb class disambiguation precedes word order disambiguation, an N400-P600 pattern results. By contrast, the reanalysis patterns for the other two verb types are context independent: object-experiencer verbs invariably show an N400 and accusative verbs invariably show a P600. We argue that (a) the N400 is a general marker of reanalysis in dative sentences, reflecting an argument reindexation, while (b) the P600 in accusative sentences reflects a structural recomputation. The variable pattern for dative-active sentences reflects the (in)applicability of "good-enough" representations during conflict resolution in garden path sentences.
Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien
Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…
Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R
Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.
Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the…
Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio
The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes...
Jorde, Rolf; Sollid, Stina T; Svartberg, Johan; Joakimsen, Ragnar M; Grimnes, Guri; Hutchinson, Moira Y S
In observational studies vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of infections, whereas the effect of vitamin D supplementation in randomized controlled trials is non-conclusive. Five hundred and eleven subjects with prediabetes were randomized to vitamin D3 (20,000 IU per week) versus placebo for five years. Every sixth month, a questionnaire on respiratory tract infections (RTI) (common cold, bronchitis, influenza) and urinary tract infection (UTI) was filled in. Mean baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was 60 nmol/L. Two hundred and fifty-six subjects received vitamin D and 255 placebo. One hundred and sixteen subjects in the vitamin D and 111 in the placebo group completed the five-year study. Eighteen subjects in the vitamin D group and 34 subjects in the placebo group reported UTI during the study (p vitamin D on UTI was unrelated to baseline serum 25(OH)D level. Supplementation with vitamin D might prevent UTI, but confirmatory studies are needed.
Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L. H.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Background: In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. Aims: To compare the distributions of performance of…
Oda Nuske, Tomoko
Study abroad is an under-researched domain of language learning. Moreover, most investigations of this phenomenon adopt traditional structuralist approaches, wherein outcomes of study abroad are assessed solely in terms of proficiency gains as measured through conventional exams. The present study builds upon an emerging body of poststructuralist…
SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.
The article introduces the academic research work of students within competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills; reveals selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in a form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Retirement and Survivor benefits for federal...
Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio
The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and is emerging as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared the strength of the associations of ATP III criteria and of NAFLD to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in nonobese nondiabetic subjects. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) >2, oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), soluble adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin), and circulating adipokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) were cross-sectionally correlated to ATP III criteria and to NAFLD in 197 unselected nonobese nondiabetic subjects. NAFLD more accurately predicted insulin resistance than ATP III criteria: sensitivity 73 vs. 38% (P = 0.0001); positive predictive value: 81 vs. 62% (P = 0.035); negative predictive value 87 vs. 74% (P = 0.012); positive likelihood ratio 4.39 vs. 1.64 (P = 0.0001); and negative likelihood ratio 0.14 vs. 0.35 (P = 0.0001). Adding NAFLD to ATP III criteria significantly improved their diagnostic accuracy for insulin resistance. Furthermore, NAFLD independently predicted HOMA-IR, nitrotyrosine, and soluble adhesion molecules on logistic regression analysis; the presence of NAFLD entailed more severe oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, independent of adiposity or any feature of the metabolic syndrome in insulin-resistant subjects. NAFLD is more tightly associated with insulin resistance and with markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction than with ATP III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects and may help identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk in this population.
Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul
tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P metabolic risk variables at breakfast...
Stokoe, William; Kuschel, Rolf
Field researchers of sign language are the target of this methodological guide. The prospective researcher is briefed on the rationale of sign language study as language study and as distinct from the study of kinesics. Subjects covered include problems of translating, use of interpreters, and ethics. Instruments for obtaining social and language…
Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E
Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.
Holloway, C. M.
Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.
Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A; Holst, J J; Bach Knudsen, K E; Hermansen, K
Prospective studies have shown an inverse relationship between whole grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, where short chain fatty acids (SCFA) may be involved. Our objective was to determine the effect of isolated arabinoxylan alone or in combination with whole grain rye kernels on postprandial glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), gut hormones, SCFA and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over study. The test meals each providing 50 g of digestible carbohydrate were as follows: semolina porridge added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX), rye kernels (RK) or concentrated arabinoxylan combined with rye kernels (AXRK) and semolina porridge as control (SE). A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test meals. Blood samples were drawn during a 6-h period, and appetite scores and breath hydrogen were assessed every 30 min. The AXRK meal reduced the acute glucose (P=0.005) and insulin responses (P<0.001) and the feeling of hunger (P=0.005; 0-360 min) compared with the control meal. The AX and AXRK meals increased butyrate and acetate concentrations after 6 h. No significant differences were found for the second meal responses of glucose, insulin, FFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 or ghrelin. Our results indicate a stimulatory effect of arabinoxylan on butyrate and acetate production, however, with no detectable effect on the second meal glucose response. It remains to be tested in a long-term study if a beneficial effect on the glucose response of the isolated arabinoxylan will be related to the SCFA production.
Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M
That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits for federal...
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual volumes for API language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefit for fiscal year 2016...
Under the guise of socialization, the child-subject born into the modern society is subjugated by a familial childhood trauma that appropriates the infantile psychosis caused by the incommunicability of early childhood. This appropriation, put to instrumental ends, results in a psychology of commodified object relations. In fact, there is a close…
Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna
This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…
Full Text Available BackgroundMany studies suggest that the small ubiquitin-like modifier 4 (SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism (rs237025 may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, due to other conflicting results, a clear consensus is lacking in the matter.Objective and methodsA meta-analysis consisting of 6,823 subjects from 10 studies was conducted to elucidate relationship between the SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism and T2DM. Depending on the heterogeneity of the data, either a fixed or random-effects model would be used to assess the combined odds ratio (ORs and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI.ResultsSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism was significantly associated with T2DM in the whole population under allelic (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10–1.28, P = 1.63 × 10−5, recessive (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14–2.23, P = 0.006, dominant (OR: 0.815, 95% CI: 0.737–0.901, P = 6.89 × 10−5, homozygous (OR: 1.415, 95% CI: 1.170–1.710, P = 0.0003, heterozygous (OR: 1.191, 95% CI: 1.072–1.323, P = 0.001, and additive genetic models (OR: 1.184, 95% CI: 1.097–1.279, P = 1.63 × 10−5. In our subgroup analysis, a significant association was found again in the Chinese population, but not in Japanese or Iranian population.ConclusionSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may correlate with increased T2DM risk. Chinese carriers of the V allele of the SUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may be predisposed to developing T2DM.
Nur Wahida Md Hassan
Full Text Available The process of teaching and learning that is active and can attract many students to learn. Especially those with learning difficulties who require special methods for helping their learning process to make it more interesting. Therefore, this study is more focused on teaching and learning courseware ‘Let’s Reading’ methods using reading method called syllables have features that can help students with learning disabilities to learn Malay Language. The respondents comprised of six students with learning disabilities moderate levels studying in a secondary school in Kuala Lumpur. A monitoring form adaptation course from Davis et al. (2007 and (Sidek et al., 2014 with some modifications has been used as an instrument to evaluate the study. The findings were analyzed using quatitative methods. In addition, the oral test is carried out before and after the use of the software is run. The study found software has been developed according to the development ASSURE model is able to attract pupils with learning disabilities to learn Malay Language. In addition, these children also showed improvements in reading. Proses pembelajaran dan pengajaran yang aktif dan pelbagai dapat menarik minat murid untuk belajar. Terutamanya murid bermasalah pembelajaran yang memerlukan kaedah khusus bagi membantu proses pembelajaran mereka agar lebih menarik. Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan yang lebih tertumpu kepada pengajaran dan pembelajaran menggunakan perisian kursus ‘Jom Bacalah’ yang menggunakan kaedah membaca menggunakan kaedah sebut suku kata yang mempunyai ciri-ciri yang dapat membantu murid bermasalah pembelajaran untuk belajar Bahasa Melayu. Responden kajian terdiri daripada enam murid bermasalah pembelajaran aras sederhana yang sedang belajar di sebuah sekolah menengah di Kuala Lumpur. Satu borang pemantauan kursus adaptasi daripada kajian Davis et al. (2007 dan Sidek et al. (2014 dengan sedikit pengubahsuaian telah digunakan sebagai instrumen bagi
Karin Ziliotto Dias
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar e caracterizar provas fonoaudiológicas de linguagem oral e escrita de sujeitos com Síndrome de Asperger comparativamente a um grupo de sujeitos com desenvolvimento típico. MÉTODOS: avaliou-se 44 sujeitos que constituíram dois grupos: o grupo Asperger, composto por 22 sujeitos diagnosticados por equipe multidisciplinar como portadores de Síndrome de Asperger, conforme os critérios do DSM-IV; e o grupo de comparação, denominado grupo de baixo risco para alterações do desenvolvimento, também com 22 participantes, pareados com os sujeitos do grupo Asperger segundo a idade cronológica. Todos os sujeitos eram do sexo masculino, com idade cronológica entre 10 e 30 anos e quociente intelectual maior ou igual a 68 e foram submetidos à Prova de Consciência Fonológica, Teste de Vocabulário por Imagem Peabody, Prova de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras, Prova de Compreensão de Leitura, Prova de Escrita sob Ditado de Palavras e Pseudopalavras, Prova de Escrita Semidirigida de Textos. RESULTADOS: a análise estatística revelou diferenças estaticamente significantes entre as medianas da prova de consciência fonológica e entre as médias do teste de vocabulário por imagem Peabody e prova de compreensão de leitura nos dois grupos estudados (pPURPOSE: to evaluate and characterize the oral and written language of subjects with Asperger Syndrome and compare them with a group of subjects with typical development. METHODS: a total of 44 subjects were assessed and divided in two groups. The Asperger group was composed by 22 subjects diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome by an expert clinical team following the DSM-IV criteria. The comparison group, referred to as low risk for developmental disorders was also composed by 22 subjects matched with the subjects in Asperger group by chronological age. All the assessed subjects were right-handed males, with chronological ages between 10 and 30 years and intelligence quotients above
An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. 8 Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection 9 and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is 10 examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of 11 language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from 12 storytelling. The beh...
Adria Simone Duarte de Souza
case, discuss how are organizated the practices’school in the natives communities of the border who don’t speak one language only, but more than five languages, including the indigenous languages of the other neighboring countries. What to do if all these realities are subject to “reductionist model” by law of the bilingual native school education.
Full Text Available The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82, assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44, and .515-.873 (BFI-10. The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism, and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness. Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness, mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness, and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism. Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.
Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan
The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.
Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan
The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18–82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618
Relações entre processamento fonológico e linguagem escrita nos sujeitos com distúrbio específico de linguagem Relations between phonological processing and written language in subjects with specific language impairment
Ana Paola Nicolielo
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de alterações nas habilidades da linguagem escrita e nas habilidades do PF em criança com DEL; comparar o desempenho entre crianças com DEL e com DTL quanto às diferentes habilidades do PF; verificar se há associação entre as habilidades do Processamento Fonológico e as de linguagem escrita em crianças com DEL. MÉTODO: 40 sujeitos, sendo 20 com diagnóstico de DEL (GE e 20 com DTL (GC com idades entre 7 e 10 anos de ambos os sexos. Para avaliação das habilidades do PF foram aplicados os seguintes procedimentos: prova de repetição de não palavras para avaliação da Memória de Trabalho Fonológica, Teste de Nomeação Automatizada Rápida para avaliação do Acesso Lexical e Perfil de Habilidades Fonológicas para avaliação da Consciência Fonológica. A escrita e a leitura foram avaliadas por meio dos subtestes presentes no Teste de Análise de Leitura e Escrita (ditado e escrita espontânea; leitura de texto e de compreensão de texto, respectivamente. Para analise estatística foi utilizado o teste Qui Quadrado, sendo adotado nível de significância estatística PURPOSE: to check the occurrence of alterations in language skills and writing skills of Phonological Processing (PP in children with SLI, compare the performance between children with SLI and Typical Language Development on the different abilities of PP; check for association between PP and skills of written language in children with SLI. METHOD: 40 subjects, 20 with SLI (EG and 20 with TLD (CG aged between 7 and 10 year old for both genders. To assess the abilities of PP we applied the following tests: proof of non word repetitions to assess phonological working memory (PWM, Rapid Automated Naming test (RAN for evaluating Lexical Access (LA and Phonological Abilities Profile for assessing phonological awareness (PA. Writing and reading were evaluated using the subtests present in Test for Análising Reading and Writing Skills
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi
Learning a new language entails interactions with one׳s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects׳ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects׳ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We analyze, based on French Discourse Analysis, how the newspapers Diário Catarinense and Hora de Santa Catarina produce different reader`s subject positions. This research is justified by the fact that both newspapers are products of the same media company. The starting point was the hypothesis that there would be in the market two types of readers, thus the two products do not compete with each other, but they would complement each other in the coverage of a reading area. Reading here is treated as a process of production of sense effects. The work is based on Orlandi`s thinking about the conception of reading, as well as in the distinction between real and virtual reader. We do also present the clues included in the statements which inferences are essential to apprehend the said and the unsaid which, by means of a comparative analysis, was used to understand the production of different reader’s subject position. The analysis points out that the newspapers DC and Hora present similar characteristics in regard to the process of transmitting information, howevereach newspaper interrelates with its target public in a different way through the use of language and in the manner of production of news. It leads to the construction of different positions of these readers in relation to the information which is transmitted, because, making use of uttering strategies, these newspapers ideologically mark the readers of DC as being more lettered than the ones of Hora.
The current study sought to assess the second language learners' competence at lexical, syntactic, morphological, comprehension and pragmatic levels. The language under study was Kivunjo dialect of Chagga, spoken in Kilimanjaro. The study involved 68 subjects who included 28 subjects who were dubbed 'the ...
While Hulk and Muller (2000) predict that the direction of cross-linguistic syntactic influence is unidirectional when the construction involves syntax-pragmatics interface and surface overlap between two languages, they explicitly rule out language dominance as a factor involved. This study questions their latter claim and argues that the syntax…
De Coninck, Mattias; Van Hecke, Wim; Crols, Roe; van Dun, Kim; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter P.; Brysbaert, Marc; Marien, Peter
To test the hypothesis of crossed cerebro-cerebellar language dominance (Marien, Engelborghs, Fabbro, & De Deyn, 2001) in atypical populations, the pattern of cerebral and cerebellar language organization in a right-handed woman with a large porencephalic cyst in the left temporal lobe with no
Project HAPI (Handicapped Achievement Program Improvement): Assessment plus Intervention equal I.E.P. A Handbook on How To Write an Individualized Education Program for Severe Disorders of Language, Including Aphasia and Other Speech-Language Handicapped (Communication Disorders). Book One.
The first of five handbooks developed by Project HAPI (Handicapped Achievement Program Improvement), a multimedia staff development program to help teachers and specialists write effective individualized education programs (IEPs), is in looseleaf workbook format and focuses on children with severe disorders of language, including aphasia and other…
Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the methodology of using a number of creative tasks for working with students of Philology Department during the practical sessions of literary subjects. The tasks are focused on designing the creative qualities of future language and literature teachers: imagination, inspiration, initiative, noncommonality, extraordinary nature, his/her own point of view. At present, the students perceive the learning process as something fixed, which necessarily must be studied and passed. They will not think critically, as long as the teacher does not create creative atmosphere to facilitate the active involvement of students into the learning process. And one should allow them to freely speculate, dream up. Each person has the potential of skills, and the tasks of modern teacher are developing these skills and managing the process of the development. Therefore, the main purpose of organization of practical session is to be able to encounter the students’ intellectual forces, to cause them to work, to create a favorable pedagogical environment for their formation and simultaneously to shape the identity of a young person, his/her outlook. Organizing the practical training one should find a way to students’ minds and doesn`t give them ready knowledge but to ensure them to acquire knowledge themselves trying to search, establish dependences, and patterns. They should be engaged in creative dialogue with cultural texts and nourish their own personal position. The problem of creativity is complex and multifaceted. Since ancient times it has been in the scholars’ and philosophers’ field of view (Plato, Aristotle, Hegel, Pestalozzi, etc.. Basic issues of a creative individual are disclosed in the works by A. Luk, Ia. Ponomarev, A. Matiushkin, P. Enhelmeier, V. Moliako, O. Amatev, E. Belkina, A. Bohush, N. Vetluhina, N. Havrish, O. Dronova and others. However, the growing relevance and educational significance of this issue
Révész, György E
Covers all areas, including operations on languages, context-sensitive languages, automata, decidability, syntax analysis, derivation languages, and more. Numerous worked examples, problem exercises, and elegant mathematical proofs. 1983 edition.
Examines the resilience of small languages in the face of larger ones. Highlights include the concept of one dominant language, such as Esperanto; the threat of television to small visual-language societies; the power of visual media; man's relationship to language; and the resilience of language. (LRW)
Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.
Logic has acquired a reputation for difficulty, perhaps because many of the approaches adopted have been more suitable for mathematicians than computer scientists. This book shows that the subject is not inherently difficult and that the connections between logic and declarative language are straightforward. Many exercises have been included in the hope that these will lead to a much greater confidence in manual proofs, therefore leading to a greater confidence in automated proofs.
Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon
Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages—such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality but also in the form of sign languages has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language—in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression. PMID:25013534
Ana Claudia Balieiro Lodi
Full Text Available Este artigo discute a importância da língua de sinais como primeira língua (L1 para surdos e para o ensino-aprendizagem da língua majoritária como segunda (L2, focalizando, em particular, sujeitos que tiveram acesso tardio a língua de sinais. Tendo como base uma pesquisa realizada por uma das autoras, verificou-se o desconhecimento de sujeitos surdos quanto à diferença existente entre a língua brasileira de sinais (LIBRAS e a língua portuguesa, embora todos fossem usuários da primeira. Concluiu-se que há a necessidade de que movimentos sejam realizados para que uma real transformação dos sujeitos possa ser empreendida, principalmente no que se refere ao reconhecimento da LIBRAS em seu valor social, pois se este processo não for realizado, aos surdos cabe, apenas, a submissão ao português, na medida em que esta língua continua a ocupar um papel sócio-ideológico central na constituição dos processos lingüísticos e da subjetividade desses sujeitos. Esta mudança só poderá ocorrer se uma transformação nas relações estabelecidas por estes sujeitos nas diversas esferas sociais for objetivada. Desse modo, a LIBRAS poderá assumir o lugar de L1 dos sujeitos, independente do período de vida em que ela for desenvolvida, determinando uma transformação quanto aos lugares assumidos pelos surdos na sociedade. This article discusses the importance of sign language as the first language (L1 for deaf people and the teaching-learning of the dominant language as the second (L2, focusing in particular on subjects that had delayed access to Sign Language. Having as its foundation a research made by one of the authors, deaf subjects’ lack of knowledge was pointed as regards the difference between the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS and the Portuguese language, although all were users of the first one. One concluded that there is a need to take measures so that a real transformation of these subjects can be undertaken, mainly
Lauridsen, Karen M.
Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....
The place of foreign language learning in education has a rich and diverse history since the introduction of compulsory schooling, with some countries including the learning of a foreign language as a compulsory part of the curriculum, whilst in others foreign language learning is seen as an optional subject suited for more academically minded…
Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny
Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…
Firat, Mehmet; Serpil, Harun
Teachers play a crucial role in helping individuals gain adequate Internet competency, which requires teachers themselves to be Internet-literate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Internet use of the distance and on-campus pre-service teachers of language and other disciplines by multiple parameters. A total of 789 teacher…
Sung, Jee Eun
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking…
Blom, E.; Baayen, H.R.
It has been argued that children learning a second language (L2) omit agreement inflection because of communication demands. The conclusion of these studies is that L2 children know the morphological and syntactic properties of agreement inflection, but sometimes insert an inflectional default form
Full Text Available Este trabalho localiza-se no campo de estudos da Psicologia da Linguagem e objetiva discutir a natureza do elo, tradicionalmente afirmado, entre linguagem e subjetividade. Distante da visão tradicional, defensora da natureza representacionalista do elo, o texto propõe reconhecê-lo nos procedimentos estilísticos, pelos quais ambos os termos exercem sua natureza mais íntima, esclarecida no processo de criação contínua de si e de mundos.This paper on psychology of language has the purpose to discuss the nature of the bond, traditionally acclaimed, between language and subjectivity. Far from the traditional view, which defends the representational nature of this bond, the text proposes to recognize it in the stylistics procedures, by which both terms exert its innermost nature, elucidated by the continuous process of creation of worlds and itself.
Sandgren, Olof; Holmström, Ketty
The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as LI. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including non-linguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinical utility as less subjected to language use and exposure than linguistic measures. A possible bilingual advantage, and consequences for speech-language pathology practices and future research are discussed.
A comparative study of the origin, structure, and indexing language of the Persian and English keywords of articles indexed in the IranMedex database and their compliance with the Persian medical thesaurus and Medical Subject Headings.
Parsaei-Mohammadi, Parastoo; Ghasemi, Ali Hossein; Hassanzadeh-Beheshtabad, Raziyeh
In the present era, thesauri as tools in indexing play an effective role in integrating retrieval preventing fragmentation as well as a multiplicity of terminologies and also in providing information content of documents. This study aimed to investigate the keywords of articles indexed in IranMedex in terms of origin, structure and indexing situation and their Compliance with the Persian Medical Thesaurus and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). This study is an applied research, and a survey has been conducted. Statistical population includes 32,850 Persian articles which are indexed in the IranMedex during the years 1385-1391. 379 cases were selected as sample of the study. Data collection was done using a checklist. In analyzing the findings, the SPSS Software were used. Although there was no significant difference in terms of indexing origin between the proportion of different types of the Persian and English keywords of articles indexed in the IranMedex, the compliance rates of the Persian and English keywords with the Persian medical thesaurus and MeSH were different in different years. In the meantime, the structure of keywords is leaning more towards phrase structure, and a single word structure and the majority of keywords are selected from the titles and abstracts. The authors' familiarity with the thesauri and controlled tools causes homogeneity in assigning keywords and also provides more precise, faster, and easier retrieval of the keywords. It's suggested that a mixture of natural and control languages to be used in this database in order to reach more comprehensive results.
... can help parents and children, each emphasizing different language learning skills. Here are the five programs, and the skills that are sometimes included in each of them: Auditory-Oral — Natural Gestures, Listening, Speech (Lip) Reading, Speech Auditory- ...
An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from storytelling. The behavior programming mechanism in both directions provide a model of creating and understanding behavior and language. Culture began with societies, then family evolution, family life in troops, but storytelling created a culture of experiences, a final step in the long process of achieving experienced adults by natural selection. Most language evolution occurred in conversations where evolving non-verbal feedback ensured mutual agreements on understanding. Natural language evolved in conversations with feedback providing understanding of changes.
Zalzadeh Borazjani, Ashraf
The purpose of this study is to investigate how learner variables, including language proficiency, motivation, effort, and family background affect Iranian language learners' EFL vocabulary strategy use? Subjects in this study were 450 EFL students (N = 450) at Payam e Noor University, Borazjan, Iran. After a placement test, they were grouped into…
Edward M. Corrado
Dickens, J.K.; McConnell, J.W.
ORCODE.77 is a versatile data-handling computer routine written in MACRO (assembler) language for a PDP-15 computer with EAE (extended arithmetic capability) connected to a CAMAC interface. The Interrupt feature of the computer is utilized. Although the code is oriented for a specific experimental problem, there are many routines of general interest, including a CAMAC Scaler handler, an executive routine to interpret and act upon three-character teletype commands, concise routines to type out double-precision integers (both octal and decimal) and floating-point numbers and to read in integers and floating-point numbers, a routine to convert to and from PDP-15 FORTRAN-IV floating-point format, a routine to handle clock interrupts, and our own DECTAPE handling routine. Routines having specific applications which are applicable to other very similar applications include a display routine using CAMAC instructions, control of external mechanical equipment using CAMAC instructions, storage of data from an Analog-to-digital Converter, analysis of stored data into time-dependent pulse-height spectra, and a routine to read the contents of a Nuclear Data 5050 Analyzer and to prepare DECTAPE output of these data for subsequent analysis by a code written in PDP-15-compiled FORTRAN-IV.
Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.
This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.
Nye, Chad; And Others
A total of 43 studies, involving 1,703 subjects with a mean age of 6:11, were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of language intervention with language/learning disabled children. Results suggested that the average language-disordered child moved from the 50th percentile to the 85th as a result of language intervention. (Author/JDD)
Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon
Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages-such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality but also in the form of sign languages has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language-in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:387-401. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1297 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Linguistic Theory. © 2014 The Authors. WIREs Cognitive Science published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Moreno, Antonio; Limousin, Fanny; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe
During sentence processing, areas of the left superior temporal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus and left basal ganglia exhibit a systematic increase in brain activity as a function of constituent size, suggesting their involvement in the computation of syntactic and semantic structures. Here, we asked whether these areas play a universal role in language and therefore contribute to the processing of non-spoken sign language. Congenitally deaf adults who acquired French sign language as a first language and written French as a second language were scanned while watching sequences of signs in which the size of syntactic constituents was manipulated. An effect of constituent size was found in the basal ganglia, including the head of the caudate and the putamen. A smaller effect was also detected in temporal and frontal regions previously shown to be sensitive to constituent size in written language in hearing French subjects (Pallier et al., 2011). When the deaf participants read sentences versus word lists, the same network of language areas was observed. While reading and sign language processing yielded identical effects of linguistic structure in the basal ganglia, the effect of structure was stronger in all cortical language areas for written language relative to sign language. Furthermore, cortical activity was partially modulated by age of acquisition and reading proficiency. Our results stress the important role of the basal ganglia, within the language network, in the representation of the constituent structure of language, regardless of the input modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...
Tseng, Wen-Ta; Liu, Heidi; Nix, John-Michael L
Self-regulated learning has been a widely researched subject for decades in educational psychology. Different instruments have been developed to understand learners' self-regulated learning in a specific subject domain. This study developed a measurement scale to assess English-as-a-foreign-language learners' self-regulatory capacity in English language learning and further examined the effects of gender on English-as-a-foreign-language learners' self-regulatory capacity. A series of psychometric analyses including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and full structural equation modeling were undertaken to answer the research questions raised. The findings suggest that the scale can attain high reliability and strong validity in two different samplings, and the underlying construct of self-regulation in English language learning is shown to be multidimensional with a significant impact by gender. Theoretical and pedagogical implications are further put forward in light of the research findings.
Rudolph, Johanna M.; Leonard, Laurence B.
Delayed appearance of early language milestones can be one of the first signs of a developmental disorder. In this study, we investigated how well late acquisition of language milestones predicted an outcome of specific language impairment (SLI). The sample included 150 children (76 SLI), aged 4 to 7 years old. Milestone information was collected…
Bigler, Erin D; Mortensen, Sherstin; Neeley, E Shannon; Ozonoff, Sally; Krasny, Lori; Johnson, Michael; Lu, Jeffrey; Provencal, Sherri L; McMahon, William; Lainhart, Janet E
Deficits in language are a core feature of autism. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in auditory processing, including language, but also has been implicated as a critical structure in social cognition. It was hypothesized that subjects with autism would display different size-function relationships between the STG and intellectual-language-based abilities when compared to controls. Intellectual ability was assessed by either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), where three intellectual quotients (IQ) were computed: verbal (VIQ), performance (PIQ), and full-scale (FSIQ). Language ability was assessed by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Third Edition (CELF-3), also divided into three index scores: receptive, expressive, and total. Seven to 19-year-old rigorously diagnosed subjects with autism (n = 30) were compared to controls (n = 39; 13 of whom had a deficit in reading) of similar age who were matched on education, PIQ, and head circumference. STG volumes were computed based on 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). IQ and CELF-3 performance were highly interrelated regardless of whether subjects had autism or were controls. Both IQ and CELF-3 ability were positively correlated with STG in controls, but a different pattern was observed in subjects with autism. In controls, left STG gray matter was significantly (r = .42, p receptive language on the CELF-3; in contrast, a zero order correlation was found with autism. When plotted by age, potential differences in growth trajectories related to language development associated with STG were observed between controls and those subjects with autism. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible failure in left hemisphere lateralization of language function involving the STG in autism.
Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E
Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance
One of the strategies of good language learners is to recognize that language is both a communicative tool, as well as a set of underlying rules ...included below. d. If you do send messages to either list, please adhere to “ netiquette ” as follows: • Include a subject line for your postings
Maria José dos Reis Grosso
Full Text Available With the development of language research within the Council of Europe and in a context of a stronger multilingual and multicultural Europe, we are witnessing the emergence of terms that are imposed by the frequency of their usage or that (recreate and set re-interpreted concepts according to new social and educational situations. Such is the case of the host language, a concept which is object of analysis in this paper. The relevance of the issue is preceded by other issues related to concepts like native language, second language and foreign language, already comprised in Applied Linguistics and the Teaching of Modern Languages. Nowadays, the indispensability of studying these concepts is fundamental to the pedagogic practice as well as to the language syllabus and its planning. This idea is totally supported by the proposal of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching Assessment (CEFR", which provides the appropriate guidelines at the discourse level.
V. Zaytsev (Vadim); R. Lämmel (Ralf); M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark); B. Malloy; S. Staab
textabstractWe have analyzed a substantial number of language documentation artifacts, including language standards, language specifications, language reference manuals, as well as internal documents of standardization bodies. We have reverse-engineered their intended internal structure,
... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.10 Core academic subjects. Core academic subjects means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government...
A list of subjects and sources of pictures for a classroom "picture bank" is suggested. Tips are given for the use and conservation of pictures, and a classification scheme and ideas for language and civilization instruction are included. (MSE)
language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights......This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...
National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Educational Equity Group. Multicultural/Bilingual Div.
This annotated bibliography which includes all entries into the ERIC system dealing with language maintenance was compiled to show the type of information available to users of the system. The citations deal principally with bilingualism and bilingual education in the United States, Canada, Israel, Ireland, the Pacific islands and Southeast Asia.…
Chen, Lushi; Gong, Tao; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L
Subjective well-being includes 'affect' and 'satisfaction with life' (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users' affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p social media language.
Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L.
Subjective well-being includes ‘affect’ and ‘satisfaction with life’ (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users’ affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p social media language. PMID:29135991
Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.
Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.
Language anxiety is the anxiety or disconcerted feeling felt by language learners when they need to express in foreign languages or second foreign language. Anxiety is very important emotional barrier in language learning, and it has important im⁃pact on language learning, especially on spoken language learning. The general lack of spoken language capacity in university stu⁃dents is an incontrovertible fact, and language anxiety is one of the important reasons that cause the imperfect effect of spoken lan⁃guage teaching. This article generally talks about the main reasons for language anxiety, which include the barrier by self-esteem, risk-taking, competitiveness to spoken language learning of university students. This article also discusses a series of countermea⁃sure to ease the language anxiety, so as to reduce the anxiety effectively to promote the teaching of university spoken English.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Languages differ greatly both in their syntactic and morphological systems and in the social environments in which they exist. We challenge the view that language grammars are unrelated to social environments in which they are learned and used. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a statistical analysis of >2,000 languages using a combination of demographic sources and the World Atlas of Language Structures--a database of structural language properties. We found strong relationships between linguistic factors related to morphological complexity, and demographic/socio-historical factors such as the number of language users, geographic spread, and degree of language contact. The analyses suggest that languages spoken by large groups have simpler inflectional morphology than languages spoken by smaller groups as measured on a variety of factors such as case systems and complexity of conjugations. Additionally, languages spoken by large groups are much more likely to use lexical strategies in place of inflectional morphology to encode evidentiality, negation, aspect, and possession. Our findings indicate that just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the environment (niche in which they are being learned and used. As adults learn a language, features that are difficult for them to acquire, are less likely to be passed on to subsequent learners. Languages used for communication in large groups that include adult learners appear to have been subjected to such selection. Conversely, the morphological complexity common to languages used in small groups increases redundancy which may facilitate language learning by infants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that language structures are subjected to different evolutionary pressures in different social environments. Just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the
An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of translation and performance on memory of words of Sign Language as a second language. An intermediate class of Sign Language learners, whose first language was Japanese, was required to carried out four tasks : translating from Japanese word into Sign Language word, oral reading of Japanese word, translating from Sign Language word into Japanese word, and performing (expressing) of Sign Language word. The subjects were then asked unexpe...
Rosina Fransisca J. Lekawael
English language skills here mean the development of the main parts or elements of the language which include speaking, listening, reading, and writing. English language subject has different educational tools that are likely suited with it. Smartphone and internet usage have actively influence daily life, even for children and adolescents. In learning activity, smartphone is a tool to help students connected to be online. A qualitative approach was pursued in this study. Then, the data colle...
The Language for Learning project is an initiative in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal which aims to help secondary school subject teachers to take account of language and learning. It operates in schools with varied patterns of intake and in a range of secondary school subjects. Teachers involved conduct small-scale ...
Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan
The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen
A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...
Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn
This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…
Language supports design and documentation of complex software. Included are: design and documentation language for expressing design concepts; processor that produces intelligble documentation based on design specifications; and methodology for using language and processor to create well-structured top-down programs and documentation. Processor is written in SIMSCRIPT 11.5 programming language for use on UNIVAC, IBM, and CDC machines.
... on populations and the numbers of people speaking each language. Features include: * * * * * nearly 600 languages identiﬁed as to where they are spoken and the family to which they belong over 200 languages individually described, with sample passages and English translation fascinating insights into the history and development of individual languages a...
Shaheen, Elham Ahmed; Shohdy, Sahar Saad; Abd Al Raouf, Mahmoud; Mohamed El Abd, Shereen; Abd Elhamid, Asmss
Specific language impairment is a relatively common developmental condition in which a child fails to develop language at the typical rate despite normal general intellectual abilities, adequate exposure to language, and in the absence of hearing impairments, or neurological or psychiatric disorders. There is much controversy about the extent to which the auditory processing deficits are important in the genesis specific language impairment. The objective of this paper is to assess the higher cortical functions in children with specific language impairment, through assessing neurophysiological changes in order to correlate the results with the clinical picture of the patients to choose the proper rehabilitation training program. This study was carried out on 40 children diagnosed to have specific language impairment and 20 normal children as a control group. All children were subjected to the assessment protocol applied in Kasr El-Aini hospital. They were also subjected to a language test (receptive, expressive and total language items), the audio-vocal items of Illinois test of psycholinguistic (auditory reception, auditory association, verbal expression, grammatical closure, auditory sequential memory and sound blending) as well as audiological assessment that included peripheral audiological and P300 amplitude and latency assessment. The results revealed a highly significant difference in P300 amplitude and latency between specific language impairment group and control group. There is also strong correlations between P300 latency and the grammatical closure, auditory sequential memory and sound blending, while significant correlation between the P300 amplitude and auditory association and verbal expression. Children with specific language impairment, in spite of the normal peripheral hearing, have evidence of cognitive and central auditory processing defects as evidenced by P300 auditory event related potential in the form of prolonged latency which indicate a
Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.
... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...
Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen
In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…
Derewianka, Beverly; Jones, Pauline
Language is at the heart of the learning process. We learn through language. Our knowledge about the world is constructed in language-the worlds of home and the community, the worlds of school subjects, the worlds of literature, the worlds of the workplace, and so on. It is through language that we interact with others and build our identities.…
Discussion of French language planning focuses on two different roles: official, cherished language of France and international language subject to outside influence. Three areas of concern are discussed: borrowing from English; lexical variation outside France; and influence of computer science on language, particularly the use of spell-checking…
This portfolio is comprised of a compilation of papers written by the author while completing the Master of Second Language Teaching (MSLT) program at Utah State University. The focus of the portfolio is a teaching philosophy outlining the author’s beliefs on how to foster effective language teaching in the university foreign language classroom. Included as well are artifacts addressing coping with culture shock, effective forms of language learning, and reading in foreign language literature...
Tafaghodtari, Marzieh H; Vandergrift, Larry
Identifying the variables which contribute to second and foreign language (L2) listening ability can provide a better understanding of the listening construct. This study explored the degree to which first language (L1) listening ability, L2 proficiency, motivation and metacognition contribute to L2 listening comprehension. 115 Persian-speaking English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students completed a motivation questionnaire, the Language Learning Motivation Orientation Scale, a listening questionnaire, the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire, and an English-language proficiency measure, as well as listening tests in English and Persian. Scores from all measures were subjected to descriptive, inferential, and correlational analyses. The results support the hypothesis that variability in L2 listening cannot be explained by either L2 proficiency or L1 listening ability; rather, a cluster of variables including L2 proficiency, L1 listening ability, metacognitive knowledge and motivation orientations can better explain variability in L2 listening ability.
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...
Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.
Kalleberg, K.T.; Visser, E.
Program transformation systems provide powerful analysis and transformation frameworks as well as concise languages for language processing, but instantiating them for every subject language is an arduous task, most often resulting in halfcompleted frontends. Compilers provide mature frontends with
Stoddart, Trish; Pinal, America; Latzke, Marcia; Canaday, Dana
The traditional approach to the education of language minority students separates English language development from content instruction because it is assumed that English language proficiency is a prerequisite for subject matter learning. The authors of this article take the alternate view that the integration of inquiry science and language acquisition enhances learning in both domains. The report describes a conceptual framework for science-language integration and the development of a five-level rubric to assess teachers' understanding of curricular integration. The science-language integration rubric describes the growth of teacher expertise as a continuum from a view of science and language as discreet unrelated domains to the recognition of the superordinate processes that create a synergistic relationship between inquiry science and language development. Examples from teacher interviews are used to illustrate teacher thinking at each level.
Ward, Daniel, Ed.
Articles are included on such issues as the following: heritage languages; the psychology of language; the Voice of America broadcasts; dual language programs; linguistic autobiography in the language classroom; pronunciation; electronic education; dialects; world languages; bilingual education; language travel; language structure; conceptual…
This paper deals with the presentation of the common language and the specialized one. We also highlighted the relations and the differences between them. The specialized language is a vector of specialized knowledge, but sometimes it contains units from the common language. The common language is unmarked and it is based on the daily non-specialized exchange. The specialized languages are different from the common languages, regarding their usage and the information they convey. The communic...
Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana
In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…
This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky  the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman , claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky , which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.
Heidenfeldt, William Allen
This dissertation examines the ways in which three focal high school teachers of second language (L2) French and Spanish in California construct and enact their professional identities as multilingual subjects with diverse linguistic repertoires. By drawing from multiple disciplines, including sociolinguistics, psychology, and education, I examine how social and biographical factors influence language learning and teaching and also how language instructors participate in the construction of t...
These include: language disorder, specific language disability, language disability, language delay, language deviance, language impairment, language difficulties and language difference etc. The concept of speech and language problems has often been used interchangeably but they mean different things and they also.
Goral, Mira; Conner, Peggy S.
We review the characteristics of developmental language disorders (primary language impairment, reading disorders, autism, Down syndrome) and acquired language disorders (aphasia, dementia, traumatic brain injury) among multilingual and multicultural individuals. We highlight the unique assessment and treatment considerations pertinent to this population, including, for example, concerns of language choice and availability of measures and of normative data in multiple languages. A summary of ...
M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)
htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two
White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel
Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is
A brief discussion of the role of contrastive linguistics and transformational generative grammar in studying transfer and interference in language learning. The base language is not necessarily the mother tongue. It is the language known by the learner which most closely resembles the new language being learned. (AMH)
Rubin, H; Kantor, M; Macnab, J
Experiments examined grammatical judgement, and error-identification deficits in relation to expressive language skills and to morphemic errors in writing. Language-disabled subjects did not differ from language-matched controls on judgement, revision, or error identification. Age-matched controls represented more morphemes in elicited writing than either of the other groups, which were equivalent. However, in spontaneous writing, language-disabled subjects made more frequent morphemic errors than age-matched controls, but language-matched subjects did not differ from either group. Proficiency relative to academic experience and oral language status and to remedial implications are discussed.
Centeno, Maria; Koepp, Matthias J; Vollmar, Christian; Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka; Michallef, Caroline; Symms, Mark R; Thompson, Pamela J; Duncan, John S
Assessment of language dominance using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a standard tool to estimate the risk of language function decline after epilepsy surgery. Although there has been considerable research in the characterization of language networks in bilingual individuals; little is known about the clinical usefulness of language mapping in a secondary language in patients with epilepsy, and how language lateralization assessed by fMRI may differ by the use of native or a secondary language paradigms. In this study we investigate language representation in a population of nonnative English speakers to assess differences in fMRI language lateralization between the first (native) and second language (English). Sixteen nonnative English-speaking patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy underwent language fMRI in their first (native) language (L1) and in English (L2). Differences between language maps using L1 and L2 paradigms were examined at the single subject level by comparing within-subject lateralization indexes obtained for each language. Differences at the group level were examined for each of the tasks and languages. Group maps for the second language (English) showed overlapping areas of activation with the native language, but with larger clusters, and more bilaterally distributed than for the first language. However, at the individual level, lateralization indexes were concordant between the two languages, except for one patient with bilateral hippocampal sclerosis who was left dominant in English and showed bilateral dominance for verb generation and right dominance for verbal fluency in his native tongue. Language lateralization can generally be reliably derived from fMRI tasks in a second language provided that the subject can follow the task. Subjects with greater likelihood of atypical language representation should be evaluated more carefully, using more than one language paradigm. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International
Azab, Safinaz Nagib; Ashour, Heba
Prosody is the aspect of language that conveys emotion by changes in tone, rhythm, and emphasis during speech and the term specific language impairment (SLI) refers to children whose language development is substantially below their chronological age, despite a normal nonverbal intelligence and no obvious neurological or physiological impairments, or emotional and/or social difficulties that could impact language use. To assess prosodic skills in Arabic speaking children with specific language impairment, in order to answer the question "Are SLI children dysprosodic?" And to be put in consideration while choosing and applying the training procedure hence, qualifies the rehabilitation program. Thirty Egyptian normal children and 30 Egyptian children with specific language impairment (SLI) aged between 4 and 6 years were included in this study and were subjected to psychometric evaluation, audio logical assessment, Arabic language test, articulation test, and assessment protocol of prosody. Egyptian specific language impaired children have lower prosodic skills scores than control group with positive significant correlation between total language ages of specific language impaired children and total prosodic scores. Egyptian specific language impaired children have dysprosodic skills and the intervention program must include prosodic rehabilitation program in order to achieve higher improvement level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Özmen, Kemal Sinan; Cephe, Pasa Tevfik; Kinik, Betül
This review examines the doctoral research in Turkey completed between 2010 and 2014 in the area of English language teaching and learning. All of the dissertations (N = 137) indexed in the National Theses Database have been included in order to analyze dissertations' subject areas, research paradigms/techniques, and research contexts as well as…
Burstein, Jill; Madnani, Nitin; Sabatini, John; McCaffrey, Dan; Biggers, Kietha; Dreier, Kelsey
K-12 education standards in the U.S. require all students to read complex texts across many subject areas. The "Language Muse™ Activity Palette" is a web-based language-instruction application that uses NLP algorithms and lexical resources to automatically generate language activities and support English language learners' content…
Aalto, Eija; Tarnanen, Mirja
The article examines student teachers' pedagogical language knowledge. The analysis is based on data from an applied task in which Finnish student teachers (n = 221) of 16 school subjects assessed second language (SL) learners' writing skills. First, we briefly discuss subject teachers' role in language and literacy teaching in the multilingual…
This study investigates subject pronominal expression in second language Chinese and compares learner usage with patterns found in their first language. The results show that (a) overt pronouns are used more for singular, +animate subjects than plural, -animate ones; (b) switch in subject surface form favors overt pronouns; (c) English and Russian…
Introduction. The use of 3-5 languages where professional language is one of them is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. The Aim of the Study. To identify and analyze professional language on the pedagogical discourse in language education. Materials and Methods. The search for…
Effective second language medium of instruction refers to an instructional approach that differs from that of regular, first language content instruction or a language across the curriculum approach. This approach uses language teaching strategies in subjects other than the formal language classes, to promote both ...
This book begins with a quick-start tutorial to the language, and then explains the language in detail from the bottom up: from lexical and syntactic structure to datatypes to expressions and statements and on through methods, blocks, lambdas, closures, classes and modules. The book also includes a long and thorough introduction to the rich API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented example code -- Ruby's facilities for text processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. An entire chapter is devoted to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities. The Ruby Programming Language documents the Ruby language definitively but without the formality of a language specification. It is written for experienced programmers who are new to Ruby, and for current Ruby programmers who want to challenge their understanding and increase their mastery of the language.
Fedorenko, Evelina; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L
Prior investigations of functional specialization have focused on the response profiles of particular brain regions. Given the growing emphasis on regional covariation, we propose to reframe these questions in terms of brain 'networks' (collections of regions jointly engaged by some mental process). Despite the challenges that investigations of the language network face, a network approach may prove useful in understanding the cognitive architecture of language. We propose that a language network plausibly includes a functionally specialized 'core' (brain regions that coactivate with each other during language processing) and a domain-general 'periphery' (a set of brain regions that may coactivate with the language core regions at some times but with other specialized systems at other times, depending on task demands). Framing the debate around network properties such as this may prove to be a more fruitful way to advance our understanding of the neurobiology of language. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jorgensen, J. Normann
Graffiti constitutes a medium through which the youth express opposition to authorities, as well as desires, dreams, and hopes. Graffiti shows many of the linguistic characteristics of youth language, including playfulness and, first and foremost, polylingual languaging. Graffiti in almost every city, at least in Europe, uses English and one or…
Alnæs, Martin S.; Logg, Anders; Ølgaard, Kristian Breum
We present the Unied Form Language (UFL), which is a domain-specic language for representing weak formulations of partial dierential equations with a view to numerical approximation. Features of UFL include support for variational forms and functionals, automatic dierentiation of forms and expres...... libraries to generate concrete low-level implementations. Some application examples are presented and libraries that support UFL are highlighted....
Valdman, Albert, Ed.
Fourteen articles by anthropologists, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists, bearing on the way foreign languages will be taught in the immediate future, constitute the major portion of this book. The contents include chapters on: (1) sociocultural context of language and literature, (2) Hispanic literature, (3) the use of contrastive…
Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.
SELECTED ARTICLES ON SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND REPORTS OF RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING, PUBLISHED FROM 1960 TO 1966, ARE PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT IN FL LEARNING" BY PAUL PIMSLEUR, DONALD M. SUNDLAND, AND RUTH D. MCINTYRE, (2) "THE PREDICTION OF SUCCESS IN INTENSIVE FL TRAINING" BY JOHN B.…
Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and
time-table, while Igbo language teachers should shun shyness in their discipline, and teach the subject with utmost dedication. Teachers should desist from punishing those children who speak Igbo language in their classroom. •. Students on their own part should have interest in the speaking, reading, writing and study of ...
Ducharme, Daphne A.; Wesche, Marjorie B.; Bourdages, Johanne S.
Examines the effect of the use of French as a second language on the performance of subjects in receptive skills (listening and reading comprehension) and productive skills (speaking and writing). Results establish a link between the use of the language after learning has occurred and the difference between pre- and post-test measures. (Author/VWL)
Bouchon-Meunier, Bernadette; Lesot, Marie-Jeanne; Marsala, Christophe
Subjective information is very natural for human beings. It is an issue at the crossroad of cognition, semiotics, linguistics, and psycho-physiology. Its management requires dedicated methods, among which we point out the usefulness of fuzzy and possibilistic approaches and related methods, such as evidence theory. We distinguish three aspects of subjectivity: the first deals with perception and sensory information, including the elicitation of quality assessment and the establishment of a link between physical and perceived properties; the second is related to emotions, their fuzzy nature, and their identification; and the last aspect stems from natural language and takes into account information quality and reliability of information.
This studio-based PhD is an enquiry into contemporary subjectivity. Through video art, it explores issues of self and how identity is informed. It questions whether or not there is an essential core to our being by examining if we are self-determined, ever-shifting, creatures of change? Or, whether we are fixed to a prescribed subject position that is wholly determined by others, cultural context and language? Through a discussion of my working methodologies including my collaboration wit...
In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int
Hodge, Steven M.; Makris, Nikos; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Howard, James; McGrath, Lauren; Steele, Shelly; Frazier, Jean A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Harris, Gordon J.
We performed cerebellum segmentation and parcellation on magnetic resonance images from right-handed boys, aged 6-13 years, including 22 boys with autism [16 with language impairment (ALI)], 9 boys with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and 11 normal controls. Language-impaired groups had reversed asymmetry relative to unimpaired groups in…
Levey, Sandra; Polirstok, Susan
Language Development: Understanding Language Diversity in the Classroom offers comprehensive coverage of the language development process for pre- and in-service teachers while emphasizing the factors that further academic success in the classroom, including literacy skills, phonological awareness, and narrative. With chapters written by respected…
Full Text Available An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. 8 Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection 9 and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is 10 examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of 11 language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from 12 storytelling. The behavior programming mechanism in both directions provide a model of 13 creating and understanding behavior and language. Culture began with societies, then family 14 evolution, family life in troops, but storytelling created a culture of experiences, a final step in 15 the long process of achieving experienced adults by natural selection. Most language evolution 16 occurred in conversations where evolving non-verbal feedback ensured mutual agreements on 17 understanding. Natural language evolved in conversations with feedback providing 18 understanding of changes.
Maslihatul Umami Umami
Full Text Available Language education in Indonesia may be discussed by over viewing the nature of the three language categories in the country: Indonesian language, indigenous languages, and foreign languages. From the picture of how the three groups of languages work and function, the problem raised in this paper is based on two fundamental assumptions. Language education in this multilingual and multicultural country is not done on the context of literacy, on the one hand, and it is not yet considered important in comparison with that of the subjects related to basic science and technology, on the other. After reviewing a number of models of bilingual education and comparing them with what has been done in Indonesia, a preferred model will be offered. Finally, it will also be suggested that language education in Indonesia should be associated with literacy development in a wider sense. Furthermore, meanwhile language education should be given an adequate room; language teaching should be based on the functional use of the existing languages in the country and should be done in tandem with the teaching of content since content is delivered through the medium of language.
Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen
This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... a standard garden curriculum is essential to planning, carrying out and evaluating effective school garden teaching in math, languages and science. Experiential learning and hands-on activities are teaching methods that immediately come to mind because they make the subject content less abstract, activate...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...
Full Text Available A systematic review of literature up to date reflects great scholarly interest in the impacts of study abroad (SA sojourns on foreign language learners’ communicative competence. This paper provides an overview on gains in sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences drawing upon research carried out in this field, which in broad terms supports the belief that both types of competences are effectively developed in SA stays. This article also offers a detailed account of the main constituents of the language tourism product -the travel component and the language learning component- with a special focus on the educational input and the language learning complements included in the latter. Thus, a fundamental part of the language tourism market system will be depicted from a supply perspective. Following an exploratory approach, a literature review was conducted in order to identify existing and missing knowledge in the field of language travel supply, and key aspects were pinpointed and classified. The taxonomy and underpinning concepts resulting from the categorisation of those key features may be considered the starting point for future investigations on SA programmes. The model offered in this exploratory study aims at constituting the underlying conceptual framework for subsequent research on the role of different SA programme design characteristics within the language tourism experience.
Werngren-Elgström, Monica; Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne
The purpose of this study was to describe the everyday activities and social contacts among older deaf sign language users, and to investigate relationships between these phenomena and the health and well-being within this group. The study population comprised deaf sign language users, 65 years...... or older, in Sweden. Data collection was based on interviews in sign language, including open-ended questions covering everyday activities and social contacts as well as self-rated instruments measuring aspects of health and subjective well-being. The results demonstrated that the group of participants...... aspects of health and subjective well-being and the frequency of social contacts with family/relatives or visiting the deaf club and meeting friends. It is concluded that the variety of activities at the deaf clubs are important for the subjective well-being of older deaf sign language users. Further...
Maple, Raymond C.
A new interpreted language specifically designed for surface grid generation is introduced. Many unique aspects of the language are discussed, including the farray, vector, curve, and surface data types and the operators used to manipulate them. Custom subroutine libraries written in the language are used to easily build surface grids for generic missile shapes.
Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy
Fifty-four students were followed over 10 years beginning in first grade to determine best predictors of oral and written second language (L2) proficiency. Predictor variables included measures of first language (L1) skill administered in first through fifth grades, L1 academic aptitude, L2 aptitude (Modern Language Aptitude Test), and L2 affect…
O professor intérprete de língua de sinais em sala de aula: ponto de partida para se repensar a relação ensino, sujeito e linguagem/The sign language teacher/interpreter in the classroom: the starting point for a re-evaluation of teaching, subject and language relations
Regina Maria de Souza
Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute a necessária participação educativa do intérprete de língua de sinais em sala de aula. A partir da teoria do Acontecimento Didático sobre o ensino e das idéias de Derrida sobre o ato interpretativo, defende a tese de que tentar estabelecer limites para a atuação do intérprete educacional - na tentativa de fazer com que não se confunda com a figura do/a professor/a em sala de aula - é submeter-se a uma formação discursiva de ensino que o reduz ou ao currículo, ou ao método (técnicas ou a intervenções que consideram tão somente a “capacidade” cognitiva do sujeito. The present paper discusses the necessary educational participation by the sign language interpreter in the classroom. Based on the Didactic Event teaching theory and Derrida´s ideas on the interpretive act, we argue that by setting limits for the educational interpreter’s performance – in an attempt to prevent him/her from being mistaken for a teacher in the classroom –, a discursive position about teaching is adopted, which restricts him/her to the curriculum, to the (technical method or to the interventions that take into account only the cognitive “capacity” of the subject.
Dixon, L. Quentin
Singapore's officially bilingual education policy, in which the majority of children are schooled through a non-native medium with their "Mother Tongue" (an ethnic heritage language that is not necessarily spoken in the home) as a single school subject only, has resulted in dramatic language shifts in the population and high academic…
Harste, Jerome C.
A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of social event was tested with a group of 68 children, aged three to six years. The subjects were presented with a wide variety of environmental print messages (road signs, toys, fast food signs, and household products) and were questioned…
Jaffe, Arthur M; Liu, Zhengwei
We give an overview of our philosophy of pictures in mathematics. We emphasize a bidirectional process between picture language and mathematical concepts: abstraction and simulation. This motivates a program to understand different subjects, using virtual and real mathematical concepts simulated by pictures. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Seuren, P.A.M.; Hamans, C.
The main thesis of the article is that language change is only partially subject to criteria of functionality and that, as a rule, opposing forces are also at work which often correlate directly with psychological and sociopsychological parameters reflecting themselves in all areas of linguistic
Hale, Ken; And Others
Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)
Dulay, Heidi; And Others
In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…
Blatt, Gloria T.
Describes ways in which children's books can be used to develop a feeling for the use of words in literature. Bibliography includes sections on alphabet games, patterned language, tongue twisters, homonyms, riddles, codes and puzzles, and parodies. (MKM)
Rivers, Wilga M.
Ten principles of interactive language teaching and learning link language pedagogy today with that of fifty years ago. Topics discussed include: (1) student as language learner; (2) language learning and teaching; (3) classroom communication; (4) knowledge and control of language; (5) testing; and (6) scope of language teaching. (MSE)
With the research on the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education, teacher autonomy has become a hot topic in the research of foreign language teacher education. However, it is the most difficult question to define language teacher autonomy and any answer to it is likely to be subjective. On the basis of expounding upon the…
The emerging interdisciplinary work in language politics and language policy and planning studies demonstrates a rising interest among researchers in the interface between sociolinguistics, political science and philosophy. Much of the resulting cross-disciplinary work, however, tends to focus on the subject matters (politics, language) themselves…
Lippman, Jane Neustein
The role of language instruction in a changing society is scrutinized in this article. Enrollment trends in several subject areas are compared and reasons for the decline in English, mathematics, science, and languages are related to current student attitudes. Instructional objectives of language programs are criticized particularly for their…
Foreign language education, particularly in French, has taken root in Kenyan education institutions namely in secondary schools, universities, language schools and in other tertiary institutions. The subject has also, as it is, penetrated the learning system in primary schools in Kenya. However, learning of foreign languages ...
Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan
Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.
Full Text Available Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.
Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida
The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.
Kathryn M. Howard
Full Text Available This article focuses on surveys of first-year language learners studying 19 different languages at two large East Coast Universities. The survey included questions about why students decided to study these languages, including career plans, study abroad, interest in liter-ature and culture, desire to communicate with speakers of the lan-guage, desire to speak with family members, building on previous language skills, and love of languages in general. Results were broken down by language and by language types, such as whether the lan-guages were commonly taught in the United States, how the lan-guages are politicized in the current historical context, and how the languages intersect with historical and geographic trends in immigra-tion and immigration policy. This article examines in particular the presence of heritage language learners in these language classrooms, the varying reasons that students choose to study these languages, and students’ prior attainment and exposure to the language. The pa-per discusses the political, historical, and social contexts of language study in the United States and the associated implications for effec-tive language recruitment and effective language program design.
Given that L1A of subject properties in non-null subject languages emerges later than that of null subject languages, this study aims at determining to what extent the same pattern of acquisition is observed in early child L2A in bilingual immersion settings where English and Spanish are both source and target languages. Using an elicited oral…
O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko
Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…
Full Text Available At present, there is a gap between the need for foreign language skills and their availability in the U.S. marketplace, resulting in a monolingual American in a multilingual global workplace. The Language Enterprise, a partnership of government, academia, and the private sector, can collaborate to effectively address the U.S. foreign language deficit and to close the gap between the availability of foreign languages skills and the need for them in the U.S. workplace. High profile partnerships, such as the “Many Languages One World” (MLOW Essay Contest and Global Youth Forum, and advocacy initiatives such as the American Association of Teachers of French (AATF Commission on Advocacy, the National Organization of Business Language Educators (NOBLE, the Joint National Committee for Languages and the National Committee on Languages and International Studies (JNCL-NCLIS will be described. This article will also examine career opportunities as language specialists and other careers enhanced by foreign language skills, as well as the importance of creating a sustainable framework for motivation in order to empower U.S. students studying foreign languages to achieve the level of foreign language proficiency needed in the workplace. In order to bring about the needed paradigm shift, a sustainable framework for successful foreign language learning would also require pre-professional and career-oriented programs in foreign languages included under the umbrella of Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP and Business Language Studies (BLS. The recommendations of the Modern Language Association report, “Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World,” with its proposed transformation of the traditional 2-tier system into an “integrative approach with multiple pathways to the major, clearly demonstrate the importance of programs in Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP and Business Language Studies (BLS. Conclusions and future
(eds.), Papers from the Sixteenth Regional Meeting of the Chicago. Linguistic Society. Chicago Illinois: University Press. Atoye, R. (1989). African Languages as just tone and not intonation languages? Epasa Moto: A Bilingual Journal of Language, Letters and Culture, 1(1), 1-14. The Intonation of Noun Phrase Subjects and ...
Steffensen, Sune Vork
This article takes a starting point in Per Linell’s (2013) review article on the book Distributed Language (Cowley, 2011a) and other contributions to the field of ‘Distributed Language’, including Cowley et al. (2010) and Hodges et al. (2012). The Distributed Language approach is a naturalistic...... and anti-representational approach to language that builds on recent developments in the cognitive sciences. With a starting point in Linell’s discussion of the approach, the article aims to clarify four aspects of a distributed view of language vis-à-vis the tradition of Dialogism, as presented by Linell...... (2009, 2013). First, the article discusses a central principle in Distributed Language, “the principle of non-locality,” and Linell’s interpretation of it; more generally, this is a discussion of contrasting views on “the locus of language” and derived methodological issues. Second, the article...
Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.
З З Чанышева
Full Text Available The article aims at tracing means of corporeal semantics employed to create a nonverbal discourse-portrait of the subject of political discourse. Complexity of semantic corporeal pragmatics interpretation of participants in political communication by members of other linguacultures is determined by national and cultural specificity of nonverbal behavioral signs as well as by individual preferences. The article shows dependence of body language signals on the character and conditions of social interaction in institutional sphere, psycho-emotional type and state of a politician, the aim to produce a certain effect on the interlocutor and the audience. The material includes theoretical resources, body language dictionaries, descriptions of Barack Obama’s corporeal discourse-portrait by American nonverbal experts with detailed interpretation of significance of such cues. The examples selected from descriptions are subjected to componential, contextual, pragmatic, comparative and linguacultural methods of analysis. The research testifies to the prospects of efficient use of various representations of corporeal semantics and pragmatics related to participants in political communication. The data obtained confirm the importance of body language in creating individual nonverbal behavior models of the subject of political discourse reflecting ethnic, national and socio-cultural peculiarities and personal features.
M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi
Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.
Elaine Ferreira do Vale Borges
Full Text Available In this article, I intend to conduct a short literature review and discussion about paradigm shift in language teaching and language teacher education from Cartesian to the complexity paradigm. For that, I use the Kuhnian notion of scientific revolution to present a short compilation of works related to paradigm shift in different sciences, including psychology, linguistics and, more emphatically, applied linguistics. The main proposal is to show the evolutions of paradigm shift in language and social sciences and its impact on the emergence of the complexity paradigm in language teaching and language teacher education fields.
Wiig, E H
I have stressed that language and learning disabilities that are exhibited in the preschool or elementary school years often persist into adolescence but that the characteristics and implications of these disabilities change with the preadolescent and adolescent transitions to metalinguistic maturity. As the student with language disabilities matures and as educational demands increase in complexity and in level of abstractness, the interactions between language and cognition become more apparent. Language disabilities of adolescents are often described in relation to observed deficits in the acquisition of content (semantics), form (morphology and syntax), and use (pragmatics). I have broadened this perspective to consider identification of metalinguistic strengths and/or deficits, deficits in the integration and organization of communication, reasoning and problem solving, and in conceptualization and creativity. Several assessment options were discussed, among them, norm-and criterion- referenced testing, language sample analysis, portfolio assessments of integrated communication, observational checklists and interviews, classroom language probes, and self-assessments. The perspectives taken for assessment have been that no single assessment option can satisfy all assessment objectives and/or constraints. I have also stressed that all tests are subject to measurement error and how to account for this error. Last, but not least, I have shared some of the voices of adolescents which express their perspectives and priorities.
Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.
Lambert, Richard D., Ed.
A collection of papers of directions in second language education includes: "The Improvement of Foreign Language Competency in the United States" (Richard D. Lambert); "The Measurement of Foreign/Second Language Proficiency" (Lyle F. Bachman, John D. Clark); "Advanced Technology in Foreign Language Instruction and Translation" (John Fought);…
Examines the nature and structure of idioms and idiomatic language and offers suggestions for teaching them. Topics addressed include the relationship between idioms and erroneous language, idioms' appropriateness in context, proverbs, and metaphors. Some exercises are included. (Author/MSE)
Dysphasic subjects do not have complete linguistic abilities and only produce a weakly structured, topicalized language. They are offered artificial symbolic languages to help them communicate in a way more adapted to their linguistic abilities. After a structural analysis of a corpus of utterances from children with cerebral palsy, we define a semantic lexicon for such a symbolic language. We use it as the basis of a semantic analysis process able to retrieve an interpretation of the utterances. This semantic analyser is currently used in an application designed to convert iconic languages into natural language; it might find other uses in the field of language rehabilitation.
Meier, Richard P.; Lillo-Martin, Diane
Signed languages display a variety of pointing signs that serve the functions of deictic and anaphoric pronouns, possessive and reflexive pronouns, demonstratives, locatives, determiners, body part labels, and verb agreement. We consider criteria for determining the linguistic status of pointing signs. Among those criteria are conventionality, indexicality, phonological compositionality, being subject to grammatical constraints, and marking the kinds of grammatical distinctions expected of pronouns. We conclude that first-person points meet all these proposed criteria, but that nonfirst person points are in part gestural. Lastly, we review evidence for the grammaticization over time of systems of pointing signs within signed languages. PMID:28603596
... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...
... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...
The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The understood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced...... by an alternative concept that more adequately describes the realities of what adherents of ‘parallel languages' can hope for. The new concept I have dubbed ‘complementary languages' (komplementærsproglighed). I will explain this concept in the following and contrast it both with ‘parallel languages...
Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise
Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross......-disciplinarily, because they work with both derivative and contributory approaches. Derivative, because specialized language retrieves its philosophy of science as well as methods from both the natural sciences, social sciences and humanistic sciences. Contributory because language results support the communication...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...
The following sections are included: * Unimodal Maps * Definition and Terminology * Logistic Map and Tent Map * Simple Models with Complicated Dynamics * Symbolic Dynamics * A Brief History * Itinerary and Kneading Sequence * An Order Relation of Sequences * Conditions of being Itinerary * Definition of Languages * Admissible Sequences * The Languages ℒ(KS) * Each Word is "Real" * ℒ(KS) are Dynamical Languages * Some Facts of Strings for a Given Kneading Sequence * Prefix-Suffixes with respect to Kneading Sequence * Conditions for x ∈ ℒ(KS) * ℒ(KS) when KS contains c * Two Lemmas about Dual Strings * Periodic Sequences and Periodic Orbits * Periodic Sequences which are Itineraries * Complexity of Windows
This handbook provides information on some 38 sign languages, including basic facts about each of the languages, structural aspects, history and culture of the Deaf communities, and history of research. The papers are all original, and each has been specifically written for the volume by an expert...... or team of experts in the particular sign language, at the invitation of the editors. Thirty-eight different deaf sign languages and alternate sign languages from every continent are represented, and over seventy international deaf and hearing scholars have contributed to the volume....
Junqueira, Patrícia; Marchesan, Irene Queiroz; de Oliveira, Luciana Regina; Ciccone, Emílio; Haddad, Leonardo; Rizzo, Maria Cândida
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the results of the findings from speech-language pathology evaluations for orofacial function including tongue and lip rest postures, tonus, articulation and speech, voice and language, chewing, and deglutition in children who had a history of mouth breathing. The diagnoses for mouth breathing included: allergic rhinitis, adenoidal hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophy; and/or functional mouth breathing. This study was conducted with on 414 subjects of both genders, from 2 to 16-years old. A team consisting of 3 speech-language pathologists, 1 pediatrician, 1 allergist, and 1 otolaryngologist, evaluated the patients. Multidisciplinary clinical examinations were carried out (complete blood counting, X-rays, nasofibroscopy, audiometry). The two most commonly found etiologies were allergic rhinitis, followed by functional mouth breathing. Of the 414 patients in the study, 346 received a speech-language pathology evaluation. The most prevalent finding in this group of 346 subjects was the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorders. The most frequently orofacial myofunctional disorder identified in these subjects who also presented mouth breathing included: habitual open lips rest posture, low and forward tongue rest posture and lack of adequate muscle tone. There were also no statistically significant relationships identified between etiology and speech-language diagnosis. Therefore, the specific type of etiology of mouth breathing does not appear to contribute to the presence, type, or number of speech-language findings which may result from mouth breathing behavior.
Jansen, MA, Robert
Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.
This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…
Full Text Available This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several modules of the website has been measured, examined and analyzed. The research was carried out between the years 2010- 2011 and included the analysis of several million clicks. The results show particular attitudes, habits and preferences throughout the e-learning process. There is a preference of users to exercises against theory. Fast cross-link exercises are preferred to slower “fill in” ones. During the weekends, visitors tend to use less e-learning facilities and select more light activities than the rest days of the week. Society trends and fashions like TV serials have a serious impact to the number of people who decide to learn a new foreign language, in particular Turkish. There is a strong preference of the audience to use online TV against online radio facilities for language practice. The subjects that Greek learners of Turkish language spend more time are verbs conjugation and vocabulary learning. They focus on elementary grammar subjects like the Alphabet, the numbers and the formation of plural. Finally, they try to learn the syntax of Turkish language through sentence structure puzzles and give priority to special grammar issues like noun compounds that are not present in Greek language.
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi
Learning a new language entails interactions with one's prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects’ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects’ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. PMID:25447375
Leonard, Laurence B
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition.
McNamara, Tim; Van Den Hazelkamp, Carolien; Verrips, Maaike
This article brings together the theoretical field of language testing and the practical field of language analysis for the determination of the origin of asylum seekers. It considers what it would mean to think of language analysis as a form of language test, subject to the same validity constraints, and proposes a research agenda.
Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim Hamid
This paper examines the status and use of language in the Nuba Mountains, Sudan. It is based on responses to 1496 questionnaires administered to people belonging to 37 different ethnic groups. Subjects were asked about language proficiency, language use in different domains and language attitudes. Factors such as sex, generation, intermarriage,…
This article examines the morphosyntactic representation of the subject agreement marker (SM) in null subject constructions in the Bantu language Kinyarwanda. Three prominent analyses are compared. The first analysis treats the SM in null subject constructions as a pronoun which receives the subject theta role in the ...
Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.
Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.
A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.
Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren
We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility.
Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise
Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross-d...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms......Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...
Dlaske, Kati; Barakos, Elisabeth; Motobayashi, Kyoko; McLaughlin, Mireille
In the introduction to the special issue "Languaging the worker: globalized governmentalities in/of language in peripheral spaces", we take up the notion of governmentality as a means to interrogate the complex relationship between language, labor, power, and subjectivity in peripheral multilingual spaces. Our aim here is to argue for…
Dam, Helle Vrønning
This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...
question words can vary, though they usually appear sentence finally. The nonmanual signals include specific facial expressions, head posture and mouthing. Some of the features are shared with other sign languages. Furthermore, although it has not been investigated in detail it seems that the nonmanual...... to the understanding of the linguistic variation and similarities existing not only among sign languages but among languages in general....... of languages and the theoretical conclusions about how language works have primarily been based on studies of spoken languages. I believe that the study of DSL can provide additional and valuable insight into the possible structures of human language. Furthermore, this study will contribute...
English for Speakers of Other Languages in Scotland's Colleges: A Subject-Based Aspect Report on Provision in Scotland's Colleges by Education Scotland on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council. Transforming Lives through Learning
Education Scotland, 2014
Education Scotland's publication, "External Quality Arrangements for Scotland's Colleges, Updated August 2013", specifies that HM Inspectors (HMI) will produce a number of subject aspect reports over the four-year period 2012-16. Colleges should act on the recommendations contained in these reports. College inspectors will monitor action…
Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...
Fiori, Simona; Zendler, Carolin; Hauser, Till-Karsten; Lidzba, Karen; Wilke, Marko
Clinical functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) requires inferences on localization of major brain functions at the individual subject level. We hypothesized that a single "triple use" task would satisfy sensitivity and reliability requirements for successfully assessing the motor, visual and language domain in this context. This was tested here by the application in a group of healthy adults, assessing sensitivity and reliability at the individual subject level, separately for each domain.Our "triple use" task consisted of 2 conditions (condition 1, assessing motor and visual domain, and condition 2, assessing the language domain), serving mutually as active/control. We included 20 healthy adult subjects. Random effect analyses showed activation in primary motor, visual and language regions, as expected. Less expected regions were activated both for the motor and visual domains. Further, reliability of primary activation patterns was very high across individual subjects, with activation seen in 70-100% of subjects in primary motor, visual, and left-lateralized language regions.These findings suggest the "triple use" task to be reliable at the individual subject's level to assess motor, visual and language domains in the clinical fMRI context. Benefits of such an approach include shortening of acquisition time, simplicity of the task for each domain, and using a visual stimulus. Following establishment of reliability in adults, the task may also be a valuable addition in the pediatric clinical fMRI context, where each of these factors is of high relevance.
Burch, Daniel D.; Teller, Henry
Applies principles of whole-language instruction to the teaching of sign language skills. Emphasis is on the holistic use of sign language in natural communicative situations. Some materials for this approach to sign language instruction are suggested. (DB)
Natalia Ya Bolshunova
Full Text Available The article addresses the differential-psychological aspect of translating abilities as a component of language abilities. The peculiarity of translation is described including both linguistic and paralinguistic aspects of translating a content and a sense from one language into another accompanied by linguistic and cognitive actions. A variety of individual and psychological peculiarities of translation based on the translation dominant were revealed. It was demonstrated that these peculiarities are relevant to communicative and linguistic types of language abilities discovered byM.K. Kabardov. Valid assessment methods such as M.N. Borisova’s test for investigation “artistic” and “thinking” types of Higher Nervous Activity (HNA, D. Wechsler’ test of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, and a test developed by the authors of the article for individual specificity of interpreter’s activity as communicative and linguistic types of translating abilities assessment were used. The results suggest that all the typological differences are based on special human types of HNA. Subjects displaying the “thinking” type use linguistic methods when translating, whereas subjects displaying the “artistic” type try to use their own subjective life experience and extralinguistic methods when translating foreign language constructions. Extreme subjects of both types try to use the most developed components of their special abilities in order to compensate the components of the other type which are not well developed to accomplish some language tasks. In this case subjects of both types can fulfill these tasks rather successfully.
Richardson, Joanna P.
Discusses the importance of all forms of nonverbal communication in the teaching of foreign languages, including body language, paralinguistics, cross cultural understanding, and visual aids in teaching. (AM)
Seuren, P.; Hamans, C.
The main thesis of the article is that language change is only partially subject to criteria of functionality and that, as a rule, opposing forces are also at work which often correlate directly with psychological and sociopsychological parameters reflecting themselves in all areas of linguistic competence. We sketch a complex interplay of horizontal versus vertical, deliberate versus nondeliberate, functional versus antifunctional linguistic changes, which, through a variety of processes hav...
Połczyńska-Fiszer, M; Mazaux, J M
Post-traumatic language and memory impairment, as well as a subsequent recovery in monolinguals have been widely documented in the literature, yet little is known about learning the second language after a severe head trauma followed by coma, as well as the relationship of this process with cognitive recovery, psychological status and quality of life. The present study investigates the relationship of learning the second language (English) in the process of rehabilitation, with quality of life in a Polish female university student who, as a result of a car accident, suffered a major closed-head injury and was comatose for a month. The subject was enrolled in an English learning program nine months after the trauma. The experiment lasted six months and comprised monthly meetings. The patient improved the major components of the second language, including vocabulary. Within the 6 months, the subject was gradually capable of learning additional and more complex lexical items. Learning the second language after traumatic brain injury may positively influence emotional well-being, self-esteem, and, perhaps, recovery of quality of life. A long-term beneficial effect of learning L2 was a consequential improvement of the patient's memory.
Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind
According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.
Hatem Soliman Badran
Full Text Available Objective Language is almost always affected in fragile X syndrome (FXS, and a delay in language acquisition is one of the first characteristics. The aim of this work was to study the effect of recurrent middle ear infections on the language profile in boys with FXS. Study design: Prospective case series. Setting Academic Medical Center. Subjects and Methods The present study was conducted on 30 males, ranging in age from 4–10 years. They were diagnosed as having a full mutation of DNA. The males were divided into two groups: Group A included 15 children with a history of recurrent middle ear infections more than four times per year during the first 4 years of life, and Group B did not have a history of recurrent middle ear infections during the first 4 years of life. Language assessments were done for all participants using the Standardized Arabic Language test. Results Results showed significant delays in language development in children with FXS. Relative strengths in semantics compared to syntax and pragmatics were observed in all boys. The recurrent ear infections of the boys played an important role in the language development delay. The mean of receptive, expressive, and total language age was better and higher among boys without a history of recurrent middle ear infections compared to boys with recurrent middle ear infections. Conclusion Recurrent otitis media in boys with FXS exacerbates the language problems that exist in this syndrome.
Byiers, Breanne J; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J
Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders.
Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David
Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.
This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…
Grube, Manon; Cooper, Freya E; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Kelly, Tom; Griffiths, Timothy D
The relationship between auditory processing and language skills has been debated for decades. Previous findings have been inconsistent, both in typically developing and impaired subjects, including those with dyslexia or specific language impairment. Whether correlations between auditory and language skills are consistent between different populations has hardly been addressed at all. The present work presents an exploratory approach of testing for patterns of correlations in a range of measures of auditory processing. In a recent study, we reported findings from a large cohort of eleven-year olds on a range of auditory measures and the data supported a specific role for the processing of short sequences in pitch and time in typical language development. Here we tested whether a group of individuals with dyslexic traits (DT group; n = 28) from the same year group would show the same pattern of correlations between auditory and language skills as the typically developing group (TD group; n = 173). Regarding the raw scores, the DT group showed a significantly poorer performance on the language but not the auditory measures, including measures of pitch, time and rhythm, and timbre (modulation). In terms of correlations, there was a tendency to decrease in correlations between short-sequence processing and language skills, contrasted by a significant increase in correlation for basic, single-sound processing, in particular in the domain of modulation. The data support the notion that the fundamental relationship between auditory and language skills might differ in atypical compared to typical language development, with the implication that merging data or drawing inference between populations might be problematic. Further examination of the relationship between both basic sound feature analysis and music-like sound analysis and language skills in impaired populations might allow the development of appropriate training strategies. These might include types of musical
LEARNING ASSESMENT IN THE SUBJECT SPANISH LANGUAGE SINCE THE INTEGRATION OF THE LINGUISTIC COMPONENTS / LA EVALUACIÓN DEL APRENDIZAJE EN LA ASIGNATURA LENGUA ESPAÑOLA DESDE LA INTEGRACIÓN DE LOS COMPONENTES LINGUÍSTICOS
Humberto Marrero Silva
Full Text Available One of the most recognizable components to manage the quality of education is evaluation, which objects in the field of education, have expanded considerably. Learning assessment is the component that allows knowing achievements and shortcomings, as well as to value judgments that permit accurate decisions to transform the state found into an ideal state, resulting in a high level of quality. Hence, the relevant importance of this process. The Spanish language is the basis of the rest of the course curriculum of primary education and also through the entire curriculum of teaching. It is the one that ensures an adequate development of communicative competence. That is to say, schoolchildren learn to use oral and written language correctly, and to establish effective communication in different communicative situations. The paper presents methodological considerations on how to approach the evaluation of learning the Spanish language course from the integration of linguistic components, a process that should be aimed at assessing the level of development of cognitive competence, communicative and sociocultural school, taking into account the specificity of the degree, which is based on the concepts of the Historical-Cultural School and the DiscursiveResumenUno de los componentes más reconocidos para gestionar la calidad educacional es la evaluación, cuyos objetos en el ámbito educativo, se han ampliado considerablemente. La evaluación del aprendizaje, es el componente que permite conocer logros y deficiencias, así como emitir juicios de valor certeros que permitan tomar decisiones para transformar el estado constatado en un estado ideal, que se traduce en un elevado nivel de calidad, de ahí la relevante importancia de este proceso. La Lengua Española es asignatura base del resto del currículo de la Educación Primaria y además atraviesa todo el currículo de la enseñanza, es la que asegura el desarrollo de una adecuada competencia
... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...
Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias
to ensure a better experience-based learning. We present methods used to collect information about everyday activities collected by immigrants or foreigners. This information will help structuring language learning assignments presented through the context-aware mobile application.......To help facilitate language learning for immigrants or foreigners arriving to another culture and language, we propose a context-aware mobile application. To expand on the known elements like location, activity, time and identity, we investigate the challenges on including cultural awareness...
Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Herrmann, A.
Sign language grammars, just like spoken language grammars, generally provide various means to generate different kinds of complex syntactic structures including subordination of complement clauses, adverbial clauses, or relative clauses. Studies on various sign languages have revealed that sign
Margot I. Visser-Bochane; Dr. Margreet R. Luinge; Sijmen A. Reijneveld; W.P. Krijnen; Dr. C.P. van der Schans
Speech language disorders, which include speech sound disorders and language disorders, are common in early childhood. These problems, and in particular language problems, frequently go under diagnosed, because current screening instruments have no satisfying psychometric properties. Recent research
English Journal, 1993
Describes several successful lessons that provide students with new awareness of the English language. Includes lessons focusing on language change, onomatopoeia, slang, word origin, dialect, and language functions. (MM)
Kurtanova Yu.E.,; Bondar O.V.,
We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Sur...
Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.
Book 4 of "The Language of Man" series contains articles which deal with semantics, levels of language (including informal, formal and technical language, jargon, and gobbledygook), the hidden persuaders (advertising of merchandise and political candidates), and communications of the future (including the computer and other mass media now being…
Song, Jae Jung
This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…
This comprehensive text examines various aspects of the Native American languages of California, including historical perspectives, daily usage, language domains, language maintenance, men's and women's language, and counting systems. Chapter 1 surveys the Indian languages spoken in California and shows how many people speak each one. Part 2 is a…
Full Text Available In recent years, foreign language testing has gained in significance with the advent of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2001 (CEFR, a European language document which set comparable standards for learning, teaching and assessing foreign languages. The CEFR was used to set the research aim of this paper - testing grammar at level B2. The main aim of the research was to determine grammatical competence at level B2 and additional aims included: (a determining which particular areas of grammar need to be learned by students at level B2, (b formulating grammatical descriptors for each individual area of grammar, (c determining the test’s threshold level which would fulfil the criteria for grammatical competence at level B2, and (d determining the extent to which students have mastered the given areas. The pre-testing was followed by the main testing on the sample of 164 students in two secondary schools. The results indicated that the quantity and quality of grammatical competence was lower than expected: 47% of the population failed to fulfil the basic level of grammatical competence. The causes may be attributed to the factors of a subjective and objective nature. Level B2 is demanding qualitatively as well as quantitatively, regarding both the formal and the functional complexity and scope of language use, which requires intensive language production, high levels of motivation and sound working habits in order to master the given grammatical structures.
Chater, Nick; Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H
Language acquisition and processing are governed by genetic constraints. A crucial unresolved question is how far these genetic constraints have coevolved with language, perhaps resulting in a highly specialized and species-specific language "module," and how much language acquisition and processing redeploy preexisting cognitive machinery. In the present work, we explored the circumstances under which genes encoding language-specific properties could have coevolved with language itself. We present a theoretical model, implemented in computer simulations, of key aspects of the interaction of genes and language. Our results show that genes for language could have coevolved only with highly stable aspects of the linguistic environment; a rapidly changing linguistic environment does not provide a stable target for natural selection. Thus, a biological endowment could not coevolve with properties of language that began as learned cultural conventions, because cultural conventions change much more rapidly than genes. We argue that this rules out the possibility that arbitrary properties of language, including abstract syntactic principles governing phrase structure, case marking, and agreement, have been built into a "language module" by natural selection. The genetic basis of human language acquisition and processing did not coevolve with language, but primarily predates the emergence of language. As suggested by Darwin, the fit between language and its underlying mechanisms arose because language has evolved to fit the human brain, rather than the reverse.
Mossakowski, Till; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Sannella, Donald
CASL is an expressive specification language that has been designed to supersede many existing algebraic specification languages and provide a standard. CASL consists of several layers, including basic (unstructured) specifications, structured specifications and architectural specifications...
Full Text Available Trying to understand human language by constructing robots that have language necessarily implies an embodied view of language, where the meaning of linguistic expressions is derived from the physical interactions of the organism with the environment. The paper describes a neural model of language according to which the robot’s behaviour is controlled by a neural network composed of two sub-networks, one dedicated to the non-linguistic interactions of the robot with the environment and the other one to processing linguistic input and producing linguistic output. We present the results of a number of simulations using the model and we suggest how the model can be used to account for various language-related phenomena such as disambiguation, the metaphorical use of words, the pervasive idiomaticity of multi-word expressions, and mental life as talking to oneself.. The model implies a view of the meaning of words and multi-word expressions as a temporal process that takes place in the entire brain and has no clearly defined boundaries. The model can also be extended to emotional words if we assume that an embodied view of language includes not only the interactions of the robot’s brain with the external environment but also the interactions of the brain with what is inside the body.
Maybury, Mark T.
The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.
Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra
The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…
Corbell, Gloria; And Others
This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…
language and to other foreign languages. In this international company, conflicting ideologies construct the local language Danish on the one hand as the natural language in Denmark, but as unimportant compared to English on the other hand. English is constructed as prestigious and powerful in contrast...... with Danish. While previous studies of English as an international language have tended to focus on the consequences for the local language, this article also includes a discussion of the role of English in relation to other international languages. English is constructed as the international language......With the spread of English as a global language, concerns have been voiced over the impact of English on local languages. This article presents results from an ethnographic study of language ideologies in a Danish workplace with a particular focus on ideologies of English in relation to the local...
Rivera, Mabel O.; Moughamian, Ani; Francis, David J.
This Facilitator's Guide has been prepared for presenters of the "Language Development for English Language Learners" professional development module. It accompanies the 67-slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker's notes and contains materials to help prepare for a professional development session, including activity instructions, handouts,…
This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream, Lagoon or Other Waste Waster (not including tailwater recovery) as an Irrigation Source (LWWIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is04)
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream,...
Ellmore, Timothy M.; Beauchamp, Michael S.; Breier, Joshua I.; Slater, Jeremy D.; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P.; O’Neill, Thomas J.; Disano, Michael A.; Tandon, Nitin
Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have advanced our knowledge of the organization of white matter subserving language function. It remains unclear, however, how DTI may be used to predict accurately a key feature of language organization: its asymmetric representation in one cerebral hemisphere. In this study of epilepsy patients with unambiguous lateralization on Wada testing (19 left and 4 right lateralized subjects; no bilateral subjects), the predictive value of DTI for classifying the dominant hemisphere for language was assessed relative to the existing standard - the intra-carotid Amytal (Wada) procedure. Our specific hypothesis is that language laterality in both unilateral left- and right-hemisphere language dominant subjects may be predicted by hemispheric asymmetry in the relative density of three white matter pathways terminating in the temporal lobe implicated in different aspects of language function: the arcuate (AF), uncinate (UF), and inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF). Laterality indices computed from asymmetry of high anisotropy AF pathways, but not the other pathways, classified the majority (19 of 23) of patients using the Wada results as the standard. A logistic regression model incorporating information from DTI of the AF, fMRI activity in Broca’s area, and handedness was able to classify 22 of 23 (95.6%) patients correctly according to their Wada score. We conclude that evaluation of highly anisotropic components of the AF alone has significant predictive power for determining language laterality, and that this markedly asymmetric distribution in the dominant hemisphere may reflect enhanced connectivity between frontal and temporal sites to support fluent language processes. Given the small sample reported in this preliminary study, future research should assess this method on a larger group of patients, including subjects with bihemispheric dominance. PMID:19874899
Glaser, Bronwyn; Mumme, Donna L; Blasey, Christine; Morris, Michael A; Dahoun, Sophie P; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Reiss, Allan L; Eliez, Stephan
To further define the language profile of children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and explore the influence of parental origin of the deletion on language. Children and adolescents with VCFS (n = 27) were group-matched for sex, age, and IQ with 27 children and adolescents with idiopathic developmental delay. Fifty-four typically developing control subjects were also included in the analyses investigating word association abilities. Children with VCFS had significantly lower receptive than expressive language skills, a unique finding when compared with IQ-matched control subjects. However, no significant differences in word association were detected. Children with a deletion of paternal origin score significantly higher on receptive language when compared with children with a deletion of maternal origin. The Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-III results suggest that children with VCFS show more severe deficits in receptive than expressive language abilities. Language skills of children with VCFS could be influenced by parental origin of the deletion and thus related to neuroanatomic alterations at the deletion site.
Full Text Available Every architectural work is created on the principle that includes the meaning, and then this work is read like an artifact of the particular meaning. Resources by which the meaning is built primarily, susceptible to transformation, as well as routing of understanding (decoding messages carried by a work of architecture, are subject of semiotics and communication theories, which have played significant role for the architecture and the architect. Minimalism in architecture, as a paradigm of the XXI century architecture, means searching for essence located in the irreducible minimum. Inspired use of architectural units (archetypical elements, trough the fatasm of simplicity, assumes the primary responsibility for providing the object identity, because it participates in language formation and therefore in its reading. Volume is form by clean language that builds the expression of the fluid areas liberated of recharge needs. Reduced architectural language is appropriating to the age marked by electronic communications.
Bonvillian, J D; Nelson, K E; Rhyne, J M
Research findings and issues in teaching sign language to nonspeaking autistic children are reviewed. Data on over 100 children indicate that nearly all autistic children learn receptive and expressive signs, and many learn to combine signs. These children also exhibit marked improvement in adaptive behaviors. Speech skills are acquired by fewer children and may be developed through simultaneous speech and sign training. Possible explanations for these results are given, together with suggestions for future research and data collection. Recommended innovations include exposure to fluent signers and training in discourse and code-switching. Different sign language teaching methods need to be investigated more fully, including emphasis on training sign language within the children's total environment and with greater staff and parental participation.
Alessandra Del Ré
Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.
DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Douw, Linda; Leveroni, Catherine L; Buchbinder, Bradley R; Greve, Douglas N; Stufflebeam, Steven M
Purpose To measure the accuracy of resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in determining hemispheric language dominance in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsies against the results of an intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and all subjects gave signed informed consent. Data in 23 patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy were retrospectively analyzed. All 23 patients were candidates for epilepsy surgery and underwent both IAP and resting-state functional MR imaging as part of presurgical evaluation. Language dominance was determined from functional MR imaging data by calculating a laterality index (LI) after using independent component analysis. The accuracy of this method was assessed against that of IAP by using a variety of thresholds. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using leave-one-out cross validation. Spatial maps of language components were qualitatively compared among each hemispheric language dominance group. Results Measurement of hemispheric language dominance with resting-state functional MR imaging was highly concordant with IAP results, with up to 96% (22 of 23) accuracy, 96% (22 of 23) sensitivity, and 96% (22 of 23) specificity. Composite language component maps in patients with typical language laterality consistently included classic language areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, the posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the inferior parietal lobule, while those of patients with atypical language laterality also included non-classical language areas such as the superior and middle frontal gyri, the insula, and the occipital cortex. Conclusion Resting-state functional MR imaging can be used to measure language laterality in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Magdalena, Luniewska,; Haman, Ewa; Armon Lotem, Sharon
We present a new set of subjective age-of acquisition (AoA) ratings for 299 words (158 nouns, 141 verbs) in 25 languages from five language families (Afro- Asiatic: Semitic languages; Altaic: one Turkic language: Indo-European: Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Slavic, and Romance languages; Ni...
Holtgraves, Thomas M; Kashima, Yoshihisa
Social cognition is meant to examine the process of meaningful social interaction. Despite the central involvement of language in this process, language has not received the focal attention that it deserves. Conceptualizing meaningful social interaction as the process of construction and exchange of meaning, the authors argue that language can be productively construed as a semiotic tool, a tool for meaning making and exchange, and that language use can produce unintended consequences in its users. First, the article shows a particular instance of language use to be a collaborative process that influences the representation of meaning in the speaker, the listener, and the collective that includes both the speaker and listener. It then argues that language use and social cognition may have reciprocal effects in the long run and may have significant implications for generating and maintaining cultural differences in social cognition.
Melton, Judith M.
Suggestions for using various dramatic techniques including a student-written cabaret to teach German at all levels of proficiency are described. The method promotes language proficiency, is pedagogically sound, flexible, rewarding, and fun. It can be adapted for use in teaching other languages. (PMJ)
Casanave, Christine Pearson, Ed.; Yamashiro, Amy D., Ed.
This collection of articles on gender issues in second language education includes the following: "Colleagues Writing Together: The Evolution of an Edited Publication" (Christine Pearson Casanave, Amy D. Yamashiro); "Reflections on a Critical Approach to Language Teaching" (Alan J. McCornick); "Forging Alliances:…
Miller, Patrick W.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye…
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen, Ed.; Félix-Brasdefer, J. César, Ed.
This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 2014 International Conference of Pragmatics and Language Learning at Indiana University. It includes fourteen papers on a variety of topics, with a diversity of first and second languages, and a wide range of methods used to collect pragmatic data in L2 and FL settings. This volume is…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Cyprus discusses the role of English within the Greek Cypriot community and within the educational system. Areas covered include English language requirements and English within the curriculum, teaching personnel and teacher training, instructional materials, English…
The purpose of this study is to move beyond the more traditional focus on individual characteristics as they relate to anxiety in the use of a foreign language. In order to do this, cultural characteristics, perceptions of the cause of successful learning, and foreign (English) language use anxiety were included as the major variables. Three…
communication gaps between unit leaders of deployable elements and Command Language Program Managers (CLPMs). While SOF leaders see value in language...training issues include: 1) that the Command Language Program Managers (CLPMs) address language training issues without informing leaders , 2) there is...reports support this last explanation of a possible communication gap between unit leaders of deployable elements and Command Language Program Managers
Mecham, Timothy M.
This portfolio is a compilation of the author’s teaching philosophy and three artifacts that explore elements of second language teaching. The teaching philosophy contains the author’s strategies of second language teaching including instructional practice, communicative language teaching theory, and application. This portfolio also contains artifacts of second language teaching that explore communicative competence, formal address pragmatics, and second language literacy. An annotated biblio...
Blank, Idan; Balewski, Zuzanna; Mahowald, Kyle; Fedorenko, Evelina
Language comprehension recruits an extended set of regions in the human brain. Is syntactic processing localized to a particular region or regions within this system, or is it distributed across the entire ensemble of brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing? Evidence from aphasic patients is more consistent with the latter possibility: damage to many different language regions and to white-matter tracts connecting them has been shown to lead to similar syntactic comprehension deficits. However, brain imaging investigations of syntactic processing continue to focus on particular regions within the language system, often parts of Broca's area and regions in the posterior temporal cortex. We hypothesized that, whereas the entire language system is in fact sensitive to syntactic complexity, the effects in some regions may be difficult to detect because of the overall lower response to language stimuli. Using an individual-subjects approach to localizing the language system, shown in prior work to be more sensitive than traditional group analyses, we indeed find responses to syntactic complexity throughout this system, consistent with the findings from the neuropsychological patient literature. We speculate that such distributed nature of syntactic processing could perhaps imply that syntax is inseparable from other aspects of language comprehension (e.g., lexico-semantic processing), in line with current linguistic and psycholinguistic theories and evidence. Neuroimaging investigations of syntactic processing thus need to expand their scope to include the entire system of high-level language processing regions in order to fully understand how syntax is instantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To, Carol K S; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin
Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language disorders (LD). Nineteen Cantonese-speaking students aged 5;8-6;8 who were diagnosed with LD were recruited from a school that used Putonghua (an alternative Chinese dialect) as the MOI when learning Chinese language and were compared with 18 age-and-gender-matched Cantonese-speaking students with LD from a school that used Cantonese as the MOI when learning Chinese language. All the students also learned English (L2) as a subject at school. Proficiency in Cantonese was tested at the beginning and the end of the semester in Grade One in terms of: (1) grammar, (2) expressive vocabulary, (3) auditory textual comprehension, (4) word definition and (5) narration. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed an effect of time on language proficiency indicating positive gains in both groups. Interaction effects between time and group were not significant. There was a trend that children learning Putonghua showed slightly more improvement in auditory textual comprehension. Proficiency gains were similar across groups. The study found no evidence that a multilingual learning environment hinders the language proficiency in L1 in students who have LD. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Full Text Available Subjective well-being includes 'affect' and 'satisfaction with life' (SWL. This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users' affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p < 0.01, indicating that language-based assessment can constitute valid SWL measures; the machine-assessed affect scores resemble those reported in a previous experimental study; and the machine-predicted subjective well-being profile can also reflect other psychological traits like depression (r = 0.24, p < 0.01. This study provides important insights for psychological prediction using multiple, machine-assessed components and longitudinal or dense psychological assessment using social media language.
Within the study of language in society, new sociolinguistic notions are increasingly gaining ground, e.g. the notion of polylanguaging. Polylanguaging is defined as "the phenomenon that speakers employ linguistic resources at their disposal which are associated with different 'languages,' including the cases in which the speakers know only…
The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The understood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced...... and English within relevant ‘domains' of Danish society. In this article I am going to argue that the concept of ‘domain loss' is not theoretically tenable - its usual depiction ranging from the vague to the nonsensical - which is not to say that the relationship between English and Danish within Danish...
Hammerman, Myrna Lynn
A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…
Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.
Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…
Fleming, Margaret, Ed.
The 14 articles in this journal issue provide suggestions for making language study interesting. Specific topics discussed in the articles include (1) metaphors, (2) expressing feelings, (3) grammar for speakers of nonstandard English dialects, (4) medical jargon, (5) grammar in the writing process, (6) the rhetoric of teacher comments, (7) slang,…
Virginia R Heslinga
.... Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages...
Pienkos, Elizabeth; Sass, Louis
Anomalies of language use and comprehension are common in schizophrenia. However, they are typically studied only from a diagnostic or behavioral perspective and viewed simply as deficits or disruptions of normal functioning. Such approaches ignore what it is like to experience language, and thus are at risk of missing aspects of these linguistic anomalies that may be crucial for understanding them. The Examination of Anomalous World Experience (EAWE) provides one way to inquire into the experiential changes related to and underlying these disturbances. This paper offers a summary of a number of theoretical and clinical works that informed the development of EAWE Domain 4, Language, to better contextualize and elaborate on the items that make up this domain. The forms of anomalous linguistic experience included in the EAWE can be generally classified into four groups: (1) Diminished interpersonal orientation, (2) Dissociation between language and experience, (3) Shifts of attention and context-relevance, and (4) Unusual attitudes toward language. We suggest that these kinds of experiential changes indicate a far richer and more complex relationship to language than that suggested by standard deficit models and theories. We hope that by considering and inquiring about the subjective experience of language, researchers and clinicians may develop a greater awareness of and appreciation for the variety of language-related experiences in schizophrenia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Database Programming Languages (DBPL 2007), held in Vienna, Austria, on September 23-24, 2007. DBPL 2007 was one of 15 meetings co-located with VLBD (the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases). DBPL continues...... to present the very best work at the intersection of dataase and programming language research. The proceedings include a paper based on the invited talk by Wenfie Fan and the 16 contributed papers that were selected by at least three members of the program committee. In addition, the program commitee sought...
Christiansen, Morten H; Chater, Nick; Reali, Florencia
A key challenge for theories of language evolution is to explain why language is the way it is and how it came to be that way. It is clear that how we learn and use language is governed by genetic constraints. However, the nature of these innate constraints has been the subject of much debate. Although many accounts of language evolution have emphasized the importance of biological adaptations specific to language, we discuss evidence from computer simulations pointing to strong restrictions on such adaptations. Instead, we argue that processes of cultural evolution have been the primary factor affecting the evolution of linguistic structure, suggesting that the genetic constraints on language largely predate the emergence of language itself.
Motivation is recognized as a vital component in successful second language learning, and has been the subject of intensive research in recent decades. This review focuses on a growing branch of this research effort, that which examines the motivational effects of language teaching. This is pertinent because, despite enhanced mobility and…
languages, and will study the implementation of Java and C# with their underlying platforms, the Java Virtual Machine and .NET Common Language Runtime. We emphasize implementation exercises and experiments. This comes at the expense of classical compiler course subjects such as register allocation...
Volden, Joanne; Lord, Catherine
This study of 80 autistic (ages 6-18), mentally handicapped, and normal children found that more autistic subjects used neologisms and idiosyncratic language than age- and language-skill-matched control groups. More autistic children used words inappropriately that were neither phonologically nor conceptually related to intended English words than…
Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.
Adina Elena Coclici (Telescu
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the specific languages of religious style, including the common and the newer ones. The religious style is the first special manifestation of the Romanian literary language; and the beginning of the written Romanian language is directly associated with the writing of religious texts. Being ignored for a long time, in the last decades, the religious style assumed new forms generated by the practices of religious rites, which are sometimes very diversified. The article describes the main language types, and we mention the following: the biblical language, the liturgical language, religious oratorical, religious tehnical, religious dramatical, theological or the ecclesiastic magazine language. The biblical language predominates in Romanian culture through its primary and most conservative version, the biblical text, as opposed to the theological language, which underwent modification during the modernization of the Romanian literary language. The religious oratorical language of the sermons distinguish itself being more mobile, using frequently means that are characteristic to the fictional style languages. The language of the theological magazines derives from the theological language and it points only to the theological version of religious style and not the style on the whole. Therefore, the language of the contemporary ecclesiastical texts carries forward our old literary language that was used in the first decades of the 19th century. The ecclesiastical literature had a major role in the development of the Romanian literary language, a role that was emphasized in number of studies. The multitude of language types of religious style proves that this stylistic version has been existing since back in the old Romanian language period.
Nitin, Madnani; Jill, Burstein; John, Sabatini; Kietha, Biggers; Slava, Andreyev
Current education standards in the U.S. require school students to read and understand complex texts from different subject areas (e.g., social studies). However, such texts usually contain figurative language, complex phrases and sentences, as well as unfamiliar discourse relations. This may present an obstacle to students whose native language…
Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi
These one-week programmes are held in one of the national languages of CERN Member States. National teacher programmes are also open for teachers from other countries speaking the same language. To follow up after each teacher programme, the lecture material and video recordings of selected lectures are archived to act as unique resources for all physics teachers when introducing particle physics into the classroom. CERN provides all scientific, administrative and technical support for the programme free of charge. This includes the scientific content and provision of national language facilitators, lecturers, and guides. However, costs for travel, accommodation and meals have to be covered individually by the teachers or by official sources, e.g. educational foundations or national authorities.
Hayakawa, Sayuri; Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Keysar, Boaz
A growing literature demonstrates that using a foreign language affects choice. This is surprising because if people understand their options, choice should be language independent. Here, we review the impact of using a foreign language on risk, inference, and morality, and discuss potential explanations, including reduced emotion, psychological distance, and increased deliberation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
These developments led to the increased valuing and validation of variation, including language variation. Given this democratisation of the world, the relevance of standard languages, which are undeniably ideological in nature, is increasingly being questioned. Does a language variety which only serves the economic, ...
Rodgers, Theodore S.
This paper gives an overview of 10 directions language teachers might take in the future. After providing background on the history of language teaching, language teaching methodology is defined and a distinction is made between methodologies and approaches. Next, the 10 scenarios are briefly described. They include the following: teacher/learner…
Hlas, Anne Cummings
In recent years, much research has shown that the first language (L1) is being used in the majority of foreign language classrooms. However, these findings have often failed to include secondary foreign language teachers and their teaching context. The current mixed-methods study explores Spanish teachers' use of and beliefs about first and target…
Discusses language policy matters and the management of cultural and linguistic diversity in the area of education, with particular reference to Eritrea in East Africa and its application to Australia's language situation. The article presents examples of the impact of the tyrannical imposition of language usage, including the long-term…
de Weck, Genevieve, Ed.
Articles on communication and language disorder are presented. All but one are in French; the other is in German. They include: "Specificity of Developmental Dysphasia: Implications for Intervention" (Marc Montfort, Adoracion Juarez Sanchez); "Difficulties with Language Development and Discursive Capacity" (Genevieve de Weck); "Language Production…
Discusses the need for a strong ethical foundation in the social sciences, which include language testing. Proposes the need for a professional morality and explains the importance of such morality to individuals and other stakeholders. It is argued that the intrusive nature of language testing and the normative role of language tests raises…
Archibald, Lisa M. D.
Children with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCN) form a highly heterogeneous group, including those with an unexplained delay in language development known as specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing recognition that multiple mechanisms underlie the range of profiles observed in these children. Broadly speaking, both the…
Nigeria is blessed with many indigenous languages that are mainly used in communication, including English as her second language. These languages had never remained static; they develop simultaneously with the developing nature of Nigeria. Communication therefore dominates the various functions performed by ...
Full Text Available This study is of a theoretical-conceptual nature and is a partial outcome of the research project VEGA MŠVVaŠ SR and SAV no. 1/0176/15. It deals with one of the problems currently faced by educational theory and practice, i.e. the foreign language education of seniors. The trend is typical for many EU member states, since it results from the needs of a modern society. In addition to strategic documents, programs and legislation which binds the Slovak Republic to create conditions for lifelong education, including foreign language education, the authors are more closely preoccupied with specificities and possibilities of the language education of seniors, which are explained on a comparative basis with the language education of children and youth. Even though in literature one can find results of many substantial empirical research projects devoted to foreign language education of children and youth, research into the education of adults and seniors in the area of foreign languages falls behind considerably. A sufficient platform for the methodology of language education of adults and seniors in Slovakia has not been created either, if compared with the methodology of language education of younger age categories. This shortcoming is often quite noticeable in practice. The study attempts to pay adequate attention to the analysis of selected teaching styles specific for adult and senior age as well as teaching methods which may be used in the language education of seniors.
Melitz, Jacques; Toubal, Farid
We construct new series for common native language and common spoken language for 195 countries, which we use together with series for common official language and linguistic proximity in order to draw inferences about (1...
This article looks into foreign language teacher education in plurilingual and pluricultural context; defines the notion and focuses on the characteristics of skills in language pedagogy as part of foreign language teacher professional competence.
Bochicchio, Daniel; Cole, Shelbi; Ostien, Deborah; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Staples, Megan; Susla, Patricia; Truxaw, Mary
This article describes a process by which seven educators collaboratively engaged in developing a shared language to describe the mathematics pedagogy used to guide whole-class discussions as well as the products of their work. Suggestions are made for how others might engage in similarly productive professional development activities. (Contains 3…
Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility
The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : www.rosey.ch Please send applications with CVs to email@example.com
Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik
This article has two aims:  to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and  to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...
Although most children acquire language effortlessly, there are some children who find learning language a difficult and arduous task. This group of subjects resembles a natural experiment and has the potential to provide us with insights into the nature of the biological basis of language. The data show that this disorder is associated with certain genetic factors that can lead to neurological abnormalities. Our studies of the linguistic details of language impairment in English, French, Greek and Japanese have led us to conclude that affected individuals cannot construct normal representations for complex words nor can they construct the rules which should operate on these representations. These data are inconsistent with any explanation in terms of auditory or articulatory processing. Therefore, we must conclude that a genetic disorder can impair the ability to build a normal grammar.
"Language awareness and language aptitude" often crop up in discussion of various second language acquisition phenomena, including age-related phenomena. There is a troublesome and ongoing definitional and theoretical problem in this connection: Different researchers have different perspectives on what is to be included in the respective…
Full Text Available Background: Autism as part of the category called Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, is caused by disorders in brain and nervous network and characterized by defect in social behavior, language and cognition. This study aimed to investigate receptive and expressive language performance and the severity of the disorder in 30 children with autism aged 2-8 years who speak in Persian language. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study 30 children with autism were selected using random sampling method. The study tools included "The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS", and "Newsha Developmental Scale (NDS" for assessing the receptive - expressive language skills. In order to assess the level of language impairment in subjects, the participants were divided into 5 groups with 6 people (considering the speaking ability including sign language and speech, with equal number of boys and girls (3 girls and 3 boys in each group. All of these children were evaluated by pediatric psychiatry, pediatric neurologist and pediatrician and were assessed according to the criteria for autism based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V. Eventually, the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean (standard deviation and scores of receptive – expressive language skills in autistic subjects in each of the groups (P
Full Text Available Sustainability education (SE is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in Finland. There were significant differences between the subject teachers’ perceptions of their SE competence, and the frequency with which they used different dimensions of SE (ecological, economic, social, well-being, cultural in their teaching varied. Teachers’ age had a small effect, but gender, school, and its residential location were nonsignificant factors. Teachers could be roughly classified into three different subgroups according to their perceptions of the role of SE in their teaching; those who considered three SE dimensions rather often and used holistic sustainability approaches in their teaching (biology, geography, history; those who considered two or three dimensions often but were not active in holistic teaching (mother tongue, religion, visual arts, crafts, music, physical and health education, and home economics and those who used one SE dimension or consider only one holistic approach in their teaching (mathematics, physics, chemistry and language. Subject teachers’ awareness of their SE competence is important to encourage them to plan and implement discipline-based and interdisciplinary SE in their teaching. The specific SE expertise of subject teachers should be taken into account in teacher training and education.
Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other.
Abstract. The paper examines the pros and cons of the checkered nature of language use in the Tanzanian Parliament. It focuses on language policy, language choice and the practicality of language use in parliamentary discourse. Right from the eve of independence, the medium of communication in the. Tanzanian ...
Brinton, B; Fujiki, M
This study compared several discourse characteristics of linguistically normal and language-disordered children. In order to examine interactive skills, several types of request-response sequences were considered. These included choice questions, product questions, request for clarification, and the responses elicited by these speech acts. While neither the linguistically normal nor the language-disordered groups had achieved an adult level of competence, normal children were much more aware of the interactive nature of discourse than language-disordered children. Normals most often responded within the boundaries of an acceptable adult response. Language-disordered children frequently ignored and responded inappropriately to requests. Their responses were occasionally contrary to fact or totally unrelated to the expected information. Some language-disordered subjects also demonstrated linguistic strategies that facilitated the flow of conversation, but showed no understanding of the content of the communicative interchange. The clinical implications of these findings and the need for further research are discussed.
Choduraa M. Mongush
The meta-markup system for the texts included into the National corpus of Tuvan language may include up to 18 parameters, such as the author’s name and gender, the title and creation date (year of the text, its functional sphere, topic, subject area, time and setting of events described in it, the text’s classification by type of spoken language or literary genre and style, its source, name of the periodical it appeared in, publisher, publication date, medium, comments, as well as some features of its audience, such as age and education level.
The author reflects on foreign-language learning by his EFL students as well as his own foreign-language learning. He concludes by musing on the possible and fantastical devastation on language-ability wrought by strokes.
... Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... injury. These conditions are sometimes misdiagnosed as developmental disorders. Language disorders may occur in children with other developmental ...
This paper explores, within an ecological perspective on language learning (cf. van Lier 2004), the valuable role that translation as adaptation can play in mediating and making sense of cross-cultural experiences in the multilingual language classroom. The aim is to develop a multilingual pedagogy that includes translation as adaptation as an integral part of the language curriculum in order to foster translingual and transcultural competence, this being the goal of foreign language educatio...
Clark, Urszula I.L.
This book introduces key ideas and current critical debates about how English functions within its social and cultural contexts, and provides practical examples and guidance on how to approach further work in these areas. It introduces core topics of language study; language variation, pragmatics, stylistics, critical discourse analysis, language and gender and language and education. Each chapter includes case studies providing worked analysis of sample texts, suggestions for further project...
Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio
Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.
Moschkovich, Judit; Planas, Nuria
This book examines multiple facets of language diversity and mathematics education. It features renowned authors from around the world and explores the learning and teaching of mathematics in contexts that include multilingual classrooms, indigenous education, teacher education, blind and deaf...
Fernández-Coello, Alejandro; Havas, Viktória; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sierpowska, Joanna; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Gabarrós, Andreu
OBJECTIVE Most knowledge regarding the anatomical organization of multilingualism is based on aphasiology and functional imaging studies. However, the results have still to be validated by the gold standard approach, namely electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) during awake neurosurgical procedures. In this ESM study the authors describe language representation in a highly specific group of 13 multilingual individuals, focusing on how age of acquisition may influence the cortical organization of language. METHODS Thirteen patients who had a high degree of proficiency in multiple languages and were harboring lesions within the dominant, left hemisphere underwent ESM while being operated on under awake conditions. Demographic and language data were recorded in relation to age of language acquisition (for native languages and early- and late-acquired languages), neuropsychological pre- and postoperative language testing, the number and location of language sites, and overlapping distribution in terms of language acquisition time. Lesion growth patterns and histopathological characteristics, location, and size were also recorded. The distribution of language sites was analyzed with respect to age of acquisition and overlap. RESULTS The functional language-related sites were distributed in the frontal (55%), temporal (29%), and parietal lobes (16%). The total number of native language sites was 47. Early-acquired languages (including native languages) were represented in 97 sites (55 overlapped) and late-acquired languages in 70 sites (45 overlapped). The overlapping distribution was 20% for early-early, 71% for early-late, and 9% for late-late. The average lesion size (maximum diameter) was 3.3 cm. There were 5 fast-growing and 7 slow-growing lesions. CONCLUSIONS Cortical language distribution in multilingual patients is not homogeneous, and it is influenced by age of acquisition. Early-acquired languages have a greater cortical representation than languages acquired
Andrews, Edna; Frigau, Luca; Voyvodic-Casabo, Clara; Voyvodic, James; Wright, John
BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition.
Full Text Available BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1 already proficient in at least two languages; or (2 are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1 longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2 statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition.
Andrews, Edna; Frigau, Luca; Voyvodic-Casabo, Clara; Voyvodic, James; Wright, John
BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition. PMID:24961428
Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…
Myers, Eliza H; Hampson, Michelle; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R; Katz, Karol H; Schneider, Karen C; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R
Prematurely born children are at increased risk for language deficits at school age and beyond, but the neurobiological basis of these findings remains poorly understood. Thirty-one PT adolescents (600-1250g birth weight) and 36 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) and the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) at 16years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (padolescents engage a dorsal right hemisphere region for language at age 16years. Those with the greatest cognitive deficits demonstrate increasing reliance on this alternate pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Language teaching involves many paradoxes and the language teacher has more handicaps than teachers of other subjects. The language teacher's way of overcoming his own problems of personality and psychological balance has a lot to do with the success or failure of his students. (CFM)
The factor-analytic results are subjected to an item analysis, which allows for the construction of an attitude scale that can be usefully employed to measure the attitudes of L1 African-language students towards the use of African languages as Languages of Learning and Teaching (LOLT) at South African tertiary institutions.
Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav
This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…
Benjafield, John G
Anglophone psychology shares its vocabulary with several other subjects. Some of the more obvious subjects that have parts of their vocabulary in common with Anglophone psychology include biology (e.g., dominance), chemistry (e.g., isomorphism), philosophy (e.g., phenomenology), and theology (e.g., mediator). Using data from the Oxford English Dictionary as well as other sources, the present study explored the history of these common vocabularies, with a view to broadening our understanding of the relation between the history of psychology and the histories of other subjects. It turns out that there are at least 156 different subjects that share words with psychology. Those that have the most words in common with psychology are mathematics, biology, physics, medicine, chemistry, philosophy, law, music, linguistics, electricity, pathology, and computing. Words that have senses in other subjects and have their origins in ordinary language are used more frequently as PsycINFO keywords than words that were invented specifically for use in psychology. These and other results are interpreted in terms of the ordinary language roots of the vocabulary of Anglophone psychology and other subjects, the degree to which operational definitions have determined the meaning of the psychological senses of words, the role of the psychologist in interdisciplinary research, and the validity of psychological essentialism.
Suo, Hongbin; Li, Ming; Lu, Ping; Yan, Yonghong
Robust automatic language identification (LID) is the task of identifying the language from a short utterance spoken by an unknown speaker. The mainstream approaches include parallel phone recognition language modeling (PPRLM), support vector machine (SVM) and the general Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). These systems map the cepstral features of spoken utterances into high level scores by classifiers. In this paper, in order to increase the dimension of the score vector and alleviate the inter-speaker variability within the same language, multiple data groups based on supervised speaker clustering are employed to generate the discriminative language characterization score vectors (DLCSV). The back-end SVM classifiers are used to model the probability distribution of each target language in the DLCSV space. Finally, the output scores of back-end classifiers are calibrated by a pair-wise posterior probability estimation (PPPE) algorithm. The proposed language identification frameworks are evaluated on 2003 NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (LRE) databases and the experiments show that the system described in this paper produces comparable results to the existing systems. Especially, the SVM framework achieves an equal error rate (EER) of 4.0% in the 30-second task and outperforms the state-of-art systems by more than 30% relative error reduction. Besides, the performances of proposed PPRLM and GMMs algorithms achieve an EER of 5.1% and 5.0% respectively.
Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J
To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.
General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 8 May to 30 June (or 7 July) 2006. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 10 April to 19 June 2006. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 24 hours Price: 528 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org
Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert
We identify concepts of reversibility for a functional language by means of a set of semantic rules with specific properties. These properties include injectivity along with local backward determinism, an important operational property for an efficient reversible language. We define a concise...... reversible first-order functional language in which access to the backward semantics is provided to the programmer by inverse function calls. Reversibility guarantees that in this language a backward run (inverse interpretation) is as fast as the corresponding forward run itself. By adopting a symmetric...... first-match policy for case expressions, we can write overlapping patterns in case branches, as is customary in ordinary functional languages, and also in leaf expressions, unlike existing inverse interpreter methods, which enables concise programs. In patterns, the use of a duplication...
Vetter, H J; Howell, R W
Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.
Islam M. Al-Momani
Full Text Available The paper aims at examining the role that morphology plays in allowing and/or motivating sentences in Jordanian Arabic (hereafter JA to be formed with or without subject pronouns. It also aims at giving a comprehensive and descriptive presentation of the distribution of overt and null subject pronouns in JA, and tries to determine to what extent there is optionality in its system. Keywords: null subject pronouns, overt subjects, pro-drop languages, verbal inflectional morphology
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca's area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses) and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses) in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1), whereas the other brain regions of the "control network" showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2) translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation.
Constantinou, Phoebe; Wuest, Deborah A.
The common core, with its emphasis on the development of English language art and mathematics skills and literacy, presents challenges for teachers of all subjects. Academic language is expected to be developed within each disciplinary area. In other words, educators are expected to identify the language demands of their discipline and prepare…
Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova
The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…
Marina Y. Vaslyayeva
Full Text Available The article deals with the importance of appliance of project-based method during the language learning process. The key thing is that the appliance of project-based method during the language training helps to concentrate the learner’s attention on the issue itself, but not on the language structure, to go right into the core of the issue, to address the problems, using the language as a tool. The article uncovers the core of this method: students rethink new facts and ideas by themselves. Theydon’tgetthemfromlecturers. Besides, the authors accept the need for such project as a tool of activation of cognitive activities when forming s critical opinion. According to authors, the project differs from other methods through the ability by students to create a specific product showing their ability to use the hands-on experience while creating such product. The article shows that the appliance of project-based method during the language training is aimed at such abilities as development of foreign language competence (including speech, language, linguistic, sociocultural and scientific competence, the ability to encourage students to learn the languages in modern society as a tool of communication, cognition and social adaptation.
The paper asks how languaging and language influence the world of the living. Extending Clements and Shelford (1939), the bio-ecology is redefined as the domain of plant–animal–human–culture formations. The move places what people do as a result of languaging into a reciprocal relation with the bio...... shared, much is biophysical. Living subjects link language and languaging with experience and technologies that have transformed the bio-ecology. Once these dynamics are subject to investigation, macrosocial issues can be reconnected with biological, human and linguistic concerns. Ecolinguistics can thus...... illuminate the dynamics which enmesh the bio-ecology, human evolution, local histories, and language. In short, part of the field’s agenda becomes that of clarifying how languaging and language affect plant–animal–human–culture formations. If the approach can be used to forge a unified perspective on the bio...
Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Chien-wei
This study aimed to investigate EFL learner language anxiety and learning motivation of high school students. Subjects included 155 students from the same private senior high school in central Taiwan, 60 in academic track and 95 in vocational track. The majority of the participants started taking English lessons either before entering elementary…
... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...
Do foreign language instructors really know which grammar points should be explicitly taught and why? Are instructors aware of how their classroom languages affect students’ learning? This is a showcase of how foreign language instructors can use students’ oral language data to explore the possibilities for more effective instruction. Subjects are students in a Japanese language immersion program in the U.S. who study Japanese as a foreign language. Their speech samples were recorded, transcr...
Oliveira, Karina Tamarozzi de; Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana L de; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria
We describe ten children, aging 5 years and 1 month until 5 years and 11 months, when the phonoaudiological assessment was conducted. They are divided according to cerebrovascular disease, in CVD group (CVD-G) and control group (cG). Children were seen and CVD was confirmed in the acute phase at UNICAMP hospital. Audiologic assessment, protocol for Infant language assessment, and Peabody picture vocabulary test were used in the evaluations. The qualitative analysis of the subjects from a phonoaudiological and neurological point of view has shown the recovery of acquired language disorder (ALD) with no influence whatsoever in the development of 2 subjects and subtle language and/or learning process alterations for 3 subjects. The cases study has revealed that all aspects of language development in preschool children should be analyzed in an individual, quantitative, and qualitative basis to lead to conclusive findings.
Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina
The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc
Garcia, Ana M; Egido, Jose A; Barquero, Maria Sagrario
Cortical representations of the native language and a second language may have different anatomical distribution. The relationships between the phonologic and orthographic forms of words continue to be debated. We present a bilingual patient whose competence in his mother tongue was disrupted following brain ischaemia. Semantic units were accessible only as isolated letters in written as well as oral language presentation. His second language appeared completely unaffected. Whole word system disturbance of both orthography and phonology pathways of the native language could explain this presentation. It is a great opportunity to learn about the language neural network when a bilingual subject presents with brain ischaemia.
BENYELLES, Linda Chahinez
Algeria, no doubt is a nation that has witnessed a cross current of linguistic activities due to it inherent multilingual nature coupled with her colonial experience under the French. After attaining independence in 1962, Algeria started on the one hand to arabise all public sectors, especially the educational one for ideological reasons related to national identity and nationalism. From the other hand, it has maintained French as the language of science and technology...
Budenz, Cameron L; Starr, Kelly; Arnedt, Caroline; Telian, Steven A; Arts, Henry Alexander; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Zwolan, Terry A
Children with auditory neuropathy (AN) have variable hearing on pure tone testing, and the presence of speech and language delays often play a major role in the decision to offer cochlear implantation (CI) in this population. Despite this fact, the speech and language outcomes in this group after CI are not well described. This study compares speech and language outcomes after CI in a subset of the pediatric AN population that does not have a confounding cognitive disorder with those of their peers with cochlear hearing loss (CoHL). Retrospective chart review. Tertiary referral center. Seventeen pediatric patients with AN who received a CI and a group of children with CoHL who received a CI were the subjects of this study. The 2 groups demonstrated similar ages at implant. Children with cognitive delays were excluded from each group. Cochlear implantation. All subjects were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with standardized age appropriate speech and language measures, including the Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and Preschool Language Scale (PLS). There was no significant difference between the groups on age of activation of the CI. Children with a diagnosis of AN had a significantly lower unaided pure tone average preoperatively as compared with children with cochlear hearing loss; however, there was no significant difference between the groups on either their preimplantation or postimplantation speech and language scores. Children with a diagnosis of AN without associated cognitive or developmental disorders have speech and language outcomes comparable to other children who received a CI.
Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.
Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…
Tanielian, Adam R.
Thailand boasts a robust ESL system in both public and private schools, where students learn various subjects from native speakers in the English language. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a subject that is relevant to ESL instruction and learning. This study assesses associations between FLCA and academic performance in English and…
Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.
This article is devoted to the innovative model for language education Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) which has gained in immense popularity all over the world. Based on communicative approach, CLIL provides progress in language and in the content subject, creativity and independence in language using, developing higher order thinking skills. A successful CLIL lesson should combine such elements as content, communication, cognition and culture
Rosina Fransisca J. Lekawael
Full Text Available English language skills here mean the development of the main parts or elements of the language which include speaking, listening, reading, and writing. English language subject has different educational tools that are likely suited with it. Smartphone and internet usage have actively influence daily life, even for children and adolescents. In learning activity, smartphone is a tool to help students connected to be online. A qualitative approach was pursued in this study. Then, the data collection technique used in this study is a survey by using questionnaires. As result, the research shows that most students spend much time to access the social network, some students access internet for dictionary and games, and only a few students access internet for education purposes. In short, the students rather to use smartphone for other thing than education. Therefore, English language learning should be focused on leading language teaching by using English resources from smartphone and internet, as media, which closed to students. By using smartphone and internet, it is expected that either teacher or students become more active and creative to explore their knowledge through media. Pedagogically, there is an urgent need for teachers to implement smartphone-based language learning in order to engage students to be critics with material and its content. So, it enables students to build and enhance a technology awareness of smartphone and internet usage on English language learning in classroom.
Gorman, Brenda K
The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs). Participants included 25 kindergartners who received PA instruction and 10 controls. A 2-way within-subjects repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to evaluate gains. Relationships between PA gains, Spanish and English vocabulary, and memory, as measured using nonword repetition and experimental working memory tasks, were analyzed using correlation and regression analyses. Results indicated significant and equivalent gains in both languages of children in the experimental group and no gains in the control group. Spanish vocabulary size was significantly related to PA gains in both languages and was more strongly related to English gains than was English vocabulary size. The memory tasks predicted gains in each language in distinct ways. Results support the conclusion that PA instruction and strong vocabulary skills in an individual's L1 benefit PA development in both the L1 and L2. Results also indicate that dynamic relationships exist between vocabulary size, storage and processing components of working memory, and PA development in both languages of ELLs.
Using Hindi and Urdu as examples, illustrates the shortcomings in the definition of South Asian languages that has been attempted in Britain so far. Argues that description and definition of a language have to include aspects of culture, religion, script, politics, and the speakers' own perception of their language and language choice. (SED)
The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…
This critical examination of the condition of the English language used in Britian today raises questions about the language with which society expresses its concerns. It analyzes the language used in contemporary England for religion, politics, serious journalism, love, and literature. Included is an account of the committee-language of the New…
Full Text Available Purpose: This is one of the first comprehensive studies to assess receptive and expressive language skills in a South Indian language, Kannada. It demystifies language impairments and provides a model for future research to understand other languages in India and in countries around the world.Method: Language impairments were identified in 68 students of Grades 3 and 4, in elementary schools where Kannada was the medium of instruction. The children were assessed in different language components. The results were analysed in terms of their ages and their levels of functioning in each language component and sub-component.Results: As a group, the subjects showed no significant deficits in phonological and semantic skills; however, individual deficits and deficits within sub-component skills of semantics were noted. Mean and individual deficits in auditory reception, aural comprehension and receptive vocabulary were also noted. Deficits in syntax & verbal expression were notably significant. The extent of language delay increases with age, and plateaus at higher ages.Conclusion: Children with language impairments in Kannada, display many similar characteristics in terms of problems in different components of language. Early intervention is called for because the language delay increases as age advances. A thorough assessment reveals specific strengths and weaknesses in language components and skills. This can be used as a starting point to base remediation activities.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.134
Meuter, Renata; Humphreys, Glyn; Rumiati, Raffaella
Discusses the brain mechanisms mediating the switching of languages in bilingual subjects. To ascertain the brain mechanisms mediating the control of language switching, switching was examined in a bilingual patient with frontal lobe damage and impaired control processes. (Author/VWL)
Nikitina, Larisa; Furuoka, Fumitaka
Substantial research has been done on gender differences in relation to various aspects of learning and teaching. In the field of language learning learner's gender and its relationship with emotional (affective) components of language study has been a subject of numerous academic inquiries. These studies have focused on female and male students'…
In this study I examined the dimensionality of the latent ability underlying language use that is needed to fulfill the demands young learners face in English-medium instructional environments, where English is used as the means of instruction for teaching subject matters. Previous research on English language use by school-age children provided…
Morawski, Michael; Budke, Alexandra
Geography lessons center on a language-based product with socially relevant geographic content. The subject of geography in secondary schools in Germany faces three major challenges that make a stronger focus on language in the monolingual geography classroom necessary. First, more than 30 percent of German pupils in secondary schools have a…
Dolean, Dacian Dorin
Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) has been the subject of several studies aimed to optimize learning of a foreign language in the classroom. However, few studies provide specific curriculum-based methodological strategies to be used in the classroom in order to lower the anxiety level. In this article, two experimental classes of 8th-grade…
Segovia de Arana, José María
Since its inception the language of humanity was spoken to communicate with those who were coming in the immediate environment. When writing appeared, there was a great evolution since the ideas could be passed at a distance, which made possible the organization of communities, cities, empires, and so on. And the development of literature, science, and the arts. The progress of humanity became more apparent with the discovery of printing and distributing books that were saved ideas, words written by different authors that could be known by reading. Another major advance came with the chance to hear the human voice, spoken language, not just those in the vicinity of the speaker itself is not remotely over the telephone, radio or television. Even it is possible to hear the words of dead people. The last and extraordinary step in spreading the language they are giving the latest computer technology over the Internet in which the possibilities of information and collection of written ideas are virtually endless. In this situation, which has recently started not stop thinking about the danger to the book as a depository and jealous guardian of culture, art, science and history and has personally been targeted by every human being his books or his lack thereof. From the fundamental discoveries of Broca's and Wernicke, progress has been made in the brain language processing. The knowledge and measurement of brain activity in normal subjects has advanced gracais the incorporation of modern methods of diagnostic imaging: PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). It is expected to go much further with the application of these techniques in experimental models of various neurological diseases and more sophisticated linguistic analysis.
Łuniewska, Magdalena; Haman, Ewa; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Etenkowski, Bartłomiej; Southwood, Frenette; Anđelković, Darinka; Blom, W.B.T.
We present a new set of subjective age-of-acquisition (AoA) ratings for 299 words (158 nouns, 141 verbs) in 25 languages from five language families (Afro-Asiatic: Semitic languages; Altaic: one Turkic language: Indo-European: Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Slavic, and Romance languages;
Maori language education policy documents reflect an underlying ambivalence about the desired outcomes for non-Maori learners participating in "as-a-subject" Maori language learning. The view of the Maori language as a national language may be in the process of being replaced by a view that identifies the language primarily as a cultural…
Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa
reading. If teachers do not know how to teach listening, they require information and skills in this area. Macaro, Graham, and Vanderplank (2007), Rost ...assessment in second language testing: A meta-analysis and analysis of experiential factors. Language Testing, 15, 1-20. Rost , M. (2010). Teaching and...interactions, including those where leadership is required • Can respond effectively to verbal and nonverbal forms of communication • Can
High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr
Derksen, J. A. C.
Introduction of a language for problem solving and specifically robot planning, program verification, and synthesis and theorem proving. This language, called question-answerer 4 (QA4), embodies many features that have been found useful for constructing problem solvers but have to be programmed explicitly by the user of a conventional language. The most important features of QA4 are described, and examples are provided for most of the material introduced. Language features include backtracking, parallel processing, pattern matching, set manipulation, and pattern-triggered function activation. The language is most convenient for use in an interactive way and has extensive trace and edit facilities.
Language proficiency is a crucial factor for immigrants to integrate successfully in the new society in all aspects of life, especially in the labor market. As a result, there is great importance in acquiring the new language as quickly and effectively as possible. Several factors affect second language acquisition, including motivation, age,…
Sandgren, Olof; Holmström, Ketty
The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as language impairment. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including nonlinguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinica...
Langdon, Henriette W.
This article focuses on factors that impact identification of and services for English-language learners (ELLs) with suspected language-learning disabilities. These factors include (a) home and school environments, (b) the school's philosophy, (c) instructional strategies, and (d) other contextual variables that affect language use. In addition,…
López, Francesca; Scanlan, Martin; Gorman, Brenda K.
This study investigated the degree to which the quality of teachers' language modeling contributed to reading achievement for 995 students, both English language learners and native English speakers, across developmental bilingual, dual language, and monolingual English classrooms. Covariates included prior reading achievement, gender, eligibility…
Young, Dolly J.
The responses of four scholars in the field of second language education to questions about language anxiety in second language learners are presented. The four respondents were Stephen Krashen, Alice Omaggio Hadley, Tracy Terrell, and Jennybelle Rardin. The formats of the interviews included telephone interviews on questions presented beforehand,…
This paper aims at investigating the influence of neutral gender words on translating job titles from English language into Arabic Language. This qualitative research includes 20 postgraduate students doing their M.A in Applied Linguistics at the Department of English Language and Literature at Mu'tah University for the academic year 2015/2016.…
Reviews topical and methodological trends in the past 85 years of research on language classrooms in "The Modern Language Journal." Focus is on empirical investigations into oral classroom instruction in post-secondary classes, which include comparisons of language teaching methodology, observational procedures in classrooms, examinations of…
Quinto-Pozos, David; Singleton, Jenny L.; Hauser, Peter C.
This article describes the case of a deaf native signer of American Sign Language (ASL) with a specific language impairment (SLI). School records documented normal cognitive development but atypical language development. Data include school records; interviews with the child, his mother, and school professionals; ASL and English evaluations; and a…
Liddicoat, Anthony J.
Australia's language-in-education policy documents have consistently included references to the place of "culture" in language teaching. This paper seeks to examine how the major national policies conceptualise culture and interculturality in relationship to languages education. For each policy, this study will analyse the language…
Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik
This article has two aims:  to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and  to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....
Metaphors have been the focus of many studies that embrace a wide range of aspects and diverse fields of knowledge given the colossal diversity of work now being undertaken (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff, 1987, 1993; Ortony, 1993; Kövecses, 1990, 2003, 2005, 2010; Gibbs, 2008; Forceville & Urios-Aparisi, 2009). They are no longer restricted to literature or poetry as an ornamental device, but they are present in everyday language including the technical fields. Numerous studies have been car...
Py, Bernard, Ed.
This collection of articles on second language learning includes: "Action, langage et discours. Les fondements d'une psychologie du langage" ("Action, Language, and Discourse. Foundations of a Psychology of Language") (Jean-Paul Bronckart); "Contextes socio-culturels et appropriation des languages secondes: l'apprentissage en milieu social et la…
Judge Louis Harms
Full Text Available Terence McKenna, in Wild Ducks Flying Backwards, said that he did not believe thatthe world is made of quarks or electro-magnetic waves, or stars, or planets, or of anysuch things. ’I believe’ he said, ‘the world is made of language.’ It would have beenmore correct to have said that the world is made of languages, many of them.The subject, Law and Language in a Multilingual Society, raises critical issues notonly for us in this country but also for others because language is part – the greaterpart – of one's culture. A people without a culture is said to be like a zebra withoutstripes. Culture, and not race, nationality, religion or border (natural or political,determines one's identity. As one of the founding fathers of the Afrikaans language,Rev SJ du Toit, wrote in 1891: language is a portrait of the soul and life of a nation;and it mirrors the character and intellectual development of a people (my translation.Unfortunately language tends to divide, more particularly, a multilingual society. Lawis supposed to close the divide but more often than not widens it and is used todeepen divisions. This is because the ruler determines the law and, consequently,the language of the law, in the belief that the use of language can be enforced fromabove. Law and language, like oil and water, do not mix although the former isdependent on the latter.
Połczyńska, Monika; Japardi, Kevin; Curtiss, Susan; Moody, Teena; Benjamin, Christopher; Cho, Andrew; Vigil, Celia; Kuhn, Taylor; Jones, Michael; Bookheimer, Susan
Brain surgery in the language dominant hemisphere remains challenging due to unintended post-surgical language deficits, despite using pre-surgical functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and intraoperative cortical stimulation. Moreover, patients are often recommended not to undergo surgery if the accompanying risk to language appears to be too high. While standard fMRI language mapping protocols may have relatively good predictive value at the group level, they remain sub-optimal on an individual level. The standard tests used typically assess lexico-semantic aspects of language, and they do not accurately reflect the complexity of language either in comprehension or production at the sentence level. Among patients who had left hemisphere language dominance we assessed which tests are best at activating language areas in the brain. We compared grammar tests (items testing word order in actives and passives, wh -subject and object questions, relativized subject and object clauses and past tense marking) with standard tests (object naming, auditory and visual responsive naming), using pre-operative fMRI. Twenty-five surgical candidates (13 females) participated in this study. Sixteen patients presented with a brain tumor, and nine with epilepsy. All participants underwent two pre-operative fMRI protocols: one including CYCLE-N grammar tests (items testing word order in actives and passives, wh-subject and object questions, relativized subject and object clauses and past tense marking); and a second one with standard fMRI tests (object naming, auditory and visual responsive naming). fMRI activations during performance in both protocols were compared at the group level, as well as in individual candidates. The grammar tests generated more volume of activation in the left hemisphere (left/right angular gyrus, right anterior/posterior superior temporal gyrus) and identified additional language regions not shown by the standard tests (e.g., left anterior
Luz Eugenia Aguilar González
Full Text Available The article analyzes some educational policies, pedagogical practices, and the curricular development of primary education in Mexico from the disciplines of Communication/Education. The purpose is to understand that the inclusion of the use of technologies and media literacy in the national curriculum cannot be carried out without diagnoses and prior discussions. These reforms do not guarantee the development of the necessary level of competence needed by the men and women of the 21st century. For these educational reforms to be successful, they should be considered the content of the new curriculum and to eliminate the old educational practices. These reforms must address the present conditions of the country in accordance with an extensive social dialog and a wide social perspective. One can use examples such as the case of Enciclomedia; of the national curriculum evaluation named Enlace; and some contents of the Spanish program to contrast contradictions and successes of the educational policies in the development of democracy in Mexico
Elena Berrón Ruiz; Francisco J. Balsera Gómez; Inés M. Monreal Guerrero
This article aims to describe an experience that was carried out in the first two levels of elementary education in Ear Training courses at the Professional Conservatory of Music in Segovia (Spain). The main objective of the research was to assess whether there is an improvement in 79 students’ memory using different classroom-based educational intervention proposals and if such improvement fosters students’ learning. This research has a constructivist approach and begins by describing the ch...
The extent to which the imaginary or realm of images is construed by Lacan as being the order of identification and a (spurious) sense of unity of the ego or self, is contrasted ... The place and meaning of the enigmatic third register in Lacan's thought, namely the 'real', is also addressed in relation to the question of desire.
psychiatric facilities in Denmark: an outpatient psychiatric long-term treatment clinic and a closed psychiatric ward. The applied methods are participant observation, interviews with patients and professionals and analysis of documents. Employing discursive and narrative approaches, the aim of the project...
Anak Agung Ratna
Full Text Available Evaluation of study of a student is a very important aspect of an educational process. Evaluation is aimed at measuring the level of student understanding of the given lecture materials. Measuring student understanding of the course material, using essay-type exam, is generally used as the evaluation tool. In this essay-type exam, the student has to answer questions using sentences, whereby choices of possible answers are not indicated. The student has to answer the questions with his/her sentences. The answers may vary, since it reflects the student's thoughts of the materials. One of the weaknesses of essay-type exam is the difficulty to grade the answers and it tends to be time consuming. Currently, automatic grading systems that may speed up the grading process, are being developed in many research institutions.The method used to grade, varies zorm one system to another, and one of the popular system is he Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA. LSA is a method of grading essay by extracting words and representing the sentence in the form of mathematical or statistical formulation, from a text with a relatively large number of words. The grade of the essay is determined, by matching the important words to a group of words prepared by the human rater. This paper describes an effort to developed LSA, enhanced with word weighting, word order and the word synonym to improve the accuracy of grading. This system is called SIMPLE. SIMPLE is used to grade answers using bahasa Indonesia. The exam is carried out on-line through the Web. From the experiments conducted, for small classes, the conformity of grade compared to the grade of human rater lies between 69.80 % - 94.64 %, and for medium size classes the conformity lies between 77.18 % - 98.42 % with the human rater. These results are roughly proportional with the result of LSA system, which grade essay given in English.
Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J; Sladek, Ruth M
Background PubMed translations of OvidSP Medline search filters offer searchers improved ease of access. They may also facilitate access to PubMed?s unique content, including citations for the most recently published biomedical evidence. Retrieving this content requires a search strategy comprising natural language terms (?textwords?), rather than Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We describe a reproducible methodology that uses a validated PubMed search filter translation to create a textword...
Gulnara Faritovna Kalganova
Full Text Available This study explores language anxiety which has shown a substantially negative impact on performance. This paper reveals four related levels of language anxiety such as communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, level of language performance, and their correlations with macro and micro social variables like age, gender, bilingual environment.A total 103 male and female English-language learners of the Economic faculty, Federal Kazan University, completed two questionnaires: a background questionnaire and the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale.The results showed that girls experience greater psychological discomfort in the process of foreign language learning; the greatest concern of students is language anxiety in test situations; first-year students as a whole are more susceptible to language anxiety.The task of a teacher is to create a favorable psychological climate in the classroom of a foreign language in order to removing barriers to development and a better perception of the subject matter.
Yan, Jing; Lu, Junfeng; Cheng, Jingliang; Wu, Jinsong; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Chaoyan; Nie, Yunfei; Pang, Beibei; Liu, Xianzhi
To propose a clinically practical and simple fiber tracking method for language pathways, and to explore its feasibility in preoperative planning for brain tumors adjacent to the language cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging was examined in 18 healthy subjects and 13 patients with brain tumors adjacent to the language cortex between December 2013 and June 2014. The associated fibers of language pathways were reconstructed using a commercial software (Syngo workstation). Firstly, the feasibility of fiber tracking method for language pathways in healthy subjects were studied, and then its application was assessed in patients with brain tumors. The anatomic relationship between tumors and the associated fibers was analyzed. By selecting appropriate regions of interest, the associated fibers in the dorsal pathways (superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus, including both direct and indirect pathways) and ventral pathways (uncinate fasciculus, middle longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferiorfronto-occipital fasciculus) were reconstructed in all 18 healthy subjects. In patients with brain tumors, the relationship between the tumors and adjacent associated fibers were divided into two types: adjacent associated fibers could be displaced or separated, and involved the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (n=6), middle longitudinal fasciculus (n=4), uncinate fasciculus (n=3), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (n=3) and inferiorfronto-occipital fasciculus (n=2); alternatively, the adjacent associated fibers were infiltrated or destroyed, and involved the inferiorfronto-occipital fasciculus (n=10), uncinate fasciculus (n=8), middle longitudinal fasciculus (n=5), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (n=4) and superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (n=3). The associated fibers of language pathways could be visualized rapidly and in real-time by fiber tracking technology based on diffusion tensor imaging. This is
Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan
Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.
Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus
Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...
Perniss, Pamela; Thompson, Robin L; Vigliocco, Gabriella
Current views about language are dominated by the idea of arbitrary connections between linguistic form and meaning. However, if we look beyond the more familiar Indo-European languages and also include both spoken and signed language modalities, we find that motivated, iconic form-meaning mappings are, in fact, pervasive in language. In this paper, we review the different types of iconic mappings that characterize languages in both modalities, including the predominantly visually iconic mappings found in signed languages. Having shown that iconic mapping are present across languages, we then proceed to review evidence showing that language users (signers and speakers) exploit iconicity in language processing and language acquisition. While not discounting the presence and importance of arbitrariness in language, we put forward the idea that iconicity need also be recognized as a general property of language, which may serve the function of reducing the gap between linguistic form and conceptual representation to allow the language system to "hook up" to motor, perceptual, and affective experience.
Sinanović, Osman; MRKONJIĆ, ZAMIR; Zukić, Sanela; Vidović, Mirjana; Imamović, Kata
Post-stroke language disorders are frequent and include aphasia, alexia, agraphia and acalculia. There are different definitions of aphasias, but the most widely accepted neurologic and/or neuropsychological definition is that aphasia is a loss or impairment of verbal communication, which occurs as a consequence of brain dysfunction. It manifests as impairment of almost all verbal abilities, e.g., abnormal verbal expression, difficulties in understanding spoken or written language, repetition...
The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of ...
Wilson, Walter W.
This report summarizes a PhD research effort to implement a type of logic programming language called "axiomatic language". Axiomatic language is intended as a specification language, so its implementation involves the transformation of specifications to efficient algorithms. The language is described and the implementation task is discussed.
Oostdam, R.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert
Towards Strategic Language Learning is the result of extensive research in the relationship between mother tongue education and foreign language learning. As language skills that are taught during native language lessons are applied in foreign language performance as well, it is vital that curricula
Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.
BATESON, MARY CATHERINE
EACH VOLUME IN THE CENTER FOR APPLIED LINGUISTICS LANGUAGE HANDBOOK SERIES, WHICH ENCOMPASSES THE MAJOR MODERN LANGUAGES OF ASIA AND AFRICA, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE AN OUTLINE OF THE SALIENT FEATURES OF A PARTICULAR LANGUAGE AND A SUMMARY OF THE LANGUAGE SITUATION AND LANGUAGE PROBLEMS OF THE COUNTRY OR AREA IN WHICH IT IS SPOKEN. THE ARABIC…
Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva
This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…
Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana
The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.
Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard
This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…