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Sample records for subjects decreased trunk

  1. Factor structure of trunk performance data for healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Kuo, C

    2000-05-01

    To examine the factor structure of various measurements of trunk muscle performance for healthy subjects. A total of 22 performance scores were collected and their univariate and multi-variate relationships were examined. Extensive literature exists on the measurement of trunk performance data and the relationships between measurements but what needs to be collected to realize a true performance score remains unclear. Trunk muscle performance scores of 150 subjects (71 males and 79 females) were obtained on an Isostation B-200 Dynamometer. Twenty-two parameters measuring range of motion, isometric strength, velocity, and endurance on all three planes of motion were collected. The factor structures were constructed using Principal Components Analysis. Clear-cut factor patterns (explained 96.3% of the total variance) suggests that the five-factor structure might be valid and appropriate for this population. The major loading on each factor indicated that: Factor 1 could be labeled as a static strength measure; Factor 2 as velocity; Factor 3 as flexibility; and Factors 4 and 5 as fatigue-resistance. No single mode of measurement can provide a good representation of a total trunk muscle performance. RelevanceFor the realization of trunk muscle performance, clinics have to measure all modes of isometric strength, velocity, range of motion, and endurance. Care must be taken in eliminating any parameter.

  2. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  3. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    OpenAIRE

    Han Suk Lee; Hyung Kuk Chung; Sun Wook Park

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation...

  4. A biomechanical analysis of trunk and pelvis motion during gait in subjects with knee osteoarthritis compared to control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Heather S; Sled, Elizabeth A; Culham, Elsie G; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2010-12-01

    Trunk lean over the stance limb during gait has been linked to a reduction in the knee adduction moment, which is associated with joint loading. We examined differences in knee adduction moments and frontal plane trunk lean during gait between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and a control group of healthy adults. Gait analysis was performed on 80 subjects (40 osteoarthritis). To define lateral trunk lean two definitions were used. The line connecting the midpoint between two reference points on the pelvis and the midpoint between the acromion processes was projected onto the lab frontal plane and the pelvis frontal plane. Pelvic tilt was also measured in the frontal plane as the angle between the pelvic and lab coordinate systems. Angles were calculated across the stance phase of gait. We analyzed the data, (i) by extracting discrete parameters (mean and peak) waveform values, and (ii) using principal component analysis to extract shape and magnitude differences between the waveforms. Osteoarthritis subjects had a higher knee adduction moment than the control group (α=0.05). Although the discrete parameters for trunk lean did not show differences between groups, principal component analysis did detect characteristic waveform differences between the control and osteoarthritis groups. A thorough biomechanical analysis revealed small differences in the pattern of motion of the pelvis and the trunk between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and control subjects; however these differences were only detectable using principal component analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP. Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p<0.05. If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p=0.026. However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  6. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  8. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  9. Assessment of effects of differences in trunk posture during Fowler’s position on hemodynamics and cardiovascular regulation in older and younger subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Kubota,1 Yutaka Endo,1 Mitsue Kubota,1 Tomohiko Shigemasa2 1School of Nursing and Rehabilitation Sciences at Odawara, International University of Health and Welfare, Odawara, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Cardiology, International University of Health and Welfare Atami Hospital, Atami, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Downward shifts in blood volume with changing position generally cause tachycardic responses. Age-related decreases in vagal nerve activity could contribute to orthostatic hypotension in older individuals. Fowler’s position is a reclined position with the back between 30° and 60°, used to facilitate breathing, eating, and other routine daily activities in frail and elderly patients. Objective: This study examined whether stroke volume (SV was higher and heart rate (HR lower in Fowler’s position with an upright upper trunk than in Fowler’s position with the whole trunk upright in both older and younger subjects, based on the assumption that lower HR would result from reduced sympathetic activation in older individuals. Methods: We assessed hemodynamics and HR variability from electrocardiography, noninvasive arterial pressure and impedance cardiography in 11 younger male subjects (age range, 20–22 years and 11 older male subjects (age range, 64–79 years, using three positions: supine, or Fowler’s positions with either 30° of lower trunk inclination and 60° of upper trunk inclination (UT60 or 60° of whole trunk inclination (WT60. Comparisons were then made between age groups and between positions. Results: Reductions in SV and tachycardic response were smaller with UT60 than with WT60, in both younger and older subjects. In addition, reduced tachycardic response with upright upper trunk appeared attributable to decreased vagal withdrawal in younger subjects and to reduced sympathetic activation in older subjects. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an upright upper trunk during Fowler’s position allowed

  10. A kinematic analysis for shoulder and pelvis coordination during axial trunk rotation in subjects with and without recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of the shoulder and pelvis based on range of motion (ROM), angular velocity, and relative phase (RP) values during trunk axial rotation. Nineteen subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP) and 19 age-matched control subjects who are all right limb dominant participated in this study. All participants were asked to perform axial trunk rotation activities at a self-selected speed to the end of maximum range in a standing position. The outcome measures included ROM, angular velocity, and RP on the shoulder and pelvis in the transverse plane and were analyzed based on the demographic characteristics between groups. The LBP group demonstrated decreased ROM (p=0.02) and angular velocity (p=0.02) for the pelvis; however, there was no group difference for the shoulder girdle. The ROM difference between the shoulder and pelvic transverse planes had a significant interaction with age (F=14.75, p=0.001). The LBP group demonstrated a higher negative correlation between the shoulder (r=-0.74, p=0.001) and pelvis (r=-0.72, p=0.001) as age increased while no significant correlations were found in the control group. The results of this study indicated that there was a difference in pelvic rotation in the transverse plane between groups during axial trunk rotation. It would be important to coordinate postural stability between the shoulder and pelvic girdles during ambulation; however, the pattern of trunk movement decreased with age due to possible pelvic stiffness in subjects with recurrent LBP. Therefore, improved pelvic flexibility for coordinated trunk movement patterns would help subjects with recurrent LBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental low back pain decreased trunk muscle activity in currently asymptomatic recurrent low back pain patients during step tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients demonstrate reorganized trunk muscle activity but if similar changes are manifest in recurrent LBP patients (R-LBP) during asymptomatic periods remains unknown. In 26 healthy and 27 currently asymptomatic R-LBP participants electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded...... experimental NRS scores were higher (Ppain conditions (Ppain decreased Delta-RMS-EMG in m. iliocostalis and bilateral pain decreased Delta-RMS-EMG in all back and gluteal muscles during step tasks...... from trunk and gluteal muscles during series of stepping up and down on a step bench before and during experimentally intramuscular induced unilateral and bilateral LBP. Pain intensity was assessed by numeric rating scale (NRS) scores. Root-mean-square EMG (RMS-EMG) normalized to maximal voluntary...

  12. Spino-pelvic-rhythm with forward trunk bending in normal subjects without low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Sairyo, Koichi; Hada, Yasushi; Dezawa, Akira; Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2014-07-01

    A strong correlation between low back pain and tight hamstrings has been reported. However, the effect of tight hamstrings on spinal biomechanics remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate spino-pelvic-rhythm during forward bending of the trunk and to clarify the rhythm features with regard to hamstrings tightness. Eighteen healthy male adults with no history of low back pain volunteered to participate. First, we measured the finger-to-floor distance (FFD) in the upright position and set this parameter to 100 %. Using a spinal mouse, spinal alignment was measured in the following four positions: (1) upright posture—100 % FFD; (2) forward bending—50 % FFD; (3) forward bending—25 % FFD; and (4) forward bending—0 % FFD (fingers in contact with the floor). Changes of the angle of the thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the pelvis were calculated. As an indicator of tight hamstrings, we measured straight leg raising (SLR) angle. From positions 1–2 (phase I), the entire spino-pelvic angle moved in 104°. During this phase, the lumbar spine mainly moved. In the second phase (positions 2–3), it moved in 16°. Interestingly, all but 2 subjects showed a negative angle in the thoracic motion, meaning that the thoracic spine extended 4° during trunk flexion, thus exhibiting paradoxical motion. During this phase, lumbopelvic rhythm showed 2 patterns. In 7 subjects, pelvic motion was greater than lumbar motion, while the remaining subjects showed the opposite. In subjects without tight hamstrings, 83 % showed a pelvis-dominant pattern. Only 7 subjects were capable of position 4. During this phase, only slight motion was noted in the spine, and the majority of the motion occurred in the pelvis. Lumbar and pelvic motion correlated negatively in all phases. SLR angle and pelvic motion correlated strongly during phase III, indicating dominant pelvic movement in flexible subjects. The lumbo-pelvic-rhythm comprises 2 patterns—lumbar dominant and

  13. Bicycle saddle pressure: effects of trunk position and saddle design on healthy subjects.

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    Carpes, Felipe Pivetta; Dagnese, Frederico; Kleinpaul, Julio Francisco; Martins, Elisandro de Assis; Mota, Carlos Bolli

    2009-01-01

    There is a common belief that seat pressure during cycling can compress specific neurovascular tissues over the perineum leading to genital pathologies. This topic has seldom been discussed for women. The present study was conducted to verify the effect of trunk position and saddle design on saddle pressure in both men and women. Recreational cyclists (11 men and 11 women) were evaluated while seated on a bicycle. Saddle pressure was measured with F-scan insoles adapted for two saddle models (with and without a hole), and two trunk positions (upright and forwards). Pressure values were compared between trunk positions and saddles employing ANOVA. There were no statistical differences comparing saddle pressure between the two trunk positions for women. For men a statistical difference between the trunk positions for the saddle with a hole was found. Thus, the trunk forwards shift seems to affect the values of saddle pressure only for men using the 'holed' saddle. Saddle pressure for men was influenced by saddle design and trunk position only. This result indicates that the masculine anatomy may influence saddle pressure during bicycle. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Assessment of the strength of the trunk and upper limb muscles in stroke subjects with portable dynamometry: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Júlia Caetano; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Souza, Lucas Araújo Castro e; Lara, Eliza Maria; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Clinical measurements of strength in stroke subjects are usually performed and portable dynamometers are one of the most employed instruments. Objective To verify the standardization procedures of the methods used to assess the strength of the trunk and upper limb muscles with portable dynamometers in stroke subjects, as well as to assess the psychometric properties which were already investigated. Materials and methods An extensive search was performed on the MEDLINE, SciELO, LI...

  15. The effect of pilates exercise on trunk and postural stability and throwing velocity in college baseball pitchers: single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tony; Howe, Katherine

    2007-02-01

    Baseball pitchers need trunk strength to maximize performance. The Pilates method of exercise is gaining popularity throughout the country as a fitness and rehabilitation method of exercise. However, very few studies exist that examine the effects of the Pilates method of exercise on trunk strength or performance. Using a single subject, multiple baseline across subjects design, this study examines the effects of the Pilates method of exercise on performance of double leg lowering, star excursion balance test, and throwing velocity in college-aged baseball pitchers. A convenience sample of three college baseball pitchers served as the subjects for this single subject design study. For each subject, double leg lowering, star excursion balance test, and throwing speed were measured prior to the introduction of the intervention. When baseline test values showed consistent performance, the intervention was introduced to one subject at a time. Intervention was introduced to the other subjects over a period of 4 weeks as they also demonstrated consistent performance on the baseline tests. Intervention was continued with periodic tests for the remainder of the 10 week trial. Each subject improved in performance on double leg lowering (increased 24.43-32.7%) and star excursion balance test (increased 4.63-17.84%) after introduction of the intervention. Throwing speed improved in two of the three subjects (up to 5.61%). The Pilates method of exercise may contribute to improved performance in double leg lowering, star excursion balance tests, and throwing speed in college baseball pitchers.

  16. Spinal loads and trunk muscles forces during level walking - A combined in vivo and in silico study on six subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Rizwan; Angelini, Lorenza; Zander, Thomas; Di Puccio, Francesca; El-Rich, Marwan; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2017-08-26

    During level walking, lumbar spine is subjected to cyclic movements and intricate loading of the spinal discs and trunk musculature. This study aimed to estimate the spinal loads (T12-S1) and trunk muscles forces during a complete gait cycle. Six men, 24-33years walk barefoot at self-selected speed (4-5km/h). 3D kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using a motion capturing system and two force plates, implemented in an inverse dynamic musculoskeletal model to predict the spinal loads and trunk muscles forces. Additionally, the sensitivity of the intra-abdominal pressure and lumbar segment rotational stiffness was investigated. Peak spinal loads and trunk muscle forces were between the gait instances of heel strike and toe off. In L4-L5 segment, sensitivity analysis showed that average peak compressive, antero-posterior and medio-lateral shear forces were 130-179%, 2-15% and 1-6%, with max standard deviation (±STD) of 40%, 6% and 3% of the body weight. Average peak global muscles forces were 24-55% (longissimus thoracis), 11-23% (iliocostalis thoracis), 12-16% (external oblique), 17-25% (internal oblique) and 0-8% (rectus abdominus) of body weight whereas, the average peak local muscles forces were 11-19% (longissimus lumborum), 14-31% (iliocostalis lumborum) and 12-17% (multifidus). Maximum±STD of the global and local muscles forces were 13% and 8% of the body weight. Large inter-individual differences were found in peak compressive and trunk muscles forces whereas the sensitivity analysis also showed a substantial variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trunk stabilization during sagittal pelvic tilt: from trunk-on-pelvis to trunk-in-space due to vestibular and visual feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drunen, Paul; van der Helm, Frans C T; van Dieën, Jaap H; Happee, Riender

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the human ability to stabilize the trunk in space during pelvic tilt. Upper body sway was evoked in kneeling-seated healthy subjects by angular platform perturbations with a rotation around a virtual low-back pivot point between the L4 and L5 vertebrae. To investigate motor control modulation, variations in task instruction (balance naturally or minimize trunk sway), vision (eyes open or closed), and perturbation bandwidth (from 0.2 up to 1, 3, or 10 Hz) were applied. Cocontraction and proprioceptive muscle spindle feedback were associated with minimizing low-back flexion/extension (trunk-on-pelvis stabilization), while vestibular and visual feedback were supposed to contribute to trunk-in-space stabilization. Trunk-in-space stabilization was only observed with the minimize trunk sway task instruction, while the task instruction to balance naturally led to trunk-on-pelvis stabilization with trunk rotations even exceeding the perturbations. This indicates that vestibular feedback is used when minimizing trunk sway but has only a minor contribution during natural trunk stabilization in the sagittal plane. The eyes open condition resulted in reduced global trunk rotations and increased global trunk reflexive responses, demonstrating effective visual contributions to trunk-in-space stabilization. On the other hand, increasing perturbation bandwidth caused a decreased feedback contribution leading to deteriorated trunk-in-space stabilization. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Trunk and pelvic coordination at various walking speeds during an anterior load carriage task in subjects with and without chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tackhoon; Chai, Eunsu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the coordination patterns of the trunk and pelvis in the transverse plane between healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain during an anterior load carriage task at various walking speeds. [Subjects] Ten healthy subjects and 10 patients with chronic low back pain performed an anterior carriage task with a load of 10% body weight at walking speeds of 3.5, 4.5, or 5.5?km/h. [Methods] The trunk and pelvic kinematics were measured by using a motion ana...

  19. Ignition of wood subjected to the decreasing radiant energy flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. T.; Filkov, A. I.; Isaev, Yu N.; Guk, V. O.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we analyze the ignition of wood samples subjected to the decreasing heat flow. The experimental setup was created on the base of the optical wave "Uran-1". The intensity of the heat flow was changed during the experiment by moving the test sample along the optical axis of the elliptic reflector in the setup. Pine wood was used as the test samples. We received the delay times for ignition of pine wood during heating by the decreasing heat flow. The received data were compared with the data for a static heat flow.

  20. The influence of specific training on trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy subjects during stabilization exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Veerle K; Coorevits, Pascal L; Bouche, Katie G; Mahieu, Nele N; Vanderstraeten, Guy G; Danneels, Lieven A

    2007-08-01

    Low back pain is a major problem involving high medical costs, therefore effective prevention strategies are essential. Stabilization exercises seem to facilitate the neuromuscular control of the lumbar spine and may be useful in prevention programs. To investigate whether specific lumbar stabilization training has an effect on muscle recruitment patterns in a healthy population, in the present study 30 subjects were recruited to perform two types of testing exercises, i.e. bridging exercises and exercises in four-point kneeling, both before and after training. Surface electromyographic data of different abdominal and back muscles were obtained. After training, analysis of the relative muscle activity levels (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction) showed a higher activity of the local (segmental-stabilizing) abdominal muscles, but not of the local back muscles; minimal changes in global (torque-producing) muscle activity also occurred. Analysis of the local/global relative muscle activity ratios revealed higher ratios during all exercises after training, although not all differences were significant. These results indicate that muscle recruitment patterns can be changed in healthy subjects by means of a training program that focuses on neuromuscular control. Additional studies are needed to evaluate this type of training as a prevention strategy.

  1. The effect of lifting and lowering an external load on repositioning error of trunk flexion-extension in subjects with and without low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang Hua; Sun, Ming Hui

    2006-07-01

    To determine whether the repositioning error of trunk flexion-extension in individuals with low back pain is different from that in those not experiencing low back pain when lifting and lowering external loads. A case-control study. Physical therapy department of a medical centre. Twenty subjects with subacute low back pain and 20 control subjects without low back pain. Tasks with and without lifting and lowering an external load. The trunk repositioning errors were measured with Measurand Shape Tape. In subjects with low back pain, trunk repositioning errors were significantly reduced when lifting and lowering an external load in the direction of flexion (3.77 +/- 1.26 degrees in a loaded condition versus 4.82 +/- 2.97 degrees in an unloaded condition; P loaded condition versus 5.03 +/- 3.74 degrees in an unloaded condition; P external load in the direction of flexion (2.80 +/- 1.39 degrees in a loaded condition versus 2.63 +/- 1.24 degrees in an unloaded condition; P > 0.05) and extension (2.87 +/- 11.40 degrees in a loaded condition versus 3.15 +/- 11.50 degrees in an unloaded condition; P > 0.05). The direction of motion (trunk flexion or extension) was not shown to be significant in this study. Performing the task whilst lifting or lowering a submaximal load showed a reduced trunk repositioning error in subjects with subacute low back pain. Lifting and lowering a submaximal load might be considered as one of the rehabilitative strategies to hasten a return to work.

  2. Electromyographic activity of erector spinae and external oblique muscles during trunk lateral bending and axial rotation in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahpour, Nader; Younesian, Hananeh; Bahrpeyma, Farid

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze electrical activity of trunk muscles in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients and healthy subjects during trunk lateral bending and rotation movements. Ten patients with right thoracic scoliosis [Cobb angle: 29.1° (10.4°)] and 10 control adolescents were studied. Electrical activities of erector spinae muscle at 6th and 10th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebral level, and external oblique muscles were measured bilaterally during the right and left bending from standing and prone positions, and trunk rotation in sitting position. In trunk rotation to the right, the right-side external oblique (antagonist) muscle in scoliosis group was greater than that in control group (pscoliosis group, the antagonistic activity of EST6 muscle was greater than its agonistic activity (pscoliosis group was higher than that of control group (p=0.02). During the left bending from prone position, right-side EST6 and right-side ESL3 muscles of scoliosis group were greater than that of control group (pscoliosis group, the greater antagonistic activity of erector spinae muscle at 6th thoracic vertebral level than its agonistic activity, indicates that scoliosis is associated with asymmetrical muscle activity. Lateral bending from standing position is appropriate test to distinguish between scoliosis and control subjects. In scoliosis, the asymmetrical muscle activity is not an inherent characteristic since it was not displayed in all back motions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased fibularis reflex response during inversion perturbations in FAI subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Matthew S; Docherty, Carrie L; Riley, Zachary A

    2014-02-01

    Investigate reflex responses in muscles throughout the lower limb and low back during sudden inversion perturbations in individuals with and without Functional Ankle Instability (FAI) while walking. Forty subjects participated in the study. Surface electromyogram recordings were obtained from the fibularis (FIB), gluteus medius (GM), erector spinae (ES), and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) of the injured/matched side as well as the uninjured/matched contralateral side (FIB_CLS, GM_CLS, or ES_CLS). Latency and amplitude data were collected while subjects were walking on a custom-built perturbation walkway. The onset of the short-latency stretch reflex of the FIB was significantly later in the injured side of the FAI individuals when compared to the control group (P=0.009). Both the short and long latency reflex amplitude was significantly smaller in the FIB muscle in the FAI group than in the control group (P.05). Interpretation of these results indicate that during a dynamic perturbation task individuals with FAI demonstrate longer fibularis muscle latencies on the injured side while no significant changes in the proximal muscle groups. Additionally, short and long latency reflex amplitude was significantly decreased in FAI individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreased task duration and unchanged trunk muscle activity in low-back pain patients during stair climbing after back extensor muscle fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    recording during 10 concurrent stair steps pre / post lumbar extensor muscle exhaustion. Duration of gait tasks were shorter in LBP patients generally and longer during load and shorter during transfer in descend stepping after back extensor fatigue. Back extensor fatigue resulted in higher back......- and abdominal muscle activity in healthy than in patients in most phases, but during descend transfer patients activity decreased. In LBP patients back extensor fatigue resulted in decreased muscular activity in the trunk muscles during stair stepping compared to healthy. Decreased duration of the motor tasks......Low-back pain (LBP) is a major problem. Spine control and stability mechanisms are important but the knowledge of these parameters in functions is sparse. 7 healthy / 5 recurrent mild-to-moderate LBP patients participated in assessment of abdominal, lumbar and gluteal muscles' surface EMG and video...

  5. Incorporation of CT-based measurements of trunk anatomy into subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the spine influences vertebral loading predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Alexander G; Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Allaire, Brett T; Velie, Kelsey R; De Paolis Kaluza, M Clara; Anderson, Dennis E; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2017-10-01

    We created subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the thoracolumbar spine by incorporating spine curvature and muscle morphology measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans to determine the degree to which vertebral compressive and shear loading estimates are sensitive to variations in trunk anatomy. We measured spine curvature and trunk muscle morphology using spine CT scans of 125 men, and then created four different thoracolumbar spine models for each person: (i) height and weight adjusted (Ht/Wt models); (ii) height, weight, and spine curvature adjusted (+C models); (iii) height, weight, and muscle morphology adjusted (+M models); and (iv) height, weight, spine curvature, and muscle morphology adjusted (+CM models). We determined vertebral compressive and shear loading at three regions of the spine (T8, T12, and L3) for four different activities. Vertebral compressive loads predicted by the subject-specific CT-based musculoskeletal models were between 54% lower to 45% higher from those estimated using musculoskeletal models adjusted only for subject height and weight. The impact of subject-specific information on vertebral loading estimates varied with the activity and spinal region. Vertebral loading estimates were more sensitive to incorporation of subject-specific spinal curvature than subject-specific muscle morphology. Our results indicate that individual variations in spine curvature and trunk muscle morphology can have a major impact on estimated vertebral compressive and shear loads, and thus should be accounted for when estimating subject-specific vertebral loading. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2164-2173, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of pelvic and lower extremity differences during trunk rotation in subjects with and without chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ah Young; Jo, Hang Jin; Sung, Paul S; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2012-06-01

    To investigate three-dimensional angular changes of the pelvis and lower extremities during trunk axial rotation in subjects with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). Repeated-measures design. Thirty volunteers participated in the study (15 with LBP, 15 without LBP). The mean age of the subjects was 44 (standard deviation 15.8) years (range 27 to 63 years). All participants were asked to perform five sets of axial trunk rotation activities with a bar in a standing position. The outcome measures included three-dimensional rotational angles of the pelvis and lower extremities (foot, calf and thigh). The angular change of the pelvis in the sagittal plane differed between subjects with and without LBP (P=0.03). There were no significant differences in angular changes of the lower extremities in the frontal and transverse planes between groups. The angular change of the pelvis in the sagittal plane differed significantly between groups. Further research is needed to investigate the three-dimensional characteristics of biomechanical and neuromuscular aspects in subjects with LBP. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural analysis of tree trunks and branches: tapered cantilever beams subject to large deflections under complex loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J; Cannell, M G

    1987-12-01

    The dimensions, deflections and support costs of tree trunks and branches can be deduced using the structural theory for cantilever beams. However, elementary theory applies only as long as deflections are small, and complex analytical solutions are required to account for complex taper and patterns of loading. This paper describes a method that copes with large deflections, any patterns of taper, and any patterns of distributed loading, point loading or externally applied bending moments. A beam is considered to be composed of a series of short segments, such that each has only a small deflection, and each can have specified dimensions, Young's modulus and loading. The transport matrix method of structural analysis is used to determine the end conditions of each segment and of the whole beam. The method is verified by comparing predicted deflections with deflections (a) calculated using an analytical solution by Bisshopp and Drucker (1945), (b) calculated and measured for sapling tree trunks by Leiser and Kemper (1968), and (c) measured on tapered and untapered plastic rods.

  8. Training can modify back muscle response to sudden trunk loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jørgensen, Kurt; Fallentin, Nils

    2004-10-01

    Sudden, unexpected loading to the trunk has been reported in the literature as a potential cause of low-back disorders. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of "readiness training" on the response to sudden back loading among untrained healthy individuals. The study included 19 participants and 19 matched controls. All were employees at the National Institute of Occupational Health. The participants received ten 45-min training sessions during a 4-week period. The training focused on reactions to a variety of expected and unexpected sudden trunk loadings, including balance and coordination exercises. Before and after the training, all subjects were tested for reaction to sudden trunk loading (SL). This entailed applying a horizontal force of 58 N to the subject's upper back. Elapsed time--measured between SL and stopping--decreased significantly in the training group (from 337 to 311 ms) compared with the control group. The improved stopping time was associated with a changed EMG signal, characterized by an increase in the early parts of the response (up to 225 ms) and a subsequent decrease. EMG onset latency was unaffected by training. This study is apparently one of the first to demonstrate that the response to sudden trunk loading can be improved in healthy subjects without an increase in pre-activation and associated trunk stiffness. In perspective, the results indicate a possibility for a training-induced reduction of the risk of low-back injuries, e.g., in nurses exposed to sudden trunk perturbations during patient handling.

  9. Effect of trunk sagittal attitude on shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics in able-bodied subjects during gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Leardini

    Full Text Available It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during gait due to this sagittal inclination attitude. Thirty young healthy volunteers were analyzed during level walking with video-based motion analysis. Reflecting markers were mounted on anatomical landmarks to form a two-marker shoulder line segment, and a four-marker thorax and pelvis segments. Absolute and relative spatial rotations were calculated, for a total of 11 degrees of freedom. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 according to the median of mean thorax inclination angle over the gait cycle. Preliminary MANOVA analysis assessed whether gender was an independent variable. Then two-factor nested ANOVA was used to test the possible effect of thorax inclination on body segments, planes of motion and gait periods, separately. There was no significant difference in all anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters between the two groups, except for subject mass. The three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax and pelvis were not affected by gender. Nested ANOVA revealed group effect in all segment rotations apart those at the pelvis, in the sagittal and frontal planes, and at the push-off. Attitudes in sagittal thorax inclination altered trunk segments kinematics during gait. Subjects with a backward thorax showed less thorax-to-pelvis motion, but more shoulder-to-thorax and thorax-to-laboratory motion, less motion in flexion/extension and in lateral bending, and also less motion during push-off. This contributes to the understanding of forward propulsion and sideways load transfer mechanisms, fundamental for the maintenance of balance and the risk of falling.

  10. Effect of trunk sagittal attitude on shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics in able-bodied subjects during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardini, Alberto; Berti, Lisa; Begon, Mickaël; Allard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during gait due to this sagittal inclination attitude. Thirty young healthy volunteers were analyzed during level walking with video-based motion analysis. Reflecting markers were mounted on anatomical landmarks to form a two-marker shoulder line segment, and a four-marker thorax and pelvis segments. Absolute and relative spatial rotations were calculated, for a total of 11 degrees of freedom. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 according to the median of mean thorax inclination angle over the gait cycle. Preliminary MANOVA analysis assessed whether gender was an independent variable. Then two-factor nested ANOVA was used to test the possible effect of thorax inclination on body segments, planes of motion and gait periods, separately. There was no significant difference in all anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters between the two groups, except for subject mass. The three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax and pelvis were not affected by gender. Nested ANOVA revealed group effect in all segment rotations apart those at the pelvis, in the sagittal and frontal planes, and at the push-off. Attitudes in sagittal thorax inclination altered trunk segments kinematics during gait. Subjects with a backward thorax showed less thorax-to-pelvis motion, but more shoulder-to-thorax and thorax-to-laboratory motion, less motion in flexion/extension and in lateral bending, and also less motion during push-off. This contributes to the understanding of forward propulsion and sideways load transfer mechanisms, fundamental for the maintenance of balance and the risk of falling.

  11. Lower trunk muscle activity-induced alignment and cop position during single-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kenichi; Kanai, Shigeyuki; Tsujita, Junzo; Hirakawa, Kazufumi; Okada, Shuichi

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify fundamental changes induced by lower trunk muscle contraction during single-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy normal males participated in this study. All subjects could accurately perform lower trunk muscle contraction-type Abdominal Expansion (AE), Abdominal Bracing (AB), and Abdominal Cave-in (AC). The alignment and position of the center of foot pressure (COP) during single-leg standing with SLR and step position after rotating the body from single-leg standing with maximum SLR were measured in each lower trunk muscle contraction type. [Results] When AC was performed during single-leg standing with SLR, the SLR angle increased, COP shifted backward, and the posterior tilt angle of the trunk and cross step distance decreased. [Conclusion] It was assumed that AC during wind-up increases the angle of lower limb elevation and decreases the posterior tilt angle of the trunk and cross step distance.

  12. TRUNK FUNCTION IN HEMIPLEGIC PATIENTS KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF TRUNK BENDING AND GAIT PERFORMANCE

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    FumikoKamijo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trunk function is considered important for stroke patients in rehabilitation, but the significance of this factoris unclear. In this study, we examined trunk function, defined as the ability to keep the trunk stable against gravity during movement. In addition, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between gait performance and trunk function. Methods: The subjects were 14 hemiplegic men and 20 healthy elderly men. Movement was assessed by a three-dimensional motion analysis system focusing on the trunk. The trunk was divided into three parts: the pelvis, the middle trunk, and the upper trunk. The parameters assessed were static standing, anterior tilt of the trunk in the standing position, and gait. We examined the relationship of each of these trunk movement factors with gait speed. All data was analyzed using SPSS program version 21 (p < 0.05. Results: Comparing data of hemiplegic patients to that of normal subjects, during trunk bending, a large rotation angle toward the non-affected side was found and that toward the affected side of the middle trunk at the toe off time of the affected limb during gait was found in hemiplegic patients (p < 0.01. The degrees of both rotation angles were related to the gait performance. Conclusion: The movement of the middle trunk during bending in hemiplegic patients affected gait performance. The results indicated that gravity and movements of lower limbs easily affected the middle trunk. This is an important factor to consider in the rehabilitation of hemiplegic patients.

  13. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  14. Theta power decreases in preparation for voluntary isometric contractions performed with maximal subjective effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, T; Sust, M; Beyer, L; Hansen, E; Rost, R; Schmalz, T

    1995-07-07

    In order to find EEG parameters that can be attributed to movements performed with maximal subjective effort, EEG recordings and force measurements were realized in connection with isometric contractions (IMC). IMC were performed with submaximal and maximal subjective effort. Mean spectral power density within the theta band was found as an indicator for maximal subjective effort. The theta power across the parieto-occipital area decreases from rest through movements performed with submaximal force to movements performed with maximal effort. It is argued that this theta decrease possibly reflects a down-regulation of the posterior attention system in order to minimize the influences of external stimuli during the preparation for voluntary IMC performed with maximal subjective effort.

  15. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  16. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  17. Trunk muscle response to various protocols of lumbar traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; Lee, Angela S; Reeves, N Peter; Calle, Elizabeth A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activity, spinal decompression force, and trunk flexibility resulting from various protocols of spinal traction. Four experiments explored the effects of (1) sinusoidal, triangular, square, and continuous distraction-force waveforms, (2) 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees of pull angle, (3) superimposed low, medium and high frequency force oscillations, and (4) sham traction. Nineteen healthy subjects volunteered for this study. Surface EMG was recorded during traction and later used in a biomechanical model to estimate spine decompression force. Trunk flexibility was measured before and after each treatment. There were no differences in muscle activity between any of the experimental conditions except the thoracic erector spinae muscle, which had lower EMG during continuous compared to sinusoidal distraction-force waveform (p=0.02). Thoracic and lumbar erector spinae muscles were significantly less active during sham than real traction (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). The estimated L4-L5 spine compression force was 25N. Trunk flexibility decreased after each experimental session (p=0.01), and there were no differences between sessions. Our results suggest that the trunk muscle activity is minimal and point toward fluid exchange in the disc as one of the key biomechanical effects of spinal traction.

  18. Longitudinal Lung Function Decrease in Subjects with Spontaneous Healed Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Heon; Kwon, Amy M; Yang, Hae-Chung; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Young; Choi, Jong Hyun; Kim, Je Hyeong; Shin, Chol

    2016-01-01

    We compared the longitudinal course of post-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (pFEV1) over a 10-year period in subjects with spontaneous healed pulmonary tuberculosis (SHPTB) with that in normal subjects. We prospectively investigated 339 subjects with SHPTB and 3211 normal subjects. pFEV1 values measured biannually over 10 years were analyzed using mixed effects model. At baseline, there were no differences in gender, smoking amount, and mean height, except mean age (50.0 ± 8.1 VS. 48.1 ± 7.3, P< 0.001) between the SHPTB and normal group. 52% of the 339 participants with SHPTB and 56% of the 3211 normal participants participated till the end of study. According to the final model, the SHPTB group showed significantly larger decrease in the average pFEV1 over the time than the normal group (P< 0.001) adjusted for gender, age, height, smoking pack years, and time effects. Especially, the interaction effect between time and group was statistically significant (P = 0.036). The average lung function in terms of pFEV1 decreases faster in subjects with SHPTB than in normal individuals over time.

  19. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  20. Decreased basal ganglia activation in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome: association with symptoms of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Miller

    Full Text Available Reduced basal ganglia function has been associated with fatigue in neurologic disorders, as well as in patients exposed to chronic immune stimulation. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have been shown to exhibit symptoms suggestive of decreased basal ganglia function including psychomotor slowing, which in turn was correlated with fatigue. In addition, CFS patients have been found to exhibit increased markers of immune activation. In order to directly test the hypothesis of decreased basal ganglia function in CFS, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural activation in the basal ganglia to a reward-processing (monetary gambling task in a community sample of 59 male and female subjects, including 18 patients diagnosed with CFS according to 1994 CDC criteria and 41 non-fatigued healthy controls. For each subject, the average effect of winning vs. losing during the gambling task in regions of interest (ROI corresponding to the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus was extracted for group comparisons and correlational analyses. Compared to non-fatigued controls, patients with CFS exhibited significantly decreased activation in the right caudate (p = 0.01 and right globus pallidus (p = 0.02. Decreased activation in the right globus pallidus was significantly correlated with increased mental fatigue (r2 = 0.49, p = 0.001, general fatigue (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.01 and reduced activity (r2 = 0.29, p = 0.02 as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. No such relationships were found in control subjects. These data suggest that symptoms of fatigue in CFS subjects were associated with reduced responsivity of the basal ganglia, possibly involving the disruption of projections from the globus pallidus to thalamic and cortical networks.

  1. Decreased muscle mass in Korean subjects with intracranial arterial stenosis: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Jung; Jung, Hwanseok; Lee, Taeyoung; Kim, Jongho; Park, Jongsin; Kim, Hacsoo; Cho, Junghwan; Lee, Won-Young; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Hyung-Geun

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians. Decreased muscle mass is one of the major causes of chronic disease in adults. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between muscle mass and ICAS in Korean adults. For this study, we selected a total of 10,530 participants (mean age, 43.3 years; 8558 men) in a health screening program, for whom transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was used to detect >50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the stroke outcomes and neuroimaging of intracranial atherosclerosis trial. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated with muscle mass/weight (kg) * 100. Among the total patient population, 322 (3.1%) subjects had ICAS. Subjects with ICAS were older, and had higher mean values for fasting glucose, body mass index and blood pressure compared with those without ICAS. Subjects with ICAS had significantly lower muscle mass, SMI and higher percent body fat compared with those without ICAS. In logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the highest tertile of muscle mass had the lowest odds ratio for ICAS with the lowest tertile group of muscle mass as the reference group even after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, sex, smoking and exercise (OR 0.650, 95% CI 0.442-0.955). Subjects with ICAS had significantly decreased muscle mass compared with those without ICAS in Korean adults. The risk for ICAS was lower in subjects with higher muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems.

  3. Decreased levels of stem cell factor in subjects with incident coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigren, M; Rattik, S; Hultman, K; Björkbacka, H; Nordin-Fredrikson, G; Bengtsson, E; Hedblad, B; Siegbahn, A; Gonçalves, I; Nilsson, J

    2016-02-01

    It has been proposed that vascular progenitor cells play an important role in vascular repair, but their possible clinical importance in cardiovascular disease has not been fully characterized. Vascular endothelial growth factor A, placental growth factor and stem cell factor (SCF) are three growth factors that are important in recruiting vascular progenitor cells. In this study, we investigated the association between the plasma levels of these growth factors and incident coronary events (CEs). Levels of the three growth factors were measured using the proximity extension assay technique in baseline plasma samples from 384 subjects with a first CE (mean follow-up 14.0 ± 4.3 years) and 409 event-free control subjects matched by sex and age, as well as in homogenates from 201 endarterectomy specimens. After controlling for known cardiovascular disease risk factors in a Cox regression model, subjects in the lowest SCF tertile had a hazard ratio of 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.14-2.54) compared with subjects in the highest SCF tertile. Lower SCF levels were also associated with more severe carotid disease, less fibrous atherosclerotic plaques and an increased incidence of heart failure. Expression of the SCF receptor c-kit was demonstrated in the subendothelial layer and fibrous cap of human atherosclerotic plaques. Smokers and subjects with diabetes had decreased levels of SCF compared with control subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical study to provide evidence to support a key role for SCF and progenitor cells in vascular repair. We suggest that the SCF-c-kit pathway may be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Chien-Hsun; Shen, Ming-Ching; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Wen, Yao-Ke; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2009-03-01

    Nattokinase, a serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis, is considered to be one of the most active functional ingredients found in natto. In this study, we hypothesized that nattokinase could reduce certain factors of blood clotting and lipids that are associated with an increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, an open-label, self-controlled clinical trial was conducted on subjects of the following groups: healthy volunteers (Healthy Group), patients with cardiovascular risk factors (Cardiovascular Group), and patients undergoing dialysis (Dialysis Group). All subjects ingested 2 capsules of nattokinase (2000 fibrinolysis units per capsule) daily orally for 2 months. The laboratory measurements were performed on the screening visit and, subsequently, regularly after the initiation of the study. The intent-to-treat analysis was performed on all 45 enrolled subjects. By use of mixed model analysis, a significant time effect, but not group effect, was observed in the change from baseline of fibrinogen (P = .003), factor VII (P nattokinase. No significant changes of uric acid or notable adverse events were observed in any of the subjects. In summary, this study showed that oral administration of nattokinase could be considered as a CVD nutraceutical by decreasing plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII.

  5. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2007-01-01

    of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods......Study Design. Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. Objective. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Summary of Background Data....... Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement...

  6. Effects of fatigue on lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and muscle activation: Gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessi, Giovanna Camparis; Dos Santos, Ana Flávia; Batista, Luis Fylipe; de Oliveira, Gabriela Clemente; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2017-02-01

    Muscle fatigue is associated with biomechanical changes that may lead to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Alterations in trunk and pelvis kinematics may also be involved in ACL injury. Although some studies have compared the effects of muscle fatigue on lower limb kinematics between men and women, little is known about its effects on pelvis and trunk kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of fatigue on lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and muscle activation between men and women during landing. The participants included forty healthy subjects. We performed kinematic analysis of the trunk, pelvis, hip and knee and muscle activation analysis of the gluteal muscles, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris, during a single-leg landing before and after fatigue. Men had greater trunk flexion than women after fatigue. After fatigue, a decrease in peak knee flexion and an increase in Gmax and BF activation were observed. The increase in the trunk flexion can decrease the anterior tibiofemoral shear force resulted from the lower knee flexion angle, thereby decreasing the stress on the ACL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreased frontal regulation during pain anticipation in unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigo, I A; Matthews, S C; Simmons, A N

    2013-03-12

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impaired processing of negative information, possibly due to dysfunction in both, the bottom-up emotional network and top-down modulatory network. By acquiring functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a pain-anticipation task, we tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would show increased negative biasing that may be associated with reduced frontal connectivity. Thirty-one (15 females) unmedicated young adults with current MDD and 22 (11 females) healthy subjects with no history of MDD were recruited. Groups did not differ significantly in age, race, level of education, marital status or gender distribution. fMRI data were collected during an event-related pain-anticipation paradigm, during which subjects were cued to anticipate painful heat stimuli of high or low intensity. All temperature stimuli were applied to each subject's left forearm. We found that relative to healthy comparison subjects, participants with MDD showed significantly stronger responses to high versus low pain anticipation within right ventral anterior insula (AI), but overlapping response within right dorsal AI, which correlated positively with the depression symptoms severity in the MDD group. Functional connectivity analyses showed increased functional connectivity between dorsal insula and posterior thalamus and decreased functional connectivity between dorsal insula and the right inferior frontal gyrus in the MDD compared with the non-MDD group. Our results demonstrate that unmedicated individuals with current MDD compared with healthy never-depressed subjects show both differential and overlapping response within AI during anticipation of pain. Furthermore, the overlapping insular response is less regulated by frontal brain systems and is more subservient to affective processing regions in the posterior thalamus in MDD. These results support and provide functional validation of the co-occurring enhanced 'bottom-up' and

  8. Reliability of mechanical trunk responses during known and unknown trunk perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D.; Brandt, Mikkel; Sundstrup, Emil

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the between-day reliability of a newly developed trunk perturbation test and compares mechanical response during known and unknown conditions. Mechanical trunk response were measured in seventeen female subjects during unloading and loading perturbations of the abdomen (A: pr...

  9. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  10. Effects of experimentally increased trunk stiffness on thorax and pelvis rotations during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen Hua; Lin, Xiao Cong; Meijer, Onno G; Gao, Jin Tuan; Hu, Hai; Prins, Maarten R; Liang, Bo Wei; Zhang, Li Qun; Van Dieën, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-02-01

    Patients with non-specific low back pain, or a similar disorder, may stiffen their trunk, which probably alters their walking coordination. To study the direct effects of increasing trunk stiffness, we experimentally increased trunk stiffness during walking, and compared the results with what is known from the literature about gait coordination with, e.g., low back pain. Healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 3 speeds (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m/s), in three conditions (normal, while contracting their abdominal muscles, or wearing an orthopedic brace that limits trunk motions). Kinematics of the legs, thorax and pelvis were recorded, and relative Fourier phases and amplitudes of segment motions were calculated. Increasing trunk stiffness led to a lower thorax-pelvis relative phase, with both a decrease in thorax-leg relative phase, and an increase in pelvis-leg relative phase, as well as reduced rotational amplitude of thorax relative to pelvis. While lower thorax-pelvis relative phase was also found in patients with low back pain, higher pelvis-leg relative phase has never been reported in patients with low back pain or related disorders. These results suggest that increasing trunk stiffness in healthy subjects causes short-term gait coordination changes which are different from those seen in patients with back pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens T; Randers, Morten B; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2009-01-01

    A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer...... stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time) decreased (p football training includes a high number of sudden loadings of the upper body and can improve...... the reflex response to SL. The faster reflex response indicates that soccer training can reduce the risk of low back injuries....

  12. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  13. Ketamine decreases resting state functional network connectivity in healthy subjects: implications for antidepressant drug action.

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    Milan Scheidegger

    Full Text Available Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI, the "dorsal nexus "(DN was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN, the default mode network (DMN, and a rostral affective network (AN. Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010 proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression.

  14. Body weight support during robot-assisted walking: influence on the trunk and pelvis kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Hens, Gerrit; Knaepen, Kristel; Beckwée, David; Michielsen, Marc; Clijsen, Ron; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Efficacy studies concerning robot assisted gait rehabilitation showed limited clinical benefits. A changed kinematic pattern might be responsible for this. Little is known about the kinematics of the trunk and pelvis during robot assisted treadmill walking (RATW). The aim of this study was to assess the trunk and pelvis kinematics of healthy subjects during RATW, with different amounts of body weight support (BWS) compared to regular treadmill walking (TW). Eighteen healthy participants walked on a treadmill, while kinematics were registered by an electromagnetic tracking device. Hereafter, the kinematics of pelvis and trunk were registered during RATW (guidance force 30%) with 0%, 30% and 50% BWS. Compared to TW, RATW showed a decrease in the following trunk movements: axial rotation, anteroposterior flexion, lateral and anteroposterior translation. Besides, a decrease in lateral tilting and all translation of the pelvis was found when comparing RATW with TW. Furthermore, the anteroposterior tilting of the pelvis increased during RATW. In general, there was a decrease in trunk and pelvis movement amplitude during RATW compared with regular TW. Though, it is not known if these changes are responsible for the limited efficacy of robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Further research is indicated.

  15. Segmental Trunk Control Acquisition and Reaching in Typically Developing Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwani, Jaya; Santamaria, Victor; Saavedra, Sandra L.; Wood, Stacy; Porter, Francine; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the influence of an external support at the thoracic and pelvic level of the trunk on the success of reaching, postural stability and reaching kinematics while infants reached for a toy. Seventeen infants (4–6 months) were clustered into two groups according to their trunk control assessed with the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). Major differences were seen between groups with pelvic support, whereas with thoracic support, all infants showed similar quality reaching behaviours. With the external pelvic support, infants who had acquired trunk control in the lumbar region were more accurate in their reaching movements (less movement time, improved straightness of reach, less movement units and path length per movement unit) and were more stable (decreased trunk and head displacement) during a reach than infants that had only acquired trunk control in the thoracic region. These results support the hypothesis that trunk control influences the quality of reaching behaviour. PMID:23681292

  16. Trunk biomechanics during hemiplegic gait after stroke: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Criekinge, Tamaya; Saeys, Wim; Hallemans, Ann; Velghe, Silke; Viskens, Pieter-Jan; Vereeck, Luc; De Hertogh, Willem; Truijen, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Stroke commonly results in trunk impairments that are associated with decreased trunk coordination and limited trunk muscle strength. These impairments often result in biomechanical changes during walking. Additionally, the so-called pelvic step might be influenced by these impairments. Therefore, the aim of this review was twofold. First, to gain more insight into trunk biomechanics during walking in stroke patients compared to healthy individuals. Second, to investigate the influence of walking speed on trunk biomechanics. The search strategy was performed by the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO database (no. CRD42016035797). Databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and Rehabdata were systematically searched until December 2016. Sixteen of the 1099 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The majority of studies reported on trunk kinematics during walking, data on trunk kinetics and muscle activity is lacking. Following stroke, patients walk with increased mediolateral trunk sway and larger sagittal motion of the lower trunk. Although rotation of the upper trunk is increased, the trunk shows a more in-phase coordination. Acceleration of the trunk diminishes while instability and asymmetry increase as there are less movement towards the paretic side. However, it is of great importance to differentiate between compensatory trunk movements and intrinsic trunk control deficits. Specific exercise programs, assistive devices and orthoses might be of help in controlling these deficits. Importantly, studies suggested that more natural trunk movements were observed when walking speed was increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbado

    Full Text Available Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas. Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1 sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2 stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05 and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05 than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512 significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

  18. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of trunk flexion on the cervical muscle whiplash response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Yogesh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable body position and impact direction. There is no data, however, on the effect of occupant position on the muscle response to frontal impacts. Therefore, the objective of the study was to measure cervical muscle response to graded right anterolateral impacts. Methods Twenty volunteers were subjected to right anterolateral impacts of 4.3, 7.8, 10.6, and 12.8 m/s2 acceleration with their trunk flexed forward 45 degrees and laterally flexed right or left by 45 degrees. Bilateral EMG of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis and acceleration of the sled, torso, and head were measured. Results and discussion With either direction of trunk flexion at impact, the trapezius EMGs increased with increasing acceleration (p Conclusion When the subject sits with trunk flexed out of neutral posture at the time of anterolateral impact, the cervical muscle response is dramatically reduced compared to frontal impacts with the trunk in neutral posture. In the absence of bodily impact, the flexed trunk posture appears to produce a biomechanical response that would decrease the likelihood of cervical muscle injury in low velocity impacts.

  19. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jørgensen, Kurt; Schibye, Bente; Fallentin, Nils

    2007-06-01

    Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. The study included 23 participants and 14 controls. All were healthy without prior history of low back pain (LBP). The training group participated in a total of 18 training sessions during a 9-week period. The training focused on reactions to a variety of sudden trunk loadings. Before and after the training intervention and at a 1-year follow-up, all subjects were tested for their reaction to expected and unexpected sudden trunk loading by applying a horizontal force of 58 N to the upper back of the subjects and measuring the electromyographic (EMG) response from the erector spinae muscles. In the training group, the stopping time and the distance moved after unexpected sudden trunk loading decreased significantly (13%-19%, P = 0.02). The improved stopping time was associated with marked changes in the time-wise distribution of the EMG signal after training. In addition, the follow-up study showed a high sustainability of the training effect. The results demonstrated a training-induced improvement of the response to sudden trunk loading that may be beneficial in workers, such as nurses, who are exposed to sudden trunk perturbations

  20. Quantitative assessment of trunk deformation during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Shoma; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Isaka, Tadao; Nagano, Akinori

    2017-07-05

    The trunk has a multi-segmental structure and is composed of the cervical, thoracic, and lumber spines and surrounding soft tissue elements; this allows flexible deformation during dynamic movements. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess trunk deformation during dynamic movement. Ten male subjects performed running at four different speeds: 8km/h, 10km/h, 12km/h, and 14km/h. Forty reflective markers were placed on the backs of these individuals to define 56 small triangular areas, and three-dimensional kinematic data was recorded with a motion capture system. The coefficients of variation (CV) of the horizontal and vertical lengths between two adjacent markers and the standard deviation (SD) of the normal vectors of triangular areas were calculated as measures for translational and angular trunk deformation, respectively. Up to about 14% of CV and 78° of SD appeared as the measure of translational and angular deformation, respectively. These results imply that the trunk underwent a significant amount of position-specific deformation. These findings would be useful in the construction of an optimal trunk segment model to represent the complex and flexible trunk movement during dynamic movements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decrease of EEG Coherence during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubega, M.; Sparacino, G.; Sejling, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemic events have been proven to be associated with measurable EEG changes. Several works in the literature have evaluated these changes by considering approaches at the single EEG channel level, but multivariate analyses have been scarcely investigated in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects....... The aim of the present work is to assess if and how hypoglycemia affects EEG coherence in a subset of EEG channels acquired in a hospital setting where eye- and muscle activation-induced artifacts are virtually absent. In particular, EEG multichannel data, acquired in 19 T1D hospitalized subjects...

  2. Cerebral artery blood velocity in normal subjects during acute decreases in barometric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, E; Sorteberg, W; Owe, J O; Lindegaard, K F; Rusten, K; Sorteberg, A; Gjerstad, L

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the effect of acute changes in barometric pressure on regional cerebral perfusion we studied the middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood velocity in five healthy male volunteers by means of a low-pressure chamber. The MCA blood velocity, arterial blood and respiratory gases were measured at the barometric pressures of 1, 0.8, 0.65, and 0.5 atmospheres. The observed blood velocity (Vo) showed no systematic changes. Decreases in barometric pressure induced hypoxia and hypocapnia. When normalizing the MCA blood velocity (Vn) to a standard P(CO2) (5.3 kPa), thereby correcting for the hypoxic induced hypocapnia, we obtained an inverse relationship between cerebral artery blood velocity and arterial blood oxygen content (CaO2). The oxygen supply to the brain, estimated as the product of Vo and CaO2, decreased with lowering of the barometric pressure. However, the product of Vn and CaO2 remained constant. This suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism attempting to maintain a constant oxygen supply to the brain during acute changes in CaO2, if the hyperventilation induced decrease in PCO2 can be omitted. In the artificial situation of a low pressure chamber, our findings are quite similar to those obtained at sea level. This indicates that the underlying mechanisms of control of cerebral blood flow do not change during acute exposure to altitude.

  3. Spinal manipulation causes variable spine kinematic and trunk muscle electromyographic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, G J; McGill, S M

    2001-05-01

    Analytic cohort with a convenience sample in a research clinic. To determine the influence of a spinal manipulation on trunk kinematics and associated trunk myoelectric activity. While the mechanism of spinal manipulation is unknown, it has been theorized to influence spinal range of motion and trunk muscle activity. Trunk kinematics were measured in low back pain patients (n = 14) during simple range of motion tasks in three planes, while trunk muscle electromyogram signals were recorded bilaterally from paraspinal and abdominal musculature. Kinematics and electromyogram signals were assessed pre-post manipulation. Electromyogram activity was also assessed pre-post manipulation during quiet stance. While no consistent kinematic or electromyographic changes occurred following manipulation across the population, individual changes were observed. The largest changes (> 6 degrees ) in range of motion occurred in the sagittal plane of three patients experiencing the greatest amount of pain. During quiet stance 17 muscles across all subjects exhibited changes in muscle activity following manipulation. Sixteen of those changes were decreases in muscle amplitude. This study offers some preliminary data on the short-term effects of manipulation on lumbar range of motion and dynamic electromyogram. The findings suggest that the response to manipulation is variable and dependent on the individual, with no change in some to the largest changes seen in the more pained patients. Relevance. Basic science investigations into the mechanisms and biomechanical influences of spinal manipulation are few. This study attempts to address issues of measureable functional change with manipulative therapy.

  4. Trunk exercises performed on an unstable surface improve trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Cho, Hwi-Young; In, Tae-Sung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of trunk exercises performed on an unstable surface on trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-four participants with stroke were recruited in this study and randomly distributed into experimental (n = 12) and control groups (n = 12). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group participated in trunk exercises on the balance pad for 30 min, five times a week for 4 weeks; those in the control group performed trunk exercises on a stable surface for 30 min, five times a week for 4 weeks. Trunk muscle activation was measured by using surface electromyography, and trunk control was evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS). Gait speed was measured with the 10-Meter Walk Test. [Results] Activity of the external and internal oblique muscles in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The TIS score of the experimental group showed significantly greater improvement than did that of the control group. The 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) score also significantly improved in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Trunk exercises on an unstable surface improve trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in patients with hemiparetic stroke.

  5. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  6. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  7. A comparison of select trunk muscle thickness change between subjects with low back pain classified in the treatment-based classification system and asymptomatic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Kyle B; Underwood, Frank B; Mattacola, Carl G; Matacolla, Carl; Nitz, Arthur J; Malone, Terry R

    2007-10-01

    Cross-sectional descriptive. To investigate if muscle thickness change, as measured with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), is different across subgroups of patients with low back pain (LBP), classified in the Treatment-Based Classification (TBC) system, when compared to controls. Researchers have demonstrated that subgroups of patients with LBP exist and respond differently to treatment, challenging the assertion that LBP is "nonspecific." The TBC system uses 4 categories (stabilization, mobilization, direction specific exercise, or traction) to subgroup patients. Recently, researchers have demonstrated impairments of the transverse abdominis (TrA) and lumbar multifidus (LM) in those with LBP, regardless of classification. Although distinct differences in impairments have been identified between subgroups, TrA and LM impairments have not been studied and may be present across categories of the TBC system. RUSI was utilized to measure percent thickness change from rest to contracted state during a voluntary task of the TrA and during an upper extremity task known to activate the LM in 56 subjects classified in the TBC system and 20 controls. During the prone upper extremity lifting task with a hand weight, there was a significant group difference for the LM at L4-L5 (P = .03) and at L5-S1 (P = .04), and during volitional activation for the TrA (P < .01). Post hoc testing revealed the differences were between controls and both the direction specific and stabilization categories at the L4-L5 level, between control and direction specific category for the L5-S1 level, and between controls and all 3 categories for the TrA. Deficits in the ability to generate muscle thickness changes in the TrA and LM occurred across categories of the TBC system. Intervention studies should be performed to determine if intervention can correct these deficits and if deficit corrections are related to outcomes.

  8. Isokinetic trunk strength and lumbosacral range of motion in elite female field hockey players reporting low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenety, A; Kumar, S

    1992-01-01

    This study was funded, in part, by a Small Faculties Grant from the University of Alberta. Physical therapists have reported an increased incidence of low back pain (LBP) in female field hockey (FH) players, commonly accompanied by decreased trunk range of motion (ROM) and strength. The purpose of this study was to compare lumbosacral sagittal ROM and isokinetic trunk strength in three groups of women: 1) FH athletes with a history of chronic LBP, 2) pain-free FH athletes, and 3) an age-matched, healthy nonathletic control group. Photographs (35 mm) of subjects wearing spinal motion markers were used to determine the limits of lumbosacral saggital ROM in standing. Eccentric and concentric isokinetic trunk flexion and extension torques were measured in sitting through 60 degrees of trunk movement using a Kin-Com dynamometer set at 60 degrees /sec. The ANOVA showed that the pain group had 12 degrees and 18 degrees less extension (p pain-free and control groups, respectively. Only peak (p pain group than in the nonathletic control group. These results suggest that physical therapists should perform preseason screening of trunk strength and lumbosacral ROM. In-season trunk extension stretching and strengthening is needed in the training regimes of these athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1992;16(3):129-135.

  9. Hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro-splenico-phrenic trunk

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    Nayak SB

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A thorough knowledge of variation in the branching pattern of celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery is important for surgeons, radiologists and other medical specialties. We observed some variations in the branching pattern of celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery during dissection classes for first year medical students. The celiac trunk (gastro-splenico-phrenic trunk divided into inferior phrenic trunk, left gastric and splenic arteries. The inferior phrenic trunk divided into right and left inferior phrenic arteries. The common hepatic artery took its origin from a hepatomesenteric trunk and passed behind the portal vein and bile duct. It hooked around the bile duct and then divided into three branches; hepatic artery proper, gastroduodenal artery and supraduodenal artery.

  10. Effects of abdominal belts on the cross-sectional shape of the trunk during intense contraction of the trunk muscles observed by computer tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kei; Iinuma, Nobuki; Ueki, Shunsuke; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2008-12-01

    Several mechanisms of how abdominal belts affect the trunk have been postulated, but very little is known about how the belts affect the cross-sectional shape of the trunk during trunk muscle exertions. To evaluate the effects of abdominal belts on the cross-sectional shape of the trunk during contraction of the trunk muscles, CT images at the third lumbar vertebra level of 20 healthy males (age: 23-45 years) under 8 different conditions (combinations of performing or not performing the Valsalva maneuver after full inhalation or at neutral respiratory state, while wearing or not wearing a 100-mm-wide abdominal belt) were evaluated. The cross-sectional shapes of the trunk seen on CT images taken at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebra were compared using three-way ANOVA. Wearing the belt decreased the cross-sectional area of the trunk, and wearing it while performing the Valsalva maneuver and during inhalation compressed the postero-lateral part of the trunk and made the trunk nearly round by increasing the ratio of the anterior-posterior width to the right-left width. A wide belt cinched around the abdomen exerts external hoop tension on the trunk and stiffens the trunk. When the belt is worn during the Valsalva maneuver after deep inhalation, the posterolateral portion of the trunk is compressed and the trunk becomes circular.

  11. Effect of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] We assessed the effects of a suspension seat support chair on the trunk flexion angle and gluteal pressure during computer work. [Subjects] Ten males were recruited. [Methods] The suspension seat support was developed to prevent abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture during computer work. The gluteal pressure was measured with a TekScan system and the trunk flexion angle was measured with a video camera, to compare the differences between a general chair and the suspension seat support. [Results] The gluteal peak pressures were decreased significantly in the suspension seat support versus the general chair. The trunk flexion angle was also decreased significantly in the suspension seat support compared with the general chair. [Conclusions] This study suggests that the suspension seat support chair contributes to preventing abnormal gluteal pressure and a slumped sitting posture.

  12. Breast cancer 1 (BrCa1 may be behind decreased lipogenesis in adipose tissue from obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Ortega

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Expression and activity of the main lipogenic enzymes is paradoxically decreased in obesity, but the mechanisms behind these findings are poorly known. Breast Cancer 1 (BrCa1 interacts with acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC reducing the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate BrCa1 in human adipose tissue according to obesity and insulin resistance, and in vitro cultured adipocytes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: BrCa1 gene expression, total and phosphorylated (P- BrCa1, and ACC were analyzed in adipose tissue samples obtained from a total sample of 133 subjects. BrCa1 expression was also evaluated during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells. RESULTS: BrCa1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in both omental (OM; 1.36-fold, p = 0.002 and subcutaneous (SC; 1.49-fold, p = 0.001 adipose tissue from obese subjects. In parallel with increased BrCa1 mRNA, P-ACC was also up-regulated in SC (p = 0.007 as well as in OM (p = 0.010 fat from obese subjects. Consistent with its role limiting fatty acid biosynthesis, both BrCa1 mRNA (3.5-fold, p<0.0001 and protein (1.2-fold, p = 0.001 were increased in pre-adipocytes, and decreased during in vitro adipogenesis, while P-ACC decreased during differentiation of human adipocytes (p = 0.005 allowing lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, BrCa1 gene expression in mature adipocytes was restored by inflammatory stimuli (macrophage conditioned medium, whereas lipogenic genes significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The specular findings of BrCa1 and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue and adipocytes reported here suggest that BrCa1 might help to control fatty acid biosynthesis in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  13. Analysis of Trunk Rolling Performances by Mattress Mobility Detection System in Poststroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lin Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of kinematic variables with quality of trunk control in poststroke patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study included stroke subjects with mild to moderate motor deficit corresponding to Brunnstrom stages 3-4. Trunk functional performance was measured using bed mobility monitor system. All tasks were repeated ten times for both directions in each subject. Outcome measurements included the movement time and displacement of center of pressure (CoP from supine to side lying and returning. Results. The results revealed that a significant longer turning time was observed when turning from the paretic side toward the nonparetic side compared to the other direction, with an estimated mean difference of 0.427 sec (P=0.005. We found a significant difference in the time of rolling back to supine position between two directions. The displacement of CoP in rolling back from side lying on the nonparetic side was smaller than that from the paretic side with an estimated mean difference of −0.797 cm (P=0.023. Conclusions. The impaired trunk mobility was associated with increased movement time and decreased displacement of CoP in poststroke patients. Trunk rolling performance has potential in assessment of stroke patients.

  14. The effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Dong-Sik; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 study subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (a motor imagery training group) and the control group (a neurodevelopmental treatment, NDT) group. The two groups were treated five times (30 minutes each time) per week for 4 weeks. The experimental group underwent image...

  15. The effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Sik; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of motor imagery training for trunk movements on trunk muscle control and proprioception in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 12 study subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (a motor imagery training group) and the control group (a neurodevelopmental treatment, NDT) group. The two groups were treated five times (30 minutes each time) per week for 4 weeks. The experimental group underwent imagery training for 10 minutes and trunk control centered NDT for 20 minutes and the control group underwent only trunk control centered NDT for 30 minutes. The trunk muscle activity and the position sense of the subjects were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvements in muscle activity after the intervention. Only the experimental group showed significant improvements in proprioception. The experimental group showed significant improvements in the variations of muscle activity and proprioception compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training for trunk movements can be effectively used to improve trunk muscle activity and proprioception in stroke patients.

  16. Understanding the Effects of Spaceflight on Head-trunk Coordination during Walking and Obstacle Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madansingh, S.; Bloomberg, J.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to spaceflight conditions results in a battery of physiological changes, some of which contribute to sensorimotor and neurovestibular deficits. Upon return to Earth, functional performance changes are tested using the Functional Task Test (FTT), which includes an obstacle course to observe post-flight balance and postural stability, specifically during turning. Aims: To quantify changes in movement strategies during turning events by observing the latency between head-andtrunk coordinated movement. Hypothesis: It is hypothesized that subjects experiencing neurovestibular adaptations will exhibit head-to-trunk locking ('en bloc' movement) during turning, exhibited by a decrease in latency between head and trunk movement. Sample: FTT data samples were collected from Shuttle and ISS missions. Samples were analyzed three times pre exposure, immediately post-exposure (0 or 1 day post) and 2-to-3 times during recovery from the microgravity environment. Methods: Two 3D inertial measurements units (XSens MTx) were attached to subjects, one on the head and one on the upper back. This study focused primarily on the yaw movements about the subject's center of rotation. Time differences (latency) between head and trunk movement were calculated at two points: the first turn (Fturn) to enter the obstacle course (approximately 90° turn) and averaged across a slalom obstacle portion, consisting of three turns (approximately three 90° turns). Results: Preliminary analysis of the data shows a trend toward decreasing head-to-trunk movement latency during post-flight ambulation, after reintroduction to Earth gravity in Shuttle and ISS astronauts. Conclusion: It is clear that changes in movement strategies are adopted during exposure to the microgravity environment and upon reintroduction to a gravity environment. Some subjects exhibit symptoms of neurovestibular neuropathy ('en bloc movement') that may impact their ability to perform post-flight functional tasks.

  17. Decrease in heart rate variability response to task is related to anxiety and depressiveness in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinba, Toshikazu; Kariya, Nobutoshi; Matsui, Yasue; Ozawa, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that heart rate variability (HRV) measurement is useful in investigating the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. The present study further examined its usefulness in evaluating the mental health of normal subjects with respect to anxiety and depressiveness. Heart rate (HR) and HRV were measured tonometrically at the wrist in 43 normal subjects not only in the resting condition but also during a task (random number generation) to assess the responsiveness. For HRV measurement, high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) and low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) components of HRV were obtained using MemCalc, a time series analysis technique that combines a non-linear least square method with maximum entropy method. For psychological evaluation of anxiety and depressiveness, two self-report questionnaires were used: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). No significant relation was observed between HR and HRV indices, and the psychological scores both in the resting and task conditions. By task application, HF decreased, and LF/HF and HR increased, and significant correlation with psychological scores was found in the responsiveness to task measured by the ratio of HRV and HR indices during the task to that at rest (task/rest ratio). A positive relationship was found between task/rest ratio for HF, and STAI and SDS scores. Task/rest ratio of HR was negatively correlated with STAI-state score. Decreased HRV response to task application is related to anxiety and depressiveness. Decreased autonomic responsiveness could serve as a sign of psychological dysfunction.

  18. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Eiji; Sasaki, Shizuka; Chiba, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nawata, Atsushi; Tsuda, Eiichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI). We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (ptorque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  19. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  20. Major involvement of trunk muscles in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbakken, G; Ørstavik, K; Hagen, T; Dietrichs, E; Naerland, T

    2016-12-01

    The motor impairments in Myotonic Dystrophy 1 (DM1) are assumed to progress from distal toward proximal parts of the extremities in the Juvenile and Adult forms of DM1. On occasion and late in progress spine deformity is observed. In this study we have examined whether and to what extent trunk muscles are impaired in DM1, and if this impairment is correlated with the duration of the disorder, walking capacity, mobility, balance, and CTG-repeats. Manual muscle testing (MMT) of skeletal muscle strength in trunk and extremities, reassessment of the mutation size, time since first symptom, the 6 min walk test (6MWT), Rivermead mobility index (RIM) and Timed up & go (TUG) were sampled in 38 adult DM1 outpatients. We found significant impairment in trunk muscles. Trunk muscle strength decreased significantly with increasing mutation size (r = -0.64, P muscle strength. DM1 affects trunk muscle groups. The trunk impairments seem to occur relatively early in disease progression. Awareness of trunk impairments may be of importance for everyday functioning and for understanding the risk of injuries due to falls reported among DM1 patients. It may also help in identification of DM1 patients and considered outcome measure in future clinical trials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Trunk asymmetry in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllopoulos Georgios

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry (TA is a common phenomenon in children, but its incidence in juveniles is not known. The present cross sectional study reports TA in normal juveniles and provides data which describe the evolution of TA from early childhood to adolescence. Materials and methods The scoliometer readings in both standing and sitting forward bending position (FBP of 3301 children, (1645 boys, and 1656 girls aged from 3 to 9 years old were studied. TA was quantified by measuring angle of trunk rotation (ATR and children were categorized as symmetric (ATR = 0°, mild asymmetric (ATR 1° – 6° and severely asymmetric (ATR ≥ 7°. The difference of TA between standing and sitting FBP as well as differences between boys and girls in frequency of TA were also calculated. The scoliometer readings were analyzed by age to reveal at which age the juvenile pattern of TA changes into the adolescent one. Results 74.2% of boys and 77% of girls were symmetric (ATR = 0° in the thoracic region in standing FBP, while 82.7% of boys and 84.1% of girls were symmetric in the thoracic region in sitting FBP. Juvenile girls are more symmetric than boys but severe TA was found almost the same between the two genders. A significant reduction in the frequency of mild TA from standing into sitting FBP, in all the examined regions in both boys and girls was found, but in severe TA this reduction is very small. Analysing scoliometer readings by age it appears that significant TA changes take place between 8–9 years of age for boys and between 6–7 and 8–9 years for girls. TA in boys is changing into the adolescent pattern at a later age than in girls. Conclusion Juveniles were found more symmetric than adolescents, who were studied previously in a different study. Furthermore, juvenile girls were found more symmetric than boys. Juvenile TA pattern seems to be in accordance with the higher incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis in boys. Furthermore

  2. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordakieva, Galateja; Wallmann, Julia; Schmutz, René; Lemell, Patrick; Wegmann, Michael; Nittke, Thomas; Mittlböck, Martina; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Zieglmayer, René; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i) sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii) grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC). BALB/c mice (n = 20) were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10) or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA) (n = 10). A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42) at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens. A rapid recruitment of erythrocytes to the lungs to compensate

  3. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galateja Jordakieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice (n = 20 were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10 or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA (n = 10. A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42 at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens

  4. Sport-specific characteristics of trunk muscles in collegiate wrestlers and judokas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Kazunori; Okada, Takashi; Nakazato, Koichi; Fujimoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Nakajima, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    This study evaluated the sport-specific characteristics of the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of trunk muscles and trunk muscle strength in wrestlers and judokas. We also examined whether their trunk muscles and muscle strength depended on athletic performance levels in each sport. The subjects comprised 14 male collegiate wrestlers and 14 judokas. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the trunk muscle CSAs at the L3-4 level parallel to the lumbar disc space. A Biodex System3 was used to measure isokinetic trunk flexor and extensor muscle strength of peak torque, work, average torque, and average power. The absolute and relative CSAs of the trunk muscles in the wrestlers and judokas were significantly different (rectus abdominis: wrestling > judo, P muscles was not consistent with athletic performance levels in each sport. Our findings indicated that the sport-specific characteristics of the CSAs of the trunk muscles and trunk muscle strength obviously differed between the 2 similar sports. Athletes should practice the sport-specific training of trunk muscles and develop sport specificity in their sports. Particularly, wrestlers have to train in trunk flexion and extension motions, and judokas need to strengthen trunk rotation and lateral flexion motions. This information will be available for athletes as well as strength and technical training coaches in wrestling, judo, and the other sports.

  5. Test-retest reliability of trunk accelerometric gait analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis....

  6. The Subfossil Trunk of Chiarano (TV

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    Tiziana Urso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the characterization of a subfossil trunk found buried in the mud of the Piavon canal, at Chiarano (TV, when dredging took place in 2008. The trunk, of imposing dimensions, lacking branches and bark, has a black, deeply cracked and strongly deteriorated outer surface with a carbonized appearance, while internally it has the typical blackish colour of the so-called drowned oak. The studies have demonstrated that it is a tree belonging to the genus Quercus, common oak or sessile oak, that may have been felled between the end of the 12 th and early 14 th century A.D.. Determination of the MWC and residual basic density indicate that the deterioration decreases from the outside inwards; the ash content is high externally and diminishes moving toward the centre. Nowadays, the Piavon is an irrigation canal, but in Venetian times it was navigable and was used for the transport of goods and timber. There were extensive woodlands of common oak and sessile oak all along the Piavon, the size and composition of which is documented in the Venetian cadastres, which also report the distances between the woodlands and the nearest water courses, proof of the importance of river transport for the timber. In particular, an 18 hectare oak woodland is recorded in the Surian cadastre (1569-70 for the villa at Chiarano. The oaks were used by the Republic of Venice mainly for the construction and maintenance of the shipping fleet. The Chiarano trunk, given its age and the area where it was found, may therefore be a trunk felled in Venetian times, perhaps destined for naval use, which was lost during its transport by floating.

  7. Disturbance and recovery of trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours following prolonged trunk flexion: influences of duration and external load on creep-induced effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrgari, Babak; Hendershot, Brad; Muslim, Khoirul; Toosizadeh, Nima; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2011-11-01

    Trunk flexion results in adverse mechanical effects on the spine and is associated with a higher incidence of low back pain. To examine the effects of creep deformation on trunk behaviours, participants were exposed to full trunk flexion in several combinations of exposure duration and external load. Trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours were obtained pre- and post-exposure and during recovery using sudden perturbations. Intrinsic trunk stiffness decreased with increasing flexion duration and in the presence of the external load. Recovery of intrinsic stiffness required more time than the exposure duration and was influenced by exposure duration. Reflexive trunk responses increased immediately following exposure but recovered quickly (∼2.5 min). Alterations in reflexive trunk behaviour following creep deformation exposures may not provide adequate compensation to allow for complete recovery of concurrent reductions in intrinsic stiffness, which may increase the risk of injury due to spinal instability. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: An increased risk of low back injury may result from flexion-induced disturbances to trunk behaviours. Such effects, however, appear to depend on the type of flexion exposure, and have implications for the design of work involving trunk flexion.

  8. Accelerated increase and relative decrease in subjective age and changes in attitudes toward own aging over a 4-year period: results from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Ayalon, Liat; Avidor, Sharon; Palgi, Yuval

    2017-03-01

    The passage of time may force people to adjust their subjective age in response to changes in their attitudes toward own aging (ATOA). Although positive associations have been found between well-being and both positive ATOA and younger subjective age, the relationships between changes in these measures have not been examined yet. We expected (1) a decrease in positive ATOA to be associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age and (2) an increase in positive ATOA to be associated with a relative decrease in subjective age. Participants were individuals and their spouses, aged 50 and over, recruited by the Health and Retirement Study, who provided responses to a question concerning one's subjective age in 2008 and 2012 (n = 4174). A change in subjective age over the two waves was regarded as (1) an accelerated increase if it was greater than 5 years (36.2 % of the sample); (2) a relative decrease (39.1 %), if it was less than the 3 years; (3) no change if it did not comply with criteria 1 or 2 (24.7 %). A decrease in positive ATOA over the two waves resulted in an accelerated increase in subjective age, and an increase resulted in a relative decrease in subjective age. Older age and more physical impairments and depressive symptoms in 2012 compared with 2008 were associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age. Our findings emphasize the consequences ATOA might have on subjective age experiences, and the need to improve them.

  9. Effects of dynamic office chairs on trunk kinematics, trunk extensor EMG and spinal shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dieën, J H; de Looze, M P; Hermans, V

    2001-06-10

    Seated work has been shown to constitute a risk factor for low-back pain. This is attributed to the prolonged and monotonous low-level mechanical load imposed by a seated posture. To evaluate the potential health effects with respect to the low back of office chairs with a movable seat and back rest, trunk kinematics, erector spinae EMG, spinal shrinkage and local discomfort were assessed in 10 subjects performing simulated office work. On three separate occasions subjects performed a 3 h task consisting of word processing, computer-aided design and reading. Three chairs were used, one with a fixed seat and back rest and two dynamic chairs, one with a seat and back rest movable in a fixed ratio with respect to each other, and one with a freely movable seat and back rest. Spinal shrinkage measurements showed a larger stature gain when working on the two dynamic chairs as compared with working on the chair with fixed seat and back rest. Trunk kinematics and erector spinae EMG were strongly affected by the task performed but not by the chair type. The results imply that dynamic office chairs offer a potential advantage over fixed chairs, but the effects of the task on the indicators of trunk load investigated were more pronounced than the effects of the chair.

  10. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  12. The Effects of Push-ups with the Trunk Flexed on the Shoulder and Trunk Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Hyun; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Dong-Hun; Shin, Seung-Je; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the shoulder and trunk muscles in two push-up positions: standard push-ups and push-ups with the trunk flexed. [Subjects] Fifteen young adult males participated in the study. [Methods] This study measured the clavicular and sternocostal portions of the pectoralis major, the serratus anterior, and the rectus abdominis during push-ups under the two conditions. [Results] The activity of the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major and that of the rectus abdominis were significantly greater under Condition 1 than under Condition 2. The activity of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major and that of the serratus anterior were significantly greater under Condition 2 compared with Condition 1. [Conclusion] These results indicate that exercises can selectively activate muscle parts under different clinical situations.

  13. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in patients with low back pain enhance the stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Cholewicki, J.; Radebold, A.

    2003-01-01

    Study Design. A comparative study of trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy control subjects and patients with chronic low back pain was conducted. Objective. To assess trunk muscle recruitment in patients with low back pain. Summary of Background Data. Conflicting evidence has been reported

  14. The influence of changes in trunk and pelvic posture during single leg standing on hip and thigh muscle activation in a pain free population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Simon; Mitchell, Tim; Whiteley, Rod; O'Sullivan, Peter; Williams, Benjamin K; Racinais, Sebastien; Farooq, Abdulaziz

    2014-03-27

    Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymptomatic, male subjects (20-45 years old) in paired functionally relevant single leg standing test postures: Anterior vs. Posterior Trunk Sway; Anterior vs. Posterior Pelvic Rotation; Left vs. Right Trunk Shift; and Pelvic Drop vs. Raise. Surface EMG was collected from eight hip and thigh muscles calculating Root Mean Square. EMG was normalized to an "upright standing" reference posture. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed along with associated F tests to determine if there were significant differences in muscle activation between paired test postures. In right leg stance, Anterior Trunk Sway (compared to Posterior Sway) increased activity in posterior sagittal plane muscles, with a concurrent deactivation of anterior sagittal plane muscles (p: 0.016 - <0.001). Lateral hip abductor muscles increased activation during Left Trunk Shift (compared to Right) (p :≤ 0.001). Lateral Pelvic Drop (compared to Raise) decreased activity in hip abductors and increased hamstring, adductor longus and vastus lateralis activity (p: 0.037 - <0.001). Changes in both trunk and pelvic posture during single leg stance generally resulted in large, predictable changes in hip and thigh muscle activation in asymptomatic young males. Changes in trunk position in the sagittal plane and pelvis position in the frontal plane had the greatest effect on muscle activation. Investigation of these activation patterns in clinical populations such as hip and thigh muscle injuries may provide important insights into injury

  15. Trunk proprioception adaptations to creep deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Rousseau, Benjamin; Descarreaux, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the short-term effect of creep deformation on the trunk repositioning sense. Twenty healthy participants performed two different trunk-repositioning tasks (20° and 30° trunk extension) before and after a prolonged static full trunk flexion of 20 min in order to induce spinal tissue creep. Trunk repositioning error variables, trunk movement time and erector spinae muscle activity were computed and compared between the pre- and post-creep conditions. During the pre-creep condition, significant increases in trunk repositioning errors, as well as trunk movement time, were observed in 30° trunk extension in comparison to 20°. During the post-creep condition, trunk repositioning errors variables were significantly increased only when performing a 20° trunk extension. Erector spinae muscle activity increased in the post-creep condition, while it remained unchanged between trunk repositioning tasks. Trunk repositioning sense seems to be altered in the presence of creep deformation, especially in a small range of motion. Reduction of proprioception acuity may increase the risk of spinal instability, which is closely related to the risk of low back pain or injury.

  16. Isokinetic trunk and knee muscle strengths and gait performance in walking patients with T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Goto, Tatsushi; Kiyama, Ryoji; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Ijiri, Kosei; Yoshida, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the isokinetic trunk and knee muscle strengths, and examine the clinical relevance of dynamic muscle strengths and gait performance in walking patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Thirteen patients with HAM/TSP (8 females and 5 males, aged 38-76) and 13 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. We assessed gait speed, stride length, cadence; and maximal isokinetic torque of trunk and knee extensors and flexors at 30°/s, 60°/s and 90°/s using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Furthermore, we calculated the isokinetic trunk extensor/flexor (E/F) and hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios (parameter of the muscle strength balance about the trunk and knee joint). Compared with the age-matched controls, the patients with HAM/TSP had significantly reduced gait speed, stride length and cadence (P TSP. The H/Q ratio but not E/F ratio was significantly decreased compared with the control. Our results indicated that the isokinetic trunk and knee muscle performance had reduced from the ambulatory stage, and suggested the deterioration in knee muscle performance to be associated with gait disturbance in walking HAM/TSP patients.

  17. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens T; Randers, Morten B; Skotte, Jørgen H; Krustrup, Peter

    2009-12-01

    A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer training on the reaction to SL among untrained healthy women. Thirty-six healthy, untrained, Danish women (age 19-45 years) were randomly assigned to a soccer group (SO, n = 19) and a running group (RU, n = 17). In addition, an untrained control group (CON, n = 10) was recruited. Training was performed for 1 hour twice a week (mean heart rate of 165 b.min-1 in SO and 164 b.min-1 in RU) for 16 weeks. Test of reactions to sudden unexpected trunk loading was performed before and after the training period. Furthermore, time-motion analysis of the soccer training was performed for 9 subjects. Group assignment was blinded to the test personnel. Physical education students organized the training. During 1 hour of soccer training, the total number of sudden moves including sudden loading of the upper body (e.g. turns, stops, throw-ins, headers, and shoulder tackles) was 192 (63). In SO, time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time) decreased (p < 0.05) by 15% and distance moved after unexpected SL decreased (p < 0.05) by 24% compared with no changes in RU and CON. In conclusion, football training includes a high number of sudden loadings of the upper body and can improve the reflex response to SL. The faster reflex response indicates that soccer training can reduce the risk of low back injuries.

  18. A non-randomized clinical control trial of Harrison mirror image methods for correcting trunk list (lateral translations of the thoracic cage) in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Deed E; Cailliet, Rene; Betz, Joseph W; Harrison, Donald D; Colloca, Christopher J; Haas, Jason W; Janik, Tadeusz J; Holland, Burt

    2005-03-01

    Spinal trunk list is a common occurrence in clinical practice, but few conservative methods of spinal rehabilitation have been reported. This study is a non-randomized clinical control trial of 63 consecutive retrospective subjects undergoing spinal rehabilitation and 23 prospective volunteer controls. All subjects presented with lateral thoracic-cage-translation posture (trunk list) and chronic low back pain. Initial and follow-up numerical pain rating scales (NRS) and AP lumbar radiographs were obtained after a mean of 11.5 weeks of care (average of 36 visits) for the treatment group and after a mean of 37.5 weeks for the control group. The radiographs were digitized and analyzed for a horizontal displacement of T12 from the second sacral tubercle, verticality of the lumbar spine at the sacral base, and any dextro/levo angle at mid-lumbar spine. Treatment subjects received the Harrison mirror image postural correction methods, which included an opposite trunk-list exercise and a new method of opposite trunk-list traction. Control subjects did not receive spinal rehabilitation therapy, but rather self-managed their back pain. For the treatment group, there were statistically significant improvements (approximately 50%) in all radiographic measurements and a decrease in pain intensity (NRS: 3.0 to 0.8). For the control group, no significant radiographic and NRS differences were found, except in trunk-list displacement of T12 to S1, worsened by 2.4 mm. Mirror image (opposite posture) postural corrective exercises and a new method of trunk-list traction resulted in 50% reduction in trunk list and were associated with nearly resolved pain intensity in this patient population. The findings warrant further study in the conservative treatment of chronic low back pain and spinal disorders.

  19. Can lumbosacral orthoses cause trunk muscle weakness? A systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadinia, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Cholewicki, Jacek; Maroufi, Nader

    2017-04-01

    Wearing lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) is one of the most common treatments prescribed for conservative management of low back pain. Although the results of randomized controlled trials suggest effectiveness of LSO in reducing pain and disability in these patients, there is a concern that prolonged use of LSO may lead to trunk muscle weakness and atrophy. The present review aimed to evaluate available evidence in literature to determine whether LSO results in trunk muscle weakness or atrophy. This is a systematic review. A systematic search of electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Medline (via Ovid) followed by hand search of journals was performed. Prospective studies published in peer-reviewed journals, with full text available in English, investigating the effect of lumbar orthosis on trunk muscle activity, muscle thickness, strength or endurance, spinal force, and intra-abdominal pressure in healthy subjects or in patients with low back pain, were included. Methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by using the modified version of Downs and Black checklist. This research had no funding source, and the authors declare no conflicts of interest-associated biases. Thirty-five studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The mean and standard deviation of the quality score was 64±9.7%. Most studies investigating the effect of lumbar orthosis on electromyographic activity (EMG) of trunk muscles demonstrated a decrease or no change in the EMG parameters. A few studies reported increased muscle activity. Lumbosacral orthosis was found to have no effect on muscle strength in some studies, whereas other studies demonstrated increased muscle strength. Only one study, which included ultrasound assessment of trunk muscle stabilizers, suggested reduced thickness of the abdominal muscles and reduced cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscles. Out of eight studies that investigated spinal compression load, the load was reduced in four

  20. Anesthesia for pulmonary trunk aneurysmorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    João, Benedito Barbosa; Bueno, Ronaldo Machado; Marques, Guilherme D'Addazio; Soares, Felippe Batista

    The aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk is a rare disease. Because of its location, a rupture can lead to right ventricular failure and sudden death. Aneurysmorraphy is the most widely used surgical treatment in these cases. The aim of this study is to report a successful balanced general anesthesia for aneurysmorraphy of pulmonary trunk. Male patient, 28 years, asymptomatic, diagnosed with an aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk. According to the location of the aneurysm and the consequent failure of the pulmonary valve, an aneurysmorraphy was indicated, with implantation of vascular-valvular prosthesis (valved tube). We opted for a balanced general anesthesia, seeking to prevent an increase in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances, thus avoiding to cause stress on the wall of the aneurysmal vessel. A balanced general anesthesia, in combination with adequate ventilation to prevent elevation in pulmonary vascular pressure, was appropriate for surgical repair of an aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Anticipation of direction and time of perturbation modulates the onset latency of trunk muscle responses during sitting perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Matija; Shinya, Masahiro; Masani, Kei; Patel, Kramay; McConville, Kristiina M V; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Popovic, Milos R

    2016-02-01

    Trunk muscles are responsible for maintaining trunk stability during sitting. However, the effects of anticipation of perturbation on trunk muscle responses are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to identify the responses of trunk muscles to sudden support surface translations and quantify the effects of anticipation of direction and time of perturbation on the trunk neuromuscular responses. Twelve able-bodied individuals participated in the study. Participants were seated on a kneeling chair and support surface translations were applied in the forward and backward directions with and without direction and time of perturbation cues. The trunk started moving on average approximately 40ms after the perturbation. During unanticipated perturbations, average latencies of the trunk muscle contractions were in the range between 103.4 and 117.4ms. When participants anticipated the perturbations, trunk muscle latencies were reduced by 16.8±10.0ms and the time it took the trunk to reach maximum velocity was also reduced, suggesting a biomechanical advantage caused by faster muscle responses. These results suggested that trunk muscles have medium latency responses and use reflexive mechanisms. Moreover, anticipation of perturbation decreased trunk muscles latencies, suggesting that the central nervous system modulated readiness of the trunk based on anticipatory information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consequences of Laughter Upon Trunk Compression and Cortical Activation: Linear and Polynomial Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Svebak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Results from two studies of biological consequences of laughter are reported. A proposed inhibitory brain mechanism was tested in Study 1. It aims to protect against trunk compression that can cause health hazards during vigorous laughter. Compression may be maximal during moderate durations and, for protective reasons, moderate in enduring vigorous laughs. Twenty-five university students volunteered to see a candid camera film. Laughter responses (LR and the superimposed ha-responses were operationally assessed by mercury-filled strain gauges strapped around the trunk. On average, the thorax compression amplitudes exceeded those of the abdomen, and greater amplitudes were seen in the males than in the females after correction for resting trunk circumference. Regression analyses supported polynomial relations because medium LR durations were associated with particularly high thorax amplitudes. In Study 2, power changes were computed in the beta and alpha EEG frequency bands of the parietal cortex from before to after exposure to the comedy “Dinner for one” in 56 university students. Highly significant linear relations were calculated between the number of laughs and post-exposure cortical activation (increase of beta, decrease of alpha due to high activation after frequent laughter. The results from Study 1 supported the hypothesis of a protective brain mechanism that is activated during long LRs to reduce the risk of harm to vital organs in the trunk cavity. The results in Study 2 supported a linear cortical activation and, thus, provided evidence for a biological correlate to the subjective experience of mental refreshment after laughter.

  3. Trunk muscle fatigue during a back extension task in standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, G T; Henry, S M

    2001-11-01

    There is some evidence that the fatiguing characteristics during isometric back extension tasks may assist in identifying differences between individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). During these tasks, especially in standing, other abdominal trunk muscles are also active. The abdominal trunk muscles acting across multiple segments of the lumbar spine function in isolation or in synergy to create flexion torques. It is suggested that co-activation patterns of the trunk muscles are able to control the axis of rotation of the extension torque and also provide multi-segmental stability of the spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue responses in 4 asymptomatic individuals to a sustained isometric extension task of the trunk muscles evaluating the shifts in the median frequency of the electromyographic (EMG) signal. This study suggests that in asymptomatic subjects, the more superficial abdominal muscles (External Oblique and Rectus Abdominis) increased in activity as the test progressed. There was large inter-individual variation in both amplitude and median frequency changes. Rectus abdominis and the back extensors demonstrated characteristics of fatigue during the task. Studies to test for any characteristic trends in whether specific trunk muscles fatigue in standing is a feature in chronic LBP, invites a formal investigation. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  4. The effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yoel; Kim, Kyung Hoon

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] Kinesio taping is a therapeutic method used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular deficits, but there is limited evidence of the effects of trunk kinesio taping in neurologic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in persons after a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five post-stroke patients were included in this study. Kinesio tape was applied to four trunk muscles. Before and after the taping, in all subjects, the balance ability was measured using the Wii Balance Board, and gait function was assessed using the GAITRite system. [Results] The difference in gait function before and after trunk taping was not statistically significant. However, a variability of balance ability showed statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] These results suggest that taping may be a helpful method during rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. Its application to the trunk muscles is especially useful for improving balance ability.

  5. Comparison of motion restriction and trunk stiffness provided by three thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; Alvi, Kashif; Silfies, Sheri P; Bartolomei, Juan

    2003-10-01

    The amounts of thoracic and lumbar spine motion restriction and passive trunk stiffness provided by three thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSOs) (Aspen TLSO, Boston Body Jacket, and CAMP TLSO) were compared. Ten subjects executed maximum trunk flexion, extension, and lateral bending motions. The spine motion was measured noninvasively with a thin strain gauge device (Flexducer), and passive trunk stiffness around the neutral posture was estimated from an electromyography-assisted biomechanical model. No significant differences in either the restriction of motion or the amount of added passive trunk stiffness were found between the three orthoses. The subjects also did not perceive any difference in the restriction of motion but rated the Aspen TLSO significantly more comfortable than the other two orthoses. The rigid custom orthosis design may not be important for restricting the spine motion and providing passive trunk stiffness, or there may be other measures that reflect better the function of orthoses.

  6. Relative contribution of trunk muscles to the stability of the lumbar spine during isometric exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; VanVliet, James J

    2002-02-01

    To compare the relative contribution of various trunk muscles to the stability of the lumbar spine. Quantification of spine stability with a biomechanical model. Modern low back rehabilitation techniques focus on muscles that stabilize the lumbar spine. However, the relative contribution of various trunk muscles to spine stability is currently unknown. Eight male subjects performed isometric exertions in trunk flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, and isometric exertions under vertical trunk loading and in a lifting hold. Each isometric trial was repeated three times at 20%, 40%, and 60% of the maximum trunk flexion force or with a load of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% of body weight for the latter two exertions. Surface EMG data from 12 major trunk muscles were used in the biomechanical model to estimate stability of the lumbar spine. A simulation of each trial was performed repeatedly with one of the 10 major trunk muscle groups removed from the model. Relative contribution of each muscle to spine stability was significantly affected by the combination of loading magnitude and direction (3-way interaction). None of the removed muscles reduced spine stability by more than 30%. A single muscle cannot be identified as the most important for the stability of the lumbar spine. Rather, spine stability depends on the relative activation of all trunk muscles and other loading variables. This study will improve our understanding of individual trunk muscles' contribution to overall stability of the lumbar spine.

  7. Acute dopamine depletion with branched chain amino acids decreases auditory top-down event-related potentials in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Andres H; Goldberg, Terry E; Hassoun, Youssef; Bates, John A; Nassauer, Katharine W; Sevy, Serge; Opgen-Rhein, Carolin; Malhotra, Anil K

    2009-06-01

    Cerebral dopamine homeostasis has been implicated in a wide range of cognitive processes and is of great pathophysiological importance in schizophrenia. A novel approach to study cognitive effects of dopamine is to deplete its cerebral levels with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) that acutely lower dopamine precursor amino acid availability. Here, we studied the effects of acute dopamine depletion on early and late attentive cortical processing. Auditory event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3 were investigated using high-density electroencephalography in 22 healthy male subjects after receiving BCAAs or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Total free serum prolactin was also determined as a surrogate marker of cerebral dopamine depletion. Acute dopamine depletion increased free plasma prolactin and significantly reduced prefrontal ERP components N2 and P3. Subcomponent analysis of N2 revealed a significant attenuation of early attentive N2b over prefrontal scalp sites. As a proof of concept, these results strongly suggest that BCAAs are acting on basic information processing. Dopaminergic neurotransmission seems to be involved in auditory top-down processing as indexed by prefrontal N2 and P3 reductions during dopamine depletion. In healthy subjects, intact early cortical top-down processing can be acutely dysregulated by ingestion of BCAAs. We discuss the potential impact of these findings on schizophrenia research.

  8. IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN, BASOPHIL SENSITIVITY DECREASES DURING SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY DUE TO BOTH HUMORAL FACTORS AND CELLULAR DESENSITIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Johannes Martin Schmid, Ronald Dahl, and Hans Juergen Hoffmann Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aarhus, Denmark Background: The major effect of SCIT is a change in allergen specific immunoglobulin. We measure the contribution of competing immunoglobulin to the effect of SCIT in patients......X with an about six-fold decrease in cellular sensitivity. Conclusion: We found an increasing protective effect of SCIT after 1 year of treatment measured by basophil activation test. During the early treatment period, this effect is primarily based on a shift towards protecting IgX, while there seems...

  9. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan from oat bran in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects may decrease when beta-glucan is incorporated into bread and cookies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, D.A.J.M.; Hornstra, G.; Mensink, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan from oat bran in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects may decrease when beta-glucan is incorporated into bread and cookies. Kerckhoffs DA, Hornstra G, Mensink RP. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND:

  11. Caffeine can decrease subjective energy depending on the vehicle with which it is consumed and when it is measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H A; Benton, D

    2013-07-01

    Energy drinks contain glucose and caffeine, although in the longer term both adversely influence blood glucose homeostasis, with the unconsidered potential to have adverse consequences for cognition and mood. The objective of this study was to consider the influence on interstitial glucose levels, mood and cognition of drinks differing in their caffeine content and glycaemic load. Ninety minutes after a standard breakfast, a yoghurt-, glucose- or water-based drink, with or without 80 mg of caffeine, was consumed. The consumption of caffeine negatively influenced glucose homeostasis: that is, irrespective of the vehicle, caffeine consumption resulted in elevated levels of blood glucose throughout the study. Thirty minutes after consuming caffeine and water, rather than water alone, greater subjective energy was reported. However, after 90 and 150 min, caffeine administered in water increased tiredness, hostility and confusion. In contrast, combining caffeine with a yoghurt-based drink increased energy, agreeableness and clearheadedness later in the morning. There were no effects of caffeine on ratings of mood when it was taken with glucose. Caffeine, irrespective of vehicle, resulted in better memory, quicker reaction times in the choice reaction time test and the working memory task, and better and quicker responses with the vigilance task. Further research should consider how caffeine interacts with macronutrients and the timescale over which such effects occur.

  12. Decreased Numbers of Somatostatin-Expressing Neurons in the Amygdala of Subjects With Bipolar Disorder or Schizophrenia: Relationship to Circadian Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, Harry; Wiseman, Jason T; Markota, Matej; Ehrenfeld, Lucy; Berretta, Sabina

    2017-03-15

    Growing evidence points to a key role for somatostatin (SST) in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). In the amygdala, neurons expressing SST play an important role in the regulation of anxiety, which is often comorbid in these disorders. We tested the hypothesis that SST-immunoreactive (IR) neurons are decreased in the amygdala of subjects with SZ and BD. Evidence for circadian SST expression in the amygdala and disrupted circadian rhythms and rhythmic peaks of anxiety in BD suggest a disruption of rhythmic expression of SST in this disorder. Amygdala sections from 12 SZ, 15 BD, and 15 control subjects were processed for immunocytochemistry for SST and neuropeptide Y, a neuropeptide partially coexpressed in SST-IR neurons. Total numbers (N t ) of IR neurons were measured. Time of death was used to test associations with circadian rhythms. SST-IR neurons were decreased in the lateral amygdala nucleus in BD (N t , p = .003) and SZ (N t , p = .02). In normal control subjects, N t of SST-IR neurons varied according to time of death. This pattern was altered in BD subjects, characterized by decreases of SST-IR neurons selectively in subjects with time of death corresponding to the day (6:00 am to 5:59 pm). Numbers of neuropeptide Y-IR neurons were not affected. Decreased SST-IR neurons in the amygdala of patients with SZ and BD, interpreted here as decreased SST expression, may disrupt responses to fear and anxiety regulation in these individuals. In BD, our findings raise the possibility that morning peaks of anxiety depend on a disruption of circadian regulation of SST expression in the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating eccentric hip torque and trunk endurance as mediators of changes in lower limb and trunk kinematics in response to functional stabilization training in women with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldon, Rodrigo de Marche; Piva, Sara Regina; Scattone Silva, Rodrigo; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2015-06-01

    Altered movement patterns of the trunk and lower limbs have been associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP). It has been assumed that increasing the strength of the hip and trunk muscles would improve lower limb and trunk kinematics in these patients. However, evidence in support of that assumption is limited. To determine whether increases in the strength of hip muscles and endurance of trunk muscles in response to functional stabilization training will mediate changes in frontal plane lower limb kinematics in patients with PFP. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-one female athletes were randomized to either a functional stabilization training group that emphasized strengthening of the trunk and hip muscles or a standard training group that emphasized stretching and quadriceps strengthening. Patients attended a baseline assessment session, followed by 8 weeks of intervention, and were then reassessed at the end of the intervention period. The potential mediators that were evaluated included eccentric torque of hip muscles and endurance of the trunk muscles. The outcome variables were the lower limb and trunk kinematics in the frontal plane assessed during a single-legged squat task. The eccentric strength of the gluteus muscles showed a mediation effect ranging from 18% to 32% on changes to frontal plane kinematics (decreased ipsilateral trunk inclination, pelvis contralateral depression, and hip adduction excursions) observed in the functional stabilization training group after intervention. Although the mediation effects were small, the results suggest that improvements in the strength of the gluteus muscles can influence the frontal plane movement patterns of the lower limb and trunk in women with PFP. Patients with PFP might benefit from strengthening of the hip muscles to improve frontal plane lower limb and trunk kinematics during functional tasks. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. The Interaction of Trunk-Load and Trunk-Position Adaptations on Knee Anterior Shear and Hamstrings Muscle Forces During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulas, Anthony S.; Hortobágyi, Tibor; DeVita, Paul

    2010-01-01

    =  5.16, P  =  .035) and average (F1,19  =  12.35, P  =  .002) hamstrings forces. When trunk load was added, average hamstrings forces decreased by 16% in the trunk-extensor group but increased by 13% in the trunk-flexor group. Conclusions: Added trunk loads increased knee anterior shear and knee muscle forces, depending on trunk adaptation strategy. The trunk-extensor adaptation to the load resulted in a quadriceps-dominant strategy that increased knee anterior shear forces. Trunk-flexor adaptations may serve as a protective strategy against the added load. These findings should be interpreted with caution, as only the face validity of the biomechanical model was assessed. PMID:20064042

  15. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  16. Effect of Ankle Mobility and Segment Ratios on Trunk Lean in the Barbell Back Squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglsang, Emil I; Telling, Anders S; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-11-01

    Fuglsang, EI, Telling, AS, and Sørensen, H. Effect of ankle mobility and segment ratios on trunk lean in the barbell back squat. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3024-3033, 2017-The barbell back squat is a popular exercise used for both performance enhancing and rehabilitation purposes. However, injuries are common, and people with a history of lower back pain are especially vulnerable. Past studies have shown that higher trunk angles (less forward lean) generate less stress on the lower back; thus, it seems appropriate to investigate the factors presumed to influence the trunk angle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how ankle mobility and the segment ratios between the thoracic spine, thighs, and shanks influence the trunk angle in the back squat. While recorded with motion capture, 11 male subjects performed 3 repetitions at approximately 75% of 1 repetition maximum in the squat to a parallel position (thighs horizontal) or lower. Furthermore, subjects performed a weight bearing lunge test to determine maximal range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint. Segment angles of the shank, thigh, and trunk segments as well as ankle joint angles were calculated by 2-dimensional kinematic analysis. Simple linear and multiple regressions were used to test the correlation between the lower extremity angles, segment ratios, and the trunk angle. On average, subjects had an 11.4 ± 4.4° deficit in dorsiflexion ROM between maximal ROM and ROM in the parallel squat (PS) which was independent of maximal ROM. Ankle mobility showed to significantly negatively correlate with trunk angle, thereby showing that a subject with greater ankle ROM had a more upright torso in the PS position. This study was unable to find a significant correlation between the segment ratios and trunk angle. Furthermore, when combined, no significant relationship between ankle mobility, segment length ratios, and trunk angle were found, although it was noticed that this more complex model showed

  17. Trunk rotation affects temporal order judgments with direct saccades: Influence of handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Kerstin; Kagan, Igor; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Bähr, Mathias; Wilke, Melanie

    2015-12-01

    Manipulation of the trunk midline has been shown to improve visuospatial performance in patients with unilateral visual neglect. The goal of the present study was to disentangle motor and perceptual components of egocentric midline manipulations and to investigate the contribution of individual hand preference. Two versions of visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks were tested in healthy right- and left-handed subjects while trunk rotation was varied. In the congruent version, subjects were required to execute a saccade to the first of two horizontal stimuli presented with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA). In the incongruent version, subjects were required to perform a vertical saccade to a pre-learned color target, thereby dissociating motor response from the perceptual stimulus location. The main findings of this study are a trunk rotation and response direction specific impact on temporal judgments in form of a prior entry bias for right hemifield stimuli during rightward trunk rotation, but only in the congruent task. This trunk rotation-induced spatial bias was most pronounced in left-handed participants but had the same sign in the right-handed group. Results suggest that egocentric midline shifts in healthy subjects induce a spatially-specific motor, but not a perceptual, bias and underline the importance of taking individual differences in functional laterality such as handedness and mode of perceptual report into account when evaluating effects of trunk rotation in either healthy subjects or neurological patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low back load during level walking in elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhira J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Junji Katsuhira,1,2 Ko Matsudaira,2 Hiroyuki Oka,2 Shinno Iijima,3 Akihiro Ito,3 Tadashi Yasui,4 Arito Yozu5 1Faculty of Medical Technology, Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics and Assistive Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, 2Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi, 4Kawamura-Gishi Company, Ltd., Osaka, 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: The effects of lumbosacral and spinal orthoses on low back pain and gait are not exactly clear. We previously developed a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low back load to decrease such load, and confirmed its positive effects during level walking in healthy young adults. Therefore, we aimed to determine the efficacy of this trunk orthosis during level walking in healthy elderly subjects.Methods: Fifteen community-dwelling elderly subjects performed level walking at a self-selected speed without an orthosis, with our orthosis, and with a lumbosacral orthosis. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and erector spinae activity was recorded by electromyography.Results: When comparing the three conditions, our orthosis showed the following effects: it decreased the peak extension moment, increased the peak flexion moment, decreased the lateral bending angle, increased the peak thoracic extension angle, and had significantly lower erector spinae activity and significantly larger peak pelvic forward tilt angles.Conclusion: Our orthosis with joints providing resistive force decreased low back load and modified trunk and pelvis alignments during level walking in healthy elderly people. Keywords: biomechanics, orthosis, gait, low back pain, joint moment, motion analysis

  19. The effect of trunk stabilization exercises with a swiss ball on core muscle activation in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Gil; Yong, Min Sik; Na, Sang Su

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk stabilization exercise on the muscle EMG activations related to core stability. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen elderly people in a geriatric hospital performed trunk stabilization exercises with a Swiss ball for 20 minutes five times per week for 8 weeks. Trunk muscle activations were measured using electromyography before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle activations of the rectus abdominis, erector spinae, lateral low-back (quadratus lumborum and external oblique), and gluteus medius muscles increased significantly. [Conclusion] The trunk stabilization exercise with a Swiss ball significantly increased the muscle activities of the elderly.

  20. Trunk Postural Muscle Timing Is Not Compromised In Low Back Pain Patients Clinically Diagnosed With Movement Coordination Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rupal; Cannella, Marco; Henry, Sharon M; Smith, Susan; Giszter, Simon; Silfies, Sheri P

    2017-04-01

    Trunk muscle timing impairment has been associated with nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP), but this finding has not been consistent. This study investigated trunk muscle timing in a subgroup of patients with NSLBP attributed to movement coordination impairment (MCI) and matched asymptomatic controls in response to a rapid arm-raising task. Twenty-one NSLBP subjects and 21 matched controls had arm motion and surface EMG data collected from seven bilateral trunk muscles. Muscle onset and offset relative to deltoid muscle activation and arm motion, duration of muscle burst and abdominal-extensor co-contraction time were derived. Trunk muscle onset and offset latencies, and burst and co-contraction durations were not different (p > .05) between groups. Patterns of trunk muscle activation and deactivation relative to arm motion were not different. Task performance was similar between groups. Trunk muscle timing does not appear to be an underlying impairment in the subgroup of NSLBP with MCI.

  1. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in patients with low back pain enhance the stability of the lumbar spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H; Cholewicki, Jacek; Radebold, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A comparative study of trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy control subjects and patients with chronic low back pain was conducted. OBJECTIVE: To assess trunk muscle recruitment in patients with low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Conflicting evidence has been reported

  2. Slow Expiration Reduces External Oblique Muscle Activity during Maximum Trunk Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Tajima, Saya; Masuno, Riyo; Kogame, Yoshiko; Ando, Suguru; Yokohata, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of expiration on abdominal muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion. [Subjects] Twenty-one healthy university students (10 men, 11 women) participated in this study. [Methods] Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activity of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles. The paired t-test was used to examine the significance of differences in the abdominal muscles between maximum trunk flexion with breath holding and slow expiration. [Results] There was a significantly lower EMG activity in the external oblique muscle during maximum trunk flexion with slow expiration. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that slow expiration reduces external oblique muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion performed by healthy young subjects.

  3. Trunk Accelerometry Reveals Postural Instability in Untreated Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.; Zampieri, Cris; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have shown that subjects with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit abnormalities in sway parameters during quiet standing, abnormalities of postural sway associated with untreated PD have not been reported. Although not clinically apparent, we hypothesized that spontaneous sway in quiet stance is abnormal in people with untreated PD. We examined 13 subjects, recently diagnosed with PD, who were not yet taking any anti-parkinsonian medications and 12 healthy, age-matched control subjects. Postural sway was measured with a linear accelerometer on the posterior trunk (L5 level) and compared with traditional forceplate measures of sway. Subjects stood for two minutes under two conditions: eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). One of the most discriminative measures of postural changes in subjects with untreated PD was the increased ‘JERK’ of lower trunk in the EO condition, measured with the accelerometer. Root mean square and the frequency dispersion of postural sway in the EO condition also discriminated sway in untreated PD subjects compared to controls subjects. We conclude that accelerometer-based sway metrics could be used as objective measures of postural instability in untreated PD. Accelerometer-based analysis of spontaneous sway may provide a powerful tool for early clinical trials and for monitoring the effects of treatment of balance disorders in subjects with PD. PMID:21641263

  4. Celiac trunk coverage in endovascular aneurysm repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delle, Martin; Lönn, Lars; Henrikson, O

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to examine the risks associated with obstruction of the coeliac trunk in the process of treating aneurysms with endografting.......This retrospective study was undertaken to examine the risks associated with obstruction of the coeliac trunk in the process of treating aneurysms with endografting....

  5. Altered trunk movements during gait in children with spastic diplegia: compensatory or underlying trunk control deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, Lieve; Feys, Hilde; Molenaers, Guy; Jaspers, Ellen; Monari, Davide; Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-09-01

    Altered trunk movements during gait in children with CP are considered compensatory due to lower limb impairments, although scientific evidence for this assumption has not yet been provided. This study aimed to study the functional relation between trunk and lower limb movement deficits during gait in children with spastic diplegia. Therefore, the relationship between trunk control in sitting, and trunk and lower limb movements during gait was explored in 20 children with spastic diplegia (age 9.2 ± 3 yrs; GMFCS level I n=10, level II n=10). Trunk control in sitting was assessed with the Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS), a clinical measure that reflects the presence of an underlying trunk control deficit. Trunk movements during gait were measured with a recently developed trunk model including the pelvis, thorax, head, shoulder line and spine. Lower limb movements were assessed with the Plug-in-Gait model (Vicon(®)). Range of motion (ROM) of the different trunk segments was calculated, as well as the Trunk Profile Score (TPS) and Trunk Variable Scores (TVSs). Similarly, the Gait Profile Score (GPS) and Gait Variable Scores (GVSs) were calculated to describe altered lower limb movements during gait. Correlation analyses were performed between the presence of impaired trunk control in sitting (TCMS) and altered trunk movements during gait (ROM, TPS/TVSs) and between these altered trunk movements and lower limb movements (GPS/GVSs) during gait. A poorer performance on the TCMS correlated with increased ROM and TPS/TVSs, particularly for the thorax, indicating the presence of an underlying trunk control deficit. No significant correlation was found between the TPS and GPS, suggesting that overall trunk and lower limb movement deficits were not strongly associated. Only few correlations between specific lower limb deficits (GVSs for hip ab/adduction, knee flexion/extension and ankle flexion/extension) and TVSs for thorax lateral bending and rotation were found

  6. Decreased insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are associated with liver function in subjects with fasting glucose between 100 and 109 mg/dL in Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Jeng-Yueh; Wang, Chiao-Ling; Hsia, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Hsin, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Kun-Der; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the American Diabetes Association recommended that the lower limit for the diagnosis of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) should be reduced from 110 to 100 mg/dL in the analysis of the associated risk factors of IFG. It has been proposed that liver dysfunction may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. A primary aim was to investigate the relationship between liver enzyme and insulin resistance (IR) in IFG group. The secondary aim was to investigate IR and beta-cell function assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B, respectively) in subjects with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 100 and 109 mg/dL. We enrolled 284 subjects whose medical history and physical examination required tests to screen for metabolic abnormalities. In addition, we also excluded all factors affecting glucose or insulin metabolism. According to the FPG level, they were divided into the following groups: group A, FPG population, the fasting insulin level, the fasting glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase, and the diastolic blood pressure all increased significantly as the glycemic status progressed, whereas HOMA-%B levels decreased significantly as the glycemic status progressed. The lipid profile, alkaline phosphatase, and systolic blood pressure did not differ significantly among 3 different glycemic classifications. Study results indicate that, first, there was a significant decrease of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in subjects with fasting glucose from 100 to 109 mg/dL compared with subjects with normal fasting glucose. Second, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase were associated with IR as the glycemic status progressed in the IFG group.

  7. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    , with exclusive use of wood derived from reforestation of Pinus elliottii 45 years of age, Experiment Station Itapetininga / IF-SMA, where through a partnership with the company "Scales and Trunks Trivelato", and how strategic methodology, this facility will be built as zootechnical technological standard and quality control adopted by the company, which is pioneer in this segment. The raw material studied showed characteristics suitable for structural use (ABNT, good workability, and there is no need to adjust or replace other metal components (screws, nails, gears, hinges, mechanical set of scales, etc.. For its construction who received conventional lacquer finish. Besides adding aesthetic value, the use of pine wood has reduced by 25% the weight of the final product, which consumed 1.4 m3 for its production, a decrease of 40% for the purchase of raw material wood. Of great practical impact on the preservation of natural resources, supported by various public policies, with the primary target audience ranchers familiar with the low investment capacity in traditional husbandry facilities, social and technological innovation that will enable farmers to better adherence to official programs of good practices and animal welfare, increasing levels of public health.

  8. Effect of Ankle Mobility and Segment Ratios on Trunk Lean in the Barbell Back Squat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil I; Telling, Anders S; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    kinematic analysis. Simple linear and multiple regressions were used to test the correlation between the lower extremity angles, segment ratios, and the trunk angle. On average, subjects had an 11.4 ± 4.4° deficit in dorsiflexion ROM between maximal ROM and ROM in the parallel squat (PS) which....... Furthermore, when combined, no significant relationship between ankle mobility, segment length ratios, and trunk angle were found, although it was noticed that this more complex model showed the greatest R value....

  9. The Role of the Trunk Control in Athletic Performance of a Reactive Change-of-Direction Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Suzi; Austin, Aaron P; Bird, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Edwards, S, Austin, AP, and Bird, SP. The role of the trunk control in athletic performance of a reactive change-of-direction task. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 126-139, 2017-Agility is vital to success in team sport competition with the trunk argued to play a key role in sport performance. This study explored the role of trunk control during a reactive change-of-direction task (R-COD) and field-based measures of athletic performance. Twenty male players completed field-based athletic performance assessments (modified Illinois agility test [mIAT], 3 repetition maximum back squat, and 5 countermovement jumps [CMJ]) and R-CODs, during which 3-dimensional ground reaction forces and kinematics were recorded. Trunk control was assessed as the sum of the trunk relative to the pelvis range of motion (ROM) in all 3 planes during the R-COD. Participants with the highest (HIGH, n = 7) and lowest (LOW, n = 7) trunk ROM values were grouped. The HIGH group achieved significantly shorter mIAT time duration, higher CMJ height, and lower knee flexion angles, greater trunk lateral flexion and rotation relative to pelvis, and greater angular momentum during the R-COD compared with the LOW group. Superior athletic performance was associated with decreased trunk control (high trunk ROM) during the R-COD. Although this study suggested that trunk control is a vital component of performance, it is unknown whether this trunk control is inherent or an effect of training history, nor does not support current optimal athletic performance recommendation of decreased trunk motion during R-COD.

  10. A comparative study of the effects of trunk exercise program in aquatic and land-based therapy on gait in hemiplegic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program on gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 28 hemiplegic stroke patients (20 males, 8 females). The subjects performed a trunk exercise program for a total of four weeks. [Results] Walking speed and cycle, stance phase and stride length of the affected side, and the symmetry index of the stance phase significantly improved after the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the aquatic and land-based trunk exercise program may help improve gait performance ability after stroke.

  11. The association between trunk muscle endurance and lumbo-pelvic stability in adolescent low back pain: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased trunk muscle endurance has been identified as a risk factor for adolescent LBP, and poor lumbo-pelvic stability has been found to be associated with LBP in the adult population. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between adolescent LBP, trunk muscle endurance and poor lumbo-pelvic stability. Design: A cross sectional study. Participants: 80 adolescents in grade 8 to grade 11, aged 12 to 17 years, at three high schools in Gauteng, who agreed to participate in the study. Method: Data was collected by means of a validated questionnaire and physical tests. The active straight leg raise test was used to record the lumbo-pelvic stabilising muscles. The Sorensen, Shirado and side-bridge tests were used to record trunk extensor, flexor and side flexor muscle endurance, respectively. Results: The results revealed a lifetime prevalence of LBP of 82.50%, one year prevalence of 78.80% and point prevalence of 23.80%. Adolescents with LBP demonstrated decreased trunk extensor muscle endurance but increased trunk flexor muscle endurance (p=0.044, compared to non-LBP adolescents. Poor lumbo-pelvic stability was not associated with adolescent LBP, but was associated with decreased extensor trunk muscle endurance (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was an association between trunk flexor muscle endurance and adolescent LBP, and between decreased trunk extensor muscle endurance and poor lumbo-pelvic stability. No association was found between LBP and poor lumbo-pelvic stability.

  12. Walking with robot assistance: the influence of body weight support on the trunk and pelvis kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Knaepen, Kristel; Michielsen, Marc; Hens, Gerrit; Clijsen, Ron; Goossens, Maggie; Buyl, Ronald; Meeusen, Romain; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2015-05-01

    The goal was to assess in healthy participants the three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and the trunk during robot-assisted treadmill walking (RATW) at 0%, 30% and 50% body weight support (BWS), compared with treadmill walking (TW). 18 healthy participants walked (2 kmph) on a treadmill with and without robot assistance (Lokomat; 60% guidance force; 0%, 30% and 50% BWS). After an acclimatisation period (four minutes), trunk and pelvis kinematics were registered in each condition (Polhemus Liberty [240 Hz]). The results were analysed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction, with the level of suspension as within-subject factor. During RATW with BWS, there were significantly (1) smaller antero-posterior and lateral translations of the trunk and the pelvis; (2) smaller antero-posterior flexion and axial rotation of the trunk; (3) larger lateral flexion of the trunk; and (4) larger antero-posterior tilting of the pelvis compared with TW. There are significant differences in trunk and pelvis kinematics in healthy persons during TW with and without robot assistance. These data are relevant in gait rehabilitation, relating to normal balance regulation. Additional research is recommended to further assess the influence of robot assistance on human gait. The trunk and pelvis moves in a different way during walking with robot assistance. The data suggest that the change in movement is due to the robot device and the harness of the suspension system more than due to the level of suspension itself.

  13. Blastocystis is associated with decrease of fecal microbiota protective bacteria: comparative analysis between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourrisson, Céline; Scanzi, Julien; Pereira, Bruno; NkoudMongo, Christina; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Cian, Amandine; Viscogliosi, Eric; Livrelli, Valérie; Delbac, Frédéric; Dapoigny, Michel; Poirier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is a protistan parasite living in the digestive tract of many animals, including humans. This highly prevalent intestinal parasite is suspected to be linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), a chronic functional bowel disorder. Here, we first compared the prevalence of Blastocystis among 56 IBS patients (40 IBS with constipation (IBS-C), 9 IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), 4 mixed IBS (IBS-M) and 3 unsubtyped IBS (IBS-U) according to the Rome III criteria) and 56 control (i.e. without any diagnosed chronic or acute gastrointestinal disorder) subjects. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis spp. was observed in the IBS group, but was only statistically significant in men (36.8% in the IBS group versus 4.8% in the control group). We then conducted a meta-analysis including epidemiological studies attempting to determine whether Blastocystis carriage could be linked to IBS, and highlighted that IBS patients had a relative risk of 2.34 to be infected by Blastocystis when compared to non-IBS subjects. We also looked for Dientamoeba fragilis, which is often associated with IBS, and identified this parasite only in some IBS patients (n = 6/56). Several studies provided evidence for a major role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBS. Thus, we investigated the possible impact of Blastocystis carriage on the enteric bacterial community through quantification of 8 major bacterial groups from the enteric flora. Our data indicated that men with IBS-C had a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium sp. when infected by Blastocystis. Interestingly, in control subjects (i.e. without any gastrointestinal disorder) positive for Blastocystis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is known for its anti-inflammatory properties, was significantly decreased in men. Our results support the hypothesis that Blastocystis might be linked to the pathophysiology of IBS-C and intestinal flora imbalance.

  14. Blastocystis Is Associated with Decrease of Fecal Microbiota Protective Bacteria: Comparative Analysis between Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourrisson, Céline; Scanzi, Julien; Pereira, Bruno; NkoudMongo, Christina; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Cian, Amandine; Viscogliosi, Eric; Livrelli, Valérie; Delbac, Frédéric; Dapoigny, Michel; Poirier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is a protistan parasite living in the digestive tract of many animals, including humans. This highly prevalent intestinal parasite is suspected to be linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), a chronic functional bowel disorder. Here, we first compared the prevalence of Blastocystis among 56 IBS patients (40 IBS with constipation (IBS-C), 9 IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), 4 mixed IBS (IBS-M) and 3 unsubtyped IBS (IBS-U) according to the Rome III criteria) and 56 control (i.e. without any diagnosed chronic or acute gastrointestinal disorder) subjects. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis spp. was observed in the IBS group, but was only statistically significant in men (36.8% in the IBS group versus 4.8% in the control group). We then conducted a meta-analysis including epidemiological studies attempting to determine whether Blastocystis carriage could be linked to IBS, and highlighted that IBS patients had a relative risk of 2.34 to be infected by Blastocystis when compared to non-IBS subjects. We also looked for Dientamoeba fragilis, which is often associated with IBS, and identified this parasite only in some IBS patients (n = 6/56). Several studies provided evidence for a major role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBS. Thus, we investigated the possible impact of Blastocystis carriage on the enteric bacterial community through quantification of 8 major bacterial groups from the enteric flora. Our data indicated that men with IBS-C had a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium sp. when infected by Blastocystis. Interestingly, in control subjects (i.e. without any gastrointestinal disorder) positive for Blastocystis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is known for its anti-inflammatory properties, was significantly decreased in men. Our results support the hypothesis that Blastocystis might be linked to the pathophysiology of IBS-C and intestinal flora imbalance. PMID:25365580

  15. Blastocystis is associated with decrease of fecal microbiota protective bacteria: comparative analysis between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and control subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Nourrisson

    Full Text Available Blastocystis is a protistan parasite living in the digestive tract of many animals, including humans. This highly prevalent intestinal parasite is suspected to be linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, a chronic functional bowel disorder. Here, we first compared the prevalence of Blastocystis among 56 IBS patients (40 IBS with constipation (IBS-C, 9 IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D, 4 mixed IBS (IBS-M and 3 unsubtyped IBS (IBS-U according to the Rome III criteria and 56 control (i.e. without any diagnosed chronic or acute gastrointestinal disorder subjects. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis spp. was observed in the IBS group, but was only statistically significant in men (36.8% in the IBS group versus 4.8% in the control group. We then conducted a meta-analysis including epidemiological studies attempting to determine whether Blastocystis carriage could be linked to IBS, and highlighted that IBS patients had a relative risk of 2.34 to be infected by Blastocystis when compared to non-IBS subjects. We also looked for Dientamoeba fragilis, which is often associated with IBS, and identified this parasite only in some IBS patients (n = 6/56. Several studies provided evidence for a major role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBS. Thus, we investigated the possible impact of Blastocystis carriage on the enteric bacterial community through quantification of 8 major bacterial groups from the enteric flora. Our data indicated that men with IBS-C had a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium sp. when infected by Blastocystis. Interestingly, in control subjects (i.e. without any gastrointestinal disorder positive for Blastocystis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is known for its anti-inflammatory properties, was significantly decreased in men. Our results support the hypothesis that Blastocystis might be linked to the pathophysiology of IBS-C and intestinal flora imbalance.

  16. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gingras

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  17. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Pohler, Gerald; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females) inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  18. [THE EFFECTS OF THE PILATES METHOD ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY, PELVIC TILT AND TRUNK FLEXION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Alacid Cárceles, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Pilates includes a high volume of hamstring stretching and maximal trunk flexion with knees extended exercises. to perform a systematic review about Pilates practice effects and a detraining period on hamstring extensibility, pelvic tilt and trunk flexion in maximal trunk flexion with knees extended. it was analysed all the experimental or quasi-experimental designs written in English, Spanish or Portuguese and included in the following databases: Pubmed, Sports Discus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Dialnet and Research Gate. twenty-one papers were analysed. Most of them used a pre-test-post-test design with control group. The intervention programs applied were heterogeneous. Samples were composed mainly of women, both young and old. It was found that the Pilates practice, with different volume, significantly increased hamstring muscle extensibility and pelvic tilt in maximal trunk flexion. At least three training sessions peer week during six weeks were necessary in order to obtain a high trunk inclination. Studies which involved athletes showed contradictory results. By inducing a detraining period it was noticed a decrease in hamstring extensibility and trunk flexion from the second week. there is a moderate evidence that Pilates is an effective method to increase hamstring extensibility, pelvic tilt and the degree of trunk flexion in maximal flexion positions in sedentary and recreational active people and also to increase hamstring extensibility in athletes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Low back pain affects trunk as well as lower limb movements during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Ertelt, Thomas; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2015-04-13

    Up to now, most gait analyses on low back pain concentrate on changes in trunk coordination during walking on a treadmill. Locomotion on uneven ground as well as lower limb changes receives little attention in association with low back pain. The present study focuses on how chronic non-specific low back pain causes modifications in lower limb and trunk movements, in level and uneven walking and running. We found that trunk as well as lower limb movement was influenced by chronic non-specific low back pain. A consistent finding across all gaits and ground level changes is that patients with chronic non-specific low back pain show less pelvis and unchanged thorax rotation as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, in chronic non-specific low back pain patients the trunk rotation decreased only during level and uneven running whereas the sagittal trunk inclination at touchdown increased only during uneven walking as compared to healthy controls. Besides significant changes in the upper body, in chronic non-specific low back pain patients the knee joint angle at touchdown was more extended during level walking but also during uneven walking and running as compared to healthy controls. We assume that trunk movements interact with lower limb movements or vice versa. Therefore, we recommend that further investigations on low back pain should consider both trunk (primarily pelvis) and lower limb (primarily knee) movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Control of trunk motion following sudden stop perturbations during cart pushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2011-01-04

    External perturbations during pushing tasks have been suggested to be a risk factor for low-back symptoms. An experiment was designed to investigate whether self-induced and externally induced sudden stops while pushing a high inertia cart influence trunk motions, and how flexor and extensor muscles counteract these perturbations. Twelve healthy male participants pushed a 200 kg cart at shoulder height and hip height. Pushing while walking was compared to situations in which participants had to stop the cart suddenly (self-induced stop) or in which the wheels of the cart were unexpectedly blocked (externally induced stop). For the perturbed conditions, the peak values and the maximum changes from the reference condition (pushing while walking) of the external moment at L5/S1, trunk inclination and electromyographic amplitudes of trunk muscles were determined. In the self-induced stop, a voluntary trunk extension occurred. Initial responses in both stops consisted of flexor and extensor muscle cocontraction. In self-induced stops this was followed by sustained extensor activity. In the externally induced stops, an external extension moment caused a decrease in trunk inclination. The opposite directions of the internal moment and trunk motion in the externally induced stop while pushing at shoulder height may indicate insufficient active control of trunk posture. Consequently, sudden blocking of the wheels in pushing at shoulder height may put the low back at risk of mechanical injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wheelchair Neuroprosthesis for Improving Dynamic Trunk Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kramay; Milosevic, Matija; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2017-07-14

    Trunk instability is a major problem for individuals with thoracic and cervical spinal cord injury. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) neuroprosthesis, a technology that uses small electrical currents to artificially contract muscles, has previously been utilized to improve trunk stability during quasistatic and dynamic sitting. The aim of this study was to develop the first powered wheelchair-based neuroprosthesis and to test its feasibility for improving trunk stability. Eleven male, able-bodied individuals participated in the feasibility study. While participants were seated, the wheelchair was moved in the forward or backward directions with slow and fast accelerations. Two different FES protocols were tested: 1) co-contraction; and 2) directionally-dependent contraction of trunk extensors and flexors. Sham stimulations with intensities below the motor threshold were applied as the control conditions. Inertial motion sensors were used to quantify the maximum angular displacement and velocity of the trunk. Results showed that both directional contractions and co-contraction reduced trunk displacement and velocity, compared to the control conditions. However, directionally-dependent muscle contractions were more effective in improving trunk stability, compared to cocontractions. Overall, feasibility of the wheelchair-based neuroprosthesis was demonstrated. Future research will incorporate feedback from wheelchair movements and test the neuroprosthesis with individuals who sustained spinal cord injury.

  2. Impact of clinical, psychological, and social factors on decreased Tinetti test score in community-living elderly subjects: a prospective study with two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manckoundia, Patrick; Thomas, Frédérique; Buatois, Séverine; Guize, Louis; Jégo, Bertrand; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Benetos, Athanase

    2008-06-01

    Balance and gait are essential to maintain physical autonomy, particularly in elderly people. Thus the detection of risk factors of balance and gait impairment appears necessary in order to prevent falls and dependency. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of demographic, social, clinical, psychological, and biological parameters on the decline in balance and gait assessed by the Tinetti test (TT) after a two-year follow-up. This prospective study was conducted among community-living, young elderly volunteers in the centre "Investigations Preventives et Cliniques" and "Observatoire De l'Age" (Paris, France). Three hundred and forty-four participants aged 63.5 on average were enrolled and performed the TT twice, once at inclusion and again two years later. After the two-year follow-up, two groups were constituted according to whether or not there was a decrease in the TT score: the "TT no-deterioration" group comprised subjects with a decrease of less than two points and the "TT deterioration" group comprised those with a decrease of two points or more. Selected demographic, social, clinical, psychological, and biological parameters for the two groups were then compared. Statistical analysis showed that female sex, advanced age, high body mass index, osteoarticular pain, and a high level of anxiety all have a negative impact on TT score. Knowledge of predictive factors of the onset or worsening of balance and gait disorders could allow clinicians to detect young elderly people who should benefit from a specific prevention program.

  3. Trunk imbalance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Carole; Grunstein, Erin; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie

    2016-06-01

    Trunk imbalance (ie, frontal trunk shift measured with a plumb line from C7 to S1) is part of the clinical evaluation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but its prevalence and relationship with scoliosis, back pain, and health-related factors are not well documented. The principal objectives are to document trunk imbalance prevalence and to explore the association between trunk imbalance and the following factors: Cobb angle, type of scoliosis, back pain, function, mental health, and self-image. The secondary objective is to determine back pain prevalence and the relationship between back pain and each of the following: Cobb angle, function, mental health, and self-image. This is a cross-sectional study in a scoliosis clinic of a tertiary university hospital center. The sample includes youth with AIS (N=55). The outcome measures were trunk imbalance prevalence and magnitude, and back pain prevalence and intensity using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) pain score, and the function, self-image, and mental health domains of the SRS-22. Trunk imbalance and back pain were assessed in 55 patients with AIS (Cobb angle: 10-60°). Patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire and the NPRS. Correlations were done between trunk imbalance and scoliosis (Cobb angle, type of scoliosis), back pain (NPRS and SRS-22 pain score), and health-related factors using Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and logistic regression models. Trunk imbalance prevalence is 85% and back pain prevalence is 73%. We found fair to moderate significant positive correlation between trunk imbalance and Cobb angle (r=0.32-0.66, pscoliosis. Lower self-reported pain significantly correlated with lower Cobb angles (r=0.29, p=.03), higher function (r=0.55, p=.000), higher self-image (r=0.44, p=.001), and better mental health (r=0.48, p=.000). There was a trend for trunk imbalance to be related with lower pain in logistic regression models. The high

  4. Trunk biomechanics and its association with hip and knee kinematics in patients with and without patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Theresa Helissa; Maciel, Carlos Dias; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2015-02-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common lower extremity condition observed in sports clinics. Recently, it has been suggested that trunk motion could affect hip and knee biomechanics in the frontal plane. Thus, the purpose of the study was compare trunk kinematics, strength and muscle activation between people with PFP and healthy participants. In addition, the associations among trunk biomechanics, hip and knee kinematics were analysed. Thirty people with PFP and thirty pain-free individuals participated. The peak ipsilateral trunk lean, hip adduction, and knee abduction were evaluated with an electromagnetic tracking system, and the surface electromyographic signals of the iliocostalis and external oblique muscle were recorded during single-leg squats. Trunk extension and trunk flexion with rotation isometric strength and side bridge tests were quantified using a handheld dynamometer. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated increased ipsilateral trunk lean, hip adduction and knee abduction (p = 0.02-0.04) during single-leg squat accompanied with decreased trunk isometric strength (p = biomechanics were found in people with PFP. No relationship among trunk, hip and knee biomechanics was found in the PFP group, suggesting that people with PFP show different movement patterns compared to the control group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the Sørensen test valid to assess muscle fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Christophe; Boyer, Mathieu; Duchateau, Jacques; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Jidovtseff, Boris; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Very few studies have quantified the degree of fatigue characterized by the decline in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the trunk extensors induced by the widely used Sørensen test. Measure the degree of fatigue of the trunk extensor muscles induced by the Sørensen test. Eighty young healthy subjects were randomly divided into a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG), each including 50% of the two genders. The EG performed an isometric MVC of the trunk extensors (pre-fatigue test) followed by the Sørensen test, the latter being immediately followed by another MVC (post-fatigue test). The CG performed only the pre- and post-fatigue tests without any exertion in between. The comparison of the pre- and post-fatigue tests revealed a significant (Pmuscles to generate maximal force, and indicates that this test is valid for the assessment of fatigue in trunk extensor muscles.

  6. Effect of Gene and Physical Activity Interaction on Trunk Fat Percentage Among the Newfoundland Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of FTO gene and physical activity interaction on trunk fat percentage. Design and Methods Subjects are 3,004 individuals from Newfoundland and Labrador whose trunk fat percentage and physical activity were recorded, and who were genotyped for 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FTO gene. Subjects were stratified by gender. Multiple tests and multiple regressions were used to analyze the effects of physical activity, variants of FTO , age, and their interactions on trunk fat percentage. Dietary information and other environmental factors were not considered. Results Higher levels of physical activity tend to reduce trunk fat percentage in all individuals. Furthermore, in males, rs9939609 and rs1421085 were significant (α = 0.05 in explaining central body fat, but no SNPs were significant in females. For highly active males, trunk fat percentage varied significantly between variants of rs9939609 and rs1421085, but there is no significant effect among individuals with low activity. The other SNPs examined were not significant in explaining trunk fat percentage. Conclusions Homozygous male carriers of non-obesity risk alleles at rs9939609 and rs1421085 will have significant reduction in central body fat from physical activity in contrast to homozygous males of the obesity-risk alleles. The additive effect of these SNPs is found in males with high physical activity only.

  7. Dual tasking affects lateral trunk control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Takehiko; Hirata, Soichiro; Ando, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Assessing the effects of attention-demanding tasks on trunk movement provides useful insights into postural control while walking in an attention-split situation, such as occurs in daily life. The coefficient of attenuation of acceleration (CoA) at the trunk is a useful gait index to assess whole trunk movements. We investigated the effect of attention-demanding tasks on CoA to assess the role of attention on trunk control during walking. Thirty healthy, community-dwelling older adults (70.1±5.6 years) and 38 younger adults (22.1±3.4 years) participated in this study. Participants walked 20 m at a self-selected speed (slow, normal, fast) and while performing an attention-demanding cognitive task. Trunk acceleration was measured using triaxial accelerometers attached to the lower (L3 spinous process) and upper (C7 spinous process) trunk and used to compute CoA (the reduction in acceleration from the lower to upper trunk). Results showed that an attention-demanding task significantly decreased CoA in the medio-lateral (ML) direction in both age groups (p<0.001), whereas it did not affect CoA in the vertical (VT) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Our findings suggest that the priority of whole trunk control in the ML direction may be higher than in other directions and be strongly associated with attention, whereas whole trunk control in the VT and AP directions may be passively regulated and require minimal attentional control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND TRUNK MOVEMENT DURING CHANGE OF DIRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Sasaki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain the trunk kinematics data during a change-of-direction task and to determine the relationship between trunk kinematics and the change-of-direction performance. The design of this investigation was a descriptive laboratory study. Twelve healthy male collegiate soccer players (age: 21.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass: 67. 7 ± 6.7 kg, and height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m participated in this study. Participants performed a shuttle run cutting task with a 180 degree pivot as quickly as possible. The shuttle run cutting time, ground contact time during a change-of-direction, and trunk inclination angle were measured. The shuttle run cutting time tends to correlate positively with ground contact time. During the change- of-direction task, the trunk forward inclination angle gradually increased during the first 50% of the stance phase and decreased subsequently whereas the trunk flexed, maintaining a left inclination during the first 40% of the stance phase and changing exponentially in the opposite direction. Forward angular displacement of the trunk between foot-contact and maximum trunk inclination correlated positively with the shuttle run cutting time (r = 0.61, p < 0.05 and ground contact time (r = 0.65, p < 0.05. These findings suggest that the change-of-direction performance could be related to the small angular displacement of the trunk during a change of direction. Moreover, it was considered that there might be optimal inclination angles related to change-of-direction performance. Therefore, coaches in field sports should check body posture and trunk movements during changes of direction.

  9. Effects of performing an abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during curl-up exercise on an unstable surface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise on an unstable surface by measuring electromyography (EMG) activity. [Subjects...

  10. Trunk muscle activity during front crawl swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Jonas; Pellegrims, Ward; Einarsson, Ingi Thor; Fernandes, Ricardo; Staes, Filip; Daly, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Core stability training is of increasing interest to both researchers and coaches. Sufficient core stability is needed to balance forces generated by the upper and lower extremities separately (Hibbs et al., 2008). In swimming the development of wireless EMG has created new possibilities to study underwater muscle activity with little hinder. The purpose here was to analyze lower trunk muscle activation during front crawl swimming and examine how trunk muscle activity is relat...

  11. The relevance of trunk evaluation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the segmental assessment of trunk control

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Cristina dos Santos Cardoso de; Fagundes, Iara Kristine; Araújo, Talita Bastos; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Fávero, Francis Meire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim was to describe trunk control in ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 50 DMD patients, (M age = 16.7 years) who underwent the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo). A seven-level scale of trunk control was used (1: head control only; 7: control of entire trunk while unsupported). Static, active and reactive posture control were evaluated in ambulant and non-ambulant patients. ...

  12. 47 CFR 69.112 - Direct-trunked transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct-trunked transport. 69.112 Section 69.112... Computation of Charges § 69.112 Direct-trunked transport. (a) A flat-rated direct-trunked transport charge... other persons that use telephone company direct-trunked transport facilities. (b)(1) For telephone...

  13. Center of pressure trajectories, trunk kinematics and trunk muscle activation during unstable sitting in low back pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, N.W.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Trunk motor behavior has been reported to be altered in low-back pain. This may be associated with impaired lumbar proprioception, which could be compensated by trunk stiffening. We assessed trunk control by measuring center-of-pressure, lumbar kinematics and trunk muscle electromyography in 20

  14. Disruption of coordination between arm, trunk, and center of pressure displacement in patients with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, Ksenia I; Goussev, Valery M; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Leven, Mindy F

    2004-04-01

    To determine how arm movements influence postural sway in the upright position after stroke, interactions between arm, trunk, and center of pressure (CoP) displacements in the sagittal direction were investigated in participants with hemiparesis and healthy subjects. Participants swung both arms sagittally in either of 2 directions (in-phase, anti-phase) and at 2 speeds (preferred, fast) while standing on separate force plates. Variables measured included amplitude and frequency of arm swinging, shoulder and trunk range of motion, CoP displacements under each foot and of the whole body, and the relationships between the arm, trunk, and CoP displacements. CoP displacements under the non-paretic leg were greater than those under the paretic leg, which may in part be related to the larger amplitude of swinging of the non-paretic arm. CoP displacements under each foot were not related to arm swinging during in-phase swinging at the preferred speed in healthy subjects. When speed of arm swinging was increased, however, the CoP moved in a direction opposite to the arm movement. In contrast, in individuals with hemiparesis, CoPs and arms moved in the same direction for both speeds. During anti-phase swinging in healthy subjects, the trunk counterbalanced the arm movements, while in participants with hemiparesis, the trunk moved with the affected arm. Results show that stroke resulted in abnormal patterns of arm-trunk-CoP interactions that may be related to a greater involvement of the trunk in arm transport, an altered pattern of coordination between arm and CoP displacements, and an impaired ability of the damaged nervous system to adapt postural synergies to changes in movement velocity.

  15. Influence of trunk muscle activity and stability in front and back holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Guang; Huang, Qiang-Min; Wang, Feng-Hu; Fan, Shuai

    2017-06-01

    A tandem carrying style is often used in the workplace, but carrying approaches are different for two people because of the holding load in the tandem posture. To understand these carrying styles, this study aimed to investigate the patterns of muscle activity and stability of the trunk influenced by front and back holding of a heavy load. Electromyography data of eight trunk and two hip muscles, as well as displacements of the trunk, were recorded for analysis while subjects stood statically holding a handle in the front and back of the body with and without load. Without load, muscle activities during front holding mirrored those during back holding. With load, greater muscle activities were observed in the dorsal muscles of the trunk and lesser activities were noted in the ventral muscles in the two holding styles. More frequencies of trunk oscillations occurred in front holding with and without load. The results revealed that back holding of load created more stability of the upper body, whereas front holding resulted in more instability of the trunk.

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment attenuated the decrease in regional glucose metabolism of rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia: a high resolution positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, M; Zhang, H; Wang, J; Wen, S-Q; Tang, Z-Q; Chen, Y-Z; Yan, W-Q; Ding, M-P

    2007-05-11

    Cerebral hypoxia may be the main component of cell damage caused by ischemia. Previous studies demonstrated a neuroprotective effect of early hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment in various animal models of focal cerebral ischemia. Neuropathologic study showed that exposure of HBO may prevent cell death in ischemic cortex. In the present study, we aimed to assess cellular function of ischemic rat brain after HBO treatment by means of a high-resolution positron emission tomography scanner (microPET) used specifically for small animal imaging. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), with the regional cerebral blood flow monitored in vivo by laser Doppler flowmetry. One hour after ischemia, HBO therapy (3 atm absolute, 1 h) was initiated. Local cerebral glucose utilization in the ischemic area was measured before, 1 h and 3 h after ischemia, with 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) as a tracer. Neurological deficits and infarct volumes were assessed at 24 h after ischemia. Our study showed that early HBO therapy significantly reduced infarct volume of brain 24 h after ischemia. Moreover, glucose utilization in the ischemic area underwent a severe decrease during 1-3 h after MCAO, while the early HBO treatment significantly attenuated the decrease in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in the ischemic core of the cortex compared with controls. We report for the first time the application of microPET to quantify the rates of glucose metabolism in the ischemic core of rats exposed to HBO. Our results suggest that the early exposure of HBO can partially reverse the downward trend for glucose utilization in the ischemic core, which might contribute to the reported beneficial effects of early HBO therapy on permanent cerebral ischemia.

  17. Intensive unilateral core training improves trunk stability without preference for trunk left or right rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yushin; Kim, Jungjin; Yoon, BumChul

    2015-01-01

    It is possible to increase multi-directional trunk stability using co-activation. However, it is unclear whether there is a preference for left or right trunk rotation after intensive unilateral stability training. The aim of this study was to examine the directional preference in trunk rotational stability after unilateral core training. This study was conducted on 16 female basketball players. For eight weeks, eight participants performed unilateral core training that focused on one side of the trunk. The remaining eight participants were not provided any additional training. To determine rotational trunk stability, all participants were requested to maintain an upright sitting posture against sudden, external, left or right rotational perturbations of the trunk. Angular displacement of the trunk was measured using a motion analyzer. At the end of the training period, the angular displacement in response to the perturbation was reduced for both rotational directions (left: −26%, right: −24%) in the trained group (p stability improved without particular directional preference in response to unilateral core training. This result adds to our understanding of the nature of trunk stability and multi-directional improvement. Intervention study, Level 1b.

  18. Does kinesiology tape increase trunk forward flexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Heidi; White, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Non specific lower back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder in manual labourers due to the strenuous nature of their job. Fear of pain can cause restrictions in trunk movement leading to reduced flexibility. Kinesiology Tape (KT) may be an option for treating low back stiffness. The present study investigated the immediate effect of KT on trunk flexion active range of motion. 34 male participants (mean age ± SD: 42 ± 11), in physically demanding jobs, asymptomatic of pain, with a history of non specific lower back pain were randomly assigned to: 1) KT Intervention (KTI) or 2) KT Placebo (KTP). Trunk flexion data was collected at baseline and immediately following tape application. ANCOVA was used to examine the differences between groups. The KTI group demonstrated a statistically significant gain in Trunk flexion compared with baseline (2.75 cm, P < 0.05). Changes from pre to post treatment for the KTP were not significant (1.57 cm, P = 0.062). No statistically significant differences existed between groups post-treatment (P = 0.218). KTI demonstrates an immediate positive effect on trunk flexion when compared with baseline measurements. However, results suggest that KTI performs no better than a comparable placebo. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [Laparoscopic decompression of celiac trunk in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumovsky, A Yu; Mitupov, Z B; Feoktistova, E V; Gurevich, A I; Titova, E A; Yusufov, A A; Svetlov, V V; Nagornaya, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    For the period 2013-2016 four patients were treated at the Filatov Children's City Clinical Hospital #13. There were 2 children aged 14 years and 2 children aged 17 years. All patients have been diagnosed via anamnesis, complaints, pulse-wave doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced MDCT and angiography. After comprehensive examination 3 patients underwent laparoscopic decompression of celiac trunk. In all cases celiac trunk compression was predominantly caused by median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm combined with neurofibrotic tissue of celiac plexus. All patients were discharged after laparoscopic decompression of celiac trunk. Intra- and postoperative complications, as well as cases of conversion were absent. Mean time of surgery was 65 minutes. In all cases postoperative period was smooth (4 days on the average). Two patients underwent follow-up examination in long-term postoperative period: pulse-wave doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced MDCT and angiography. In both cases reduced severity, incidence and duration of pain syndrome were observed. Clinical examples show some problems in diagnosis and treatment of compressive stenosis of celiac trunk due to rarity of pathology especially in childhood. Nevertheless, combination of abdominal ischemia and celiac trunk stenosis confirmed by instrumental diagnosis is indication for surgical treatment.

  20. Precision control of an upright trunk posture in low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke W; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2012-11-01

    Low back pain appears to be associated with impaired trunk postural control, which could be caused by proprioceptive deficits. We assessed control of trunk posture in conditions requiring high and low precision, with and without disturbance of proprioception by lumbar muscle vibration. Twenty a-specific low back pain patients and 13 healthy controls maintained a self-chosen upright trunk posture. Initial frontal and sagittal plane angles of an opto-electronic marker on the 12th thoracic spinous process defined the center of a target area on a monitor. Subjects were instructed to stay within that target and visual feedback was provided when they left the target. The precision demand was manipulated by changing target size. The standard deviation of trunk angle quantified precision and mean Euclidian distance to target center quantified accuracy. Ratios of antagonistic co-activation were calculated from trunk muscle electromyography recordings. With the small target, visual feedback was present intermittently and patients controlled their trunk as accurately and precisely as healthy controls. For the large target, subjects mostly stayed within the target, and patients were on average 0.18° (31%) less accurate than healthy controls (P=0.025), due to a larger postural drift. Lumbar muscle vibration deteriorated control over trunk posture in both groups and ratios of antagonistic co-activation did not differ between groups or conditions. These results indicate that the weighting of proprioceptive feedback from lumbar muscle spindles did not differ between groups and that low back pain patients were less able to detect low frequency drift in posture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Individuals with non-specific low back pain use a trunk stiffening strategy to maintain upright posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie L; Henry, Sharon M; Raasch, Christine C; Hitt, Juvena R; Bunn, Janice Y

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that individuals with non-specific low back pain (LBP) have altered movement coordination. However, the relationship of this neuromotor impairment to recurrent pain episodes is unknown. To assess coordination while minimizing the confounding influences of pain we characterized automatic postural responses to multi-directional support surface translations in individuals with a history of LBP who were not in an active episode of their pain. Twenty subjects with and 21 subjects without non-specific LBP stood on a platform that was translated unexpectedly in 12 directions. Net joint torques of the ankles, knees, hips, and trunk in the frontal and sagittal planes as well as surface electromyographs of 12 lower leg and trunk muscles were compared across perturbation directions to determine if individuals with LBP responded using a trunk stiffening strategy. Individuals with LBP demonstrated reduced peak trunk torques, and enhanced activation of the trunk and ankle muscle responses following perturbations. These results suggest that individuals with LBP use a strategy of trunk stiffening achieved through co-activation of trunk musculature, aided by enhanced distal responses, to respond to unexpected support surface perturbations. Notably, these neuromotor alterations persisted between active pain periods and could represent either movement patterns that have developed in response to pain or could reflect underlying impairments that may contribute to recurrent episodes of LBP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Individuals with non-specific low back pain use a trunk stiffening strategy to maintain upright posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie L.; Henry, Sharon M.; Raasch, Christine C.; Hitt, Juvena R.; Bunn, Janice Y.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that individuals with non-specific low back pain (LBP) have altered movement coordination., hHowever, the relationship of this neuromotor impairment to recurrent pain episodes is unknown. To assess coordination while minimizing the confounding influences of pain we characterized automatic postural responses to multi-directional support surface translations in individuals with a history of LBP who were not in an active episode of their pain. Twenty subjects with and 21 subjects without non-specific LBP stood on a platform that was translated unexpectedly in 12 directions. Net joint torques of the ankles, knees, hips and trunk in the frontal and sagittal planes as well as surface electromyographs of 12 lower leg and trunk muscles were compared across perturbation directions to determine if individuals with LBP responded using a trunk stiffening strategy. Individuals with LBP demonstrated reduced peak trunk torques, and enhanced activation of the trunk and ankle muscle responses following perturbations. These results suggest that individuals with LBP use a strategy of trunk stiffening achieved through co-activation of trunk musculature, aided by enhanced distal responses, to respond to unexpected support surface perturbations. Notably, these neuromotor alterations persisted between active pain periods and could represent either movement patterns that have developed in response to pain or could reflect underlying impairments that maymay contribute to recurrent episodes of LBP. PMID:22100719

  3. Evidence for an association between the Leu162Val polymorphism of the PPARalpha gene and decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether genetic variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) is associated with type 2 diabetes and altered lipid or carbohydrate metabolism in glucose tolerant subjects. Mutation analyses of PPARalpha were performed in 56...... in allele frequencies between type 2 diabetic patients and control subjects. The functional Leu162Val polymorphism was further investigated in genotype-phenotype studies involving 340 young, healthy subjects and 502 middle-aged glucose tolerant subjects. The young, healthy subjects who were heterozygous...

  4. Interactive Trunk Extraction from Forest Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mizoguchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For forest management or monitoring, it is required to constantly measure several parameters of each tree, such as height, diameter at breast height, and trunk volume. Terrestrial laser scanner has been used for this purpose instead of human workers to reduce time and cost for the measurement. In order to use point cloud captured by terrestrial laser scanner in the above applications, it is an important step to extract all trees or their trunks separately. For this purpose, we propose an interactive system in which a user can intuitively and efficiently extract each trunk by a simple editing on the distance image created from the point cloud. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed system from various experiments.

  5. Prediabetes Exhibits Decreased Disposition Index Correlated with Deterioration of Glycemic Parameters in Nonobese Japanese Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study from Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yasutaka; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Honjo, Jun; Abiko, Atsuko; Asai, Mahito; Haneda, Masakazu

    2017-08-01

    Prediabetes, defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), likely develops to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and independently increases cardiovascular risk. We employed disposition index (DI), a new metabolic parameter indicating the pancreatic beta cell function adjusted for insulin resistance, and investigated whether it could be altered in Japanese population with prediabetes and associated with early glucose intolerance. A total of 102 adults who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at the medical screening were designated to normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IFG, IGT, and DM. We calculated insulinogenic index (IGI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of β cell function (HOMA-β) as insulin secretory function, HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) as insulin resistance and DI, and assessed correlations between these indices and glycemic parameters. We observed graded increase of glycemic parameters in the order of NGT, IFG, IGT, and DM. HOMA-IR was significantly higher only in DM compared with NGT, although HOMA-β, IGI, and QUICKI showed no significant differences among the groups. In contrast, DI was significantly lower in IFG, IGT, and DM compared with NGT. In correlation analysis, glycemic parameters related positively to HOMA-IR, but inversely to DI. Only two parameters, IGI and particularly DI, were significantly decreased in the subjects with 1-hr postload glucose >8.6 mmol/L previously proposed as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. Our results suggest that reduction of DI promptly reflects the alteration of early glucose intolerance in Japanese population presenting with prediabetes.

  6. Trunk sway measures of postural stability during clinical balance tests in patients with chronic whiplash injury symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Henrik; Allum, John H J; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L; Honegger, Flurin; Ettlin, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    Trunk sway occurring during clinical stance and gait tasks was compared between a group of subjects with a chronic whiplash injury, resulting from an automobile collision, and a normal collective. To examine if population specific trunk sway patterns for stance and gait could be identified for chronic whiplash injury patients. Our previous work has established that it is possible to identify specific patterns of stance and gait deficits for vestibular loss (both acute and compensated) patients and those with Parkinson's disease. Our question was whether it was possible to use the same stance and gait tasks to identify patterns of trunk sway differences with respect to those of healthy subjects and individuals with a chronic whiplash injury. Twenty-five subjects with history of whiplash injury and 170 healthy age-matched control subjects participated in the study. Trunk sway angular displacements in chronic whiplash patients were assessed for a number of stance and gait tasks similar to those of the Tinetti and Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) protocols. We used a lightweight, easy-to-attach, body-worn apparatus to measure trunk angular displacements and velocities in the roll (lateral) and the pitch (forward-backward) planes. Data analysis revealed several significant differences between the two groups. A pattern could be identified, showing greater trunk sway for stance tasks and for complex gait tasks that required task-specific gaze control such as walking up and down stairs. Trunk sway was less, however, for simple gait tasks that demanded large head movements but no task-specific gaze control, such as walking while rotating the head. Subjects who have a chronic whiplash injury show a characteristic pattern of trunk sway that is different from that of other patient groups with balance disorders. Balance was most unstable during gait involving task-specific head movements which possibly enhance a pathologic vestibulo-cervical interaction.

  7. Information security in digital trunking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan BARCA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, most countries have implemented its digital trunking systems to meet the communication needs of various public safety organizations.The development of these systems will be closely correlated with the evolution of operational requirements and communications services needed by users. For all these digital trunking systems, information security has proven to be an essential aspect. In this paper we present some aspects of the security functions of the Tetra system because this system was imposed as an open standard ETSI and is used as a Schengen cooperation system.

  8. Effects of Exercise Induced Low Back Pain on Intrinsic Trunk Stiffness and Paraspinal Muscle Reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily M.; Bazrgari, Babak; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) compare trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with no history of low back pain (LBP) and individuals who experience exercise-induced LBP (eiLBP) when pain free, and 2) investigate changes in trunk neuromuscular behavior with eiLBP. Seventeen young adult males participated including eight reporting recurrent, acute eiLBP and nine control participants reporting no history of LBP. Intrinsic trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflex delay were determined in both groups using sudden trunk flexion position perturbations 1-2 days following exercise when the eiLBP participants were experiencing an episode of LBP (termed post-exercise) and 4-5 days following exercise when eiLBP had subsided (termed post-recovery). Post-recovery, when the eiLBP group was experiencing minimal LBP, trunk stiffness was 26% higher in the eiLBP group compared to the control group (p=0.033) and reflex delay was not different (p=0.969) between groups. Trunk stiffness did not change (p=0.826) within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery, but decreased 22% within the control group (p=0.002). Reflex delay decreased 11% within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery (p=0.013), and increased 15% within the control group (p=0.006). Although the neuromuscular mechanisms associated with eiLBP and chronic LBP may differ, these results suggest that previously-reported differences in trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with chronic LBP and healthy controls reflect a combination of inherent differences in neuromuscular behavior between these individuals as well as changes in neuromuscular behavior elicited by pain. PMID:23182221

  9. Reducing Trunk Compensation in Stroke Survivors: A Randomized Crossover Trial Comparing Visual and Force Feedback Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Bulmaro Adolfo; Schneider, Andrea Nicole; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether the compensatory trunk movements of stroke survivors observed during reaching tasks can be decreased by force and visual feedback, and to examine whether one of these feedback modalities is more efficacious than the other in reducing this compensatory tendency. Randomized crossover trial. University research laboratory. Community-dwelling older adults (N=15; 5 women; mean age, 64±11y) with hemiplegia from nontraumatic hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke (>3mo poststroke), recruited from stroke recovery groups, the research group's website, and the community. In a single session, participants received augmented feedback about their trunk compensation during a bimanual reaching task. Visual feedback (60 trials) was delivered through a computer monitor, and force feedback (60 trials) was delivered through 2 robotic devices. Primary outcome measure included change in anterior trunk displacement measured by motion tracking camera. Secondary outcomes included trunk rotation, index of curvature (measure of straightness of hands' path toward target), root mean square error of hands' movement (differences between hand position on every iteration of the program), completion time for each trial, and posttest questionnaire to evaluate users' experience and system's usability. Both visual (-45.6% [45.8 SD] change from baseline, P=.004) and force (-41.1% [46.1 SD], P=.004) feedback were effective in reducing trunk compensation. Scores on secondary outcome measures did not improve with either feedback modality. Neither feedback condition was superior. Visual and force feedback show promise as 2 modalities that could be used to decrease trunk compensation in stroke survivors during reaching tasks. It remains to be established which one of these 2 feedback modalities is more efficacious than the other as a cue to reduce compensatory trunk movement. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abdominal hollowing and bracing strategies increase joint stability in the trunk region during sudden support surface translation but not in the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhee; Kim, Yushin; Oh, Sejun; Suh, Dongwon; Eun, Seon-Deck; Yoon, BumChul

    2016-04-27

    Application of hollowing and bracing, abdominal activation strategies (AAS), has focused on improving trunk stability. This study aimed to clarify the AAS effect on body sway during support surface translation while standing. Twenty healthy subjects (10 male, 10 female; aged 25.45 ± 3.22 years) performed hollowing, bracing, and natural strategies while standing, and exerted to maintain their balance during forward and backward translation. Ultrasonography evaluations confirmed the appropriate application of the 3 strategies by measuring abdominal muscle thickness. Additionally, a motion analysis system was used to capture the whole body sway along the sagittal plane. During backward translation, angular displacements of the trunk were significantly different among the 3 strategies (upper thoracic: F = 13.758, p translation, only angular displacement of the lower thoracic was significantly different among the 3 strategies (F = 7.640, p = 0.002), and bracing decreased the sway by 33.48% compared with the natural strategy (p = 0.003). No significant differences were seen between hollowing and bracing during forward and backward translation. AAS increased joint stability only in the trunk where joints are adjacent to abdominal muscles, but not in the lower extremities. The low impact of AAS on the lower extremities might have important implications on the paradigm of standing balance.

  11. Trunk muscle strength and disability level of low back pain in collegiate wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Kazunori; Nakazato, Koichi; Irie, Kazunori; Fujimoto, Hideo; Nakajima, Hiroyuki

    2004-08-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a frequent injury in athletes. This study examined the relationship between isokinetic trunk muscle strength and the functional disability level of chronic LBP. We particularly focused on the existence of radiological abnormalities (RA) in the lumbar region. Subjects were 53 collegiate wrestlers. Trunk extensor and flexor muscle strength was measured at three angular velocities (60, 90, and 120degrees x s(-1)). The examined parameters for trunk muscle strength were peak torque, work, average torque, and average power. The disability level of LBP was estimated by using two questionnaires. Based on the RA evaluation with x-ray and MRI, all 53 wrestlers were assigned to two groups as the RA group (N = 35, 66%) and the non-RA group (N = 18, 34%). Correlations between trunk muscle strength and the disability level of LBP in each group were analyzed with Spearman's rank test. Without considering the disability level, there were 14 subjects with LBP (40%) in the RA group and 8 (44%) in the non-RA. Significantly correlated parameters with the disability level of LBP could be observed only when the subjects were restricted to the non-RA group. The correlated parameters with the two questionnaires were peak torque at 120degrees x s(-1), work at 60degrees x s(-1) and 90degrees x s(-1), and average torque at 90degrees x s(-1) and 120degrees x s(-1). There were no significantly correlated parameters in the RA group. None of the trunk flexor parameters were significantly correlated with the disability level of LBP. The relatively low strength of trunk extensors may be one of the factors related to nonspecific chronic low back pain in collegiate wrestlers.

  12. Determining inertial measurement unit placement for estimating human trunk sway while standing, walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Yu; Tian Bao; Dingguo Zhang; Carender, Wendy; Sienko, Kathleen H; Shull, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMU) are often used to estimate medial-lateral (M/L) trunk sway for assessing and treating gait disorders, and IMU sensor placement is an important factor effecting estimation accuracy. This study tracked multi-segment spine movements during standing and ambulation tasks to determine optimal IMU placement. Ten young healthy subjects, wearing markers placed along the spine, left/right acromion, and left/right posterior superior iliac spine performed standing and walking trials in a motion capture laboratory. Results showed that movement at the spine location T7-T8 most closely matched the clinical definition of M/L trunk sway for standing trials (0.5 deg error) and at the spine location T9-T10 for walking trials (1.0 deg error), while movement at the lower spine L2-L4 tended to be the least accurate for standing and ambulation tasks (1.5 deg error and 4.0 deg error, respectively). Based on these results, a second study was performed to develop and validate a trunk sway estimation algorithm during walking trials with a single optimally-placed IMU. IMU trunk sway estimation was compared to the clinical definition of trunk sway from motion capture markers and showed root-mean-square errors of 2.5 deg and peak trunk sway errors of 2.0 deg. The results of this study suggest that IMUs should be placed on the mid-back to reduce errors associated with spine movements not matching clinically-defined M/L trunk motion.

  13. Assessment of spatio-temporal gait parameters from trunk accelerations during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Hof, AL

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of an analysis of spatio-temporal gait parameters based upon accelerometry. To this purpose, acceleration patterns of the trunk and their relationships with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analysed in healthy subjects. Based on model predictions of the body's

  14. Transmission of the Translational Trunk Vibration to the Head-Neck Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Mohammad A.; Ishihara, Tadashi; Inooka, Hikaru

    The flexion-extension motion of the head-neck complex (HNC) in the trunk horizontal (fore-and-aft) vibration was investigated. It was assumed that the motion of the HNC only occurs in mid-sagittal plane. An electro-hydraulic vibrator was used as a source of vibration. The input acceleration and HNC angular velocity were measured whereas the trunk of the seated subject was fixed to the seatback. Accordingly, the acceleration of the vibrator was considered to be equal to that of the trunk. Six subjects took part in the experiment. They were exposed to the random motion at a magnitude of 1.60ms-2rms (root-mean-square) for 50 seconds. The coherence and frequency response function between the HNC angular velocity and the trunk horizontal acceleration were then obtained on 0.5Hz to 10Hz. Averaging the obtained transmissibilities allowed to represent an optimized frequency response corresponding to each of the subjects. It was found that the HNC behavior above 0.8Hz was quasi-linear with a dominant resonance frequency between 0.8Hz and 1.6Hz. The variabilities of the results within and between subjects were investigated. It was further concluded that linear models could describe the HNC so that their orders should be selected in accordance with the frequency response function of the system as well as the objectives of modeling.

  15. Changes in postural activity of the trunk muscles following spinal manipulative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuela L; Ferreira, Paulo H; Hodges, Paul W

    2007-08-01

    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is common in the management of low back pain (LBP) and has been associated with changes in muscle activity, but evidence is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of SMT on trunk muscle activity in postural tasks in people with and without LBP. In 20 subjects (10 with LBP and 10 controls), EMG recordings were made with fine-wire electrodes inserted into transversus (TrA), obliquus internus (OI), and externus (OE) abdominis. Rectus abdominis (RA) and anterior deltoid EMG was recorded with surface electrodes. Standing subjects rapidly flexed an arm in response to a light, before and after a small amplitude end range rotational lumbar mobilization at L4-5. In controls, there was no change in trunk muscle EMG during the postural perturbation after SMT. In LBP subjects there was an increase in the postural response of OI and an overall increase in OE EMG. There was no change in TrA or RA EMG. These results indicate that SMT changes the functional activity of trunk muscles in people with LBP, but has no effect on control subjects. Importantly, SMT increased the activity of the oblique abdominal muscles with no change in the deep trunk muscle TrA, which is often the target of exercise interventions.

  16. Estimation of trunk muscle forces and spinal loads during fatiguing repetitive trunk exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, P J; Parnianpour, M

    1998-12-01

    The effects of human trunk extensor muscle fatigue on the estimated trunk muscle forces and spinal loading were investigated during the performance of repetitive dynamic trunk extension. To evaluate if alterations in the trunk muscle recruitment patterns resulted in a greater estimated active loading of the spine and, in turn, an increased risk of injury. Epidemiologic studies highlight the increased risk of low back injury during repetitive lifting, implicating fatigue of muscles and/or passive tissues as causes of such injury. Increased trunk muscle activity or altered recruitment patterns resulting from fatigue in the primary trunk extensor muscles may indicate an increase in the active loading of the spine, which could contribute to an increased risk of injury. Sixteen healthy study participants performed repetitive isokinetic trunk extension endurance tests at two load levels and two repetition rates, while their net muscular torque output and trunk muscular activity were measured. During each exertion, trunk torque, position, and velocity were controlled, so that any change in muscle activity could be attributed to fatigue. An electromyography-assisted model, adapted to accommodate the decline in maximum muscular tension generation resulting from fatigue, was used to estimate the 10 trunk muscle forces and spinal loading. Linear regression was used to quantify the rate of change in muscle force and spinal loading resulting from fatigue, while analysis of variance was used to determine if the rate of change was dependent on the task conditions (load and repetition rate). Significant elevations were estimated for the latissimus dorsi and external oblique muscle forces in more than 70% of the endurance tests, whereas significant reductions in the erector spinae muscle force were predicted in 75% of the trials. The magnitude of the range of change of the erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscle forces was dependent on the load level and repetition rate. The

  17. Surface electromyography as a measure of trunk muscle activity in patients with spinal cord injury: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-ji; Li, Jian-jun; Zhou, Hong-jun; Liu, Geng-lin; Zheng, Ying; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Hao, Chun-xia; Kang, Hai-qiong; Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Lian-jun

    2016-01-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) may be a sensitive marker for distinguishing the activity of trunk muscles, which are critical to functional mobility recovery in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). This manuscript presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on the effect of SEMG as a measure of trunk muscle activity in patients with SCI. A comprehensive search of the research literature included Pubmed, Medline, CNKI, WANFANG DATA, Web of Science, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Karger, OVID, and a review of reference lists within found articles. Case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies were included in the review. Eleven studies were included in this meta-analysis. Trunk muscle activities for the sitting condition were greater in patients with SCI than normal subjects. SEMG activity of trunk muscles for the sitting condition and posterior transfer was greater in patients with high level (HL)-SCI compared to those with low level (LL)-SCI. In addition, across studies, the level of trunk muscle activity for various difficulty settings was different for a given SCI group. This systematic review evaluated the value of trunk muscles for patients with SCI. We recommend use of SEMG as an assessment tool for improving the comparability and interpretability of trunk muscle activity of SCI therapeutic strategies.

  18. Shoulder pain: a comparison of wheelchair basketball players with trunk control and without trunk control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Necmiye Un; Comert, Esra; Ozengin, Nuriye

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder pain between wheelchair basketball players with trunk control and wheelchair basketball players without trunk control. Players were evaluated according the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) classification system. The study group comprised 60 wheelchair basketball players, who were rated according to the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation classification system. Players were divided into two groups according to their trunk control. Study participants completed an anonymous survey that included demographic data, medical history data, and the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups based on the number of years of wheelchair use, active sport years, weekly working hours, and weekly training hours (p> 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between wheelchair basketball players with trunk control and wheelchair basketball players with trunk control with respect to the duration of their disability, the daily number of transfers made to wheelchair, and Performance Corrected Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (PC-WUSPI) score (pwheelchair basketball players must be analyzed. Trunk stabilization is the key factor affecting the function of the shoulder and is of primary importance for appropriate loading of the shoulder joint's many forms of articulation.

  19. Lateral trunk lean and medializing the knee as gait strategies for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbrands, T A; Pisters, M F; Theeven, P J R; Verschueren, S; Vanwanseele, B

    2017-01-01

    To determine (1) if Medial Thrust or Trunk Lean reduces the knee adduction moment (EKAM) the most during gait in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, (2) if the best overall strategy is the most effective for each patient and (3) if these strategies affect ankle and hip kinetics. Thirty patients with symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Participants received verbal instructions on two gait strategies (Trunk Lean and Medial Thrust) in randomized order after comfortable walking was recorded. The peaks and impulse of the EKAM and strategy-specific kinematic and kinetic variables were calculated for all conditions. Early stance EKAM peak was significantly reduced during Medial Thrust (-29%). During Trunk Lean, early and late stance EKAM peak and EKAM impulse reduced significantly (38%, 21% and -25%, respectively). In 79% of the subjects, the Trunk Lean condition was significantly more effective in reducing EKAM peak than Medial Thrust. Peak ankle dorsi and plantar flexion, knee flexion and hip extension and adduction moments were not significantly increased. Medial Thrust and Trunk Lean reduced the EKAM during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Individual selection of the most effective gait modification strategy seems vital to optimally reduce dynamic knee loading during gait. No detrimental effects on external ankle and hip moments or knee flexion moments were found for these conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Validity of the Microsoft Kinect for providing lateral trunk lean feedback during gait retraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bryant, Adam L; Hunt, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Gait retraining programs are prescribed to assist in the rehabilitation process of many clinical conditions. Using lateral trunk lean modification as the model, the aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of kinematic data recorded using a marker-based 3D motion analysis (3DMA) system and a low-cost alternative, the Microsoft Kinect™ (Kinect), during a gait retraining session. Twenty healthy adults were trained to modify their gait to obtain a lateral trunk lean angle of 10°. Real-time biofeedback of the lateral trunk lean angle was provided on a computer screen in front of the subject using data extracted from the Kinect skeletal tracking algorithm. Marker coordinate data were concurrently recorded using the 3DMA system, and the similarity and equivalency of the trunk lean angle data from each system were compared. The lateral trunk lean angle data obtained from the Kinect system without any form of calibration resulted in errors of a high (>2°) magnitude (mean error=3.2±2.2°). Performing global and individualized calibration significantly (PKinect can be used to create a real-time biofeedback system for gait retraining. Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to laboratory-based gait retraining systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of unstable shoes on trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisón, Juan F; Pérez-Soriano, Padro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Salvador-Coloma, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    In patients with neuromuscular disease and a forced vital capacity (FVC) of spine kinematics and trunk muscle activity during gait. To compare trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) during gait using an unstable shoe and a conventional stable control shoe. Cross-sectional study. A Biomechanics laboratory. Forty-eight healthy voluntary participants (24.5±5.6 years and 22.7±6.8 kg/m2). Subjects underwent gait analysis while simultaneously collecting surface EMG data of erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA) and lumbar spine sagittal plane ROM while treadmill walking wearing regular shoes and unstable shoes. The results showed that the unstable shoes resulted in significantly higher ES and RA EMG muscle activity levels in all gait phases compared to control shoes (Pspine extension values (Pspine tissue health, particularly in strengthening trunk muscles in healthy population or in low back pain treatment.

  2. Concurrent measurement of isokinetic muscle strength of the trunk, knees, and ankles in patients with lumbar disc herniation with sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Cheng; Kuo, Chu-Wen; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Ni, Shou-Min; Ho, Cheng-Wen

    2010-12-15

    A cross-sectional study comparing normal subjects and patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) with sciatica. To simultaneously measure the isokinetic muscle strength of the trunk, knees, and ankles in both groups. Coordination between the trunk and lower extremity muscles is important for normal physical activity. Reduced trunk and knee muscle strength have been reported in patients with lower level LDH; however, ankle performance in these patients is still unknown. We recruited 43 normal subjects as controls and 33 patients with lower level LDH with sciatica. The isokinetic strength of the trunk, knees, and ankles was measured at 2 velocities in random order: 60°/s and 120°/s, and 60°/s and 180°/s for trunk and ankle strength and for knee strength, respectively. The isokinetic trunk strength was significantly lower in the LDH group irrespective of test modes or velocity. Despite unilateral sciatica or test modes and velocity, the unilateral knee strength was significantly lower in the LDH group than that in the control group. Knee extension torque was also found to be significantly lower in the limbs with sciatica than in those without sciatica at the testing velocity of 180°/s (80.25 ± 24.88 vs. 95.42 ± 26.29 Nm, P sciatica or test velocity, ankle plantar flexion torque revealed to be significantly lower in the LDH group than the control group; however, dorsiflexion torque was not different. Significant correlations were demonstrated among the total muscle strength of the trunk, knees, and ankles in both groups. Besides the lower trunk strength, concurrent lower unilateral knee and ankle plantar flexion but not dorsiflexion strength was demonstrated in the LDH subjects with unilateral sciatica, regardless of its location. As compared to the limbs without sciatica, an additional 14% reduction of knee extension torque at 180°/s was found in the limbs with sciatica in the LDH patients.

  3. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pdensity lipoprotein cholesterol AUC was lower (P<.05), in AO-HPIR than those in AO-LPIR and controls. Postprandial AUCs for total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were similar in abdominally obese subjects with different degrees of postprandial insulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Variability with xylem depth in sap flow in trunks and branches of mature olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Nadezhdin, Valeriy; Ferreira, Maria Isabel; Pitacco, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of sap flow variability in tree trunks is important for up-scaling transpiration from the measuring point to the whole-tree and stand levels. Natural variability in sap flow, both radial and circumferential, was studied in the trunks and branches of mature olive trees (Olea europea L., cv Coratina) by the heat field deformation method using multi-point sensors. Sapwood depth ranged from 22 to 55 mm with greater variability in trunks than in branches. Two asymmetric types of sap flow radial patterns were observed: Type 1, rising to a maximum near the mid-point of the sapwood; and Type 2, falling continuously from a maximum just below cambium to zero at the inner boundary of the sapwood. The Type 1 pattern was recorded more often in branches and smaller trees. Both types of sap flow radial patterns were observed in trunks of the sample trees. Sap flow radial patterns were rather stable during the day, but varied with soil water changes. A decrease in sap flow in the outermost xylem was related to water depletion in the topsoil. We hypothesized that the variations in sap flow radial pattern in a tree trunk reflects a vertical distribution of water uptake that varies with water availability in different soil layers.

  5. Oral magnesium supplements decrease high blood pressure (SBP>155 mmHg) in hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medications: a targeted meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Plesset, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we examined 44 human studies involving oral magnesium (Mg) supplementation for hypertension (HT), sorting them according to HT status, Mg dose and anti-hypertensive medication usage. We found that while some studies reported a significant lowering of blood pressure with Mg supplementation, others did not. We present here our first meta-analysis of a uniform subset from this series of studies. Seven studies, involving 135 hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medication continuously for at least six months, with no more than a two-week washout and with a mean starting systolic blood pressure (SBP)>155 mmHg, demonstrated a mean change of -18.7 mmHg [95% CI=-14.95 to -22.45] p155 mmHg starting SBP values or not complying as regards anti-hypertensive medication usage, showed mean changes in both SBP and DBP with oral Mg that, while not approaching the high-responder values of the present study, appeared to include some high-responder subjects combined with low- or non-responder subjects. This uniform subset of seven studies showed a strong effect of Mg treatment in hypertension, which is in stark contrast to results of three other meta-analyses. Using non-uniform sets of studies, the small effects reported in previous meta-analyses may reflect a blending of dissimilar studies, which acted to seriously underestimate the potential of Mg in hypertension in some (but not all) subjects. Within studies, blending of non-, moderate and highresponder subjects in any one study might mask strong effects of Mg treatment in some subjects.

  6. Preliminary Trials on Treatment of Esca-Infected Grapevines with Trunk Injection of Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dula

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available An increase in trunk diseases (due to esca, Agrobacterium, rugose wood virus, leaf roll viruses, phytoplasma etc. leading to young vines death is a very serious worry in vineyards in Hungary, as it is in other countries. In response to a demand expressed by grapevine growers, a method was tested for the direct treatment of pathogens in wood tissue. An experiment based on trunk injection was carried out in an esca infected vineyard. The various fungicides (propiconazole, difenoconazole, thiabendazole; propiconazole+ thiabendazole were injected into the trunk before the beginning of the xylem sap flow at high pressure. As a result the number of symptomatic plants was decreased, and the vigour of the plants was not impaired by the fungicide ingredients. The combination difenoconazole+ thiabendazole showed the best result.

  7. Walking more slowly than with normal velocity: The influence on trunk and pelvis kinematics in young and older healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Pintens, Seppe; Buyl, Ronald; Goossens, Maggie; Meeusen, Romain; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have addressed trunk and pelvis movements during gait, although they play an important role in gait control. The aim of this study was to compare trunk and pelvis kinematics between slower walking (1, 2, 3, 4kmph) and normal walking (5kmph), and between healthy adults who were young (n=15, 20-30years) and older (n=17, 50-60years). After 4min of treadmill walking, the 3-dimensional trunk and pelvis kinematics was measured (Polhemus Liberty™, 250Hz). A repeated measures ANOVA with simple contrasts was used to look for differences between the velocity conditions of walking and independent t-testing for comparison between the age groups (significance level: 5%, SPSS20). Walking more slowly than with normal velocity induces (1) a decrease in vertical center of mass of the trunk displacement, trunk lateral flexion and axial rotation and pelvis lateral and antero-posterior tilting, and (2) an increase in lateral and antero-posterior center of mass of the trunk displacement. Compared to young persons, older persons show: (1) larger pelvis axial rotations and trunk lateral and antero-posterior movements, and (2) smaller pelvis lateral tilting and trunk vertical movements and rotations. The literature reports that patients often walk slowly and that older persons show different gait patterns compared to young persons. This study shows that there are changes in trunk and pelvis kinematics (1) when walking more slowly than with normal velocity and (2) in older persons compared to young persons. These data could be taken into account in gait rehabilitation. © 2013.

  8. Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Harduarsingh-Permaul, Aruna Selina

    2014-01-01

    Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL) alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX) plus WL (AEX+WL), on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (to measure trunk fat and lean mass) and computed tomography (CT) (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas) was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50-76 years). The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (Pmuscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (Pweight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (Pfat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (Pmuscle groups - by 6% in the erector spinae (Ploss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. A lifestyle modification of diet-induced WL alone, or with AEX training, results in a significant reduction of the fat infiltration in the abdominal and spinal muscles of the trunk region. Our finding that losses of total body fat predict a reduction in the IMAT of the trunk supports the idea that WL reduces fat depots throughout the body.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of trunk muscle strength in wheelchair basketball players

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    Sileno da Silva Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trunk muscle strength affects trunk controlling playing an important role in performance and to define the classes of wheelchair basketball players. Trunk control capacity differs among players and quantitative assessments of trunk muscle strength have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate quantitative measures of trunk muscle strength with the wheelchair basketball players' classification. Forty-two male wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury, amputation, post-poliomyelitis sequelae, and cerebral palsy had their trunk extension and flexion strength evaluated with isokinetic dynamometer. The classes 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 were considered for statistical analysis. Comparison of trunk muscle strength differed significantly between classes: 1.0 and 3.0; 1.0 and 4.0; 2.0 and 3.0; and 2.0 and 4.0. High correlation was found between the trunk muscle strength and players' classes. The findings of the present study showed a strong correlation of trunk muscle strength and wheelchair basketball classes being able to distinguish players in their classes. However, this quantitative method of evaluation of the trunk muscle strength cannot be solely used to make a decision on the full trunk control.

  10. Segmental specificity in belly dance mimics primal trunk locomotor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Marilee M; Milner, Theodore E

    2017-03-01

    Belly dance was used to investigate control of rhythmic undulating trunk movements in humans. Activation patterns in lumbar erector spinae muscles were recorded using surface electromyography at four segmental levels spanning T10 to L4. Muscle activation patterns for movement tempos of 2 Hz, 3 Hz, and as fast as possible (up to 6 Hz) were compared to test the hypothesis that frequency modulates muscle timing, causing pattern changes analogous to gait transitions. Groups of trained and untrained female subjects were compared to test the hypothesis that experience modifies muscle coordination patterns and the capacity for selective motion of spinal segments. Three distinct coordination patterns were observed. An ipsilateral simultaneous pattern (S) and a diagonal synergy (D) dominated at lower frequencies. The S pattern was selected most often by novices and resembled the standing wave of activation underlying the alternating lateral trunk bending in salamander trotting. At 2 Hz, most trained subjects selected the D pattern, suggesting a greater capacity for segmental specificity compared with untrained subjects. At 3-4 Hz, there emerged an asynchronous pattern (A) analogous to the rostral-caudal traveling wave in salamander and lamprey swimming. The neural networks and mechanisms identified in primitive vertebrates, such as chains of coupled oscillators and segmental crossed inhibitory connections, could explain the patterns observed in this study in humans. Training allows modification of these patterns, possibly through improved capacity for selectively exciting or inhibiting segmental pattern generators. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Belly dance provides a novel approach for studying spinal cord neural circuits. New evidence suggests that primitive locomotor circuits may be conserved in humans. Erector spinae activation patterns during the hip shimmy at different tempos are similar to those observed in salamander walking and swimming. As movement frequency increases, a

  11. Versão brasileira da Escala de Comprometimento do Tronco: um estudo de validade em sujeitos pós-acidente vascular encefálico Brazilian version of the Trunk Impairment Scale: a reliability study in post-stroke subjects

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    Núbia Maria Freire Vieira Lima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle de tronco - uma habilidade motora básica indispensável à execução de muitas tarefas funcionais - encontra-se deficitário em pacientes que sofreram acidente vascular encefálico (AVE. Há poucas referências estrangeiras, e nenhuma em português, que focalizem a avaliação de tronco de forma quantitativa. Este estudo teve como objetivo traduzir e verificar a confiabilidade inter e intra-examinador, validade construtiva e consistência interna da versão brasileira da ECT - Escala de Comprometimento do Tronco (Trunk Impairment Scale. Em 18 voluntários com hemiparesia secundária à AVE foram aplicados os seguintes instrumentos: ECT, Protocolo de Desempenho Físico de Fugl-Meyer, Medida de Independência Funcional, EEB - Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg e Classificação de Deambulação Funcional. As avaliações foram realizadas por três fisioterapeutas experientes e o reteste da ECT foi realizado após 48 horas. Foram encontradas moderada confiabilidade intra-examinador e excelente confiabilidade inter-examinador (pTrunk control - which is a basic motor ability to perform many functional tasks -is disrupted in most patients who have suffered a stroke. There are few foreign references and none in Portuguese dealing with the quantitative assessment of trunk control. The aim of this study was to translate, verify intra- and inter-examiner reliability, validity and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS. Eighteen hemiparetic, post-stroke volunteers were evaluated by means of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, Functional Independence Measure, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and Functional Ambulation Classification; TIS was apllied by three experienced physical therapists; retest was carried out 48 hours later. Data analysis showed moderate intra-rater and an excellent inter-rater reliability (p<0.05, though low internal consistency (0.45. The only scale found to correlate with TIS was BBS (r=0.491, p

  12. Trunk stabilization exercises for healthy individuals

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    Francisco J Vera-Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p200   The aim of this study was to analyze the trunk muscular response during different variations of some of the most popular stabilization exercises: front-bridge, back-bridge, side-bridge, and bird-dog. Surface electromyography was bilaterally re-corded from rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique and erector spinae during 25 variations of the aforementioned exercises. Compared to the conventional form of the front- and side-bridge, performing these exercises kneeling on a bench or with elbows extended reduced the muscular challenge. Conversely, performing the back-bridge with elbows extended elicited higher muscular activation than the conventional exercise. While bridge exercises with double leg support produced the highest activation levels in those muscles that counteracted gravity, single leg support while bridging increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially internal oblique. The highest activation levels were found in three exercises: sagittal walkout in a front-bridge position, rolling from right side-bridge into front-bridge position, and side-bridge with single leg support on a BOSUTMbalance trainer. Although the exercises performed on unstable surfaces usu-ally enhanced the muscle activation, performing the exercises on the BOSUTMbalance trainer did not always increase the trunk muscle activity. Overall, this information may be useful to guide fitness instructors and clinicians when establishing stabilization exercise progressions for the trunk musculature.

  13. Decreased Thioredoxin-1 and Increased HSP90 Expression in Skeletal Muscle in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance

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    M. Venojärvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes, the endogenous defence systems are overwhelmed, causing various types of stress in tissues. In this study, newly diagnosed or diet-treated type 2 diabetics (T2D (n=10 were compared with subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (n=8. In both groups, at resting conditions, blood samples were drawn for assessing metabolic indices and skeletal muscle samples (m. vastus lateralis were taken for the measurements of cellular defence markers: thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1 and stress proteins HSP72, HSP90. The protein level of TRX-1 was 36.1% lower (P=0.031 and HSP90 was 380% higher (P<0.001 in the T2D than in the IGT subjects, with no significant changes in HSP72. However, after the adjustment of both analyses with HOMA-IR only HSP90 difference remained significant. In conclusion, level of TRX-1 in skeletal muscle tissue was lower while that of HSP90 was higher in T2D than in IGT subjects. This may impair antioxidant defence and lead to disruptions of protein homoeostasis and redox regulation of cellular defences. Because HSP90 may be involved in sustaining functional insulin signalling pathway in type 2 diabetic muscles and higher HSP90 levels can be a consequence of type 2 diabetes, our results are potentially important for the diabetes research.

  14. The effect of unicycle riding course on trunk strength and trunk stability functions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Andrej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2017-07-24

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of unicycling on trunk strength and timing of automatic stability actions of the selected trunk muscles (multifidus, obliquus externus, erector spine). Twenty healthy 12-year-old children (12 boys, 8 girls; age 12.1 ± 0.2 yrs; body height 1.57 ± 0.05 m; body mass 52.8 ± 10.6 kg) were assigned to experimental and control group. Experimental group performed a supervised 12-session course of unicycling. Trunk strength was measured with a multi-purpose diagnostic machine in frontal and sagittal planes in standing position. Trunk reflex responses and anticipatory actions were assessed through unexpected loading over the hands and rapid shoulder flexion, respectively. After the intervention, strength increased significantly (p muscles (p < 0.001). Anticipatory postural adaptations improved significantly (p < 0.05) in multifidus and obliquus externus of the experimental group only. Unicycling proved to be an effective and funny tool to develop proximal stability and strength, which prevents low back pain and improves the efficiency of energy transfer between body segments. To improve the efficiency of physical education classes, unicycling should be considered a useful tool to increase trunk strength and stability among prepubertal children.

  15. Noninvasive Evaluation of Trunk Muscle Recruitment after Trunk Exercises using Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naoto; Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated trunk muscle recruitment in abdominal and back exercises with magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging. Twelve men performed bent-knee sit-up, crunch, trunk lateral flexion, and trunk extension exercises. We obtained axial diffusion-weighted images of the trunk before and after each exercise using a 1.5-tesla MR system, calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from the right and left rectus abdominis, lateral abdominal, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, and intrinsic back muscles to evaluate the activity of these muscles during each exercise, and compared ADC values before and after exercise using a paired t-test. The ADCs of the rectus abdominis (right, +19.1%; left, +11.7%), lateral abdominal (right, +15.5%; left, +14.1%), and psoas major (right, +14.8%; left, +15.9%) muscles on both sides increased after the bent-knee sit-up (P muscles on both sides increased after the crunch exercise (P muscles (rectus abdominis, +12.3%; lateral abdominal muscles, +20.3%; quadratus lumborum, +17.1%; intrinsic back muscles, +12.0%; psoas major, +15.4%) (P muscles on both sides were elevated after trunk extension (right lateral abdominal muscles and left quadratus lumborum, P muscles, P muscles in abdominal and back exercises through exercise-induced activation in intramuscular water movement.

  16. The Relationship between Trunk Function and Injury among Junior High School Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Rie; Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between trunk stability and injury among young soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 male soccer players in junior high school. The presence of injury was noted, and trunk stability was measured by using the bench test and sideways bench test, which were modified from "The 11+" exercises. [Results] There was no significant difference in endurance time in the bench test or sideways bench test between the injury group (n=9) and non-injury group (n=10). Comparison within each group revealed no significant difference in endurance time between the right and left sideways bench tests in the non-injury group; however, the time in the left sideways bench test was significantly longer than that in the right in the injury group. [Conclusion] This study suggests that there is a relationship between asymmetric trunk stability and injury. Further research investigating the relationship between asymmetric trunk function and balance skills is necessary.

  17. The comparison of abdominal muscle activation on unstable surface according to the different trunk stability exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of abdominal muscle activities and the activation ratio related to trunk stabilization to compare the effects between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and lumbar stabilization exercises on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain, who were equally and randomly assigned to either the abdominal drawing-in maneuver group and the lumbar stabilization exercise group. Abdominal muscle activation and ratio was measured using a wireless TeleMyo DTS during right leg raise exercises while sitting on a Swiss ball. [Results] Differences in rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, and internal oblique abdominis muscle activation were observed before and after treatment. Significant differences were observed between the groups in the muscle activation of the external oblique abdominis and internal oblique abdominis, and the muscle activation ratio of external oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis and internal oblique abdominis/rectus abdominis. [Conclusion] Consequently trunk stability exercise enhances internal oblique abdominis activity and increases trunk stabilization. In addition, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver facilitates the deep muscle more than LSE in abdominal muscle. Therefore, abdominal drawing-in maneuver is more effective than lumbar stabilization exercises in facilitating trunk stabilization.

  18. An immediate effect of PNF specific mobilization on the angle of trunk rotation and the Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle range of motion in adolescent girls with double idiopathic scoliosis-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, A; Fabian, K; Graff, K; Podgurniak, M; Wit, A

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of spine rotation is a key concept in several theories explaining the pathogenesis and progression of scoliosis. In previous studies, a more limited range of motion in scoliotic girls compared to their non-scoliotic peers was noted. The Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle measurement is a test used to assess the range of motion in the trunk-pelvis-hip complex in the transverse plane. The aim of this study was to assess an immediate effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation specific mobilization (mPNF) on the angle of trunk rotation and Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle range of motion in adolescent girls with double scoliosis. The study was conducted on 83 girls aged 10 to 17 years (mean 13.7 ± 1.9) with double idiopathic scoliosis consisting of a right-sided thoracic curve (mean 25.1° ± 13.9°) and a left-sided thoracolumbar or lumbar curve (mean 20.8° ± 11.4°). The angle of trunk rotation and Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle were measured at baseline and after PNF mobilization. Bilateral lower limb patterns of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation were used in combination with the "contract-relax" technique and stimulation of asymmetrical breathing. In the statistical analysis, the SAS rel. 13.2 software was used. Preliminary statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. According to Shapiro-Wilk criterion of normality, the Wilcoxon test was used to compare paired samples. Next, the data was analyzed using multivariate GLM models. In adolescent girls with double scoliosis, significant differences between the left and right side of the body concerning the Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle ranges were noted. A single, unilateral PNF mobilization significantly decreased the angle of trunk rotation in the thoracic (p PNF mobilization also increased the Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle ranges on the left (p PNF mobilization led to a decrease in the angle of trunk rotation, improvement in the range of motion, and the symmetry of mobility in the transverse

  19. The Effects of Vibration and Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Sensorimotor Control in Low Back Pain Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Normand, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Changes in sensorimotor function and increased trunk muscle fatigability have been identified in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP). This study assessed the control of trunk force production in conditions with and without local erector spinae muscle vibration and evaluated the influence of muscle fatigue on trunk sensorimotor control. Methods Twenty non-specific cLBP patients and 20 healthy participants were asked to perform submaximal isometric trunk extension torque with and without local vibration stimulation, before and after a trunk extensor muscle fatigue protocol. Constant error (CE), variable error (VE) as well as absolute error (AE) in peak torque were computed and compared across conditions. Trunk extensor muscle activation during isometric contractions and during the fatigue protocol was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG). Results Force reproduction accuracy of the trunk was significantly lower in the patient group (CE = 9.81 ± 2.23 Nm; AE = 18.16 ± 3.97 Nm) than in healthy participants (CE = 4.44 ± 1.68 Nm; AE = 12.23 ± 2.44 Nm). Local erector spinae vibration induced a significant reduction in CE (4.33 ± 2.14 Nm) and AE (13.71 ± 3.45 Nm) mean scores in the patient group. Healthy participants conversely showed a significant increase in CE (8.17 ± 2.10 Nm) and AE (16.29 ± 2.82 Nm) mean scores under vibration conditions. The fatigue protocol induced erector spinae muscle fatigue as illustrated by a significant decrease in sEMG median time-frequency slopes. Following the fatigue protocol, patients with cLBP showed significant decrease in sEMG root mean square activity at L4-5 level and responded in similar manner with and without vibration stimulation in regard to CE mean scores. Conclusions Patients with cLBP have a less accurate force reproduction sense than healthy participants. Local muscle vibration led to significant trunk neuromuscular control improvements in the cLBP patients before and after a muscle

  20. The Effects of Vibration and Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Sensorimotor Control in Low Back Pain Patients.

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    Jean-Alexandre Boucher

    Full Text Available Changes in sensorimotor function and increased trunk muscle fatigability have been identified in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP. This study assessed the control of trunk force production in conditions with and without local erector spinae muscle vibration and evaluated the influence of muscle fatigue on trunk sensorimotor control.Twenty non-specific cLBP patients and 20 healthy participants were asked to perform submaximal isometric trunk extension torque with and without local vibration stimulation, before and after a trunk extensor muscle fatigue protocol. Constant error (CE, variable error (VE as well as absolute error (AE in peak torque were computed and compared across conditions. Trunk extensor muscle activation during isometric contractions and during the fatigue protocol was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG.Force reproduction accuracy of the trunk was significantly lower in the patient group (CE = 9.81 ± 2.23 Nm; AE = 18.16 ± 3.97 Nm than in healthy participants (CE = 4.44 ± 1.68 Nm; AE = 12.23 ± 2.44 Nm. Local erector spinae vibration induced a significant reduction in CE (4.33 ± 2.14 Nm and AE (13.71 ± 3.45 Nm mean scores in the patient group. Healthy participants conversely showed a significant increase in CE (8.17 ± 2.10 Nm and AE (16.29 ± 2.82 Nm mean scores under vibration conditions. The fatigue protocol induced erector spinae muscle fatigue as illustrated by a significant decrease in sEMG median time-frequency slopes. Following the fatigue protocol, patients with cLBP showed significant decrease in sEMG root mean square activity at L4-5 level and responded in similar manner with and without vibration stimulation in regard to CE mean scores.Patients with cLBP have a less accurate force reproduction sense than healthy participants. Local muscle vibration led to significant trunk neuromuscular control improvements in the cLBP patients before and after a muscle fatigue protocol. Muscle vibration

  1. The Effects of Vibration and Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Sensorimotor Control in Low Back Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-Alexandre; Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Normand, Martin C; Descarreaux, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Changes in sensorimotor function and increased trunk muscle fatigability have been identified in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP). This study assessed the control of trunk force production in conditions with and without local erector spinae muscle vibration and evaluated the influence of muscle fatigue on trunk sensorimotor control. Twenty non-specific cLBP patients and 20 healthy participants were asked to perform submaximal isometric trunk extension torque with and without local vibration stimulation, before and after a trunk extensor muscle fatigue protocol. Constant error (CE), variable error (VE) as well as absolute error (AE) in peak torque were computed and compared across conditions. Trunk extensor muscle activation during isometric contractions and during the fatigue protocol was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG). Force reproduction accuracy of the trunk was significantly lower in the patient group (CE = 9.81 ± 2.23 Nm; AE = 18.16 ± 3.97 Nm) than in healthy participants (CE = 4.44 ± 1.68 Nm; AE = 12.23 ± 2.44 Nm). Local erector spinae vibration induced a significant reduction in CE (4.33 ± 2.14 Nm) and AE (13.71 ± 3.45 Nm) mean scores in the patient group. Healthy participants conversely showed a significant increase in CE (8.17 ± 2.10 Nm) and AE (16.29 ± 2.82 Nm) mean scores under vibration conditions. The fatigue protocol induced erector spinae muscle fatigue as illustrated by a significant decrease in sEMG median time-frequency slopes. Following the fatigue protocol, patients with cLBP showed significant decrease in sEMG root mean square activity at L4-5 level and responded in similar manner with and without vibration stimulation in regard to CE mean scores. Patients with cLBP have a less accurate force reproduction sense than healthy participants. Local muscle vibration led to significant trunk neuromuscular control improvements in the cLBP patients before and after a muscle fatigue protocol. Muscle vibration stimulation

  2. Voluntary head stabilization in space during trunk movements in weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, B.; Assaiante, C.; Fabre, J.-C.; Martin, N.; Massion, J.; Mouchnino, L.; Vernazza, S.

    The ability to voluntarily stabilize the head in space during lateral rhythmic oscillations of the trunk has been investigated during parabolic flights. Five healthy young subjects, who gave informed consent, were examined. The movements were performed with eyes open or eyes closed, either during phases of microgravity or phases of normal gravity. The main result to emerge from this study is that the head may be stabilized in space about the roll axis under microgravity conditions with, as well as without vision, despite the reduction of the vestibular afferent and the muscle proprioceptive inputs. Moreover, the absence of head stabilization about the yaw axis confirms that the degrees of freedom of the neck can be independently controlled, as it was previously shown [1]. These results seem to indicate that voluntary head stabilization does not depend crucially upon static vestibular afferents. Head stabilization in space may be in fact organized on the basis of either dynamic vestibular afferents or a postural body scheme.

  3. Axial synergies in parkinsonian patients during voluntary trunk bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov; Aurenty; Massion; Mesure; Viallet

    1998-10-01

    During upper trunk movements, the axial kinematic synergies (opposite movements of upper and lower segments) preserve the balance by minimizing the antero-posterior center of gravity (CG) shift due to the movement. Forward and backward upper trunk movements were analyzed in a population of parkinsonian patients (PD) that were subject to falling, in order to determine whether an impaired control of the kinematic synergies might explain the falling. Ten PD (stage III-IV of the Hoehn and Yahr classification; Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology 1967;17;427-432) were compared to seven age-matched control subjects (CS). Kinematic analysis and force platform recordings were carried out. Principal Component (PC) analysis was performed to measure the coupling between hip, knee and ankle joint angles during the movement. (1) In both PD and CS, the first principal component (PC1) was found to account for 98% or more of the joint angles changes, which indicates that there exists a strong coupling between the angles during the movement; however, the part of the movement not accounted for by PC1 was twice as high in PD as in CS. (2) The intertrial variability between the angle ratios was about twice as high in PD as in CS. (3) The absolute value of the antero-posterior CG shift occurring during the movement significantly increased in PD in the case of backward movements, both fast and slow. (4) As a high correlation was found between actual CG shift and its estimation based on the observed interjoint coordination, the increased CG shift in PD was related to unproper set of ratios between joint angles. It was concluded that the control of the kinematic synergy is preserved on the whole in PD, with an increased variability and unproper set of the ratios between joint angular changes. This may lead to CG shifts to beyond the support surface, especially in backward bending. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Old oil palm trunk: A promising source of sugars for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H.; Ohara, S. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Tanaka, R.; Yamamoto, K. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Sulaiman, O.; Hashim, R.; Hamid, Z.A.A.; Yahya, M.K.A. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Kosugi, A.; Arai, T.; Murata, Y.; Nirasawa, S. [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nor; Ibrahim, Wan Asma [Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Selangor (Malaysia); Mori, Y. [Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo 113-8657 (Japan); Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1, Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Oil palm trees are replanted at an interval of approximately 25 years because of decreased oil productivity of old trees. Consequently the felled trunks are the enormous amount of biomass resources in the palm oil producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. In this report, we found that the felled oil palm trunk contains large quantity of sap, which accounts for approximately 70% of the whole trunk weight, and that sugars existing in the sap increased remarkably during storage after logging. Total sugar in the sap increased from 83 mg ml{sup -1} to 153 mg ml{sup -1}, the concentration comparable to that of sugar cane juice, after 30 days of storage, followed by the gradual decrease. The sugars contained in the sap were glucose, sucrose, fructose and galactose, all of which are fermentable by ordinary industrial yeast strains. The results indicate that old oil palm trunk becomes a promising source of sugars by proper aging after logging and, thus, its sap can be a good feedstock for bioethanol. (author)

  5. Trunk position in supine of infants born preterm and at term: an assessment using a computerized pressure mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusing, Stacey; Mercer, Vicki; Yu, Bing; Reilly, Marie; Thorpe, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Trunk position may influence motor, cognitive, and social development during infancy and early childhood and has not been quantitatively assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the trunk positions of infants born at term and preterm in supine using a computerized pressure mat. Trunk position was represented as a ratio of head and pelvis to trunk pressure. Eighteen healthy infants born preterm with a mean gestational age of 31.9 weeks (25.0-34.6) and fifteen healthy infants born at term with a mean gestational age of 38.9 weeks (37.3-40.6) were assessed at 38 to 43 weeks gestational age. Infants born at term spent more than two-thirds of the time in either flexed or neutral trunk positions. No significant differences were found between infants born preterm and those born at term in total duration of flexion or extension or in flexion event duration. This study provides evidence that infants born preterm may not exhibit greater trunk extension tendencies in supine than infants born at term. Results should be interpreted with caution, however, because of the small sample size and large variability observed within the subject groups. Infants born at less than 30 weeks of gestation may demonstrate greater extension tendencies than those born at more than 30 weeks of gestation.

  6. Trunk kinetic effort during step ascent and descent in patients with transtibial amputation using angular momentum separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Brecca M M; Christiansen, Cory L; Murray, Amanda M; Davidson, Bradley S

    2017-10-01

    Patients with transtibial amputation adopt trunk movement compensations that alter effort and increase the risk of developing low back pain. However, the effort required to achieve high-demand tasks, such as step ascent and descent, remains unknown. Kinematics were collected during bilateral step ascent and descent tasks from two groups: 1) seven patients with unilateral transtibial amputation and 2) seven healthy control subjects. Trunk kinetic effort was quantified using translational and rotational segmental moments (time rate of change of segmental angular momentum). Peak moments during the loading period were compared across limbs and across groups. During step ascent, patients with transtibial amputation generated larger sagittal trunk translational moments when leading with the amputated limb compared to the intact limb (P=0.01). The amputation group also generated larger trunk rotational moments in the frontal and transverse planes when leading with either limb compared to the healthy group (P=0.01, Pamputation group generated larger trunk translational and rotational moments in all three planes when leading with the intact limb compared to the healthy group (Ptranstibial amputation compared to healthy individuals. Compensations that produce identified increased and asymmetric trunk segmental moments, may increase the risk of the development of low back pain in patients with amputation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-dynamometric trunk performance tests: reliability and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaranta, H; Hurri, H; Heliövaara, M; Soukka, A; Harju, R

    1994-12-01

    A sample of 508 male and female white-collar and blue-collar employees aged 35 to 54 years was evaluated clinically to determine the reliability of repetitive sit-ups, repetitive arch-ups, repetitive squatting, and static back endurance tests, to determine the normal values of these tests and to detect determinants for trunk muscle performance. All of the given tests had fairly good or even excellent test-retest reliability. Muscular performance capacity decreased with advancing age, particularly among blue-collar workers. Men showed greater muscle endurance in all the muscle tests, and blue-collar workers lower values in all tests. The repetitive tests, in particular, showed reduced values in those with previous low-back pain. Normative values of back endurance, repetitive squatting, sit-up and arch-up tests for different age, sex and occupational groups are presented.

  8. High-intensity physical activity, stable relationship, and high education level associate with decreasing risk of erectile dysfunction in 1,000 apparently healthy cardiovascular risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettala, Otto O; Syvänen, Kari T; Korhonen, Päivi E; Kaipia, Antti J; Vahlberg, Tero J; Boström, Peter J; Aarnio, Pertti T

    2014-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is especially common in men with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the data are scarce concerning populations without manifested CVD. The aim of this study was to describe factors associated with ED, especially those associated with decreasing risk of ED, in men with cardiovascular risk factors but without CVD, diabetes, or chronic renal disease. In 2004 to 2007, a cross-sectional population-based sample of men 45 to 70 years old in two rural towns in Finland was collected. Men with previously diagnosed CVD, diabetes, or kidney disease were not invited to the study. In total 1,000 eligible men with cardiovascular risk factors, i.e., central obesity, high scores in the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, high blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, or family history of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, or stroke, were included in the analysis. Questionnaires, clinical measurements, and laboratory tests were obtained. The prevalence of ED was studied comparing the means, and risk factors were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The rate of ED was defined by the International Index of Erectile Function short form (IIEF-5) and by two questions (2Q) about the ability to achieve and to maintain an erection. The prevalence of ED was 57% or 68% using IIEF-5 or 2Q, respectively. Age (odds ratio [OR]: up to 9.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.00-16.79; P physical activity (OR: 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.86; P = 0.045), high education (OR: 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83; P = 0.013), and stable relationship (OR: 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21-0.88; P = 0.046) were associated with ED. In apparently healthy men with cardiovascular risk factors, decreasing risk of ED is associated with high-intensity physical activity, stable relationship, and high education level. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Effects of a 16-week Pilates exercises training program for isometric trunk extension and flexion strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Vilkiene, Jovita; Astrauskiene, Audrone; Cibulskas, Gintautas; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 min. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0.001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue on postural control and trunk proprioception in young, healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Dennis J; Brown, Stephen H M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce both trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue, on separate occasions, and compare their effects on standing postural control and trunk proprioception, as well as look at the effects of a recovery period on these outcome measures. A total of 20 individuals participated, with 10 (5 males and 5 females) completing either a standing postural control or lumbar axial repositioning protocol. Participants completed their randomly assigned protocol on two occasions, separated by at least 4  days, with either their trunk extensor or abdominal muscles being fatigued on either day. Postural control centre of pressure variables and trunk proprioception errors were compared pre- and post-fatigue. Results showed that both trunk extensor and abdominal muscle fatigue significantly degraded standing postural control immediately post-fatigue, with recovery occurring within 2 min post-fatigue. In general, these degradative effects on postural control appeared to be greater when the trunk extensor muscles were fatigued compared to the abdominal muscles. No statistically significant changes in trunk proprioception were found after either fatigue protocol. The present findings demonstrate our body's ability to quickly adapt and reweight somatosensory information to maintain postural control and trunk proprioception, as well as illustrate the importance of considering the abdominal muscles, along with the trunk extensor muscles, when considering the impact of fatigue on trunk movement and postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immediate effects of trunk stabilizer muscles training on muscle response time in individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earde, Poramet; Vongsirinavarat, Mantana; Sakulsriprasert, Prasert; Vachalathiti, Roongtiwa

    2014-07-01

    To investigate immediate effects of biofeedback training on motor control performance in participants with nonspecific chronic low back pain. RCT was conducted. The training group received isolated and co-contraction training of trunk stabilizers in lying on the left side, sitting on stool and sitting on a gymnastic ball, while the control group was asked to rest comfortably on a chair. Trunk muscles response time during rapid arm movement test was recorded using surface electromyography. Two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test were used to detect changes within and between groups. In the training group, the trunk muscles response times were significantly decreased after training when compared with those in the control group (p<0.05). Trunk stabilizer training has a beneficial effect on motor response time of the trunk muscles. The long-term effects of exercise should be further considered with a larger sample size.

  12. Comparison of different pointing methods for sound localizability measurement in the vision impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Atsunori; Ohsugi, Yudai; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Takabun; Sugiura, Toshifumi; Tauchi, Masaki

    2007-05-01

    In order to find out the most suitable and accurate pointing methods to study the sound localizability of persons with visual impairment, we compared the accuracy of three different pointing methods for indicating the direction of sound sources in a semi-anechoic dark room. Six subjects with visual impairment (two totally blind and four with low vision) participated in this experiment. The three pointing methods employed were (1) directing the face, (2) directing the body trunk on a revolving chair and (3) indicating a tactile cue placed horizontally in front of the subject. Seven sound emitters were arranged in a semicircle 2.0 m from the subject, 0 degrees to +/-80 degrees of the subject's midline, at a height of 1.2 m. The accuracy of the pointing methods was evaluated by measuring the deviation between the angle of the target sound source and that of the subject's response. The result was that all methods indicated that as the angle of the sound source increased from midline, the accuracy decreased. The deviations recorded toward the left and the right of midline were symmetrical. In the whole frontal area (-80 degrees to +80 degrees from midline), both the tactile cue and the body trunk methods were more accurate than the face-pointing method. There was no significant difference in the center (-40 degrees to +40 degrees from midline). In the periphery (-80 degrees and +80 degrees ), the tactile cue pointing method was the most accurate of all and the body trunk method was the next best. These results suggest that the most suitable pointing methods to study the sound localizability of the frontal azimuth for subjects who are visually impaired are the tactile cue and the body trunk methods because of their higher accuracy in the periphery.

  13. Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women

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    Ryan AS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alice S Ryan, Aruna Selina Harduarsingh-Permaul Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Baltimore Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC, and Research and Development Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. Methods: The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX plus WL (AEX+WL, on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (to measure trunk fat and lean mass and computed tomography (CT (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50-76 years. Results: The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (P<0.05. Both the spinal and abdominal muscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max (P<0.05. Body weight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (P<0.001. The VO2max increased by 11% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 but did not change with WL alone (group effect, P<0.001. The DXA-measured trunk fat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 and by 12% after WL (P<0.001. When both groups were combined, the IMAT decreased in all four muscle groups - by 6% in the erector spinae (P<0.01, by 9% in the psoas (P<0.01, by 11% in the lateral abdominals (P<0.001, and by 6% in the rectus abdominis (P<0.05. The loss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. Conclusions: A lifestyle

  14. Wireless Tri-Axial Trunk Accelerometry Detects Deviations in Dynamic Center of Mass Motion Due to Running-Induced Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt H Schütte

    Full Text Available Small wireless trunk accelerometers have become a popular approach to unobtrusively quantify human locomotion and provide insights into both gait rehabilitation and sports performance. However, limited evidence exists as to which trunk accelerometry measures are suitable for the purpose of detecting movement compensations while running, and specifically in response to fatigue. The aim of this study was therefore to detect deviations in the dynamic center of mass (CoM motion due to running-induced fatigue using tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Twenty runners aged 18-25 years completed an indoor treadmill running protocol to volitional exhaustion at speeds equivalent to their 3.2 km time trial performance. The following dependent measures were extracted from tri-axial trunk accelerations of 20 running steps before and after the treadmill fatigue protocol: the tri-axial ratio of acceleration root mean square (RMS to the resultant vector RMS, step and stride regularity (autocorrelation procedure, and sample entropy. Running-induced fatigue increased mediolateral and anteroposterior ratios of acceleration RMS (p < .05, decreased the anteroposterior step regularity (p < .05, and increased the anteroposterior sample entropy (p < .05 of trunk accelerometry patterns. Our findings indicate that treadmill running-induced fatigue might reveal itself in a greater contribution of variability in horizontal plane trunk accelerations, with anteroposterior trunk accelerations that are less regular from step-to-step and are less predictable. It appears that trunk accelerometry parameters can be used to detect deviations in dynamic CoM motion induced by treadmill running fatigue, yet it is unknown how robust or generalizable these parameters are to outdoor running environments.

  15. Evaluation of non-invasive trunk sprays and trunk-injected emamectic benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; D.L. Cappaert; T.M. Poland; A.C. Anulewicz; P. Lewis; J. Molongoski

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, we continued to evaluate two neo-nicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuron, applied as non-invasive trunk sprays to control emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Neo-nicotinoid products are widely used to protect landscape ash trees because they are relatively safe for humans and non-target species. These...

  16. A non-MVC EMG normalization technique for the trunk musculature: Part 1. Method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, W S; Davis, K G

    2001-02-01

    Normalization of muscle activity has been commonly used to determine the amount of force exerted by a muscle. The most widely used reference point for normalization is the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). However, MVCs are often subjective, and potentially limited by sensation of pain in injured individuals. The objective of the current study was to develop a normalization technique that predicts an electromyographic (EMG) reference point from sub-maximal exertions. Regression equations predicting maximum exerted trunk moments were developed from anthropometric measurements of 120 subjects. In addition, 20 subjects performed sub-maximal and maximal exertions to determine the necessary characteristic exertions needed for normalization purposes. For most of the trunk muscles, a highly linear relationship was found between EMG muscle activity and trunk moment exerted. This analysis determined that an EMG-moment reference point can be obtained via a set of sub-maximal exertions in combination with a predicted maximal exertion (expected maximum contraction or EMC) based upon anthropometric measurements. This normalization technique overcomes the limitations of the subjective nature for the MVC method providing a viable assessment method of individuals with a low back injury or those unwilling to exert an MVC as well as could be extended to other joints/muscles.

  17. Characteristics of trunk control during crook-lying unilateral leg raising in different types of chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Atsushi; Kimura, Teiji; Goh, Ah-Cheng; Oba, Akemi; Takahashi, Jun; Mogami, Yuji

    2015-04-15

    Cross-sectional observational study. To quantitatively clarify the characteristics of trunk control during unilateral leg-raising movement in different types of nonspecific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP) patients who were identified by aggravation of symptoms during trunk movement. Although there is a need to classify NS-CLBP patients for clinical decision making in physical therapy, the characteristics of trunk control during unilateral leg-raising movement in different types of NS-CLBP patients have not been quantitatively analyzed in previous studies by simultaneously measuring the lumbar spine movement, trunk muscle activity, and leg movement. Thirty NS-CLBP patients, of whom 13 were aggravated by trunk flexion (flexion group) and 17 were aggravated by trunk extension (extension group), and 30 healthy controls performed crook-lying unilateral leg-raising movement on the painful side in patient group and the dominant leg in controls. During the unilateral leg-raising movement, pressure changes produced by the movement of the lumbar lordotic curve, measured by a custom-made recording device, were used as indices of the lumbar spine movement. Trunk muscle activities were recorded by surface electromyography and diagnostic ultrasonography. The pressure changes and trunk muscle activities were statistically compared among the 3 groups. At foot-off during unilateral leg-raising movement, the extension group demonstrated increase in pressure changes, whereas the flexion group and controls demonstrated decrease in pressure changes. Bilateral external obliques muscle activities in the extension group were significantly larger than those in the flexion group and controls (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that the characteristics of trunk control during unilateral leg-raising movement were different depending on the types of NS-CLBP patients. These results indicate that patients with NS-CLBP might select compensatory trunk control strategies subconsciously to prevent

  18. Trunk Function Correlates Positively with Wheelchair Basketball Player Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sileno da Silva; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to identify differences in trunk muscle strength and balance among various classes of wheelchair basketball (WCB) players and (2) to determine if trunk muscle strength and balance correlate with the current observation-based classification of WCB players. Isometric trunk strength and balance (limits of stability) were objectively quantified in 42 male WCB players. Principal component analysis was used to synthesize a battery of strength and balance measures into a single, composite score of trunk function. The K-means clustering algorithm was then used to generate an objective classification system by stratifying players into 4 classes based on their trunk function. Results indicated that there were significant differences in trunk muscle strength and balance between various classes of WCB players (P < 0.05), such that the mean peak trunk extensor and flexor torque and limits of stability indices increased progressively according to the players' classes. There was also a significant correlation between observation-based WCB classification and principal component analysis cluster analysis-based WCB classification (ρ = 0.785, P < 0.05). This study provides novel evidence indicating that trunk strength and balance differ among various classes of WCB players, and objective measures of trunk function correlate positively with the current observation-based WCB classification system.

  19. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; Ptorque (r ⩾ 0.99; Pmuscles. Intraclass correlation coefficients were comprised between 0.87 and 0.95, and standard errors of measurement were lower than 9% for all contraction modes. The mean difference in peak torque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The association between back pain and trunk posture of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin C H; Lee, Raymond Y W; Yeung, Simon S

    2009-04-29

    The present study aims to determine the time spent in different static trunk postures during a typical working day of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps. Eighteen workers with low back pain (LBP) and fifteen asymptomatic workers were recruited. A cross-sectional design was employed to study the time spent in different static trunk postures which was recorded by a biaxial accelerometer attached to the T12 level of the back of the subjects. The results of ANCOVA revealed that subjects with LBP spent significantly longer percentage of time in static trunk posture when compared to normal (p posture, and this has potential for widespread applications in the workplace. The findings of the present investigation suggest that teachers in special schools are at increased risk of getting LBP. In order to minimise such risk, frequent postural change and awareness of work posture are recommended.

  1. Trunk and lower limb biomechanics during stair climbing in people with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Connor A; Hatfield, Gillian L; Gilbart, Michael K; Garland, S Jayne; Hunt, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement is a pathomechanical hip condition leading to pain and impaired physical function. It has been shown that those with femoroacetabular impingement exhibit altered gait characteristics during level walking and stair climbing, and decreased muscle force production during isometric muscle contractions. However, no studies to-date have looked at trunk kinematics or muscle activation during dynamic movements such as stair climbing in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanical outcomes (trunk and lower limb kinematics as well as lower limb kinetics and muscle activation) during stair climbing in those with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement. Trunk, hip, knee and ankle kinematics, as well as hip, knee and ankle kinetics and muscle activity of nine lower limb muscles were collected during stair climbing for 20 people with clinical and radiographic femoroacetabular impingement and compared to 20 age- and sex-matched pain-free individuals. Those with femoroacetabular impingement ascended the stairs slower (effect size=0.82), had significantly increased peak trunk forward flexion angles (effect size=0.99) and external hip flexion moments (effect size=0.94) and had decreased peak external knee flexion moments (effect size=0.90) compared to the control group. Findings from this study indicate that while those with and without femoroacetabular impingement exhibit many biomechanical similarities when ascending stairs, differences in trunk forward flexion and joint kinetics indicate some important differences. Further longitudinal research is required to elucidate the cause of these differences as well as the clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence.

  3. Trunk Robot Rehabilitation Training with Active Stepping Reorganizes and Enriches Trunk Motor Cortex Representations in Spinal Transected Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Chintan S.

    2015-01-01

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we examine effects of robot rehabilitation that promotes recovery of hindlimb weight support functions on trunk motor cortex representations. Adult rats spinal transected as neonates (NTX rats) at the T9/10 level significantly improve function with our robot rehabilitation paradigm, whereas treadmill-only trained do not. We used intracortical microstimulation to map motor cortex in two NTX groups: (1) treadmill trained (control group); and (2) robot-assisted treadmill trained (improved function group). We found significant robot rehabilitation-driven changes in motor cortex: (1) caudal trunk motor areas expanded; (2) trunk coactivation at cortex sites increased; (3) richness of trunk cortex motor representations, as examined by cumulative entropy and mutual information for different trunk representations, increased; (4) trunk motor representations in the cortex moved toward more normal topography; and (5) trunk and forelimb motor representations that SCI-driven plasticity and compensations had caused to overlap were segregated. We conclude that effective robot rehabilitation training induces significant reorganization of trunk motor cortex and partially reverses some plastic changes that may be adaptive in non-stepping paraplegia after SCI. PMID:25948267

  4. Trunk robot rehabilitation training with active stepping reorganizes and enriches trunk motor cortex representations in spinal transected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Chintan S; Giszter, Simon F

    2015-05-06

    Trunk motor control is crucial for postural stability and propulsion after low thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animals and humans. Robotic rehabilitation aimed at trunk shows promise in SCI animal models and patients. However, little is known about the effect of SCI and robot rehabilitation of trunk on cortical motor representations. We previously showed reorganization of trunk motor cortex after adult SCI. Non-stepping training also exacerbated some SCI-driven plastic changes. Here we examine effects of robot rehabilitation that promotes recovery of hindlimb weight support functions on trunk motor cortex representations. Adult rats spinal transected as neonates (NTX rats) at the T9/10 level significantly improve function with our robot rehabilitation paradigm, whereas treadmill-only trained do not. We used intracortical microstimulation to map motor cortex in two NTX groups: (1) treadmill trained (control group); and (2) robot-assisted treadmill trained (improved function group). We found significant robot rehabilitation-driven changes in motor cortex: (1) caudal trunk motor areas expanded; (2) trunk coactivation at cortex sites increased; (3) richness of trunk cortex motor representations, as examined by cumulative entropy and mutual information for different trunk representations, increased; (4) trunk motor representations in the cortex moved toward more normal topography; and (5) trunk and forelimb motor representations that SCI-driven plasticity and compensations had caused to overlap were segregated. We conclude that effective robot rehabilitation training induces significant reorganization of trunk motor cortex and partially reverses some plastic changes that may be adaptive in non-stepping paraplegia after SCI. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357174-16$15.00/0.

  5. The effect of feeding mixtures of banana trunk and soybean meal on lambs performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was intended to determine the effects of increasing the ratio of banana trunk to soybean meal on intake, nitrogen excretion and lambs performance. Sixteen lambs (averaging 21.21 + 1.69 kg were pen individually and fed a basal diet consisted of chopped fresh king grass and commercial concentrate and unlimited access of water. Lambs were randomly assigned to one out of four different ratio of banana trunk to soybean meal as feed supplements, i.e. (R0 0:1; (R1 1:1; (R2 2:1 and (R3 4:1. Results showed that the inclusion of banana trunk had no adverse effect on lambs performance. As it is expected, altering the ratio of banana trunk to soybean meal increased (P 0.05 by feed supplement. Despite of no difference was observed in the coefficient of nitrogen digestibility, apparent fecal and urine N-output were significantly (P < 0.05 affected. The highest ratio of fed supplement (R3 tended to decrease nitrogen retention. Overall data indicated that lambs offered basal diet supplemented with R2 treatment accumulated more N per-day, than those fed other treatments, and consequently lambs performance was the best on those fed R2 treatment.

  6. Effectiveness of Natural Antifungal Compounds in Controlling Infection by Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogens through Pruning Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Rebeca; Mateos, Rosa María; Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Olego, Miguel Angel; Sevillano, Silvia; González-García, Sandra; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2015-09-01

    Grapevine trunk fungal pathogens, such as Diplodia seriata and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, can infect plants through pruning wounds. They cause grapevine trunk diseases and are involved in grapevine decline. Accordingly, the protection of pruning wounds is crucial for the management of grapevine trunk diseases. The efficacy of different natural antifungals in inhibiting the growth of several fungi causing grapevine trunk diseases was evaluated in vitro. The fungi showing greater in vitro efficacy were tested on autoclaved grape wood assays against D. seriata and P. chlamydospora. Based on results from these assays, chitosan oligosaccharide, vanillin, and garlic extract were selected for further evaluation on pruning wounds inoculated with D. seriata and P. chlamydospora in field trials. A significant decrease in plant mortality was observed after 2 years of growth in the plants treated with the different natural antifungals compared to the mortality rate observed in infected plants that were not treated with antifungals. Also, the infection rate for the inoculated pathogens was significantly reduced in plants treated with the selected natural antifungals. Therefore, natural antifungals represent a promising alternative for disease control and could provide significant economic benefits for the grape-growing industry. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Decreased expression of Freud-1/CC2D1A, a transcriptional repressor of the 5-HT1A receptor, in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Albert, Paul R; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Fitzgibbon, Heidi; May, Warren L; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J; Stockmeier, Craig A; Woolverton, William L; Kyle, Patrick B; Wang, Zhixia; Austin, Mark C

    2010-09-01

    Serotonin1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors are reported altered in the brain of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies have identified transcriptional regulators of the 5-HT(1A) receptor and have documented gender-specific alterations in 5-HT(1A) transcription factor and 5-HT(1A) receptors in female MDD subjects. The 5' repressor element under dual repression binding protein-1 (Freud-1) is a calcium-regulated repressor that negatively regulates the 5-HT(1A) receptor gene. This study documented the cellular expression of Freud-1 in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) and quantified Freud-1 protein in the PFC of MDD and control subjects as well as in the PFC of rhesus monkeys chronically treated with fluoxetine. Freud-1 immunoreactivity was present in neurons and glia and was co-localized with 5-HT(1A) receptors. Freud-1 protein level was significantly decreased in the PFC of male MDD subjects (37%, p=0.02) relative to gender-matched control subjects. Freud-1 protein was also reduced in the PFC of female MDD subjects (36%, p=0.18) but was not statistically significant. When the data was combined across genders and analysed by age, the decrease in Freud-1 protein level was greater in the younger MDD subjects (48%, p=0.01) relative to age-matched controls as opposed to older depressed subjects. Similarly, 5-HT(1A) receptor protein was significantly reduced in the PFC of the younger MDD subjects (48%, p=0.01) relative to age-matched controls. Adult male rhesus monkeys administered fluoxetine daily for 39 wk revealed no significant change in cortical Freud-1 or 5-HT(1A) receptor proteins compared to vehicle-treated control monkeys. Reduced protein expression of Freud-1 in MDD subjects may reflect dysregulation of this transcription factor, which may contribute to the altered regulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors observed in subjects with MDD. These data may also suggest that reductions in Freud-1 protein expression in the PFC may be associated with early onset of

  8. Effects of frontal and sagittal thorax attitudes in gait on trunk and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begon, Mickaël; Leardini, Alberto; Belvedere, Claudio; Farahpour, Nader; Allard, Paul

    2015-10-01

    While sagittal trunk inclinations alter upper body biomechanics, little is known about the extent of frontal trunk bending on upper body and pelvis kinematics in adults during gait and its relation to sagittal trunk inclinations. The objective was to determine the effect of the mean lateral trunk attitude on upper body and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics during gait in asymptomatic subjects. Three gait cycles were collected in 30 subjects using a motion analysis system (Vicon 612) and an established protocol. Sub-groups were formed based on the mean thorax lateral bending angle, bending side, and also sagittal tilt. These were compared based on 38 peak angles identified on pelvis, thorax and shoulder kinematics using MANOVAs. A main effect for bending side (p = 0.038) was found, especially for thorax peak angles. Statistics revealed also a significant interaction (p = 0.04993) between bending side and tilt for the thorax sagittal inclination during body-weight transfer. These results reinforce the existence of different gait patterns, which correlate upper body and pelvis motion measures. The results also suggest that frontal and sagittal trunk attitude should be considered carefully when treating a patient with impaired gait. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Re-evaluation of the amplitude-force relationship of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Agnes; Faenger, Bernd; Scholle, Hans-Christoph; Anders, Christoph

    2015-04-13

    Amplitude-force relationships of major trunk muscles are established in terms of curve characteristics, but up to now were not normalized with respect to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force levels. The study therefore aims at a re-evaluation of trunk muscle amplitude-force relationship data according to MVC. Surface EMG of five major trunk muscles was taken from 50 healthy subjects of both sexes (age 20-40 years). All tasks were performed in a device where submaximal loads on the trunk were applied by gradually tilting the subjects in sagittal plane to horizontal position. MVC flexion and extension forces were determined in upright position using an additional harness over the subject's shoulders. Furthermore, the subject's upper body mass (UBM) was obtained during forward tilt to horizontal. MVC to UBM ratio was calculated, corrected by the actual tilt angle, and these linearly estimated values compared with the measured relative values according to MVC. All abdominal muscles confirmed the known non-linear amplitude-force relationship. At low load levels the linearly estimated values overestimated the measured ones and, at higher load levels, underestimated the true stress levels considerably. Back muscles confirmed the known linear curve shape, but for the longissimus muscle at L1 level measured data was always below estimated values. With increasing load, muscular stress of abdominal muscles changes from overestimated towards considerably underestimated values if expected stress levels are based on linear interpolation. Major back muscles' activation levels are nearly linear, but the amplitude-force relationship values seem overestimated for longissimus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of fatigue on lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activity during single-leg landing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessi, Giovanna Camparis; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2017-08-01

    Because there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of fatigue on the kinematics of the trunk and pelvis or on muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fatigue on the lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction during a single-leg landing compared to a healthy control group. The participants included 20 subjects with ACL reconstruction (ACL reconstruction group-ACLRG) and 20 healthy subjects (control group-CG) who were aged between 18 and 35 years. Kinematic and electromyographic analyses were performed during a single-leg landing before and after fatigue. The fatigue protocol included a series of 10 squats, two vertical jumps, and 20 steps. The effects of fatigue were increased peak trunk flexion and increased activation of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GMax) during the landing phase. After the fatigue protocol, an increase in peak trunk flexion and activation of the GMax and BF were observed, most likely as a strategy to reduce the load on the ACL. ACL injury prevention programs should include strength and endurance exercises for the hip and trunk extensor muscles so that they can efficiently control trunk flexion during landing. Prospective comparative study, Level II.

  11. Zinc monotherapy increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and decreases depressive symptoms in overweight or obese subjects: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solati, Zahra; Jazayeri, Shima; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Mahmoodianfard, Salma; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a positive effect of zinc as an adjunctive therapy on reducing depressive symptoms. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined the effect of zinc monotherapy on mood. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of zinc monotherapy on depressive symptoms and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in overweight or obese subjects. Fifty overweight or obese subjects were randomly assigned into two groups and received either 30 mg zinc or placebo daily for 12 weeks. At baseline and post-intervention, depression severity was assessed using Beck depression inventory II (BDI II), and serum BDNF and zinc levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The trial was completed with 46 subjects. After a 12-week supplementation, serum zinc and BDNF levels increased significantly in the zinc-supplemented group compared with the placebo group. BDI scores declined in both the groups at the end of the study, but reduction in the zinc-supplemented group was significantly higher than the placebo group. More analysis revealed that following supplementation, BDI scores decreased in subgroup of subjects with depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 10) (n = 30), but did not change in the subgroup of non-depressed subjects (BDI BDNF levels and depression severity in all participants. Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was found between serum BDNF and zinc levels at baseline. Zinc monotherapy improves mood in overweight or obese subjects most likely through increasing BDNF levels.

  12. Comparison of trunk strength measurements between two different isokinetic devices used at clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupli, M; Sainio, P; Hurri, H; Alaranta, H

    1997-10-01

    Intradevice reliability of isokinetic trunk strength measurements has been studied frequently, but no evidence is available on interdevice reliability. This motivated the present study, in which two isokinetic devices, the Ariel 5000 and Lido Multi-Joint II, were compared in a sample of 41 subjects (20 healthy and 21 low back pain subjects). The measurements were made in a random order with both machines. The results showed that the two isokinetic machines gave quite different results in trunk flexion-extension strength measurements. A statistically significant difference was present in the average peak torques between the two devices, with the exception of flexion at low angular velocity (60 degrees/s), and the correlations between the two measurements were low. The results were assumed to be more of a reflection of the interdevice variations (hardware and software, attachment of the subject) than of learning effects or other phenomena. We conclude that isokinetic trunk-muscle strength test results with the Ariel and Lido are device specific, and one cannot automatically compare results obtained from different devices with each other.

  13. Research regarding stiffness optimization of wires used for joints actuation from an elephant's trunk robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elephant's trunk robotic arms driven by wires and pulley mechanisms have issues with wires stiffness because of the entailed elastic deformations that is causing errors of positioning. Static and dynamic loads from each joint of the robotic arm affect the stiffness of driving wires and precision positioning. The influence of wires elastic deformation on precision positioning decreases with the increasing of wires stiffness by using different pre-tensioning devices. In this paper, we analyze the variation of driving wires stiffness particularly to each wire driven joint. We obtain optimum wires stiffness variation by using an analytical method that highlights the efficiency of pre-tensioning mechanism. The analysis of driving wires stiffness is necessary for taking appropriate optimization measures of robotic arm dynamic behavior and, thus, for decreasing positioning errors of the elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires/cables.

  14. Hepatic Vessels Condition in Experimental Pulmonary Trunk Stenosis With Different Level of Blood Circulation Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kulikov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic changes have been studied in 25 pupies with modeled stenosis with compensation and 8 animals with decompensated stenosis of pulmonary trunk. For controlling we have used liver of 10 dogs of the same age. Material has been tested by hystological, morfometric and stereometric mesurements. We have figured that after pulmanory trunk stenosis and the decrease in circulation of hepatic venous blood tonus of arteries increases, reflectory and resistance to circulation grows. Except venous-arterial reactions in incoming vessels small boundles of oblique intimal muscular system, muscular-elastic sfincters, polipsimillar pillows have been formed and in outcoming vessels muscular structures hypertrophy.has been indicated In case decompensated stenosis with hypoxia relaxation of outcoming and outgoing vessels happens, the quantity of arteries with adapting structures decreases, and muscular formations of hepatic veins atrophy.

  15. Short-duration fatigue alters neuromuscular coordination of trunk musculature: implications for injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, M; Brown, J M M; Groeller, H

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of muscle fatigue, produced by two different fatigue protocols, on the coordination of trunk and thigh muscles during the performance of a manual-handling task (e.g. a weighted stoop lift). The two fatigue protocols were designed to produce either (a) a non-specific widespread fatigue of trunk and limb muscles (e.g. rowing fatigue protocol), or (b) a specific fatigue of the trunk extensor musculature (e.g. back extension fatigue protocol). Specifically, we wished to determine whether the coordination of trunk muscles during a stoop lift was compromised more, or less, by either of these two fatigue protocols. Ten male subjects (20-24 years) were tested utilising an electromyographic technique which collected electromyograms from trunk flexor and extensor muscles, as well as the Hamstring muscle group, during a pre- and a post-fatigue performance of a weighted stoop lift. The results showed that the back extension fatigue protocol, but not the rowing fatigue protocol, produced significant (pmuscle activation during a stoop lift. The longer periods of muscle activation seen only after the back extension fatigue protocol, suggested that fatigue of these muscles had required the CNS to alter their periods of activation to a pattern similar to that previously seen in elderly populations. The results also suggested that intense short-duration motor tasks, which may differentially target the back and its musculature, could leave the spine susceptible to increased risk of injury even though worker perceptions of general fatigue are low. Risk assessment guidelines for manual handling should consider not only the weight and frequency of the lift, but lift duration as well to maintain worker safety.

  16. THE ROLE OF LEG AND TRUNK MUSCLES PROPRIOCEPTION ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED Hossein Hosseinimehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The proprioception information is a prerequisite for balance, body’s navigation system, and the movement coordinator. Due to changes between the angles of ankle, knee, and hip joints the aforementioned information are important in the coordination of the limbs and postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate therole of leg and trunk muscles proprioception on static and dynamic postural control. Thirty males students of physical education and sport sciences (age =21.23 ± 2.95 years, height = 170.4 ± 5.1 cm, and weight = 70.7 ± 5.6 kg participated in this study volunteered. Vibration (100HZ was used to disturb of proprioception. Vibrationoperated on leg muscle (gasterocnemius and trunk muscles (erector spine muscle, at L1 level. Leg stance time and Star Excursion Balance Test were used for evaluation of static and dynamic postural control respectively.Subjects performed pre and post (with operated vibration leg stance time and star excursion balance test. Paired sample test used for investigation the effect of vibration on leg and trunk muscles in static and dynamic postural control. Result of this study showed in static postural control, there is no significant difference between pre and post test (operated vibration in leg and trunk muscles (p≤0.05. In contrast there is significant difference indynamic postural control between pre and post test in leg muscles in 8 directions of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05 while there is only significant difference in trunk muscle in antrolateral and lateral of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05. During physical training such conditions like fatigue and injury can disturbproprioceptions’ information. Thus, due to the importance of this information we recommend that coaches'additionally specific trainings any sport used specific exercises to enhance the proprioception information

  17. Heat-provoked skin vasodilatation in innervated and denervated trunk dermatomes in human spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, A; Asahina, M; Young, T M; Mathias, C J

    2006-04-01

    Cross-sectional, observational, controlled study. High spinal cord injury (SCI) results in disruption of sympathetic vasomotor control. Vasodilatation as a response to local heating is a biphasic mechanism: the first phase (neurogenic) is mediated by the axon-reflex and is modulated by activity of sympathetic nerves. Our objective was to determine whether the response to heat provocation in trunk dermatomes may provide a measure of vasomotor sympathetic function in SCI. National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Buckinghamshire, UK; Autonomic Unit, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK; Neurovascular Medicine Unit, Imperial College London at St Mary's Hospital, UK. A total of 30 subjects were studied; 18 had chronic complete SCI (level C6-T11) and 12 were healthy controls. Recordings of skin blood flow (SkBF) were obtained with thermostatic laser Doppler probes placed in the upper trunk (at C4) and lower trunk (T10 or T12) dermatomes. SkBF at baseline (SkBF(bas)) and SkBF at the first peak of vasodilatation (SkBF(max)) showed no significant differences between SCI and controls either in upper or lower trunk dermatomes. However, the ratio of SkBF(max)/SkBF(bas) was significantly different in lower trunk dermatomes in SCI at C6-T5 level (7.5+/-3.5 PU) compared to SCI at T6-T11 level (3.5+/-1.5 PU) (P < 0.01). Measurement of SkBF in response to local heating may provide a safe, noninvasive method to assess integrity of sympathetic spinal pathways to the local vasculature. This may aid the classification of the SCI lesions, as the autonomic component currently is not included in the accepted American Spinal Injury Association scoring.

  18. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  19. Evaluation of trunk injections for control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David L. Cappaert; Phillip Lewis; John Molongowski

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, we evaluated trunk injections of imidacloprid for control of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB). Results were variable and indicated that efficacy could be affected by injection timing and method and by tree size and vigor. In 2004, we continued studies to assess the optimal timing for imidacloprid trunk injections and...

  20. determination of optimum number of trunk lines for corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    It is usual in the developed countries, to assume a reliable network while determining the optimum number of trunk lines required to be leased in order to provide standard quality of service to corporate network users. Therefore, the ratio of the rate of failure of the trunk lines to the rate of its restoration parameter is not put into ...

  1. Study on quality improvement of palm trunk by thermoplastic impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, F.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Hussin, K.

    2017-09-01

    Due to abundance of palm trunk waste, palm trunk can be used as alternative raw material of wood composites to replace future timber. However, the morphological of palm trunk is not truly woody material, so the quality improvement was studied by thermoplastic impregnation at different soaking time. The effect of thermoplastic resin impregnation on the morphological, physical and mechanical was investigated in this study. It was found that the amount of resin uptake to the palm trunk ranged from 3.85% to 6.25%. The density, thickness swelling and water absorption of treated palm trunk significantly improved. While, the modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of treated palm trunk was greater than untreated. This findings in this study indicated that thermoplastic resin would be considered alternative to formaldehyde-based resin to improved properties of palm trunk. At the request of all authors and with the approval of the proceedings editor, article 020268 titled, "Study on Quality Improvement of Palm Trunk by Thermoplastic Impregnation," is being retracted from the public record due to the fact that it is a duplication of article 020153 published in the same volume.

  2. Effects of fatigue on trunk stability in elite gymnasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Luger, T.; van der Eb, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that fatigue due to exercises performed in training leads to a decrement of trunk stability in elite, female gymnasts. Nine female gymnasts participated in the study. To fatigue trunk muscles, four series of five dump handstands on the uneven

  3. Behavioral and cognitive evaluation of FireWorks education trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Thomas; James A. Walsh; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of FireWorks, an educational trunk about wildland fire, in increasing student understanding, enabling students to apply classroom learning in a field setting, and improving the learning environment. Students who were in classrooms using the FireWorks educational trunk demonstrated more knowledge in both classroom and field-based...

  4. Trunk Flexibility Improvement in Response to Powered Assisted Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bains

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background study: Flexibility in human spine has always plays an important role in dexterity and seamless ambulatory activities. When optimum range is not maintained by the trunk column, due to lack of flexibility, the posture gets affected resulting in reduce trunk rotation flexibility and mobility hence loss of complete trunk rotation. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE on trunk flexibility. Methodology: Twenty healthy individual ages between 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into control and exercise groups. Shapemaster exercise program performed two times per week for 5 weeks and 45 minutes per session. Before and after 10 sessions of Shapemaster exercise protocol, Seated trunk rotation test was used to measure trunk flexibility. Results: Repeated measurement ANOVA were used to analysis data between groups. The results of this study illustrated that after 10th sessions trunk flexibility significantly improved (F (1.0, 18 = 11.732, p < 0.003. Conclusion: In conclusion results were determined that SPAEE is safe and it did effectively enhance flexibility among individual healthy adults. Keyword: Shapemaster Power Assisted Exercise Equipment (SPAEE, Trunk Flexibility, Healthy individual

  5. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  6. ANOMALOUS BRANCHING PATTERN OF COELIAC TRUNK – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Usha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While doing a routine dissection in an 85 years old cadaver, it was observed that the coeliac trunk arised as gastro splenic trunk and the common hepatic artery arised from the superior mesenteric artery instea d of the coeliac trunk. Knowledge of anatomical variants of coeliac trunk, hepatic vascular structures is of great importance in general surgery, especially hepatic surgery. As coeliac trunk supplies the foregut, the anomaly and morphometric variation may lead to abnormalities of the foregut and its derivatives. This leads to anatomical, surgical and clinical complications. This knowledge is also of great importance with regard to liver transplantations, laparoscopic surgeries, radiological procedures, and the treatment of penetrating injuries involving the peri - hepatic area

  7. Reliability of the revised wheelchair rugby trunk impairment classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, V C; Groen, B E; van Limbeek, J; Vanlandewijck, Y C; Keijsers, N L W

    2013-12-01

    Observational, cross-sectional. A new classification system for trunk impairment in wheelchair rugby was introduced in 2010. It consists of 10 tests, arranged in an algorithm, to assign four different trunk scores (0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5) to athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of this classification system. National competition for wheelchair rugby and wheelchair basketball in the Netherlands and Belgium. Three experienced wheelchair rugby classifiers independently assigned trunk scores to wheelchair rugby and wheelchair basketball athletes in two sessions. After each session, test descriptions were adjusted. The inter-rater reliability was evaluated by determining the agreement and Fleiss Kappa. In the first session, all classifiers agreed on the trunk score in 13 out of 16 athletes; the overall Kappa was 0.76 (Pwheelchair rugby showed a adequate inter-rater reliability for the allocation of trunk scores.

  8. TRUNK MOBILITY AFTER MINIMALLY INVASIVE ONE-LEVEL LUMBAR INSTRUMENTATION

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    MARCELO SIMONI SIMÕES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of a minimally invasive lumbar one-level fixation on trunk mobility and quality of life compared with the preoperative condition in 26 consecutive patients. Methods: The following data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively for the statistical analysis: maximal trunk extension and flexion angles, Visual Analog Scale of pain and Oswestry Disability Index scores. Results: There was improvement in all variables. Statistical significance was observed in trunk extension, pain, and Oswestry Disability Index. Although mobility in trunk flexion was higher in average values after surgery, this difference was not statistically demonstrated. Conclusion: Minimally invasive one-level lumbar fixation does not cause reduction of trunk flexibility in comparison to the mobility before surgery.

  9. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong-mail@126.com; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com [Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (China)

    2016-04-15

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.

  10. Effects of Volitional Spine Stabilization and Lower Extremity Fatigue on Trunk Control During Landing in Individuals With Recurrent Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddas, Ram; Sawyer, Steven F; Sizer, Phillip S; Brooks, Toby; Chyu, Ming-Chien; James, C Roger

    2016-02-01

    Controlled laboratory study. Recurrent low back pain (LBP) and neuromuscular fatigue are independently thought to increase the risk of spine injury. Volitional preemptive abdominal contraction (VPAC) is thought to improve lumbar spine and pelvis control in individuals with recurrent LBP. The effects of VPAC on fatigued landing performance in individuals with recurrent LBP are unknown. To determine the effects of VPAC and lower extremity fatigue on trunk control during landing in a population of individuals with recurrent LBP. Thirty-two recurrent LBP (mean ± SD age, 21.2 ± 2.7 years) and 33 healthy (age, 20.9 ± 2.3 years) subjects performed 0.30-m drop-jump landings with and without VPAC and fatigue. Trunk, pelvis, and hip biomechanical and electromyographic variables were obtained using 3-D motion capture. Hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance. Volitional preemptive abdominal contraction resulted in significantly earlier muscle onsets across all muscles, with and without fatigue, in both groups (mean ± SD, 0.058 ± 0.019 seconds earlier; P≤.001) and altered lumbar lateral flexion (1.4° ± 14.8° greater right lateral flexion; P = .002). Fatigue significantly delayed muscle onsets (0.040 ± 0.014 seconds later; P≤.001) and altered pelvic obliquity (1.4° ± 11.0° greater; P≤.001) and trunk side flexion (2.0° ± 14.8° less; P≤.001). The recurrent LBP group exhibited delayed muscle onsets (0.039 ± 0.031 seconds later; P≤.004) and 4.2° less hip abduction at initial contact (P≤.008) in comparison to healthy controls. Volitional preemptive abdominal contraction decreases some of the detrimental effects of fatigue on landing biomechanics and thus may reduce spine injury risk in individuals with recurrent LBP.

  11. Lower trunk of brachial plexus injury in the neonate rat: effects of timing repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretti, Liverana; Pallini, Roberto; Romani, Rossana; Di Rocco, Federico; Ciampini, Alessandro; Gangitano, Carlo; Del Fa, Aurora; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    After lesion of a peripheral nerve in neonatal mammals, motoneurons undergo a cell death. We wanted to ascertain if early surgery could influence such post-axotomy motoneuronal death and improve the functional outcome. In this study, we investigated the functional and anatomical results after immediate and delayed repair of the lower trunk of brachial plexus (BP) sectioned at birth in rats. In neonate rats, the lower trunk of the left BP was cut. This nerve trunk was repaired either immediately [immediately-reconstructed group of rats (IR), or 30 days after, tardy reconstructed group of rats (TR)]; in the third group of animals, the nerve was not repaired (noreconstructed group of rats, NoR). In each group of animals, functional studies were performed at 90 days of age using the grooming test and the walking tracks analysis. Histologic studies of the C7-T1 spinal cord and lower trunk of BP were performed at 30 and 90 days of age; the numbers of motoneuron and axon were counted. Functional recovery was related to the difference in motoneuron number between the injured and the uninjured sides of the spinal cord of the operated animals. On the one side, only in the rats in which the inferior trunk was immediately repaired, the difference in motoneuron number between the two sides of the spinal cord was not statistically significant; these animals showed a good axonal regeneration and function recovery. On the other side, in the rats in which the inferior trunk was left unrepaired or tardy repaired, the decrease in motoneuron number in the injured side compared with the uninjured side of the spinal cord was statistically significant; these animals showed no axonal regeneration and no function recovery. The results cited above suggest that an important role in restoration of good neurological function after section of the lower trunk of BP in neonate rats is played by early nerve repair. Good neurological function was related more to a quite numerical balance of

  12. Effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, C.J.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Meijer, O.G.; Moseley, G.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Beek, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and erector spinae EMG activity during gait. DESIGN: In 12 healthy subjects, hypertonic saline (acute pain) and isotonic saline (fear of pain) were injected into erector spinae muscle, and

  13. Trunk Fat Negatively Influences Skeletal and Testicular Functions in Obese Men: Clinical Implications for the Aging Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Migliaccio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin (OSCA seems to act as a negative regulator of energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Evidence from male rodents suggests that OSCA may also regulate testosterone (T synthesis. Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated OSCA, 25(OH vitamin D, T, 17β-estradiol (E2, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and body composition in 86 obese (mean BMI = 34 male subjects (18–69 yr old. Independently from BMI, an inverse relationship between trunk fat percentage and plasma T (r2=−0.26, P<0.01 and between HOMA-IR and OSCA levels (r2=−0.22, P<0.005 was found. OSCA levels, as well as vitamin D, decreased significantly for higher BMI with significant differences above 35 (P<0.01. A direct correlation between T and bone mineral density at lumbar (BMDL and neck (BMDH (P<0.001, r2=−0.20; P<0.001, r2=−0.24 was found, independently from age. An inverse correlation between E2 levels, BMDL, and BMDH (P<0.001, r2=−0.20; P<0.001, r2=−0.19 was observed. These data provide new evidences that a relationship between trunk fat mass, insulin sensitivity, OSCA and T synthesis occurs. This new relationship with skeletal health has relevant implications for the aging male, suggesting OSCA as a novel marker of metabolic and gonadal health status.

  14. Sea buckthorn decreases and delays insulin response and improves glycaemic profile following a sucrose-containing berry meal: a randomised, controlled, crossover study of Danish sea buckthorn and strawberries in overweight and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Maria Wichmann; Spagner, Camilla; Cuparencu, Cătălina; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-10-11

    Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined. The study was conducted as a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, three-way crossover study. Eighteen subjects were studied in three 2-h meal tests followed by a subsequent ad libitum meal. Test meals contained added sucrose and either sea buckthorn, strawberry or no berries with added fructose (control). Blood samples were collected at t = 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at t = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 140 min and subsequent ad libitum intake was recorded. Statistical differences in all continuous measures were evaluated based on the existence of a meal or a time-meal interaction by repeated measures linear model analyses or by differences in AUC by linear mixed models. None of the berries affected postprandial glucose. However, sea buckthorn improved glycaemic profile (44.7%, p Sea buckthorn also resulted in a decrease in plasma insulin concentration at 30 min (39.6%, p sea buckthorn compared with control (23.6%, p sea buckthorn meal compared to control. There was no effect on postprandial glucose response to a sugar challenge given together with purees of strawberry or sea buckthorn. Sea buckthorn decreased and delayed the insulin response and improved glycaemic profile compared with control. Strawberry had no such effects. No important differences were seen for the appetite measures. Sea buckthorn might be useful as a culinary tool for lowering meal insulin response.

  15. Reliability and validity of a scale for measurement of trunk mobility in Parkinson's disease: Trunk Mobility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Clarissa R C; Leão, Paula; Townsend, Raquel; Rieder, Carlos R M

    2011-08-01

    Axial rigidity is an important motor manifestation in Parkinson's disease (PD). Trunk mobility impairment can cause gait, balance and postural problems. However, only few instruments analyze the trunk mobility in PD patients. The aim of this study is to present a new Trunk Mobility Scale (TMS) and its validation in PD. The TMS constituted of dynamic tests involving trunk movements in sagittal, transversal and coronal planes. Ninety eight PD patients and 31 normal controls were analyzed. A strong correlation was found between the TMS scores and the Hoehn & Yahr staging scale (r: 0.72; pScale (r: 0.84; pscale showed a satisfactory reliability rate (αCronbach: 0.85, ICC: 099). TMS is a simple and reliable instrument to evaluate trunk mobility impairment in patients with PD.

  16. Reliability and validity of a scale for measurement of trunk mobility in Parkinson's disease: Trunk Mobility Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa R.C. Franco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Axial rigidity is an important motor manifestation in Parkinson's disease (PD. Trunk mobility impairment can cause gait, balance and postural problems. However, only few instruments analyze the trunk mobility in PD patients. The aim of this study is to present a new Trunk Mobility Scale (TMS and its validation in PD. The TMS constituted of dynamic tests involving trunk movements in sagittal, transversal and coronal planes. Ninety eight PD patients and 31 normal controls were analyzed. A strong correlation was found between the TMS scores and the Hoehn & Yahr staging scale (r: 0.72; p<0.01, motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r: 0.84; p<0.01 and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (r: -0.72; p<0.01. The scale showed a satisfactory reliability rate (αCronbach: 0.85, ICC: 099. TMS is a simple and reliable instrument to evaluate trunk mobility impairment in patients with PD.

  17. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis.

  18. The effects of core stability strength exercise on muscle activity and trunk impairment scale in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong-Hun; Park, Seong-Doo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of core stability-enhancing exercises on the lower trunk and muscle activity of stroke patients. The control group (n = 10) underwent standard exercise therapy, while the experiment group (n =10) underwent both the core stability-enhancing exercise and standard exercise therapy simultaneously. The standard exercise therapy applied to the two groups included weight bearing and weight shifts and joint movements to improve flexibility and the range of motion. The core stability-enhancing exercise was performed 5 times a week for 30 min over a period of 4 weeks in the room where the patients were treated. For all 20 subject, the items measured before the exercise were measured after the therapeutic intervention, and changes in muscle activity of the lower trunk were evaluated. The activity and stability of the core muscles were measured using surface electromyography and the trunk impairment scale (TIS). The mean TIS score and muscle activity of the lower trunk increased in the experiment group significantly after performing the core stability-enhancing exercise (Pcore stability-enhancing exercise is effective in improving muscle activity of the lower trunk, which is affected by hemiplegia.

  19. Effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on respiratory function and trunk control ability in patients with scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jwa Jun; Song, Gui Bin; Park, Eun Cho

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on the respiratory function and trunk control ability of patients with scoliosis. [Subjects] Forty scoliosis patients were randomly divided into the Swiss ball exercise group (n= 20) and resistance exercise group (n = 20). [Methods] The Swiss ball and resistance exercise groups performed chest expansion and breathing exercises with a Swiss ball and a therapist's resistance, respectively. Both groups received training 30 min per day, 5 times per week for 8 weeks. [Results] Both groups exhibited significant changes in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and trunk impairment scale after the intervention. However, there was no significant change in the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio after the intervention in either group. Meanwhile, forced expiratory volume in one second and trunk impairment scale were significantly greater in the resistance exercise group after the intervention. [Conclusion] Both Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise are effective for improving the respiratory function and trunk control ability of patients with scoliosis. However, resistance exercise is more effective for increasing the forced expiratory volume in one second and trunk control ability.

  20. Neuromuscular response of the trunk to inertial based sudden perturbations following whole body vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Danielle; Cort, Joel A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of whole body vibration exposure on the neuromuscular responses following inertial-based trunk perturbations were examined. Kinematic and surface EMG (sEMG) data were collected while subjects were securely seated on a robotic platform. Participants were either exposed to 10 min of vibration or not, which was followed by sudden inertial trunk perturbations with and without timing and direction knowledge. Amplitude of sEMG was analyzed for data collected during the vibration protocol, whereas the onset of sEMG activity and lumbar spine angle were analyzed for the perturbation protocol. Data from the vibration protocol did not show a difference in amplitude of sEMG for participants exposed to vibration and those not. The perturbation protocol data showed that those not exposed to vibration had a 14% faster muscle onset, despite data showing no difference in fatigue level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. aTrunk—An ALS-Based Trunk Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lamprecht

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid multi-return ALS-based (Airborne Laser Scanning tree trunk detection approach. The multi-core Divide & Conquer algorithm uses a CBH (Crown Base Height estimation and 3D-clustering approach to isolate points associated with single trunks. For each trunk, a principal-component-based linear model is fitted, while a deterministic modification of LO-RANSAC is used to identify an optimal model. The algorithm returns a vector-based model for each identified trunk while parameters like the ground position, zenith orientation, azimuth orientation and length of the trunk are provided. The algorithm performed well for a study area of 109 trees (about 2/3 Norway Spruce and 1/3 European Beech, with a point density of 7.6 points per m2, while a detection rate of about 75% and an overall accuracy of 84% were reached. Compared to crown-based tree detection methods, the aTrunk approach has the advantages of a high reliability (5% commission error and its high tree positioning accuracy (0.59m average difference and 0.78m RMSE. The usage of overlapping segments with parametrizable size allows a seamless detection of the tree trunks.

  2. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  3. Measured and modelled static and dynamic axial trunk torsion during twisting in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, S M; Hoodless, K

    1990-09-01

    Study of the mechanics of trunk twisting is of special interest given epidemiological evidence linking occupational twisting to increased incidence of low back pain. An anatomically detailed, three-dimensional model of the trunk (rib cage, pelvis, five lumbar vertebrae and 50 muscles), was used to predict maximum axial trunk torque. Predicted axial torques were compared with measured torques. Thirty-one (10 male and 21 female) subjects performed maximum effort isometric twisting exertions, at 0 degrees of twist and +/- 30 degrees of twist together with dynamic exertions, at 30 degrees s-1 and 60 degrees s-1. Females were able to generate approximately two-thirds of the torque of males (males, 97Nm; females 60Nm, isometric at 0 degrees). When the trunk was prerotated to 30 degrees, subjects were able to generate greater torque when the effort was toward the 0 degree position (approximately 105Nm by males and 68Nm by females). Experimental data indicated that velocity of rotation and amount of twist are important modulators of axial torque. Changes in muscle length were demonstrated to be minimal from model output as most muscle length changes during a twist from 0 degrees to 30 degrees, measured between the pelvis and the shoulder harness, were less than 1%, although some portions of the abdominal obliques underwent a length excursion of 5%. The small changes in the individual muscle force components that contribute to twist, i.e. the muscle unit vector about the axial twist axis and its moment arm that change as a function of twisted position, do not entirely account for the measured differences in torque, suggesting that additional mechanisms influence axial torque generation.

  4. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Liu

    Full Text Available Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue.Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed.In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2, unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization.Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24 ± 0.50 vs +0.12 ± 0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02, without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (% increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02. Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement.Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530685.

  5. Relationships between lower limb and trunk discomfort and vascular, muscular and kinetic outcomes during stationary standing work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, David M; Côté, Julie N

    2013-04-01

    Standing work is associated with discomfort and symptoms in the trunk and lower limb. However, mechanisms underlying these observations are poorly understood. Moreover, most research on standing-related symptoms has focused on only one region (lower limb or trunk), and has not considered the impact and interactions between vascular, muscular and balance outcomes. We measured foot and soleus blood flow, ankle mean arterial pressure, muscle activity of the plantar and dorsi flexors, gluteus medius and trunk flexors and extensors, center of pressure changes and leg and back discomfort in 18 healthy volunteers performing a repetitive box-folding task for 34 min. Results show significant decreases with time in lower limb muscle activity (plower limb (porigin of standing-related lower limb discomfort is likely vascular in origin, whereas back discomfort is likely multifactorial, involving muscular, vascular and postural control variables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low-back load in elderly persons during static standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhira, Junji; Matsudaira, Ko; Yasui, Tadashi; Iijima, Shinno; Ito, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force) as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES), left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these results were not significant compared to no orthosis. Thorax extension angle and thorax angle on pelvis coordinate system significantly increased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. ES activity significantly decreased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. Internal oblique activity was significantly smaller while wearing the LSO than with no orthosis. Center of pressure did not significantly differ among the conditions. The ORF significantly improved trunk alignment and decreased ES activity in healthy

  7. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low-back load in elderly persons during static standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhira, Junji; Matsudaira, Ko; Yasui, Tadashi; Iijima, Shinno; Ito, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force) as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Patients and methods Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES), left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Results Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these results were not significant compared to no orthosis. Thorax extension angle and thorax angle on pelvis coordinate system significantly increased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. ES activity significantly decreased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. Internal oblique activity was significantly smaller while wearing the LSO than with no orthosis. Center of pressure did not significantly differ among the conditions. Conclusion The ORF significantly improved trunk

  8. A trunk ranging system based on binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xixuan; Kan, Jiangming

    2017-07-01

    Trunk ranging is an essential function for autonomous forestry robots. Traditional trunk ranging systems based on personal computers are not convenient in practical application. This paper examines the implementation of a trunk ranging system based on the binocular vision theory via TI's DaVinc DM37x system. The system is smaller and more reliable than that implemented using a personal computer. It calculates the three-dimensional information from the images acquired by binocular cameras, producing the targeting and ranging results. The experimental results show that the measurement error is small and the system design is feasible for autonomous forestry robots.

  9. Effects of altered sagittal trunk orientation on kinetic pattern in able-bodied walking on uneven ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soran Aminiaghdam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of disturbed human locomotion often focus on the dynamics of the gait when either posture, movement or surface is perturbed. Yet, the interaction effects of variation of trunk posture and ground level on kinetic behaviour of able-bodied gait have not been explored. For 12 participants we investigated the kinetic behaviour, as well as velocity and contact time, across four steps including an unperturbed step on level ground, pre-perturbation, perturbation (10-cm drop and post-perturbation steps while walking with normal speed with four postures: regular erect, with 30°, 50° and maximal sagittal trunk flexion (70°. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs detected significant interactions of posture×step for the second peak of the vertical ground reaction force (GRF, propulsive impulse, contact time and velocity. An increased trunk flexion was associated with a systematic decrease of the second GRF peak during all steps and with a decreased contact time and an increased velocity across steps, except for the perturbation step. Pre-adaptations were more pronounced in the approach step to the drop in regular erect gait. With increased trunk flexion, walking on uneven ground exhibited reduced changes in GRF kinetic parameters relative to upright walking. It seems that in trunk-flexed gaits the trunk is used in a compensatory way during the step-down to accommodate changes in ground level by adjusting its angle leading to lower variations in centre of mass height. Exploitation of this mechanism resembles the ability of small birds in adjusting their zig-zag-like configured legs to cope with changes in ground level.

  10. Corticoreticular tract lesion in children with developmental delay presenting with gait dysfunction and trunk instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Min Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corticoreticular tract (CRT is known to be involved in walking and postural control. Using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT, we investigated the relationship between the CRT and gait dysfunction, including trunk instability, in pediatric patients. Thirty patients with delayed development and 15 age-matched, typically-developed (TD children were recruited. Fifteen patients with gait dysfunction (bilateral trunk instability were included in the group A, and the other 15 patients with gait dysfunction (unilateral trunk instability were included in the group B. The Growth Motor Function Classification System, Functional Ambulation Category scale, and Functional Ambulation Category scale were used for measurement of functional state. Fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, fiber number, and tract integrity of the CRT and corticospinal tract were measured. Diffusion parameters or integrity of corticospinal tract were not significantly different in the three study groups. However, CRT results revealed that both CRTs were disrupted in the group A, whereas CRT disruption in the hemispheres contralateral to clinical manifestations was observed in the group B. Fractional anisotropy values and fiber numbers in both CRTs were decreased in the group A than in the group TD. The extents of decreases of fractional anisotropy values and fiber numbers on the ipsilateral side relative to those on the contralateral side were greater in the group B than in the group TD. Functional evaluation data and clinical manifestations were found to show strong correlations with CRT status, rather than with corticospinal tract status. These findings suggest that CRT status appears to be clinically important for gait function and trunk stability in pediatric patients and DTT can help assess CRT status in pediatric patients with gait dysfunction.

  11. Structural evolution and diversity of the caterpillar trunk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    : the myrmecophilous ‘blue butterflies’ (Lycaenidae). The thesis includes four manuscript/chapters (MS 1-4). The four main objectives of the thesis are 1), to describe the larval morphology, including secondary locomotory structures, trunk chaetotaxy, and trunk musculature in the nonneolepidopterans, and in doing so...... feeding and climbing behavior (MS1), 3) describe the micropterigid and agathiphagid trunk morphology, including secondary locomotory structures, chaetotaxy, trunk musculature, and in the case of the former also the unique cuticle. The purpose of these descriptions is to focus on the seemingly aberrant...... morphology in an attempt to link form and function (MS2-3). 4) to re-evaluate the previously indicated correlation between the cuticle thickness of lycaenid larvae and the degree of myrmecophily in a selection of species in this family, and through a comparative study to better understand the link between...

  12. Bathing Trunk Inevus Associated with Neurofibromatosis and Raised Intracranial Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S Arya

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy had bathing trunk nevus with multiple large neurofibromata on the nevus and raised intracranial tension presenting with bilateral papilloedema and pyramidal tract sings. This combination, of features is extremely rare.

  13. Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Trees are a part of our everyday life, hence it is important to prevent their collapse to protect people and urban infrastructures. It is also important to characterize tree wood properties for usages in construction. In order to investigate internal parts of tree trunks non-invasively, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), or in this case, ultra-wideband microwave radar as a general tool, appears to be a very promising technology. Nevertheless, tree trunk tomography using microwave radar is a complicated task due to the circular shape of the trunk and the very complex (heterogeneous and anisotropic) internal structures of the trunk. Microwave sensing of tree trunks is also complicated due to the electromagnetic properties of living wood, which strongly depend on water content, density and temperature of wood. The objective of this study is to describe tree trunk radar cross sections including specific features originating from the particular circumferential data acquisition geometry. In that respect, three experiments were performed: (1) numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain software, namely, gprMax 2D, (2) measurements on a simplified laboratory trunk model including plastic and cardboard pipes, sand and air, and (3) measurements over a real tree trunk. The analysis was further deepened by considering: (1) common zero-offset reflection imaging, (2) imaging with a planar perfect electrical conductor (PEC) at the opposite side of the trunk, and (3) imaging with a PEC arc at the opposite side of the trunk. Furthermore, the shape of the reflection curve of a cylindrical target was analytically derived based on the straight-ray propagation approximation. Subsequently, the total internal reflection (TIR) phenomenon occurring in cylindrical objects was observed and analytically described. Both the straight-ray reflection curve and TIR were well observed on the simulated and laboratory radar data. A comparison between all experiments and radar

  14. A unique case of isolated, spontaneous, symptomatic celiac trunk dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Ferguson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of isolated spontaneous celiac trunk dissections have been appearing in the literature more recently with the increased availability of high-resolution computerized tomography angiograms. We report a unique case of this entity. A 48-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain that radiated to the back and worsened with breathing. This was diagnosed as a celiac trunk dissection by computerized tomography angiogram. She was treated conservatively with antihypertensive medications, anticoagulants, and opioid medication for pain control.

  15. the relationship between canopy width, height and trunk size

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... a = the distance to the highest point on the tree crown (hypotenuse) b = the distance to the tree base and c = the tree height. Trunk Size. Trunk size was considered as the diameter at breast height (d.b.h). To determine the d.b.h., the girth at breast height (g.b.h) or circumference of the tree was measured by ...

  16. The effect of trunk coordination exercise on dynamic postural control using a Core Noodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakajima, Masaaki

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the influence of trunk coordination exercise on dynamic postural control relative to postural sway. The effects of trunk coordination exercises were examined using a Core Noodle for the postural sway in healthy students who were assigned to an exercise or control group. The independent variable was the extent of exposure to Core Noodle exercise, and the dependent variable was dynamic postural control. A stabilometer, which measures dynamic postural control, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exercises. In addition, center of gravity movements were assessed using a Gravicorder G-620 stabilometer in which the subject was asked to shift their center of gravity between 2 circles on a computer monitor. Pre- and post-intervention dynamic postural control was statistically evaluated between the exercise group and control group using the Mann-Whitney test. Finally, we investigated the application of these exercises for a stroke patient. For post-intervention, the envelop area, mean length of the pathways between 2 circles, and the number of circles were significantly higher in the exercise group. Trunk coordination exercise performed Core Noodle may be used to enhance the dynamic postural balance of healthy young adults, and it can also be adapted for stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Activity modulations of trunk and lower limb muscles during impact-absorbing landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yoshiaki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Inaba, Yuki; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the activity patterns of trunk and lower limb muscles during impact-absorbing landing. Electromyogram activities of the trunk and lower limb muscles along with kinematic and ground reaction forces were measured while subjects (n=17) performed 10 landings from a height of 35 cm. Landing motions were divided into three phases: 100 ms preceding ground contact (GC) (PRE phase), from GC through 100 ms (ABSORPTION phase), and from the end of the ABSORPTION phase until the vertical position of the center of mass was minimized (BRAKING phase). During the PRE phase, the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and medial gastrocnemius were highly activated. Upon GC, the hip and knee joints were in a flexed position; the ankle joints, in a plantarflexed position. After GC, peak timings of muscle activities and lower limb joint rotations were characterized by distal-to-proximal sequential patterns. The peak vertical ground reaction force in the ABSORPTION phase relative to body weight positively correlated with the activity levels of the vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus in the PRE phase and that of rectus abdominis in the ABSORPTION phase. These findings indicate that the intensities and peak timings of muscle activities in the trunk and lower limb are coordinated to absorb landing impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of shoulder girdle strengthening on trunk alignment in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Amina; Shaker, Hussien; Shendy, Wael; Fahmy, Manal

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of shoulder girdle strengthening, particularly the scapular muscles, on poststroke trunk alignment. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 30 patients with residual hemiparesis following cerebrovascular stroke. Patient assessment included measuring shoulder muscle peak torque, scapular muscles peak force, spinal lateral deviation angle, and motor functional performance. Patients were randomly allocated either to the control group or the study group and received an 18-session strengthening program including active resisted exercises for shoulder abductors and external rotators in addition to trunk control exercises. The study group received additional strengthening exercises for the scapular muscles. [Results] The two groups showed significant improvement in strength of all shoulder and scapular muscles, with higher improvement in the study group. Similarly, the lateral spinal deviation angles significantly improved in both groups, with significantly higher improvement in the study group. Transfer activity, sitting balance, upper limb functions, and hand movements significantly improved in the two groups, with higher improvement in the latter two functions in the study group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of shoulder girdle muscles, particularly scapular muscles, can significantly contribute to improving the postural alignment of the trunk in patients with poststroke hemiparesis.

  19. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in specific chronic low back pain populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfies, Sheri P; Squillante, Dawn; Maurer, Philip; Westcott, Sarah; Karduna, Andrew R

    2005-06-01

    It is hypothesized that injury or degeneration of osteoligamentous spinal structures would require compensation by trunk musculature and alterations in motor control to maintain spine stability. While, biomechanical modeling has supported this hypothesis, studies of muscle recruitment patterns in chronic low back pain patients both with and without significant osteoligamentous damage have been limited. This study utilized a non-randomized case-control design to investigate trunk muscle recruitment patterns around the neutral spine position between subgroups of patients with chronic mechanical low back pain and asymptomatic controls. Twenty subjects with chronic low back pain attributed to clinical lumbar instability were matched to 20 asymptomatic controls. In addition 12 patients with non-specific chronic low back pain were studied. Surface EMG from five trunk muscles was analyzed to determine activation levels and patterns of recruitment during a standing reach under two different loading conditions. The chronic low back pain group with symptoms attributed to clinical instability demonstrated significantly higher activation levels of the external oblique and rectus abdominus muscles and lower abdominal synergist ratios than the control group. No significant differences were found between patient subgroups. While these data demonstrate altered muscle recruitment patterns in patients with chronic low back pain, the changes are not consistent with Panjabi's theory suggesting that these alterations are driven by passive subsystem damage. However, the higher activation of global abdominal musculature and altered synergist patterns may represent a motor control pattern that has consequences for continued dysfunction and chronic pain.

  20. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yi Chiou

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1 is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES and rectus abdominis (RA during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF, static shoulder flexion (SSF, and static trunk extension (STE. The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF and goal-directed voluntary (STE activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of trunk muscles during prolonged bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Belavý, Daniel L; Stanton, Warren; Wilson, Stephen J; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter; Richardson, Carolyn A

    2007-07-01

    Prospective longitudinal study. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the influence of bed rest on the lumbopelvic musculature. Reduced gravitational loading and inactivity (bed rest) are known to result in significant change in musculoskeletal function, although little is known about its effects on specific muscles of the lumbopelvic region. Ten healthy male subjects underwent 8 weeks of bed rest with 6 months of follow-up. MRI of the lumbopelvic region was conducted at regular time-points during and after bed rest. Using uniplanar images at L4, cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, psoas, anterolateral abdominal, and rectus abdominis muscles were measured. Multifidus CSA decreased by day 14 of bed rest (F = 7.4, P = 0.04). The lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum CSA showed no statistically significant difference to baseline across the time of bed rest (P > 0.05). The anterolateral abdominal, rectus abdominis, and psoas CSA all increased over this time. Psoas CSA increased by day 14 (F = 6.9, P = 0.047) and remained so until day 56, whereas the anterolateral abdominal CSA (F = 29.4, P = 0.003) and rectus abdominis CSA (F = 8.9, P = 0.03) were not statistically larger than baseline until day 56. On reambulation after completion of the bed rest phase, multifidus, anterolateral abdominal, and rectus abdominis CSA returned to baseline levels (P > 0.05) by day 4 of follow-up, whereas psoas CSA returned to baseline level after day 28 of the follow-up period. Bed rest resulted in selective atrophy of the multifidus muscle. An increased CSA of the trunk flexor musculature (increases in psoas, anterolateral abdominal, and rectus abdominis muscles) may reflect muscle shortening or possible overactivity during bed rest. Some of the changes resemble those seen in low back pain and may in part explain the negative effects of bed rest seen in low back pain sufferers.

  2. The effects of rehabilitation on the muscles of the trunk following prolonged bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Lambrecht, Gunda; Richardson, Carolyn A; Stanton, Warren R; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Pruett, Casey; Damann, Volker; Felsenberg, Dieter; Belavý, Daniel L

    2011-05-01

    Microgravity and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest have been shown to result in atrophy of spinal extensor muscles such as the multifidus, and either no atrophy or hypertrophy of flexor muscles such as the abdominal group and psoas muscle. These effects are long-lasting after bed rest and the potential effects of rehabilitation are unknown. This two-group intervention study aimed to investigate the effects of two rehabilitation programs on the recovery of lumbo-pelvic musculature following prolonged bed rest. 24 subjects underwent 60 days of head down tilt bed rest as part of the 2nd Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2). After bed rest, they underwent one of two exercise programs, trunk flexor and general strength (TFS) training or specific motor control (SMC) training. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbo-pelvic region was conducted at the start and end of bed rest and during the recovery period (14 and 90 days after re-ambulation). Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, psoas, lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum muscles were measured from L1 to L5. Morphological changes including disc volume, spinal length, lordosis angle and disc height were also measured. Both exercise programs restored the multifidus muscle to pre-bed-rest size, but further increases in psoas muscle size were seen in the TFS group up to 14 days after bed rest. There was no significant difference in the number of low back pain reports for the two rehabilitation groups (p=.59). The TFS program resulted in greater decreases in disc volume and anterior disc height. The SMC training program may be preferable to TFS training after bed rest as it restored the CSA of the multifidus muscle without generating potentially harmful compressive forces through the spine.

  3. Relationship between trunk stability during voluntary limb and trunk movements and clinical measurements of patients with chronic stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liao, Chien-Fen; Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Wang, Ray-Yau; Su, Fong-Chin; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate differences between patients with chronic stroke and age matched healthy controls in trunk stability, by assessing the kinematics of the center of mass...

  4. Effects of trunk muscle fatigue and load timing on spinal responses during sudden hand loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Diane E; Potvin, Jim R

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of the spine during sudden loading in the presence of back and abdominal muscle fatigue, with a primary focus on the implications for spinal stability. Fifteen females were studied and each received sudden loads to the hands, at both known and unknown times. Participants received these loading trials (a) while rested, (b) with back muscle fatigue, and (c) with a combination of back and abdominal muscle fatigue. Measures were taken on the EMG activity of two trunk extensor and two abdominal muscles, and on the trunk angle and centre of pressure. A 3x2 Repeated Measures ANOVA was also performed. There were no preparations made prior to the perturbation even when it could be anticipated. However, the peak responses that followed were greater in the unexpected versus the expected condition. In addition, trunk muscle fatigue led to an increase in the baseline activity of the trunk muscles but no additional increase in activity just prior to loading. There was increased activation of both (opposing) muscle groups when only one muscle group was fatigued. Because the peak responses following the perturbation were enhanced in the unknown timing condition, preparations must have taken place prior to the anticipated perturbations, perhaps in other segments of the body that were not measured. Also, the load impact may not have been great enough to elicit large preparations. The heightened baseline activity with fatigue suggests that there may have been increased spinal stiffness whenever the spine was fatigued, and not just immediately prior to an impending perturbation. The increased activation of opposing muscle groups is evidence of increased cocontraction in response to fatigue, possibly to maintain stability with decreasing coordination.

  5. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pain-evoked trunk muscle activity changes during fatigue and DOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L H; Hirata, R P; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-05-01

    Muscle pain may reorganize trunk muscle activity but interactions with exercise-related muscle fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is to be clarified. In 19 healthy participants, the trunk muscle activity during 20 multi-directional unpredictable surface perturbations were recorded after bilateral isotonic saline injections (control) and during unilateral and bilateral hypertonic saline-induced low back pain (LBP) in conditions of back muscle fatigue (Day-1) and DOMS (Day-2). Pain intensity and distribution were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and pain drawings. The degree of fatigue and DOMS were assessed by Likert scale scores. Root-mean-square electromyographic (RMS-EMG) signals were recorded post-perturbation from six bilateral trunk muscles and the difference from baseline conditions (Delta-RMS-EMG) was extracted and averaged across abdominal and back muscles. In DOMS, peak VAS scores were higher during bilateral control and bilateral saline-induced pain than fatigue (p fatigue (p fatigue and DOMS, the back muscle Delta-RMS-EMG increased during bilateral compared with unilateral pain and control injections (p fatigue, the post-perturbation Delta-RMS-EMG in back muscles was higher during bilateral pain and lower during unilateral pain (p muscle responses to surface perturbations in bilateral and unilateral LBP, respectively, was more expressed during exercise-induced back muscle soreness compared with fatigue. Back muscle activity decreased during unilateral and increased during bilateral pain after unpredictable surface perturbations during muscle fatigue and DOMS. Accumulation effects of DOMS on pain intensity and spreading and trunk muscle activity after pain-induction. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  7. Decreased Libido

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as those taken for prostate cancer) Excessive alcohol use or recreational drug use Excessive fatigue Systemic illness (such as chronic lung, heart, kidney and liver failure, cancer) Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) Depression Relationship problems What is the treatment for decreased libido? ...

  8. Trunk muscle activity during bridging exercises on and off a Swissball

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Steven; Hoda Wajid; Lehman Gregory J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging exercises influences trunk muscle activity. Methods Surface electrodes recorded the myoelectric activity of trunk muscles during bridging exercises. Bridging exercises were per...

  9. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P=0.037. The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 (P=0.014 and ICAM-1 (P=0.048 were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P=0.003. These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.

  10. Disturbance and recovery of trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours following repetitive lifting: influences of flexion angle and lift rate on creep-induced effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Bazrgari, Babak; Hendershot, Brad; Muslim, Khoirul; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive lifting is associated with an increased risk of occupational low back disorders, yet potential adverse effects of such exposure on trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours were not well described. Here, 12 participants, gender balanced, completed 40 min of repetitive lifting in all combinations of three flexion angles (33, 66, and 100% of each participant's full flexion angle) and two lift rates (2 and 4 lifts/min). Trunk behaviours were obtained pre- and post-exposure and during recovery using sudden perturbations. Intrinsic trunk stiffness and reflexive responses were compromised after lifting exposures, with larger decreases in stiffness and reflexive force caused by larger flexion angles, which also delayed reflexive responses. Consistent effects of lift rate were not found. Except for reflex delay no measures returned to pre-exposure values after 20 min of recovery. Simultaneous changes in both trunk stiffness and neuromuscular behaviours may impose an increased risk of trunk instability and low back injury. An elevated risk of low back disorders is attributed to repetitive lifting. Here, the effects of flexion angle and lift rate on trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behaviours were investigated. Increasing flexion angle had adverse effects on these outcomes, although lift rate had inconsistent effects and recovery time was more than 20 min.

  11. Spinal flexibility affects range of trunk flexion during performance of a maximum voluntary trunk curl-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidaris, Dimitrios; Hatzitaki, Vassilia; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between spinal flexibility and range of trunk flexion during curl-up performance. Fifty young adult men (age: 18.93 +/- 1.31 years; height: 179.4 +/- 5.7 cm; mass: 73.95 +/- 7.8 kg) performed a spinal flexibility measurement test and a maximum voluntary trunk curl-up from the supine position. The 2 tests were paced to the beat of a metronome and had a constant movement duration set to 5 seconds. Spinal and pelvic motions were recorded with the help of 2 electromagnetic tracking sensors (Flock of Birds, Ascension Technologies, Inc., Burlington, Vt; sampling rate 100 Hz) attached to the seventh cervical (C7) and first sacral (S1) vertebrae, respectively. Correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between spinal flexibility and curl-up performance, with spinal flexibility accounting for 18% of the variance in the range of trunk flexion during performance of the voluntary trunk curl-up. No significant anterior tilt of the pelvis was noted during performance of the trunk curl-up. On the other hand, a minor posterior pelvic rotation depicted during the initial phase of the trunk curl-up was negatively correlated with spinal flexibility. It is concluded that a normal range of spinal flexibility is critical for the optimal performance of abdominal strength training exercises such as trunk curl-ups from the supine position. The results of the present study are relevant to the design and evaluation of training programs for improving strength and function of the abdominal muscles in rehabilitation and sports contexts.

  12. The effect of increasing resistant level on reaction time and electromyographic activity of trunk muscles during combined trunk motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sadeghi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymmetric or combined lifting of objects is considered as the most important biomechanical factor in increasing the prevalence of low back pain (LBP in the working environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing resistance level on reaction time and electromyographic activity of trunk muscles during combined trunk motion.Materials and Method: In this interventional study; after entering cases into the study consecutively, thirty young healthy men aligned with B200 isostation dynamometer in upright standing position randomly performed combined trunk motion against different levels of resistance (minimal resistance, 25, 50 , 75% of MVC. The way of test performance was five combined trunk motion trip in two phases of upward and downward movements. The.Rout Mean Square of trunk muscles and temporal parameters of motor control was recorded by the Data Link device. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to test the effect of levels of resistance. Results: The results of present study showed that in general, increasing resistance level associated significantly with the amount of RMS of trunk muscles (p=0.001 and motor time (p =0.004. Reaction time has also been increased but it had not any significant difference (p=0.058. Premotor time was not changed significantly (p>0.05.Conclusion: With increasing the level of resistance, trunk controllability reduces and the amount of error in motion system and internal loading will increase. Finally greater stress and strain impose into the annulus fibers, facet joints, soft tissue will increase the risk of injury

  13. Decreased Peak Expiratory Flow Associated with Muscle Fiber-Type Switching in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Yamada

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the respiratory function profile of subjects with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, and to explore the underlying pathological mechanism by comparing the clinical and biochemical indices of this disease with those of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. We enrolled male subjects with SBMA (n = 40 and ALS (n = 25 along with 15 healthy control subjects, and assessed their respiratory function, motor function, and muscle strength. Predicted values of peak expiratory flow (%PEF and forced vital capacity were decreased in subjects with SBMA compared with controls. In SBMA, both values were strongly correlated with the trunk subscores of the motor function tests and showed deterioration relative to disease duration. Compared with activities of daily living (ADL-matched ALS subjects, %PEF, tongue pressure, and grip power were substantially decreased in subjects with SBMA. Both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR demonstrated a selective decrease in the expression levels of the genes encoding the myosin heavy chains specific to fast-twitch fibers in SBMA subjects. The mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta were up-regulated in SBMA compared with ALS and controls. In conclusion, %PEF is a disease-specific respiratory marker for the severity and progression of SBMA. Explosive muscle strength, including %PEF, was selectively affected in subjects with SBMA and was associated with activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis-related molecular pathway in skeletal muscles.

  14. Postoperative Trunk Shift in Lenke 1C Scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yu; Bünger, Cody Eric; Wu, Chunsen

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A risk factor analysis study. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative factors for postoperative trunk shift in Lenke 1C scoliosis and investigate how to prevent it. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: When selective thoracic fusion is performed, postoperative trunk shift is a significant problem...... in the management of Lenke 1C scoliosis. It is often accompanied by unsatisfactory clinical outcomes and a risk of reoperation. METHODS: We reviewed all the patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgically treated in our institution from 2002 through 2008. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1...... of MT: TL/L Cobb angle) - 3.9 (preoperative LIV-LEV difference). The model R2 = 0.55. CONCLUSION: Both LIV selection and ratio of MT: TL/L curve were found to be highly correlated with the onset of postoperative trunk shift in Lenke 1C scoliosis. Amount of correction obtained by surgery, however, did...

  15. Fast gaze reorientations by combined movements of the eye, head, trunk and lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Naushahi, J; Sklavos, Sokratis; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2015-05-01

    Large reorientations of the line of sight, involving combined rotations of the eyes, head, trunk and lower extremities, are executed either as fast single-step or as slow multiple-step gaze transfers. In order to obtain more insight into the mechanisms of gaze and multisegmental movement control, we have investigated time-optimal gaze shifts (i.e. with the instruction to move as fast as possible) during voluntary whole-body rotations to remembered targets up to 180° eccentricity performed by standing healthy humans in darkness. Fast, accurate, single-step movement patterns occurred in approximately 70 % of trials, i.e. considerably more frequently than in previous studies with the instruction to turn at freely chosen speed (30 %). Head-in-space velocity in these cases was significantly higher than during multiple-step transfers and displayed a conspicuously regular bell-shaped profile, increasing smoothly to a peak and then decreasing slowly until realignment with the target. Head-in-space acceleration was on average not different during reorientations to the different target eccentricities. In contrast, head-in-space velocity increased with target eccentricity due to the longer duration of the acceleration phase implemented during trials to more distant targets. Eye saccade amplitude approached the eye-in-orbit mechanical limit and was unrelated to eye/head velocity, duration or target eccentricity. Overall, the combined movement was stereotyped such that the first two principal components accounted for data variance almost up to gaze shift end, suggesting that the three mechanical degrees of freedom under consideration (eye-in-orbit, head-on-trunk and trunk-in-space) are on average reduced to two kinematic degrees of freedom (i.e. eye, head-in-space). Synchronous EMG activity in the anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles preceded the onset of eye rotation. Since the magnitude and timing of peak head-in-space velocity were scaled with target eccentricity and

  16. Altered trunk muscle coordination during rapid trunk flexion in people in remission of recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hooge, Roseline; Hodges, Paul; Tsao, Henry; Hall, Leanne; Macdonald, David; Danneels, Lieven

    2013-02-01

    People with a history of low back pain (LBP) are at high risk to encounter additional LBP episodes. During LBP remission, altered trunk muscle control has been suggested to negatively impact spinal health. As sudden LBP onset is commonly reported during trunk flexion, the aim of the current study is to investigate whether dynamic trunk muscle recruitment is altered in LBP remission. Eleven people in remission of recurrent LBP and 14 pain free controls performed cued trunk flexion during a loaded and unloaded condition. Electromyographic activity was recorded from paraspinal (lumbar and thoracic erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, deep and superficial multifidus) and abdominal muscles (obliquus internus, externus and rectus abdominis) with surface and fine-wire electrodes. LBP participants exhibited higher levels of co-contraction of flexor/extensor muscles, lower agonistic abdominal and higher antagonistic paraspinal muscle activity than controls, both when data were analyzed in grouped and individual muscle behavior. A sub-analysis in people with unilateral LBP (n = 6) pointed to opposing changes in deep and superficial multifidus in relation to the pain side. These results suggest that dynamic trunk muscle control is modified during LBP remission, and might possibly increase spinal load and result in earlier muscle fatigue due to intensified muscle usage. These negative consequences for spinal health could possibly contribute to recurrence of LBP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinematic and electromyographic parameters of the cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon: the effect of trunk positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pialasse, J-P; Dubois, J-D; Choquette, M-H Pilon; Lafond, D; Descarreaux, M

    2009-02-01

    The cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) is a neck extensor myoelectric "silence" that occurs during complete cervical flexion. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of this phenomenon in the cervical region and to explore the kinematics and EMG parameters in two different experimental conditions. Nineteen young healthy adults (22.2+/-2.4 years), without any cervical pain history, participated in this study and performed each of the experimental conditions. They had to accomplish a cervical flexion from a neutral seated position and from a 45 degrees forward leaning seated position. Neck kinematics was assessed using a kinematic capture device in order to assess onset and cessation angle of the PFR. Cervical paraspinal and trapezius muscles EMG activities were also recorded. All data were compared in order to assess the differences between the two experimental conditions. Eighteen of the nineteen subjects showed a FRP. The phenomenon appears between 72.6 and 76.3% of maximal cervical flexion and disappears during the return to neutral position between 91.9 and 93.1% of maximal cervical flexion. The FRP was observed, at least unilaterally, in 84.2% (67.4% bilaterally) of tasks without forward bending of trunk, and 90.5% (79.0% bilaterally) of tasks with 45 degrees forward bending of trunk. A significant increase in the flexion-relaxation ratio was observed in the 45 degrees forward leaning condition. No significant difference could be observed between the two experimental conditions for the kinematics parameters. The results of the present study indicate that cervical spine flexion in healthy subjects is characterized by a flexion-relaxation response. Moreover, the results indicate that trunk inclination might facilitate the evaluation of the cervical FRP.

  18. Trunk muscle co-contraction increases during fatiguing, isometric, lateral bend exertions. Possible implications for spine stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, J R; O'Brien, P R

    1998-04-01

    Surface electromyographic activities were recorded from bilateral trunk muscles as test participants maintained a 50% maximum, voluntary, isometric, lateral bend contraction to volitional exhaustion. To challenge the trunk with a prolonged lateral bend task and observe the responses of the agonist and antagonist muscles to the resulting fatigue. Lateral bend exertions of the trunk have been identified as a risk factor for injury to spine tissues. However, little is known about the response of spine muscles to fatigue and the subsequent implications for spine stability, joint loading, and tissue injury. Surface electromyography provides a window on muscle loading and progressive fatigue. Eleven male participants performed a set of maximum lateral bend exertions at the start of the trial, then maintained an upright standing posture while resisting 50% of the maximum moment until volitional exhaustion, then performed another set of maximum contractions. All contractions were isometric. Measurements were made, throughout each contraction, of the lateral bend moment and abdominal and trunk extensor electromyographic activities at six bilateral surface electromyography sites. Electromyographic amplitude and mean power frequency were calculated with 500-millisecond segments recorded serially every 800 milliseconds. Mean values were calculated with data from the first and last 5% of the trial durations. Statistics determined if fatigue had a significant effect on maximum moment and the electromyographic statistics for each muscle site. Fatigue resulted in a significant decrease in maximum lateral bend moment and increase in moment variability. Decreases in mean power frequency, indicating fatigue, were observed in three agonists (the trunk extensors) and one antagonist muscle. Unfatigued agonist electromyographic amplitudes correlated well with the mechanical advantage of muscles to generate lateral bend moments. Unfatigued antagonist activities were low except for the

  19. Reliability and validity of lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests in office workers with nonspecific subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Mocholi, Miguel H; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Parraca, Jose A; Adsuar, Jose C; Gusi, Narcis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of trunk endurance tests, the reliability and validity of these tests in office workers with subacute nonspecific low back pain are unknown. This cross-sectional study involved 190 subjects: 30 men and 42 women without low back pain and 47 men and 71 women with low back pain. All subjects underwent timed prone and supine isometric lumbar and abdominal trunk endurance tests that were performed until subjective fatigue occurred. All subjects also completed the Roland Morris and Oswestry self-reported disability questionnaires. A test-retest study (7 days) was conducted with 31 participants with low back pain from the study. For the abdominal trunk endurance test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 62.06 (36.87) and 46.06 (29.28) seconds, respectively, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. For the lumbar test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 79.57 (30.66) and 75.49 (28.97) seconds, respectively, again, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. The intraclass correlation coefficients of both tests exceeded 0.90 and the Kappa indices were excellent for both men and women. Receiver-operating curve analyses revealed areas under the curve very close to or exceeding 0.70 for both men and women for both tests. The lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests appeared to be reliable and valid measures in office workers with subacute low back pain.

  20. Effects of the MWM Technique Accompanied by Trunk Stabilization Exercises on Pain and Physical Dysfunctions Caused by Degenerative Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Chan-Woo; Park, Sang-In; Yong, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify how treatment with the Mulligan technique of mobilization with movement (MWM) influences pain and physical function of patients with degenerative osteoarthritis. [Subjects] Thirty patients diagnosed with degenerative osteoarthritis were divided into an experimental group (n=15), and a control group (n=15). [Methods] The experimental group was treated with general physical therapy, trunk stabilization exercises, and performed the MWM using the Mulligan te...

  1. Effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on respiratory function and trunk control ability in patients with scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa Jun; Song, Gui Bin; Park, Eun Cho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on the respiratory function and trunk control ability of patients with scoliosis. [Subjects] Forty scoliosis patients were randomly divided into the Swiss ball exercise group (n= 20) and resistance exercise group (n = 20). [Methods] The Swiss ball and resistance exercise groups performed chest expansion and breathing exercises with a Swiss ball and a therapist?s resistance, respectively. Both groups recei...

  2. Chondroid lipoma of the trunk: MRI appearance and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boets, An; Mieghem, Isabelle M.Van; Breuseghem, Iwan Van [Catholic University Leuven Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Sciot, Raf [Catholic University Leuven, Pathology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Chondroid lipoma is a rare tumour of adipose tissue, bearing a strikingly close pathologic resemblance to myxoid liposarcoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Unlike these malignant tumours, chondroid lipoma has a non-aggressive behaviour and does not require radical treatment. Although repeatedly reported in the proximal extremities and limb girdles, this rare entity may less frequently be observed in the trunk. We describe the imaging findings of a chondroid lipoma in the trunk and provide a discussion on the radiologic-pathologic correlation and differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Analysis and experiments with an elephant's trunk robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M. W.; Walker, I. D.

    2001-01-01

    The area of tentacle and trunk type biological manipulation is not new, but there has been little progress in the development and application of a physical device to simulate these types of manipulation. Our research in this area is based on using an 'elephant trunk' robot. In this paper, we review the construction of the robot and how it compares to biological manipulators. We then apply our previously designed kinematic model to describe the kinematics of the robot. We finish by providing some examples of motion planning and intelligent manipulation using the robot.

  4. Impact of Wheelchair Rugby on Body Composition of Subjects With Tetraplegia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, José I; Costa e Silva, Anselmo de A; Borges, Mariane; Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Godoy, Priscila S; Calegari, Décio R; Santos, Allan de O; Ramos, Celso D; Nadruz Junior, Wilson; Cliquet Junior, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal effects of wheelchair rugby (WR) training on body composition of subjects with tetraplegia. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after WR training. Faculty of physical education settings. Individuals with tetraplegia (N=13; age, 26.6±6.0y). Four sessions per week of WR training composed by aerobic and anaerobic activities and technical and tactical aspects of WR. The average time of intervention was 8.1±2.5 months. Body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. After training, fat mass was significantly reduced in the whole body (15,191±4603 vs 13,212±3318 g, P=.016), trunk (7058±2639 vs 5693±1498 g, P=.012), and legs (2847±817 vs 2534±742 g, P=.003). Conversely, increased bone mineral content (183±35 vs 195±32 g, P=.01) and fat-free mass (2991±549 vs 3332±602 g, P=.016) in the arms and reduced bone mineral content in the trunk (553±82 vs 521±86 g, P=.034) were observed after training. Furthermore, no significant correlation between the duration of training and changes in body composition was detected. Regular WR training increased lean mass and bone mineral content in the arms and decreased total body fat mass. Conversely, WR training was associated with decreased bone mineral content in the trunk. These results suggest that regular WR training improves body composition in subjects with tetraplegia. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early daily trunk shrinkage is highly sensitive to water stress in nectarine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; De la Rosa, Jose M.; Dodd, Ian C.; Conesa, María R.; Domingo, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity to water stress of different plant water status indicators was evaluated during two consecutive years in early nectarine trees grown in a semi-arid region. Measurements were made post-harvest and two irrigation treatments were applied: a control treatment (CTL), irrigated at 120% of crop evapotranspiration demand to achieve non-limiting water conditions, and a deficit irrigation treatment (DI), that applied around 37% less water than CTL during late postharvest. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential (Ψstem) and parameters derived from trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF): maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), trunk daily growth rate (TGR), early daily shrinkage measured between 0900 and 1200 h solar time (EDS), and late daily shrinkage (LDS) that occurred between 1200 h solar time and the moment that minimum trunk diameter was reached (typically 1600 h solar time). The most sensitive (highest ratio of signal intensity (SI) to noise) indicators to water stress were Ψstem together with EDS. The SI of EDS was greater than that of Ψstem, although with greater variability. EDS was a better indicator than MDS, with higher SI and similar variability. Although MDS was linearly related to Ψstem down to -1.5 MPa, thereafter MDS decreased with increasing water stress. In contrast, EDS was linearly related to Ψstem, although the slope of the regression decreased as the season progressed, as in the case of MDS. Further studies are needed to determine whether EDS is a sensitive indicator of water stress in a range of species.

  6. Effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain on trunk muscle activity during stair walking in healthy and recurrent low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    Aim To explore the trunk muscle activity in healthy and recurrent low back pain (R-LBP) patients with no present pain during stair ascent and descent before and after unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain (LBP). Methods Twenty-five healthy controls and 25 pain-free R-LBP patients...... in m. rectus abdominis during all phases, with larger decrease during bilateral compared with unilateral pain (Ppain in the back muscles (P....04). Conclusions The impact of unilateral and bilateral experimental LBP on trunk muscle activity was different between healthy participants and R-LBP patients. Pain resulted in increased trunk muscle activity in healthy, while R-LBP patients decreased the back and increased the abdominal muscle activity. However...

  7. Increase in corticospinal excitability of limb and trunk muscles according to maintenance of neck flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Tomita, Hidehito; Kunita, Kenji

    2009-09-25

    The effect of maintenance of neck flexion on corticospinal excitability of limb and trunk muscles was investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Nine healthy young subjects participated in this experiment. Every measurement was performed with subjects sitting on a chair. Target muscles were the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GcM) on the right side. TMS was applied to the left primary motor cortex, and motor evoked potential (MEP) was measured from the muscles listed above. Optimal stimulus location and resting motor threshold (RMT) were identified for each target muscle, and stimulus intensity used was 120% of RMT. MEPs of the target muscle were recorded with the chin resting on a chin support (chin-on condition) with neck in 20 degrees of flexion, and with voluntary maintenance of the neck flexion posture (chin-off condition). Amplitude and latency of MEP and background activity of target muscles were analyzed. For FDI, BB, TB, ES, and RF, amplitude of MEP increased and latency shortened in the chin-off compared with the chin-on condition. No significant difference in background activity of each target muscle was found between the two conditions. Corticospinal excitability of limb and trunk muscles was selectively enhanced while neck flexion was maintained.

  8. Lumbar spine stability for subjects with and without low back pain during one-leg standing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Yoon, BumChul; Lee, Dongchul C

    2010-07-15

    An experimental design comparing kinematic changes in the lumbar spine axis in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) while standing on one leg with and without visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lumbar stability index, which includes relative holding time (RHT) and relative standstill time (RST), in subjects with and without LBP. Even though a number of studies have evaluated postural adjustments based on kinematic changes in subjects with LBP, lumbar spine stability has not been examined for abnormal postural responses with visual feedback. All participants were asked to maintain the stork test position (standing on one leg with the contra lateral hip flexed 90 degrees) for 25 seconds. The outcome measures included RHT and RST for the axes of the core spine and lumbar spine. Independent t tests were used to compare the differences between groups. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance was used to compare the differences for both axes. The age variable was used as a covariate to control confounding effects for the data analyses. The RHT was longer for the lumbar spine axis in subjects without LBP than those with LBP, especially without visual feedback. There was also significant interaction in RST between subjects with and without LBP (F = 7.18, P = 0.01). For the core axis of the trunk, significant differences existed based on the main effect of side (F = 9.07, P = 0.004), trunk rotation (F = 24.30, P = 0.001), and both of these interactions (F = 8.93, P = 0.004). However, there was a lack of significant interaction with age for the lumbar and core spine axes (F = 0.06, P = 0.81). Although the control group included slightly younger volunteers compared with the LBP group, the stability index of the core spine significantly decreased in RHT and RST, especially when visual feedback was blocked for subjects with LBP. The interaction between visual feedback and trunk rotation indicated that core spine stability is critical in

  9. Restricted Arm Swing Affects Gait Stability and Increased Walking Speed Alters Trunk Movements in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabastita, Tijs; Desloovere, Kaat; Meyns, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Observational research suggests that in children with cerebral palsy, the altered arm swing is linked to instability during walking. Therefore, the current study investigates whether children with cerebral palsy use their arms more than typically developing children, to enhance gait stability. Evidence also suggests an influence of walking speed on gait stability. Moreover, previous research highlighted a link between walking speed and arm swing. Hence, the experiment aimed to explore differences between typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy taking into account the combined influence of restricting arm swing and increasing walking speed on gait stability. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics, trunk movement parameters and margins of stability were obtained using three dimensional gait analysis to assess gait stability of 26 children with cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing children. Four walking conditions were evaluated: (i) free arm swing and preferred walking speed; (ii) restricted arm swing and preferred walking speed; (iii) free arm swing and high walking speed; and (iv) restricted arm swing and high walking speed. Double support time and trunk acceleration variability increased more when arm swing was restricted in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children and children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Trunk sway velocity increased more when walking speed was increased in children with unilateral cerebral palsy compared to children with bilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children and in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. Trunk sway velocity increased more when both arm swing was restricted and walking speed was increased in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. It is proposed that facilitating arm swing during gait rehabilitation can improve gait stability and decrease trunk movements in

  10. Abdominal plasty with and without plication-effects on trunk muscles, lung function, and self-rated physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Sofia; Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Staalesen, Trude; Elander, Anna; Nygren-Bonnier, Malin

    2017-06-01

    Weight loss after obesity and pregnancy is associated with excess abdominal skin and weakness of the abdominal wall, which is assumed to cause low back pain and reduce lung function. Today, abdominoplasty is the only known method to treat excess skin, and plication is used to improve aesthetics and function alone or in addition to surgery. There is lack of evidence concerning the surgery's effect on trunk muscles, lung function, and physical function. The aim was to evaluate the effect on trunk muscle endurance, lung function and self-rated physical function after abdominoplasty with and without muscle plication. To evaluate the effect on trunk muscle endurance, lung function, and self-rated physical function after abdominoplasty with and without muscle plication. A series of 125 people were randomised to abdominoplasty with or without rectus abdominis muscle plication. Trunk muscle endurance, lung function, and self-rated physical function (disability rating index) were measured before and 1 year after surgery. There were no significant differences in any of the measured variables between the groups either before or after surgery. A significant decrease (p = .02) in back muscle endurance was seen after abdominoplasty without muscle plication. A significant positive effect (p = .04) in one of the activities (running) assessed by DRI was reported after abdominoplasty with muscle plication. No significant differences in trunk muscle endurance, lung function, or self-rated physical function were found after abdominoplasty with vs without plication. As the primary indication for surgery was excess skin and not diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscles, there is a need for future trials before conclusions can be drawn of effect of abdominoplasty and plication.

  11. MUSCLE POWER, SITTING UNSUPPORTED AND TRUNK ROTATION IN PRETERM INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGROOT, L; HOPKINS, B; TOUWEN, B

    1995-01-01

    Discrepancies between active and passive muscle power are often seen in pre-term infants over the first year. Generally of a transient nature, they are most obvious in the extensor muscles of the trunk where there is a high active muscle power relative to the passive component. While high active

  12. Trunk recruitment during spoon use in tetraparetic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roon, D.B. van; Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the extent to which individuals suffering from spastic tetraparesis as a consequence of cerebral palsy tune their trunk involvement to accuracy demands in a spoon-handling task. Twenty-two participants (ten adolescents with spastic tetraparesis and 12 control

  13. Determination of Optimum Number of Trunk Lines for Corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of determining the optimum number of telecommunication trunk lines subscribers' common equipment) for a given average traffic intensity is contributory, among other things, to the problem encountered in providing cost effective and high quality telecommunication services to corporate network users.

  14. Kinematic analyses of trunk stability in one leg standing for individuals with recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yong Woon; Kim, Dong Myung; Baek, Ju Yeoul; Lee, Dongchul C; Sung, Paul S

    2010-12-01

    This prospective study examined normalized stability differences based on dominance side and visual feedback. Subjects with low back pain (LBP) (n=26; 9 men, 17 women) and without LBP (n=28; 11 men, 17 women) participated in this study. All subjects were asked to maintain single leg standing balance with the contralateral hip flexed 90° for 25s. The outcome measures included normalized holding duration and stability. The combined rotation (R(xyz)) was also calculated to compare the upper and lower thorax and lumbar axes relative to the core spine axis. The holding duration was significantly different between groups (T=-2.21, p=0.03). The subjects without recurrent LBP (control group) demonstrated longer hold duration times (24.60±4.2s) than the subjects with recurrent LBP (21.2±7.1s). For the normalized hold duration, there was a significant difference between groups based on visual input (F=7.13, p=0.009). There was also a significant difference in standing stability based on visual input (F=93.93, p=0.0001) and trunk area (F=101.51, p=0.0001). In addition, the normalized stability was significantly different based on dominance and visual input (F=11.28, p=0.002). Therefore, trunk stability could prompt an uncoordinated bracing effect with poor proprioception from injury to passive structures or due to interference of pain during central processing of information in subjects with recurrent LBP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability and comparison of trunk and pelvis angles, arm distance and center of pressure in the seated functional reach test with and without foot support in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtka, Sandra; Zayac, Jacqueline; Goldberg, Krystyna; Long, Michael; Ixanov, Rustem

    2017-03-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability of trunk and pelvis joint angles, arm distance and center of pressure (COP) excursion for the seated functional reach test (FRT) and compared these variables during the seated FRT with and without foot support. Fifteen typically developing children (age 9.3±4.1years) participated. Trunk and pelvis joint angles, arm distance, and COP excursion were collected on two days using three-dimensional motion analysis and a force plate while subjects reached maximally with and without foot support in the anterior, anterior/lateral, lateral, posterior/lateral directions. Age, weight, height, trunk and arm lengths were correlated (parm distance reached. Maximum arm distance, trunk and pelvis joint angles, and COP with and without foot support were not significant (p0.75) was found for maximum arm distance reached in all four directions in the seated FRT with and without foot support. Most trunk and pelvis joint angles and COP excursions during maximum reach in all four directions showed excellent to fair reliability (ICCs>0.40-0.75). Reaching with foot support in all directions was significantly greater (p<0.05) than without foot support; however, most COP excursions and trunk and pelvic angles were not significantly different. Findings support the addition of anterior/lateral and posterior/lateral reaching directions in the seated FRT. Trunk and pelvis movement analysis is important to examine in the seated FRT to determine the specific movement strategies needed for maximum reaching without loss of balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of trunk activity during gait initiation and walking in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Ceccato

    Full Text Available To understand the role of trunk muscles in maintenance of dynamic postural equilibrium we investigate trunk movements during gait initiation and walking, performing trunk kinematics analysis, Erector spinae muscle (ES recordings and dynamic analysis. ES muscle expressed a metachronal descending pattern of activity during walking and gait initiation. In the frontal and horizontal planes, lateroflexion and rotation occur before in the upper trunk and after in the lower trunk. Comparison of ES muscle EMGs and trunk kinematics showed that trunk muscle activity precedes corresponding kinematics activity, indicating that the ES drive trunk movement during locomotion and thereby allowing a better pelvis mobilization. EMG data showed that ES activity anticipates propulsive phases in walking with a repetitive pattern, suggesting a programmed control by a central pattern generator. Our findings also suggest that the programs for gait initiation and walking overlap with the latter beginning before the first has ended.

  17. Neck posture during lifting and its effect on trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavenka, Thomas M; Christner, Vanessa F K; Gregory, Diane E

    2017-07-01

    Neck and head posture have been found to have a significant influence on the posture of the lower spine region during lifting and both an extended/upward gaze and a flexed/downward gaze have been hypothesized to lead to increased pain and/or overuse of the neck musculature. As a result, strength training recommendations have turned to the use of a retracted neck posture as being the safer posture to assume during lifting. This study examined trunk and neck muscle activity and lumbar spine posture in seven participants while performing moderate load lifts using a retracted neck posture (chin drawn in posteriorly; recently gaining popularity among coaches, trainers, and physical therapists to reduce neck pain during lifting, and freestyle neck posture (no instructions given). The retracted neck resulted in less lumbar spine flexion and increased lumbar erector spinae, external oblique, and sternocleidomastoid activity. The retracted posture also resulted in decreased activity in the thoracic erector spinae and dorsal neck musculature. The increased trunk and sternocleidomastoid activity and decreased spine flexion observed in the seven participants of this study when lifting with a retracted neck may have the potential to help lower the risk of spine pain/injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Body trunk fat and insulin resistance in post-pubertal obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caroline dos Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder commonly associated with excess body fat accumulation that may increase chronic disease risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between body composition and insulin resistance among obese adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the Adolescence Center, Pediatric Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was evaluated using a three-day dietary record. The biochemical evaluation comprised glucose, insulin, serum lipid, leptin and ghrelin measurements. Insulin resistance was calculated by means of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: Forty-nine post-pubertal obese adolescents participated in the study: 12 boys and 37 girls of mean age 16.6 (1.4 years and mean body mass index (BMI of 35.0 (3.9 kg/m². The mean glucose, insulin and HOMA values were 90.3 (6.4 mg/dl, 16.6 (8.1 µIU/ml and 3.7 (1.9, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were observed in 40.2% and 57.1% of the subjects, respectively. Adolescents with insulin resistance had higher BMI and body trunk fat. There was a trend towards higher leptin concentration in obese individuals with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was positively correlated with body trunk fat, BMI, body fat mass (kg, leptin and body fat percentage. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between HOMA-IR and lean body mass. The body composition predicted 30% of the HOMA-IR levels, according to linear regression models. CONCLUSION: Body trunk fat was significantly associated with insulin resistance, demonstrating the clinical importance of abdominal obesity during adolescence.

  19. Postural and trunk responses to unexpected perturbations depend on the velocity and direction of platform motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, E; Kováčiková, Z; Jeleň, M; Neumannová, K; Janura, M

    2016-11-23

    This study compares postural and trunk responses to translating platform perturbations of varied velocities and directions. A group of 18 young and physically active subjects were exposed to a set of postural perturbations at varied velocities (5, 10, 15, and 20 cm/s) and directions of platform movement (forward, backward, left-lateral, and right-lateral). The center of pressure (CoP) displacement measurement, in addition to the trunk motion (representing the center of mass (CoM) displacement), were both monitored. Results identified that the CoP displacement increased from slow to faster velocities of platform motion more widely in both anterior and posterior directions (50.4 % and 48.4 %) as compared to the CoM displacement (17.8 % and 14.9 %). However a greater increase in the peak CoM velocity (70.3 % and 69.6 %) and the peak CoM acceleration (60.5 % and 53.1 %) was observed. The values in the anterior and posterior direction only differed significantly at the highest velocity of platform motion (i.e. 20 cm/s). A similar tendency was observed in the medio-lateral direction, but there were no significant differences in any parameter in the left-lateral and right-lateral direction. The velocity of the platform motion highly correlated with peak velocity (r=0.92-0.97, Pdisplacement (r=0.56-0.63, Pdisplacement. The effect of the direction of perturbations on the trunk response emerges only at a high velocity of platform motion, such that the peak CoM velocity and peak CoM acceleration are significantly greater in anterior than posterior direction.

  20. Effects of Static, Stationary, and Traveling Trunk Exercises on Muscle Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darien T. Pyka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new fitness trend incorporates stability exercises that challenges trunk muscles and introduces crawling as an exercise, but has yet to be investigated for muscle activity. Purpose: To compare the effects of static (STA, stationary (STN, and traveling (TRV trunk exercises on muscle activation of the rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, external oblique, and erector spinae using surface electromyography (EMG. Methods: Seventeen recreationally active women (mean age ± SD = 22.4 ± 2.4 years, body mass 62.9 ± 6.9 kg, height 165.1 ± 5.8 cm and twenty-three men (23.6 ±3.9 years, 83.2 ±17.1 kg, 177.1 ± 9.1 cm volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects performed maximal voluntary contractions for normalization of each muscle’s EMG activity. They then performed the three exercises in random order for thirty seconds each with a two-minute rest in between. Results: For the rectus abdominis, STA was significantly lower than STN (P = 0.003 and TRV (P = 0.001. For the external oblique, STA was significantly lower than STN (P = 0.001 and TRV (P = 0.001 and STN was significantly greater than TRV (P = 0.009. For the erector spinae and rectus femoris, STA was significantly lower than STN (P = 0.001 and TRV (P = 0.001 Conclusions: There was greater muscle activation in all muscles tested in the stationary and traveling exercises versus the static. Strength and conditioning coaches and allied health professionals could potentially use stationary and traveling forms of trunk stabilization exercises as a viable strategy to increase muscle activation.

  1. Corrective Bracing for Severe Idiopathic Scoliosis in Adolescence: Influence of Brace on Trunk Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work was to study whether wearing a corrective brace by adolescent girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis can influence external shape of the trunk. Methods. Comparison of clinical deformity of two groups of girls matched for age and Cobb angle: group (1 of 23 girls, aged 14.9±1.3 years, Cobb angle 55.0°±6.8°, who refused surgical treatment and have been wearing Chêneau brace for more than 6 months, compared with group (2 of 22 girls, aged 14.1±1.8 years, Cobb angle 59.7°±14.6° never treated with corrective bracing. Clinical deformity was assessed with the Bunnell scoliometer (angle of trunk rotation ATR and surface topography (posterior trunk symmetry index POTSI and Hump Sum HS. Results. The ATR in the primary curvature was 11.9°±3.4° (5°–18° in group 1 versus 15.1°±5.6° (6°–25° in group 2 (P=0.027. The HS was 16.8°±3.8 versus 19.2°±4.6, respectively, P=0.07. The POTSI value did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Girls with Cobb angle above 45 degrees, who have been subjected to brace treatment, revealed smaller clinical deformity of their back comparing to nontreated girls having similar radiological curvatures.

  2. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  3. The association between back pain and trunk posture of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Raymond YW

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aims to determine the time spent in different static trunk postures during a typical working day of workers in a special school for the severe handicaps. Methods Eighteen workers with low back pain (LBP and fifteen asymptomatic workers were recruited. A cross-sectional design was employed to study the time spent in different static trunk postures which was recorded by a biaxial accelerometer attached to the T12 level of the back of the subjects. Results The results of ANCOVA revealed that subjects with LBP spent significantly longer percentage of time in static trunk posture when compared to normal (p Conclusion An innovative method has been developed for continuous tracking of spinal posture, and this has potential for widespread applications in the workplace. The findings of the present investigation suggest that teachers in special schools are at increased risk of getting LBP. In order to minimise such risk, frequent postural change and awareness of work posture are recommended.

  4. BODY POSTURES AND ASYMMETRIES IN FRONTAL AND TRANSVERSE PLANES IN THE TRUNK AREA IN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Barczyk-Pawelec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the body posture within the trunk area in table tennis players and to estimate the correlations between the specific body posture types, their asymmetries and table tennis practice (training experience. To evaluate body posture the photogrammetric method based on the Moiré phenomenon with equipment by CQ Electronic was applied. Tests of significance of difference and correlation were used to estimate the correlation of the observed asymmetries with the training experience. 40 table tennis players and 43 subjects not practising sports participated in the research. The analysis of the results revealed that table tennis players, unlike non-players, are characterized by kyphotic body posture. It probably results from a specific trunk, head and limb position during table tennis matches. Thus, many asymmetries in frontal and transverse planes were observed in the examined table tennis players. Perhaps table tennis, which is characterized by intensive and one-sided trunk muscle work during its performance, is in favour of creating asymmetries. The majority of subjects did not reveal any statistically significant correlations between the observed body posture types, their asymmetries and training experience. However, it was observed that training experience is significantly related to the considerable asymmetry of the inclination angle of shoulder line (KLB. It may result from the negative influence of very intensive, one-sided work and constant work of the shoulder girdle muscles of the playing limb with negligence of exercises of the second limb.

  5. Trunk and lower extremity segment kinematics and their relationship to pain following movement instruction during a single-leg squat in females with dynamic knee valgus and patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graci, Valentina; Salsich, Gretchen B

    2015-05-01

    To understand how instructing females with patellofemoral pain to correct dynamic knee valgus affects pelvis, femur, tibia and trunk segment kinematics. To determine if pain reduction in the corrected condition was associated with improved segment kinematics. Cross-sectional. A 3D-motion capture system was used to collect multi-joint kinematics on 20 females with dynamic knee valgus and patellofemoral pain during a single-leg squat in two conditions: usual movement pattern, and corrected dynamic knee valgus. During each condition pain was assessed using a visual analog scale. Pelvis, femur, tibia and trunk kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes were compared between conditions using a paired T-test. Pearson correlation coefficients were generated between visual analog scale score and the kinematic variables in the corrected condition. In the corrected condition subjects had increased lateral flexion of the pelvis toward the weight-bearing limb (pinstruction was comprised of motion at both the pelvis and femur. Decreased pain levels were associated with lower extremity segment kinematics moving in the direction opposite to dynamic knee valgus. These results increase our understanding of correction strategies used by females with patellofemoral pain and provide insight for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  9. Analisa Teknis Dan Keselamatan Sistem Busbar Trunking Pada Sistem Kelistrikan Kapal Utility 52 Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Satria, Rizki Rizki; Sarwito, Sardono Sardono; Kusuma, Indra Ranu

    2014-01-01

    Inovasi dalam pendistribusian kebutuhan arus listrik menghasilkan suatu media alternatif pengganti kabel yang dikenal sebagai busbar trunking. Busbar trunking adalah suatu komponen yang kompak (compact size) berfungsi sebagai penyalur, konduktor, ataupun sebagai media hantar arus listrik yang menawarkan kesederhanaan dalam desain, instalasi, dan perawatannya. Dalam aplikasinya, busbar trunking telah diinstal pada bangunan darat seperti gedung bertingkat, pabrik, dan lain-lain. Sehingga diperl...

  10. Celiacomesenteric trunk: a variation that must be known before aortic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Cheynel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The celiac trunk and the mesenteric arteries may present variations with different clinical significance. A celiacomesenteric trunk was discovered in a patient with mesenteric ischemia and a history of aortic bypass without inferior mesenteric artery reimplantation. Despite thrombectomies and digestive resections, the patient died. Anatomic variations like celiacomesenteric trunk must be known before aortic surgery.

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  6. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jwa-Jun; Park, Se-Yeon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniques (stabilizing reversal and rhythmic stabilization), which were applied to facilitate trunk musculature. To examine balance ability, total displacement of the center of pressure was measured during balance tests. [Results] The total anterior-posterior center of pressure displacement was significantly reduced after applying rhythmic stabilization compared before exercise regardless of the balance test conditions. [Conclusion] The present results suggest that trunk stability exercise using rhythmic stabilization could effectively enhance balance ability under one-leg and double-leg conditions.

  7. Segmentation of the millipede trunk as suggested by a homeotic mutant with six extra pairs of gonopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkari, Nesrine; Enghoff, Henrik; Minelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    morphological entities. Two predictions were suggested to test the plausibility of multiple-duplication models of segmentation: first, a specific pattern of evolvability of segment number in those arthropod clades in which segment number is not fixed (e.g., epimorphic centipedes and millipedes); second......: A very likely early determination of the sites of the future metamorphosis of walking legs into gonopods and a segmentation process according to the multiplicative model may provide a detailed explanation for the distribution of the extra gonopods in the homeotic specimen. The hypothesized steps......Background: The mismatch between dorsal and ventral trunk features along the millipede trunk was long a subject of controversy, largely resting on alternative interpretations of segmentation. Most models of arthropod segmentation presuppose a strict sequential antero-posterior specification...

  8. Influence of Lumbar Muscle Fatigue on Trunk Adaptations during Sudden External Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Nougarou, François; Lardon, Arnaud; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When the spine is subjected to perturbations, neuromuscular responses such as reflex muscle contractions contribute to the overall balance control and spinal stabilization mechanisms. These responses are influenced by muscle fatigue, which has been shown to trigger changes in muscle recruitment patterns. Neuromuscular adaptations, e.g., attenuation of reflex activation and/or postural oscillations following repeated unexpected external perturbations, have also been described. However, the characterization of these adaptations still remains unclear. Using high-density electromyography (EMG) may help understand how the nervous system chooses to deal with an unknown perturbation in different physiological and/or mechanical perturbation environments. Aim: To characterize trunk neuromuscular adaptations following repeated sudden external perturbations after a back muscle fatigue task using high-density EMG. Methods: Twenty-five healthy participants experienced a series of 15 sudden external perturbations before and after back muscle fatigue. Erector spinae muscle activity was recorded using high-density EMG. Trunk kinematics during perturbation trials were collected using a 3-D motion analysis system. A two-way repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to assess: (1) the adaptation effect across trials; (2) the fatigue effect; and (3) the interaction effect (fatigue × adaptation) for the baseline activity, the reflex latency, the reflex peak and trunk kinematic variables (flexion angle, velocity and time to peak velocity). Muscle activity spatial distribution before and following the fatigue task was also compared using t-tests for dependent samples. Results: An attenuation of muscle reflex peak was observed across perturbation trials before the fatigue task, but not after. The spatial distribution of muscle activity was significantly higher before the fatigue task compared to post-fatigue trials. Baseline activity showed a trend to higher values after muscle

  9. Influence of the strap-length on the trunk motion and gait symmetry in Korean women carrying a single-strap bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Yeon; Lim, Woo Taek; Oh, Jae Seop

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether strap length influences the trunk motion and gait symmetry of the ground reaction forces while walking with a single-strap bag. Seventeen Korean women participated in this study. The kinematics of trunk motion and ground-reaction forces was recorded while the participants walked at a self-paced speed under three conditions: no bag, a short-strap bag and a long-strap bag. The amplitude of trunk rotation on the ipsilateral side (the bag side) decreased while walking with a short-strap bag compared to walking with a long-strap bag or no bag (p< 0.05). The amplitude of trunk lateral bending toward the contralateral side and asymmetry in the mediolateral ground-reaction force significantly increased while walking with a long-strap bag compared to walking with a short-strap bag or no bag (p< 0.05). These results demonstrate that carrying a long-strap bag during walking resulted in increased trunk lateral bending and asymmetry in the mediolateral ground-reaction forces. It is therefore important to select the correct strap length when carrying a single-strap bag to prevent musculoskeletal disorders.

  10. Comparison of the trunk-pelvis and lower extremities sagittal plane inter-segmental coordination and variability during walking in persons with and without chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Samaneh; Kamali, Fahimeh; Razeghi, Mohsen; Haghpanah, Seyyed Arash

    2017-04-01

    Inter-segmental coordination can be influenced by chronic low back pain (CLBP). The sagittal plane lower extremities inter-segmental coordination pattern and variability, in conjunction with the pelvis and trunk, were assessed in subjects with and without non-specific CLBP during free-speed walking. Kinematic data were collected from 10 non-specific CLBP and 10 non-CLBP control volunteers while the subjects were walking at their preferred speed. Sagittal plane time-normalized segmental angles and velocities were used to calculate continuous relative phase for each data point. Mean absolute relative phase (MARP) and deviation phase (DP) were derived to quantify the trunk-pelvis and bilateral pelvis-thigh, thigh-shank and shank-foot coordination pattern and variability over the stance and swing phases of gait. Mann-Whitney U test was employed to compare the means of DP and MARP values between two groups (same side comparison). Statistical analysis revealed more in-phase/less variable trunk-pelvis coordination in the CLBP group (Ppelvis-thigh coordination pattern (Ppelvis and trunk coordination pattern and variability could be generally affected by CLBP during walking. These changes can be possible compensatory strategies of the motor control system which can be considered in the CLBP subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The mechanics of the in vivo infant and toddler trunk during respiratory physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Baptiste; Vajda, Emmanuel; Alonzo, François; Bruyère, Karine; Bermond, François

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the in vivo mechanical response of the child trunk under loading during physiotherapy treatments. Twenty-six children aged 45 days to 7 years (14 girls and 12 boys) took part in this study. The forces applied by the physiotherapist were recorded using a force-plate embedded in the manipulation table supporting the child. Two synchronized cameras filmed the scene in a calibrated environment. The displacement of reflective targets glued on the physiotherapist's hands was calculated using an automatic tracking procedure and the 3D reconstruction "Direct Linear Transformation" algorithm. The progression of physical parameters was evaluated according to the age of the child. They included force, displacement, normalized displacement, loading speed, displacement and normalized displacement at the maximum force, force at the maximum displacement, viscous criterion and effective stiffness. For all patients, the mean maximum displacement and load were 22 mm (SD 9 mm) and 240 N (SD 46 N) respectively. The force-displacement curves had shown the complexity of the in vivo behavior: four phases have been distinguished with cycles in respect with the respiratory phases. The increase in force always occurred before the increase in displacement. This study helps to understand the in vivo behavior of the child trunk subjected to repetitive non-injurious mechanical loading. Further analysis in other populations and with different therapeutic maneuvers would refine the results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsu Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM. The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  13. The effects of prone bridge exercise on trunk muscle thickness in chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Park, Seol; Jang, Gwon-Uk

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of prone bridge exercise on trunk muscle thickness. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven chronic low back pain patients participated in this study. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of three exercise groups, namely, a prone bridge exercise group, supine bridge exercise on a Swiss ball group, and supine bridge exercise group. The thicknesses of the transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) were measured using ultrasound. [Results] After eight weeks of training, the three groups showed significant increases in the thicknesses of the TrA, IO, and EO. Among the groups, TrA and IO showed significantly different muscle thicknesses. [Conclusion] The prone bridge exercise significantly affected the thicknesses of the TrA, IO, and EO unlike the supine bridge exercises. Based on the results of this study, the prone bridge exercise is a more effective method to improve trunk stability than conventional supine bridge exercises.

  14. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  15. The effect of high intensity exercise and anticipation on trunk and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Enda F; Richter, Chris; O'connor, Siobhan; Moran, Kieran A

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of high intensity, intermittent exercise (HIIP) and anticipation on trunk, pelvic and lower limb biomechanics during a crossover cutting manoeuvre. Twenty-eight male, varsity athletes performed crossover cutting manoeuvres in anticipated and unanticipated conditions pre- and post-HIIP. Kinematic and kinetic variables were captured using a motion analysis system. Statistical parametric mapping (repeated-measures ANOVA) was used to identify differences in biomechanical patterns. Results demonstrated that both unanticipation and fatigue (HIIP) altered the biomechanics of the crossover cutting manoeuvre, whereas no interactions effects were observed. Unanticipation resulted in less trunk and pelvic side flexion in the direction of cut (d = 0.70 - 0.79). This led to increased hip abductor and external rotator moments and increased knee extensor and valgus moments with small effects (d = 0.24-0.42), potentially increasing ACL strain. The HIIP resulted in trivial to small effects only with a decrease in internal knee rotator and extensor moment and decreased knee power absorption (d = 0.35), reducing potential ACL strain. The effect of trunk and hip control exercises in unanticipated conditions on the crossover cutting manoeuvre should be investigated with a view to refining ACL injury prevention programmes.

  16. Efficacy of a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low-back load in elderly persons during static standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhira J

    2015-09-01

    results were not significant compared to no orthosis. Thorax extension angle and thorax angle on pelvis coordinate system significantly increased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. ES activity significantly decreased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. Internal oblique activity was significantly smaller while wearing the LSO than with no orthosis. Center of pressure did not significantly differ among the conditions. Conclusion: The ORF significantly improved trunk alignment and decreased ES activity in healthy elderly subjects during static standing. Keywords: muscular activity, center of pressure, standing posture, spine

  17. Upper Trunk Brachial Plexus Palsy Following Chiropractic Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cunningham

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Upper trunk brachial plexus palsy can result from high energy trauma and has never been reported following spinal manipulation.Background:The case is presented of a patient who developed an acute brachial plexus upper trunk palsy following spinal manipulative therapy. Discussion:Discussion is made on the incidence of complications following manipulation and recommendations to prospectively capture all serious complications.Concluding Remarks:Risks exist with spinal manipulative therapy. Neurological injury can occur. Risk assessment and re-examination should occur at every visit. Large rigorous prospective studies are required to identify the true incidence of serious complications resulting from manipulative therapy and the benefit:risk ratio.

  18. Active-passive biodynamics of the human trunk when seated on a wobble chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahvarpour, A; Shirazi-Adl, A; Larivière, C

    2016-04-11

    Unstable sitting on a wobble chair with different balance difficulty levels can be used as an effective tool in exercises as well as evaluation and therapeutic stages of rehabilitation. No data on muscle activity levels and spinal loads are however available to assess its safety compared to other regular daily activities. The goal of this study was to estimate muscle forces and spinal loads in a seated unstable wobble chair task. In vivo 3D kinematics of the trunk and seat collected in an earlier study were used here to drive computational trunk musculoskeletal models of 6 normal and 6 low-back pain subject groups sitting on a wobble chair for a duration of 10s. Results revealed no significant differences between kinematics, muscle forces, spinal loads and force plate reaction forces when comparing these two groups. The estimated muscle forces and spinal loads were moderate though larger than those in a stationary sitting posture. Local spinal forces at the L5-S1 disc varied with time and reached their peaks (1473 N and 1720 N in compression, 691 N and 687 N in posterior-anterior shear and 153 N and 208 N in right-left shear, respectively for healthy and CLBP groups) being much greater relative to those in the stationary sitting posture (means of 12 subjects: 768 N, 284 N and 0 N, respectively). The wobble chair with characteristics considered in this study is found hence safe enough as a therapeutic exercise for both healthy and low-back pain subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying coordination between the head and the trunk during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    This study developed unique measures of coordination between the head and the trunk during the combined tasks of locomotion and gaze fixation of visual targets. These measures will be used to determine the effects of long-duration space flight on sensorimotor function. This will enable evaluation of the efficacy of countermeasures and postflight rehabilitation programs. Indices were proposed as composite measures reflecting the functional aspects of the control system involved in gaze fixation during locomotion. The stiffness index (Nm/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular motion. The viscosity index (Nm-sec/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular velocity. These coordination measures were used to evaluate the normal dynamic pattern of coordination between the head and the trunk with respect to the events occurring in a gait cycle. The indices were evaluated for three discrete speeds of locomotion for the same gaze fixation task and for three discrete gaze fixation tasks at the same speed of locomotion. The indices were found to be repeatable measures reflecting inter-segmental coordination strategies while performing an activity of daily living. These indices showed that the coordination of the head with respect to the trunk was significantly different between the events of heel strike and swing phases during the gait cycle. These indices showed no significant differences between the different gaze fixation tasks. The speed of locomotion had a significant effect on the magnitude of these indices. The results indicate that the CNS dynamically modulates head motion with respect to the trunk dependent on the events occurring during the gait cycle. This modulation is appropriate for stabilizing gaze during locomotion. The results support the hypothesis

  20. [Muscular trunk stability in professional and amateur volleyball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltner, O; Siebert, C; Tschaepe, R; Maus, U; Kieffer, O

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the efficiency of muscular activity in the trunk stabilisation of professional volleyball players compared to a group of amateur hobby players. The results were compared amongst the groups as well as with a reference group consisting of asymptomatic individuals. The question to be answered was whether or not professional volleyball players possess a characteristic strength profile in their trunk musculature and if differences exist with regard to the individuals' competitive playing level. In this comparative study 12 professional volleyball players (German Bundesliga) and 18 non-professional volleyball players were analysed with regard to their isometric strength profile in all three planes. The reference group was provided by the Proxomed company, which had previously analysed healthy untrained individuals (n = 1045) of various age groups. A sports-specific profile for the musculature of volleyball players revealed a significant reduction in the flexion and rotation strength as well as a well-developed lateral flexion strength (highly significant when compared to the reference group). With reference to the level played, better strength values in flexion and lateral flexion were found among the professional athletes. Professional volleyball players present with a characteristic trunk musculature strength profile. A detailed analysis of the muscle strength of the spine as part of a sports medicine work-up could prove helpful in preventing injuries and overuse problems in professional and hobby volleyball players.

  1. Immediate Effects of Different Trunk Exercise Programs on Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, A; Kaneoka, K; Okubo, Y; Shiraki, H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of trunk stabilization exercise (SE) and conventional trunk exercise (CE) programs on jump performance. 13 adolescent male soccer players performed 2 kinds of jump testing before and immediate after 3 experimental conditions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). The SE program consisted of the elbow-toe, hand-knee, and back bridge, and the CE program consisted of the sit-up, sit-up with trunk rotation and back extension. Testing of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) were performed to assess jump performance. Jump height of the CMJ and RJ-index, contact time, and jump height of the RJ were analyzed. The RJ index was improved significantly only after SE (p=0.017). However, contact time and jump height did not improve significantly in the SE condition. Moreover, no significant interaction or main effects of time or group were observed in the CMJ. Consequently, this study showed the different immediate effect on the RJ between the SE and CE, and suggested the possibility that the SE used in this study is useful as a warm-up program to improve the explosive movements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Bifid Facial Nerve Trunk: Anatomic and Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reija, María Fe García; Palacio, Julia C Blasco

    2016-09-01

    The segment of the facial nerve (FN) between its emergence from the skull through the stylomastoid foramen and its bifurcation at the parotid area is referred to as the FN trunk (FNT). Injury to the facial nerve trunk is among the most undesirable outcomes following different otologic, plastic, maxillofacial, and neurosurgical procedures. These procedures frequently involve manipulation and isolation of this segment, and meticulous dissection should be practiced to avoid iatrogenic damage to the nerve. Identification and exposure of the FN trunk, however, may be difficult because it is surrounded by dense connective tissue. This dissection becomes even more difficult and risky when the normal anatomy is distorted.During a routine left conservative superficial parotidectomy of a Pleomorphic Adenoma in the superficial lobe of the left parotid gland, duplication of the FNT was encountered. The FNT after its exit through the stylomastoid foramen, split into 2 main divisions, which rejoined before its penetration into the parotid gland. To the best of our knowledge, this variation has not been previously reported.

  3. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial: e0138646

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuejun Liu; Aurélie Cotillard; Camille Vatier; Jean-Philippe Bastard; Soraya Fellahi; Marie Stévant; Omran Allatif; Clotilde Langlois; Séverine Bieuvelet; Amandine Brochot; Angèle Guilbot; Karine Clément; Salwa W Rizkalla

    2015-01-01

    .... Objectives Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects...

  4. Closed reference metatranscriptomics enables in planta profiling of putative virulence activities in the grapevine trunk-disease complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevines, like other perennial crops, are affected by so-called ‘trunk diseases’, which damage the trunk and other woody tissues. Mature grapevines typically contract more than one trunk disease and often multiple grapevine trunk pathogens (GTPs) are recovered from infected tissues. The co-existen...

  5. Comparison of Trunk Stabilization Exercises Using a Gym Ball and Conventional Back Care Exercises for Patients With Chronic Lower Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The trunk muscles are vital for the maintenance of spinal stability. Training of specific muscles surrounding the lumbar spine, which provide dynamic and segmental stability, is one of the major goals in the management of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP. However, more investigation of lumbar stabilization training using a ball is required before making any strong conclusions about its efficacy. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effect of trunk stabilization exercises and conventional back care exercises for patients with chronic LBP. Patients and Methods Thirty male subjects with chronic LBP were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received trunk stabilization exercise using a gym ball whereas the control group received conventional back care exercises for six weeks. The abdominal muscle endurance, pain intensity, and functional disability were measured using pressure biofeedback, visual analogue scale (VAS, and modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline and during week two, four and six. Results The results of the study demonstrated significant improvements in abdominal muscle endurance and reduction in VAS and MODQ score of both groups (P = 0.001. The trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater gains in abdominal muscle endurance during weeks two to six compared to the conventional back care exercise group (P < 0.05. In addition, the trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater reduction in the VAS score (P = 0.035 and MODQ score (P = 0.001 at week six compared to the conventional back care exercise group. Conclusions The trunk stabilization exercises are more effective than conventional back care exercises in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic LBP.

  6. Role of the coordinated activities of trunk and lower limb muscles during the landing-to-jump movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yoshiaki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Inaba, Yuki; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify how the activities of trunk and lower limb muscles during a landing-to-jump (L-J) movement are coordinated to perform the task effectively. Electromyography (EMG) activities of trunk and lower limb muscles as well as kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded while 17 subjects performed 5 L-Js from a height of 35 cm. The L-J was divided into four phases: PRE phase, 100 ms preceding ground contact; ABSORPTION phase, from ground contact through 100 ms; BRAKING phase, from the end of the ABSORPTION phase to the time of the lowest center of mass position; and PROPULSION phase, from the end of the BRAKING phase to takeoff. The trunk extensor and flexors showed reciprocal activation patterns through the L-J. In the PROPULSION phase, the timings when the EMG activities of the extensor muscles peaked were characterized as a sequential proximal-to-distal pattern. Furthermore, the peak vertical ground reaction force in the ABSORPTION phase relative to body mass negatively correlated to the jump height of the L-J movement and positively correlated with the magnitude of the EMG activities of the soleus in the PRE phase and those of the soleus and rectus abdominis in the ABSORPTION phase. These findings indicate that the intensities and peak timings of muscle activities in the trunk and lower limb are coordinated during the L-J movement and, the coordinated activities would play functional roles such as impact absorption, braking against the descent of body and force generation and direction control for jumping.

  7. Test-Retest Reliability of an Automated Infrared-Assisted Trunk Accelerometer-Based Gait Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Hsu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of an automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system for measuring gait parameters of healthy subjects in a hospital. Thirty-five participants (28 of them females; age range, 23–79 years performed a 5-m walk twice using an accelerometer-based gait analysis system with infrared assist. Measurements of spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking speed, step length, and cadence and trunk control (gait symmetry, gait regularity, acceleration root mean square (RMS, and acceleration root mean square ratio (RMSR were recorded in two separate walking tests conducted 1 week apart. Relative and absolute test-retest reliability was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC3,1 and smallest detectable difference (SDD, respectively. The test-retest reliability was excellent for walking speed (ICC = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = 0.74–0.93, SDD = 13.4%, step length (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63–0.91, SDD = 12.2%, cadence (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63–0.91, SDD = 10.8%, and trunk control (step and stride regularity in anterior-posterior direction, acceleration RMS and acceleration RMSR in medial-lateral direction, and acceleration RMS and stride regularity in vertical direction. An automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system is a reliable tool for measuring gait parameters in the hospital environment.

  8. Relative mobility of the pelvis and spine during trunk axial rotation in chronic low back pain patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masashi; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ibuki, Satoko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    Trunk axial rotation is a risk factor for chronic low back pain (CLBP). The characteristics of rotational mobility in the pelvis and spine among CLBP patients are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to examine three-dimensional kinematic changes, and to compare the differences of rotational mobility and coupled motion, in patients with and without CLBP. Fifteen patients with CLBP and 15 age and sex matched healthy subjects participated in this study. Each subject performed trunk rotation to maximum range of motion (ROM) in a standing position. The kinematics data was collected using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The outcomes measured were the rotational ROM and the spine/pelvis ratio (SPR) in transvers plane at both maximum and 50% rotation position. The coupled angles in sagittal and frontal planes were also measured. No significant differences in rotational ROM of the thorax, pelvis, and spine were observed between two groups at maximum rotation position. However, there was a significant interaction between groups and rotational ROM of pelvis and spine (F = 4.57, p = 0.04), and the SPR in CLBP patients was significantly greater than that of the healthy subjects (CLBP; 0.50 ± 0.10 Control; 0.41 ± 0.12, p = 0.04). The results at 50% rotation position were similar to that at maximum rotation. This indicates a relative increase in spinal rotation in the CLBP patients during trunk rotation. Moreover, the CLBP patients exhibited a significantly higher anterior tilt of the pelvis and extension of the spine in the sagittal plane coupled with rotation. CLBP patients had relative hyper rotational mobility of the spine as well as excessive spinal extension coupled with trunk rotation. These results suggest that uncoordinated trunk rotation might be a functional failure associated with CLBP.

  9. Consequences of lower extremity and trunk muscle fatigue on balance and functional tasks in older people: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbostad Jorunn L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle fatigue reduces muscle strength and balance control in young people. It is not clear whether fatigue resistance seen in older persons leads to different effects. In order to understand whether muscle fatigue may increase fall risk in older persons, a systematic literature review aimed to summarize knowledge on the effects of lower extremity and trunk muscle fatigue on balance and functional tasks in older people was performed. Methods Studies were identified with searches of the PUBMED and SCOPUS data bases. Papers describing effects of lower extremity or trunk muscle fatigue protocols on balance or functional tasks in older people were included. Studies were compared with regards to study population characteristics, fatigue protocol, and balance and functional task outcomes. Results Seven out of 266 studies met the inclusion criteria. Primary findings were: fatigue via resistance exercises to lower limb and trunk muscles induces postural instability during quiet standing; induced hip, knee and ankle muscle fatigue impairs functional reach, reduces the speed and power of sit-to-stand repetitions, and produces less stable and more variable walking patterns; effects of age on degree of fatigue and rate of recovery from fatigue are inconsistent across studies, with these disparities likely due to differences in the fatigue protocols, study populations and outcome measures. Conclusion Taken together, the findings suggest that balance and functional task performance are impaired with fatigue. Future studies should assess whether fatigue is related to increased risk of falling and whether exercise interventions may decrease fatigue effects.

  10. The effect of low back pain on trunk muscle size/function and hip strength in elite football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Oostenbroek, Tim; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Mendis, M Dilani

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem in football (soccer) players. The effect of LBP on the trunk and hip muscles in this group is unknown. The relationship between LBP and trunk muscle size and function in football players across the preseason was examined. A secondary aim was to assess hip muscle strength. Twenty-five elite soccer players participated in the study, with assessments conducted on 23 players at both the start and end of the preseason. LBP was assessed with questionnaires and ultrasound imaging was used to assess size and function of trunk muscles at the start and end of preseason. Dynamometry was used to assess hip muscle strength at the start of the preseason. At the start of the preseason, 28% of players reported the presence of LBP and this was associated with reduced size of the multifidus, increased contraction of the transversus abdominis and multifidus muscles. LBP decreased across the preseason, and size of the multifidus muscle improved over the preseason. Ability to contract the abdominal and multifidus muscles did not alter across the preseason. Asymmetry in hip adductor and abductor muscle strength was found between players with and without LBP. Identifying modifiable factors in players with LBP may allow development of more targeted preseason rehabilitation programmes.

  11. Continuous Static Gait with Twisting Trunk of a Metamorphic Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural quadrupeds, such as geckos and lizards, often twist their trunks when moving. Conventional quadruped robots cannot perform the same motion due to equipping with a trunk which is a rigid body or at most consists of two blocks connected by passive joints. This paper proposes a metamorphic quadruped robot with a reconfigurable trunk which can implement active trunk motions, called MetaRobot I. The robot can imitate the natural quadrupeds to execute motion of trunk twisting. Benefiting from the twisting trunk, the stride length of this quadruped is increased comparing to that of conventional quadruped robots.In this paper a continuous static gait benefited from the twisting trunk performing the increased stride length is introduced. After that, the increased stride length relative to the trunk twisting will be analysed mathematically. Other points impacting the implementation of the increased stride length in the gait are investigated such as the upper limit of the stride length and the kinematic margin. The increased stride length in the gait will lead the increase of locomotion speed comparing with conventional quadruped robots, giving the extent that natural quadrupeds twisting their trunks when moving. The simulation and an experiment on the prototype are then carried out to illustrate the benefits on the stride length and locomotion speed brought by the twisting trunk to the quadruped robot.

  12. Does experimental low back pain change posteroanterior lumbar spinal stiffness and trunk muscle activity? A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arnold Y L; Parent, Eric C; Prasad, Narasimha; Huang, Christopher; Chan, K Ming; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2016-05-01

    While some patients with low back pain demonstrate increased spinal stiffness that decreases as pain subsides, this observation is inconsistent. Currently, the relation between spinal stiffness and low back pain remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of experimental low back pain on temporal changes in posteroanterior spinal stiffness and concurrent trunk muscle activity. In separate sessions five days apart, nine asymptomatic participants received equal volume injections of hypertonic or isotonic saline in random order into the L3-L5 interspinous ligaments. Pain intensity, spinal stiffness (global and terminal stiffness) at the L3 level, and the surface electromyographic activity of six trunk muscles were measured before, immediately after, and 25-minute after injections. These outcome measures under different saline conditions were compared by generalized estimating equations. Compared to isotonic saline injections, hypertonic saline injections evoked significantly higher pain intensity (mean difference: 5.7/10), higher global (mean difference: 0.73N/mm) and terminal stiffness (mean difference: 0.58N/mm), and increased activity of four trunk muscles during indentation (Ppain subsided. While previous clinical research reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between spinal stiffness and low back pain, our study revealed that experimental pain caused temporary increases in spinal stiffness and concurrent trunk muscle co-contraction during indentation, which helps explain the temporal relation between spinal stiffness and low back pain observed in some clinical studies. Our results substantiate the role of spinal stiffness assessments in monitoring back pain progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel method for detection of virus-specific CD41+ T cells indicates a decreased EBV-specific CD4+ T cell response in untreated HIV-infected subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piriou, Erwan R.; van Dort, Karel; Nanlohy, Nening M.; van Oers, Marinus H.; Miedema, Frank; van Baarle, Debbie

    2005-01-01

    A lower function of EBV-specific CD8(+) T cells in HIV-infected subjects could be related to a lack of specific CD4(+) T cell help. Therefore, we studied EBV-specific CD4(+) T cells in both healthy donors and untreated or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated HIV-seropositive

  14. Decreased diabetes risk over 9 year after 18-month oral L-arginine treatment in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome (extension evaluation of L-arginine study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Lucilla D; Galluccio, Elena; Villa, Valentina; Fontana, Barbara; Spadoni, Serena; Piatti, Pier Marco

    2017-10-20

    This study aimed to determine whether L-arginine supplementation lasting for 18 months maintained long-lasting effects on diabetes incidence, insulin secretion and sensitivity, oxidative stress, and endothelial function during 108 months among subjects at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. One hundred and forty-four middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome were randomized in 2006 to an L-arginine supplementation (6.4 g orally/day) or placebo therapy lasting 18 months. This period was followed by a 90-month follow-up. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of diabetes during the 108 month study period. Secondary outcomes included changes in insulin secretion (proinsulin/c-peptide ratio), insulin sensitivity (IGI/HOMA-IR), oxidative stress (AOPPs), and vascular function. After the 18 month participation, subjects that were still free of diabetes and willing to continue their participation (104 subjects) were further followed until diabetes diagnosis, with a time span of about 9 years from baseline. Although results derived from the 18 month of the intervention study demonstrated no differences in the probability of becoming diabetics, at the end of the study, the cumulative incidence of diabetes was of 40.6% in the L-arginine group and of 57.4% in the placebo group. The adjusted HR for diabetes (L-arginine vs. placebo) was 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91; p L-arginine compared to placebo. These results may suggest that the administration of L-arginine could delay the development of T2DM for a long period. This effect could be mediated, in some extent, by L-arginine-induced reduction in oxidative stress.

  15. A tutorial on queuing and trunking with applications to communications

    CERN Document Server

    Tranter, William H

    2012-01-01

    The motivation for developing this synthesis lecture was to provide a tutorial on queuing and trunking, with extensions to networks of queues, suitable for supplementing courses in communications, stochastic processes, and networking. An essential component of this lecture is MATLAB-based demonstrations and exercises, which can be easily modified to enable the student to observe and evaluate the impact of changing parameters, arrival and departure statistics, queuing disciplines, the number of servers, and other important aspects of the underlying system model. Much of the work in this lecture

  16. Graphitization of oil palm trunk chip with controlled heating condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, N. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Ramli, M. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Nainggolan, I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize the synthetic graphite from oil palm trunk at lower temperature (various heating temperatures, 500 °C, 800 °C and 1,000 °C) with controlled condition and study the physical properties and characterization of the graphite obtained. After heat treatment process, the samples were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and analyzed using X'Pert Highscore Plus software. The morphological study was carried out by using Field Emission Electro Scanning Microscope (FESEM). Based on the analysis, by heating of the sample at 800 °C, the amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite were observed.

  17. Optimisation of Graft Copolymerisation of Fibres from Banana Trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Mpon; Ndikontar, Maurice K.; Ntede, Hyppolite N.; J. Noah Ngamveng; Alain Dufresne; Ohandja Ayina; Emmanuel Njungap; Abel Tame

    2012-01-01

    Sheets from banana trunks were opened out and dried for several weeks in air. Pulp was obtained by the nitric acid process with a yield of 37.7% while fibres were obtained according to the modified standard Japanese method for cellulose in wood for pulp (JIS 8007) with a yield of 65% with respect to oven dried plant material. Single fibre obtained by the JIS method had an average diameter of 11.0 μm and Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at break-off 7.05 GPa, 81.7 MPa and 5.2% resp...

  18. Light physical activity determined by a motion sensor decreases insulin resistance, improves lipid homeostasis and reduces visceral fat in high-risk subjects: PreDiabEx study RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, K-H; Ahola, R; Leppäluoto, J; Jokelainen, J; Jämsä, T; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S

    2014-08-01

    To examine physical activity (PA) thresholds affecting glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and body fat composition in high-risk patients for type 2 diabetes (T2D). A total of 113 subjects of both genders having abnormal glucose levels in the oral glucose tolerance test were contacted. A total of 78 subjects with age 58.8±10.4 years and body mass index 31.7±5.3 kg m(-2) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. INTERVENTION consisted of a supervised walking (60 min three times weekly) for 3 months. All the subjects received standard care for PA and weight reduction and wore an accelerometer during the whole wakeful time. Over 80% of the daily steps clustered at an acceleration level of 0.3-0.7 g (2-3 km h(-1) of walking) and were 5870 in the intervention and 4434 in the control group (P<0.029). Between 0 and 3 months no significant changes were observed in fasting and 2-h glucose, body weight or maximal oxygen uptake. In contrast, changes in fasting and 2-h insulin (-3.4 mU l(-1), P=0.035 and -26.6, P=0.003, respectively), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-1.0, P=0.036), total cholesterol (-0.55 mmol l(-1), P=0.041), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (-0.36 mmol l(-1), P=0.008) and visceral fat area (-5.5 cm(2), P=0.030) were significantly greater in the intervention than in control subjects. The overall effects of PA were analyzed by quartiles of daily steps of all subjects. There were significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol and visceral fat area between the highest (daily steps over 6520) and the lowest quartile (1780-2810 daily steps). The changes associated with PA remained significant after adjustments of baseline, sex, age and body weight change. Habitual and structured PAs with the acceleration levels of 0.3-0.7 g and daily steps over 6520, equivalent to walking at 2-3 km h(-1) for 90 min daily, standing for the relative PA intensity of 30-35% of the

  19. The Effect of Pilates Method in Scholar's Trunk Strength and Hamstring Flexibility: Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia González-Gálvez; María Carrasco Poyatos; Pablo Jorge Marcos Pardo; Yuri Feito

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries in school children could be reduced improving trunk strength and hamstring flexibility. Low levels of trunk muscle strength and hamstring flexibility may result in acute and musculoskeletal chronic diseases. The Pilates Method can be appropriate to improve these physical condition attributes and has been rarely employed by this social group. On the other hand, it has been shown that trunk strength and flexibility are different between genders, but...

  20. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V Karayannis

    Full Text Available Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP. We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness.To evaluate the relationship between trunk mechanical properties and psychological features in people with recurrent LBP.The relationship between pain-related fear (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, TSK; Photograph Series of Daily Activities, PHODA-SeV; Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, FABQ; Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS and trunk mechanical properties (estimated from the response of the trunk to a sudden sagittal plane forwards or backwards perturbation by unpredictable release of a load was explored in a case-controlled study of 14 LBP participants. Regression analysis (r (2 tested the linear relationships between pain-related fear and trunk mechanical properties (trunk stiffness and damping. Mechanical properties were also compared with t-tests between groups based on stratification according to high/low scores based on median values for each psychological measure.Fear of movement (TSK was positively associated with trunk stiffness (but not damping in response to a forward perturbation (r(2 = 0.33, P = 0.03, but not backward perturbation (r(2 = 0.22, P = 0.09. Other pain-related fear constructs (PHODA-SeV, FABQ, PCS were not associated with trunk stiffness or damping. Trunk stiffness was greater for individuals with high kinesiophobia (TSK for forward (P = 0.03 perturbations, and greater with forward perturbation for those with high fear avoidance scores (FABQ-W, P = 0.01.Fear of movement is positively (but weakly associated with trunk stiffness. This provides preliminary support an interaction between biological and psychological features of LBP, suggesting this condition may be best understood if these domains are not considered in isolation.

  1. Fear of Movement Is Related to Trunk Stiffness in Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, Nicholas V.; Smeets, Rob J. E. M.; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological features have been related to trunk muscle activation patterns in low back pain (LBP). We hypothesised higher pain-related fear would relate to changes in trunk mechanical properties, such as higher trunk stiffness. Objectives To evaluate the relationship between trunk mechanical properties and psychological features in people with recurrent LBP. Methods The relationship between pain-related fear (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, TSK; Photograph Series of Daily Activities, PHODA-SeV; Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, FABQ; Pain Catastrophizing Scale, PCS) and trunk mechanical properties (estimated from the response of the trunk to a sudden sagittal plane forwards or backwards perturbation by unpredictable release of a load) was explored in a case-controlled study of 14 LBP participants. Regression analysis (r2) tested the linear relationships between pain-related fear and trunk mechanical properties (trunk stiffness and damping). Mechanical properties were also compared with t-tests between groups based on stratification according to high/low scores based on median values for each psychological measure. Results Fear of movement (TSK) was positively associated with trunk stiffness (but not damping) in response to a forward perturbation (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.03), but not backward perturbation (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.09). Other pain-related fear constructs (PHODA-SeV, FABQ, PCS) were not associated with trunk stiffness or damping. Trunk stiffness was greater for individuals with high kinesiophobia (TSK) for forward (P = 0.03) perturbations, and greater with forward perturbation for those with high fear avoidance scores (FABQ-W, P = 0.01). Conclusions Fear of movement is positively (but weakly) associated with trunk stiffness. This provides preliminary support an interaction between biological and psychological features of LBP, suggesting this condition may be best understood if these domains are not considered in isolation

  2. The effect of hip abductor exercise on muscle strength and trunk stability after an injury of the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kak, Hwang-Bo; Park, Sun-Ja; Park, Byun-Joon

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The gluteus medius, a hip abductor, controls femoral movement and stabilizes the pelvis during lower extremity mobilization. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 subjects into control and experimental groups. [Methods] This randomized controlled study included patients who underwent arthroscopy after meniscus injury and started a rehabilitative exercise program 8 weeks after surgery. Subjects were divided into the experimental gluteus medius resistance exercise group (n=12) and the control group (n=12). The study investigated muscle strength and balance of the flexors, extensors, and abductors of the knee for 8 weeks. [Results] Strengths of knee extensors in patients who underwent rehabilitative exercise for 8 weeks were measured. Strength of the knee extensors of the experimental and control groups increased by 40% and 31%, respectively; strength of the hip flexors of the experimental and control groups increased by 31% and 18%, respectively. Strength of the hip joint muscles showed a 40% increase in the experimental group and a 14% increase in the control group. However, there was a significant difference (18%) in muscle strength of the hip abductors between the groups. Measurements of trunk lateral flexion showed a difference within a group, but no intergroup difference was found. [Conclusion] This study investigated the effect of hip abductor exercise on muscular strength and trunk stability in patients with a meniscus injury.

  3. Changes in kinematics and trunk electromyography during a 2000 m race simulation in elite female rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C L; Jones, I C; Jenkyn, T R; Ivanova, T D; Garland, S J

    2012-08-01

    Achieving excellence in rowing requires optimization of technique to maximize efficiency and force production. Investigation of the kinematics of the trunk, upper and lower extremity, together with muscle activity of the trunk, provides an insight into the motor control strategies utilized over a typical race. Nine elite female rowers performed a 2000 m race simulation. Kinematic data of the trunk and extremities, together with electromyography (EMG) activity of spinal and pelvic extensor and flexor muscles, were compared at 250 and 1500 m. At 1500 m, there was greater dissociation in the timing of leg extension and arm flexion and delayed trunk extension. Also at 1500 m, the spine demonstrated a delayed peak extension angular velocity of the T4-T7 and L3-S1 spinal segments in the early drive along with delayed and increased peak extension angular velocity of T10-L1 and L1-L3 spinal segments during the late drive. Trunk muscle fatigue was not evident; however, the abdominals demonstrated larger EMG burst areas at 1500 m. Alterations in trunk kinematics suggest that the trunk acts as a less stiff lever on which to transfer the forces of the legs to the arms and handle. Increased abdominal activity may reflect increased demand to control the trunk, given the altered coordination between the legs, trunk and arms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Responses of the trunk routes of a harvester ant to plant density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, F; Acosta, F J; Serrano, J M

    1993-02-01

    Messor barbarus is a Mediterranean harvester ant that constructs physically defined trunk routes on the ground to connect nest entrances with foraging areas. Some responses of these trunk routes to plant density (and therefore resource abundance) were analyzed by testing the preferential allocation of different parts (trunk route ends, segments and branching points) in a patchy environment. Maps of grass density in four categories and Messor barbarus trunk routes were compiled for a Mediterranean pasture in Central Spain over four consecutive years. The proportions of the density categories in each year were used to calculate random expected frequencies of the trunk route points and the predominance of higher or lower grass densities. Trunk route ends discriminate and selectively reach patches with a greater abundance of resources in all study years. Branching points are also allocated preferentially in areas with higher vegetation density, but only in years with a predominance of the higher categories of grass density. In these years, the colonies of Messor barbarus have a "phalanx" strategy at a colonial level, and branching is more profuse. Finally, trunk route segments do not indicate any preference for crossing determined vegetation densities, but rather connect successive branching points or trunk route ends by the shortest route. These results concur with a model of structural strategy change ("guerilla" - "phalanx") (Hutchings 1988) at the level of trunk routes. They are probably constituted by "transitory" sections with few branches, that expand other more profusely branched sections which are more dedicated to foraging.

  5. Evaluation of Relationship between Trunk Muscle Endurance and Static Balance in Male Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Amirhossein; Safarcherati, Afsaneh; Aghayari, Azar; Azizi, Faeze; Abbasi, Hamed

    2013-12-01

    Fatigue of trunk muscle contributes to spinal instability over strenuous and prolonged physical tasks and therefore may lead to injury, however from a performance perspective, relation between endurance efficient core muscles and optimal balance control has not been well-known. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of trunk muscle endurance and static balance. Fifty male students inhabitant of Tehran university dormitory (age 23.9±2.4, height 173.0±4.5 weight 70.7±6.3) took part in the study. Trunk muscle endurance was assessed using Sørensen test of trunk extensor endurance, trunk flexor endurance test, side bridge endurance test and static balance was measured using single-limb stance test. A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to test if the trunk muscle endurance measures significantly predicted the static balance. There were positive correlations between static balance level and trunk flexor, extensor and lateral endurance measures (Pearson correlation test, r=0.80 and Pstatic balance, the linear combination of trunk muscle endurance measures was significantly related to the static balance (F (3,46) = 66.60, Pstatic balance level. The regression model which included these factors had the sample multiple correlation coefficient of 0.902, indicating that approximately 81% of the variance of the static balance is explained by the model. There is a significant relationship between trunk muscle endurance and static balance.

  6. Trunk muscle activity during bridging exercises on and off a Swiss ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Gregory J; Hoda, Wajid; Oliver, Steven

    2005-07-30

    A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging exercises influences trunk muscle activity. Surface electrodes recorded the myoelectric activity of trunk muscles during bridging exercises. Bridging exercises were performed on the floor as well as on a labile surface (Swiss ball). During the prone bridge the addition of an exercise ball resulted in increased myoelectric activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique. The internal oblique and erector spinae were not influenced. The addition of a swiss ball during supine bridging did not influence trunk muscle activity for any muscles studied. The addition of a Swiss ball is capable of influencing trunk muscle activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique musculature during prone bridge exercises. Modifying common bridging exercises can influence the amount of trunk muscle activity, suggesting that exercise routines can be designed to maximize or minimize trunk muscle exertion depending on the needs of the exercise population.

  7. Trunk muscle activity during bridging exercises on and off a Swissball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Steven

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging exercises influences trunk muscle activity. Methods Surface electrodes recorded the myoelectric activity of trunk muscles during bridging exercises. Bridging exercises were performed on the floor as well as on a labile surface (Swiss ball. Results and Discussion During the prone bridge the addition of an exercise ball resulted in increased myoelectric activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique. The internal oblique and erector spinae were not influenced. The addition of a swiss ball during supine bridging did not influence trunk muscle activity for any muscles studied. Conclusion The addition of a Swiss ball is capable of influencing trunk muscle activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique musculature during prone bridge exercises. Modifying common bridging exercises can influence the amount of trunk muscle activity, suggesting that exercise routines can be designed to maximize or minimize trunk muscle exertion depending on the needs of the exercise population.

  8. Quantitative Fraction Evaluation of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibres in the Skin Samples Obtained in Two Orientations from the Trunk Region

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    Naveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Histomorphic evaluation of dermal collagen and elastic fibres was analysed by image analysis technique. The quantification of dermal elements was performed in skin tissues, collected in horizontal and vertical directions from trunk region and discussed under the perspective of consequences of scar related complications. Materials and Method. Total number of 200 skin samples collected from 5 areas of trunk region were processed histologically and subjected to tissue-quant image analysis. Statistical analysis involving mean with SEM and paired t test by SPSS were employed to the percentage values obtained from image analysis. Result. Among the chosen 5 areas of trunk region, abdomen showed the statistically significant difference for both collagen and elastic content between horizontal and vertical orientations (P< 0.05, whereas upper back, presternal, and lateral chest areas showed significant difference (P< 0.05 only for collagen and groin only for elastic content. Conclusion. The differences in the distribution of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in 2 directions of the samples from the same areas might be attributed to final outcome of wound healing process by influencing the appearance and behaviour of scar related complications in the region of trunk.

  9. Computed tomography-based muscle attenuation and electrical impedance myography as indicators of trunk muscle strength independent of muscle size in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E; Bean, Jonathan F; Holt, Nicole E; Keel, John C; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of computed tomography-based x-ray attenuation and paraspinal electrical impedance myography measures of trunk muscles with absolute and relative (normalized by body weight) trunk extension strength, independent of muscle cross-sectional area. This is a cross-sectional study of mobility-limited community-dwelling older adults (34 women, 15 men; mean [SD] age, 78.2 [7.2] yrs) recruited from within an existing prospective research cohort. Trunk extension strength, computed tomography-based trunk muscle cross-sectional area and attenuation at L4 level, and paraspinal electrical impedance myography measures were collected. Attenuation was positively correlated with absolute and relative strength for multiple muscle groups (r = 0.32-0.61, P electrical impedance myography phase was positively correlated with paraspinal attenuation (r = 0.30, P = 0.039) and with relative strength (r = 0.30, P = 0.042). In multivariable linear regressions adjusting for sex and cross-sectional area, attenuations of the anterior abdominal muscles (semipartial r = 0.11, P = 0.013) and combined muscles (semipartial r = 0.07, P = 0.046) were associated with relative strength. Although attenuation was associated with relative strength, small effect sizes indicate limited usefulness as clinical measures of muscle strength independent of muscle size. However, there remains a need for additional studies in larger and more diverse groups of subjects.

  10. Inter-rater reliability of trunk muscle morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Stephanie; Yeates, Tobey DeMott; Licka, Theresia; Elliott, James

    2015-01-01

    Inter-rater reliability of generalised lumbar extensor muscle CSA has been identified, however, more detailed reliability metrics of individual trunk muscles are lacking. To report muscle volume and muscle fatty infiltrate (MFI) inter-rater reliability of individual trunk muscles between two novice assessors. Lumbar axial MRI scans from 10 healthy male participants were analysed. The muscles erector spinae (ES), multifidus (M), rectus abdominis (RA), and psoas (PS) were manually traced, region of interest quantified and muscle volume and MFI determined by both assessors. Agreement between the assessors was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (3,1), Bland-Altman plots and Lin's concordance coefficient. Good to excellent agreement was found for volume (ICC 0.77-0.96) and MFI (0.84-0.96) for all muscles on first evaluation, except for M volume, which required a second evaluation. Best agreement for muscle volume and MFI was found for ES (ICC 0.96). First evaluation of muscle volume and MFI yields high to excellent inter-rater agreement, except for M, where further training and/or experience is required to achieve acceptable reliability outcomes. This may have clinical implications due to the relevance of M atrophy reported in patients with low back pain.

  11. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    between GPP and T in the morning and the early decreases of both fluxes at midday suggest the existence of internal water storage mechanisms in oil palms both in the leaves and in the stem, which delayed the detection of water movement at the leaf petioles. The combination of our measured data with the model simulations suggest the existence of both external and internal trunk water storage mechanisms in mature oil palms contributing to ecosystem water fluxes. Oil palm plantations can lead to surface warming at early stages of development, but further assessments should be performed at landscape level to understand the climatic feedbacks of oil palm expansion.

  12. Rehabilitative ultrasound measurement of select trunk muscle activation during induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Kyle B; Uhl, Tim; Underwood, Frank B; Nitz, Arthur J

    2008-05-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) is considered a valid method to measure muscle activation in key spinal muscles in asymptomatic subjects. Research measuring muscle activation with RUSI in painful subjects is limited. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in muscle activation from experimentally induced pain can be measured by RUSI. Six male subjects performed tasks known to activate the transverse abdominis (TrA) and lumbar multifidus (LM) while RUSI measurements of muscle thickness were obtained during control and hypertonic saline conditions. The abdominal draw-in maneuver was used to volitionally activate the TrA and a series of upper extremity lifting tasks were used to automatically activate the LM. Pain was induced by injecting 5% hypertonic saline into the longissimus muscle adjacent to the LM at the L4 level. The percent change in muscle thickness from rest to contraction represented muscle activation. Activation was significantly less (pRUSI can be used to measure pain-related changes in deep trunk muscle activation. Future research should include a larger sample size and women.

  13. Trunk and hip biomechanics influence anterior cruciate loading mechanisms in physically active participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Barnett; Bell, David R; Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Goerger, Benjamin M; Padua, Darin A

    2013-11-01

    Excessive trunk motion and deficits in neuromuscular control (NMC) of the lumbopelvic hip complex are risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the relationship between trunk motion, NMC of the lumbopelvic hip complex, and triplanar knee loads during a sidestep cutting task has not been examined. To determine if there is an association between multiplanar trunk motion, NMC of the lumbopelvic hip complex, and triplanar knee loads with ACL injury during a sidestep cutting task. Descriptive laboratory study. The hip and knee biomechanics and trunk motion of 30 participants (15 male, 15 female) were analyzed during a sidestep cutting task using an optoelectric camera system interfaced to a force plate. Trunk and lower extremity biomechanics were calculated from the kinematic and ground-reaction force data during the first 50% of the stance time during the cutting task. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated between trunk and lower extremity biomechanics. Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the amount of variance in triplanar knee loading explained by trunk motion and hip moments. A greater internal knee varus moment (mean, 0.11 ± 0.12 N·m/kg*m) was associated with less transverse-plane trunk rotation away from the stance limb (mean, 20.25° ± 4.42°; r = -0.46, P = .011) and a greater internal hip adduction moment (mean, 0.33 ± 0.25 N·m/kg*m; r = 0.83, P < .05). A greater internal knee external rotation moment (mean, 0.11 ± 0.08 N·m/kg*m) was associated with a greater forward trunk flexion (mean, 7.62° ± 5.28°; r = 0.42, P = .020) and a greater hip internal rotation moment (mean, 0.15 ± 0.16 N·m/kg*m; r = 0.59, P = .001). Trunk rotation and hip adduction moment explained 81% (P < .05) of the variance in knee varus moment. Trunk flexion and hip internal rotation moment explained 48% (P < .05) of the variance in knee external rotation moment. Limited trunk rotation displacement

  14. Overview of grapevine trunk diseases in France in the 2000s

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    Emilie BRUEZ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The National Grapevine Trunk Disease Survey was conducted in France from 2003 to 2008 to monitor grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs, eutypa dieback and esca/black dead arm (BDA. Data collected from seven regions, 329 vineyards and 12 cultivars were analysed. There were great variations amongst regions in the incidence of GTDs. For esca/BDA, two groups were distinguished: vineyards in Jura and Charentes had greater incidence (93–95% than those of Bordeaux, Alsace and Bourgogne (54–82%. Incidence increased in Charentes over the 6-year survey, with the highest values being recorded during the last 2 years. For eutypa dieback, all vineyards of Charentes were affected, with 17 to 25% of vines expressing symptoms; for the other regions, 52 to 80% of vineyards were affected, with incidences below 3%. Cultivars Savagnin and Trousseau in Jura were especially affected by esca/BDA. Instead, Ugni Blanc in Charentes was most affected by eutypa dieback. One cultivar could be significantly more affected in one region than in another. The global health status of the vineyards was also investigated. (i For four regions, 82% (Jura to 87% (Alsace of the grapevines were healthy, but this percentage decreased steadily (67% in Charentes. (ii Plants infected by GTDs were 32 and 18% in Jura and Charentes respectively, and only 2.9% in the Bourgogne region. (iii The unproductive plants, i.e. dead, missing, replanted or restored, represented a significant part of the losses (6.6% in Charentes to 9.9% in Jura. The extension of GTDs is discussed with regard to the abiotic and biotic factors that may favour the diseases.

  15. Rising melanoma incidence rates of the trunk among younger women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Porcia T.; Anderson, William F.; Purdue, Mark P.; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Tucker, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Melanoma rates are rising among young women, possibly due to increasing ultraviolet radiation to previously protected body sites. Therefore, we examined melanoma incidence trends by age, gender, and body site. Descriptive methods were complemented with the age-period-cohort parameters net drift and longitudinal age trend. Methods Case and population data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registries Database (1975-2006). Net drift summarized the average annual percentage change in log-linear rates per year of calendar-time (or year of diagnosis). Longitudinal age trend summarized the average annual percentage change by attained age at diagnosis. Early-and late-onset melanomas have low and high longitudinal age trends, respectively. Results There were 105,829 melanomas diagnosed in the SEER 9 Registries. The overall age-adjusted incidence rate (IR)for melanoma was 17.7/100,000 person-years. Age specific IRs were greater among women than men prior to age 40 years. Among women, Irs decreased for all anatomic sites relative to the trunk. The highest net drift occurred in truncal lesions among women (net drift = 3.8%/year of calendar time; 95% CI = 3.5%-4.0%). The lowest longitudinal age trends also were observed for truncal lesions among women (longitudinal age trend = 5.4%/year of attained age; 95% CI = 5.1-5.7). Conclusions Though melanoma Irs overall have risen for decades, the combination of high net drift and low longitudinal age trend demonstrate that melanomas are rising preferentially on the trunk among young women. Impact Future surveillance and analytic studies should consider melanoma effect modification by age, gender, and body site. PMID:20826837

  16. Muscular condition and trunk stability in judoka of national and international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casto Juan-Recio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is theorized that the development of the ability to stabilize the trunk may improve the performance of a judoka because it improves body balance control and optimizes force transmission from the lower extremities to the upper limbs. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence to establish a clear relationship between trunk stability and performance in judo.Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the quantification of trunk stability and muscular strength and endurance allowed differentiation between national level (n = 7 and international level judoka (n = 6. In addition, the relationship between trunk stability and muscular strength and endurance of the muscles involved in trunk stability control was analyzed.Method: To assess trunk stability, trunk responses to sudden loads applied by a pneumatic mechanism were analyzed, as well as trunk postural control through an unstable sitting paradigm. Muscular strength and endurance were assessed via a flexion and extension trunk test using an isokinetic dynamometer.Results/Conclusions: International level judokas showed lower CoP displacement in the most complex task in unstable seat (7.00 ± 1.19 vs 8.93 ± 1.45 mm, T = .025 and higher absolute and relative peak torque in extensor muscles (7.05 ± 0.87 vs 5.74 ± 0.72 Nm, T = .013 than national level judoka. According to these results, core stability and trunk muscular condition are important qualities in the physical training of elite judoka. Correlational analysis found no relation between the analyzed variables, thus muscular strength and endurance appear to have a non-significant effect on performance in the trunk stability tests.

  17. [Correlations between standing trees trunk decay degree and soil physical-chemical properties in Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian-Yong; Wang, Li-Hai; Sun, Mo-Long

    2013-07-01

    Standing trees decay often causes vast loss of timber resources. To investigate the correlations between the standing trees decay and the site conditions is of importance to scientifically and reasonably manage forests and to decrease wood resources loss. By using Resistograph and meter ruler, a measurement was made on the decay degree of the trunk near root and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of 15 mature Korean pine standing trees in a Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing' an Mountains in May, 2011. In the meantime, soil samples were collected from the root zones of standing trees and the upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks, respectively. Five physical-chemical properties including moisture content, bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content of the soil samples were tested. The regression equations concerning the trunk decay degree of the standing trees, their DBH, and the 5 soil properties were established. The results showed that the trunk decay degree of the mature Korean pine standing trees had higher correlations with the bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content (R = 0.687), and significant positive correlation with the moisture content (R = 0.507) of the soils at the root zones of standing trees, but less correlation with the 5 properties of the soils at both upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks. The trunk decay degree was decreased when the soil moisture content was below 18.4%. No significant correlation was observed between the trunk decay degree of mature Korean pine standing trees and the tree age.

  18. Steps for arm and trunk actions of overhead forehand stroke used in badminton games across skill levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine arm and trunk actions in overhead forehand strokes used in badminton games across skill levels. The participants were 80 students (40 boys, 40 girls) who were randomly selected from video recordings of 300 students ages 16 to 19 years. The videotaped performances of overhead forehand strokes were coded based on three steps of arm action (elbow flexion, elbow and humeral flexion, and upward backswing) and three steps of trunk action (no trunk action, forward-backward movement, and trunk rotation). Students across the four skill levels exhibited different patterns of arm and trunk actions. Students at advanced levels used more mature arm and trunk actions.

  19. Regulation of trunk neural crest delamination by δEF1 and Sip1 in the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumi, Takahiro; Inoue, Masashi; Maruhashi, Mitsuji; Kamachi, Yusuke; Higashi, Yujiro; Kondoh, Hisato; Uchikawa, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    The vertebrate Zfhx1 transcription factor family comprises δEF1 and Sip1, which bind to CACCT-containing sequences and act as transcriptional repressors. It has been a longstanding question whether these transcription factors share the same regulatory functions in vivo. It has been shown that neural crest (NC) delamination depends on the Sip1 activity at the cranial level in mouse and chicken embryos, and it remained unclear how NC delamination is regulated at the trunk level. We observed that the expression of δEF1 and Sip1 overlaps in many tissues in chicken embryos, including NC cells at the trunk level. To clarify the above questions, we separately knocked down δEF1 and Sip1 or in combination in NC cells by electroporation of vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against respective mRNAs on the dorsal side of neural tubes that generate NC cells. In all cases, the migrating NC cell population was significantly reduced, paralleled by the decreased expression of δEF1 or Sip1 targeted by shRNAs. Expression of Sox10, the major transcription factor that regulates NC development, was also decreased by the shRNAs against δEF1 or Sip1. We conclude that the trunk NC delamination is regulated by both δEF1 and Sip1 in an analogous manner, and that these transcription factors can share equivalent regulatory functions in embryonic tissues. © 2015 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  20. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study's participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject's comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients' pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters.

  1. Effect of trunk inclination on isometric extensor and flexor torque of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Cybex 6000, dynamometer Trunk extension / flexion unit was used to measure maximal voluntary isometric strength of the lumbar flexor and extensor muscles at 0, 23, 46, 69 and 92 degrees of trunk flexion. ANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. Alpha was set at p < 0.05. Significant ...

  2. Electromyographic activity of trunk muscles during exercises with flexible and non-flexible poles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncalves, M.; Marques, N.R.; Hallal, C.Z.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hand-held flexible poles which are brought into oscillation to cause alternating forces on trunk, are advocated as training devices that are supposed to solicit increased levels of stabilizing trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to verify this claim by comparing

  3. Intra- and Inter-Observer Reliability of the Trunk Impairment Scale for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Rannei; Jorgensen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Standardized scales to evaluate qualities of trunk movements in children with dysfunction are sparse. An examination of the reliability of scales that may be useful in the clinic is important. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Standardized scales are…

  4. Females Exhibit Shorter Paraspinal Reflex Latencies than Males in Response to Sudden Trunk Flexion Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily M.; Slota, Gregory P.; Agnew, Michael J.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Females have a higher risk of experiencing low back pain or injury than males. One possible reason for this might be altered reflexes since longer paraspinal reflex latencies exist in injured patients versus healthy controls. Gender differences have been reported in paraspinal reflex latency, yet findings are inconsistent. The goal here was to investigate gender differences in paraspinal reflex latency, avoiding and accounting for potentially gender-confounding experimental factors. Methods Ten males and ten females underwent repeated trunk flexion perturbations. Paraspinal muscle activity and trunk kinematics were recorded to calculate reflex latency and maximum trunk flexion velocity. Two-way mixed model ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of gender on reflex latency and maximum trunk flexion velocity. Findings Reflex latency was 18.7% shorter in females than in males (P=0.02) when exposed to identical trunk perturbations, and did not vary by impulse (P=0.38). However, maximum trunk flexion velocity was 35.3% faster in females than males (P=0.01) when exposed to identical trunk perturbations, and increased with impulse (P<0.01). While controlling for differences in maximum trunk flexion velocity, reflex latency was 16.4% shorter in females than males (P=0.04). Implications The higher prevalence of low back pain and injury among females does not appear to result from slower paraspinal reflexes. PMID:20359800

  5. Researchers and stakeholders shape advances in management of tree and vine trunk-disease complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grapevine trunk-disease complex limits grape production and vineyard longevity worldwide. Every vineyard in California eventually is infected by one or more trunk diseases. The causal fungi, which are taxonomically unrelated Ascomycetes, infect and then degrade the permanent woody structure of t...

  6. Changes in Trunk and Head Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy after Hippotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtleff, Tim L.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Hippotherapy (HPOT) is a therapy that uses horse movement. This pilot investigation objectively evaluated the efficacy of HPOT in improving head/trunk stability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The participants were six children with spastic diplegia and six children without disability. Head and trunk stability was challenged by using a…

  7. Trunk position modulates anterior cruciate ligament forces and strains during a single-leg squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulas, Anthony S.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; DeVita, Paul

    Background: Although the squat exercise and its variations are commonly prescribed for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation, whether trunk position affects these ligament forces and strains during the squat is unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of trunk position on anterior

  8. Differential expression of wound fibrotic factors between facial and trunk dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Masakazu; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Kaminishi-Tanikawa, Akiko; Niikura, Mamoru; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    Clinically, wounds on the face tend to heal with less scarring than those on the trunk, but the causes of this difference have not been clarified. Fibroblasts obtained from different parts of the body are known to show different properties. To investigate whether the characteristic properties of facial and trunk wound healing are caused by differences in local fibroblasts, we comparatively analyzed the functional properties of superficial and deep dermal fibroblasts obtained from the facial and trunk skin of seven individuals, with an emphasis on tendency for fibrosis. Proliferation kinetics and mRNA and protein expression of 11 fibrosis-associated factors were investigated. The proliferation kinetics of facial and trunk fibroblasts were identical, but the expression and production levels of profibrotic factors, such as extracellular matrix, transforming growth factor-β1, and connective tissue growth factor mRNA, were lower in facial fibroblasts when compared with trunk fibroblasts, while the expression of antifibrotic factors, such as collagenase, basic fibroblast growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor, showed no clear trends. The differences in functional properties of facial and trunk dermal fibroblasts were consistent with the clinical tendencies of healing of facial and trunk wounds. Thus, the differences between facial and trunk scarring are at least partly related to the intrinsic nature of the local dermal fibroblasts.

  9. Precision control of an upright trunk posture in low back pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, N.W.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Low back pain appears to be associated with impaired trunk postural control, which could be caused by proprioceptive deficits. We assessed control of trunk posture in conditions requiring high and low precision, with and without disturbance of proprioception by lumbar muscle vibration.

  10. Effect of short-term application of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk repositioning in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Sara A; Frost, Lydia R; Vallis, Lori Ann; Brown, Stephen H M

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of kinesio tape on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon, trunk postural control and trunk position sense when applied for a short period (30 min) to the low back of healthy female participants. Twenty-four participants were assigned to one of two groups: kinesio tape applied in either the recommended stretched or non-stretched (control) manner over the low back. Tests were performed at three time points (pre-tape, with tape, post-tape) to assess low-back muscle flexion-relaxation, position sense during active trunk repositioning and trunk postural control during seated balance. Results demonstrated that wearing kinesio tape did not affect the angle at which the erector spinae muscles became silent during trunk flexion (flexion-relaxation). Trunk repositioning error increased when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and this increased error persisted after the tape was removed. Seated balance control improved when wearing kinesio tape in both the stretched and non-stretched manner, and these improvements persisted after the tape was removed. In conclusion, these findings do not support the general suggestions that short-term use of kinesio tape on the low-back region alter low-back muscle activation and enhance tasks related to proprioception, at least under these taping conditions in a group of healthy females.

  11. Along the Grand Trunk Road: The Photography of Raghubir Singh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Chandrasekhar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than two millennia, the historic Grand Trunk Road, the busy thoroughfare that extends some 1500 miles through north India and Pakistan served as the main artery of South Asia. It was also the gateway through which waves of immigrants, travelers, and invaders entered the subcontinent. As a result, a great deal of diversity and tolerance marks the road. Between 1988 and 1991, Raghubir Singh (1942-1999, one of India’s renowned documentary photographers, traveled and photographed the Indian stretch of the Road. Ninety-six photographs from his journeys appear in the publication, 'The Grand Trunk Road: A Passage Through India '(1995. Singh used the pictorial style of street photography that he is known for to capture everyday life along the path. Further, he emphasized the tremendous diversity he witnessed along the road through the selections he made for inclusion in the book and the specific manner in which he arranged many of them. By underscoring the heterogeneity, Singh provided a critical visual commentary of the political climate in India during the 1980s and early nineties. This period coincided with the rise of Hindu nationalism, which aimed to erase the subcontinent’s diverse past and promote instead the idea of a homogenous/Hindu India. By documenting the road in his uniquely pictorial style and arranging the photographs in his book to draw attention to the differences and tolerance witnessed along the path, Singh demonstrated that India was not a monolithic culture as the politics of the time claimed, but a rich interwoven fabric of many varied strands.

  12. Analisa Teknis dan Keselamatan Sistem Busbar Trunking Pada Sistem Kelistrikan Kapal Utility 52 Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Rizki Satria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inovasi dalam pendistribusian kebutuhan arus listrik menghasilkan suatu media alternatif pengganti kabel yang dikenal sebagai busbar trunking. Busbar trunking adalah suatu komponen yang kompak (compact size berfungsi sebagai penyalur, konduktor, ataupun sebagai media hantar arus listrik yang menawarkan kesederhanaan dalam desain, instalasi, dan perawatannya. Dalam aplikasinya, busbar trunking telah diinstal pada bangunan darat seperti gedung bertingkat, pabrik, dan lain-lain. Sehingga diperlukan analisa lebih lanjut terhadap penerapan sistem busbar trunking di laut, seperti kapal. Analisa dilakukan berdasarkan aspek teknis dan keselamatan instalasi pada sistem kelistrikan kapal utility 52 meter mengacu pada standar kelas keselamatan di kapal. Hasil analisa tersebut menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa sistem busbar trunking sangat compatible jika diaplikasikan di kapal karena memiliki tingkat keselamatan yang sesuai dengan persyaratan peraturan kelas

  13. [Influence of sport on isoinertial trunk muscle performance development: a 2 years prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, E Bibbo; Mélot, C; Szpalski, M; Keller, T S; Balagué, F

    2013-07-17

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between either regular sports practice or a non sportive way of life, development of trunk muscle performance and occurrence of lower back pain between male schoolchildren. 93 schoolchildren were recruited, then stratified in 4 groups, according to sport practice or sedentary way of life. Participants were evaluated twice at an interval of 2 years with an interview, a physical examination and an evaluation of trunk muscle performance. We identified that basketball players have significantly better results and perfomance concerning isometric and isoinertial tests of trunk muscles than the other groups. Differences in trunk muscle performance exist following the practice of different types of sport. We can deduce that trunk muscle performance has some sport specificity.

  14. Change in trunk muscle activities with prone bridge exercise in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Park, Seol; Kweon, Mi-Gyong; Park, Ji-Won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three different bridge exercises on internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and erector spinae activities. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five subjects with chronic low back pain participated in this study. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: supine bridge exercise, supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and prone bridge exercise. The activities of the transverse abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] There were significant differences in the internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae according to the three kinds of bridging exercises. The internal oblique, external oblique and transverse abdominis activities were highest in the prone bridge exercise, followed by those in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise, and supine bridge exercises. The activity of erector spine was highest in the supine bridge on Swiss ball exercise followed by the supine bridge exercise and prone bridge exercise. [Conclusion] These results suggest that prone bridge exercise is more effective than conventional supine bridge exercise and supine bridge on Swiss ball in increasing trunk muscle activity of chronic low back pain patients.

  15. Trunk-pelvis coordination during turning: A cross sectional study of young adults with and without a history of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jo Armour; Kulig, Kornelia

    2016-07-01

    During steady-state locomotion, symptomatic individuals with low back pain demonstrate reduced ability to modulate coordination between the trunk and the pelvis in the axial plane. It is unclear if this is also true during functional locomotor perturbations such as changing direction, or if this change in coordination adaptability persists between symptomatic episodes. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk-pelvis coordination during walking turns in healthy individuals and asymptomatic individuals with a history of low back pain. Participants performed multiple ipsilateral turns. Axial plane inter-segmental coordination and stride-to-stride coordination variability were quantified using the vector coding technique. Frequency of coordination mode and amplitude of coordination variability was compared between groups using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and paired t-tests respectively. During stance phase of the turn, there was no significant difference in either inter-segmental coordination or coordination variability between groups. Inter-segmental coordination between the trunk and the pelvis was predominantly inphase during this part of the turn. During swing phase, patterns of coordination were more diversified, and individuals with a history of low back pain had significantly greater trunk phase coordination than healthy controls. Coordination variability was the same in both groups. Changes in trunk-pelvis coordination are evident between symptomatic episodes in individuals with a history of low back pain. However, previously demonstrated decreases in coordination variability were not found between symptomatic episodes in individuals with recurrent low back pain and therefore may represent a response to concurrent pain rather than a persistent change in motor control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Capability and recruitment patterns of trunk during isometric uniaxial and biaxial upright exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Ali; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Nordin, Margareta

    2008-06-01

    Work-related risk factors of low back disorders have been identified to be external moments, awkward postures, and asymmetrical dynamic lifting amongst others. The distinct role of asymmetry of load versus posture is hard to discern from the literature. Hence, the aim of this study is to measure isometric trunk exertions at upright standing posture at different exertion level and degree of asymmetry to further delineate the effects of exertion level and asymmetry on neuromuscular capability response. Fifteen healthy volunteers randomly performed trunk exertions at three levels (30%, 60%, and 100% of maximum voluntary exertion and five different angles (0 degrees , 45 degrees , 90 degrees , 135 degrees , and 180 degrees ) of normalized resultant moments. During each trial, the normalized EMG activity of 10 selected trunk muscles was quantified. The EMG activity of the 10 trunk muscles was significantly (Presultant moment, and their interactions. The controllability of the torque generation was reduced in biaxial exertions. The capability to generate and control the required trunk moments is significantly lowered during biaxial trunk exertions, while all muscles present higher EMG activity. These results suggest that the trunk muscles will be taxed higher while performing biaxial exertion tasks, increasing muscle fatigue possibly leading to a higher probability of low back injury. The prediction of biaxial trunk performance based on uniaxial data will result in an overestimation of capability and controllability of the trunk during physically demanding tasks. This study provides a better understanding of the potential mechanisms of injury during asymmetrical and biaxial trunk exertion during work-related tasks.

  17. Effectiveness of additional trunk exercises on gait performance: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Criekinge, Tamaya; Saeys, Wim; Hallemans, Ann; Vereeck, Luc; De Hertogh, Willem; Van de Walle, Patricia; Vaes, Nathalie; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven

    2017-06-02

    Evidence is lacking concerning the effect of additional trunk rehabilitation on gait performance. Investigating gait performance by both clinical and biomechanical outcome measures might lead to new scientific insights into the importance of the trunk during gait rehabilitation in people suffering from stroke. This protocol was written according to the SPIRIT 2013 Statement. An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted in patients with impaired trunk control after stroke. A total of 60 patients will be randomly allocated to the control or the experimental group by means of sealed opaque envelopes. They will receive either 16 h of additional trunk exercises (experimental group) or cognitive exercises (controls) for 1 h a day, 4 days a week for 4 weeks. Patients will also receive 2 h of standard care consisting of physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Gait performance will be assessed clinically by the Tinetti Test and biomechanically by means of a full body gait analysis. In addition, the effect of the exercise protocol on the trunk itself and trunk activities of daily living will be assessed by the Trunk Impairment Scale and the Barthel Index. Despite the evidence demonstrating the importance of trunk control after stroke, studies about the effects of trunk rehabilitation on gait performance are inconsistent. In the current study, a more sophisticated treatment protocol will be used to enlarge therapeutic improvements, the relationship between clinical and biomechanical measures of gait performance can be investigated, and the sustainability of the effects of trunk exercises over time will be examined. Since clinical improvements are of greater importance to patients and physiotherapists, clinical assessment scales will be used as primary outcome measures. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02708888 . Registered on 2 March 2016.

  18. Altered postural responses persist following physical therapy of general versus specific trunk exercises in people with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomond, Karen V; Henry, Sharon M; Hitt, Juvena R; DeSarno, Michael J; Bunn, Janice Y

    2014-10-01

    Interventions that target trunk muscle impairments in people with LBP have been promoted; however, the treatment effects on muscle activation impairments during postural tasks remain unclear. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects trunk stabilization vs. general strength and conditioning exercises on the automatic postural response in persons with chronic low back pain (LBP). Fifty-eight subjects with chronic, recurrent LBP (n = 58) (i.e., longer than six months) were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two, 10-week physical therapy programs: stabilization (n = 29) or strength and conditioning (n = 29). Pain and function were measured at 11 weeks and 6 months post-treatment initiation. To quantify postural following support surface perturbations, surface electrodes recorded electromyography (EMG) of trunk and leg muscles and force plates recorded forces under the feet, to calculate the center of pressure. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in pain and function out to 6 months. There were also changes in muscle activation patterns immediately post-treatment, but not at 6 months. However, changes in center of pressure (COP) responses were treatment specific. Following treatment, the stabilization group demonstrated later onset of COP displacement, while the onset of COP displacement in the strengthening group was significantly earlier following treatment. Despite two different treatments, clinical improvements and muscle activation patterns were similar for both groups, indicating that the stabilization treatment protocol does not preferentially improve treatment outcomes or inter-muscle postural coordination patterns for persons with LBP. NCT01611792. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of predictive equations of the cross-sectional area of the human trunk. 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n6p461

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Estrela Morais

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and validate predictive equations of the cross-sectional area of the human trunk. The models were developed for males according to their level of expertise. The sample comprised 152 male subjects, all of them with a background in competitive or recreational swimming. Their ages ranged between 10 and 32 years. Two different groups of subjects were used to estimate and validate the equation. The following anthropometric characteristics were assessed: (i body weight, (ii height, (iii biacromial diameter, (iv sagittal thoracic diameter, (v chest circumference, and (vi cross-sectional area of the trunk. Predictive models were developed using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. One of the models used level of expertise as a dummy variable. All models included sagittal thoracic diameter and chest circumference as independent variables (0.32 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.48; P 0.05. The simple linear regressions were moderate (0.23 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.55; 0.01 ≤ P ≤ 0.001, and the Bland-Altman criterion was met in all cases. Therefore, our findings suggest that the models developed for male swimmers according to their level of expertise are able to provide a valid prediction of the cross-sectional area of the trunk.

  20. TrunkDiseaseID.org: A molecular database for fast and accurate identification of fungi commonly isolated from grapevine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grapevine trunk-disease complex limits vineyard longevity in all major grape-growing regions. Although trunk diseases have been distinguished based on causal agents (aka trunk pathogens) and etiologies (e.g., Botryosphaeria-, Eutypa-, and Phomopsis diebacks, Esca), mixed infections are frequent ...

  1. Trunk response and stability in standing under sagittal-symmetric pull-push forces at different orientations, elevations and magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouaaid, Z; Shirazi-Adl, A; Plamondon, A

    2017-10-25

    To reduce lifting and associated low back injuries, manual material handling operations often involve pulling-pushing of carts at different weights, orientations, and heights. The loads on spine and risk of injury however need to be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle forces, spinal loads and trunk stability in pull-push tasks in sagittal-symmetric, static upright standing posture. Three hand-held load magnitudes (80, 120 and 160 N) at four elevations (0, 20, 40 and 60 cm to the L5-S1) and 24 force directions covering all pull/push orientations were considered. For this purpose, a musculoskeletal finite element model with kinematics measured earlier were used. Results demonstrated that peak spinal forces occur under inclined pull (lift) at upper elevations but inclined push at the lowermost one. Minimal spinal loads, on the other hand, occurred at and around vertical pull directions. Overall, spinal forces closely followed variations in the net external moment of pull-push forces at the L5-S1. Local lumbar muscles were most active in pulls while global extensor muscles in lifts. The trunk stability margin decreased with load elevation except at and around horizontal push; it peaked under pulls and reached minimum at vertical lifts. It also increased with antagonist activity in muscles and intra-abdominal pressure. Results provide insight into the marked effects of variation in the load orientation and elevation on muscle forces, spinal loads and trunk stability and hence offer help in rehabilitation, performance enhancement training and design of safer workplaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of kinesiophobia on trunk muscle voluntary responses with pre-programmed reactions during perturbation in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasad, M; Shenoy, D Shweta; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Sankara, N

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between fear of movement and perturbation induced electromyographic global trunk muscle voluntary responses with pre-programmed reactions among persons with chronic low back pain (CLBP). CLBP subjects (n = 25) were challenged to unexpected and expected perturbations on stable and unstable surfaces. 'Tampa scale for kinesiophobia - Adjusted version-13' was used to measure kinesiophobia. Regression analysis revealed significant negative correlation between kinesiophobia scores and voluntary responses of rectus abdominis (RA) for unexpected perturbations on stable (r = -0.69, 95% of CI: -0.85 to -0.40, p kinesiophobia score of the CLBP population was significantly inversely associated during anteriorly directed unexpected perturbations. In our study, the significant association between fear of movement and the trunk muscle responses was differentially influenced by expected and unexpected postural demands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of trunk impairment on performance-determining activities in wheelchair rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, V C; Groen, B E; Hart, A L; Vanlandewijck, Y C; van Limbeek, J; Keijsers, N L W

    2017-09-01

    In Paralympic sport, classification of impairment is needed to prevent a one-sided and predictable outcome of competition, in which the least impaired athlete has the best chance to win. To develop evidence-based classification in wheelchair rugby, the impact of trunk impairment, measured by the Trunk Impairment Classification (TIC), on performance-determining activities was assessed. Arm impairment was analyzed as a covariant. Fifty-five athletes, 21 with TIC score 0, 13 with TIC score 0.5, 11 with TIC score 1.0, and 10 with TIC score 1.5 performed standardized sport-specific activities. A multiple step forward regression analysis was performed for all activities to assess the relative impact of trunk and arm impairment on performance. Trunk impairment was the most important factor for tilting the chair and acceleration in the first 2 m. The explained variance of the performance by trunk and arm impairment ranged from 23% for acceleration in the first meter, to 37% for sprint momentum, the tilt test left, and the time to cover 3 and 4 m. This study shows that athletes with limited trunk impairment are more proficient in wheelchair rugby than athletes with severe trunk impairment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Three-dimensional head and trunk movement characteristics during gait in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, L; Feys, H; Molenaers, G; Jaspers, E; Monari, D; Meyns, P; Desloovere, K

    2013-09-01

    This study uses a recently developed trunk model to determine which head and trunk kinematic parameters differentiate children with spastic diplegia from typically developing (TD) children while walking. Differences in head and trunk parameters in relation to the severity of the motor involvement (GMFCS levels) were additionally examined. The trunk model consisted of five segments (pelvis, thorax, head, shoulder line, spine). Discrete kinematic parameters (ROM, mean position) and angular waveforms were compared between 20 children with spastic diplegia (age 9.8 years±2.9 years; GMFCS I: n=10, GMFCS II: n=10) and 20 individually age-matched TD children (9.7 years±3 years). A new measure for overall trunk pathology, the trunk profile score (TPS), was proposed and included in the comparative analysis. Compared to TD children, children with GMFCS II showed a significantly higher TPS and increased ROM for pelvis tilt, for thorax and head in nearly all planes, and the angle of kyphosis. In children with GMFCS I, only ROM of thorax lateral bending was significantly increased. Sagittal ROM differentiated best between GMFCS levels, with higher ROM found in children with GMFCS II. Current results provide new insights into head and trunk kinematics during gait in children with spastic diplegia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Local Stability of the Trunk in Patients with Degenerative Cerebellar Ataxia During Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Giorgia; Ranavolo, Alberto; Draicchio, Francesco; Casali, Carlo; Conte, Carmela; Martino, Giovanni; Leonardi, Luca; Padua, Luca; Coppola, Gianluca; Pierelli, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate trunk local stability in a group of patients with degenerative primary cerebellar ataxia and to correlate it with spatio-temporal parameters, clinical variables, and history of falls. Sixteen patients affected by degenerative cerebellar ataxia and 16 gender- and age-matched healthy adults were studied by means of an inertial sensor to measure trunk kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters during over-ground walking. Trunk local dynamic stability was quantified by the maximum Lyapunov exponent with short data series of the acceleration data. According to this index, low values indicate more stable trunk dynamics, while high values denote less stable trunk dynamics. Disease severity was assessed by means of International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS) according to which higher values correspond to more severe disease, while lower values correspond to less severe disease.Patients displayed a higher short-term maximum Lyapunov exponent than controls in all three spatial planes, which was correlated with the age, onset of the disease, and history of falls. Furthermore, the maximum Lyapunov exponent was negatively correlated with ICARS balance, ICARS posture, and ICARS total scores.These findings indicate that trunk local stability during gait is lower in patients with cerebellar degenerative ataxia than that in healthy controls and that this may increase the risk of falls. Local dynamic stability of the trunk seems to be an important aspect in patients with ataxia and could be a useful tool in the evaluation of rehabilitative and pharmacological treatment outcomes.

  6. Intraoperative Assessment of Facial Nerve Trunk Width in Early Childhood With Cervicofacial Lymphatic Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ara; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Lim, So Young

    2017-03-01

    Facial nerve damage during head and neck surgery has long been an important issue. However, few publications on the gross anatomy of the facial nerve are available in the young population. The aim of this study was to provide in vivo measurements of the facial nerve trunk during lymphatic malformation (LM) resection and to determine the association between the trunk width and patient- and disease-related variables. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 11 consecutive pediatric patients (11 facial nerve trunks) who underwent cervicofacial LM resection. The facial nerve of the affected side was dissected, and its trunk width at bifurcation was measured using calipers under a microscope during the operation. Eleven patients younger than 6 years were enrolled. The median width of the facial nerve in patients younger than 1 year was 1.15 mm; it was 2.5 mm in those older than 1 year. Trunk width was significantly greater in patients older than 1 year than those younger than 1 year, whereas no statistical significance was found when comparing other age groups. Patient weight was positively correlated with trunk width, whereas LM grade and diameter showed no significant correlation. The significantly greater width of the facial nerve trunk in LM patients older than 1 year than those younger than 1 year suggests that the age of 1 may be a threshold for facial nerve hypertrophy and growth acceleration. This study provides informative in vivo data to help understand facial nerve characteristics in young patients.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar trunk parameters in chronic low backache patients and healthy population: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Roop; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Sood, Sushma; Yadav, Rohtas Kumar; Rohilla, Ravi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the lumbar trunk parameters by MRI and investigate their association with chronic low backache. Fifty patients (26 males and 24 females) with mean age 33.54 ± 8.33 years with a history of low back pain (LBP) of minimum 3 consecutive months constituted the study group (Group A). To match with the study group, 15 normal healthy volunteers (9 males and 6 females) with no history of back pain were selected (Group B). Both the groups were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging of lumbosacral spine and lumbar trunk parameters were calculated. Trunk width, depth and skin angle were comparable at L3-L4, L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc levels; significant difference with regard to disc angle of L3-L4 (p = 0.005) and L4-L5 (p = 0.02) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of disc at L4-L5 level (p = 0.01) was observed between two groups. There was a tendency of smaller CSA of paraspinal and abdominal oblique muscles in Group A patients, but the measurements were not statistically different from Group B patients. Rectus abdominis muscles showed a unique pattern of larger CSA at L3-L4 and L4-L5 disc levels and smaller CSA at L5-S1 in LBP patients. Intervertebral disc degenerative changes on MRI were observed in 27 (54 %) patients in the Group A; and none of the Group B participants showed degenerative changes. Tendency of smaller trunk musculature CSA may be a cause or a result of chronic LBP. A unique pattern of larger CSA at L3-L4 and L4-L5 disc levels and smaller CSA at L5-S1 of Rectus abdominis muscles is observed in LBP patients compared to healthy persons. Differences in disc angles and CSA of disc at L3-L4 and L4-L5 levels between the two groups signify that these may be the predisposing factors leading to LBP due to abnormal load/stress transmission and precipitating early degenerative changes in the disc.

  8. Influence of trunk control and lower extremity impairments on gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Julia; Marsico, Petra; Mitteregger, Elena; van der Linden, Marietta L; Mercer, Thomas H; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2017-09-24

    We investigated the combined impact of trunk control and lower extremities impairments on predicting gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and evaluated relationships between trunk control and lower extremities impairments. Data of 52 children with CP [29 boys, mean age 11 years 9 months (±4 years 6 months)] were included in this observational study. Gait capacity was measured by the "modified Time Up and Go test". Experienced therapists performed the "Modified Ashworth Scale", "Manual Muscle Test", the "Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity", and the "Trunk Control Measurement Scale". We calculated Spearman correlations coefficients (ρ) and performed regression analyses. Trunk control was the strongest predictor (β = -0.624, p Muscle strength and selectivity correlated moderately to strongly with the trunk control and gait capacity (-0.68 ≤ ρ ≤ -0.78), but correlations for the spasticity were low (ρmuscle strength and selectivity for gait capacity in children with CP was shown. It indicates the significance of these impairments in gait assessment and, potentially, rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Trunk control was the strongest predictor for gait capacity in a regression model with lower extremity spasticity, muscle strength and selectivity and age as independent variables. Lower extremity muscle strength, selectivity, and trunk control explained a similar amount of gait capacity variance which is higher than that explained by lower extremity spasticity. Lower extremity muscle strength and selectivity correlated strongly with trunk control. Therefore, we cautiously suggest that a combined trunk control and lower extremity training might be promising for improving gait capacity in children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I-III), which needed to be tested in future intervention-studies.

  9. Dermoscopy of Melanomas on the Trunk and Extremities in Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Ho Mun

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma among the Asian population is lower compared to that among the Western European population. These populations differed in their most common histopathologic subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma being the most common in the Asian population. Although the dermoscopic features of the melanomas on the acral skin have been thoroughly investigated in the Asian population, studies concerning the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the non-acral skin have been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the trunk and extremities in the Asian population. To achieve this, we evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of 22 primary melanomas diagnosed at two university hospitals in Korea. In addition, 100 benign melanocytic lesions were included as the control group for comparative analysis. A P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Melanoma-associated dermoscopic features such as asymmetry (odds ratio [OR], 30.00, multicolor pattern (OR, 30.12, blotches (OR, 13.50, blue white veils (OR, 15.75, atypical pigment networks (OR, 9.71, irregular peripheral streaks (OR, 6.30, atypical vascular patterns (OR, 11.50, ulcers (OR, 15.83, atypical dots/globules (OR, 3.15, shiny white lines (OR, 5.88, and regression structures (OR, 7.06 were more commonly observed in patients with melanomas than in patients of the control group. The mean dermoscopic scores obtained on the 7-point checklist, revised 7-point checklist, 3-point checklist, ABCD rule, and CASH algorithm were 5.36, 3.41, 2.05, 6.89, and 9.68, respectively, in the primary melanomas, and 1.33, 0.93, 0.46, 2.45, and 3.60, respectively, in the control group (all, P < 0.001. The present study showed that melanoma-related dermoscopic patterns were common in Asian patients. Dermoscopy is a reliable diagnostic tool for the melanomas of the trunk and extremities in the Asian populations.

  10. Neuromuscular control of trunk stability: clinical implications for sports injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazulak, Bohdanna; Cholewicki, Jacek; Reeves, N Peter

    2008-09-01

    Recent prospective evidence supports the hypothesis that impaired trunk control is a contributing factor to sports injuries of the spine as well as to segments of the kinetic chain. The current concepts regarding neuromuscular control of trunk stability are best described from a systems engineering perspective. In the analysis of current neuromuscular training protocols for sports injury prevention, these principles are applied to identify components that optimize neuromuscular control of trunk stability. Current perspectives of neuromuscular learning can be applied clinically to aid in the formulation of injury prevention strategies.

  11. Reorganized trunk muscle activity during multidirectional floor perturbations after experimental low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain changes the trunk muscle activity after external perturbations but the relationship between pain intensities and distributions and their effect on the trunk muscle activity remains unclear. The effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain on trunk muscle activity...... each perturbation was extracted and averaged across perturbations. The difference (ΔRMS-EMG) and absolute difference (absolute ΔRMS-EMG) RMS from baseline conditions were extracted for each muscle during pain conditions and averaged bilaterally for back and abdominal muscle groups. Bilateral compared...... with unilateral pain induced higher VAS scores (P pain areas (P pain (P back (P

  12. Lumbosacral orthoses reduce trunk muscle activity in a postural control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; Reeves, N Peter; Everding, Vanessa Q; Morrisette, David C

    2007-01-01

    Biomechanical modeling estimated that trunk muscle activity during various tasks could be reduced by 1-14% without the loss of spine stability when a lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) is worn [Cholewicki, J., 2004. The effects of lumbosacral orthoses on spine stability: what changes in EMG can be expected? Journal of Orthopedic Research 22, 1150-1155]. The present study experimentally tested these theoretical predictions in an unstable sitting task. This task required subjects to balance on a seat supported by a plastic hemisphere (slashed circle=30cm) and placed on a force plate that tracked the center of pressure (CoP). The average CoP velocity quantified subjects' performance. Healthy subjects (12 males, 11 females) balanced for 20s in 3 trials performed with and without the LSO in random order. EMG was recorded bilaterally from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), thoracic (TES) and lumbar erector spinae (LES), and expressed as the % of maximum voluntary activation (%MVA). There was no difference in the balance performance with and without the LSO (p=0.13). However, EMG averaged across the trials was significantly lower in the LSO, as compared to the No LSO condition, for TES (5.8+/-3.2 vs. 6.4+/-3.7%MVA, p=0.02) and LES (3.7+/-1.5 vs. 5.9+/-3.9%MVA, p=0.01). No significant differences were present in the abdominal muscle activity. These results agree with earlier spine modeling simulations, which predicted the greatest reduction in muscle activity due to LSO to occur in TES and LES. It was hypothesized that such a reduction in muscle co-contraction could benefit patients with low back pain, who exhibit elevated muscular activity during postural tasks such as walking, standing and sitting.

  13. An investigation of leg and trunk strength and reaction times of hard-style martial arts practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Oliver O; Cheung, Jeanette; Catley, Maria; McGregor, Alison H; Strutton, Paul H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk and knee strength in practitioners of hard-style martial arts. An additional objective was to examine reaction times in these participants by measuring simple reaction times (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (MT). Thirteen high-level martial artists and twelve sedentary participants were tested under isokinetic and isometric conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Response and movement times were also measured in response to simple and choice auditory cues. Results indicated that the martial arts group generated a greater body-weight adjusted peak torque with both legs at all speeds during isokinetic extension and flexion, and in isometric extension but not flexion. In isokinetic and isometric trunk flexion and extension, martial artists tended to have higher peak torques than controls, but they were not significantly different (p > 0.05). During the SRT and CRT tasks the martial artists were no quicker in lifting their hand off a button in response to the stimulus [reaction time (RT)] but were significantly faster in moving to press another button [movement time (MT)]. In conclusion, the results reveal that training in a martial art increases the strength of both the flexors and extensors of the leg. Furthermore, they have faster movement times to auditory stimuli. These results are consistent with the physical aspects of the martial arts. Key PointsMartial artists undertaking hard-style martial arts have greater strength in their knee flexor and extensor muscles as tested under isokinetic testing. Under isometric testing conditions they have stronger knee extensors only.The trunk musculature is generally higher under both conditions of testing in the martial artists, although not significantly.The total reaction times of the martial artists to an auditory stimulus were significantly faster than the control participants. When analysed further it was revealed that the decrease in reaction time

  14. Trunk-rotation differences at maximal reach of the star excursion balance test in participants with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Motte, Sarah; Arnold, Brent L; Ross, Scott E

    2015-04-01

    Functional reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test is decreased in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, comprehensive 3-dimensional kinematics associated with these deficits have not been reported. To determine if lower extremity kinematics differed in CAI participants during anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test. Case-control study. Sports medicine research laboratory. Twenty CAI participants (age = 24.15 ± 3.84 years, height = 168.95 ± 11.57 cm, mass = 68.95 ± 16.29 kg) and 20 uninjured participants (age = 25.65 ± 5.58 years, height = 170.14 ± 8.75 cm, mass = 69.89 ± 10.51 kg) with no history of ankle sprain. We operationally defined CAI as repeated episodes of ankle "giving way" or "rolling over" or both, regardless of neuromuscular deficits or pathologic laxity. All CAI participants scored ≤26 on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Star Excursion Balance Test reaches in the anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial directions. The CAI participants used the unstable side as the stance leg. Control participants were sex, height, mass, and side matched to the CAI group. The 3-dimensional kinematics were assessed with a motion-capture system. Group differences on normalized reach distance, trunk, pelvis, and hip-, knee-, and ankle-joint angles at maximum Star Excursion Balance Test reach. No reach-distance differences were detected between CAI and uninjured participants in any of the 3 reach directions. With anteromedial reach, trunk rotation (t(1,38) = 3.06, P = .004), pelvic rotation (t(1,38) = 3.17, P = .003), and hip flexion (t(1,38) = 2.40, P = .002) were greater in CAI participants. With medial reach, trunk flexion (t(1,38) = 6.39, P = .05) was greater than for uninjured participants. No differences were seen with posteromedial reach. We did not detect reach-distance differences in any direction. However, participants with CAI rotated the trunk and pelvis more toward the stance leg

  15. Persistent L5 lumbosacral radiculopathy caused by lumbosacral trunk schwannoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Guive; Jahanbakhshi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Schwannomais, usually, benign tumor of nerve sheath that occurs evenly along the spinal cord. Intra-pelvic schwannoma is very rare entity that may arise from lumbosacral nerve roots or from sciatic nerve. Radicular pain of the lower limb as a presenting symptom of pelvic schwannoma is extremely rare. In the current report, the patient is presented with a right sided L5 radicular pain typical of lumbar discopathy. Interestingly, a herniated lumbar disc was noted on lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In pre-operative studies a large pelvic mass was detected in the right pre-sacral area with solid and cystic components consistent with schwannoma. The patient underwent a low midline laparotomy to evacuate the retroperitoneal mass. Uniquely, we found the tumor to be arisen from lumbosacral trunk not from a root or peripheral nerve. Most cases with intra-pelvic schwannoma present so late with vague abdominal and pelvic discomfort or pain, low back pain, urinary and bowel symptoms because of compressive effect of the tumor, or incidentally following gynecologic work-ups; So, these patients are mostly referred to gynecologists and urologists. A neurosurgeon should have a high degree of suspicion to diagnose such an entity among his or her patients presented with pains typical for discopathy. PMID:28413533

  16. Gnarled-trunk evolutionary model of influenza A virus hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihito Ito

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses undergo antigenic changes with gradual accumulation of amino acid substitutions on the hemagglutinin (HA molecule. A strong antigenic mismatch between vaccine and epidemic strains often requires the replacement of influenza vaccines worldwide. To establish a practical model enabling us to predict the future direction of the influenza virus evolution, relative distances of amino acid sequences among past epidemic strains were analyzed by multidimensional scaling (MDS. We found that human influenza viruses have evolved along a gnarled evolutionary pathway with an approximately constant curvature in the MDS-constructed 3D space. The gnarled pathway indicated that evolution on the trunk favored multiple substitutions at the same amino acid positions on HA. The constant curvature was reasonably explained by assuming that the rate of amino acid substitutions varied from one position to another according to a gamma distribution. Furthermore, we utilized the estimated parameters of the gamma distribution to predict the amino acid substitutions on HA in subsequent years. Retrospective prediction tests for 12 years from 1997 to 2009 showed that 70% of actual amino acid substitutions were correctly predicted, and that 45% of predicted amino acid substitutions have been actually observed. Although it remains unsolved how to predict the exact timing of antigenic changes, the present results suggest that our model may have the potential to recognize emerging epidemic strains.

  17. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) exposure of neuronal in vitro networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Tim; Wölfel, Maximilian; Ciba, Manuel; Bochtler, Ulrich; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-12-19

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a worldwide common mobile communication standard, used by authorities and organizations with security tasks. Previous studies reported on health effects of TETRA, with focus on the specific pulse frequency of 17.64Hz, which affects calcium efflux in neuronal cells. Likewise among others, it was reported that TETRA affects heart rate variability, neurophysiology and leads to headaches. In contrast, other studies conclude that TETRA does not affect calcium efflux of cells and has no effect on people's health. In the present study we examine whether TETRA short- and long-term exposure could affect the electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks. Experiments were performed with a carrier frequency of 395MHz, a pulse frequency of 17.64Hz and a differential quaternary phase-shift keying (π/4 DQPSK) modulation. Specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.17W/kg and 2.21W/kg were applied. In conclusion, the present results do not indicate any effect of TETRA exposure on electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks, neither for short-term nor long-term exposure. This applies to the examined parameters spike rate, burst rate, burst duration and network synchrony. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimisation of Graft Copolymerisation of Fibres from Banana Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mpon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheets from banana trunks were opened out and dried for several weeks in air. Pulp was obtained by the nitric acid process with a yield of 37.7% while fibres were obtained according to the modified standard Japanese method for cellulose in wood for pulp (JIS 8007 with a yield of 65% with respect to oven dried plant material. Single fibre obtained by the JIS method had an average diameter of 11.0 μm and Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at break-off 7.05 GPa, 81.7 MPa and 5.2% respectively. Modification of the fibres was carried out by grafting ethyl acrylate in the presence of ammonium nitrate cerium(IV. Optimisation of the copolymerisation reaction conditions was studied by measuring the rate of conversion, the rate of grafting and the grafting efficiency. The results showed that at low values of ceric ion concentration (0.04 M, at ambient temperature, after three hours and at a concentration of 0.2 M ethyl acrylate, maximum values of the parameters cited were obtained.

  19. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed. PMID:22295177

  20. Reorganised motor control strategies of trunk muscles due to acute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, R P; Salomoni, S E; Christensen, S W; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed how the low back motor control strategies were affected by experimental pain. In twelve volunteers the right m. longissimus was injected by hypertonic and isotonic (control) saline. The pain intensity was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS). Subjects were seated on a custom-designed chair including a 3-dimensional force sensor adjusted to the segmental height of T1. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from longissimus, multifidus, rectus abdominis, and external oblique muscles. Isometric trunk extensions were performed before, during, and after the saline injections at 5%, 10%, and 20% of maximum voluntary contraction force. Visual feedback of the extension force was provided whereas the tangential force components were recorded. Compared with isotonic saline, VAS scores were higher following hypertonic saline injections (Plow back pain reduced the EMG activity bilaterally of the rectus abdominis muscles during contractions at 10% and 20% MVC (Ppain compared with the non-painful condition (Ppain was sufficient to maintain the quality of the task performance; however the long-term consequence of such adaptation is unknown and may overload other structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Back pain: a randomized clinical trial of rotational manipulation of the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, J. R.; Morris, Jean G.; Khosla, T.

    1974-01-01

    Glover, J. R., Morris, Jean G., and Khosla, T. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 59-64. Back pain: a randomized clinical trial of rotational manipulation of the trunk. A therapeutic trial was conducted in a medium-sized engineering works on patients suffering from back pain with its accompanying tenderness and hyperaesthesia. The patients were randomly allocated to two treatment groups, (a) manipulation, and (b) de-tuned (i.e., simulated) short-wave diathermy, the latter acting as a placebo. The manipulated group were given one lumbar rotational manipulation session of 15 minutes or less and this was followed by four daily detuned short-wave diathermy sessions of 15 minutes. The control group were given five 15-minute daily sessions of detuned short-wave diathermy only. The patients' own subjective assessment of relief from pain was recorded in the range 0% (no relief) to 100% (complete relief). The responses were measured at three stages, (1) within 15 minutes, (2) three days after treatment, and (3) seven days after treatment. Although each of the two treatment groups showed progressive and marked improvement in the percentage of relief from pain during the seven-day period, there was no demonstrable difference between the two, except that at the 15-minute stage the relief from pain in the manipulated group was always greater than in the controls. PMID:4274488

  2. Muscle mass gain after resistance training is inversely correlated with trunk adiposity gain in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsatti, Fábio L; Nahas, Eliana A P; Orsatti, Cláudio L; de Oliveira, Erick P; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; da Mota, Gustavo R; Burini, Roberto C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in trunk adiposity (TA) over 9 months of resistance training (RT) and associate these changes with the hypertrophy of muscle mass (MM) in postmenopausal women (PW). The investigation used a sample that consisted of 22 PW (44-69 years old). The group was subjected to RT (60-80% of 1 repetition maximum) for the total body 3 d · wk(-1). Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), follicle-stimulating hormone, E2 (Immulite system), and interleukin-6 (IL-6; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were assessed at the beginning and end of the experiment. After RT, only women who acquired up to 5% TA gained MM, whereas women who acquired >5% TA exhibited increased IL-6 and no MM gain (p gain was negatively correlated with ΔTF (r = -0.63, p gain in PW.

  3. Fault location method for unexposed gas trunk line insulation at stray current constant effect area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenev, A. N.; Nosov, V. V.; Akimova, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    For the purpose of gas trunk lines safe operation, two types of pipe wall metal anticorrosion protection are generally used - the passive (insulation coating) protection and the active (electrochemical) protection. In the process of a pipeline long-term operation, its insulation is subject to wear and damage. Electrochemical protection means of a certain potential value prevent metal dissolution in the soil. When insulation wear and tear attains a level of insufficiency of the protection potential value, the insulating coating needs repair which is a labor-consuming procedure. To reduce the risk of such situation, it is necessary to make inspection rounds to monitor the condition of pipe insulation. A method for pipeline insulation coating unexposed fault location based on Pearson method is considered, wherein a working cathodic protection station signal of 100 Hz frequency is used, which makes installation of a generator unnecessary, and also a specific generator signal of 1 kHz frequency is used at high noise immunity and sensitivity of the instrument complex. This method enables detection and sizing of unexposed pipeline defects within the zones of earth current permanent action. High noise immunity of selective indicators allows for operation in proximity to 110 kV, 220 kV, and 500 kV power transmission lines in action.

  4. The functional significance of lateral line canal morphology on the trunk of the marine teleost Xiphister atropurpureus (Stichaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Münz, Heinrich; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the filter properties of the highly branched trunk lateral lines of the stichaeid Xiphister atropurpureus and compared them to the filter properties of simple lateral line canals. For this purpose artificial canals were constructed, some of which were fitted with artificial neuromasts. In still water, the response of a simple canal versus two types of Xiphister-like canals to a vibrating sphere stimulus were similar, as was the decrease in the responses as a function of sphere distance. Also comparable was the mechanical coupling between neighboring parts of the main canal. However, compared to the simple canal, the Xiphister-like canals showed a lower spatial resolution. Equipping artificial lateral line canals with artificial neuromasts revealed that Xiphister-like canals, i.e., lateral lines canals with tubuli that contained widely spaced pores, improve the signal-to-noise ratio in a highly turbulent environment. Even though a reduced spatial resolution is the price for this improvement, Xiphister may compensate for this compromise by having four instead of the usual single trunk lateral line canal. We suggest that lateral line canals with tubuli that contain widely spaced pores and multiple lateral line canals on each body side are an adaptation to a highly turbulent aquatic environment.

  5. Changes in postural and trunk muscles responses in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain during sudden upper limb loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mahmood; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Maroufi, Nader; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the neuromuscular control of the spine were found in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Sudden loading of the spine is assumed to be the cause of approximately 12% of lower back injuries. However, some aspects of this problem, such as alterations in the sensory-motor control of the spine, remain questionable. This study investigated postural and neuro- motor changes in trunk muscles during sudden upper limb loading in patients with CLBP. Electromyography of the erector spinae (ES) and transverses abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) and external oblique (EOA) muscles were recorded in 20 patients with CLBP and 20 asymptomatic individuals with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Moreover, measurements of the center of pressure (COP) and vertical ground reaction force (GRF) or Fz were recorded using a force plate. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test at the significance level of 0.05. In patients with CLBP, decreased electrical activity of the ES muscle was observed under both the EO and EC conditions and that of the TrA/IO muscle was observed under the EO condition (pmuscle in the EO condition and a greater increase in the peak latency of the ES muscle following the EC condition (pmuscle activity may indicate less stiffening or preparatory muscle activity in the trunk muscle of patients with CLBP. Altered latency of the muscle may lead to microtrauma of lumbar structures and CLBP.

  6. Athletic background is related to superior trunk proprioceptive ability, postural control, and neuromuscular responses to sudden perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glofcheskie, Grace O; Brown, Stephen H M

    2017-04-01

    Trunk motor control is essential for athletic performance, and inadequate trunk motor control has been linked to an increased risk of developing low back and lower limb injury in athletes. Research is limited in comparing relationships between trunk neuromuscular control, postural control, and trunk proprioception in athletes from different sporting backgrounds. To test for these relationships, collegiate level long distance runners and golfers, along with non-athletic controls were recruited. Trunk postural control was investigated using a seated balance task. Neuromuscular control in response to sudden trunk loading perturbations was measured using electromyography and kinematics. Proprioceptive ability was examined using active trunk repositioning tasks. Both athlete groups demonstrated greater trunk postural control (less centre of pressure movement) during the seated task compared to controls. Athletes further demonstrated faster trunk muscle activation onsets, higher muscle activation amplitudes, and less lumbar spine angular displacement in response to sudden trunk loading perturbations when compared to controls. Golfers demonstrated less absolute error and variable error in trunk repositioning tasks compared to both runners and controls, suggestive of greater proprioceptive ability. This suggests an interactive relationship between neuromuscular control, postural control, and proprioception in athletes, and that differences exist between athletes of various training backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  8. The effects of Bobath-based trunk exercises on trunk control, functional capacity, balance, and gait: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Avcu, Fatma; Onursal, Ozge; Ayvat, Ender; Savcun Demirci, Cevher; Aksu Yildirim, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bobath-based individually designed trunk exercises on trunk control, upper and lower extremity function, and walking and balance in stroke patients. The main aim of treatment was to eliminate individual trunk impairments during various patient functions. The study was planned as an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 22 patients volunteered to participate in the study. Trunk function, functional capacity, and gait were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM), and a 10-m walking test, respectively. The Berg Balance Test (BBT), functional reach (FR), and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests were used to evaluate balance. After the initial assessment, the patients were divided randomly into two groups, the study group (12 patients) and the control group (10 patients). The mean age of the patients in the study group was 55.91 years (duration of stroke 58.66 months) and that of the control group was 54.00 years (duration of stroke 67.20 months). Individual training programs were determined for the patients in the study group, taking into consideration their evaluation results; and strengthening, stretching, range of motion, and mat exercises were determined for the control group according to their functional level. The participants in both groups were taken into the physiotherapy program for 12 weeks, 3 days a week for 1 hour a day. In group analyses, both groups showed improvement in STREAM, TIS, and TUG tests. Only the study group produced significant gains in the BBT, FR, and 10 m walking tests (P 0.05). Individually developed exercise programs in the Bobath concept improve trunk performance, balance, and walking ability in stroke patients more than do conventional exercises.

  9. Finding the neck-trunk boundary in snakes: anteroposterior dissociation of myological characteristics in snakes and its implications for their neck and trunk body regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Kearney, Maureen; Rieppel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The neck and trunk regionalization of the presacral musculoskeletal system in snakes and other limb-reduced squamates was assessed based on observations on craniovertebral and body wall muscles. It was confirmed that myological features characterizing the neck in quadrupedal squamates (i.e., squamates with well-developed limbs) are retained in all examined snakes, contradicting the complete lack of the neck in snakes hypothesized in previous studies. However, the posterior-most origins of the craniovertebral muscles and the anterior-most bony attachments of the body wall muscles that are located at around the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates were found to be dissociated anteroposteriorly in snakes. Together with results of a recent study that the anterior expression boundaries of Hox genes coinciding with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal amniotes were dissociated anteroposteriorly in a colubrid snake, these observations support the hypothesis that structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates are displaced relative to one another in snakes. Whereas certain craniovertebral muscles are elongated in some snakes, results of optimization on an ophidian cladogram show that the most recent common ancestor of extant snakes would have had the longest craniovertebral muscle, M. rectus capitis anterior, that is elongated only by several segments compared with that of quadrupedal squamates. Therefore, even such a posteriorly displaced "cervical" characteristic plesiomorphically lies fairly anteriorly in the greatly elongated precloacal region of snakes, suggesting that the trunk, not the neck, would have contributed most to the elongation of the snake precloacal region. A similar dissociation of structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates is observed in limb-reduced squamates, suggesting that these forms and snakes may share a developmental mechanism producing modifications in the

  10. Vulnerability of terrestrial-trunked radio to intelligent intentional electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanuhardja, Ray R.; van de Beek, G.S.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The terrestrial-trunked radio (TETRA) specification is produced by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute for private mobile radio systems. We investigated the resilience of TETRA against intelligent intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) with low amplitude. Low power signals

  11. Hippotherapy effects on trunk, pelvic, and hip motion during ambulation in children with neurological impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheff, Jenna L; Armstrong, Charles; Masterson, Michelle; Fox, Christine; Gribble, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 10-week hippotherapy program on trunk, pelvis, and hip joint positioning during the stance phase of gait. Eleven children (6 boys and 5 girls; 7.9 ± 2.7 years) with neurological disorders and impaired ambulation participated. Joint range of motion data were collected via 3-dimensional computerized gait analysis before and after the program. Paired t tests were performed on kinematic data for each joint. Significant improvements (P ≤ .008) and large effect sizes (ESs) for sagittal plane hip positions at initial contact and toe-off were found. No differences in pelvic or trunk positioning were determined, although sagittal plane pelvic positioning displayed a trend toward improvement with large ESs. Several trunk variables displayed moderate ESs with a trend toward more upright positioning. Improvements in pelvic and hip joint positioning and more normalized vertical trunk position may indicate increased postural control during gait after 10 sessions of hippotherapy.

  12. Studi Analisa Teknis Instalasi dan Ekonomi Desain Sistem Kelistrikan Kapal Penumpang Dengan Menggunakan Busbar Trunking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Firdaus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sistem distribusi kelistrikan merupakan salah satu faktor yang dibutuhkan untuk sumber tenaga mentransmisi daya menuju beban agar dapat dioperasikan sesuai kebutuhan. Secara data stastitika bahwa kecelakaan kapal, khususnya kebakaran kapal, mayoritas dipengaruhi oleh instalasi kabel dalam mendistribusikan daya menuju beban. Hal ini dikarenakan sistem kabel tidak terbuat dari bahan yang bebas dengan zat hologen. Busbar trunking merupakan salah satu media distribusi kelistrikan yang memiliki tingkat keandalan dan keamanan yang lebih baik diabndingkan kabel. Berdasarkan referensi tersebut, pada penulisan tugas akhir ini mengacu pada aplikasi busbar trunking pada kapal penumpang yati KM Bukit Siguntang. Dari hasil analisa yang didapat pada sistem busbar trunking ini secara teknis memiliki losses daya kecil, saat perawatan dapat menjaga continuitas kerja, simple dan tepat diaplikasikan pada kapal yang membutuhkan daya besar. Selain itu dalam segi ekonomi, karena lebih efisien dari kabel maka harga pemasangan hingga perawatan lebih mahal dibandingkan dengan sistem kabel. Oleh karena itu, dibutuhkan sistem campuran (Busbar Trunking dan Kabel untuk lebih efisien

  13. Double facial nerve trunk emerged from the stylomastoid foramen and petrotympanic fissure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cenk; Kirici, Yalcin; Kocaoglu, Murat

    2010-08-01

    There are several studies concerning branches of the facial nerve, but we encountered less information about the trunk of the facial nerve in the literature. During the routine dissection of a 65-yr-old Caucasian male cadaver, double facial nerve trunk emerged from the stylomastoid foramen and petrotympanic fissure were encountered. Because of an extremely rare variation, we presented this case report. In addition this cadaver had two buccal plexuses. These plexuses and other branches were formed to structures like to polygon. These anatomic peculiarities were described, photographed and illustrated. Finally, magnetic resonance imaging was performed by using 1.5T scanner to this cadaver. The facial nerve trunk can be damaged during surgical procedures of the parotid gland tumours and submandibular region. Surgeons who are willing to operate on this area should be aware of the possible anatomical variations of the facial nerve trunk.

  14. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)); Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide

    1992-10-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author).

  15. Trunk and neck kinematics during overground manual wheelchair propulsion in persons with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Marie C; Morgan, Kerri; Stephens, Christina L; Standeven, John; Engsberg, Jack

    2014-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that movement of the head and trunk increases as a consequence of speed during manual wheelchair propulsion over the ground in individuals with tetraplegia. Seven adult participants with tetraplegia who used manual wheelchairs (5 men and 2 women, aged 33.0 ± 10.2) were selected for the study. Participants propelled over the ground at three different speeds while video motion capture methods collected kinematic data. Variables investigated were forward flexion, lateral flexion and axial rotation for both the head and trunk. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to determine effects of speed on head and trunk movements. Both neck and trunk forward flexion significantly increased as a result of speed (p = 0.034, p = 0.031), with a large effect size (r = 0.6, r = 0.6) between slow and fast speeds. Lateral flexion and axial rotation were minimal for the neck and trunk and did not significantly increase with speed. Results suggest that manual wheelchair users with tetraplegia compensate for trunk muscle weakness by flexing the upper trunk and neck forward during manual wheelchair propulsion and that these movements increase with speed. Further studies should examine if these movements relate to overuse injuries and interventions that focus on improving manual wheelchair biomechanics of individuals with tetraplegia. Individuals who use manual wheelchairs utilize their upper extremities almost exclusively for both everyday mobility and participation in daily life activities which can often lead to overuse injuries and pain. Despite having a lack of trunk muscle innervation, manual wheelchair users with tetraplegia are able to compensate for this weakness by using the upper trunk and neck. The way in which force is translated from the trunk through the upper extremities to the pushrim may impact propulsion biomechanics, and ultimately the extent in which upper extremity pain and injury develops. A better understanding of how

  16. Changes in segmentation and setation along the anterior/posterior axis of the homonomous trunk limbs of a remipede (Crustacea, Arthropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav N. Ivanenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the segmentation and setation at different developmental stages of the homonomous trunk limbs of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis Yager, 1987 collected in anchialine caves of the Yucatan Peninsula. Most homonomous trunk limbs originate ventrolaterally and are composed of two protopodal segments, three exopodal segments and four endopodal segments; contralateral limb pairs are united by a sternal bar. However, the last few posterior limbs originate ventrally, are smaller sized, and have regressively fewer segments, suggesting that limb development passes through several intermediate steps beginning with a limb bud. A terminal stage of development is proposed for specimens on which the posterior somite bears a simple bilobate limb bud, and the adjacent somite bears a limb with a protopod comprised of a coxapod and basipod, and with three exopodal and four endopodal segments. On each trunk limb there are 20 serially homologous groups of setae, and the numbers of setae on different limbs usually varies. These groups of setae are arranged linearly and are identified based on the morphology of the setae and their position on the segments. The number of setae in these groups increases gradually from the anterior homonomous limb to a maximum between limbs 8–12; the number then decreases sharply on the more posterior limbs. Changes in the number of setae, which reach a maximum between trunk limbs 8–12, differ from changes in segmentation which vary only over the last few posterior trunk limbs. Following a vector analysis that identified a spatial pattern for these 20 groups of setae among the different homonomous limbs, the hypothesis was confirmed that the number of setae in any given group and any given limb is correlated with the group, with the position of the somite along the body axis, and with the number of somites present on the specimens. This is the first vector analysis used to analyze a pattern of developmental

  17. A technique for estimating activity in whole nerve trunks applied to the cervical sympathetic trunk, in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, F; Roatta, S; Johansson, H; Passatore, M

    1999-12-24

    The changes in sympathetic outflow may be evaluated from the amplitude of the antidromic compound action potential (ACAP) according to the collision technique described by Douglas and Ritchie (Douglas, W.W. and Ritchie J.M., A technique for recording functional activity in specific groups of medullated and non-medullated fibers in whole nerve trunks. J. Physiol., 138(1957) 19-30). This technique was revised, taking into account the depressant action exerted by antidromic stimulation on sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs). Cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) of rabbits was used as experimental model. Stimulation frequencies of 0.2-0.5 Hz were found to be sufficiently low to avoid depressant actions on CSN spontaneous activity; they were employed to test the sensitivity of the technique during different experimental manoeuvres, such as changes in pulmonary-ventilation, baroreceptor unloading and arousal stimuli. In addition a procedure was devised to calibrate the ACAP amplitude: high frequency antidromic stimulation was used to induce a complete and transient inhibition of SPNs which allows to record the ACAP maximum amplitude. ACAPs recorded in various experimental conditions can then be expressed as percentage of this value.

  18. Influence of trunk control and lower extremity impairments on gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Balzer, Julia; Marsico, Petra; Mitteregger, Elena; van der Linden, Marietta; Mercer, Tom; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the combined impact of trunk control and lower extremities impairments on predicting gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and evaluated relationships between trunk control and lower extremities impairments. Methods: Data of 52 children with CP [29 boys, mean age 11 years 9 months (±4 years 6 months)] were included in this observational study. Gait capacity was measured by the “modified Time Up and Go test”. Experienced therapists performed the “Modified ...

  19. Trunk Dynamics Are Impaired in Ballet Dancers with Back Pain but Improve with Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Jan E; VAN DEN Hoorn, Wolbert; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    Trunk control is essential in ballet and may be compromised in dancers with a history of low back pain (LBP) by associated changes in motor control. This study aimed to compare trunk mechanical properties between professional ballet dancers with and without a history of LBP. As a secondary aim, we assessed whether asking dancers to use motor imagery to respond in a "fluid" manner could change the mechanical properties of the trunk and whether this was possible for both groups. Trunk mechanical properties of stiffness and damping were estimated with a linear second-order system, from trunk movement in response to perturbations, in professional ballet dancers with (n = 22) and without (n = 8) a history of LBP. The second-order model adequately described trunk movement in response to the perturbations. Trials were performed with and without motor imagery to respond in a fluid manner to the perturbation. Dancers with a history of LBP had lower damping than dancers without LBP during the standard condition (P = 0.002) but had greater damping during the "fluid" condition (P 0.99). Stiffness was not different between the dancers with and those without a history of LBP (P = 0.252) but was less during the fluid condition than the standard condition (P < 0.001). Although dancers with a history of LBP have less trunk damping than those without LBP, they have the capacity to modulate the trunk's mechanical properties to match that of pain-free dancers by increasing damping with motor imagery. These observations have potential relevance for LBP recurrence and rehabilitation.

  20. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsu Jang; Jong Yeol Kim; Haejung Lee; Honggie Kim; Younghwa Baek; Siwoo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM). The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM) consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruit...

  1. An Unusual Case of Stent Migration After Celiac Trunk Endovascular Revascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Silvia; Ferraro, Stefania; Piffaretti, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.piffaretti@uninsubria.it; Rivolta, Nicola; Bossi, Matteo [University of Insubria School of Medicine, Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Circolo University Hospital (Italy); Carrafiello, Gianpaolo [University of Insubria School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Circolo University Hospital (Italy); Castelli, Patrizio [University of Insubria School of Medicine, Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Circolo University Hospital (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    A 61-year-old woman underwent celiac trunk stenting to treat abdominal angina. Three months later, she was readmitted for recurrent symptoms. Computed tomography control revealed the migration of the stent into the splenic artery. No sign of vessel injury or end-organ ischemia was detected. Repeat stenting of the celiac trunk was performed; the postoperative course was uneventful. 12 months later, the patient was asymptomatic with the second stent in its correct position, and she was asymptomatic for mesenteric ischemia.

  2. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: Pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ilke Keser, PhD, PT; Nuray Kirdi, Prof PhD, PT; Aydin Meric, PhD, PT; Asli Tuncer Kurne, Assoc Prof MD; Rana Karabudak, Prof MD

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed bala...

  3. The effect of Core Stability Exercises (CSE) on trunk sagittal acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Aluko, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate Core Stability Exercise (CSE) induced changes in trunk sagittal acceleration as a measure of performance in participants following an acute onset of non-specific low back pain (LBP). Methodology: A Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM) was used to measure trunk sagittal acceleration. The LMM was demonstrated to be reliable [Intra-Class Correlation (ICC)...

  4. Double Facial Nerve Trunk Emerged from the Stylomastoid Foramen and Petrotympanic Fissure: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kilic, Cenk; Kirici, Yalcin; Kocaoglu, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There are several studies concerning branches of the facial nerve, but we encountered less information about the trunk of the facial nerve in the literature. During the routine dissection of a 65-yr-old Caucasian male cadaver, double facial nerve trunk emerged from the stylomastoid foramen and petrotympanic fissure were encountered. Because of an extremely rare variation, we presented this case report. In addition this cadaver had two buccal plexuses. These plexuses and other branches were fo...

  5. Subjective outcome related to donor site morbidity after sural nerve graft harvesting: a survey in 41 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Alexander; Björkman, Anders; Chemnitz, Anette; Dahlin, Lars B

    2013-09-24

    The sural nerve is the most commonly used nerve for grafting severe nerve defects. Our aim was to evaluate subjective outcome in the lower leg after harvesting the sural nerve for grafting nerve defects. Forty-six patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire to describe symptoms from leg or foot, where the sural nerve has been harvested to reconstruct an injured major nerve trunk. The questionnaire, previously used in patients going through a nerve biopsy, consists of questions about loss of sensation, pain, cold intolerance, allodynia and present problems from the foot. The survey also contained questions (visual analogue scales; VAS) about disability from the reconstructed nerve trunk. Forty-one out of 46 patients replied [35 males/6 females; age at reconstruction 23.0 years (10-72); median (min-max), reconstruction done 12 (1.2-39) years ago]. In most patients [37/41 cases (90%)], the sural nerve graft was used to reconstruct an injured nerve trunk in the upper extremity, mainly the median nerve [19/41 (46%)].In 38/41 patients, loss of sensation, to a variable extent, in the skin area innervated by the sural nerve was noted. These problems persisted at follow up, but 19/41 noted that this area of sensory deficit had decreased over time. Few patients had pain and less than 1/3 had cold intolerance. Allodynia was present in half of the patients, but the majority of them considered that they had no or only slight problems from their foot. None of the patients in the study required painkillers. Eighty eight per cent would accept an additional sural nerve graft procedure if another nerve reconstruction procedure is necessary in the future. Harvesting of the sural nerve for reconstruction nerve injuries results in mild residual symptoms similar to those seen after a nerve biopsy; although nerve biopsy patients are less prone to undergo an additional biopsy.

  6. 1988 Volvo award in biomechanics. The triaxial coupling of torque generation of trunk muscles during isometric exertions and the effect of fatiguing isoinertial movements on the motor output and movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnianpour, M; Nordin, M; Kahanovitz, N; Frankel, V

    1988-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that reduction of precise motor control accompanies local muscular fatigue. The effects of isodynamic fatiguing of flexion and extension trunk movements on the movement patterns and the motor output of the trunk were investigated. Twenty male subjects with no history of low-back pain for the past 6 months volunteered for the study. A triaxial dynamometer was used that simultaneously provided measurement of torque, angular position and velocity of each axis. Resistances were set independently for each axis by an interfaced computer. The subjects performed trunk flexion and extension movement against a sagittal plane resistance equal to 70% of their maximum isometric extension strength in the upright position. The minimum resistances in the coronal and transverse planes were set up at 7 Newton meters. The subjects were asked to perform trunk movement as quickly and as accurately as possible while exerting the maximum efforts until exhaustion. Analysis of variance, the MANOVA procedure with a repeated measure design, was performed among the selected parameters of the first, middle and last three repetition cycles. The selected parameters are the trunk motor output and movement patterns; the total angular excursion, range of motion, maximum and average torque and angular velocity of the trunk. All the selected parameters were significantly reduced in the sagittal plane. Subjects displayed significantly less motor control and greater range of motion in the coronal and transverse planes in performing the primary task of flexion and extension. The reduction in the functional capacity of the primary muscles performing the required task is compensated by secondary muscle groups and the spinal structure is loaded in a more injury prone pattern, as identified by finite element models. In addition it is suggested that the fatigued muscles would be less able to compensate any perturbation in the load or position of the trunk. The repetitive loading

  7. Rehabilitation of the Upper Extremity after Stroke: A Case Series Evaluating REO Therapy and an Auditory Sensor Feedback for Trunk Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thielman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Training in the virtual environment in post stroke rehab is being established as a new approach for neurorehabilitation, specifically, ReoTherapy (REO a robot-assisted virtual training device. Trunk stabilization strapping has been part of the concept with this device, and literature is lacking to support this for long-term functional changes with individuals after stroke. The purpose of this case series was to measure the feasibility of auditory trunk sensor feedback during REO therapy, in moderate to severely impaired individuals after stroke. Case Description. Using an open label crossover comparison design, 3 chronic stroke subjects were trained for 12 sessions over six weeks on either the REO or the control condition of task related training (TRT; after a washout period of 4 weeks; the alternative therapy was given. Outcomes. With both interventions, clinically relevant improvements were found for measures of body function and structure, as well as for activity, for two participants. Providing auditory feedback during REO training for trunk control was found to be feasible. Discussion. The degree of changes evident varied per protocol and may be due to the appropriateness of the technique chosen, as well as based on patients impaired arm motor control.

  8. Canoe game-based virtual reality training to improve trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Mo; Shin, Doo-Chul; Song, Chang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n=5) or a control group (CG; n=5). Patients in both groups participated in a conventional rehabilitation program, but those in the EG additionally participated in a 30-min canoe game-based virtual reality training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function. In addition, the usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training was assessed in the EG and therapist group (TG; n=20), which consisted of physical and occupational therapists, by using the System Usability Scale (SUS). [Results] Improvements in trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function were observed in the EG and CG, but were greater in the EG. The mean SUS scores in the EG and TG were 71 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 4.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Canoe game-based virtual reality training is an acceptable and effective intervention for improving trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in stroke patients.

  9. Reliability of isometric strength measurements in trunk and neck region: patients with chronic neck pain compared with pain-free persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Raphael; Friedrich, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Evaluation of reliability of isometric strength measurements in the neck and trunk region and comparison of these measurements between patients with chronic neck pain and pain-free subjects. Nonrandomized controlled trial. Institutional practice. Patients with neck pain (n=53) and pain-free persons (n=42) (mean age ± SD, 49.7±10.74 vs 48.7±12.02; women, 73% vs 71%). Strength of flexion, extension, and lateral flexion in the neck and trunk were measured. Each participant underwent 2 measurement passes on each of 2 examination days; 3 were performed by the same investigator, 1 by a second. Intrarater (short-term and long-term) and interrater reliability, differences in strength between both groups of probands. Reliability in both groups ranged from substantial to almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient: patients, .76-.89; control group, .80-.88). The patients' strength in the neck and trunk was significantly below that of the control group (P<.002). Isometric strength measurement is a reliable and feasible way to estimate the possible benefit of specific strengthening programs. Patients with chronic neck pain showed strength deficits in all measured regions. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of trunk-injected imidacloprid in apple tree canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aćimović, Srđan G; VanWoerkom, Anthony H; Reeb, Pablo D; Vandervoort, Christine; Garavaglia, Thomas; Cregg, Bert M; Wise, John C

    2014-11-01

    Pesticide use in orchards creates drift-driven pesticide losses which contaminate the environment. Trunk injection of pesticides as a target-precise delivery system could greatly reduce pesticide losses. However, pesticide efficiency after trunk injection is associated with the underinvestigated spatial and temporal distribution of the pesticide within the tree crown. This study quantified the spatial and temporal distribution of trunk-injected imidacloprid within apple crowns after trunk injection using one, two, four or eight injection ports per tree. The spatial uniformity of imidacloprid distribution in apple crowns significantly increased with more injection ports. Four ports allowed uniform spatial distribution of imidacloprid in the crown. Uniform and non-uniform spatial distributions were established early and lasted throughout the experiment. The temporal distribution of imidacloprid was significantly non-uniform. Upper and lower crown positions did not significantly differ in compound concentration. Crown concentration patterns indicated that imidacloprid transport in the trunk occurred through radial diffusion and vertical uptake with a spiral pattern. By showing where and when a trunk-injected compound is distributed in the apple tree canopy, this study addresses a key knowledge gap in terms of explaining the efficiency of the compound in the crown. These findings allow the improvement of target-precise pesticide delivery for more sustainable tree-based agriculture. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus (bathing trunk nevus associated with lipoma and neurofibroma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant congenital melanocytic nevi are rare and occur in about one out of every 2,00,000 to 5,00,000 births. There is a significant association between bathing trunk nevus and neurofibromatosis and lipomatosis. Apart from this, association of bathing trunk nevus with abnormalities like spina bifida occulta, meningocele, club foot and hypertrophy or atrophy of deeper structures of a limb, have been described. We are herewith reporting two cases of bathing trunk nevi. In our first case, an eight-year-old girl presented with a bathing trunk nevus studded with multiple, large nodules. Histopathological examination of the biopsy taken from one nodule revealed features of both neurofibroma and lipoma. To the best of our knowledge, features of both these hamartomas in one nodule of a single patient are probably not reported in the literature. In our second case, a 12-year-old girl presented with bathing trunk nevus and she had spina bifida occulta. She also had lipoma in the lesion of bathing trunk nevus. Both of our patients had satellite melanocytic nevi over the face, forearm, upper back and legs. Our second patient, in addition, had small melanocytic nevi over the medial canthus and sclerocorneal junction of the right eye. By the time this girl presented to us, the melanocytic nevus started fading in color and it had become brownish. We are reporting these cases for their peculiarities and for their rare features.

  12. The movement of the trunk and breast during front crawl and breaststroke swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Lomax, Mitch; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Breast displacement has been investigated in various activities to inform bra design, with the goal of minimising movement; however, breast motion during swimming has yet to be considered. The aim was to investigate trunk and breast kinematics whilst wearing varying levels of breast support during two swimming strokes. Six larger-breasted females swam front crawl and breaststroke (in a swimming flume), in three breast support conditions while three video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and