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  1. Subjective quality of life of outpatients with diabetes: comparison with family caregivers' impressions and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Abdel W; Ohaeri, Jude U; Tawfiq, Adel M; Al-Awadi, Shafika A

    2006-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies on comparison of quality of life (QOL) of type-1 and type-2 diabetes patients, and the impact of family caregivers' impressions on the QOL of patients. To assess the subjective QOL of Sudanese diabetics using the WHOQOL-Bref, compared with a general population sample; examine caregiver-patient concordance; and assess the variables that impact on QOL. The responses of 105 outpatients with type-1 diabetes and 136 with type-2 diabetes were compared with their family caregivers' impressions and 139 general population subjects. Patients were predominantly dissatisfied with their life circumstances. Type-1 diabetics had significantly lowest QOL scores, while the control group had highest scores. Having additional medical problems; having diminished sexual desire; and being young, unemployed and single were associated with poor QOL, but illness duration was not. Type-2 diabetics had lesser concordance with caregivers. The only predictor of patients' QOL was the caregivers' impression of patients' QOL. Caregivers' impression of patients' QOL impacted on outcome. Caregiver education is, therefore, important. The factors associated with QOL indicate a group that needs focused attention. The good QOL for type-2 and nonsignificance of illness duration encourage therapeutic optimism.

  2. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria eRuffini; Giandomenico eD'alessandro; Nicolò eMariani; Alberto ePollastrelli; Lucia eCardinali; Francesco eCerritelli

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-ar...

  3. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  4. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  5. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  6. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  7. Electromyographic and neuromuscular variables in unstable postpolio subjects, stable postpolio subjects, and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M

    1997-09-01

    To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.

  8. Social Groups and Subjectivity in Modern Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Gundelach, Peter

    1996-01-01

    are not passive objects of social forces but develops coping and learning techniques, and that individual behaviour an attitudes cannot be seperated from the general socio-cultural changes in society. In order to illustrate the value of applying social scientific theory on environmental policy the authors......Technical and economic approaches has been dominating the scientific research in energy consumption and energy savings. This contribution argues, from a social scientific point of view, that energy behaviour cannot be seperated from other types of behaviour and attitudes, that the individuals...... outlines two examples. The first shows that energy research about the relation between lifestyles and energy consumption has to be aware of the change in social groups from stable communities towards partial imagined communities. Rituals and social signals are important means to constitute and maintain...

  9. Group-based multimodal exercises integrated with cognitive-behavioural therapy improve disability, pain and quality of life of subjects with chronic neck pain: a randomized controlled trial with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Cazzaniga, Daniele; Liquori, Valentina; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Vernon, Howard

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a group-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme on disability, pain and quality of life in subjects with chronic neck pain. Randomized controlled trial. Specialized rehabilitation centre. A total of 170 patients (mean age of 53 years (13); 121 females). The multidisciplinary group underwent a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme combining multimodal exercises with psychologist-lead cognitive-behavioural therapy sessions. The general exercise group underwent general physiotherapy. Both groups followed group-based programmes once a week for ten weeks. Additionally, the multidisciplinary group met with the psychologist once a week for a 60-minute session. The Neck Disability Index (primary outcome), the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, a pain numerical rating scale and the Short-Form Health Survey. The participants were evaluated before, after training and after 12 months. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was used for each outcome measure. Significant effects ( p-value <0.001) were found over time and between groups for all outcome measures. After training, significant improvements were found for both groups for all outcome measures except kinesiophobia and catastrophizing, which did not change in the control group; however, the improvements were significantly greater for the multidisciplinary group. At 12-month follow-up a clinically meaningful between-group difference of 12.4 Neck Disability Index points was found for disability. A group-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme including cognitive-behavioural therapy was superior to group-based general physiotherapy in improving disability, pain and quality of life of subjects with chronic neck pain. The effects lasted for at least one year.

  10. Costs of Control in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Riener, Gerhard; Wiederhold, Simon

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of social groups in explaining the reaction to control.We propose a simple model with a principal using control devices and a controlledagent, which incorporates the existence of social groups. Testing experimentally theconjectures derived from the model and related literature, we find that agents in socialgroups (i) perform more than other (no-group) agents; (ii) expect less control thanno-group agents; (iii) decrease their performance substantially when actual c...

  11. Subjective well-being, reference groups and relative standing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies on the determinants of subjective well-being concur on the importance of relative income, i.e., the fact that individuals' subjective well-being is dependent on how well they are doing in relation to their reference group. Using South African data from 1993, Kingdon and Knight (2006, 2007) found that in ...

  12. Item response theory at subject- and group-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California

  13. Neurocardiological differences between musicians and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraaf, J L I; Elffers, T W; Segeth, F M; Austie, F M C; Plug, M B; Gademan, M G J; Maan, A C; Man, S; de Muynck, M; Soekkha, T; Simonsz, A; van der Wall, E E; Schalij, M J; Swenne, C A

    2013-04-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in health and disease. Part of the training effect materialises in the brainstem due to the exercise-associated somatosensory nerve traffic. Because active music making also involves somatosensory nerve traffic, we hypothesised that this will have training effects resembling those of physical exercise. We compared two groups of healthy, young subjects between 18 and 30 years: 25 music students (13/12 male/female, group M) and 28 controls (12/16 male/female, group C), peers, who were non-musicians. Measurement sessions to determine resting heart rate, resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were held during morning hours. Groups M and C did not differ significantly in age (21.4 ± 3.0 vs 21.2 ± 3.1 years), height (1.79 ± 0.11 vs 1.77 ± 0.10 m), weight (68.0 ± 9.1 vs 66.8 ± 10.4 kg), body mass index (21.2 ± 2.5 vs 21.3 ± 2.4 kg∙m(-2)) and physical exercise volume (39.3 ± 38.8 vs 36.6 ± 23.6 metabolic equivalent hours/week). Group M practised music daily for 1.8 ± 0.7 h. In group M heart rate (65.1 ± 10.6 vs 68.8 ± 8.3 beats/min, trend P =0.08), systolic blood pressure (114.2 ± 8.7 vs 120.3 ± 10.0 mmHg, P = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (65.0 ± 6.1 vs 71.0 ± 6.2 mmHg, P active music making has training effects resembling those of physical exercise training. Our study opens a new perspective, in which active music making, additionally to being an artistic activity, renders concrete health benefits for the musician.

  14. Control systems on Lie groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  15. Daily electronic monitoring of subjective and objective measures of illness activity in bipolar disorder using smartphones--the MONARCA II trial protocol: a randomized controlled single-blind parallel-group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Frost, Mads; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Bardram, Jakob; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-11-25

    Patients with bipolar disorder often show decreased adherence with mood stabilizers and frequently interventions on prodromal depressive and manic symptoms are delayed. Recently, the MONARCA I randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of electronic self-monitoring using smartphones on depressive and manic symptoms. The findings suggested that patients using the MONARCA system had more sustained depressive symptoms than patients using a smartphone for normal communicative purposes, but had fewer manic symptoms during the trial. It is likely that the ability of these self-monitored measures to detect prodromal symptoms of depression and mania may be insufficient compared to automatically generated objective data on measures of illness activity such as phone usage, social activity, physical activity, and mobility. The Monsenso system, for smartphones integrating subjective and objective measures of illness activity was developed and will be tested in the present trial. The MONARCA II trial uses a randomized controlled single-blind parallel-group design. Patients with bipolar disorder according to ICD-10 who previously have been treated at the Copenhagen Clinic for Affective Disorder, Denmark are included and randomized to either daily use of the Monsenso system including an feedback loop between patients and clinicians (the intervention group) or to the use of a smartphone for normal communicative purposes (the control group) for a 9-month trial period. The trial was started in September 2014 and recruitment is ongoing. The outcomes are: differences in depressive and manic symptoms; rate of depressive and manic episodes (primary); automatically generated objective data on measures of illness activity; number of days hospitalized; psychosocial functioning (secondary); perceived stress; quality of life; self-rated depressive symptoms; self-rated manic symptoms; recovery; empowerment and adherence to medication (tertiary) between the intervention group and the

  16. Facilitating Group Decision-Making: Facilitator's Subjective Theories on Group Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kolbe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of group facilitation is motivating and coordinating people to perform their joint work. This paper focuses on group coordination which is a prerequisite to group effectiveness, especially in complex tasks. Decision-making in groups is a complex task that consequently needs to be coordinated by explicit rather than implicit coordination mechanisms. Based on the embedded definition that explicit coordination does not just happen but is purposely executed by individuals, we argue that individual coordination intentions and mechanisms should be taken into account. Thus far, the subjective perspective of coordination has been neglected in coordination theory, which is understandable given the difficulties in defining and measuring subjective aspects of group facilitation. We therefore conducted focused interviews with eight experts who either worked as senior managers or as experienced group facilitators and analysed their approaches to group coordination using methods of content analysis. Results show that these experts possess sophisticated mental representations of their coordination behaviour. These subjective coordination theories can be organised in terms of coordination schemes in which coordination-releasing situations are facilitated by special coordination mechanisms that, in turn, lead to the perception of specific consequences. We discuss the importance of these subjective coordination theories for effectively facilitating group decision-making and minimising process losses. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901287

  17. Biases and power for groups comparison on subjective health measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Hamel

    Full Text Available Subjective health measurements are increasingly used in clinical research, particularly for patient groups comparisons. Two main types of analytical strategies can be used for such data: so-called classical test theory (CTT, relying on observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT relying on a response model relating the items responses to a latent parameter, often called latent trait. Whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to compare two independent groups of patients on a patient reported outcomes measurement remains unknown and was investigated using simulations. For CTT-based analyses, groups comparison was performed using t-test on the scores. For IRT-based analyses, several methods were compared, according to whether the Rasch model was considered with random effects or with fixed effects, and the group effect was included as a covariate or not. Individual latent traits values were estimated using either a deterministic method or by stochastic approaches. Latent traits were then compared with a t-test. Finally, a two-steps method was performed to compare the latent trait distributions, and a Wald test was performed to test the group effect in the Rasch model including group covariates. The only unbiased IRT-based method was the group covariate Wald's test, performed on the random effects Rasch model. This model displayed the highest observed power, which was similar to the power using the score t-test. These results need to be extended to the case frequently encountered in practice where data are missing and possibly informative.

  18. Single-Subject Designs for Client Groups: Implications for Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagles, Kenneth W.; O'Neill, John

    1977-01-01

    The ethical dilemma of (a) desiring a control group for validity purposes in program evaluation strategies and (b) withholding needed services from eligible clients to achieve such control has limited the credibility of many evaluation efforts. A potential solution is suggested by the use of time-series, single-subject designs. (Author)

  19. Thermal Control Working Group report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

  20. Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Eskesen, Dorte; Jespersen, Lillian; Michelsen, Birgit; Whorwell, Peter; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Morberg, Cathrine M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12?, on two primary end points ? defecation frequency and gastrointestinal (GI) well-being ? in healthy adults with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort. A total of 1248 subjects were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomised to 1 or 10 billion colony-forming units/d of the probiotic strain BB-12? o...

  1. Postural control in elderly subjects participating in balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Edit; Feher-Kiss, Anna; Barnai, Mária; Domján-Preszner, Andrea; Angyan, Lajos; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2007-05-01

    The changes in postural control in elderly people after an 8-week training course were characterized. Static postural stability was measured during standing on a single force platform first with the eyes open and then with the eyes closed. Body sway was analysed on a force plate in groups of elderly and of young subjects. Half of the elderly subjects then took part in the training course. The posturographic measurements were repeated after the course. The sway in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions was subjected to spectral analysis. The frequency spectrum of the platform oscillations was calculated by fast Fourier transformation in the intervals 0.1-0.3, 0.3-1 and 1-3 Hz. It was found that the sway path was longer and the frequency power was higher in the elderly group. The training caused a significant improvement in functional performance, but a significantly longer sway path was observed after the training in the ML direction. The frequency analysis revealed a significantly higher power after 8 weeks without visual control in the ML direction in the training group in the low and the middle frequency bands. The results suggest that the participants' balance confidence and the control of ML balance improved in response to the training. The higher ML frequency power exhibited after the training may be indicative of a better balance performance. Thus, the increase in the sway path in this age group did not mean a further impairment of the postural control.

  2. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Estimations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp S. Ritter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28 for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable.

  3. The effect of Group Hope Therapy on subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients

    OpenAIRE

    Roghayeh Ataie Moghanloo; Vahid Ataie Moghanloo; Jalil Babapour -Kheiroddin; Hamid Poursharifi; Maliheh Pishvaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Women and men afflicted with HIV bear specific physical, mental and social problems. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of group hope therapy on subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients. Methods: The present study was a randomized clinical trial research with a pretest-posttest and control group. The study population included all the people infected with AIDS virus (HIV+) who referred to counseling and treatment center of behavioral di...

  4. Influence of Group on Individual Subject Maps in SPM Voxel Based Morphometry

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    Andrew M. Michael

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Voxel based morphometry (VBM is a widely utilized neuroimaging technique for spatially normalizing brain structural MRI (sMRI onto a common template. The DARTEL technique of VBM takes into account the spatial intensity distribution of sMRIs to construct a study specific group template. The group template is then used to create final individual normalized tissue maps (FINTM for each subject in the group. In this study we investigate the effect of group on FINTM, i.e., we evaluate the variability of a constant subject’s FINTM when other subjects in the group are iteratively changed. We examine this variability under the following scenarios: (1 when the demographics and conditions for the iterative groups are similar, (2 when the average age of the iterative groups is increased and (3 when the number of subjects with a brain disorder (here we use subjects with autism is increased. Our results show that when subject demographics of the group remains similar the mean standard deviation (SD of FINTM gray matter (GM of the constant subject was around 0.01. As the average age of the group is increased, mean SD of GM increased to around 0.03 and at certain brain locations variability was as high as 0.23. A similar increase of variability was observed when the number of autism subjects in the group was increased where mean SD was around 0.02. Further, we find that autism versus control GM differences are in the range of -0.05 to +0.05 for more than 97% of the voxels and note that the magnitude of the differences are comparable to GM variability. Finally, we report that opting not to modulate during normalization or increasing the size of the smoothing kernel can decrease FINTM variability but at the loss of subject-specific features. Based on the findings of this study we outline precautions that should be considered by investigators to reduce the impact of group on FINTM and thereby to derive meaningful group differences when comparing two cohorts of

  5. Matching with Multiple Control Groups with Adjustment for Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    When estimating causal effects from observational data, it is desirable to approximate a randomized experiment as closely as possible. This goal can often be achieved by choosing a subsample from the original control group that matches the treatment group on the distribution of the observed covariates. However, sometimes the original control group…

  6. Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskesen, Dorte; Jespersen, Lillian; Michelsen, Birgit; Whorwell, Peter J; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Morberg, Cathrine M

    2015-11-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on two primary end points - defecation frequency and gastrointestinal (GI) well-being - in healthy adults with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort. A total of 1248 subjects were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomised to 1 or 10 billion colony-forming units/d of the probiotic strain BB-12® or a matching placebo capsule once daily for 4 weeks. Subjects completed a diary on bowel habits, relief of abdominal discomfort and symptoms. GI well-being, defined as global relief of abdominal discomfort, did not show significant differences. The OR for having a defecation frequency above baseline for ≥50% of the time was 1·31 (95% CI 0·98, 1·75), P=0·071, for probiotic treatment overall. Tightening the criteria for being a responder to an increase of ≥1 d/week for ≥50 % of the time resulted in an OR of 1·55 (95% CI 1·22, 1·96), P=0·0003, for treatment overall. A treatment effect on average defecation frequency was found (P=0·0065), with the frequency being significantly higher compared with placebo at all weeks for probiotic treatment overall (all PEffects on defecation frequency were similar for the two doses tested, suggesting that a ceiling effect was reached with the one billion dose. Overall, 4 weeks' supplementation with the probiotic strain BB-12® resulted in a clinically relevant benefit on defecation frequency. The results suggest that consumption of BB-12® improves the GI health of individuals whose symptoms are not sufficiently severe to consult a doctor (ISRCTN18128385).

  7. Attitude Control Working Group report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

    1986-01-01

    The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

  8. The effect of Group Hope Therapy on subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Ataie Moghanloo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women and men afflicted with HIV bear specific physical, mental and social problems. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of group hope therapy on subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients. Methods: The present study was a randomized clinical trial research with a pretest-posttest and control group. The study population included all the people infected with AIDS virus (HIV+ who referred to counseling and treatment center of behavioral disorders in Tabriz. The samples were selected through convenience sampling method. Total of 30 participants with the criteria for inclusion in the study were selected and randomly placed in one of the two groups (control and experimental groups. The research tools consisted of Reef Psychological Wellbeing Scale and acceptance and focus on thinking subscales of Emotion Regulation Strategies Questionnaire. The experimental group received 8 sessions of group hope therapy (independent variable. Data were analyzed by SPSS-19 software using multivariable covariance analysis (MANCOVA. Results: Results of multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA showed that group hope therapy positively affected the subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients (P<0.001. Conclusion: It seems hope therapy could be useful as a new treatment in domains of supportive psychological therapies in patients infected with HIV.

  9. Hidden Costs of Control in Social Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Wiederhold, Simon; Riener, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of social identity in reactions to control. We propose a simple principal-agent model with control that incorporates the existence of social groups. Our laboratory experiment shows that, in contrast to no-group agents, agents in social groups (i) perform better; (ii) expect less control; (iii) do not reciprocate when facing less control than expected; (iv) decrease their performance substantially when actual control exceeds their expectation. Hidden costs of c...

  10. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on a group of public employees subjected to work relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Matteo; Di Trani, Michela; Solano, Luigi

    2016-02-15

    Pennebaker's writing technique has yielded good results on health, psychological and performance dimensions. In spite of the positive outcomes, the technique has rarely been applied directly within the workplace and its effects on burnout have never been tested. 18 public employees subjected to work relocation were asked to write about their present work situation or another difficult event of their life (Writing Group), while another 17 were not assigned any writing task (Control Group). To assess whether there was an improvement in burnout, alexithymia and psychological well-being in the Writing Group compared with the baseline measurement and the Control Group. While the baseline levels in the Writing and Control Groups in the 3 dimensions considered were similar, scores in the Writing Group at both a second (1 month after the end of the procedure) and third measurement (7 months after the end) improved when compared with the baseline, whereas those in the Control Group worsened. Pennebaker's writing technique appears to promote adaptive coping strategies in stressful situations, and to increase occupational and psychological well-being as well as the ability to process emotions. It also appears to buffer the negative effects of work-related stress.

  11. Subject-driven titration of biphasic insulin aspart 30 twice daily is non-inferior to investigator-driven titration in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with premixed human insulin: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenying; Zhu, Lvyun; Meng, Bangzhu; Liu, Yu; Wang, Wenhui; Ye, Shandong; Sun, Li; Miao, Heng; Guo, Lian; Wang, Zhanjian; Lv, Xiaofeng; Li, Quanmin; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhao, Weigang; Yang, Gangyi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of subject-driven and investigator-driven titration of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) twice daily (BID). In this 20-week, randomized, open-label, two-group parallel, multicenter trial, Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by premixed/self-mixed human insulin were randomized 1:1 to subject-driven or investigator-driven titration of BIAsp 30 BID, in combination with metformin and/or α-glucosidase inhibitors. Dose adjustment was decided by patients in the subject-driven group after training, and by investigators in the investigator-driven group. Eligible adults (n = 344) were randomized in the study. The estimated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction was 14.5 mmol/mol (1.33%) in the subject-driven group and 14.3 mmol/mol (1.31%) in the investigator-driven group. Non-inferiority of subject-titration vs investigator-titration in reducing HbA1c was confirmed, with estimated treatment difference -0.26 mmol/mol (95% confidence interval -2.05, 1.53) (-0.02%, 95% confidence interval -0.19, 0.14). Fasting plasma glucose, postprandial glucose increment and self-measured plasma glucose were improved in both groups without statistically significant differences. One severe hypoglycemic event was experienced by one subject in each group. A similar rate of nocturnal hypoglycemia (events/patient-year) was reported in the subject-driven (1.10) and investigator-driven (1.32) groups. There were 64.5 and 58.1% patients achieving HbA1c titration of BIAsp 30 BID was as efficacious and well-tolerated as investigator-titration. The present study supported patients to self-titrate BIAsp 30 BID under physicians' supervision.

  12. Grouping by Closure Influences Subjective Regularity and Implicit Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Makin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A reflection between a pair of contours is more rapidly detected than a translation, but this effect is stronger when the contours are closed to form a single object compared to when they are closed to form 2 objects with a gap between them. That is, grouping changes the relative salience of different regularities. We tested whether this manipulation would also change preference for reflection or translation. We measured preference for these patterns using the Implicit Association Test (IAT. On some trials, participants saw words that were either positive or negative and had to classify them as quickly as possible. On interleaved trials, they saw reflection or translation patterns and again had to classify them. Participants were faster when 1 button was used for reflection and positive words and another button was used for translation and negative words, compared to when the reverse response mapping was used (translation and positive vs. reflection and negative. This reaction time difference indicates an implicit preference for reflection over translation. However, the size of the implicit preference was significantly reduced in the Two-objects condition. We concluded that factors that affect perceptual sensitivity also systematically affect implicit preference formation.

  13. Single subject controlled experiments in aphasia: The science and the state of the science

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effect of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and crucial considerations in design selection. In the final sections, results of reviews of published single subject controlled experiments are discussed...

  14. Subjective recovery time after exhausting muscular activity in postpolio and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, J C; Rodriquez, A A; Franke, T M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the time to subjectively fully recover after the performance of exhausting muscular exercise was greater in unstable postpolio as compared with stable postpolio or control subjects. Twenty-five unstable (those complaining of declining muscle strength) postpolio, 16 stable (those denying declining muscle strength) postpolio, and 25 control subjects performed an isometric contraction of the knee extensor (quadriceps femoris) musculature at 40% of maximal torque until they were no longer able to do so. Five-second maximal effort contractions were made every 30 s through 2 min after the time of failure was reached and then at 1-min intervals through 10 min after failure was reached. Subjects reported the duration of time required to subjectively fully recover from this activity. Choices of "less than 1 day," "1 day," "2 days," etc., up to "greater than 2 wk" were given to the subjects for their response. Analysis was by nonparametric ANOVA and appropriate post hoc comparison procedures. Unstable postpolio subjects reported a greater recovery time than either the stable postpolio or control subjects (mean +/- SD of 2.6 +/- 3.0 days, 0.6 +/- 1.0 days, and 0.7 +/- 1.1 days, respectively, P postpolio subjects than stable postpolio or control subjects. The cause for this finding is unknown and requires further investigation.

  15. A biomechanical analysis of trunk and pelvis motion during gait in subjects with knee osteoarthritis compared to control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Heather S; Sled, Elizabeth A; Culham, Elsie G; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2010-12-01

    Trunk lean over the stance limb during gait has been linked to a reduction in the knee adduction moment, which is associated with joint loading. We examined differences in knee adduction moments and frontal plane trunk lean during gait between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and a control group of healthy adults. Gait analysis was performed on 80 subjects (40 osteoarthritis). To define lateral trunk lean two definitions were used. The line connecting the midpoint between two reference points on the pelvis and the midpoint between the acromion processes was projected onto the lab frontal plane and the pelvis frontal plane. Pelvic tilt was also measured in the frontal plane as the angle between the pelvic and lab coordinate systems. Angles were calculated across the stance phase of gait. We analyzed the data, (i) by extracting discrete parameters (mean and peak) waveform values, and (ii) using principal component analysis to extract shape and magnitude differences between the waveforms. Osteoarthritis subjects had a higher knee adduction moment than the control group (α=0.05). Although the discrete parameters for trunk lean did not show differences between groups, principal component analysis did detect characteristic waveform differences between the control and osteoarthritis groups. A thorough biomechanical analysis revealed small differences in the pattern of motion of the pelvis and the trunk between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and control subjects; however these differences were only detectable using principal component analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  17. Single Subject Controlled Experiments in Aphasia: The Science and the State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effects of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and…

  18. Control groups in recent septic shock trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter B; Jakob, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. METHODS: We searched for original articles presenting...... randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in adult septic shock patients from 2006 to 2016. We included RCTs focusing on septic shock patients with at least two parallel groups and at least 50 patients in the control group. We selected and evaluated data items regarding patients, control group characteristics...... % the proportion of patients with elevated lactate values. Five studies (21 %) provided data to estimate the proportion of septic shock patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 definition. The mean data completeness score was 19 out of 36 (range 8-32). Of 18 predefined control group characteristics, a mean of 8 (range 2...

  19. Guidelines to Classify Female Subject Groups in Sport-Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Lieselot; De Pauw, Kevin; Foster, Carl; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-03-01

    To review current cycling-related sport-science literature to formulate guidelines to classify female subject groups and to compare this classification system for female subject groups with the classification system for male subject groups. A database of 82 papers that described female subject groups containing information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology, biometrical and physiological parameters, and cycling experience was analyzed. Subject groups were divided into performance levels (PLs), according to the nomenclature. Body mass, body-mass index, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak power output (PPO), and training status were compared between PLs and between female and male PLs. Five female PLs were defined, representing untrained, active, trained, well-trained, and professional female subjects. VO2max and PPO significantly increased with PL, except for PL3 and PL4 (P groups. Relative VO2max is the most cited parameter for female subject groups and is proposed as the principal parameter to classify the groups. This systematic review shows the large variety in the description of female subject groups in the existing literature. The authors propose a standardized preexperimental testing protocol and guidelines to classify female subject groups into 5 PLs based on relative VO2max, relative PPO, training status, absolute VO2max, and absolute PPO.

  20. A Phase IIIb, Multicentre, Randomised, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of OROS Hydromorphone in Subjects with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Pain Induced by Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Vojtaššák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Opioid analgesics are included in treatment guidelines for the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis (OA. Starting with a low dose of opioid and slowly titrating to a higher dose may help avoid intolerable side effects. Methods. Subjects aged ≥40 years, with moderate to severe pain induced by OA of the hip or knee not adequately controlled by previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs or paracetamol treatment, were enrolled. Subjects received OROS hydromorphone 4 mg or placebo once-daily. The dose was titrated every 3-4 days in case of unsatisfactory pain control during the 4-week titration phase. A 12 week maintenance phase followed. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in “pain on average” measured on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI scale from baseline to the end of the maintenance phase. Results. 139 subjects received OROS hydromorphone and 149 subjects received placebo. All efficacy endpoints showed similar improvements from baseline to end of study in the 2 groups. The safety results were consistent with the safety profile of OROS hydromorphone. Conclusion.The study did not meet the primary endpoint; although many subjects' pain was not adequately controlled at inclusion, their pain may have improved with continued paracetamol or NSAID treatment.

  1. Artifact removal in the context of group ICA: A comparison of single-subject and group approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuhui; Allen, Elena A; He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely applied to identify intrinsic brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA computes group-level components from all data and subsequently estimates individual-level components to recapture intersubject variability. However, the best approach to handle artifacts, which may vary widely among subjects, is not yet clear. In this work, we study and compare two ICA approaches for artifacts removal. One approach, recommended in recent work by the Human Connectome Project, first performs ICA on individual subject data to remove artifacts, and then applies a group ICA on the cleaned data from all subjects. We refer to this approach as Individual ICA based artifacts Removal Plus Group ICA (IRPG). A second proposed approach, called Group Information Guided ICA (GIG-ICA), performs ICA on group data, then removes the group-level artifact components, and finally performs subject-specific ICAs using the group-level non-artifact components as spatial references. We used simulations to evaluate the two approaches with respect to the effects of data quality, data quantity, variable number of sources among subjects, and spatially unique artifacts. Resting-state test-retest datasets were also employed to investigate the reliability of functional networks. Results from simulations demonstrate GIG-ICA has greater performance compared with IRPG, even in the case when single-subject artifacts removal is perfect and when individual subjects have spatially unique artifacts. Experiments using test-retest data suggest that GIG-ICA provides more reliable functional networks. Based on high estimation accuracy, ease of implementation, and high reliability of functional networks, we find GIG-ICA to be a promising approach. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Grouping machines for effective workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrich, P.; Land, M.J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Workload control (WLC) allows the release of new orders to the shop floor as long as workload norms for capacity groups, generally a number of functionally similar machines, are not exceeded. Effective WLC requires a profound decision on the grouping of machines as well as on the norm levels for the

  3. The Challenge of Recruiting Control Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2011-01-01

      Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people....... This study was a direct reaction to the first recruitment attempt that had a 10% response rate. This study consisted of four groups of randomly selected elderly married people (65-81 years) receiving a postal questionnaire measuring depression, social support, coping style, adult attachment, life...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....

  4. Inhibitory behavioral control: A stochastic dynamic causal modeling study comparing cocaine dependent subjects and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangsuo Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in humans. Both cocaine dependence and impulsive behavior are under the regulatory control of cortico-striatal networks. One behavioral laboratory measure of impulsivity is response inhibition (ability to withhold a prepotent response in which altered patterns of regional brain activation during executive tasks in service of normal performance are frequently found in cocaine dependent (CD subjects studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, little is known about aberrations in specific directional neuronal connectivity in CD subjects. The present study employed fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM to study the effective (directional neuronal connectivity associated with response inhibition in CD subjects, elicited under performance of a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard. The performance on the Go/NoGo task was not significantly different between CD subjects and controls. The DCM analysis revealed that prefrontal–striatal connectivity was modulated (influenced during the NoGo conditions for both groups. The effective connectivity from left (L anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to L caudate was similarly modulated during the Easy NoGo condition for both groups. During the Hard NoGo condition in controls, the effective connectivity from right (R dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to L caudate became more positive, and the effective connectivity from R ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC to L caudate became more negative. In CD subjects, the effective connectivity from L ACC to L caudate became more negative during the Hard NoGo conditions. These results indicate that during Hard NoGo trials in CD subjects, the ACC rather than DLPFC or VLPFC influenced caudate during response inhibition.

  5. Personality and subjective age among older adults: the mediating role of age-group identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Brice; Stephan, Yannick; Caudroit, Johan; Jaconelli, Alban

    2013-01-01

    A small body of research has highlighted the role of the five-factor model personality traits in subjective age. However, no study has yet focused on the mechanisms through which personality could be related to subjective age among older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mediating role of age-group identification in relation between personality traits and subjective age. It was hypothesized that both extraversion and openness to experience are positively related to a younger subjective age through the mediation of their negative relationship with age-group identification. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 501 older individuals aged from 60 to 95 years who completed measures of sociodemographic variables, self-rated health, personality, subjective age, and age-group identification. Multiple regression analysis revealed that openness to experience was positively related to subjective age through the complete mediation of age-group identification, whereas no support was found for the relationship between extraversion and subjective age. This study fills a gap in the existing literature and reveals that openness to experience is related to a youthful subjective age, because older open individuals tend to distance themselves from their age group. Therefore, this study confirms that personality deserves attention as a predictor of subjective age, independently of sociodemographic and health-related variables.

  6. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  7. Control of complex physically simulated robot groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, David C.

    2001-10-01

    Actuated systems such as robots take many forms and sizes but each requires solving the difficult task of utilizing available control inputs to accomplish desired system performance. Coordinated groups of robots provide the opportunity to accomplish more complex tasks, to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and to survive individual failures. Similarly, groups of simulated robots, represented as graphical characters, can test the design of experimental scenarios and provide autonomous interactive counterparts for video games. The complexity of writing control algorithms for these groups currently hinders their use. A combination of biologically inspired heuristics, search strategies, and optimization techniques serve to reduce the complexity of controlling these real and simulated characters and to provide computationally feasible solutions.

  8. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Chanal

    Full Text Available This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1 showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified than for controlled (introjected and external motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects.

  9. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanal, Julien; Guay, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1) showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified) than for controlled (introjected and external) motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects.

  10. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanal, Julien; Guay, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1) showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified) than for controlled (introjected and external) motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects. PMID:26247788

  11. Potential explanations for control group benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer L; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey K; Kennedy, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Estimating effectiveness of clinical interventions depends on detecting differences between the responses of intervention and control groups. The outcome, intervention, and moderating factors all may influence the between group change. The absence of a clinically or statistically meaningful difference may also result from control group improvement due to nonspecific factors such as participants' perception of attention, positive regard, expectations, desire to please, and therapeutic alliance with the care provider. We examined perceived benefit and sources of benefit for control caregivers who participated in the CONNECT randomized controlled trial of a dementia caregiving intervention. After the final scheduled data collection in CONNECT, control group participants were asked whether they believed they benefited from study participation. Those who reported benefit were asked to describe the benefit received. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Of 60 available control caregivers, 82% reported a perceived benefit from study participation in five areas: getting information about dementia and caregiving; having someone to talk to and feeling supported; receiving understanding and validation of feelings; knowledge that others were in similar situations; and perceived appreciation of own abilities. Control caregivers who reported benefit were less burdened and depressed and spent less time on duty at baseline than those who did not report benefit. From caregivers' responses, we have identified the assessment battery, both content and time spent in data collection, as a possible mechanism of action for benefit. Study limitations include the better baseline characteristics of the control caregivers who reported benefit, the sample size of benefit control caregivers, the possibility of perceptions of benefit being a function of social desirability, and the lack of a similar question about benefit being asked of intervention caregivers. These findings suggest that the

  12. Natural control capabilities of robotic hands by hand amputated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Caputo, Barbara; Muller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    People with transradial hand amputations who own a myoelectric prosthesis currently have some control capabilities via sEMG. However, the control systems are still limited and not natural. The Ninapro project is aiming at helping the scientific community to overcome these limits through the creation of publicly available electromyography data sources to develop and test machine learning algorithms. In this paper we describe the movement classification results gained from three subjects with an homogeneous level of amputation, and we compare them with the results of 40 intact subjects. The number of considered subjects can seem small at first sight, but it is not considering the literature of the field (which has to face the difficulty of recruiting trans-radial hand amputated subjects). The classification is performed with four different classifiers and the obtained balanced classification rates are up to 58.6% on 50 movements, which is an excellent result compared to the current literature. Successively, for each subject we find a subset of up to 9 highly independent movements, (defined as movements that can be distinguished with more than 90% accuracy), which is a deeply innovative step in literature. The natural control of a robotic hand in so many movements could lead to an immediate progress in robotic hand prosthetics and it could deeply change the quality of life of amputated subjects.

  13. Brief group psychotherapy for the spousally bereaved: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, M A; Yalom, I

    1992-01-01

    A consecutive sample of mid- and late-life bereaved spouses were randomly assigned to treatment and no-treatment groups. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that brief group psychotherapy during the early stages of loss would facilitate adjustment assessed by measures of mental health, positive psychological states, social role, and mourning; and (2) that positive effects would be maximized for subjects who were more distressed psychologically. Although group participants, compared with untreated controls, did over 1 year show modest improvement on role functioning and positive psychological states, overall the study failed to find substantial support for the two major hypotheses. Both experimental and control groups showed improvement over the year, particularly on measures of mental health and mourning. Differential benefit was not observed for the high-risk group.

  14. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  15. Religion and Subjective Well-Being: Western and Eastern Religious Groups Achieved Subjective Well-Being in Different Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2016-08-01

    Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.

  16. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  17. Children's Subjective Identification with Social Groups: A Self-Stereotyping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark; Sani, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    We contend that previous work on children's identification with social groups has looked at the mere categorization of the self in group terms and not subjective identification properly conceived. Drawing upon self-categorization theory, the present research operationalizes identification as self-stereotyping (i.e. the ability to conceive of the…

  18. Subject domain differences in secondary school teachers' attitudes towards grouping pupils by ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallam Susan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that teachers' attitudes to ability grouping are influenced by the type of ability grouping adopted in the school where they teach. This research aimed to compare the attitudes of teachers of different subjects teaching low, high or mixed ability classes in years 7 to 9 in 45 secondary schools. Over 1500 teachers from 45 secondary schools, with a range of subject specialisms completed a questionnaire which elicited their responses to statements of beliefs about ability grouping and its effects. Teachers of mathematics and modern foreign languages were more in favour of structured ability grouping than those teaching English and humanities. Science, arts and PE, and ICT, design and business studies teachers expressed intermediate attitudes. Attitudes were determined in part by conceptions of the nature of the subject but also by the type of ability groupings adopted by the school in which they taught. In taking decisions about the type of ability grouping to adopt consideration needs to be given to the nature of the subject matter to be taught and the attitudes of the teachers who teach that subject.

  19. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific ?

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Chanal; Frédéric Guay

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the ...

  20. Contrasting Complement Control, Temporal Adjunct Control and Controlled Verbal Gerund Subjects in ASD: The Role of Contextual Cues in Reference Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, Vikki; Perovic, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    This study examines two complex syntactic dependencies (complement control and sentence-final temporal adjunct control) and one pragmatic dependency (controlled verbal gerund subjects) in children with ASD. Sixteen high-functioning (HFA) children (aged 6 to 16) with a diagnosis of autism and no language impairment, matched on age, gender and non-verbal MA to one TD control group, and on age, gender and verbal MA to another TD control group, undertook three picture-selection tasks. Task 1 meas...

  1. Contrasting complement control, temporal adjunct control and controlled verbal gerund subjects in ASD: The role of contextual cues in reference assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, V.; Perovic, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines two complex syntactic dependencies (complement control and sentence-final temporal adjunct control) and one pragmatic dependency (controlled verbal gerund subjects) in children with ASD. Sixteen high-functioning (HFA) children (aged 6–16) with a diagnosis of autism and no language impairment, matched on age, gender and non-verbal MA to one TD control group, and on age, gender and verbal MA to another TD control group, undertook three picture-selection tasks....

  2. Circulating Total Glutathione in Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients: Comparison with Normal Control Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myoung Hee; Moon, Jungil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Glutathione is a major antioxidant molecule present in intracellular or extracellular space. Herein, we aimed to examine circulating glutathione level in normal tension glaucoma (NTG), which comprises the largest proportion of glaucoma disease in the Korean population. Methods Nineteen NTG patients (NTG group) and 30 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects (control group) were included. Antecubital venous ...

  3. Adrenergic receptors on cerebral microvessels in control and Parkinsonian subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cash, R.; Lasbennes, F.; Sercombe, R.; Seylaz, J.; Agid, Y.

    1985-08-12

    The binding of adrenergic ligands (/sup 3/H-prazosin, /sup 3/H-clonidine, /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol) was studied on a preparation of cerebral microvessels in the prefrontal cortex and putamen of control and Parkinsonian subjects. The adrenergic receptor density in microvessels of control patients was less than 0.5% and 3.3% respectively of the total binding. A significant decrease in the number of alpha-1 binding sites was observed on microvessels in the putamen of patients with Parkinson's disease. 22 references, 2 tables.

  4. SUBJECTIVE DISTRESS CAUSED BY CO-SPEAKERS’ REACTIONS – REDUCTION DURING STATIONARY GROUP TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena TADIKJ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a disorder that represents multifunctional problem. It probably exists since the beginning of mankind. Its’ frequency and severity are influenced by different factors. Among the most significant ones are the complexity of statement, speaking speed, and speakers’ emotional reaction to the whole speech situation and other co-speakers. Goal: To present the results of two-weeks intensive group stationary treatment of adults who stutter, especially stuttering severity and level of subjective distress caused by co-speakers’ reactions in the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Subjects: A group of 25 adults who stutter. Methodology: At the beginning and at the end of the group stationary treatment speech status was taken, consisting of counting, enumerating, repeating the sentences, reading a 100-word tale, retelling the read text, and conversation on a free subject. In the same time, subjective distress caused by 13 different co-speakers reactions was estimated. Results show that very positive results are achieved in the reduction of speech disfluences, as well as moderate reduction of subjective distress caused by co-speakers’ reactions. In the paper the results are shown in more details, and, subsequently, implications for further research and treatment.

  5. Comparison for aphasic and control subjects of eye movements hypothesized in neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, K O; Farmer, A

    1988-08-01

    Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals.

  6. Evaluation of a Group-Based Trauma Recovery Program in Gaza: Students' Subjective Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian; Abdullah, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, evaluation of group-based trauma recovery programs has relied upon normative outcome measures, with no studies systematically analyzing children's subjective experience for program development. In contrast, the current study explored children's experience of a Gazan recovery program "in their own words." Twenty-four…

  7. EEG topographies provide subject-specific correlates of motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Elvira; Coscia, Martina; Minguillon, Jesus; Millán, José Del R; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Micera, Silvestro

    2017-10-16

    Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in neurological disorders. Here we examined whether and to what extent intrinsic brain activity contributes and plays a functional role during natural motor behaviors. For this we first extracted subject-specific EEG microstates and muscle synergies during reaching-and-grasping movements in healthy volunteers. We show that, in every subject, well-known resting-state microstates persist during movement execution with similar topographies and temporal characteristics, but are supplemented by novel task-related microstates. We then show that the subject-specific microstates' dynamical organization correlates with the activation of muscle synergies and can be used to decode individual grasping movements with high accuracy. These findings provide first evidence that spontaneous brain activity encodes detailed information about motor control, offering as such the prospect of a novel tool for the definition of subject-specific biomarkers of brain plasticity and recovery in neuro-motor disorders.

  8. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  9. External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, G.; Alstrom, B.; Colonius, T.; Dannenhoffer, J.; Glauser, M.; Helenbrook, B.; Higuchi, H.; Hodson, H.; Jha, R.; Kabiri, P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Broad Flow Control Issues: a) Understanding flow physics. b) Specific control objective(s). c) Actuation. d) Sensors. e) Integrated active flow control system. f) Development of design tools (CFD, reduced order models, controller design, understanding and utilizing instabilities and other mechanisms, e.g., streamwise vorticity).

  10. Panoramic findings in 34-year-old subjects with facial pain and pain-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huumonen, S; Sipilä, K; Zitting, P; Raustia, A M

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare panoramic radiographic findings between subjects with reported facial pain and pain-free controls in a population-based sample of 34-year olds. The study was a part of a comprehensive medical survey including subjects born in the year 1966 in Northern Finland. A sub-sample of the cohort was formed based on the question concerning facial pain. A panoramic radiograph was taken of 48 subjects with facial pain and 47 pain-free controls. Pathological findings in the dentition, jaws, maxillary sinuses and temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were compared between the groups. The majority of the subjects in both groups did not have pathological findings. Compared with controls, the subjects with facial pain did not show significantly more pathological findings in the teeth, periodontium, maxillary sinuses, TMJs or in the other areas. Radiographic panoramic findings had no association with reported facial pain in the population-based sample of young adults, and have little impact on the diagnosis of facial pain.

  11. Social Identity Mapping: A procedure for visual representation and assessment of subjective multiple group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions. Study 1 shows that multiple positive group memberships are a particularly powerful predictor of well-being. Study 2 shows that social support is primarily given and received within social groups and that only in-group support is beneficial for well-being. Study 3 shows that improved mental health following a social group intervention is attributable to an increase in group compatibility. In this way, the studies demonstrate the capacity for SIM to make a contribution both to the development of social-psychological theory and to its practical application. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. [Comparative analysis of the glycemic response and glycemic index of instant mashed potatoes in subjects undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and control subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Valdes, Gabriel; del Valle Flores, Miguel; Vega Soto, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a successful surgical procedure for morbid obesity. However, post surgery weight regain is usual, thus applying the glycemic index could promote good weight control. To compare the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response (GR) obtained of instant mashed potatoes in individuals subjected to LSG versus control subjects. GI and GR were assessed in 10 LSG subjects and compared with 10 controls. GI methodology proposed by FAO/WHO was used; instant mashed potatoes as test food and white bread as standard food (50g available CHO). Capillary blood sample 0 (fasting), 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. The GI was determined by trapezoidal method. ANOVA was used to compare a factor between RG and IG groups; t-student to compare RG between foods. Statistical significance pglycemic responses in LSG group, and its consumption possibly favoring weight regain. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of jaw-clenching forces in dentate subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Marco; Rolando, Mara; Roatta, Silvestro

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the control of jaw-clenching forces by means of a simple force-matching exercise. Seventeen healthy subjects, provided with visual feedback of the exerted force, carried out a unilateral force-matching exercise requiring developing and maintaining for 7 seconds a jaw-clenching force at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of the maximum voluntary contraction. The task was repeated three times in each of two sessions. Motor performance was assessed, for both left and right sides, by different indices quantifying mean distance (MD), offset error (OE), and standard deviation (SD). Their dependence on force intensity, side, and time was assessed by ANOVA. All error indices increased with the intensity of contraction in absolute terms. After normalization with respect to force level, the average performance in the second session was characterized by MD of 8.1% ± 2.6, OE 4.8% ± 2.9, and SD 12.7% ± 6.7 (mean ± standard deviation). Assessment of performance exhibited good reliability for all indices (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 74% to 88%). The motor performance improved with repetition (P .05) but was highly correlated between left and right side (P < .01). The adopted approach is adequate to provide for an objective assessment of individual force control, although the presence of a learning phase must be taken into account.

  14. Composite effects of group drumming music therapy on modulation of neuroendocrine-immune parameters in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, B B; Berk, L S; Felten, D L; Westengard, J; Simonton, O C; Pappas, J; Ninehouser, M

    2001-01-01

    Drum circles have been part of healing rituals in many cultures throughout the world since antiquity. Although drum circles are gaining increased interest as a complementary therapeutic strategy in the traditional medical arena, limited scientific data documenting biological benefits associated with percussion activities exist. To determine the role of group-drumming music therapy as a composite activity with potential for alteration of stress-related hormones and enhancement of specific immunologic measures associated with natural killer cell activity and cell-mediated immunity. A single trial experimental intervention with control groups. The Mind-Body Wellness Center, an outpatient medical facility in Meadville, Pa. A total of 111 age- and sex-matched volunteer subjects (55 men and 56 women, with a mean age of 30.4 years) were recruited. Six preliminary supervised groups were studied using various control and experimental paradigms designed to separate drumming components for the ultimate determination of a single experimental model, including 2 control groups (resting and listening) as well as 4 group-drumming experimental models (basic, impact, shamanic, and composite). The composite drumming group using a music therapy protocol was selected based on preliminary statistical analysis, which demonstrated immune modulation in a direction opposite to that expected with the classical stress response. The final experimental design included the original composite drumming group plus 50 additional age- and sex-matched volunteer subjects who were randomly assigned to participate in group drumming or control sessions. Pre- and postintervention measurements of plasma cortisol, plasma dehydroepiandrosterone, plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-to-cortisol ratio, natural killer cell activity, lymphokine-activated killer cell activity, plasma interleukin-2, plasma interferon-gamma, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Group drumming resulted in

  15. Striving for Group Agency: Threat to Personal Control Increases the Attractiveness of Agentic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine eStollberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93 that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects. Turning to groups people are not (yet part of, Study 2 (N = 47 showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78 replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF MOTOR TASK INTERFERENCE DURING GAIT IN SUBJECTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya ShankerTedla

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, was to evaluated the effectiveness of motor task and cognitive task interference while walking to improve gait parameters of subjects with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: In this Randomized Controlled trial, 30 subjects with Parkinson’s disease of age group between 50and 70 years randomly divided into two groups. The first group had motor task interference, and the second group had calculation task interference while walking along with conventional physical therapy. Gait parameters recorded as outcome measures. Both the groups received 1-hour training for three weeks for one month. Results: As per the paired t-test values, there was significant (p<0.001 improvement in the gait parameters for both the group's pre and post training. Motor task interference showed better improvements than calculation-task interference group among subjects with Parkinson’s disease in all the gait parameters measured with a p-value less than 0.001. Conclusion: To improve the gait parameters for mild to moderately disabled patients with Parkinson’s disease, the dual task training by using motor task while gait training along with conventional Physical Therapy will be more useful than using cognitive task.

  17. Lipoic Acid Stimulates cAMP Production in Healthy Control and Secondary Progressive MS Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sarah E; Yadav, Vijayshree; Kerns, Amelia R; Tsang, Catherine; Markwardt, Sheila; Kim, Edward; Spain, Rebecca; Bourdette, Dennis; Salinthone, Sonemany

    2017-11-15

    Lipoic acid (LA) exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; supplementation reduces disease severity and T lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and administration in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) subjects reduces brain atrophy compared to placebo. The mechanism of action (MOA) of LA's efficacy in suppression of MS pathology is incompletely understood. LA stimulates production of the immunomodulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vitro. To determine whether cAMP could be involved in the MOA of LA in vivo, we performed a clinical trial to examine whether LA stimulates cAMP production in healthy control and MS subjects, and whether there are differences in the bioavailability of LA between groups. We administered 1200 mg of oral LA to healthy control, relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and SPMS subjects, and measured plasma LA and cAMP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There were no significant differences between the groups in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Healthy and SPMS subjects had increased cAMP at 2 and 4 h post-LA treatment compared to baseline, while RRMS subjects showed decreases in cAMP. Additionally, plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a known cAMP stimulator) were significantly lower in female RRMS subjects compared to female HC and SPMS subjects 4 h after LA ingestion. These data indicate that cAMP could be part of the MOA of LA in SPMS, and that there is a divergent response to LA in RRMS subjects that may have implications in the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs. This clinical trial, "Defining the Anti-inflammatory Role of Lipoic Acid in Multiple Sclerosis," NCT00997438, is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00997438 .

  18. The Inevitability of Strengthening the Nation-Building Subjectivity of Ethnic and National Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.sc. Harun Hadzic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a very courageous, scientifically founded prediction, concerning the imminent and inevitable process of strengthening  the political and nation-building subjectivity of national minorities and ethnic groups, i.e., minority indigenous people. For, a more lasting peace and stability, for which we want to dominate in Europe and the world, can only be achieved by deflection of the discontent of these nationalities, on one hand, and strengthening of the public recognition of their international legal subjectivity, on the other hand. This implies the exercise of their right to self-determination and the creation of independent autonomies, regions or countries, which also implies reclassification and conversion of the internal, but also of the interstate borders. These new limits must be established precisely in those parts of the world where there is a political struggle, and a long-time demand of these organized groups, which would, in effect, mean that the international community should accept their demand for creation of new states, or, at least, another, lower, level of independence.

  19. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Bertolotto, Antonio; Berven, Frode S; Brundin, Lou; Comabella, Manuel; Degn, Matilde; Deisenhammer, Florian; Fazekas, Franz; Franciotta, Diego; Frederiksen, Jette L; Galimberti, Daniela; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hintzen, Rogier; Hughes, Steve; Iacobaeus, Ellen; Kroksveen, Ann C; Kuhle, Jens; Richert, John; Tumani, Hayrettin; Villar, Luisa M; Drulovic, Jelena; Dujmovic, Irena; Khalil, Michael; Bartos, Ales

    2013-11-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use of available resources. This will lead to improved quality of CSF biomarker research in MS and related disorders.

  20. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus...... definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs......). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use...

  1. Preserving Subject Variability in Group fMRI Analysis: Performance Evaluation of GICA versus IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMichael

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of component spatial variability and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs and time courses (TCs of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1 at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2 at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3 both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4 if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5 in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift.

  2. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carol Byrd-Bredbenner; FanFan Wu; Kim Spaccarotella; Virginia Quick; Jennifer Martin-Biggers; Yingting Zhang

    2017-01-01

    ... from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature...

  3. Telemetry, Tracking, and Control Working Group report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard; Rogers, L. Joseph

    1986-01-01

    After assessing the design implications and the criteria to be used in technology selection, the technical problems that face the telemetry, tracking, and control (TTC) area were defined. For each of the problems identified, recommendations were made for needed technology developments. These recommendations are listed and ranked according to priority.

  4. Myofascial trigger points in subjects presenting with mechanical neck pain: a blinded, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C; Alonso-Blanco, C; Miangolarra, J C

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in the upper trapezius,sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae and suboccipital muscles between patients presenting with mechanical neck pain and control healthy subjects. Twenty subjects with mechanical neck pain and 20 matched healthy controls participated in this study. TrPs were identified, by an assessor blinded to the subjects' condition, when there was a hypersensible tender spot in a palpable taut band, local twitch response elicited by the snapping palpation of the taut band, and reproduction of the referred pain typical of each TrP. The mean number of TrPs present on each neck pain patient was 4.3 (SD: 0.9), of which 2.5 (SD: 1.3) were latent and 1.8 (SD: 0.8) were active TrPs. Control subjects also exhibited TrPs (mean: 2; SD: 0.8). All were latent TrPs. Differences in the number of TrPs between both study groups were significant for active TrPs (P latent TrPs (P > 0.5). Moreover, differences in the distribution of TrPs within the analysed cervical muscles were also significant (P Active TrPs were more frequent in patients presenting with mechanical neck pain than in healthy subjects. ©2006 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. 27 CFR 46.237 - Controlled group member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled group member... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.237 Controlled group member. If the dealer is a member of a controlled group, but has its own employer identification number, the dealer must...

  6. Circulating Total Glutathione in Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients: Comparison with Normal Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Hee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Glutathione is a major antioxidant molecule present in intracellular or extracellular space. Herein, we aimed to examine circulating glutathione level in normal tension glaucoma (NTG), which comprises the largest proportion of glaucoma disease in the Korean population. Methods Nineteen NTG patients (NTG group) and 30 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects (control group) were included. Antecubital venous puncture was performed between 8 and 10 o'clock in the morning to obtain a 4 mL venous blood sample. Total glutathione level was measured by the spectrophotometric method at 412 nm. Correlation of total glutathione level with mean deviation and pattern standard deviation from the Humphrey visual field test was analyzed in the NTG group. Results Total glutathione level in circulating blood was 524.02 ± 231.09 nmol and 586.06 ± 156.08 nmol in the NTG group and the control group, respectively. The difference between these values was not statistically significant (p = 0.121, F = 2.212). Age had no significant effect on circulating total glutathione level in either the NTG group (p = 0.171, r = -0.328) or the control group (p = 0.380, r = -0.166). In the NTG group, circulating total glutathione level had no significant relationship with mean deviation (p = 0.226, F = 1.636) and pattern standard deviation (p = 0.200, F = 1.766) after correcting for age and gender. Conclusions In NTG patients, circulating total glutathione levels were not different compared to those of normal subjects. PMID:22511833

  7. Determining the frequency of dry eye in computer users and comparing with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Davari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the frequency of dry eye in computer users and to compare them with control group. METHODS: This study was a case control research conducted in 2015 in the city of Birjand. Sample size of study was estimated to be 304 subjects(152 subjects in each group, computer user group and control group. Non-randomized method of sampling was used in both groups. Schirmer test was used to evaluate dry eye of subjects. Then, subjects completed questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed based on objectives and reviewing the literature. After collecting the data, they were entered to SPSS Software and they were analyzed using Chi-square test or Fisher's test at the alpha level of 0.05.RESULTS: In total, 304 subjects(152 subjects in each groupwere included in the study. Frequency of dry eyes in the control group was 3.3%(5 subjectsand it was 61.8% in computer users group(94 subjects. Significant difference was observed between two groups in this regard(Pn=12, and it was 34.2% in computer users group(n=52, which significant difference was observed between two groups in this regard(PP=0.8. The mean working hour with computer per day in patients with dry eye was 6.65±3.52h, while it was 1.62±2.54h in healthy group(T=13.25, PCONCLUSION: This study showed a significant relationship between using computer and dry eye and ocular symptoms. Thus, it is necessary that officials need to pay particular attention to working hours with computer by employees. They should also develop appropriate plans to divide the working hours with computer among computer users. However, due to various confounding factors, it is recommended that these factors to be controlled in future studies.

  8. Outdoor group activity, depression, and subjective well-being among retirees of China: The mediating role of meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of outdoor group activity on mental health and the potential mediating effect of meaning in life. Participants were 559 retired people. A self-developed questionnaire measured outdoor group activity; the Meaning in Life Scale, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression assessed meaning in life, subjective well-being, and depression, respectively. Results indicated outdoor group activity significantly predicted subjective well-being and depression; meaning in life fully mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and subjective well-being and partially mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and depression. The implications and limitations were also discussed.

  9. Women's Autonomy and Subjective Well-Being in India: How Village Norms Shape the Impact of Self-Help Groups

    OpenAIRE

    De Hoop, Thomas; van Kempen, Luuk; Linssen, Rik; Van Eerdewijk, Anouka

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents quasi-experimental impact estimates of women self-help groups on subjective well-being in Orissa, India. We find that, on average, self-help group membership does not affect subjective well-being. However, our results at the same time reveal that subjective well-being sharply declines for those members whose newly gained autonomy meets with relatively conservative social gender norms among non-members. We interpret this finding as evidence for heterogeneous losses of feeli...

  10. Cortisol and subjective stress responses to acute psychosocial stress in fibromyalgia patients and control participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Eline; Kempke, Stefan; Van Wambeke, Peter; Claes, Stephan; Morlion, Bart; Luyten, Patrick; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2017-12-11

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to measure ECA history. Salivary cortisol levels and subjective stress ratings were measured at multiple time points before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered. Significant main effects of group [F(1,43)=7.04, p=0.011, lower in FM] and ECA [F(1,43)=5.18, p=0.028, higher in participants with ECA] were found for cortisol responses. When excluding controls with ECA (n=5), a significant group-by-time interaction was found [F(6,39)=2.60, p=0.032], driven by a blunted response to the stressor in FM compared with controls (p=0.037). For subjective stress responses, a significant main effect of group [F(1,45)=10.69, p=0.002, higher in FM] and a trend towards a group-by-time interaction effect [F(6,45)=2.05, p=0.078, higher in FM 30 minutes before and 30 and 75 minutes after the TSST, and impaired recovery (difference immediately after - 30 minutes after the TSST) in FM] were found. Blunted cortisol responsivity to the TSST was observed in FM patients compared with controls without ECA. FM patients had higher subjective stress levels compared with controls, particularly at baseline and during recovery from the TSST. In FM patients, ECA history was not associated with cortisol or subjective stress levels, or with responsivity to the TSST. Future research should investigate the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysregulation in FM.

  11. Separation of Parkinson's patients in early and mature stages from control subjects using one EOG channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie A.E.; Frandsen, Rune; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    In this study, polysomnographic left side EOG signals from ten control subjects, ten iRBD patients and ten Parkinson's patients were decomposed in time and frequency using wavelet transformation. A total of 28 features were computed as the means and standard deviations in energy measures from...... different reconstructed detail subbands across all sleep epochs during a whole night of sleep. A subset of features was chosen based on a cross validated Shrunken Centroids Regularized Discriminant Analysis, where the controls were treated as one group and the patients as another. Classification...

  12. Subjective age-of-acquisition norms for 600 Turkish words from four age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göz, İlyas; Tekcan, Ali I; Erciyes, Aslı Aktan

    2016-10-14

    The main purpose of this study was to report age-based subjective age-of-acquisition (AoA) norms for 600 Turkish words. A total of 115 children, 100 young adults, 115 middle-aged adults, and 127 older adults provided AoA estimates for 600 words on a 7-point scale. The intraclass correlations suggested high reliability, and the AoA estimates were highly correlated across the four age groups. Children gave earlier AoA estimates than the three adult groups; this was true for high-frequency as well as low-frequency words. In addition to the means and standard deviations of the AoA estimates, we report word frequency, concreteness, and imageability ratings, as well as word length measures (numbers of syllables and letters), for the 600 words as supplemental materials. The present ratings represent a potentially useful database for researchers working on lexical processing as well as other aspects of cognitive processing, such as autobiographical memory.

  13. Different Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in NAFLD Subjects and Healthy Controls after Oral Fat Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gambino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free fatty acid (FFA metabolism can impact on metabolic conditions, such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This work studied the increase in total FFA shown in NAFLD subjects to possibly characterize which fatty acids significantly accounted for the whole increase. Methods: 21 patients with NAFLD were selected according to specified criteria. The control group consisted of nine healthy subjects. All subjects underwent an oral standard fat load. Triglycerides; cholesterol; FFA; glucose and insulin were measured every 2 h with the determination of fatty acid composition of FFA. Results: higher serum FFA levels in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids at different times. Significant increases were shown for docosahexaenoic acid, linolenic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and arachidonic acid, although this was just on one occasion. In the postprandial phase, homeostatic model assessment HOMA index positively correlated with the ω3/ω6 ratio in NAFLD patients. Conclusions: the higher serum levels of FFA in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic and palmitic acids which are the most abundant circulating free fatty acids. This is almost exactly corresponded with significant increases in linoleic acid. An imbalance in the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio could modulate postprandial responses with more pronounced effects in insulin-resistant subjects, such as NAFLD patients.

  14. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other

  15. Food group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Sophie; Vallée, Karine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of a 16-week walking program on food group preferences and energy balance of sedentary, moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal Caucasian women, aged 60 ± 5 years old. One hundred and fifty-six volunteers were subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min of walking at 60% of heart rate reserve. Total energy intake (TEI) and food group preferences (3-day dietary record), total energy expenditure (TEE, 3-day physical activity diary), cardiorespiratory fitness (2-km walking test), anthropometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured before and after walking. Data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures on 1 factor (time). The modest increase in TEE of 151 ± 24 kcal/day (p < 0.0001) leads to body weight, fat mass losses, and waist girth reduction (p < 0.0001). TEI remained unchanged despite a slight decrease in carbohydrate intake and a minor increase in protein intake (p < 0.05). Analysis of food records revealed a decreased consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and sweet and fatty foods (p < 0.01), but an increase in oil consumption (p < 0.0001) after walking. Women with the highest body weight loss showed the greatest reduction in the consumption of fruits, sugar, sweet foods, and fatty foods (p < 0.05). Women with the greatest fat mass loss showed the highest decrease in fatty food intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although our walking program changed some food group consumption patterns, body weight loss was primarily because of the increased TEE.

  16. Distribution of haematological indices among subjects with Blastocystis hominis infection compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Khademvatan, Shahram; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8-10 years old in one study. To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count - CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity - TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and χ(2) tests were used for comparison. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p hominis infection.

  17. Evaluation of serum C-reactive protein levels in subjects with aggressive and chronic periodontitis and comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Kanaparthy

    2012-01-01

    Results : Overall, the mean CRP levels were high in subjects with generalized aggressive and chronic periodontitis compared with controls. This was found to be statistically significant. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.012 was found in the CRP level between groups I and II and between groups II and III, and between groups I and III. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated an increase in serum CRP levels in subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis as compared with the controls.

  18. [Efficacy of modified auriculotherapy for post-operative pain control in patients subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toca-Villegas, Jiovanni; Esmer-Sánchez, David; García-Narváez, Jesús; Sánchez-Aguilar, Martín; Hernández-Sierra, Juan Francisco

    The high frequency of post-operative pain in the patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy has led to the need to use multiple analgesic therapies. These include auriculotherapy, although not very good results have been obtained with the traditional techniques. To evaluate the effectiveness of modified auriculotherapy for post-operative pain control in laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Double-blind controlled clinical trial. Experimental group: Different points ear puncture with xylocaine without needles vs. placebo group. Post-operative visual analogue scale (VAS) at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48h and rescue doses of analgesics, were measured in both groups. At 6h post-operative, 87% of the auriculotherapy group had a VAS of<4 vs. 48% of placebo group (p = 0.004), and 96 vs. 74% (p = 0.008) at 18hours. At 24, 36 and 48h after surgery there were no differences, and as all of the patients in both groups had a VAS<4, they were discharged to the hospital. Modified auriculotherapy was better to the conventional analgesics for post-operative pain control in patients subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of vision and cognitive load on static postural control in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinalzadeh, Afsaneh; Talebian, Saeed; Naghdi, Soofia; Salavati, Mahyar; Nazary-Moghadam, Salman; Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Bahareh

    2018-04-01

    To compare the effects of vision and cognitive load on static postural control in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Twenty-eight PFPS patients and 28 controls participated in the study. Postural control was assessed in isolation as well as with visual manipulation and cognitive loading on symptomatic limb. The outcome measures of postural control were quantified in terms of area, anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML), and mean velocity (MV) of the displacements of center of pressure (COP). In addition, cognitive performance (auditory Stroop task) was measured in the forms of average reaction time and error ratio in baseline (sitting) and different postural conditions. PFPS subjects showed greater increases in area (p = 0.01), AP (p = 0.01), and ML (p = 0.05) displacements of COP in the blindfolded tasks as compared to control group. However, cognitive load did not differently affect postural control in the two groups. Although PFPS and control group had similar reaction times in the sitting position (p = 0.29), PFPS subjects had longer reaction times than healthy subjects in dual task conditions (p = 0.04). Visual inputs seem to be essential for discriminating postural control between PFPS and healthy individuals. PFPS patients biased toward decreasing cognitive performance more than healthy subjects when they perform the single leg stance and cognitive task concurrently.

  20. The use of control groups in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Rolf; Perruchet, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Experimenters assume that participants of an experimental group have learned an artificial grammar if they classify test items with significantly higher accuracy than does a control group without training. The validity of such a comparison, however, depends on an additivity assumption: Learning is superimposed on the action of non-specific variables-for example, repetitions of letters, which modulate the performance of the experimental group and the control group to the same extent. In two experiments we were able to show that this additivity assumption does not hold. Grammaticality classifications in control groups without training (Experiments 1 and 2) depended on non-specific features. There were no such biases in the experimental groups. Control groups with training on randomized strings (Experiment 2) showed fewer biases than did control groups without training. Furthermore, we reanalysed published research and demonstrated that earlier experiments using control groups without training had produced similar biases in control group performances, bolstering the finding that using control groups without training is methodologically unsound.

  1. Influence of deep breathing exercise on spontaneous respiratory rate and heart rate variability: a randomised controlled trial in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharion, Elizabeth; Samuel, Prasanna; Rajalakshmi, R; Gnanasenthil, G; Subramanian, Rajam Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that yogic type of breathing exercises reduces the spontaneous respiratory rate. However, there are no conclusive studies on the effects of breathing exercise on heart rate variability. We investigated the effects of non-yogic breathing exercise on respiratory rate and heart rate variability. Healthy subjects (21-33 years, both genders) were randomized into the intervention group (n=18), which performed daily deep breathing exercise at 6 breaths/min (0.1 Hz) for one month, and a control group (n=18) which did not perform any breathing exercise. Baseline respiratory rate and short-term heart rate variability indices were assessed in both groups. Reassessment was done after one month and the change in the parameters from baseline was computed for each group. Comparison of the absolute changes [median (inter-quartile ranges)] of the parameters between the intervention and control group showed a significant difference in the spontaneous respiratory rate [intervention group -2.50 (-4.00, -1.00), control group 0.00 (-1.00, 1.00), cycles/min, Prate and cardiac autonomic modulation of the intervention group were significant, when compared to the changes in the control group. Thus practice of deep slow breathing exercise improves heart rate variability in healthy subjects, without altering their cardiac autonomic balance. These findings have implications in the use of deep breathing exercises to improve cardiac autonomic control in subjects known to have reduced heart rate variability.

  2. Comparison of Auditory Brainstem Response in Noise Induced Tinnitus and Non-Tinnitus Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassem Mohammadkhani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an unpleasant sound which can cause some behavioral disorders. According to evidence the origin of tinnitus is not only in peripheral but also in central auditory system. So evaluation of central auditory system function is necessary. In this study Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were compared in noise induced tinnitus and non-tinnitus control subjects.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study is conducted in 60 cases in two groups including of 30 noise induced tinnitus and 30 non-tinnitus control subjects. ABRs were recorded ipsilateraly and contralateraly and their latencies and amplitudes were analyzed.Results: Mean interpeak latencies of III-V (p= 0.022, I-V (p=0.033 in ipsilatral electrode array and mean absolute latencies of IV (p=0.015 and V (p=0.048 in contralatral electrode array were significantly increased in noise induced tinnitus group relative to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from that there are some decrease in neural transmission time in brainstem and there are some sign of involvement of medial nuclei in olivery complex in addition to lateral lemniscus.

  3. Anxiety, Locus of Control, Subjective Well Being and Knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study determines a few differences between accident free drivers and drivers with a history of accidents. 30 public transport bus drivers with a record of road accidents were compared with 30 public transport drivers free of accidents on their knowledge of road rules an regulations, subjective well being, state and ...

  4. Personality profiles between obese and control subjects assessed with five standardized personality scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pantoja, José L; Cabranes, José A; Sanchez-Quintero, Sabrina; Velao, Manuel; Sanz, Montserrat; Torres-Pardo, Beatriz; Ancín, Inés; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Rubio, Miguel A; Lopez-Ibor, Juan J; Barabash, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology may exert influence on developing and maintaining obesity. Studies of personality traits or psychopathology of personality in obesity are scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to compare personality profiles between obese and normal-weight subjects and to determine the most useful tool to detect differences, considering that psychological assessment and psychotherapeutical support should be included within the overall management of these patients.* We examined 55 obese subjects (mean BMI=43kg/ m2) and 66 controls (mean BMI =21.7kg/m2). We used the personality assessment tools: MCMI-II, TCI-R, EPQ-A, BIS-111 and SSS. Factorial multivariate analysis of variance was applied; with factors BMI, Gender and Age as a covariate. Significant differences between groups were more marked in the clinical syndrome scales of MCMI-II, particularly in Major-Depression, Thought-Disorder, Anxiety, Somatoform and Alcohol-Dependence. Among obese, women scored higher than men in all scales but not significantly. We have found significant differences in normal personality dimensions between both groups in TCI-R. Obese showed higher scores in Harm Avoidance, and lower in Novelty Seeking, Persistence and Self-transcendence. The remaining tests have not been useful for differentiating personality traits between both groups. Obese subjects showed different personality profiles than control subjects. The most useful scales for determining these differences might be those designed to assess pathological personality such as MCMI-II. Less important would be those intended to measure normal personality traits, such as TCI-R and EPQ-A.

  5. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Control Subject to Actuation Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the control of coupled aeroelastic aircraft model which is configured with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system. The relative deflection between two adjacent flaps is constrained and this actuation constraint is accounted for when designing an effective control law for suppressing the wing vibration. A simple tuned-mass damper mechanism with two attached masses is used as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of vibration suppression with confined motion of tuned masses. In this paper, a dynamic inversion based pseudo-control hedging (PCH) and bounded control approach is investigated, and for illustration, it is applied to the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) configured with VCCTEF system.

  6. Prioritized Control Allocation for Quadrotors Subject to Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeur, E.J.J.; de Wagter, C.; J.-M. Moschetta G. Hattenberger, H. de Plinval

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of actuator saturation for INDI (Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion) controlled flying vehicles. The primary problem that arises from actuator saturation for quadrotors, is that of arbitrary control objective realization. We have integrated the weighted least

  7. On spacecraft maneuvers control subject to propellant engine modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazinan, A H

    2015-09-01

    The paper attempts to address a new control approach to spacecraft maneuvers based upon the modes of propellant engine. A realization of control strategy is now presented in engine on mode (high thrusts as well as further low thrusts), which is related to small angle maneuvers and engine off mode (specified low thrusts), which is also related to large angle maneuvers. There is currently a coarse-fine tuning in engine on mode. It is shown that the process of handling the angular velocities are finalized via rate feedback system in engine modes, where the angular rotations are controlled through quaternion based control (QBCL)strategy in engine off mode and these ones are also controlled through an optimum PID (OPIDH) strategy in engine on mode. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sports involvement following ACL reconstruction is related to lower extremity neuromuscular adaptations, subjective knee function and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, J; Mauser, N; Caborn, D N M

    2013-09-01

    This retrospective study compared the influence of perceived sports involvement on lower extremity neuromuscular adaptations during single-leg countermovement jumping (CMJ), perceived knee function and internal health locus of control (HLOC) scores at a minimum 2-year post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The hypothesis was that subjects with higher-level sports involvement would display significant differences compared to subjects with lower-level sports involvement. Uninvolved and involved lower extremity EMG amplitude (1,000 Hz), vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) (500 Hz) and kinematic (60 Hz) displacement differences were determined during single-leg CMJ. These data and International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee survey scores, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Survey internal HLOC subscale scores and sports activity characteristics were compared by sports involvement level. Subjects that regarded themselves as only sporting sometimes (Group 3, n = 26) had lower IKDC survey and internal HLOC scores, were more likely to decrease sports activities by two intensity levels than highly competitive (Group 1, n = 20) and well-trained/frequently sporting (Group 2, n = 24) subjects, and had greater peak landing VGRF differences suggesting decreased involved lower extremity loading compared to Group 2. During propulsion, Group 1 had greater gluteus maximus (GM) and gastrocnemius (G) EMG differences than Groups 2 and 3. Groups 1 and 2 had decreased vastus medialis (VM) EMG differences during propulsion than Group 3. During landing, Group 1 had greater GM and G EMG differences than Group 3. Subjects with higher-level sports involvement up-regulated involved lower extremity GM and G activation and down-regulated VM activation. This adaptation may enable continued higher-level sports participation while minimizing knee joint forces. Perceived higher-level sports involvement was related to neuromuscular adaptations, better subjective knee

  9. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled group... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled...

  10. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  11. 26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.382-8 Section 1.382-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.382-8 Controlled groups. (a) Introduction. This section...

  12. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  13. Acute effect of whole body vibration on postural control in congenitally blind subjects: a preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Giombini, Arrigo; Iuliano, Enzo; Moffa, Stefano; Caliandro, Tiziana; Parisi, Attilio; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Fiorilli, Giovanni

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole body vibration at optimal frequency, on postural control in blind subjects. Twenty-four participants, 12 congenital blind males (Experimental Group), and 12 non-disabled males with no visual impairment (Control Groups) were recruited. The area of the ellipse and the total distance of the center of pressure displacements, as postural control parameters, were evaluated at baseline (T0), immediately after the vibration (T1), after 10 min (T10) and after 20 min (T20). Whole body vibration protocol consisted into 5 sets of 1 min for each vibration, with 1 min rest between each set on a vibrating platform. The total distance of center of pressure showed a significant difference (p static balance were found after an acute bout of whole body vibration at optimal frequency in blind subjects and, consequently, whole body vibration may be considered as a safe application in individuals who are blind.

  14. Changes in depression status in low socioeconomic perinatal subjects in rural India after supervised physical exercise: A randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Gopal Nambi Subash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perinatal depression is a major public health problem, affecting up to a quarter of all pregnant women in rural Asean countries and often leads to psychologic symptoms, lower quality of life, and higher health care costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of supervised physical exercise on depression level of perinatal subjects. Subjects/Intervention: 60 subjects who fulfill the selection criteria were randomly assigned to exercise (Group-1, n=30) and control group (Group-2, n=30). Participants completed general screening form and Physical health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) before their intervention and again 4 weeks and 8 weeks later. Group-1 underwent aerobic training with 60-65% maximum heart rate and Group-2 was prescribed with handouts for 4 weeks. Statistics: Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was use to analyze group differences over time while controlling for baseline differences. Results: Demographic and the baseline values show homogenous population (P>0.05). Patients in both groups experienced significant reduction in depression level. Group A showed reduction of 91.70% (P=0.00) as compared to Group B 69.01% (P=0.00). Conclusion: These results suggest that supervised physical exercise provides better improvement in depression status in perinatal subjects than providing handouts alone. PMID:26816432

  15. Targeting core groups for gonorrhoea control: feasibility and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguère, Katia; Alary, Michel

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to outline why core groups should be targeted in Neisseria gonorrhoeae control and suggest several important and timely interventions to target core groups while highly resistant strains are spreading. Core group definition, feasibility and impact of gonorrhoea core group interventions as well as gonorrhoea resistance development have been reviewed in the paper. Core group interventions have proven effective in gonorrhoea control in the past but are compromised by the spread of highly resistant strains. Worldwide functional Gonorrhoea Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, better screening and better treatment programmes are needed. Prevention through condom promotion aimed at core groups remains essential. More specific treatment guidance for low-income and middle-income countries without resistance data is required in the meantime to achieve a better use of antibiotics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Ethics commentary: subjects of knowledge and control in field primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, N M; Fuentes, A; White, F J

    2010-09-01

    Our primate kin are routinely displaced from their habitats, hunted for meat, captured for trade, housed in zoos, made to perform for our entertainment, and used as subjects in biomedical testing. They are also the subjects of research inquiries by field primatologists. In this article, we place primate field studies on a continuum of human and alloprimate relationships as a heuristic device to explore the unifying ethical implications of such inter-relationships, as well as address specific ethical challenges arising from common research protocols "in the field" (e.g. risks associated with habituation, disease transmission, invasive collection of biological samples, etc.). Additionally, we question the widespread deployment of conservation- and/or local economic development-based justifications for field-based primatological pursuits. Informed by decades of combined fieldwork experience in Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, we demonstrate the process by which the adherence to a particular ethical calculus can lead to unregulated and ethically problematic research agendas. In conclusion, we offer several suggestions to consider in the establishment of a formalized code of ethics for field primatology. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Cognitive Control and White Matter Callosal Microstructure in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects: A DTI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867

  18. Coordinated Control of Wave Energy Converters Subject to Motion Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generic coordinated control method for wave energy converters is proposed, and the constraints on motion amplitudes and the hydrodynamic interaction between converters are considered. The objective of the control problem is to maximize the energy converted from ocean waves, and this is achieved by coordinating the power take-off (PTO damping of each wave energy converter in the frequency domain in each sea state. In a case study, a wave energy farm consisting of four converters based on the concept developed by Uppsala University is studied. In the solution, motion constraints, including constraints on the amplitudes of displacement and velocity, are included. Twelve months of sea states, based on measured wave data at the Lysekil test site on the Swedish west coast, are used in the simulation to evaluate the performance of the wave energy farm using the new method. Results from the new coordinated control method and traditional control method are compared, indicating that the coordinated control of wave energy converters is an effective way to improve the energy production of wave energy farm in harmonic waves.

  19. Experimental determination of group flux control coefficients in metabolic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, T.W.; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Stephanopoulos, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-04-20

    Grouping of reactions around key metabolite branch points can facilitate the study of metabolic control of complex metabolic networks. This top-down Metabolic Control Analysis is exemplified through the introduction of group control coefficients whose magnitudes provide a measure of the relative impact of each reaction group on the overall network flux, as well as on the overall network stability, following enzymatic amplification. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of previously developed theory to the determination of group flux control coefficients. Experimental data for the changes in metabolic fluxes obtained in response to the introduction of six different environmental perturbations are used to determine the group flux control coefficients for three reaction groups formed around the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate branch point. The consistency of the obtained group flux control coefficient estimates is systematically analyzed to ensure that all necessary conditions are satisfied. The magnitudes of the determined control coefficients suggest that the control of lysine production flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum cells at a growth base state resides within the lysine biosynthetic pathway that begins with the PEP/PYR carboxylation anaplorotic pathway.

  20. Subjective well-being in times of social change: congruence of control strategies and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grümer, Sebastian; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between perceptions of broader changes in the social-ecological context and individuals' subjective well-being (SWB). Macro-level societal changes such as globalization or demographic change give rise to new demands for individual functioning at work and/or in the family. Such new demands associated with social change are stressful and likely to be related to lower levels of SWB. Being active agents, individuals attempt to deal with social change and its increasing demands to protect their SWB. The present study investigates which kinds of control strategies are most effective in protecting one's SWB. Specifically, we predicted that control strategies of goal engagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived high control, and control strategies of goal disengagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived low control. In a large sample of 2537 German adults, work- and family-related demands associated with social change were found to be negatively linked to SWB. Moreover and in line with the motivational theory of lifespan development, control strategies of goal engagement and disengagement were beneficial for SWB to the extent that they matched the perceived control of the demands associated with social change.

  1. Cardiac autonomic control and complexity during sleep are preserved after chronic sleep restriction in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaldini, Eleonora; Covassin, Naima; Calvin, Andrew; Singh, Prachi; Bukartyk, Jan; Wang, Shiang; Montano, Nicola; Somers, Virend K

    2017-04-01

    Acute sleep deprivation (SD) alters cardiovascular autonomic control (CAC) and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. However, the effects of partial SD on CAC are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of partial SD on CAC during sleep. We randomized seventeen healthy subjects to a restriction group (RES, n = 8, subjects slept two-thirds of normal sleep time based on individual habitual sleep duration for 8 days and 8 nights) or a Control group (CON, n = 9, subjects were allowed to sleep their usual sleep time). Attended polysomnographic (PSG) studies were performed every night; a subset of them was selected for the analysis at baseline (day 3-D3), the first night after sleep restriction (day 5-D5), at the end of sleep restriction period (day 11-D11), and at the end of recovery phase (day 14-D14). We extracted electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration from the PSG and divided into wakefulness (W), nonrapid eye movements (REM) sleep (N2 and N3) and REM sleep. CAC was evaluated by means of linear spectral analysis, nonlinear symbolic analysis and complexity indexes. In both RES and CON groups, sympathetic modulation decreased and parasympathetic modulation increased during N2 and N3 compared to W and REM at D3, D5, D11, D14. Complexity analysis revealed a reduction in complexity during REM compared to NREM sleep in both DEP and CON After 8 days of moderate SD, cardiac autonomic dynamics, characterized by decreased sympathetic, and increased parasympathetic modulation, and higher cardiac complexity during NREM sleep, compared to W and REM, are preserved. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy older subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amir I A; van den Elsen, Geke A H; Colbers, Angela; van der Marck, Marjolein A; Burger, David M; Feuth, Ton B; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Kramers, Cornelis

    2014-09-01

    There is a great concern about the safety of THC-based drugs in older people (≥65 years), as most of THC-trials did not include such group. In this phase 1, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, we evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of three oral doses of Namisol(®), a novel THC in tablet form, in older subjects. Twelve healthy older subjects (6 male; mean age 72±5 years) randomly received a single oral dose of 3mg, 5mg, or 6.5mg of THC or matching placebo, in a crossover manner, on each intervention day. The data for 11 subjects were included in the analysis. The data of 1 subject were excluded due to non-compliance to study medication. THC was safe and well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events (AEs) were drowsiness (27%) and dry mouth (11%). Subjects reported more AEs with THC 6.5mg than with 3mg (p=0.048), 5mg (p=0.034) and placebo (p=0.013). There was a wide inter-individual variability in plasma concentrations of THC. Subjects for whom the Cmax fell within the sampling period (over 2h), Cmax was 1.42-4.57ng/mL and Tmax was 67-92min. The AUC0-2h (n=11) was 1.67-3.51ng/mL. Overall, the pharmacodynamic effects of THC were smaller than effects previously reported in young adults. In conclusion, THC appeared to be safe and well tolerated by healthy older individuals. Data on safety and effectiveness of THC in frail older persons are urgently required, as this population could benefit from the therapeutic applications of THC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  4. Intrinsic Optimal Control for Mechanical Systems on Lie Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic infinite horizon optimal control problem of mechanical systems on Lie group is investigated. The geometric optimal control problem is built on the intrinsic coordinate-free model, which is provided with Levi-Civita connection. In order to obtain an analytical solution of the optimal problem in the geometric viewpoint, a simplified nominal system on Lie group with an extra feedback loop is presented. With geodesic distance and Riemann metric on Lie group integrated into the cost function, a dynamic programming approach is employed and an analytical solution of the optimal problem on Lie group is obtained via the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. For a special case on SO(3, the intrinsic optimal control method is used for a quadrotor rotation control problem and simulation results are provided to show the control performance.

  5. Comparison of serum and urine lead levels in opium addicts with healthy control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi-Moghadam, H; Khadem-Rezaiyan, M; Afshari, R

    2016-08-01

    Lead-contaminated opium is one of the new sources of lead exposure in our region. As far as the literature review is concerned, there are limited comparative studies about comparison of blood lead level (BLL) in addict patients with healthy controls. We aimed to compare BLL and urine lead level (ULL) between opium addicts with the healthy control group. Forty opium addict subjects (mean age: 43 ± 10 years) as the patient group and 40 healthy subjects (mean age: 41 ± 9 years) as the control group participated. Three milliliter of whole blood and urine was obtained from both groups and lead level was assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean value of BLL in patient group was 7.14 ± 1.41 mcg/dL and that in the healthy control group was 5.42 ± 1.46 mcg/dL. The mean value of ULL was 2.62 ± 0.83 mcg/dL in the patient group and 2.50 ± 0.76 mcg/dL in the healthy control group.BLL was different in the two groups (p lead. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium-addict patients especially with nonspecific symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Contrasting Complement Control, Temporal Adjunct Control and Controlled Verbal Gerund Subjects in ASD: The Role of Contextual Cues in Reference Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Vikki; Perovic, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    This study examines two complex syntactic dependencies (complement control and sentence-final temporal adjunct control) and one pragmatic dependency (controlled verbal gerund subjects) in children with ASD. Sixteen high-functioning (HFA) children (aged 6-16) with a diagnosis of autism and no language impairment, matched on age, gender and non-verbal MA to one TD control group, and on age, gender and verbal MA to another TD control group, undertook three picture-selection tasks. Task 1 measured their base-line interpretations of the empty categories (ec). Task 2 preceded these sentence sets with a weakly established topic cueing an alternative referent and Task 3 with a strongly established topic cueing an alternative referent. In complement control (Ron persuaded Hermione ec to kick the ball) and sentence-final temporal adjunct control (Harry tapped Luna while ec feeding the owl), the reference of the ec is argued to be related obligatorily to the object and subject respectively. In controlled verbal-gerund subjects (VGS) (ec Rowing the boat clumsily made Luna seasick), the ec's reference is resolved pragmatically. Referent choices across the three tasks were compared. TD children chose the object uniformly in complement control across all tasks but in adjunct control, preferences shifted toward the object in Task 3. In controlled VGSs, they exhibited a strong preference for an internal-referent interpretation in Task 1, which shifted in the direction of the cues in Tasks 2 and 3. HFA children gave a mixed performance. They patterned with their TD counterparts on complement control and controlled VGSs but performed marginally differently on adjunct control: no TD groups were influenced by the weakly established topic in Task 2 but all groups were influenced by the strongly established topic in Task 3. HFA children were less influenced than the TD children, resulting in their making fewer object choices overall but revealing parallel patterns of performance. In this

  7. The Impact of Personal Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control on Entrepreneurial Intentions of Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DINC, M. Sait; BUDIC, Semira

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between demographic variables, personal attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and entrepreneurial intentions of women...

  8. Oral reading fluency analysis in patients with Alzheimer disease and asymptomatic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; García-Sevilla, J; Carro, J; Arana, J M

    2013-01-01

    Many studies highlight that an impaired ability to communicate is one of the key clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study temporal organisation of speech in an oral reading task in patients with AD and in matched healthy controls using a semi-automatic method, and evaluate that method's ability to discriminate between the 2 groups. A test with an oral reading task was administered to 70 subjects, comprising 35 AD patients and 35 controls. Before speech samples were recorded, participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. There were no differences between groups with regard to age, sex, or educational level. All of the study variables showed impairment in the AD group. According to the results, AD patients' oral reading was marked by reduced speech and articulation rates, low effectiveness of phonation time, and increases in the number and proportion of pauses. Signal processing algorithms applied to reading fluency recordings were shown to be capable of differentiating between AD patients and controls with an accuracy of 80% (specificity 74.2%, sensitivity 77.1%) based on speech rate. Analysis of oral reading fluency may be useful as a tool for the objective study and quantification of speech deficits in AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  10. Salivary and microbiological parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto CORTELLI

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the differences in salivary parameters and microbial composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, however, specific differences are still not clear mainly due to the effects of confounder. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary and microbial parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and method: This case-control study included 60 chronic periodontitis subjects, 30 diabetics (case group and 30 non-diabetics (control group, paired according to periodontitis severity, gender and age. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from all volunteers to measure the salivary pH and the salivary flow rate. Bacterial samples were collected with paper points from periodontal sites showing the deepest periodontal pocket depth associated with the highest clinical attachment loss. The frequency of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and C. rectus was evaluated by PCR. Data was statistically analyzed by Student's t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square (p<0.05. Result: Diabetic subjects showed higher salivary glucose levels and lower stimulated flow rates in comparison to non-diabetic controls. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were the most frequent pathogens (p<0.05. Bacterial frequency did not differ between case and control groups. Conclusion: Diabetes status influenced salivary glucose levels and flow rate. Within the same severity of chronic periodontitis, diabetic subjects did not show higher frequency of periodontal pathogens in comparison to their paired controls.

  11. Synthesis of Control Algorithm for a Leaderheaded UAVs Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Samodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a defense sphere uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. UAVs have several advantages over manned aircrafts such as small size, reduced combat losses of personnel, etc. In addition, in threat environment, it is necessary to arrange both bringing together distant from each other UAVs in a group and their undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.However, the task to control a UAVs group is much more difficult than to control a single UAV, since it is necessary not only to control the aircraft, but also take into account the relative position of objects in the group.To solve this problem two ways are possible: using a network exchange between members of the group on the "everyone with everyone" principle and organizing the leader-headed flight.The aim of the article is to develop and study a possible option of the UAVs group control with arranging a leader-headed flight to provide the undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.The article develops a universal algorithm to control leader-headed group, based on a new modification of the statistical theory of optimal control. It studies effectiveness of the algorithm. While solving this task, a flight of seven UAVs was simulated in the horizontal plane in a rectangular coordinate system. Control time, linear errors of desired alignment of UAV, and control errors with respect to angular coordinates are used as measures of merit.The study results of the algorithm to control a leader-headed group of UAVs confirmed that it is possible to fulfill tasks of flying free-of-collision group of UAVs with essentially reduced computational costs.

  12. The 'subjective' risk mapping: understanding of a technical risk representation by a professional group; La cartographie 'subjective' des risques: comprendre la representation d'un risque technique par un groupe professionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, H.; Deleuze, G. [Electricite de France (EDF-RD), Management des Risques Industriels, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents the application of a particular way to make risk maps, called 'subjective risk mapping'. It has been used to understand how the risk of tube rupture under pressure is understood, defined, and set in perspective with other risks in a professional group working in an industrial plant. (authors)

  13. Allergen-induced Increases in Sputum Levels of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Subjects with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruchong; Smith, Steven G; Salter, Brittany; El-Gammal, Amani; Oliveria, John Paul; Obminski, Caitlin; Watson, Rick; O'Byrne, Paul M; Gauvreau, Gail M; Sehmi, Roma

    2017-09-15

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), a major source of type 2 cytokines, initiate eosinophilic inflammatory responses in murine models of asthma. To investigate the role of ILC2 in allergen-induced airway eosinophilic responses in subjects with atopy and asthma. Using a diluent-controlled allergen challenge crossover study, where all subjects (n = 10) developed allergen-induced early and late responses, airway eosinophilia, and increased methacholine airway responsiveness, bone marrow, blood, and sputum samples were collected before and after inhalation challenge. ILC2 (lin - FcεRI - CD45 + CD127 + ST2 + ) and CD4 + T lymphocytes were enumerated by flow cytometry, as well as intracellular IL-5 and IL-13 expression. Steroid sensitivity of ILC2 and CD4 + T cells was investigated in vitro. A significant increase in total, IL-5 + , IL-13 + , and CRTH2 + ILC2 was found in sputum, 24 hours after allergen, coincident with a significant decrease in blood ILC2. Total, IL-5 + , and IL-13 + , but not CRTH2 + , CD4 + T cells significantly increased at 24 and 48 hours after allergen in sputum. In blood and bone marrow, only CD4 + cells demonstrated increased activation after allergen. Airway eosinophilia correlated with IL-5 + ILC2 at all time points and allergen-induced changes in IL-5 + CD4 + cells at 48 hours after allergen. Dexamethasone significantly attenuated IL-2- and IL-33-stimulated IL-5 and IL-13 production by both cell types. Innate and adaptive immune cells are increased in the airways associated with allergic asthmatic responses. Total and type 2 cytokine-positive ILC2 are increased only within the airways, whereas CD4 + T lymphocytes demonstrated local and systemic increases. Steroid sensitivity of both cells may explain effectiveness of this therapy in those with mild asthma.

  14. A comparison of dysfunctional attitudes in substance abusers and control group and its psychological outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    This research was carried out to assess the role of dysfunctional attitudes, outcomes of psychology in substance abuse behaviors of subject were referred to addiction treatment center in the city of Bandar Abbas, and to compare the with the control group. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which 100 subject substance abusers were compared with 100 subject s of control group who were selected using convenience sampling and were also demographically matched. Data were gathered using a demographic questionnaire, clinical interview, dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS. The data were analyzed via descriptive statistic method, T- Test and chi-square and variance analysis. Findings: Findings indicated that in comparison with control group, subject of substance abusers had experienced more stress, anxiety, depression, had shown a cognitively more percent of them dysfunctional attitudes in comparison with control group. Results: The results suggested that the dysfunctional attitudes could be as a Vulnerability Factor that increase abuse of substance consequently use of cognitive therapy could be helpful and effective in prevention and treatment of the addicts.

  15. Subjective and objective knowledge and decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riechel C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Christina Riechel,1,* Anna Christina Alegiani,1,* Sascha Köpke,2 Jürgen Kasper,3,4 Michael Rosenkranz,1,5 Götz Thomalla,1 Christoph Heesen1,4 1Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Nursing Research Unit, Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Institute of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 5Department of Neurology, Albertinen-Krankenhaus, Hamburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Risk knowledge and active role preferences are important for patient involvement in treatment decision-making and adherence. Although knowledge about stroke warning signs and risk factors has received considerable attention, objective knowledge on secondary prevention and further self-esteem subjective knowledge have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and treatment decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls. Methods: We performed a survey on subjective and objective stroke risk knowledge and autonomy preferences in cerebrovascular patients from our stroke outpatient clinic (n=262 and from pedestrians on the street taken as controls during a “World Stroke Day” (n=274. The questionnaire includes measures for knowledge and decisional role preferences from previously published questionnaires and newly developed measures, for example, subjective knowledge, revealed on a visual analog scale. Results: The overall stroke knowledge was low to moderate, with no differences between patients and controls. Knowledge about secondary prevention was particularly low. Only 10%–15% of participants correctly estimated the stroke absolute risk reduction potential of aspirin. The medical data

  16. Tooth size in patients with supernumerary teeth and a control group measured by image analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, K; Robinson, D L; Elcock, C; Smith, R N; Brook, A H

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare tooth size measurements between patients with supernumerary teeth and a control group. The supernumerary group consisted of 56 subjects (21 females and 35 males) and the control group of 40 subjects (20 females and 20 males). All available permanent teeth on the dental casts were imaged and measured from both buccal and occlusal views using an image analysis system. Mesio-distal, bucco-lingual or occluso-gingival dimensions, area and perimeter were measured from each view. Supernumerary tooth patients tended to have larger tooth size measurements for almost all variables than controls. Significant differences (psupernumerary teeth being a complex dental anomaly with a multifactorial aetiology in which both genetic and environmental factors are important. There is some evidence of a local effect with greater differences in tooth dimension adjacent to the site of the supernumeraries.

  17. [Subjective family image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in adolescence: a controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwautz, A; Haidvogl, M; Wagner, G; Nobis, G; Wöber-Bingöl, C; Friedrich, M H

    2002-11-01

    The family environments of patients with eating disorders have been studied extensively in recent decades. The "Subjective Family Image Test" is an instrument developed especially to measure differential perceptions by family members. Assessments of subjective family image in families of adolescents by means of this test have been carried out in only a few samples. We aimed first to investigate subjective perceptions by adolescents of their family relations in a larger clinical sample of female adolescents (n = 118) suffering from anorexia nervosa of either subtype or from bulimia nervosa and to compare these perceptions with those of healthy controls (n = 96). Second we investigated intra-familial differences in perception. The main findings were that bulimia nervosa patients perceived lower individual autonomy and lower emotional connectedness than all other groups, the adolescents with bulimia perceived significantly lower autonomy and emotional connectedness within the family than their fathers, and the restrictive anorexia nervosa patients perceived higher connectedness than their fathers. The relevance of these findings for understanding family dynamics are discussed.

  18. Control groups in recent septic shock trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Jakob, Stephan M; Wilkman, Erika; Perner, Anders; Takala, Jukka

    2016-12-01

    The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. We searched for original articles presenting randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in adult septic shock patients from 2006 to 2016. We included RCTs focusing on septic shock patients with at least two parallel groups and at least 50 patients in the control group. We selected and evaluated data items regarding patients, control group characteristics, and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58 % the proportion of patients with elevated lactate values. Five studies (21 %) provided data to estimate the proportion of septic shock patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 definition. The mean data completeness score was 19 out of 36 (range 8-32). Of 18 predefined control group characteristics, a mean of 8 (range 2-17) were reported. Only 2 (8 %) trials provided adequate data to confirm that their control group treatment represented usual care. Recent trials in septic shock provide inadequate data on the control group treatment and hemodynamic values. We propose a standardized trial dataset to be created and validated, comprising characteristics of patient population, interventions administered, hemodynamic values achieved, surrogate organ dysfunction, and mortality outcomes, to allow better analysis and interpretation of future trial results.

  19. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  20. Subjective evaluations of mammographic accreditation phantom images by three observer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K W; Trueblood, J H; Kearfott, K J

    1994-01-01

    Mammography providers are under increasing pressure to become certified by the American College of Radiology (ACR). Successful accreditation is contingent on passing a phantom image quality test. This study was undertaken to evaluate viewer performance with the phantom image evaluation process and to determine any observer group differences. A series of standard phantom images were viewed by 30 medical physicists, 30 diagnostic radiologists, and 30 inexperienced observers. From the responses, object detection rates and passing rates according to the ACR criteria were established. These responses were analyzed with standard nonparametric tests to assess the degree of variability, correlation, and agreement among different observer groups. Median passing scores were similar for the radiologists and untrained readers, but the medical physicists appear to differ from the other two groups. There was not sufficient evidence to indicate that special training among physicists made a significant difference in median passing scores or mass detection rates. However, such training appeared to significantly affect the detection of microcalcification and fibril test patterns among the physicists' subgroups. Agreement among observer groups was high for all groups, but tended to be lower for overall passing rates than for any of the individual test objects. Agreement among physicists was affected by their subspecialty, presumably caused by their levels of specific training for these visual tasks. The authors conclude that choosing medical physicists to evaluate mammographic phantom films appears to be a good choice among potential observer groups, and that special training for reading these images affects their detection abilities and consistency. However, because passing rates did not appear to be affected by special training and given the current rapid degree of change in this area, more testing of medical physicists is desirable to examine these effects over time, and to study

  1. Why Are Socially Anxious Adolescents Rejected by Peers? The Role of Subject-Group Similarity Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blote, Anke W.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Miers, Anne C.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the role of actual and perceived similarity in peer rejection of socially anxious adolescents. Videotapes of 20 high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) giving a speech were rated by groups of unfamiliar peers with regard to perceived similarity and desire for future interaction (lower scores indicating…

  2. Cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention in elderly subjects after hip fracture. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyers, C E; Reijven, P L M; Evers, S M A A; Willems, P C; Heyligers, I C; Verburg, A D; van Helden, S; Dagnelie, P C

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture patients can benefit from nutritional supplementation during their recovery. Up to now, cost-effectiveness evaluation of nutritional intervention in these patients has not been performed. Costs of nutritional intervention are relatively low as compared with medical costs. Cost-effectiveness evaluation shows that nutritional intervention is likely to be cost-effective. Previous research on the effect of nutritional intervention on clinical outcome in hip fracture patients yielded contradictory results. Cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention in these patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention in elderly subjects after hip fracture from a societal perspective. Open-label, multi-centre randomized controlled trial investigating cost-effectiveness of intensive nutritional intervention comprising regular dietetic counseling and oral nutritional supplementation for 3 months postoperatively. Patients allocated to the control group received care as usual. Costs, weight and quality of life were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for weight at 3 months and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) at 6 months postoperatively. Of 152 patients enrolled, 73 were randomized to the intervention group and 79 to the control group. Mean costs of the nutritional intervention was 613 Euro. Total costs and subcategories of costs were not significantly different between both groups. Based on bootstrapping of ICERs, the nutritional intervention was likely to be cost-effective for weight as outcome over the 3-month intervention period, regardless of nutritional status at baseline. With QALYs as outcome, the probability for the nutritional intervention being cost-effective was relatively low, except in subjects aged below 75 years. Intensive nutritional intervention in elderly hip fracture patients is likely to be cost

  3. Study regarding the Implications of Obesity as Perceived by a High-School Age Group of Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana DOBRESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to know the perception on the obesity problem of a high-school age group of subjects that are exposed to its undesired consequences by following their degree of awareness, and the involvement of factors that could influence, prevent, or improve this condition. Starting from the premises detached from the study of the professional literature, we have elaborated the hypothesis stating that presumably the identification of the opinions of a high-school age group of subjects regarding the effects of obesity and the importance of exercise in maintaining one’s fitness, could constitute a starting point for an applicative intervention in the sense of preventing and improving the apparition of this condition. The research methods used were: study of the bibliographical material, the questionnaire inquiry method, the statistical-mathematical method, and the graphical representation method. Conclusions: We identified both a willingness for practicing a physical activity, as well a diversity of activities towards which the group of subjects are oriented. The different orientation of the answers completes the picture of individual perceptions of the inquired segment of the population, the subjects being made aware of the effects obesity has on the body, as well as of the importance of exercise, a conclusion that confirms the hypothesis of this research.

  4. Coordination of baseload power plant group control with static reactive power compensator control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Szczerba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power sources in power system nodes: generators and static reactive power compensators, are controlled by control systems. Generators – by generator node group controllers, compensators – by voltage controllers. The paper presents issues of these control systems’ coordination and proposals for its implementation.

  5. Perception of quality of life of a group of individuals subjected to bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Salazar-Maya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study sought to identify the state of health and quality of life of post-bariatric surgery patients. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with the participation of 338 individuals attending the private practice of a bariatric surgeon from Medellín (Colombia. With prior signed informed consent, the survey was filled out by each patient. The information gathered was sociodemographic in nature along with the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Brief Questionnaire (WHOQoL-Bref. Results. It was found that 82.2% were women and mean age was 41±12 years. Gastric bypass was practiced on 79.6% of the cases. Mean weight before surgery was 106.3±17.5 Kg and after surgery it was 73.2±13.4 Kg. Nine of every 10 participants classified their quality of life and state of health between extremely well and quite well. Quality of life was better in men, in those younger than 40 years of age, in those from socio-economic levels 4 to 6, and in those with educational level above the secondary (high school. Conclusion. As a consequence of the important and rapid weight loss occurring during the first months after surgery, most of the participants perceived having a good quality of life and were satisfied with their health status. For nursing, it is a challenge to implement educational programs and projects, bearing in mind the sociocultural diversity of the individuals and communities, through interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, which contributes to the well-being of obese individuals subjected to bariatric surgery and their families.

  6. ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL PECULIARITIES IN SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING(a case study of ethnic groups of the Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Bocharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of the empirical study of the structural organization of ethnic groups subjective well-being on the territory of the Saratov Volga region conducted on proportionally selected samples ( N = 280, whose representatives identify themselves as Russians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Armenians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Kazakhs ( n = 70; village Alexandrov Ghay in the Saratov Region that borders on the West Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan with the ethnical composition represented primarily by Kazakhs, Tatars ( n = 70; village Yakovlevka in Bazarno-Karabulakskiy district of the Saratov Region with the Tatar dominant ethnical group, whose average age is 25.6 years old; SD = 9.7; sex ratio is female (52% and male (48%; respondents’ employment - 87%. It has been found that in contrast to the Russians, the sphere of social and socio-economic relations is the least “happy” area in the representatives of the Armenian, Kazakh, Tatar ethnic groups. The “happiest” is the sphere of family relations in the samples of Armenian, Kazakh and Tatar youth. The significant differences have been revealed in the structure of the subjective well-being both on the emotional and cognitive levels. A downward trend of the index of the subjective well-being of the ethnic groups from the remote areas of the region has been registered. The applied aspect of the research problem can be implemented in the development of ethno-national policy programmes of the Saratov region.

  7. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  8. Left main disease management strategy: indications and revascularization methods in particular groups of subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzych, Łukasz J; Bochenek-Klimczyk, Krystyna; Wasiak, Michał; Białek, Krzysztof; Bolkowski, Maciej; Gierek, Danuta; Bochenek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Surgical revascularization with coronary artery by-pass grafting is still recommended in vast majority of patients with unprotected left main disease. The aim of the paper was to analyze optimal treatment of left main disease in selected groups of patients, on the basis of current guidelines and information gained from literature data. We focused on data in relation to treatment of elderly patients, diabetics and those hemodynamically unstable. Additionally we discussed the issue of anti-platelet therapy and informed consent. As far as efficacy of treatment is concerned, not only method of revascularization but also general condition of the patient, the factors influencing peri-operative risk and optimal pharmacotherapy should be taken into account. Therefore establishment of the heart team is crucial when choosing the most suitable method of invasive treatment of left main disease.

  9. Assessment of foetal wellbeing in pregnant women subjected to pelvic floor muscle training: a controlled randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okido, Marcos Massaru; Valeri, Fabiana Lellis; Martins, Wellington Paula; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge; Duarte, Geraldo; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to assess foetal wellbeing in pregnant women subjected to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) by evaluating the acute and chronic effects of the procedure using the Doppler method. Ninety-six primigravidae with singleton pregnancies and at a low risk of pregnancy complications were randomised to either intervention with PFMT or no intervention. The final analysis included 26 women in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. Women from the intervention group were subjected to a daily PFMT program. Evidence of possible foetal risk was assessed by Doppler and the control group received standard care. The protocol was conducted from 20 to 36 weeks' gestation. The pulsatility indices (PI) of the uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries were determined at 28, 32 and 36 weeks' gestation. The acute effects were determined by comparing the values obtained before and after exercise in the group subjected to PFMT and the chronic effects were determined by comparing the resting values of the trained group with those of the control group. The results obtained showed normal values for the three gestational ages in both groups, with no difference between groups. Comparison before and after exercise showed a significant decline in the PI of uterine artery at 36 weeks without changes in the flow of umbilical and middle cerebral arteries. Pelvic floor muscle training in low-risk primigravidae with singleton pregnancies was associated with a significant decline in PI of the uterine artery after exercise, while no significant changes in the flow of the middle cerebral and umbilical arteries were found. The PFMT may be recommended to women as a first-line measure to prevent of urinary incontinence during pregnancy.

  10. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice..., 2013 Vol. 78 No. 206. This new meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply...

  11. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government and DoD contractors...

  12. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products...

  13. Metallic elements in pulmonary biopsies from lung cancer and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giuseppe; Goldoni, Matteo; Catalani, Simona; Carbognani, Paolo; Poli, Diana; Mozzoni, Paola; Acampa, Olga; Internullo, Eveline; Rusca, Michele; Apostoli, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Occupational/environmental exposure to some metallic elements is a risk factor for the development of lung diseases, including lung cancer. We aimed at investigating the levels of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel and lead in the lung tissue of patients affected by early stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A small number of patients without a diagnosis of lung cancer were also included as control group. Lung tissue biopsies were collected from 45 NSCLC patients (both cancerous and unaffected tissues) and 8 control subjects undergoing surgery. Patients were stratified for smoking habits, histopathology and cancer sites. Metallic elements were determined in dry tissue after digestion by means of ICP-MS. Cd, Ni and Pb levels were higher in unaffected than in control tissues (0.52 vs 0.18 microg/g dry, p elements, and particularly Cd, were influenced by smoking habits; Pb levels were higher in squamocellular carcinoma than adenocarcinomas; Ni distributed in the lungs in an inhomogeneous way. This study demonstrates that the unaffected lung tissue is more representative than the cancerous tissue of the pulmonary content of metallic elements. Tobacco smoke is a main factor affecting the concentration levels of Cd, Pb, and to a lesser extent Ni in the lung tissues of NSCLC patients. The role of past environmental-occupational exposures could not be fully elucidated, due to the limited sample size and the retrospective nature of the study.

  14. Effects of food on cortisol and mood in vulnerable subjects under controllable and uncontrollable stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, R.; Panhuysen, G.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in stress-prone subjects, carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor food (CR/PP) diminished depressive mood and a cortisol response under controllable as well as uncontrollable laboratory stress. Twenty-two subjects with high stress proneness (HS) and 23

  15. The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p = 0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p = 0.02). The GGT levels

  16. A comparison of donor and control group quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Abdul Talib Abdul Mutalib, Muzalwana; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun

    2014-03-03

    Informed consent of prospective donors should include information about the quality of life (QoL) of existing donors, especially those within the relevant country. This study aimed to provide information on Malaysian organ donors' QoL relative to a control group. Using a shorter version of the SF-36, QoL of 80 donors from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Malaysia was surveyed and compared to QoL of 80 selected healthy individuals. ANOVA and General Linear Model (GLM) procedure were each applied for the QoL comparison, which was based on gender and age. Donors recorded a better QoL relative to the control group. Comparison across gender revealed that differences are more obvious for males than females. Donor/control comparison across age groups reveals that donors aged 56 and above reported significantly better QoL in most domains relative to other age groups. Information on donor QoL should be made available to the public to present a comprehensive picture of the consequences of organ donation. Nonetheless, we also argue that, despite the merits of organ donation, caution is required before concluding that donors have better QoL because the present research outcomes may reflect a self-selection bias in which respondents only included donors engaging in regular follow-ups.

  17. Usual and unusual care: existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freedland, Kenneth E; Mohr, David C; Davidson, Karina W; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the use of existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions and the role of extrinsic health care services in the design and conduct of behavioral trials...

  18. Strategies to control morphology in hybrid group III-V/group IV heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerich, Karla; Dick, Kimberly A; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Reuter, Mark C; Kodambaka, Suneel; Ross, Frances M

    2013-03-13

    By combining in situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy measurements, we examine the factors that control the morphology of "hybrid" nanowires that include group III-V and group IV materials. We focus on one materials pair, GaP/Si, for which we use a wide range of growth parameters. We show through video imaging that nanowire morphology depends on growth conditions, but that a general pattern emerges where either single kinks or inclined defects form some distance after the heterointerface. We show that pure Si nanowires can be made to exhibit the same kinks and defects by changing their droplet volume. From this we derive a model where droplet geometry drives growth morphology and discuss optimization strategies. We finally discuss morphology control for material pairs where the second material kinks immediately at the heterointerface and show that an interlayer between segments can enable the growth of unkinked hybrid nanowires.

  19. Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Chanal, Julien; Ratelle, Catherine F; Marsh, Herbert W; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    2010-12-01

    There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

  20. Study of Social Capital Status in Patients With Primary Headache Compared to Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Pirdehghan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social capital, in general, is mutual relationships, interactions, and networks that emerge among human grouping and is the level of trust formed in the specific group as commitment and social norm. This issue is associated with many mental and physical disorders in the community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of social capital in some people with a primary headache in comparison with control group. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 60 patients with a primary headache who referred to one of neurology clinics in Yazd city, Iran, as the case group and 60 subjects without primary headache as the control group that had some similarities with case group in demographic features. Data was collected via social capital questionnaire containing demographic information. Results: The mean score of social capital in the case group was 193.5±30.82 while the mean score of social capital in the control group was 214.1±34.22 (P=0.001 that indicate a significant correlation between social capital level and catching primary headache. Conclusion: Further studies are needed on the effect of social capital on the level of response to treatment in patients with primary headache. It is also suggested to be conducted interventions regarding the impact of social capital on headaches and broader studies with larger scale (urban population in this regard.

  1. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.

  2. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  3. Faecal short chain fatty acids in healthy subjects participating in a randomised controlled trial examining a soluble highly viscous polysaccharide versus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, R A; Pelletier, X; Carabin, I G; Lyon, M R; Gahler, R J; Wood, S

    2012-08-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fibre and have been linked with intestinal health. The present study examined faecal SCFA concentrations in subjects consuming a novel soluble highly viscous polysaccharide (HVP) or control for 3 weeks. A total of 54 healthy adults participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were randomised to consume HVP or control (skim milk powder). A dose of 5 g day(-1) was consumed in the first week, followed by 10 g day(-1) in the second and third weeks (n = 27 per group). The primary outcome was SCFA concentrations in faecal samples collected at baseline (visit 1, V1), at 1 week (V2) and at 3 week (V3). The reduction in faecal acetate from V1 to V3 in control subjects was not observed in subjects consuming HVP. There were no differences in propionate, butyrate, valerate or caproate concentrations. There was a significant treatment effect (P = 0.03) for total SCFA, with higher concentrations observed in subjects consuming HVP versus control. HVP is a viscous functional fibre that may influence gut microbial fermentation. Further work is warranted to examine the fermentative properties of HVP and possible links with appetite regulation and reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Minimum Entropy Active Fault Tolerant Control of the Non-Gaussian Stochastic Distribution System Subjected to Mean Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haokun Jin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic distribution control (SDC systems are a group of systems where the outputs considered is the measured probability density function (PDF of the system output whilst subjected to a normal crisp input. The purpose of the active fault tolerant control of such systems is to use the fault estimation information and other measured information to make the output PDF still track the given distribution when the objective PDF is known. However, if the target PDF is unavailable, the PDF tracking operation will be impossible. Minimum entropy control of the system output can be considered as an alternative strategy. The mean represents the center location of the stochastic variable, and it is reasonable that the minimum entropy fault tolerant controller can be designed subjected to mean constraint. In this paper, using the rational square-root B-spline model for the shape control of the system output probability density function (PDF, a nonlinear adaptive observer based fault diagnosis algorithm is proposed to diagnose the fault. Through the controller reconfiguration, the system entropy subjected to mean restriction can still be minimized when fault occurs. An illustrative example is utilized to demonstrate the use of the minimum entropy fault tolerant control algorithms.

  5. Heterogenic control groups in randomized, controlled, analgesic trials of total hip- and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anders P; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2017-11-17

    Postoperative analgesic interventions are often tested adjunct to basic non- opioid analgesics in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Consequently, treatment in control groups, and assay sensitivity, differs between trials. We hypothesized that postoperative opioid requirements and pain intensities varies between different control groups in analgesic trials. Control groups from RCTs investigating analgesic interventions after total hip and knee arthroplasty were categorized based on standardized basic analgesic treatment. Morphine consumption 0-24h postoperatively, and resting pain scores at 6 and 24 hours for subgroups of basic treatments, were compared with ANOVA. In an additional analysis, we compared pain and opioid requirements in trials where NSAID was administered as an intervention with trial where NSAID was administered in a control group. We included 171 RCTs employing 28 different control groups with large variability in pain scores and opioid requirements. Four types of control groups (comprising 78 trials) were eligi- ble for subgroup comparisons. These subgroups received: 'opioid', 'NSAID+opioid', 'acetamino- phen+opioid', or 'NSAID+acetaminophen+opioid'. Morphine consumption and pain scores varied substantially between these groups, with no consistent superior efficacy in any subgroup. Addi- tionally, trials administering NSAID as an intervention demonstrated lower pain scores and opioid requirements than trials where NSAID was administered in a control group. Analgesic treatment in RCT control groups varies considerably. Control groups receiving various combinations of opioid, NSAID and acetaminophen did not differ consistently in pain and opioid requirements. Pain and opioid requirements were lower in trials administering NSAID as an intervention compared with trials administering NSAID in a control group.

  6. Prepulse inhibition in euthymic bipolar disorder patients in comparison with control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Morla, E M; Mateo, J; Aparicio, A; García-Jiménez, M Á; Jiménez, E; Santos, J L

    2016-10-01

    Deficient prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response, indicating sensorimotor gating deficits, has been reported in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This study aimed to assess sensorimotor gating deficits in patients with euthymic bipolar. Furthermore, we analysed the relationships between PPI and clinical and cognitive measures. Prepulse inhibition was measured in 64 patients with euthymic bipolar and in 64 control subjects matched for age, gender, education level and smoking status. Clinical characteristics and level of functioning were assessed in all participants using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). Cognition was evaluated using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and the Stroop test as an additional measure of executive function. Compared with controls, patients with bipolar disorder exhibited PPI deficits at 60- and 120-millisecond prepulse-pulse intervals. Among patients with bipolar disorder, PPI was correlated with the social cognition domain of the MCCB. PPI was not significantly correlated with other clinical, functional and neurocognitive variables in either group. Our data suggest that PPI deficit is a neurobiological marker in euthymic bipolar disorder, which is associated with social cognition but not with other clinical, functional or cognitive measures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... controlled group, P forms M with a $100 contribution on January 1 of Year 1 and S sells the land to M for $100. On December 1 of Year 1, when the value of the land has decreased to $90, M sells the land to B for $90. On July 1 of Year 3, while B still owns the land, P sells all of M's stock to X and M becomes...

  8. Integrating CERN e-groups into TWiki access control.

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, PL; Hoymr, N; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    Wikis allow for easy collaborative editing of documents on the web for users located in different buildings, cities or even countries. TWiki culture lends to open free form editing and most pages are world readable and editable by CERN authenticated users, however access control is possible and is used to protect sensitive documents. This note discusses the integration of E-groups for authorisation purposes at CERN.

  9. Comparison of Antagonist Muscle Activity During Walking Between Total Knee Replacement and Control Subjects Using Unnormalized Electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Hannah J; Rojas, Idubijes L; Foucher, Kharma C; Wimmer, Markus A

    2016-06-01

    Although satisfactory outcomes have been reported after total knee replacement (TKR), full recovery of muscle strength and physical function is rare. We developed a relative activation index (RAI) to compare leg muscle activity from unnormalized surface electromyography (sEMG) between TKR and control subjects. Nineteen TKR and 19 control subjects underwent gait analysis and sEMG. RAIs were calculated by dividing the average sEMG for 2 consecutive subphases of stance defined by the direction of the external sagittal plane moment (flexion or extension). RAIs and external moments indicate TKR subjects have less initial stance antagonist rectus femoris activity (P = .004), greater middle stance antagonist biceps femoris activity (P < .001), and less late stance agonist biceps femoris activity (P < .001) than control subjects. Individuals with TKR demonstrate increased flexor muscle activation during weight bearing, potentially contributing to altered gait patterns found during the stance phase of gait. The RAI helps detail whether decreased external moments correspond to less agonist or more antagonist muscle activity to determine true muscle activity differences between subject groups. Identifying the mechanisms underlying altered muscle function both before and after TKR is critical for developing rehabilitation strategies to address functional deficits and disability found in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Multidimensional Perfectionism as the Predictors of Subjective Well Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Tagay, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final…

  11. From deception trials to control reagents - The introduction of the control group about a century ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    This is the story of the remarkable psychologist John E. Coover, who, in the early 1900s, was the first to advocate the comparison of experimental and control ol groups as a methodological necessity. Moreover, the author raises the issue of why control groups were launched about a century ago, and

  12. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöver Timo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vardenafil (Levitra® represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5 inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21 or matching placebo tablets (N = 21 administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication, and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ, the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36, audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA. Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36, objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil

  13. Usual and unusual care: existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Kenneth E; Mohr, David C; Davidson, Karina W; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the use of existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions and the role of extrinsic health care services in the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Selective qualitative review. Extrinsic health care services, also known as nonstudy care, have important but under-recognized effects on the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Usual care, treatment-as-usual, standard of care, and other existing practice control groups pose a variety of methodological and ethical challenges, but they play a vital role in behavioral intervention research. This review highlights the need for a scientific consensus statement on control groups in behavioral trials.

  14. Parent-adolescent communication about sexuality: the role of adolescents' beliefs, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Barbara C; van den Putte, Bas; Pasmans, Mirthe; Meeuwesen, Ludwien

    2007-04-01

    To examine to what extent adolescents' beliefs, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control predict the amount of parent-adolescent communication about sexuality. In addition, the role of adolescents' gender, ethnic background, religiosity and educational level on these relationships was assessed as well. Data were collected from 481 students of four high schools in The Netherlands. A questionnaire assessed adolescents' beliefs, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and self-reported parent-adolescent communication about sexuality. Linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of parent-adolescent communication. To assess differences between subgroups, chi(2)-analyses, t-tests and analyses of variance were conducted. Being female and having positive beliefs about talking with parents about sexuality were positively related to amount of parent-adolescent communication. In addition, adolescents' perceived behavioral control and subjective norm were significant predictors as well. Adolescents' beliefs, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control, are all significant predictors of frequency of parent-adolescent sex communication, with beliefs being the most important. In addition, adolescents' gender predicted a significant amount as well. Interventions aimed to increase the amount of parent-adolescent communication should primarily target their efforts to changing adolescents' underlying beliefs about discussing sexuality with their parents. Our results furthermore suggest that it is important to take into consideration gender variations in these beliefs, by designing separate interventions for different groups of adolescents.

  15. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stability). The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze differences in Functional Movement Screen scores between the two groups. [Results] Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on the Functional Movement Screen total composite compared with healthy control subjects. Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on Functional Movement Screen subtests including the deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tests. [Conclusion] The deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tasks of the Functional Movement Screen can be recommended as a functional assessment tools to identify functional deficits in chronic lower back pain patients.

  16. Determination of skin temperature under a comfort-controlled liquid-cooled garment in exercising subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, L. J.

    1971-01-01

    The physiological responses of exercising subjects were investigated under conditions in which the temperature of the coolant water was varied according to the subjective state of thermal comfort. Conditioning water was maintained at a constant flow rate of 240 lb/hr and at a temperature controllable within the range of 45 to 90 F. In addition to skin temperatures, rectal temperature and heart rate were monitored in the course of each trial. Total and evaporative weight losses were determined by measurements before and after each test. The levels on metabolic loading, measured indirectly on the basis of O2 consumption in the course of treadmill activity, ranged from the resting state to 2000 BTU/hr at increments of about 400 BTU. Under the experimental conditions, six volunteer subjects established a level of thermal comfort, as sensed subjectively, by controlling inlet water within the available range of temperature.

  17. Peer-Assisted History-Taking Groups: A Subjective Assessment of their Impact Upon Medical Students' Interview Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Petzold, Ernst Richard; Junne, Florian; Erschens, Rebecca Sarah; Speiser, Natalie; Herrmann-Werner, Anne; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Among the clinical skills needed by all physicians, history taking is one of the most important. The teaching model for peer-assisted history-taking groups investigated in the present study consists of small-group courses in which students practice conducting medical interviews with real patients. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the expectations, experiences, and subjective learning progress of participants in peer-assisted history-taking groups. Methods: The 42 medical student participants completed a 4-month, peer-assisted, elective history-taking course, which both began and ended with a subjective assessment of their interview skills by way of a pseudonymized questionnaire. Measures comprised the students' self-assessment of their interview skills, their expectations of, and their experiences with the course and especially with the peer tutors. Results: Medical students' most important motivations in attending peer-assisted history-taking groups were becoming able to complete a structured medical interview, to mitigate difficult interviewing situations, and to address patients' emotional demands appropriately. By the end of the course, students' self-assessment of both their interview skills and management of emotional issues improved significantly. Students especially benefitted from individual feedback regarding interview style and relationship formation, as well as generally accepted and had their expectations met by peer tutors. Conclusions: To meet the important learning objectives of history-taking and management of emotional issues, as well as self-reflection and reflection of student-patient interactions, students in the field greatly appreciate practicing medical interviewing in small, peer-assisted groups with real patients. At the same time, peer tutors are experienced to be helpful and supportive and can help students to overcome inhibitions in making contact with patients.

  18. Group excitation control of generators in state regional electric power plant transformer station automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumin, M.I.; Rosman, L.V.; Tarnavskii, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Group excitation control of electric generators according to standard methods is essential for the management of power plant conditions according to voltage and reactive power. A system is described that provides coordinated changes in the automatic excitation controller set point for generators that operate on common buses. The advantages of the excitation control system are discussed.

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis - Neuropsychology, Depression and Anxiety. A case - control study -120 Portuguese Female subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Maia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis in cognitive functions has not been well acknowledged in Portugal. With this original article we intended to elucidate this problem in this specific country. Methods: We measured the results of 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis female patients (study group, comparing every patient in a case control paired plan (years in school and age, with control subjects (n = 60, in a total of 120 subjects. All participants were evaluated with Paced Auditory Selective Attention Test, Word List Generation Test, Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, a Portuguese depressive screening test (IACLIDE, STAI (anxiety trace and trait test and the Mini Mental state examination.Results: The outcomes demonstrate, for the first conclusive time in Portuguese patients, the occurrence of main deficits in terms of cognitive functioning (measured by a variety ofneuropsychological tests, and depressive and anxietysymptomatology. Conclusion: This article asset the need to pay attention in psychoeducational, psychotherapeutic and cognitive stimulation, and reinforcement of neuropsychological intervention in these types of patients.Objectivos: O impacto da artrite reumatóide nas funçõescognitivas não tem sido bem reconhecido em Portugal. Com este artigo original pretendemos elucidar este problema neste país específico.Métodos: Avaliámos os resultados de 60 pacientes femininos com artrite reumatóide (grupo de estudo, comparando cada paciente num estudo de caso-controle, emparelhando ossujeitos com Artrite Reumatóide (60 sujeitos com 60 pacientes Artrite Reumatóide, nas variáveis anos de escolaridade eidade (a variável género era uma constante = feminino.Todos os participantes foram avaliados com o Teste de Atenção Auditiva Selectiva (PASAT, teste de geração de lista de palavras, Bateria Neuropsicológica de Luria Nebraska, um teste português de despistagem de sintomatologia depressiva (IACLIDE, um teste de rastreamento de tra

  20. Sense of coherence, self-esteem, and health locus of control in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus with/without satisfactory metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccitelli, C; Valentini, A; Caletti, M T; Caselli, C; Mazzella, N; Forlani, G; Marchesini, G

    2017-08-12

    Despite intensive training, a few individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) fail to reach the desired metabolic targets. To evaluate the association between disease-related emotional and cognitive aspects and metabolic control in subjects with T1DM. Health locus of control (HLOC), sense of coherence (SOC), and self-esteem were assessed in T1DM subjects using validated questionnaires. Sixty-seven consecutive subjects who did not attain the desired HbA1c target (mean HbA1c, 8.3% [67 mmol/mol]) were compared with 30 cases in satisfactory metabolic control (HbA1c levels <7%-53 mmol/mol). In the overall population, SOC was negatively associated with BMI and average HbA1c, as was the association of self-esteem with HbA1c. Subjects attaining the desired metabolic target were characterized by higher SOC scores, higher Internal HLOC and prevalent Internal vs. Powerful-others HLOC. Compared to subjects in good metabolic control, subjects with unsatisfactory control had lower scores of SOC, Internal HLOC and Self-esteem, with no difference in Powerful others, or Chance HLOC. In the same group, SOC in the upper tertile was significantly associated with self-esteem (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.08-1.69) and PHLOC (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.03-1.49), after adjustment for age, sex, educational level, and comorbidities. Patients who fail to reach a satisfactory metabolic control tend to rely on significant others, trusting in the physicians' skills or on the efficiency of the health-care system. Strategies aimed at increasing self-efficacy and SOC, based on personal ability, are eagerly awaited to help patients improve diabetes care.

  1. Effects of positive expiratory pressure on chest wall volumes in subjects with stroke compared to healthy controls: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elis E A; Resqueti, Vanessa R; Lima, Illia N D F; Gualdi, Lucien P; Aliverti, Andrea; Fregonezi, Guilherme A F

    2017-07-08

    Alterations in respiratory system kinematics in stroke lead to restrictive pattern associated with decreased lung volumes. Chest physical therapy, such as positive expiratory pressure, may be useful in the treatment of these patients; however, the optimum intensity to promote volume and motion changes of the chest wall remains unclear. To assess the effect of different intensities of positive expiratory pressure on chest wall kinematics in subjects with stroke compared to healthy controls. 16 subjects with chronic stroke and 16 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index were recruited. Chest wall volumes were assessed using optoelectronic plethysmography during quiet breathing, 5 minutes, and recovery. Three different intensities of positive expiratory pressure (10, 15, and 20cmH2O) were administered in a random order with a 30 minutes rest interval between intensities. During positive expiratory pressure, tidal chest wall expansion increased in both groups compared to quiet breathing; however, this increase was not significant in the subjects with stroke (0.41 vs. 1.32L, 0.56 vs. 1.54L, 0.52 vs. 1.8L, at 10, 15, 20cmH2O positive expiratory pressure, for stroke and control groups; p<0.001). End-expiratory chest wall volume decreased in controls, mainly due to the abdomen, and increased in the stroke group, mainly due the pulmonary rib cage. Positive expiratory pressure administration facilitates acute lung expansion of the chest wall and its compartments in restricted subjects with stroke. Positive expiratory pressure intensities above 10cmH2O should be used with caution as the increase in end-expiratory volume led to hyperinflation in subjects with stroke. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole Grain Intake and Glycaemic Control in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Marventano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: There is growing evidence from both observational and intervention studies that Whole Grain (WG cereals exert beneficial effects on human health, especially on the metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT to assess the acute and medium/long-term effect of WG foods on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Methods: A search for all the published RCT on the effect of WG food intake on glycaemic and insulin response was performed up to December 2016. Effect size consisted of mean difference (MD and 95% CI between the outcomes of intervention and the control groups using the generic inverse-variance random effects model. Results: The meta-analysis of the 14 studies testing the acute effects of WG foods showed significant reductions of the post-prandial values of the glucose iAUC (0–120 min by −29.71 mmol min/L (95% CI: −43.57, −15.85 mmol min/L, the insulin iAUC (0–120 min by −2.01 nmol min/L (95% CI: −2.88, −1.14 nmol min/L, and the maximal glucose and insulin response. In 16 medium- and long-term RCTs, effects of WG foods on fasting glucose and insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were not significant. Conclusions: The consumption of WG foods is able to improve acutely the postprandial glucose and insulin homeostasis compared to similar refined foods in healthy subjects. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects and the biological mechanisms.

  3. Trajectories in glycemic control over time are associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sano, Mary; Leroith, Derek; Johnson, Sterling; Preiss, Rachel; Koifman, Keren; Hoffman, Hadas; Silverman, Jeremy M; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2014-01-01

    To study the relationships of long-term trajectories of glycemic control with cognitive performance in cognitively normal elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Subjects (n = 835) pertain to a diabetes registry (DR) established in 1998 with an average of 18 HbA1c measurements per subject, permitting identification of distinctive trajectory groups of HbA1c and examining their association with cognitive function in five domains: episodic memory, semantic categorization, attention/working memory, executive function, and overall cognition. Analyses of covariance compared cognitive function among the trajectory groups adjusting for sociodemographic, cardiovascular, diabetes-related covariates and depression. Subjects averaged 72.8 years of age. Six trajectories of HbA1c were identified, characterized by HbA1c level at entry into the DR (Higher/Lower), and trend over time (Stable/Decreasing/Increasing). Both groups with a trajectory of decreasing HbA1c levels had high HbA1c levels at entry into the DR (9.2%, 10.7%), and high, though decreasing, HbA1c levels over time. They had the worst cognitive performance, particularly in overall cognition (pperformed best in cognitive tests. Glycemic control trajectories, which better reflect chronicity of T2D than a single HbA1c measurement, predict cognitive performance. A trajectory of stable HbA1c levels over time is associated with better cognitive function.

  4. Response of different lines and cultivars of rice subjected to low temperatures under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra H Díaz Solís

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is the most important food crop in the world and primary source of food for more than a third of the population. The low temperatures are among the main abiotic stresses that affect the yield of this cereal. The objective of this work was to determinate the response of different lines and cultivars of rice in seedling state to low temperature stress under controlled conditions. 172 lines and cultivars were studied. It were subjected to 5 0C for 24 hours, when the plants were about three to four leaves. The evaluations were conducted by measured of chlorophyll fluorescence and visually. A wide range of response was obtained, which indicated a high allelic diversity for the low temperatures sensitivity in the studied germplasm. A group of 30 cultivars responded more favorably to the cold and the most prominent cultivars showed Fv/Fm values between 0.80 and 0.89. A significant relationship between visual evaluation and chlorophyll fluorescence was found. The correlation coefficient revealed a moderately strong relationship between both variables. Tolerant plant materials were more consistently identified. However, the dispersion between methods increased to more susceptible cultivars.   Keywords: cold tolerance, chlorophyll fluorescence, Oryza sativa, visual evaluation

  5. H∞ Robust Current Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine subject to Grid Voltage Distortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Gong, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an H∞ robust current controller for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines (WTs) subject to grid voltage distortions. The controller is to mitigate the impact of the grid voltage distortions on rotor currents with DFIG parameter perturbation. The grid voltage...... are designed to efficiently track the unbalanced current components and the 5th and 7th background harmonics. The robust stability (RS) and robust performance (RP) of the proposed controller are verified by the structured singular value µ. The performance of the H∞ robust current controller was demonstrated...

  6. Differentiation of African components of ancestry to stratify groups in a case-control study of a Brazilian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C

    2012-06-01

    Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA 0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.

  7. Subject-controlled stimulation of dorsal genital nerve to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opisso, Eloy; Borau, Albert; Rijkhoff, Nico J M

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of subject controlled dorsal genital nerve (DGN) electrical stimulation on neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) in subjects at home. Subjects underwent a 5-day study at home with DGN stimulation. Stimulation was provided with surface electrodes placed either on the dorsal penile shaft in males and on or close to the clitoris in females. The days 1 and 5 were with no stimulation whereas days 2-4 were with stimulation. Two urodynamic studies were performed at the beginning and at the end of the study. A bladder diary was obtained. Eleven subjects with NDO and with urge incontinence were included. One subject stopped the protocol before the end of the 5-day trial and two did not undergo the second urodynamic study. The subjects showed a statistically significant increase in bladder capacities compared to baseline (P = 0.047). Mean volume per day voided significantly increased over the study within the subjects. Differences between day 1 and day 5 were statistically significant (P = 0.028). The feasibility and the globally positive outcomes of the study indicate that the stimulation of the dorsal genital nerve can be an option for the treatment of the NDO. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Roselinde K; Snyder, Hannah R; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual's response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low) responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that (1) learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that (2) this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective) responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n = 109). People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n = 90), we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest Stroop

  9. State-Feedback Control for Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a state-feedback control method for fractional-order nonlinear systems subject to input saturation. First, a sufficient condition is derived for the asymptotical stability of a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems. Then based on Gronwall-Bellman lemma and a sector bounded condition of the saturation function, a linear state-feed back controller is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the validity of the proposed method.

  10. H∞ Robust Current Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine subject to Grid Voltage Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Gong, Wenming; Gryning, Mikkel Peter Sidoroff

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an H∞ robust current controller for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines (WTs) subject to grid voltage distortions. The controller is to mitigate the impact of the grid voltage distortions on rotor currents with DFIG parameter perturbation. The grid voltage distortions considered include asymmetric voltage dips and grid background harmonics. An uncertain DFIG model is developed with uncertain factors originating from distorted stator voltage, and chang...

  11. Pengaruh Attitude, Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavioral Control Pelanggan Non-muslim terhadap Intention To Purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Andryani, Dwinta; Kurniawati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa pengaruh Attitude, Subjective Norm, PerceivedBehavioral Control terhadap Intention to Purchase. Data dikumpulkan langsung melaluipenyebaran kuesioner kepada 170 orang responden. Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitianini adalah dengan menggunakan purposive sampling. Hasil empiris dari penelitian inimenggunakan program Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) dengan metode analisisstructural equation model (SEM). Hasil pengujian hipotesis ...

  12. A Framework for Control System Design Subject to Average Data-Rate Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Eduardo; Derpich, Milan; Østergaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies discrete-time control systems subject to average data-rate limits. We focus on a situation where a noisy linear system has been designed assuming transparent feedback and, due to implementation constraints, a source-coding scheme (with unity signal transfer function) has to be ...

  13. [Comparative study of some clinical and laboratory indicators in a group of patients using wells as source of drinking water and a control group using safe water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, L; Ciochină, D A

    2011-01-01

    In time, well water, as a source of drinking and coking water, with physical-chemical, bacteriological, and biological indicators suggestive of alteration in water potability, determines complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders. Sixty individuals residing in a rural community were divided into 2 groups: study group -30 subjects using well water, and control group--30 subjects using safe water. For the study group the selection criteria were: age, sex, use of well water as drinking and cooking water, history suggestive of chronic poisoning (pregnancy course, birth weight, susceptibility to infectious agents, and current chronic diseases). In the study group, gestosis, prematurity, and altered body mass index are more frequent as compared to the subjects in the control group. The identified laboratory changes indicate moderate anemia, hepatic cytolysis, dyslipidemia, presence of nitrites in urine, and positive urine cultures. Long-term use of water with mineral constituents in excess, absent, or inadequate, the direct biological and chemical water pollution, or most frequently the indirect pollution through the soil determine, in time, complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of two forms of self-management group education in Japanese people with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Saeko; Kozai, Hana; Naruse, Yuko; Watanabe, Kanji; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Kajiyama, Shizuo

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education on diabetes prevention in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. A total of 100 subjects of impaired glucose tolerance with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels >/=5.5 to education in 8 sessions over a 6-month period. The support group consisted of 10 members collaborating with a dietitian or a nurse who learned coping skills by employing a participant-centered approach. Participants in the support group were required to keep a diary that monitored weight, food intake and blood glucose levels, while the control group attended several lectures. Subjects assigned to the support group had a reduction in mean HbA1c levels from 5.77 +/- 0.36% at baseline to 5.39 +/- 0.24% at the endpoint (peducation can be effective for improving glycemic control in participants when carried out in collaboration with educators and other team members.

  15. The active disturbance rejection control approach to stabilisation of coupled heat and ODE system subject to boundary control matched disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bao-Zhu; Liu, Jun-Jun; AL-Fhaid, A. S.; Younas, Arshad Mahmood M.; Asiri, Asim

    2015-08-01

    We consider stabilisation for a linear ordinary differential equation system with input dynamics governed by a heat equation, subject to boundary control matched disturbance. The active disturbance rejection control approach is applied to estimate, in real time, the disturbance with both constant high gain and time-varying high gain. The disturbance is cancelled in the feedback loop. The closed-loop systems with constant high gain and time-varying high gain are shown, respectively, to be practically stable and asymptotically stable.

  16. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on Stroop performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselinde Kaiser Henderson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing to clinical therapy. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual’s response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that 1 learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that 2 this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n=109. People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n=90, we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress

  17. Multi-subject/daily-life activity EMG-based control of mechanical hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorilla Angelo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forearm surface electromyography (EMG has been in use since the Sixties to feed-forward control active hand prostheses in a more and more refined way. Recent research shows that it can be used to control even a dexterous polyarticulate hand prosthesis such as Touch Bionics's i-LIMB, as well as a multifingered, multi-degree-of-freedom mechanical hand such as the DLR II. In this paper we extend previous work and investigate the robustness of such fine control possibilities, in two ways: firstly, we conduct an analysis on data obtained from 10 healthy subjects, trying to assess the general applicability of the technique; secondly, we compare the baseline controlled condition (arm relaxed and still on a table with a "Daily-Life Activity" (DLA condition in which subjects walk, raise their hands and arms, sit down and stand up, etc., as an experimental proxy of what a patient is supposed to do in real life. We also propose a cross-subject model analysis, i.e., training a model on a subject and testing it on another one. The use of pre-trained models could be useful in shortening the time required by the subject/patient to become proficient in using the hand. Results A standard machine learning technique was able to achieve a real-time grip posture classification rate of about 97% in the baseline condition and 95% in the DLA condition; and an average correlation to the target of about 0.93 (0.90 while reconstructing the required force. Cross-subject analysis is encouraging although not definitive in its present state. Conclusion Performance figures obtained here are in the same order of magnitude of those obtained in previous work about healthy subjects in controlled conditions and/or amputees, which lets us claim that this technique can be used by reasonably any subject, and in DLA situations. Use of previously trained models is not fully assessed here, but more recent work indicates it is a promising way ahead.

  18. Efficacy of multiwavelength light therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers in subjects with disorders of the spinal cord: A randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taly, Arun B; Sivaraman Nair, Krishan P; Murali, Thyloth; John, Archana

    2004-10-01

    To study the efficacy of multiwavelength light therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers in subjects with spinal cord disorders. Randomized controlled trial. Neurologic rehabilitation ward of a referral center in India. Thirty-five subjects with spinal cord injury, with 64 pressure ulcers (stage 2, n=55; stage 3, n=8; stage 4, n=1), were randomized into treatment and control groups. One subject refused consent. Mean duration of ulcers in the treatment group was 34.2+/-45.5 days and in the control group, 57.1+/-43.5 days. Treatment group received 14 sessions of multiwavelength light therapy, with 46 probes of different wavelengths from a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser source, 3 times a week. Energy used was 4.5 J/cm(2). Ulcers in the control group received sham treatment. Healing of the ulcer, defined as the complete closure of the wound with healthy scar tissue, time taken for the ulcer to heal, and stage of the ulcer and Pressure Sore Status Tool score 14 days after last treatment. There was no significant difference in healing between the treatment and control groups. Eighteen ulcers in treatment group and 14 in control group healed completely ( P =.802). Mean time taken by the ulcers to heal was 2.45+/-2.06 weeks in the treatment group and 1.78+/-2.13 weeks in the control group ( P =.330). Time taken for stage 3 and 4 ulcers to reach stage 2 was 2.25+/-0.5 weeks in treatment group and 4.33+/-1.53 weeks in control group ( P =.047). Multiwavelength light therapy from a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser source did not influence overall healing pressure ulcers. Limited evidence suggested that it improved healing of stage 3 and 4 pressure ulcers.

  19. The Relationship Between the Serum Level of Vitamin D and Vitiligo: A Controlled Study on 300 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurrum, Huma; AlGhamdi, Khalid M

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels have been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Vitiligo could be associated with low vitamin D levels. To determine the level of serum vitamin D in vitiligo patients compared to controls and reveal the possible association of vitamin levels with the pathogenesis of vitiligo. A case-controlled study was conducted. After excluding factors that may affect serum vitamin D levels, blood samples were taken from vitiligo patients and controls. The association between vitamin D levels and various vitiligo subgroups (duration of vitiligo, site of onset, age, etc) was measured and correlated. A total of 150 vitiligo patients, 90 (60%) males with a mean age of 30.6 ± 11.4 years, were recruited. The study also had 150 age- and gender-matched vitiligo-free control subjects. There was no significant difference in median serum vitamin D levels between the cases and the controls (P = .25). The serum levels of vitamin D of the vitiligo patients were found to be lower in males (P = .01), the younger age group (P = .01), and patients not treated with ultraviolet (UV) treatment (P = .01). There is no difference between the vitamin D levels of the vitiligo patients and the control subjects. However, deficiency of 25(OH)D levels within the vitiligo subgroups may be linked to younger age, male gender, short duration of vitiligo, and non-use of phototherapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Resveratrol as Add-on Therapy in Subjects With Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Ligt, M. de; Phielix, E.; Weijer, T. van de; Hansen, J.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart, G.; Kunz, I.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Schrauwen, P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether resveratrol supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity and promote overall metabolic health on top of standard diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen subjects with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D) were treated with placebo and 150 mg/day

  1. Effects of stress and relaxation on pain perception in subjects with pain-free occlusional disharmony compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscheweyh, R; Becker, T; Born, Y; Çolak-Ekici, R; Marziniak, M; Evers, S; Gerlach, A L; Wolowski, A

    2015-04-01

    The significance of occlusal disharmony for the development of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is controversial. The ongoing biomechanical strain caused by occlusal disharmony might lead to sensitization processes in the nociceptive system. Understanding these processes might be an important step toward understanding the possible relationship between occlusal disharmony and TMD. In this study, we therefore investigated whether subjects with occlusal disharmony (n = 22) differ from healthy controls (n = 26) in their pain perception and pain modulation by stress and relaxation. Trigeminal and extratrigeminal experimental pain perception (pinprick, heat, and pressure pain) was assessed before and after stress (mental arithmetic) and relaxation (viewing of low-arousal pictures). There were no group differences in pain perception at baseline or during the stress task. Compared with controls, the occlusal disharmony group exhibited an inadequate reduction in pain perception during relaxation, which was significant for the extratrigeminal site (P < 0.01) and reached a trend for significance at the trigeminal site (P = 0.1). These results suggest that subjects with occlusal disharmony show signs of disturbed endogenous pain inhibition during relaxation. There is evidence for the presence of sensitization of the nociceptive system in subjects with occlusal disharmony. Possibly, deficient inhibition of extratrigeminal and trigeminal pain perception by relaxation might contribute to the development of TMD or other chronic pain disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  3. Effect of Kinesiology Tape on Measurements of Balance in Subjects With Chronic Ankle Instability: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Torre-Domingo, Carlos; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M; Molina-Rueda, Francisco; López-Román, Antonio; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2015-12-01

    To examine the immediate and prolonged effects (7d) of Kinesiology Tape (KT) on balance in subjects with chronic ankle instability using computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). A 7-day follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial. University community. Subjects (N=36) were screened for possible eligibility criteria, and 30 successfully completed the study protocol. Of these, 15 were randomly assigned to the experimental group (KT: 5 men, 10 women), and 15 were assigned to the control group (placebo tape: 10 men, 5 women). The experimental group was taped for a lateral ankle sprain with KT. In the control group, a placebo tape was used. Balance was assessed under the following 3 conditions: without taping, immediately after application, and after 7 days of use. The CDP device used in this study was the Smart Equitest version 8.2. CDP analysis was conducted using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). As primaries outcome measures, the composite SOT score and composite SOT strategy were chosen. The partial score for SOT condition 2 and its strategy were considered as the secondary outcomes measures. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there was not a significant interaction between group and time in the composite SOT score (F=.239; P=.73), SOT condition 2 (F=.333; P=.705), and SOT strategy 2 (F=.899; P=.43). Additionally, repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant effect for time (composite SOT score: F=40.69; P≤.01; SOT condition 2: F=4.61; P=.014; SOT strategy 2: F=.899; P=.413; composite SOT strategy: F=15.14; P≤.01). Specifically, post hoc analysis showed that both groups obtained improvements in composite SOT scores immediately after tape application and 7 days of use. According to our results, the SOT scores of both the KT and control groups improved during follow-up. No differences between them were observed during the follow-up in most balance measurements. The observed changes may be related to a subjective increase

  4. Comparison of Demodex folliculorum density in haemodialysis patients with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagdiran Düzgün, O; Aytekin, S

    2007-04-01

    Demodex folliculorum (DF) is resident in human pilosebaceous follicles. Mite density is low in healthy skin. Many cases of demodicosis in association with immunosuppression have been reported. Patients undergoing haemodialysis are also immunosuppressed. We aimed to compare the Demodex folliculorum density in haemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Mite density of 87 patients undergoing haemodialysis was compared with that of age- and sex-matched controls. Two samples of standardized skin surface biopsies were taken from each subject from the forehead, cheek and nose. The number of mites counted on the surface area of 1 cm2 was accepted as the density of DF. The length and width of mites were measured by oculometer. DF density was found in 17 (19.54%) of the 87 dialysis patients and in 9 (10.34%) of 87 controls. A mean mite density of 5.11+/-5.65 was found in dialysis patients and of 2.55+/-1.6 in controls. Differences between the two groups in mite density were not statistically significant (P=0.13). There was also no significant difference in mite length between the two groups (P=0.06). There was, however, a significant difference in mite width (P=0.018). Despite the presence of sebaceous gland atrophy in haemodialysis patients, the higher density of DF in these patients than controls supports the supposition that this mite can increase immunosuppression.

  5. Normal controlled attenuation parameter values: a prospective study of healthy subjects undergoing health checkups and liver donors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Young Eun; Jung, Kyu Sik; Kim, Kwang Joon; Joo, Dong Jin; Kim, Beom Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Seung Up

    2015-01-01

    The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a noninvasive method of assessing hepatic steatosis. We defined the normal range of CAP values in healthy subjects and evaluated the associated factors. CAP values were measured in a cohort of healthy subjects who were screened as living liver transplantation donors and those who underwent health checkups. Subjects with current or a history of chronic liver disease, abnormalities on liver-related laboratory tests, or fatty liver on ultrasonography or biopsy were excluded. The mean age of the 264 recruited subjects (131 males and 133 females; 76 potential liver donors and 188 subjects who had undergone health checkups) was 49.2 years. The mean CAP value was 224.8 ± 38.7 dB/m (range 100.0-308.0 dB/m), and the range of normal CAP values (5th-95th percentiles) was 156.0-287.8 dB/m. The mean CAP value was significantly higher in the health checkup than in the potential liver donor group (227.5 ± 42.0 vs. 218.2 ± 28.3 dB/m, P = 0.040). CAP values did not differ significantly according to gender or age in either group (all P > 0.05). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, body mass index (β = 0.271, P = 0.024) and triglyceride levels (β = 0.348, P = 0.008) were found to be independently associated with CAP values. We determined the normal range of CAP values and found that body mass index and triglyceride levels were associated with the CAP values of healthy subjects.

  6. Factors predicting quality of life in a group of Polish subjects with multiple sclerosis: accounting for functional state, socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papuć, Ewa; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2012-05-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has presently a firmly established position as an important endpoint in medical care. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with considerable effect on patients' QoL. QoL of MS patients from many European countries has already been assessed but little is known on health-related QoL of Polish subjects with MS. Few studies have taken into consideration multiple predictors of QoL. The aim of this study was to elicit the most relevant factors that determine QoL of Polish group of MS patients. Socio-demographic and clinical factors as well as the influence of disability level were analyzed in this study. 173 MS patients and 86 healthy controls underwent assessment using the Mini Mental Status Examination, WHOQOL-100, Beck Depression Inventory and Fatigue Severity Scale. Data were analyzed by a stepwise linear regression analysis. MS patients had significantly worse global QoL and worse QoL in physical and psychological health domains, lower level of independence, worse social relations and were less satisfied with the surrounding environment they lived in compared with healthy controls (p<0.05). MS subjects had also higher level of depression and fatigue compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). The study determined that the strongest predictors of global QoL of Polish MS patients were depression, disability level and fatigue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. LMI-Based Fuzzy Optimal Variance Control of Airfoil Model Subject to Input Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean S.M.; Ayoubi, Mohammad A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of fuzzy optimal variance control problem for dynamical systems subject to actuator amplitude and rate constraints. Using Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy modeling and dynamic Parallel Distributed Compensation technique, the stability and the constraints can be cast as a multi-objective optimization problem in the form of Linear Matrix Inequalities. By utilizing the formulations and solutions for the input and output variance constraint problems, we develop a fuzzy full-state feedback controller. The stability and performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated through its application to the airfoil flutter suppression.

  8. A randomized controlled trial: the effect of inulin on weight management and ectopic fat in subjects with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Nicola D; Dornhorst, Anne; Oliver, Nick; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Fat infiltration of the liver, muscle and pancreas is associated with insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. Weight loss reduces ectopic fat deposition and risk of diabetes, but is difficult to sustain to due to compensatory increases in appetite. Fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to decrease appetite and food intake, and promote weight loss in overweight subjects. In animal studies, fermentable carbohydrate reduces ectopic fat independent of weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of the fermentable carbohydrate inulin on weight maintenance, appetite and ectopic fat in subjects with prediabetes. Forty-four subjects with prediabetes were randomized to 18 weeks' inulin or cellulose supplementation. During weeks 1-9 (weight loss phase) all subjects had four visits with a dietitian to guide them towards a 5 % weight loss. During weeks 10-18 (weight maintenance phase) subjects continued taking their assigned supplementation and were asked to maintain the weight they had lost but were offered no further support. All subjects attended study sessions at baseline, 9 and 18 weeks for measurement of weight; assessment of adipose tissue and ectopic fat content by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; glucose, insulin and GLP-1 levels following a meal tolerance test; and appetite by ad libitum meal test and visual analogue scales. Both groups lost approximately 5 % of their body weight by week nine (-5.3 ± 0.1 % vs -4.3 ± 0.4 %, p = 0.13, but the inulin group lost significantly more weight between 9 and 18 weeks (-2.3 ± 0.5 % vs -0.6 ± 0.4 %, p = 0.012). Subjects taking inulin had lower hepatic (p = 0.02) and soleus muscle (p fat content at 18 weeks compared to control even after controlling for weight loss and consumed less at the ad libitum meal test (p = 0.027). Fasting glucose significantly decreased at week nine only (p = 0.005), insulin concentrations did not change, and there

  9. A case-control investigation of adenomyosis: impact of control group selection on risk factor strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, Britton; Weiss, Noel S; Rudra, Carole B; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L

    2011-01-01

    Using a medical record abstraction-based case-control study with two control groups, we evaluated adenomyosis risk factors and investigated differences related to comparison group selection. Medical records of all female 18- to 49-year-old Group Health (GH) enrollees with ICD-9 code 617.0 were abstracted using a standard data collection form. Cases were enrollees diagnosed with adenomyosis (n = 174) between April 1996 and September 2001. For comparison, medical records of two control groups were selected from the GH population: An age-matched sample of female enrollees (population-based controls; n = 149) and all female 18- to 49-year-old enrollees undergoing a hysterectomy (hysterectomy controls; n = 106) during the same time without adenomyosis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusted for identified covariates. Compared with normal and underweight women, overweight and obese women had increased adenomyosis risk using hysterectomy controls (OR, 2.2, 95% CI, 1.0-4.5; obese: OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3) and population controls (overweight: OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0; obese: OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.0-7.0). Using population controls, women with at least one live birth were more likely to have adenomyosis than nulliparous women (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.9-6.2). Although some risk factors persisted in analyses using either control group, divergent results in relation to other risk factors for adenomyosis suggest that results of investigations of this disease may be affected by the choice of the comparison population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Characterization of EEG patterns in brain-injured subjects and controls after a Snoezelen(®) intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carlos; Poza, Jesús; Gutiérrez, María T; Prada, Esther; Mendoza, Nuria; Hornero, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes induced in electroencephalographic (EEG) activity by a Snoezelen(®) intervention on individuals with brain-injury and control subjects. EEG activity was recorded preceding and following a Snoezelen(®) session in 18 people with cerebral palsy (CP), 18 subjects who have sustained traumatic brain-injury (TBI) and 18 controls. EEG data were analyzed by means of spectral and nonlinear measures: median frequency (MF), individual alpha frequency (IAF), sample entropy (SampEn) and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC). Our results showed decreased values for MF, IAF, SampEn and LZC as a consequence of the therapy. The main changes between pre-stimulation and post-stimulation conditions were found in occipital and parietal brain areas. Additionally, these changes are more widespread in controls than in brain-injured subjects, which can be due to cognitive deficits in TBI and CP groups. Our findings support the notion that Snoezelen(®) therapy affects central nervous system, inducing a slowing of oscillatory activity, as well as a decrease of EEG complexity and irregularity. These alterations seem to be related with higher levels of relaxation of the participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison between the mental health of mothers of children with autism and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Forough; Izadi-Mazidi, Sakineh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of mothers of children with autism and those of control group. Sample of this study consists of 32 mothers of Children with Autistic disorder and 29 mothers of children without Autism; referring to hospitals of Ahvaz city using Convenience sampling. All subjects were asked to complete Demographic questionnaire and General HealthQuestionnaire (GHQ). Data were analyzed using Multivariate Analysis of variance (MANOVA). RESULTSindicated that significant differences exist in mental health (F=5.69, P=0.02) and anxiety/ insomnia (F=4.82, P=0.03), between mothers of children with Autismand control group. There were not any other significant differences in the other subscales. It is essential using some mental health improving interventions for mothers of children with Autistic disorder.

  12. Placebo Controlled Trials: Interests of Subjects versus Interests of Drug Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Sasongko, Teguh Haryo; Othman, Nor Hayati; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Abdullah, Sarimah; Husin, Azlan; Van Rostenberghe, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The use of placebo-controlled trials in situations where established therapies are available is considered ethically problematic since the patients randomised to the placebo group are deprived of the beneficial treatment. The pharmaceutical industry and drug regulators seem to argue that placebo-controlled trials with extensive precautions and control measures in place should still be allowed since they provide necessary scientific evidence for the efficacy and safety of new drugs. On the oth...

  13. Radiation field control at the latest BWR plants -- design principle, operational experience and future subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke [Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Ohsumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie [Hitachi Works, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Improvements of operational procedures to control water chemistry, e.g., nickel/iron control, as well as application of hardware improvements for reducing radioactive corrosion products resulted in an extremely low occupational exposure of less than 0.5 man.Sv/yr without any serious impact on the radwaste system, for BWR plants involved in the Japanese Improvement and Standardization Program. Recently, {sup 60}C radioactively in the reactor water has been increasing due to less crud fixation on the two smooth surfaces of new type high performance fuels and to the pH drop caused by chromium oxide anions released from stainless steel structures and pipings. This increase must be limited by changes in water chemistry, e.g., applications of modified nickel/iron ratio control and weak alkali control. Controlled water chemistry to optimize three points, the plant radiation level and integrities of fuel and structural materials, is the primary future subject for BWR water chemistry.

  14. Behavioral and cognitive group treatment for fear of flying: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerwen, Lucas J; Spinhoven, Philip; Van Dyck, Richard

    2006-12-01

    In a long-standing fear-of-flying program, persons with fear of flying (N=150) were after a diagnostic assessment and individual preparation phase randomly assigned to either a 1-day behavioral group treatment (BGT) program, a 2-day cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT) program or a waiting list (WL) control group. A post-treatment flight on a commercial airline measured participants' ability to fly. Different self-report flight anxiety questionnaires were completed before, during and after treatment at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results indicated that both treatments were superior to the WL, and equally effective on the flying test and later independent flying, but also that the 2-day CBGT program was significantly more effective than the 1-day BGT program on subjective measures of fear and self-efficacy.

  15. Cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise training in formerly preeclamptic women and healthy parous control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Thijssen, Dick J H; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T E; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2014-11-01

    Women who have had preeclampsia demonstrate higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired vascular function, and increased sympathetic activity and are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 12 weeks of exercise training (70-80% maximum volume of oxygen utilization) in women who had had preeclampsia on physical fitness, components of MetS, vasculature, and autonomic functions compared with healthy control subjects. Our prospective case-control study included 24 normotensive women who had had preeclampsia and 20 control subjects who were matched for age and postpartum interval (all 6-12 months after delivery). Before and after training, we measured all components of MetS (ie, BP, lipids, glucose/insulin, and albuminuria), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and brachial and superficial femoral artery endothelial function that used flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Autonomic activity was quantified with power spectral analysis (low-frequency/high-frequency power [LF/HF] ratio). At baseline, women who had had preeclampsia demonstrated higher values of most components of MetS. Compared with the control subjects, women who had had preeclampsia had increased IMT (580 ± 92 μm vs 477 ± 65 μm, respectively), impaired endothelial function (FMD brachial artery, 5.3% ± 2.2% vs 10.8% ± 3.5%, respectively; FMD superficial femoral artery, 4.9% ± 2.1% vs 8.7% ± 3.2%, respectively) and increased LF/HF power ratio (2.2 ± 1.0 vs 1.3 ± 0.4, respectively; all P exercise training decreased values of most components of MetS and IMT, improved FMD, and concurrently reduced LF/HF. Despite these improvements, vascular and autonomic variables did not normalize by 12 weeks of training in women who had had preeclampsia. This study demonstrates that exercise training in women who had had preeclampsia and control subjects improves components of MetS, endothelial function, vascular wall thickness, and autonomic control

  16. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference.

  17. Evaluation of Subjective and Objective Performance Metrics for Haptically Controlled Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Dung Pham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies in detail how different evaluation methods perform when it comes to describing the performance of haptically controlled mobile manipulators. Particularly, we investigate how well subjective metrics perform compared to objective metrics. To find the best metrics to describe the performance of a control scheme is challenging when human operators are involved; how the user perceives the performance of the controller does not necessarily correspond to the directly measurable metrics normally used in controller evaluation. It is therefore important to study whether there is any correspondence between how the user perceives the performance of a controller, and how it performs in terms of directly measurable metrics such as the time used to perform a task, number of errors, accuracy, and so on. To perform these tests we choose a system that consists of a mobile manipulator that is controlled by an operator through a haptic device. This is a good system for studying different performance metrics as the performance can be determined by subjective metrics based on feedback from the users, and also as objective and directly measurable metrics. The system consists of a robotic arm which provides for interaction and manipulation, which is mounted on a mobile base which extends the workspace of the arm. The operator thus needs to perform both interaction and locomotion using a single haptic device. While the position of the on-board camera is determined by the base motion, the principal control objective is the motion of the manipulator arm. This calls for intelligent control allocation between the base and the manipulator arm in order to obtain intuitive control of both the camera and the arm. We implement three different approaches to the control allocation problem, i.e., whether the vehicle or manipulator arm actuation is applied to generate the desired motion. The performance of the different control schemes is evaluated, and our

  18. Randomized placebo controlled trial of furosemide on subjective perception of dyspnoea in patients with pulmonary oedema because of hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer-Richling, Nina; Holzer, Michael; Herkner, Harald; Riedmüller, Eva; Havel, Christof; Kaff, Alfred; Malzer, Reinhard; Schreiber, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    To compare the administration of furosemide with placebo on the subjective perception of dyspnoea in patients with acute pulmonary oedema because of hypertensive crisis. Design  Randomized, controlled and double-blinded clinical trial. Municipal emergency medical service system and university-based emergency department. Fifty-nine patients with pulmonary oedema because of hypertensive crisis. Additional to administration of oxygen, morphine-hydrochloride and urapidil until the systolic blood pressure was below 160mmHg, the patients were randomized to receive furosemide 80mg IV bolus (furosemide group) or saline placebo (placebo group). The primary outcome was the subjective perception of dyspnoea as measured with a modified BORG scale at one hour after randomization. Secondary outcome parameters were the subjective perception of dyspnoea of patients as measured with a modified BORG scale and a visual analogue scale at 2, 3 and 6h after randomization of the patient; course of the systolic arterial pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation and lactate at admission and at 6h after admission. In 25 patients in the furosemide group and in 28 patients in the placebo group, a BORG score could be obtained. There was no statistically significant difference in the severity of dyspnoea at one hour after randomization (P=0·40). The median BORG score at 1h after randomization in the furosemide group was 3 (IQR 2 to 4) compared to 3 (IQR 2 to 7) in the placebo group (P=0·40). Those patients who were randomized to the placebo group needed higher doses of urapidil at 20min after randomization. There were no significant differences in the rate of adverse events, nonfatal cardiac arrests or death between the two groups. The subjective perception of dyspnoea in patients with hypertensive pulmonary oedema was not influenced by the application of a loop-diuretic. Therefore, additional furosemide therapy needs to be scrutinized in the therapy of these patients. © 2010 The Authors

  19. Sleeping position and reported quality of sleep. A comparison between subjects demanding treatment for temporomandibular disorders and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Anna-Kerstin Göthe; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate if there are differences concerning preferred body posture during sleep between 100 patients, 66 women and 34 men, mean age: 49 years (range: 20-85 years) referred to a specialist clinic because of TMD and 100 matched controls from a public dental clinic. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire with questions about TMD symptoms and neck or shoulder pain. They were also asked about preferred sleeping position as well as about perceived sleep quality. No differences could be found between the two groups in respect of sleeping position. However, significantly more individuals in the TMD group compared to the controls had changed their preferred sleeping position due to their face and/or jaw and/ or neck-shoulder symptoms. Subjects in the TMD group also more frequently stated that they often felt insufficiently rested at awakening and/or felt tired or sleepy in the daytime because of symptoms from face/jaws. A significant number in the control group reported TMD symptoms indicating a latent need for TMD treatment. It is concluded that sleep position seems to have little or no significance for the development or maintenance of TMD symptoms. However, the study indicates that TMD symptoms and associated neck- and shoulder pain affect the quality of sleep.

  20. The use of control groups in music therapy research: a content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm.

  1. A controlled laboratory comparison of 4 topical skin creams moisturizing capability on human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel L; Chakravarthy, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    This study compares human skin capacitance (moisture) readings after the application of 4 different, commercially available, topical skin creams. Twenty-one subjects (15 women and 6 men) aged 49.38 ± 11.02) years (mean ± SD) participated. This study was conducted in a climate-controlled laboratory on healthy human subjects. Randomized experimental study comparing 4 topical skin creams for their effect on human skin capacitance (moisture). Subject forearm skin was conditioned for 7 days prior to testing by washing with a standard soap and application of no other products. Each subject was marked with 5 test sites on the forearms. Sites on the volar surface of each subject's forearms were randomly assigned for application of 1 of 4 product pairs, consisting of a cleanser and a topical skin cream or a control site. A Corneometer was used to measure skin capacitance. Each site on the arms was cleaned and dried, tested again for moisture content, subjected to topical skin cream application, and finally tested again for moisture content. Changes were measured by subtracting the capacitance readings at baseline from values measured following topical skin cream application for each test site. The mean change in capacitance was 13.9 for product 1, 10.3 for product 3, 8.7 for product 2, 1.6 for product 4, and 0.8 for the control site. The mean capacitance change in sites treated with product 1 (13.9 ± 8.0, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than all others. There was no difference between the change in capacitance of product 2 (mean = 8.7, SD = 4.9) and product 3 (10.3 ± 7.1) t(20) = 1.081, P = .293, nor between product 4 (1.6 ± 3.9) and the control site (0.3, ± 2.2) t(20) = 0.779, P = .445. The capacitance change of products 2 and 3 was greater than that of product 4 and the control site. Commercially available topical skin creams vary in their impact on human skin capacitance. In this study, sites tested with product 1 had a greater skin capacitance reading than

  2. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is the study of controllability of quantum mechanical systems and feedback control of de-coherence in order to gain an insight on the structure of control of quantum systems...

  3. ECHNOLOGICAL PROVISIONING OF TEST CONTROL OF SPECIAL HEALTH GROUP STUDENTS’ POWER ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koryahin V.M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate and realize modern electronic technological means for perfection of test control of students’ power abilities in special health groups. Material: materials of students’ test control have been used in the research. Results: we have developed electronic system for test monitoring of students’ power abilities. Besides, we showed possibilities of innovative automated methodic application for test monitoring of students’ power abilities. Strict regulation of monitoring significantly decreases dispersion of error and raises reliability of test. The mentioned monitoring system removes dependence of result on teacher’s subjective perception of information. Conclusions: Implementation of the offered system of monitoring of students’ power abilities’ functional state ensures promptness of confident testing results’ reception. It will facilitate effectiveness of control in students’ physical education.

  4. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women and control subjects in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Sui, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Qian, Ai-Dong; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern, with particularly high mortality in pregnant women. China is generally judged to be an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among pregnant women are limited. Between June 2011 and July 2013, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by pregnant women in China. Nine-hundred and ninety pregnant women who visited hospitals for antenatal follow-up or medication in Qingdao and Weihai and 965 control subjects matched by age, gender and residence were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in all 1,955 samples was 20.7%. In pregnant women, 16.2% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive whereas, in control subjects 25.3% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive, (P pregnant women and control subjects was 2.6% and 3.6%, respectively. Age, contact with cats, contact with pigs and exposure to soil were found to be associated with HEV infection. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the transmission of HEV infection in pregnant women in China. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Single muscle fibre contractile properties differ between body-builders, power athletes and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, J P; Jaspers, R T; Rittweger, J; Seynnes, O R; Kamandulis, S; Brazaitis, M; Skurvydas, A; Pišot, R; Šimunič, B; Narici, M V; Degens, H

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do the contractile properties of single muscle fibres differ between body-builders, power athletes and control subjects? What is the main finding and its importance? Peak power normalized for muscle fibre volume in power athletes is higher than in control subjects. Compared with control subjects, maximal isometric tension (normalized for muscle fibre cross-sectional area) is lower in body-builders. Although this difference may be caused in part by an apparent negative effect of hypertrophy, these results indicate that the training history of power athletes may increase muscle fibre quality, whereas body-building may be detrimental. We compared muscle fibre contractile properties of biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis of 12 body-builders (BBs; low- to moderate-intensity high-volume resistance training), six power athletes (PAs; high-intensity, low-volume combined with aerobic training) and 14 control subjects (Cs). Maximal isotonic contractions were performed in single muscle fibres, typed with SDS-PAGE. Fibre cross-sectional area was 67 and 88% (P power (PP) of PA fibres was 58% higher than that of BB fibres (P < 0.05), whereas BB fibres, despite considerable hypertrophy, had similar PP to the C fibres. This work suggests that high-intensity, low-volume resistance training with aerobic exercise improves PP, while low- to moderate-intensity high-volume resistance training does not affect PP and results in a reduction in specific tension. We postulate that the decrease in specific tension is caused by differences in myofibrillar density and/or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  6. Control Design of Active Magnetic Bearings for Rotors Subjected to Destabilising Seal Forces - Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt

    advantages over traditional types of bearings, including: no mechanical contact, no lubrication, low maintenance, low vibration level, high rotational speed and low energy consumption. These advantagesmake AMBs especially useful in challenging environments, for instance in subsea turbomachinery applications....... The main original contribution of the thesis is the framework for design of model based controllers for AMB systems subjected to uncertainand changing dynamic seal forces. An identification method has been developed, and experimentally validated, to obtain precise models of Linear Fractional Transformation...

  7. Evaluation of Salivary Vitamin C and Catalase in HIV Positive and Healthy HIV Negative Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Vaziri-Amjad, Samaneh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV-positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group. Forty-nine HIV-infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary catalase levels were 7.99±2.40 and 8.37±1.81 in the case and control groups, respectively. Catalase level was lower in the case group but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.380). Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3.76±1.92 and 4.87±2.20, respectively (P=0.009). HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Measuring executive function in control subjects and TBI patients with question completion time (QCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L; Yund, E William; Wyma, John M; Ruff, Ron; Herron, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaire completion is a complex task that places demands on cognitive functions subserving reading, introspective memory, decision-making, and motor control. Although computerized questionnaires and surveys are used with increasing frequency in clinical practice, few studies have examined question completion time (QCT), the time required to complete each question. Here, we analyzed QCTs in 172 control subjects and 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who completed two computerized questionnaires, the 17-question Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) and the 25-question Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). In control subjects, robust correlations were found between self-paced QCTs on the PCL and CFQ (r = 0.82). QCTs on individual questions correlated strongly with the number of words in the question, indicating the critical role of reading speed. QCTs increased significantly with age, and were reduced in females and in subjects with increased education and computer experience. QCT z-scores, corrected for age, education, computer use, and sex, correlated more strongly with each other than with the results of other cognitive tests. Patients with a history of severe TBI showed significantly delayed QCTs, but QCTs fell within the normal range in patients with a history of mild TBI. When questionnaires are used to gather relevant patient information, simultaneous QCT measures provide reliable and clinically sensitive measures of processing speed and executive function.

  9. Positive Periodic Solutions of a Periodic Discrete Competitive System Subject to Feedback Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Species living in a fluctuating medium and human exploitation activities might result in the duration of continuous changes. Such changes can be well-approximated as feedback controls. In this contribution a periodic discrete competitive system subject to feedback controls is proposed. By using the methods of discrete inequality, fixed point theorem, and analysis techniques, a good understanding of the existence and global asymptotic stability of positive periodic solutions is obtained. Some numerical investigations are provided to verify our analytical results.

  10. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of method and format on subjects' responses to a control of variables reasoning problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.

    Excessive time and training demands have rendered Piaget's clinical method of reasoning assessment impractical for researchers and science teachers who work with large numbers of students. The published literature[Note ][See: Lawson, A. E. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1978, 15(1), 11-24; Shayer, M., Adey, P., & Wylam, H. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1981, 18(2), 157-168; Staver, J. R., & Gabel, D. L. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1979, 16(6), 534-544; Tobin, K. G., & Capie, W. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1981, 41(2), 413-424.] indicates that reliable, valid alternatives to clinical assessment are feasible. However, the overestimate/underestimate of reasoning for different methods and formats remains unresolved through research. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various methods and formats on subjects' responses to a Piagetian reasoning problem requiring control of variables. The task chosen for this investigation was the Mealworm problem.[Note ][See: Karplus, R., Lawson, A., Wollman, W., Appel, M., Bernoff, R., Howe, A., Rusch, J., & Sullivan, F. Science teaching and the development of reasoning. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1977.] The task was presented by three methods: (1) individual clinical interview; (2) group presentation of task followed by paper-and-pencil problem with illustration; and (3) group administration of paper-and-pencil instrument with illustration. Each method included four formats: (1) completion answer with essay justification; (2) completion answer with multiplechoice justification; (3) multiple-choice answer with essay justification; and (4) multiple-choice answer with multiple-choice justification. Two hundred and fifty-three (253) students who were enrolled in a freshman level biological science class participated in the study. The research design was a 3 × 4 factorial design with method and format of assessment as the main effects. The participants

  12. Temperamental characteristics in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with bipolar disorder and healthy control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Suat; Ozdel, Kadir; Oncü, Bedriye; Colak, Burçin; Kandemir, Hasan; Canat, Saynur

    2013-06-01

    To date, the affective temperamental characteristics of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been studied. The aim of this study is to explore those temperamental characteristics for adults diagnosed with ADHD as measured by the TEMPS-A and then to compare those results with results for individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) and with healthy controls. Forty adults with ADHD, 40 patients with BD, and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The groups were matched by age and gender. All patients were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID I), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Subjects' temperamental characteristics were examined using the Turkish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Ten subjects (25%) in the ADHD group and 15 subjects (30%) in the bipolar group had at least one dominant temperament. There was no identifiable dominant temperament in the control group. Compared to the control group, the ADHD group scored higher than other groups on all domains of the TEMPS-A: depressive cyclothymic, irritable and anxious. However, the hyperthymic domain was not higher for this group. Adults with ADHD scored higher on the irritable temperament scale as compared to the BD group. The ADHD and BD groups had similar mean scores for each of the other four temperaments. The adults diagnosed with ADHD in this study had different temperamental characteristics from the control group, and these temperamental characteristics were similar to those of the bipolar patients. Recognizing the role of temperamental characteristics in adults with ADHD may increase our understanding of ADHD.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics and Optimal Control of SMA Composite Wings Subjected to Stochastic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of high-aspect-ratio shape memory alloy (SMA composite wing is proposed to reduce the wing’s fluttering. The nonlinear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of the SMA composite wings subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation are investigated where the great bending under the flight loads is considered. The stochastic stability of the system is analyzed, and the system’s response is obtained. The conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation are determined, and the probability density of the first-passage time is obtained. Finally, the optimal control strategy is proposed. Numerical simulation shows that the stability of the system varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the process; the reliability of the system is improved through optimal control, and the first-passage time is delayed. Finally, the effects of the control strategy are proved by experiments. The results of this paper are helpful for engineering applications of SMA.

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves the QT variability index and autonomic cardiac control in healthy subjects older than 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccirillo G

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gianfranco Piccirillo,1 Cristina Ottaviani,2 Claudia Fiorucci,1 Nicola Petrocchi,2 Federica Moscucci,1 Claudia Di Iorio,1 Fabiola Mastropietri,1 Ilaria Parrotta,1 Matteo Pascucci,1 Damiano Magrì3 1Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrological, Anestesiological and Geriatric Sciences, “Sapienza” University, 2Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, 3Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Background: Noninvasive brain stimulation technique is an interesting tool to investigate the causal relation between cortical functioning and autonomic nervous system (ANS responses. Objective: The objective of this report is to evaluate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the temporal cortex influences short-period temporal ventricular repolarization dispersion and cardiovascular ANS control in elderly subjects. Subjects and methods: In 50 healthy subjects (29 subjects younger than 60 years and 21 subjects older than 60 years matched for gender, short-period RR and systolic blood pressure spectral variability, QT variability index (QTVI, and noninvasive hemodynamic data were obtained during anodal tDCS or sham stimulation. Results: In the older group, the QTVI, low-frequency (LF power expressed in normalized units, the ratio between LF and high-frequency (HF power, and systemic peripheral resistances decreased, whereas HF power expressed in normalized units and α HF power increased during the active compared to the sham condition (P<0.05. Conclusion: In healthy subjects older than 60 years, tDCS elicits cardiovascular and autonomic changes. Particularly, it improves temporal ventricular repolarization dispersion, reduces sinus sympathetic activity and systemic peripheral resistance, and increases vagal sinus activity and baroreflex sensitivity. Keywords: transcranial direct current stimulation, QT variability, heart rate variability

  15. Serum folate levels after UVA exposure: a two-group parallel randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmeyer Peter

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodegradation of certain vitamins such as riboflavins, carotinoids, tocopherol, and folate has been well-documented. Previous observations suggest that ultraviolet (UV radiation may cause folate deficiency. This is of great importance since folate deficiency is also known to be linked with the development of neural tube defects. To investigate the influence of UVA radiation on serum folate levels in vivo, we conducted a two-group randomised controlled trial on healthy subjects. Material and methods Twenty-four healthy volunteers with skin type II were enrolled into the study. Eight volunteers of the study population were randomly assigned to the control group. UVA irradiation was administered with an air-conditioned sunbed. Blood samples were taken from all volunteers at baseline (T1, 30 min after the first UVA exposure (T2, and at the end of the study 24 h after the sixth UV exposure (T3. The volunteers had two UVA exposures weekly within three weeks (cumulative UVA dose: 96 J/cm2. Volunteers of the control group had no UVA exposures. Serum folate was analysed with an automated immunoassay system. Results At all times of blood collection the differences between serum folate levels were insignificant (P > 0.05, except of the non-exposed controls at T2 (P 0.05. Conclusions Our data suggest that both single and serial UVA exposures do not significantly influence serum folate levels of healthy subjects. Therefore, neural tube defects claimed to occur after periconceptual UVA exposure are probably not due to UVA induced folate deficiency.

  16. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stabil...

  17. BLOOD GROUPS AND AFFECTIVE DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P. Lakshmi; Puttaram, Sowbhagya; Rao, B.S. Sridhara Rama; Khanna, Sumant; Channabasavanna, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY An analysis was made of the distribution of various blood groups in subjects with affective disorders. A group of healthy subjects served as controls. The distribution showed lack of association of affective disorder and any blood groups.

  18. Motor control patterns during an active straight leg raise in pain-free subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Darren John; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Briffa, N Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Repeated measures. To investigate motor control (MC) patterns of normal subjects during the low level physical load of the active straight leg raise (ASLR). Aberrant MC patterns, as observed with the ASLR test, are considered to be a mechanism for ongoing pain and disability in subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pelvic girdle pain. These patterns may not only affect the provision of lumbopelvic stability, but also respiration and the control of continence. Greater understanding of MC patterns in pain-free subjects may improve the management of pelvic girdle pain. METHODS.: Fourteen pain-free nulliparous women were examined during the ASLR. Electromyography of the anterior abdominal wall, right chest wall and the anterior scaleni, intraabdominal pressure (IAP), intrathoracic pressure (ITP), respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, and downward leg pressure of the nonlifted leg were compared between a left and right ASLR. There was greater activation of obliquus internus abdominis and obliquus externus abdominis on the side of the ASLR. The predominant pattern of activation for the chest wall was tonic activation during an ipsilateral ASLR, and phasic respiratory activation lifting the contralateral leg. Respiratory fluctuation of both IAP and ITP did not differ lifting either leg. The baseline shifts of these pressure variables in response to the physical demand of lifting the leg was also the same either side. There was no difference in respiratory rate, pelvic floor kinematics, or downward leg pressure. Pain-free subjects demonstrate a predominant pattern of greater ipsilateral tonic activation of the abdominal wall and chest wall on the side of the ASLR. This was achieved with minimal apparent disruption to IAP and ITP. The findings of this study demonstrate the plastic nature of the abdominal cylinder and the flexibility of the neuromuscular system in controlling load transference during an ASLR.

  19. Linguagem escrita e subjetividade: implicações do trabalho grupal Writing language and subjective quality: implications of group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia Cautela de Almeida Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: linguagem escrita e subjetividade no grupo fonoaudiológico. PROCEDIMENTOS: este relato de caso tem por objetivo analisar como sujeitos, que participam de um grupo fonoaudiológico, significam suas histórias com a linguagem escrita e como tal grupo pode constituir-se como um espaço para a ressignificação de tais histórias. O material do estudo clínico foi coletado a partir do atendimento grupal envolvendo nove adolescentes, inseridos no Ensino Fundamental da Rede Pública de Curitiba, encaminhados pela escola para tratamento fonoaudiológico, com queixa de distúrbio de leitura e escrita. Tal atendimento foi realizado, durante um ano, na Clínica Fonoaudiológica da Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná. Os encontros eram semanais, com duração de duas horas, totalizando 48 sessões. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir de vídeo-gravações e do registro diário das sessões. Foram selecionados seis episódios considerados significativos para a análise da temática. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa indicou que os sujeitos estabeleciam uma relação de sofrimento com a escrita a partir da qual assumiam uma posição de incompetência em ler e escrever. A partir do processo terapêutico foi possível ressignificar as relações dos adolescentes com essa modalidade de linguagem, de forma que puderam assumir diferentes posições e um lugar de autoria e de interlocutor capaz. CONCLUSÃO: o grupo fonoaudiológico construiu-se como um espaço de troca para que os sujeitos estabelecessem uma relação significativa com a leitura e a escrita, propiciando condições fundamentais para a ressignificação dos sintomas e para a interação com diversos textos escritos, promovendo, assim, mudanças na relação do sujeito com sua linguagem.BACKGROUND: written language and subjectivity in a speech language therapy group. PROCEDURES: this paper aims to analyze how individuals that participate in a speech language therapy group, signify their stories by

  20. Intelligent system for controlling of generator groups; Sistema inteligente para controle de grupos geradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ricardo [RF Eletro-Eletronica (Brazil); Suppa, Mauricio R. [GESTAL - Gestao de Energia e Utilidades Ltda, SP (Brazil)

    1998-10-01

    The use of generation-motor groups as an alternative to the supplying the concessionaires is presented, aiming the cost reduction and electric power energy conservation. The technical and economical advantages of an intelligent system implantation for generators control and supervision are highlighted, such as open and flexible architecture, maintenance easiness and long distance management.

  1. Factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: the SUNSET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; van Valkengoed, I.; Koopmans, R.; Stronks, K.

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine factors associated with hypertension awareness, pharmacological treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We analysed data on hypertensive subjects (Dutch n=130, Hindustani n=115 and African Surinamese n=225). After adjustments for important

  2. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  3. Sonomyography (SMG) control for powered prosthetic hand: a study with normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Guo, Jing-Yi; Shi, Jun

    2010-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that the muscle thickness change detected by ultrasonography during contraction, namely sonomyography (SMG), can be used for functional assessment of skeletal muscles and has the potential for prosthetic control. In this study, we further investigated the feasibility of using one-dimensional SMG (1-D SMG) signal for controlling a powered prosthesis with one degree of freedom. The performance of SMG control in visual pursuit tracking of opening-closure patterns of the prosthesis was evaluated. Nine normal subjects including seven males and two females participated in the experiment. SMG signals were collected from the extensor carpi radialis muscle to control the opening position of the prosthetic hand. The subjects were instructed to perform the wrist extension movement to match the prosthesis response to the target sinusoid and square tracks under different movement rates as accurately as possible. The normalized root mean square (RMS) tracking error between the target track and the degree of the prosthetic hand's opening position, which was measured by an electronic goniometer, was calculated to evaluate the control performance. It was found that the mean RMS tracking errors of SMG control under different movement rates were 12.8 +/- 3.2% (mean +/- SD) and 14.8 +/- 4.6% for sinusoid and square tracks, respectively. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences in RMS tracking errors among the three movement rates (p = 2.0 x 10(-6)) and between the two target tracks (p = 0.007). The results suggest that SMG signal, based on further improvement, has potential to be an alternative method for prosthetic control. Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of dry needling on the radiating pain in subjects with discogenic low-back pain: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Ashraf; Rezaeian, Zahra Sadat; Karimi, Abdolkarim; Dommerholt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Disk herniation is the most common cause of radiating low back pain (LBP) in subjects under 60 years of age. The present study aims to compare the effect of dry needling (DN) and a standard conservative approach on the pain and function in subjects with discogenic radiating LBP. Fifty-eight subjects with discogenic radicular LBP were screened and randomized into control (Standard physical therapy, n = 29) and experimental group (Standard physical therapy and DN, n = 29). Radiating pain intensity and disability were measured using visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability indices at baseline, at the end of treatment and 2 months after the last intervention session. The changes in pain intensity and disability were studied using a 3 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance considering time as the within-subject factor and group as the between-subject. Pain intensity and disability scores decreased significantly in both experimental and control groups (experimental group: VAS = 37.24, Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] =28.48, control group: VAS = 45.5, ODI = 32.96), following the intervention. The change continued during the follow-up period (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Pain and disability improvement, however, were more significant in experimental group, both in post intervention (experimental group: VAS = 25.17, ODI = 22.17, control group: VAS = 42.4, ODI = 30.27) (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03, respectively) and follow-up measures (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively). Both intervention strategies seem to significantly improve pain and disability immediately following intervention, where the improvement continued during 2 months after the last active intervention. Therefore, supplementary DN application may enhance the effect of the standard intervention considerably.

  5. The effect of dry needling on the radiating pain in subjects with discogenic low-back pain: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mahmoudzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disk herniation is the most common cause of radiating low back pain (LBP in subjects under 60 years of age. The present study aims to compare the effect of dry needling (DN and a standard conservative approach on the pain and function in subjects with discogenic radiating LBP. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight subjects with discogenic radicular LBP were screened and randomized into control (Standard physical therapy, n = 29 and experimental group (Standard physical therapy and DN, n = 29. Radiating pain intensity and disability were measured using visual analog scale (VAS and Oswestry Disability indices at baseline, at the end of treatment and 2 months after the last intervention session. The changes in pain intensity and disability were studied using a 3 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance considering time as the within-subject factor and group as the between-subject. Results: Pain intensity and disability scores decreased significantly in both experimental and control groups (experimental group: VAS = 37.24, Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] =28.48, control group: VAS = 45.5, ODI = 32.96, following the intervention. The change continued during the follow-up period (P < 0.001 for all comparisons. Pain and disability improvement, however, were more significant in experimental group, both in post intervention (experimental group: VAS = 25.17, ODI = 22.17, control group: VAS = 42.4, ODI = 30.27 (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03, respectively and follow-up measures (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Both intervention strategies seem to significantly improve pain and disability immediately following intervention, where the improvement continued during 2 months after the last active intervention. Therefore, supplementary DN application may enhance the effect of the standard intervention considerably.

  6. Robust adaptive control modeling of human arm movements subject to altered gravity and mechanical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfonidis, Michail

    It has been observed that during orbital spaceflight the absence of gravitation related sensory inputs causes incongruence between the expected and the actual sensory feedback resulting from voluntary movements. This incongruence results in a reinterpretation or neglect of gravity-induced sensory input signals. Over time, new internal models develop, gradually compensating for the loss of spatial reference. The study of adaptation of goal-directed movements is the main focus of this thesis. The hypothesis is that during the adaptive learning process the neural connections behave in ways that can be described by an adaptive control method. The investigation presented in this thesis includes two different sets of experiments. A series of dart throwing experiments took place onboard the space station Mir. Experiments also took place at the Biomechanics lab at MIT, where the subjects performed a series of continuous trajectory tracking movements while a planar robotic manipulandum exerted external torques on the subjects' moving arms. The experimental hypothesis for both experiments is that during the first few trials the subjects will perform poorly trying to follow a prescribed trajectory, or trying to hit a target. A theoretical framework is developed that is a modification of the sliding control method used in robotics. The new control framework is an attempt to explain the adaptive behavior of the subjects. Numerical simulations of the proposed framework are compared with experimental results and predictions from competitive models. The proposed control methodology extends the results of the sliding mode theory to human motor control. The resulting adaptive control model of the motor system is robust to external dynamics, even those of negative gain, uses only position and velocity feedback, and achieves bounded steady-state error without explicit knowledge of the system's nonlinearities. In addition, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate that

  7. [Comparison of Inflammatory Biomarkers Between Bipolar Disorder I Patients and Control Subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Juan David; Guzman, Sandra; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory changes have been described in different affective episodes, as well as in the euthymic phase of Bipolar I Disease. These changes have been proposed as possible peripheral markers of the disease. For this reason well-designed studies are needed to explore this hypothesis. Quantify and compare the serum levels of interleukins (IL) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in bipolar I patients and healthy subjects, including the comparison between the affective episodes of the disease. Cross-sectional study including 41 bipolar I patients and 11 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of IL-1B, IL-RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF were measured during the euthymic, depressive, and manic phases and were compared with the serum levels of the healthy subjects. Manic phase patients had low education and high number of hospitalisations. Depressive phase patients showed high number of depressive episodes throughout life. No statistically significant differences were found in IL and TNF levels between bipolar I patients and healthy controls, or between the bipolar I subgroups (euthymic, manic and depressive states). An increase in the size of the sample is necessary in future studies, in order to enhance the statistical value of the results, and explore the inflammatory hypothesis of the bipolar disease. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Beta blocker use in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and systolic heart failure does not worsen glycaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Bryan; Kearney, Leighton G; Hare, David L; Ord, Michelle; Burrell, Louise M; Srivastava, Piyush M

    2012-02-14

    The prognostic benefits of beta-blockers (BB) in patients with systolic heart failure (SHF) are known but despite this, in patients with diabetes they are underutilized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of beta-blockers (BB) on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) and systolic heart failure (SHF) stratified to beta-1 selective (Bisoprolol) vs. nonselective BB (Carvedilol). This observational, cohort study was conducted in patients with T2DM and SHF attending an Australian tertiary teaching hospital's heart failure services. The primary endpoint was glycaemic control measured by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at initiation and top dose of BB. Secondary endpoints included microalbuminuria, changes in lipid profile and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). 125 patients were assessed. Both groups were well matched for gender, NYHA class and use of guideline validated heart failure and diabetic medications. The mean treatment duration was 1.9 ± 1.1 years with carvedilol and 1.4 ± 1.0 years with bisoprolol (p = ns). The carvedilol group achieved a reduction in HbA1c (7.8 ± 0.21% to 7.3 ± 0.17%, p = 0.02) whereas the bisoprolol group showed no change in HbA1c (7.0 ± 0.20% to 6.9 ± 0.23%, p = 0.92). There was no significant difference in the change in HbA1c from baseline to peak BB dose in the carvedilol group compared to the bisoprolol group. There was a similar deterioration in eGFR, but no significant changes in lipid profile or microalbuminuria in both groups (p = ns). BB use did not worsen glycaemic control, lipid profile or albuminuria status in subjects with SHF and T2DM. Carvedilol significantly improved glycemic control in subjects with SHF and T2DM and this improvement was non significantly better than that obtained with bisoprolol. BB's should not be withheld from patients with T2DM and SHF.

  9. Beta blocker use in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and systolic heart failure does not worsen glycaemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Bryan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic benefits of beta-blockers (BB in patients with systolic heart failure (SHF are known but despite this, in patients with diabetes they are underutilized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of beta-blockers (BB on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM and systolic heart failure (SHF stratified to beta-1 selective (Bisoprolol vs. nonselective BB (Carvedilol. Methods This observational, cohort study was conducted in patients with T2DM and SHF attending an Australian tertiary teaching hospital's heart failure services. The primary endpoint was glycaemic control measured by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c at initiation and top dose of BB. Secondary endpoints included microalbuminuria, changes in lipid profile and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Results 125 patients were assessed. Both groups were well matched for gender, NYHA class and use of guideline validated heart failure and diabetic medications. The mean treatment duration was 1.9 ± 1.1 years with carvedilol and 1.4 ± 1.0 years with bisoprolol (p = ns. The carvedilol group achieved a reduction in HbA1c (7.8 ± 0.21% to 7.3 ± 0.17%, p = 0.02 whereas the bisoprolol group showed no change in HbA1c (7.0 ± 0.20% to 6.9 ± 0.23%, p = 0.92. There was no significant difference in the change in HbA1c from baseline to peak BB dose in the carvedilol group compared to the bisoprolol group. There was a similar deterioration in eGFR, but no significant changes in lipid profile or microalbuminuria in both groups (p = ns. Conclusion BB use did not worsen glycaemic control, lipid profile or albuminuria status in subjects with SHF and T2DM. Carvedilol significantly improved glycemic control in subjects with SHF and T2DM and this improvement was non significantly better than that obtained with bisoprolol. BB's should not be withheld from patients with T2DM and SHF.

  10. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  11. Choosing Content and Methods: Focus Group Interviews with Faculty Teachers in Norwegian Pre-Service Subject Teacher Education in Design, Art, and Crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksen, Marte S.; Hjardemaal, Finn R.

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at generating knowledge on how faculty teachers reflect and justify their choice of subject content logic in teacher education, exemplified by a concurrent pre-service Subject Teacher Education in design, art, and crafts. Focus-group interviews generated data. Three topics were discussed: too many choices, different logics, and…

  12. Controls and art inquiries at the intersection of the subjective and the objective

    CERN Document Server

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Dancing humanoids, robotic art installations, and music generated by mathematically precise methods are no longer science fiction; in fact they are the subject of this book.  This first-of-its-kind anthology assembles technical research that makes such creations possible.  In order to mechanize something as enigmatic and personal as dance, researchers must delve deeply into two distinct academic disciplines: control theory and art.  Broadly, this research uses techniques from the world of art to inspire methods in control, enables artistic endeavours using advanced control theory, and aids in the analysis of art using metrics devised by a systems theoretic approach.  To ensure that artistic influences are well represented, the individual chapters are focused so that they relate their contribution to the arts meaningfully and explicitly. Specially composed introductions set up the contributions either in terms of inspiration by artistic principles or their contribution to the arts through new analysis tool...

  13. Real time control and numerical simulation of pipeline subjected to landslide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuscuna, S.; Giusti, G.; Gramola, C.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes SNAM research activity in the study of behaviour and real-time control of pipelines in landslide areas. The subject can be delt considering three different aspects: 1. Geotechnical characterization of unstable soils. The mechanical parameters of soil and the landslide types are defined; 2. Structural analysis of pipe-soil system. By means of a finite element program it's possible to study the pipe-soil interaction; in this numerical code the soil parameters attend by the non-linear elastic behaviour of pipe restraints. The results of this analysis are the location of the expected most stressed sections of pipe and the global behaviour of pipe inside the soil. 3. Instrumental control. The adoption of a suitable appliance of vibrating wire strain gauges allows the strain control of pipe in time. The aim is to make possible timely interventions in order to guarantee the installation safety.

  14. Incidental Learning, Distraction, and Sustained Attention in Hyperactive and Control Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; Turbott, Sarah H.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two hyperactive children (ages 5-11) and 32 controls were tested on (1) a component selection task, measuring serial memory and incidental learning and (2) a cancellation task, assessing attentional variables and distractibility. It was concluded that a deficit in sustained attention and impulsivity best described the group differences.…

  15. Parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Karahmadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Parental communication patterns influence children's personality. This study investigated effects of parental interaction patterns on children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD.
    METHODS: There were 50 male children, 7-12 years old, selected in two groups. The first group included students with ADHD referred to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan-based on diagnostic scale of DSM-IV (25 subjects. The second group involved healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan (25 subjects from September 2005 to March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them.
    RESULTS: Mean scores of parental interaction patterns in healthy children were all higher than those in ADHD children except for “aggression control” and “lack of aggressive attachment”.
    CONCLUSIONS: The severity of ADHD signs has negative relationship with parental "admission" and parental "control" patterns. It also has positive relationship with “lack of aggressive/attachment” and “aggressive/control” patterns.
    KEY WORDS: Parental interaction patterns, ADHD.

  16. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  17. Variations of niacin content in saltwater fish and their relation with dietary RDA in Polish subjects grouped by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Michał; Lebiedzińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A rich and natural source of readily assimilated dietary protein together with invaluable vitamins and minerals are fish, particularly the saltwater species. The quality of any given foodstuff is determined by its nutritional value, which in turn depends on the food type and methods used for manufacture, processing and storage. Many fish products contain fewer water soluble vitamins than the source foodstuff as a result of using various technologies during food processing, such as smoking or deep freezing, where vitamins are often either degraded or leached out. In the case of niacin it is relatively easy to make good such losses by eating niacin-rich foods or by taking dietary supplements e.g. the essential amino acid L-tryptophan. To determine niacin content in sea fish that are commonly available on the Polish market and to assess whether this dietary source is sufficient to satisfy the RDA requirements for various age groups of selected subjects living in Poland. Niacin levels were measured firstly in 10 saltwater fish species together with butterfish and Norwegian salmon that formed a separate group. Altogether, 15 types of fish products were analysed in all. They consisted of smoked fish: whitefish, butterfish, sprat, trout, herring (kippers) and mackerel, and frozen fish: butterfish, Norwegian salmon, sole, grenadier and panga. Each product was measured as ten replicates, thus in total 150 analyses were performed. A microbiologically-based method was used for the niacin determination, with enzyme hydrolysis by 40 mg papain and diastase on a 2 g sample (according to the AOAC procedure) to release the free form from the bioavailable form that is bound to NAD and NADP. The most plentiful sources of niacin were found in smoked fish with the highest amounts in butterfish, after warm temperature smoking, and in mackerel; respectively 9.03 and 8.90 mg/100 g. Such 100 g portions of smoked fish are a good dietary source of niacin, in that for men and women above 19

  18. Chronic administration of apple polyphenols ameliorates hyperglycaemia in high-normal and borderline subjects: A randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Toshihiko; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Miura, Tomisato; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Ogura, Kasane; Inagaki, Nobuya; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2017-07-01

    We previously reported that apple polyphenols (AP) and their major active components, procyanidins, had beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and diabetes in diabetic ob/ob mice. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of chronic AP administration on glucose tolerance in high-normal and borderline human subjects. Subjects (n=65) with a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of 100-125mg/dL determined during a recent health check-up were randomised to receive tablets containing AP (600mg/day) or placebo tablets for 12weeks in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The primary outcome was insulin resistance, assessed using a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The 12-week chronic administration of AP significantly reduced the increase in glucose at 30-min post-75g OGTT (OGTT 30-min glucose ) value, compared to the placebo regimen. Furthermore, in a subgroup of the high-normal (FPG value, 100-109mg/dL; 2-h post-75g OGTT glucose (OGTT 2-h glucose ) value, <140mg/dL) and borderline (FPG value, 110-125mg/dL; OGTT 2-h glucose value, <140mg/dL and FPG value, <126mg/dL; OGTT 2-h glucose value, 140-199mg/dL) subjects, OGTT 30-min glucose value in the AP group (164.0±7.4mg/dL) was significantly lower than that of the placebo group (194.7±10.4mg/dL, p<0.05). No significant changes in the other lipid parameters and cytokine levels were observed. Chronic AP administration significantly improved impaired glucose tolerance in high-normal and borderline subjects. Larger and/or longer-term scale human studies are required to confirm the potential glucose homeostasis of AP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kumagai

    Full Text Available Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose, luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose, placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg nor supratherapeutic (20 mg doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects.

  20. Effects of Kinesio® Tape in low back muscle fatigue: randomized, controlled, doubled-blinded clinical trial on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Álvarez, S; José, F García-Muro San; Rodríguez-Fernández, A L; Güeita-Rodríguez, J; Waller, B J

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fatigue of the trunk extensor musculature plays a considerable role in chronic low back pain (LBP). The underlying physiology of fatigue is complex and not fully understood. The Kinesio® Taping (KT) supports damaged structures while allowing mobility and at the same time may influence some of the mechanisms associated with muscle fatigue such as blood flow and proprioception. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of KT on the resistance to fatigue of the lumbar extensor musculature in a sample of young healthy subjects. A randomized, controlled, doubled-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Ninety nine healthy subjects were randomized in to the three arms of the study Kinesio® Tape (KT), placebo (P) and control (C). Directly after application of KT we measured lumbar extensor musculature endurance with the Biering-Sorensen test. Subjects and researchers were blinded to the intervention. Time achieved (seconds) was compared between groups with one-way ANOVA with confidence intervals of 95%. There were significant differences between the time achieved in the KT group versus the control group (p < 0.05). The placebo group performed better than the control group but worse than the KT group, these were not significant in either case. KT appears to improve the time to failure of the extensor muscle of the trunk obtained using the Biering-Sorensen test. These findings suggest that KT influences processes that lead to muscle fatigue and that KT could be effective in the management of LBP.

  1. Effects of sleep deprivation on nocturnal cytokine concentrations in depressed patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voderholzer, Ulrich; Fiebich, Bernd L; Dersch, Rick; Feige, Bernd; Piosczyk, Hannah; Kopasz, Marta; Riemann, Dieter; Lieb, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported alterations of cytokine and cytokine-receptor concentrations in psychiatric patient populations, including patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, study results are conflicting, and possible causes for these abnormalities are unknown. Since sleep deprivation may induce a rapid improvement of mood in depressed patients, the authors investigated the impact of total sleep deprivation (TSD) for one night, and subsequent recovery sleep, on nocturnal concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in 15 unmedicated patients with MDD and 16 healthy volunteers. Whereas IL-6 levels normalized again during the recovery night in depressed patients, they were still elevated in control subjects. Serum levels of IL-1RA were higher in depressed patients than in controls, but were not affected by TSD. During recovery sleep, IL-1RA levels increased as compared with the preceding TSD night only in controls. Responders (N=8) differed from nonresponders (N=7) to TSD with regard to IL-1RA, which increased significantly during TSD in responders only. Sleep deprivation therefore seems to significantly affect cytokine levels in both depressed patients and healthy subjects, but does so in different ways. Sleep disturbances in depressed patients could account for the increased levels of cytokines found in these patients in several previous studies. The interaction between antidepressant effects of TSD and alterations of cytokines warrants further investigation.

  2. Improving Middle School Students' Subjective Well-Being: Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Intervention Targeting Small Groups of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rachel A.; Suldo, Shannon M.; Ferron, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Most interventions intended to improve subjective well-being, termed "positive psychology interventions" (PPIs), have neglected to include relevant stakeholders in youth's lives and have not included booster sessions intended to maintain gains in subjective well-being. The current study investigated the impact of a multitarget,…

  3. Effect of bromocriptine-QR therapy on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose dysglycemia is inadequately controlled on insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamarthi, Bindu; Cincotta, Anthony H

    2017-05-01

    The concurrent use of an insulin sensitizer in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with inadequate glycemic control on basal-bolus insulin may help improve glycemic control while limiting further insulin requirement. Bromocriptine-QR (B-QR), a quick release, sympatholytic, dopamine D2 receptor agonist therapy for T2DM, is a postprandial insulin sensitizer. This study evaluated the effect of B-QR on dysglycemia in T2DM subjects with suboptimal glycemic control on basal-bolus insulin plus metformin. The effect of once-daily morning administration of B-QR on dysglycemia was evaluated in 60 T2DM subjects derived from the Cycloset Safety Trial, with HbA1c >7% on basal-bolus insulin plus metformin at baseline, randomized to B-QR (N = 44) versus placebo (N = 16) and completed 12 weeks of study drug treatment. The analyses also included a subset of subjects on high-dose insulin (total daily insulin dose (TDID) ≥70 units; N = 36: 27 B-QR; 9 placebo). Subjects were well matched at baseline. After 12 weeks of B-QR treatment, mean % HbA1c decreased by -0.73% relative to baseline (p QR therapy resulted in % HbA1c reductions of -0.95 and -1.49 relative to baseline (p QR on HbA1c. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and TDID changes within each treatment group were not significant. More subjects achieved HbA1c ≤7 at 12 weeks with B-QR relative to placebo (36.4% B-QR vs 0% placebo, Fisher's exact 2-sided p = 0.003 in the entire cohort and 37% vs 0%, 2-sided p = 0.039 in the high-dose insulin subset). B-QR therapy improves glycemic control in T2DM subjects whose glycemia is poorly controlled on metformin plus basal-bolus insulin, including individuals on high-dose basal-bolus insulin. This glycemic impact occurred without significant change in FPG, suggesting a postprandial glucose lowering mechanism of action. Cycloset Safety Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00377676.

  4. Practice-based randomized controlled-comparison clinical trial of chiropractic adjustments and brief massage treatment at sites of subluxation in subjects with essential hypertension: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaugher, Gregory; Long, Cynthia R; Alcantara, Joel; Silveus, Alyssa D; Wood, Herbert; Lotun, Kapildeo; Menke, J Michael; Meeker, William C; Rowe, Stephen H

    2002-05-01

    To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial in the private practice setting examining short- and long-term effects of chiropractic adjustments for subjects with essential hypertension compared with a brief soft tissue massage, as well as a nontreatment control group. Randomized controlled-comparison trial with 3 parallel groups. Private practice outpatient chiropractic clinic. Twenty-three subjects, aged 24 to 50 years with systolic or diastolic essential hypertension. Two months of full-spine chiropractic care (ie, Gonstead) consisting primarily of specific-contact, short-lever-arm adjustments delivered at motion segments exhibiting signs of subluxation. The massage group had a brief effleurage procedure delivered at localized regions of the spine believed to be exhibiting signs of subluxation. The nontreatment control group rested alone for a period of approximately 5 minutes in an adjustment room. Cost per enrolled subject, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) measured with a random-0 sphygmomanometer and patient reported health status (SF-36). Pilot study outcome measures also included an assessment of cooperation of subjects to randomization procedures and drop-out rates, recruitment effectiveness, analysis of temporal stability of BPs at the beginning of care, and the effects of inclusion/exclusion criteria on the subject pool. Thirty subjects enrolled, yielding a cost of $161 per enrolled subject. One subject was later determined to be ineligible, and 6 others dropped out. In both the chiropractic and massage therapy groups, all subjects were classified as either overweight or obese; in the control group there were only 2 classified as such. SF-36 profiles for the groups were similar to that of a normal population. The mean change in diastolic BP was -4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.6, 0.5) in the chiropractic care group, 0.5 (95% CI: -3.5, 4.5) in the brief massage treatment group, and -4.9 (95% CI: -9.7, -0

  5. A surface based approach for cortical thickness comparison between PiB+ and PiB- healthy control subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Vincent; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen; Acosta, Oscar; Chetelat, Gael; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Martins, Ralph N.; Villemagne, Victor; Masters, Colin L.; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C.; Salvado, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    β-amyloid has been shown to play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vivo β-amyloid imaging using [11C]Pittsburgh compound Β (PiB) positron emission tomography has made it possible to analyze the relationship between β-amyloid deposition and different pathological markers involved in AD. PiB allows us to stratify the population between subjects which are likely to have prodromal AD, and those who don't. The comparison of the cortical thickness in these different groups is important to better understanding and detect the first symptoms of the disease which may lead to an earlier therapeutic care to reduce neurone loss. Several techniques have been developed to compare the cortical volume and/or thickness between AD and HC groups. However due to the noise introduced by the cortical thickness estimation and by the registration, these methods do not allow to unveil any major different when comparing prodromal AD groups with healthy control subjects group. To improve our understanding of where initial Alzheimer neurodegeneration occurs in the cortex we have developed a surface based technique, and have applied it to the discrimination between PIB-positive and PiB-negative HCs. We first identify the regions where AD patients show high cortical atrophy by using an AD/PiB- HC vertex-wise T-test. In each of these discriminating regions, comparison between PiB+ HC, PiB- HC and AD are performed. We found some significant differences between the two HC groups in the hippocampus and in the temporal lobe for both hemisphere and in the precuneus and occipital regions only for the left hemisphere.

  6. Improvement of glucose and lipid profile status with Aloe vera in pre-diabetic subjects: a randomized controlled-trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad-Mofrad, Samaneh; Foadoddini, Mohsen; Saadatjoo, Seyed Alireza; Shayesteh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Pre-diabetes is a disturbing trend in the population, who are at risk of developing type-two diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects use of Aloe vera in different doses on glucose and lipid profile in pre-diabetic subjects. This study was a double blind randomized controlled trial (72 subjects) with pre-diabetes symptoms in 3 groups consumed capsules twice a day: Aloe vera 300 mg (AL300), 500 mg (AL500) and placebo (PL). Fasting blood glucose (FBS), HbA1C and lipid profile were evaluated in baseline, 4 or 8 weeks. On-way ANOVA, Friedman, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis , Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for within or between groups statistical analysis. FBS level in group AL300, showed significantly decreased in fourth week after the intervention, compared to PL in the same time (p = 0.001). Also, HbA1C level in this group at the eighth week after the intervention (p = 0.042), had a significant decrease. The levels of Total cholesterol and LDL-C, only in the group AL500 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01), was significantly reduced, along with HDL-C level improvement just after eight weeks (p = 0.004). Triglyceride level showed a significant decrease (p < 0.045) just after four weeks use of AL500. The Use of Aloe vera extract in pre-diabetic patients, could revert impaired blood glucose within four weeks, but after eight weeks could alleviate their abnormal lipid profile.

  7. Elastic Tape Improved Shoulder Joint Position Sense in Chronic Hemiparetic Subjects: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Matheus Bragança; Desloovere, Kaat; Russo, Thiago Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Background Elastic tape has been widely used in clinical practice in order to improve upper limb (UL) sensibility. However, there is little evidence that supports this type of intervention in stroke patients. Objective To verify the effect of elastic tape, applied to the paretic shoulder, on joint position sense (JPS) during abduction and flexion in subjects with chronic hemiparesis compared to sham tape (non-elastic tape). Furthermore, to verify if this potential effect is correlated to shoulder subluxation measurements and sensorimotor impairment. Methods A crossover and sham-controlled study was conducted with post-stroke patients who were randomly allocated into two groups: 1) those who received Sham Tape (ST) first and after one month they received Elastic Tape (ET); 2) those who received Elastic Tape (ET) first and after one month they received Sham Tape (ST). The JPS was evaluated using a dynamometer. The absolute error for shoulder abduction and flexion at 30° and 60° was calculated. Sensorimotor impairment was determined by Fugl-Meyer, and shoulder subluxation was measured using a caliper. Results Thirteen hemiparetic subjects (average time since stroke 75.23 months) participated in the study. At baseline (before interventions), the groups were not different for abduction at 30° (p = 0.805; p = 0.951), and 60° (p = 0.509; p = 0.799), or flexion at 30° (p = 0.872; p = 0.897) and 60° (p = 0.853; p = 0.970). For the ET group, differences between pre and post-elastic tape for abduction at 30° (ptape for abduction at 30° (ptape improved shoulder JPS of subjects with chronic hemiparesis regardless of the level of UL sensorimotor impairment. However, this improvement was influenced by the subluxation degree at abduction. PMID:28099472

  8. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy versus group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder among college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Andri S; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Brosse, Alisha L; Carey, Gregory; Hauser, Monika; Mackiewicz Seghete, Kristen L; Schulz-Heik, R Jay; Weatherley, Donald; Erwin, Brigette A; Craighead, W Edward

    2011-11-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) was compared to group psychotherapy (GPT), a credible, structurally equivalent control condition that included only nonspecific factors of group treatment (such as group dynamics). Participants were 45 college students at the University of Colorado with a primary diagnosis of SAD. Each treatment condition comprised eight group sessions lasting 2 hr each. Independent assessors (blind to treatment assignment) assessed participants at baseline and posttreatment with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Both treatments were found to be equally credible. There were five noncompleters in the CBGT condition (21.7%) and only one in the GPT condition (4.3%). There were no statistically significant differences posttreatment (controlling for pretreatment scores) between the two treatment conditions, and both treatments were found to be efficacious. Effect sizes for CBGT were similar to earlier studies, and adherence ratings revealed excellent adherence. Treatment of SAD appears to be moving toward individual CBT, partly because of high attrition rates and underutilization of group dynamics in group CBT. However, group therapy has unique therapeutic ingredients, and it may be too early to give up on group treatment altogether. Discussion of these findings included future directions with this treatment modality, especially whether these two types of group treatment could be combined and whether such combination might serve to decrease attrition, enhance efficacy, and facilitate dissemination. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Neuromuscular control of scapula muscles during a voluntary task in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C M; Søgaard, Karen; Chreiteh, S S

    2013-01-01

    Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population with and w......Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population...... with and without SIS (n=16, No-SIS=15). Surface electromyography was measured from Serratus anterior (SA) and Trapezius during bilateral arm elevation (no-load, 1kg, 3kg). Mean relative muscle activity was calculated for SA and the upper (UT) and lower part of trapezius (LWT), in addition to activation ratio...... and time to activity onset. In spite of a tendency to higher activity among SIS 0.10-0.30 between-group differences were not significant neither in ratio of muscle activation 0.80-0.98 nor time to activity onset 0.53-0.98. The hypothesized between-group differences in neuromuscular activity of Trapezius...

  10. Comparison of osteoprotegerin and vascular endothelial growth factor in normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, A; Arefzadeh, A; Zandieh, A; Salehi Sadaghiani, M; Noshad, S; Nakhjavani, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association of osteoprotegerin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with glycemic indices and diabetes status. A total of 44 normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic patients and 44 healthy control subjects, matched for age, body mass index, sex ratio, and lipid measures were enrolled. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association of osteoprotegerin and VEGF with diabetes status. Further, linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the roles of osteoprotegerin and VEGF as determinants of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Osteoprotegerin and VEGF were significantly elevated in diabetic subjects (2.76±0.85 vs 2.26±0.75 pmol/l and 187.1±92.7 vs 125.9±52.3 pg/ml, respectively, posteoprotegerin and VEGF for diabetes were 2.532 (1.003-6.392) and 1.021 (1.002-1.041), respectively (posteoprotegerin with HbA1c is independent of VEGF and vice versa (pOsteoprotegerin and VEGF are elevated in normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic subjects and are independently associated with glycemic indices and diabetes status.

  11. Randomized controlled trial of traditional Chinese medicine (acupuncture and tuina) in cerebral palsy: part 1--any increase in seizure in integrated acupuncture and rehabilitation group versus rehabilitation group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Li-Ping; Han, Tong-Li; Zheng, Hua; Caspi, Opher; Wong, Virginia; Su, Yani; Shen, Kun-Ling

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to observe for any change in baseline seizure frequency with acupuncture in children with cerebral palsy. A randomized controlled study was conducted: Group I consisted of integrated acupuncture, tuina, and rehabilitation (physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and hydrotherapy) for 12 weeks; and Group II consisted of rehabilitation (physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and hydrotherapy) for 12 weeks. After a washout period of 4 weeks, Group II then received acupuncture and tuina for 12 weeks. Each subject received 5 daily acupuncture sessions per week for 12 weeks (total = 60 sessions). All children were assessed for any change in seizure frequency during treatment. One hundred and sixteen (116) children were recruited and randomized into Group I (N = 58) and Group II (N = 58). Thirty-three (33) children withdrew (9 from Group I and 24 from Group II). Of the remaining 83 children, Group I consisted of 49 and Group II of 34 children. For baseline, 5 children (6%; 5/83) had seizures. During phase 1 (12 weeks) of integrative treatment and subsequent 4-week follow-up, 3 children in Group I had seizures. Among those 3 children with seizures, 1 child with prior history of recurrent febrile seizure had 3 more recurrent febrile seizures during acupuncture treatment and 2 children without any prior history of seizures had new-onset seizures (1 with 3 recurrent febrile seizures and 1 with afebrile seizure). For Group I, 2 children with epilepsy had no increase in seizure frequency during acupuncture treatment. For Group II during the phase 2 acupuncture period, none had increase in seizure frequency. In both groups, 4 of 5 children (80%; 2 in Group I and 2 in Group II) with seizures had no increase in seizure frequency during acupuncture treatment and follow-up. The risk of increasing seizure is not increased with acupuncture treatment for cerebral palsy.

  12. Impaired objective and subjective sleep in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Gerber, Markus; Furlano, Raoul I; Legeret, Corinne; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-11-01

    Poor sleep and higher inflammation markers are associated, and impaired sleep quality is common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, information on sleep among children and adolescents with IBD is currently lacking. The aims of the present study were to compare subjective and objective sleep of children and adolescents with IBD with healthy controls and to shed more light on the relationship between sleep and inflammation. We expected that poor sleep, as assessed via sleep electroencephalography recordings, would be observed among participants with IBD, but particularly among participants in an active state of disease. Furthermore, we expected that poor sleep and higher inflammatory markers would be associated. A total of 47 children and adolescents participated in the study; 23 were diagnosed with IBD (mean age: 13.88 years, 44% female). The IBD group was divided into a medically well adjusted "remission-group" (IBD-RE; n = 14) and a group with an "active state of disease" (IBD-AD; n = 8). Healthy controls (HC; n = 24) were age and gender matched. Participants completed self-rating questionnaires for subjective sleep disturbances. Anthropometric data, acute and chronic inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and objective sleep were considered. Compared to HC and IBD-RE, IBD-AD patients showed impaired objective sleep patterns (eg, more awakenings, longer sleep latency, and reduced stage 3 sleep). Linear relationships described the correlation between higher ESR and more stage 4 (minutes, percentage) sleep. Nonlinear relationships described the relation between ESR and subjective sleep quality (inverse U-shaped) and between CRP and sleep latency (U-shaped). In children and adolescents with an active IBD, objective sleep was impaired and overall sleep quality and inflammation indices were associated in a complex manner. It seems advisable to include assessment of subjective sleep

  13. The Impact of Personal Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control on Entrepreneurial Intentions of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sait DINC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, female entrepreneurship has been identified as one of the most important unutilised sources of economic growth. Entrepreneurial intention of women has become a key element in establishing a new business. The factors influencing entrepreneurial intention of women, particularly in developing countries, have attracted curiosity lot of attention. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between demographic variables, personal attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and entrepreneurial intentions of women in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A total of 216 questionnaires were collected from women in two big cities in Bosnia: Tuzla and Sarajevo. Relationships between the variables were evaluated using factor analysis, reliability, correlations, descriptive statistics, and regression. The findings show a positive and significant influence of personal attitude and perceived behavioural control on entrepreneurial intention.

  14. Black tea consumption improves postprandial glycemic control in normal and pre-diabetic subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butacnum, Arisa; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Bumrungpert, Akkarach

    2017-01-01

    Postprandial glycemic control is important for prevention of diabetes. Black tea consumption may improve postprandial glycemic control. The major bioactive compounds are polyphenols, black tea polymerized polyphenol (BTPP).This study examined the effect of black tea consumption on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response following sucrose loading in normal and pre-diabetes subjects. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Twenty-four subjects, male and female aged 20-60 years, normal and pre-diabetic, randomly ingested a sucrose solution with a low dose (110 mg BTPP), a high dose (220 mg BTPP) of black tea drink or a placebo drink (0 mg BTPP). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min from commencement of drink ingestion to measure blood glucose and insulin levels. The drink containing low dose and high dose BTPP significantly decreased incremental blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) after sucrose intake compared with placebo in the normal (T0-60 min 3,232±356 vs 3,295±312 vs 3,652±454 mg.min/dL; p=0.016) and pre-diabetic subjects (T0-60 min 2,554±395 vs 2,472±280 vs 2,888±502 mg.min/dL; p=0.048). There was no statistically significant difference of changes in insulin levels between the placebo and black tea groups (p>0.05). No significant differences in adverse effects were observed with the placebo, low dose and high dose of BTPP groups. Black tea consumption can decrease postprandial blood glucose after sucrose intake.

  15. Circadian clock gene expression in brain regions of Alzheimer 's disease patients and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermakian, Nicolas; Lamont, Elaine Waddington; Boudreau, Philippe; Boivin, Diane B

    2011-04-01

    Circadian oscillators have been observed throughout the rodent brain. In the human brain, rhythmic expression of clock genes has been reported only in the pineal gland, and little is known about their expression in other regions. The investigators sought to determine whether clock gene expression could be detected and whether it varies as a function of time of day in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and cingulate cortex, areas known to be involved in decision making and motivated behaviors, as well as in the pineal gland, in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and aged controls. Relative expression levels of PERIOD1 (PER1 ), PERIOD2 (PER2), and Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) were detected by quantitative PCR in all 3 brain regions. A harmonic regression model revealed significant 24-h rhythms of PER1 in the BNST of AD subjects. A significant rhythm of PER2 was found in the cingulate cortex and BNST of control subjects and in all 3 regions of AD patients. In controls, BMAL1 did not show a diurnal rhythm in the cingulate cortex but significantly varied with time of death in the pineal and BNST and in all 3 regions for AD patients. Notable differences in the phase of clock gene rhythms and phase relationships between genes and regions were observed in the brains of AD compared to those of controls. These results indicate the presence of multiple circadian oscillators in the human brain and suggest altered synchronization among these oscillators in the brain of AD patients. © 2011 Sage Publications

  16. Changes in pressure-pain thresholds of the jaw muscles during a natural stressful condition in a group of symptom-free subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, A; Farella, M; Tedesco, A; Cimino, R; Martina, R

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a natural emotional stressor on pressure-pain thresholds (PPTs) of the masticatory muscles of symptom-free subjects. Sixteen healthy dental students were selected before they undertook an academic examination. Sixteen gender-matched students who were not exposed to an examination served as controls. The 2 groups of students were monitored in parallel on 5 separate days over a 1-month period: 2 days before the examination (T1), on the day of the examination (T2), 2 days after (T3), 1 month after (T4), and again after another 2 days (T5). On the day of the examination (T2), the control students were only required to complete a brief, non-demanding questionnaire. On each day, the following parameters were assessed: PPTs of the masseter, the anterior temporalis, and the Achilles tendon; state anxiety; and present stress (measured on a visual analog scale [VAS]). Furthermore, in the students undergoing the examination, venous blood samples for assessment of beta-endorphin levels were obtained at T2 and T5. In the stressed students, the PPTs of the masticatory muscles and the Achilles tendon were significantly lower (analysis of variance [ANOVA], P exam (T1, T3), and state anxiety and present stress were significantly higher (ANOVA, P 0.05). In the control group, PPTs, state anxiety, and present stress did not change significantly (ANOVA, P > 0.05). The results support a relationship between psychologic stress and pressure-pain sensitivity of the masticatory muscles.

  17. Effects of laser therapy and Grimaldi's muscle shortening manoeuvre on motor control of subjects with incomplete spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Diego; Longo, Leonardo; Lippi, Paolo; Cherubini, Giulio; Mangé, Vanessa

    2017-09-30

    From year 2003 we treated positively 251 patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries (TSCI), using Non-Surgical Laser Therapy (NSLT). In order to increase muscle strength, we have also started using a physical therapy practice called Grimaldi's Muscle Shortening Manoeuvre (GMSM)The goal of our study is to obtain objective data suggesting the real effectiveness of the association of these two treatments. In 2015, 10 patients with incomplete TSCI were enrolled. Further 10 subjects with similar features were included as control group. All patients have subtotal sensory loss and motor paralysis below the level of the lesion. Lasers used were 808, 10600, and 1064 nm, applied with a first cycle of four sessions per day for a total of 20 sessions. The patients participated in specific physical therapy training (GMSM) twice a day, for a total of eight sessions.Each cycle of laser and GMSM was replicated each month. Results were considered positive if sensitivity increased at least two dermatomes per cycle under the level of the lesion. Results in muscle activity (on/off) were regarded as positive if sEMG showed modifications in CNS-muscle. Objective assessment of force displayed encouraging results. After each cycle, patients showed improvements in motor function and voluntary command. Follow-up is positive after 3 months. Associating laser treatment and Grimaldi's Muscle Shortening Manoeuvre (MSM) seems to be effective on muscle strength and motor control in patients affected by subtotal SCI compared to a control group.

  18. Longitudinal changes in ultrasound measurements: a parallel study in subjects with genetic disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaba, Zenon; Pyrkosz, Antoni; Adamczyk, Piotr; Drozdzowska, Bogna; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2006-03-01

    Disturbances in skeletal status in subjects with genetic disorder may increase their fracture risk. The aim of the study was longitudinal observation of phalangeal speed of sound changes across the bone over a period of 2 y in 24 patients (14 boys and 10 girls, mean age 9.63 +/- 1.8 y.) and 24 age-matched healthy controls (14 boys and 10 girls, mean age 9.65 +/- 1.71 y.). Weight and height did not differ between patients and controls at baseline and follow-up. Patients with the following disorders were evaluated: 7 with Down syndrome, 6 nonspecific mental retardations of unknown etiology, 5 Martin-Bell syndrome and 6 with other diseases. In patients and controls, no factors potentially influencing bone metabolism (except for genetic disorder) were present. Bone status was assessed by quantitative ultrasound at hand phalanges using DBM Sonic 1200 (IGEA, Carpi, Italy), which measures amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS [m/s]). At baseline, Ad-SoS and Z-score were significantly lower in patients than in controls (1892 +/- 51 m/s versus 1936 +/- 43 m/s, p Z-score increased significantly in patients (1892 +/- 51 m/s to 1934 +/- 48 m/s, p Z-Score were significantly lower in patients (p Z-score weight did not differ between patients and control, and height increased more in controls (13.2 +/- 2.8 cm versus 11.4 +/- 5.9 cm, p over a period of observation. In conclusion, despite comparable improvement in measured ultrasound parameter in patients and controls observed over a study duration, the difference between them remained stable.

  19. Tissue Damage Markers after a Spinal Manipulation in Healthy Subjects: A Preliminary Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achalandabaso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal manipulation (SM is a manual therapy technique frequently applied to treat musculoskeletal disorders because of its analgesic effects. It is defined by a manual procedure involving a directed impulse to move a joint past its physiologic range of movement (ROM. In this sense, to exceed the physiologic ROM of a joint could trigger tissue damage, which might represent an adverse effect associated with spinal manipulation. The present work tries to explore the presence of tissue damage associated with SM through the damage markers analysis. Thirty healthy subjects recruited at the University of Jaén were submitted to a placebo SM (control group; n=10, a single lower cervical manipulation (cervical group; n=10, and a thoracic manipulation (n=10. Before the intervention, blood samples were extracted and centrifuged to obtain plasma and serum. The procedure was repeated right after the intervention and two hours after the intervention. Tissue damage markers creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, C-reactive protein (CRP, troponin-I, myoglobin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, and aldolase were determined in samples. Statistical analysis was performed through a 3×3 mixed-model ANOVA. Neither cervical manipulation nor thoracic manipulation did produce significant changes in the CPK, LDH, CRP, troponin-I, myoglobin, NSE, or aldolase blood levels. Our data suggest that the mechanical strain produced by SM seems to be innocuous to the joints and surrounding tissues in healthy subjects.

  20. Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype affects the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects: comparison of traditional phenotype and activity score systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Haotian; Shi, Jun; Shen, Kai; Hu, Pei

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects and used paroxetine as a tool drug to compare the performance of traditional phenotype and activity score systems. Pharmacokinetic data were evaluated in 24 subjects who received a single oral dose of 25 mg controlled-release paroxetine. Plasma paroxetine concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. CYP2D6 genotypes were tested by PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Subjects were classified by two systems of phenotype prediction. In the traditional phenotype system, subjects were classified as extensive metabolizers or intermediate metabolizers; in the activity score system, subjects were divided into four activity groups. Analysis of variance testing was applied to estimate the effects of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. With the traditional phenotype system, significant differences were observed in the following pharmacokinetic parameters of paroxetine: t 1/2, C max, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Vz/F, and CL/F (all P paroxetine was about 3.5-fold higher in the intermediate metabolizer group than in the extensive metabolizer group. With the activity score system, significant differences were observed in the t 1/2, C max, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Vz/F, and CL/F among the four different activity score groups (all P paroxetine decreased by around one half as the activity score increased by 0.5. The pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine after a single administration was affected by CYP2D6 polymorphisms. Both the traditional phenotype and the activity score systems performed well and distinguished subjects with different drug exposures. The activity score system provided a more detailed classification for the subjects.

  1. Comorbid conditions associated with Parkinson's disease: A longitudinal and comparative study with Alzheimer disease and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos García, D; Suárez Castro, E; Expósito, I; de Deus, T; Tuñas, C; Aneiros, A; López Fernández, M; Núñez Arias, D; Bermúdez Torres, M

    2017-02-15

    To study what comorbid conditions were present at baseline and 3years later in a cohort of Spanish Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, to compare comorbidity with both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control groups and to analyze the role of comorbidity as predictor of mortality. One hundred and forty-seven non-demented PD patients (57.1% males; 70.9±8.6years old) were included in this 36months follow-up (2012-2015), monocenter, evaluation study. The International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), Charlson Index (CI), Comorbidity-Polypharmacy Score (CPS) and Elixhauser Comorbidity Measure (ECM) were used to assess comorbidity at baseline and at 3years. Forty-four AD patients and 44 control subjects were included as comparator groups. Total number of comorbidities (ICD-10) and polypharmacy at baseline were higher in PD and AD patients than controls (4.4±2.3 vs 5.2±2.4 vs 3.4±1.9 [p=0.001] and 81.6% vs 75% vs 56.8% [p=0.003], respectively). Diseases of the circulatory system (ICD-10/chapter-IX) and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (ICD-10/chapter-IV) were the most frequent in all groups. There was a significant increase in comorbidity (mean, +1.6±2.8) in all groups (pdisease duration, disease stage, motor status and non-motor symptoms): ICD-10 (total number of comorbidities), hazard ratio 1.285 (95% confidence interval, 1.047-1.577; p=0.017); CI, hazard ratio 1.462 (95% confidence interval, 1.045-2.047; p=0.027). Comorbidity is frequent in PD patients, increases significantly over time and predicts mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analyses of aerodynamic characteristics of the oropharynx applying CBCT: obstructive sleep apnea patients versus control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Yingguang; Reiber, Johan Hc; de Lange, Jan; Tu, Shengxian; van der Stelt, Paul; Lobbezoo, Frank; Aarab, Ghizlane

    2018-02-01

    To determine the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic of the oropharynx related to the collapse of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients; and to determine the correlation between the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic(s) of the oropharynx and anatomical characteristics of the oropharynx in OSA patients. 31 mild to moderate OSA patients (mean ± SD age = 43.5 ± 9.7 years) and 13 control subjects (mean ± SD age = 48.5 ± 16.2 years) were included in this prospective study. The diagnosis of OSA patients was based on an overnight polysomnographic recording. To exclude the presence of OSA in the control subjects, they were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire to determine the risk of OSA. NewTom5G cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were obtained from both OSA patients and control subjects. Computational models of the oropharynx were reconstructed based on CBCT images. The aerodynamic characteristics of the oropharynx were calculated based on these computational models. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyse the correlation between the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic(s) and anatomical characteristics of the oropharynx in OSA patients. Compared with controls, the airway resistance during expiration (R ex ) of the OSA patients was significantly higher (p = 0.04). There was a significant negative correlation between R ex and the minimum cross-sectional area (CSA min ) of the oropharynx (r = -0.41, p = 0.02), and between R ex and the volume of the oropharynx (r = -0.48, p = 0.01) in OSA patients. After excluding an outlier, there is only significant correlation between R ex and the CSA min of the oropharynx (r = -0.45, p = 0.01). Within the limitations of this study, we concluded that the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic of the oropharynx in the collapse of the upper airway in OSA patients is R ex . Therefore, the repetitive collapse of the upper airway in OSA patients may be explained by a high R ex , which is

  3. Cannabis use and anticipatory pleasure as reported by subjects with early psychosis and community controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Clifford M; Lepage, Martin; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Malla, Ashok

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence of decreased pleasure and deficits in the anticipation of reward in both psychotic illness and drug addiction. Individuals with low anticipatory pleasure may preferentially engage in behaviours associated with immediate reward such as cannabis use. Ninety-one psychosis patients and 91 controls without history of psychosis were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a self report which measures anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. Cannabis use diagnosis was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID). Subjects reported the frequency of cannabis consumption and time since last use. Patients did not show a significant deficit in anticipatory or consummatory pleasure compared to controls; however, patients with an active cannabis-use disorder tended to have lower consummatory pleasure than controls with active cannabis disorder (ppleasure compared to those who had a lifetime cannabis diagnosis but were able to maintain abstinence (F(1,60)=5.6, p=.021). Frequency of cannabis use was negatively correlated to anticipatory and consummatory pleasure (Pearson R=-.46, -.48 respectively) in 37 patients currently using cannabis but not in 46 cannabis-using controls (partial R=-.04, -.07 respectively). Anticipatory pleasure may not be decreased in early psychosis patients. Lower hedonic response may be associated with persistent, heavy cannabis use in patients in the early phase of psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Short term effects of kinesiotaping on acromiohumeral distance in asymptomatic subjects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, A; Navarro-Ledesma, S; Petocz, P; Hancock, M J; Hush, J

    2013-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether kinesiotaping (KT) can increase the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic subjects in the short term. The second aim was to investigate whether the direction of kinesiotaping application influences AHD. In recent years, the use of KT has become increasingly popular for a range of musculoskeletal conditions and for sport injuries. To date, we are unaware of any research investigating the effect of kinesiotaping on AHD. Moreover, it is unknown whether the direction of kinesiotaping application for the shoulder is important. Forty nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: kinesiotaping group 1 (KT1), kinesiotaping group 2 (KT2) and sham kinesiotaping (KT3). AHD ultrasound measurements at 0° and 60° of shoulder elevation were collected at baseline and immediately after kinesiotape application. The results showed significant improvements in AHD after kinesiotaping, compared with sham taping. The mean difference in AHD between KT1 and KT3 groups was 1.28 mm (95% CI: 0.55, 2.03), and between KT2 and KT3 was 0.98 mm (95% CI: 0.23, 1.74). Comparison of KT1 and KT2 groups, which was performed to identify whether the direction of taping influences the AHD, indicated there were no significant differences. KT increases AHD in healthy individuals immediately following application, compared with sham kinesiotape. No differences were found with respect to the direction in which KT was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastrointestinal tolerance of low FODMAP oral nutrition supplements in healthy human subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Korczak, Renee; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-05-25

    There has been increasing interest in utilizing a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal disease. While studies have indicated that this diet can be effective at symptom reduction, it is a restrictive diet and patients may find it challenging to find low FODMAP products to meet their nutrient needs. The primary objective of this study was to assess the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of three low FODMAP oral nutrition supplements (ONS) in healthy adults. A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study was conducted in 21 healthy adults (19-32 years). Fasted subjects consumed one of four treatments at each visit, with a one week wash out period between visits. Each participant received all treatments. Treatments included three low FODMAP ONS formulas (A, B, and C) as well as a positive control consisting of 5 g fructooligosaccharides (FOS) mixed in lactose-free milk. Breath hydrogen was measured at baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h post treatment consumption. Subjective GI symptom questionnaires were completed at baseline, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h following treatment consumption. Mean breath hydrogen concentrations and baseline corrected area under the curve for both breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were analyzed and compared between treatments. Significance was determined at P FODMAP ONS beverages at 3 and 4 h after consumption. There were no differences in GI symptom response between treatments. All treatments were well tolerated in healthy participants. The low FODMAP formulas resulted in a lower breath hydrogen response compared to the positive control, and may be better tolerated in individuals with IBS. More research should be conducted to better understand the GI tolerance of low FODMAP ONS in individuals with IBS. The protocol for this study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov in January 2016 (Clinical

  6. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambiritch, Virendra; Naidoo, Poobalan; Maharaj, Breminand; Pillai, Goonaseelan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects using noncompartmental and model-based methods. A total of 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes were administered increasing doses (0 mg/d, 2.5 mg/d, 5 mg/d, 10 mg/d, and 20 mg/d) of glibenclamide daily at 2-week intervals. Plasma glibenclamide, glucose, and insulin determinations were performed. Blood sampling times were 0 minute, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes (post breakfast sampling) and 240 minutes, 270 minutes, 300 minutes, 330 minutes, 360 minutes, and 420 minutes (post lunch sampling) on days 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 for doses of 0 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg, respectively. Blood sampling was performed after the steady state was reached. A total of 24 individuals in the data set contributed to a total of 841 observation records. The PK was analyzed using noncompartmental analysis methods, which were implemented in WinNonLin(®), and population PK analysis using NONMEM(®). Glibenclamide concentration data were log transformed prior to fitting. A two-compartmental disposition model was selected after evaluating one-, two-, and three-compartmental models to describe the time course of glibenclamide plasma concentration data. The one-compartment model adequately described the data; however, the two-compartment model provided a better fit. The three-compartment model failed to achieve successful convergence. A more complex model, to account for enterohepatic recirculation that was observed in the data, was unsuccessful. In South African diabetic subjects, glibenclamide demonstrates linear PK and was best described by a two-compartmental model. Except for the absorption rate constant, the other PK parameters reported in this study are comparable to those reported in the scientific literature. The study is limited by the small study sample size and inclusion of poorly controlled type 2 diabetic

  7. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambiritch V

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Virendra Rambiritch,1 Poobalan Naidoo,2 Breminand Maharaj,1 Goonaseelan Pillai3 1University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2Department of Internal Medicine, RK Khan Regional Hospital, Chatsworth, South Africa; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects using noncompartmental and model-based methods. Methods: A total of 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes were administered increasing doses (0 mg/d, 2.5 mg/d, 5 mg/d, 10 mg/d, and 20 mg/d of glibenclamide daily at 2-week intervals. Plasma glibenclamide, glucose, and insulin determinations were performed. Blood sampling times were 0 minute, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes (post breakfast sampling and 240 minutes, 270 minutes, 300 minutes, 330 minutes, 360 minutes, and 420 minutes (post lunch sampling on days 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 for doses of 0 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg, respectively. Blood sampling was performed after the steady state was reached.  A total of 24 individuals in the data set contributed to a total of 841 observation records. The PK was analyzed using noncompartmental analysis methods, which were implemented in WinNonLin®, and population PK analysis using NONMEM®. Glibenclamide concentration data were log transformed prior to fitting. Results: A two-compartmental disposition model was selected after evaluating one-, two-, and three-compartmental models to describe the time course of glibenclamide plasma concentration data. The one-compartment model adequately described the data; however, the two-compartment model provided a better fit. The three-compartment model failed to achieve successful convergence. A more complex model, to account for enterohepatic recirculation that was observed in the data, was unsuccessful. Conclusion: In South African diabetic subjects, glibenclamide demonstrates linear PK and was best

  8. Air traffic controllers’ long-term speech-in-noise training effects: A control group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T.P. Zaballos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=−5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. Discussion: ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Conclusion: Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions.

  9. In-human subject-specific evaluation of a control-theoretic plasma volume regulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Kinsky, Michael; Kramer, George; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct a subject-specific evaluation of a control-theoretic plasma volume regulation model in humans. We employed a set of clinical data collected from nine human subjects receiving fluid bolus with and without co-administration of an inotrope agent, including fluid infusion rate, plasma volume, and urine output. Once fitted to the data associated with each subject, the model accurately reproduced the fractional plasma volume change responses in all subjects: the error between actual versus model-reproduced fractional plasma volume change responses was only 1.4 ± 1.6% and 1.2 ± 0.3% of the average fractional plasma volume change responses in the absence and presence of inotrope co-administration. In addition, the model parameters determined by the subject-specific fitting assumed physiologically plausible values: (i) initial plasma volume was estimated to be 36 ± 11 mL/kg and 37 ± 10 mL/kg in the absence and presence of inotrope infusion, respectively, which was comparable to its actual counterpart of 37 ± 4 mL/kg and 43 ± 6 mL/kg; (ii) volume distribution ratio, specifying the ratio with which the inputted fluid is distributed in the intra- and extra-vascular spaces, was estimated to be 3.5 ± 2.4 and 1.9 ± 0.5 in the absence and presence of inotrope infusion, respectively, which accorded with the experimental observation that inotrope could enhance plasma volume expansion in response to fluid infusion. We concluded that the model was equipped with the ability to reproduce plasma volume response to fluid infusion in humans with physiologically plausible model parameters, and its validity may persist even under co-administration of inotropic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Dietary habits, attitudes toward weight control, and subjective symptoms of fatigue in young women in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Mai; Takayama, Tomoko; Kira, Shohei

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes dietary habits and attitudes toward body weight control of college women in Japan and examines their relationships with subjective symptoms of fatigue. We also discuss strategies to promote better diets among young adults. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 286 young women aged 18 to 25 years; 275 of these were analyzed. The study found that more than half of the women were concerned about nutritional balance and calories. Yet thirty percent ate "a single-item meal (i.e., bread, rice bowl, noodles) two or more times a day," while roughly one half skipped breakfast "sometimes" or "always." A majority ate vegetables "almost never" and consumed instant foods, confectionery, or sugary drinks "almost daily." Subjective symptoms of fatigue were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of irregular meal-taking, single-item meals, between-meal snacking, missed breakfasts, non-vegetable diets, non-fruit diets, and instant foods and confectionery. About sixty percent of the women in the study considered their bodies to be "slightly fat or overweight" while 79.5% indicated a desire to "lose weight". On average, the participants' ideal BMI was 18.7 (+/- 1.2) while the ideal body weight was 47.2 (+/- 4.1) kg, approximately 4 kg under actual average body weight. Subjective symptoms of fatigue were stronger among women who considered themselves "slightly fat or overweight". Likewise, symptoms were stronger to the extent that a participant's ideal BMI was below her actual BMI. Many women in this study desired to lose weight although they were not overweight by objective measures. The study suggests that subjective symptoms of fatigue are not the result of individual dietary habits, but rather of a lifestyle that reach to series of dietary habits connected to subjective symptoms of fatigue. The study also confirms the importance both of encouraging young women not just to eat well but to lead lifestyles in which they do not skip meals and

  11. Impacts of Supervised Exercise Training in Addition to Interdisciplinary Lifestyle Management in Subjects Awaiting Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Mampuya, Warner M; Dionne, Isabelle J; Comeau, Emilie; Méziat-Burdin, Anne; Langlois, Marie-France

    2016-11-01

    Experts recommend physical activity (PA) to optimize bariatric surgery (BS) results. However, evidence on the effect of PA before BS is missing. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of adding a Pre-Surgical Exercise Training (PreSET) to an interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention on physical fitness, quality of life, PA barriers, and anthropometric parameters of subjects awaiting BS. Thirty candidates for BS (43.2 ± 9.2 years, 47.5 ± 8.1 kg/m2) have been randomized in two groups: one group following the PreSET (endurance and strength training) and another receiving usual care. Before and after 12 weeks, we assessed physical fitness with a battery of tests (symptom-limited exercise test, 6-min walk test (6MWT), sit-to-stand test, half-squat test, and arm curl test), quality of life with the laval questionnaire, and PA barriers with the physical exercise belief questionnaire. One control group subject abandoned the study. Subjects in the PreSET group participated in 60.0 % of the supervised exercise sessions proposed. Results showed significant improvements in the 6MWT (17.4 ± 27.2 vs. -16.4 ± 42.4 m; p = 0.03), half-squat test (17.1 ± 17.9 vs. -0.9 ± 14.5 s; p = 0.05), arm curl repetitions (4.8 ± 2.3 vs. 1.0 ± 4.1; p = 0.01), social interaction score (10.7 ± 12.5 vs. -2.1 ± 11.0 %; p = 0.02), and embarrassment (-15.6 ± 10.2 vs. -3.1 ± 17.8 %; p = 0.02) in completers (n = 8) compared to the non-completers (n = 21). No significant difference between groups in BMI and other outcomes studied was observed after the intervention. Adding a PreSET to an individual lifestyle counselling intervention improved physical fitness, social interactions, and embarrassment. Post-surgery data would be interesting to confirm these benefits on the long term.

  12. Formation Control and Obstacle Avoidance for Multiple Robots Subject to Wheel-Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Ze-Su

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive formation control law for non-holonomic dynamic robots based on an artificial potential function method in the presence of lateral slip and parametric uncertainties is presented to organize multiple robots into formation. It is formulated to achieve the smooth control of the translational and rotational motion of a group of mobile robots while keeping a prescribed formation and avoiding inter-robot and obstacle collisions. In order to improve the formation control method effectively and reduce the distortion shape, the virtual leader-following method is proposed for every robot and an improved optimal assignment algorithm is used to solve multi-targets optimal assignment for the formation problem. Simulation results are provided to validate the theoretical results.

  13. The effects of subjective loss of control on risk-taking behavior: the mediating role of anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisswingert, Birgit M.; Zhang, Keshun; Goetz, Thomas; Fang, Ping; Fischbacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger. An experimental paradigm for inducing externally caused and consequently externally attributed loss of control which should lead to experiences of anger was developed and pretested in a Pilot Study. The relationship between loss of control experiences, anger, and risk-taking behavior was investigated using two separate student samples from Germany (N = 84, 54% female) and China (N = 125; 64% female). In line with our hypotheses, results showed that anger mediated the link between subjective loss of control experiences and increasing risk-taking behavior. Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results’ cross-cultural generalizability. These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making. PMID:26217244

  14. Upper cervical mobility, posture and myofascial trigger points in subjects with episodic migraine: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tali, Danit; Menahem, Itay; Vered, Elisha; Kalichman, Leonid

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the association between episodic migraines and the prevalence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius, forward head posture (FHP), neck range of motion (ROM) and cervical facet joint stiffness. 20 physiotherapy students with episodic migraines and 20 age- and sex matched healthy controls were included in this observational case-control study. Demographics and headache status were evaluated through questionnaires. Active neck ROM, presence of MTrPs, and cervical facet joint mobility were assessed by physical examination. FHP was measured using a lateral digital photograph taken in a sitting position. No significant differences were found in neck ROM measurements and FHP between the migraine and control groups. Significant differences were found in the prevalence of cervical facet joints stiffness in Occiput-C1 (χ(2) = 4.444, p = 0.035) and C1-C2 (χ(2) = 10.157, p = 0.001), but not in other segments. Significant differences were found in the prevalence of active and latent MTrPs between the migraine and control subjects in the right trapezius (χ(2) = 11.649, p = 0.003) and right sternocleidomastoid (χ(2) = 8.485, p = 0.014). Our findings support the hypothesis that the prevalence of MTrPs in neck muscles and hypomobility in the upper cervical facet joints are associated with migraines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Subjective Loss of Control on Risk-taking Behavior: The Mediating Role of Anger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit M. Beisswingert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger. An experimental paradigm for inducing externally caused and consequently externally attributed loss of control which should lead to experiences of anger was developed and pretested in a Pilot Study. The relationship between loss of control experiences, anger and risk-taking behavior was investigated using two separate student samples from Germany (N = 84, 54% female and China (N = 125; 64% female. In line with our hypotheses, results showed that anger mediated the link between subjective loss of control experiences and increasing risk-taking behavior. Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results’ cross-cultural generalizability. These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making.

  16. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, and 29.7 kg/m2). Patients taking antihypertensive agents or with renal insufficiency were excluded. All patients were evaluated with a continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (Finapres) in standing (1 min), squatting (1 min), and again standing position (1 min). Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were compared with two groups of 40 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy subjects. RESULTS Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly higher pulse pressure, heart rate, and double product of pulse pressure and heart rate (PP×HR) (type 1: 5,263 vs. 4,121 mmHg/min, P = 0.0004; type 2: 5,359 vs. 4,321 mmHg, P = 0.0023) levels than corresponding control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes regarding pulse pressure (59 vs. 58 mmHg), heart rate (89 vs. 88/min), and PP×HR (5,263 vs. 5,359 mmHg/min). CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased levels of peripheral PP, an indirect marker of arterial stiffness, and PP×HR, an index of pulsatile stress, comparable to those of nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes at similar mean age of 50 years. PMID:20693351

  17. Predicting participation in group parenting education in an Australian sample: the role of attitudes, norms, and control factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Wellington, Larne

    2009-03-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence variables (self-identity and group norm). Regression analyses supported the TPB predictors of participation intentions with self-identity and group norm also significantly predicting intentions. Editors' Strategic Implications: these findings provide preliminary support for the TPB, in conjunction with additional sources of social influence, as a predictive model for participation in parent education and other prevention programs.

  18. Self-regulation and the extended now: controlling the self alters the subjective experience of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Kathleen D; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2003-08-01

    These studies investigated self-regulation and subjective experience of time from the perspective of the regulatory resource model. Studies 1-2 showed that participants who were instructed to regulate their emotions while viewing a film clip perceived that the film lasted longer than participants who did not regulate their emotions. In Study 3, participants provided time estimates during a resource-depleting or nondepleting task. Subsequent task persistence was measured. Time perceptions mediated the effect of initial self-regulation on subsequent self-regulated performance. In Study 4, participants performed either a resource-depleting or a nondepleting thought-listing task and then performed a different regulatorytask. Compared with nondepleted participants, depleted participants persisted less on the 2nd task but estimated that they had persisted longer. Subjective time estimates statistically accounted for reduced persistence after depletion. Together, results indicate people believe that self-regulatory endeavors last overly long, a belief that may result in abandonment of further self-control.

  19. [Intention, attitude, subjective norms and perception of control in Spanish adolescents about using Double Dutch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Oscar; Goulet, Céline; Lampron, Annie

    2005-09-01

    With adolescence, boys and girls reach their sexual maturity and initiate their sexual encounters. They very frequently adopt risk behaviors as they tend not to use any contraceptive methods. Today's trend in relation to contraceptive methods is to recommend the combined utilization of condom and pill. In comparison to other methods, this last one, known as the Double Dutch (DD) method, has the advantage of preventing pregnancy and STD's, at the same time it increases the efficiency of contraception. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior the purpose of the study was to measure the intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control towards the utilization of the DD method among 15-16 year-old Spanish students and to determine the relationships among these variables. The results indicate that adolescents show favorable intention, attitude and subjective norm toward the utilization of the DD method. They seem to be more worried about pregnancy prevention than about STDs'prevention. Parents seem to be the most important reference people for adolescents, followed by their friends; the results show that at this age, adolescents tend to take into consideration these reference people's opinion.

  20. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gabriela G.; Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC – operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) – will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072

  1. Effects of the "affectionless control" parenting style on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-30

    The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.

  2. Evaluation of masseter muscles in relation to treatment with removable bite-blocks in dolichofacial growing subjects: A prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Kiliaridis, Stavros; Noviello, Andrea; Franchi, Lorenzo; Antonarakis, Gregory S; Cozza, Paola

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of posterior bite-blocks on masseter muscles and on facial growth in prepubertal dolichofacial subjects. The treatment group comprised 21 consecutive prepubertal dolichofacial patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion followed by mandibular removable bite-blocks. Lateral cephalograms and ultrasonographic scans of the masseter muscles were made before (T1) and after (T2) treatment with bite-blocks. The treatment group was compared with a control group of 21 subjects matched for sex, age, and skeletal vertical pattern. An independent samples t test was used to compare the T1 to T2 changes in ultrasonographic scan measurements between the treatment group and the control group, and the T1 to T2 cephalometric changes in the treatment group. Regression analysis was performed to investigate associations between masseter muscle thickness and cephalometric treatment outcomes. Masseter muscle thickness showed a statistically significant decrease (-0.7 mm) in the treatment group compared with an increase (+0.6 mm) in the control group. A significant anterior rotation of the mandibular plane was observed in the treatment group as well as significant increases in overbite (1.8 mm) and total posterior facial height (1.5 mm). No significant associations were found between masseter muscle thickness and treatment outcomes apart from a tendency for overbite to increase more in subjects with thicker muscles. Treatment with removable bite-blocks produced a decrease in masseter muscle thickness and a reduction in vertical facial dimensions due to upward and forward rotation of the mandible. No significant correlation was found between the pretreatment masseter muscle thickness and the T1 to T2 cephalometric changes in the treatment group. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme improves disability, kinesiophobia and walking ability in subjects with chronic low back pain: results of a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Magni, Silvia; Brivio, Flavia; Ferrante, Simona

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme on disability, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing, pain, quality of life and gait disturbances in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). This was a parallel-group, randomised, superiority-controlled pilot study in which 20 patients were randomly assigned to a programme consisting of motor training (spinal stabilising exercises plus usual-care) and cognitive-behavioural therapy (experimental group, 10 subjects) or usual-care alone (control group, 10 subjects). Before treatment, 8 weeks later (post-treatment), and 3 months after the end of treatment, the Oswestry Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, a pain numerical rating scale, and the Short-Form Health Survey were assessed. Spatio-temporal gait parameters were also measured by means of an electronic walking mat. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was used for each outcome measure. The programme had significant group (p = 0.027), time (p kinesiophobia, catastrophizing, and the quality of life also revealed significant time, group, and time-by-group interaction effects in favour of the experimental group, and there was a significant effect of time on pain. Both groups showed a general improvement in gait parameters, with the experimental group increasing cadence significantly more. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme including cognitive-behavioural therapy was superior to the exercise programme in reducing disability, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing, and enhancing the quality of life and gait cadence of patients with CLBP.

  4. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  5. Body images of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and female control subjects: a comparison with male ideals of female attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoven, Dieter; Raykowski, Lena; Solzbacher, Svenja; Kunzendorf, Sebastian; Jantschek, Günter

    2007-03-01

    Body images of female patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were assessed against females without eating disorders and compared with male ideals of female attractiveness. A computer program was applied to examine body images of 62 patients with anorexia nervosa, 45 patients with bulimia nervosa, and 40 female and 39 male control subjects. Body size overestimation was most distinct in the two patient groups. Self-ideal discrepancy was highest in bulimia nervosa. Estimation of the society's ideal female body in all three female groups did not differ from men's perception of the most attractive female body. Congruence of ideals of female attractiveness in patients, female, and male control subjects and described differences between patients and female controls support the theory that body image disturbance is a problem of processing self-referential information regarding body image rather than a problem of processing body image related information per se.

  6. Comparison of postural control between healthy subjects and individuals with nonspecific low back pain during exposure to visual stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Ninghua; Yan, Xiang; Wei, Kunlin

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common clinical problem. Many researchers have demonstrated that LBP disorders have difference in sensory strategies for postural control. Optokinetic stimulation (OKS) of optic flow has been widely applied to study its effect on vision, but has not been applied to LBP. Here we used OKS on different surfaces to investigate the characteristics of chronic nonspecific LBP (CNLBP) posture control, so as to provide new theoretical and experimental data for further recognizing CNLBP and enriching its treatment. Fifteen individuals with CNLBP (age range 25-40 years) and 15 age and gender-matched control subjects were recruited. Each subject, while standing on a stable or soft surface, was exposed to random-dot patterns projected on a large screen, with the dots displaying expansion (+) and contraction (-) and velocities including 80°, 40°, and 20° per second. The visual stimulus used a "stimuli-interval" pattern. The peak velocity, different phases' standard deviation (SD) of the anterior-posterior centre of pressure (COP) displacements and the total length of the medial-lateral COP sway (LML) for stable surface and soft surface were recorded by force platform. The main effect of surface on all parameters was significant, while the main effect of group and OKS showed no significance with the exception of peak velocity (F(3, 95) = 3.6, P = 0.01) and A2 (F(5, 140) = 9.34, P A2 (F(5, 140) = 3.65, P < 0.01) and group by surface by OKS (F(5,140) = 2.83, P = 0.02), and surface by OKS of A1 and A3 (P < 0.05) were significant. It was reported that significantly more SD in amplitude in the T2 phase was seen in persons with CNLBP when confronting the + 40 stimuli on the soft surface (P < 0.05) compared to healthy individuals. There was no significance between persons with CNLBP and healthy people when using the stable surface. Subjects with LBP showed decreased efficiency of postural adjustment when exposed to more complicated tasks and environments

  7. Dynamic Connectivity States Estimated from Resting fMRI Identify Differences among Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Healthy Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaly eRashid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes, and both are associated with dysconnectivity among large-scale brain networks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI data facilitates studying macroscopic connectivity among distant brain regions. Standard approaches to identifying such connectivity include seed-based correlation and data-driven clustering methods such as independent component analysis (ICA but typically focus on average connectivity. In this study, we utilize ICA on rsfMRI data to obtain intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs in cohorts of healthy controls (HC and age matched schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. Subsequently, we investigated difference in functional network connectivity (FNC, defined as pairwise correlations among the timecourses of ICNs, between healthy controls and patients. We quantified differences in both static (average and dynamic (windowed connectivity during the entire scan duration. Disease-specific differences were identified in connectivity within different dynamic states. Schizophrenia patients showed more differences from healthy subjects than did bipolars, including both hyper and hypo connectivity in one common connectivity state (dynamic state 3. Also group differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients were identified in patterns (states of connectivity involving the frontal (dynamic state 1 and frontal-parietal regions (dynamic state 3. Our results provide new information about these illnesses and strongly suggest that state-based analyses are critical to avoid averaging together important factors that can help distinguish these clinical groups.

  8. Neural Excitability and Joint Laxity in Chronic Ankle Instability, Coper, and Control Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowker, Samantha; Terada, Masafumi; Thomas, Abbey C; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Hiller, Claire E; Gribble, Phillip A

    2016-01-01

    ... ankle sprain, and a healthy control group. To determine if differences exist in spinal reflex excitability and ankle laxity among participants with CAI, copers, and healthy controls. Case-control study...

  9. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  10. Effect of Postural Control Demands on Early Visual Evoked Potentials during a Subjective Visual Vertical Perception Task in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tzu; Meng, Ling-Fu; Chang, Chun-Ju; Lai, Po-Liang; Lung, Chi-Wen; Chern, Jen-Suh

    2017-01-01

    Subjective visual vertical (SVV) judgment and standing stability were separately investigated among patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Although, one study has investigated the central mechanism of stability control in the AIS population, the relationships between SVV, decreased standing stability, and AIS have never been investigated. Through event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study examined the effect of postural control demands (PDs) on AIS central mechanisms related to SVV judgment and standing stability to elucidate the time-serial stability control process. Thirteen AIS subjects (AIS group) and 13 age-matched adolescents (control group) aged 12-18 years were recruited. Each subject had to complete an SVV task (i.e., the modified rod-and-frame [mRAF] test) as a stimulus, with online electroencephalogram recording being performed in the following three standing postures: feet shoulder-width apart standing, feet together standing, and tandem standing. The behavioral performance in terms of postural stability (center of pressure excursion), SVV (accuracy and reaction time), and mRAF-locked ERPs (mean amplitude and peak latency of the P1, N1, and P2 components) was then compared between the AIS and control groups. In the behavioral domain, the results revealed that only the AIS group demonstrated a significantly accelerated SVV reaction time as the PDs increased. In the cerebral domain, significantly larger P2 mean amplitudes were observed during both feet shoulder-width-apart standing and feet together standing postures compared with during tandem standing. No group differences were noted in the cerebral domain. The results indicated that (1) during the dual-task paradigm, a differential behavioral strategy of accelerated SVV reaction time was observed in the AIS group only when the PDs increased and (2) the decrease in P2 mean amplitudes with the increase in the PD levels might be direct evidence of the competition for central

  11. Effect of Postural Control Demands on Early Visual Evoked Potentials during a Subjective Visual Vertical Perception Task in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tzu Chang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Subjective visual vertical (SVV judgment and standing stability were separately investigated among patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Although, one study has investigated the central mechanism of stability control in the AIS population, the relationships between SVV, decreased standing stability, and AIS have never been investigated. Through event-related potentials (ERPs, the present study examined the effect of postural control demands (PDs on AIS central mechanisms related to SVV judgment and standing stability to elucidate the time-serial stability control process. Thirteen AIS subjects (AIS group and 13 age-matched adolescents (control group aged 12–18 years were recruited. Each subject had to complete an SVV task (i.e., the modified rod-and-frame [mRAF] test as a stimulus, with online electroencephalogram recording being performed in the following three standing postures: feet shoulder-width apart standing, feet together standing, and tandem standing. The behavioral performance in terms of postural stability (center of pressure excursion, SVV (accuracy and reaction time, and mRAF-locked ERPs (mean amplitude and peak latency of the P1, N1, and P2 components was then compared between the AIS and control groups. In the behavioral domain, the results revealed that only the AIS group demonstrated a significantly accelerated SVV reaction time as the PDs increased. In the cerebral domain, significantly larger P2 mean amplitudes were observed during both feet shoulder-width-apart standing and feet together standing postures compared with during tandem standing. No group differences were noted in the cerebral domain. The results indicated that (1 during the dual-task paradigm, a differential behavioral strategy of accelerated SVV reaction time was observed in the AIS group only when the PDs increased and (2 the decrease in P2 mean amplitudes with the increase in the PD levels might be direct evidence of the competition for

  12. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  13. The impact of group music therapy on depression and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsin; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Lin, Yu; Ou, Keng-Liang; Lee, Tso-Ying; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of group music therapy for improving depression and delaying the deterioration of cognitive functions in elderly persons with dementia. The study had a prospective, parallel-group design with permuted-block randomization. Older persons with dementia (N = 104) were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group music therapy (two 30-min sessions per week for 6 weeks), and the control group received usual care. Data were collected 4 times: (1) 1 week before the intervention, (2) the 6th session of the intervention, (3) the 12th session of the intervention, and (4) 1 month after the final session. Group music therapy reduced depression in persons with dementia. Improvements in depression occurred immediately after music therapy and were apparent throughout the course of therapy. The cortisol level did not significantly decrease after the group music therapy. Cognitive function significantly improved slightly at the 6th session, the 12th session, and 1 month after the sessions ended; in particular, short-term recall function improved. The group music therapy intervention had the greatest impact in subjects with mild and moderate dementia. The group music intervention is a noninvasive and inexpensive therapy that appeared to reduce elders' depression. It also delayed the deterioration of cognitive functions, particularly short-term recall function. Group music therapy may be an appropriate intervention among elderly persons with mild and moderate dementia.

  14. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation on state anxiety and subjective well-being in people with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Knapen, Jan; Maurissen, Katrien; Raepsaet, Julie; Deckx, Seppe; Remans, Sander; Probst, Michel

    2011-06-01

    To examine the efficacy of a single progressive muscle relaxation session compared with a control condition on state anxiety, psychological stress, fatigue and subjective well-being in patients with schizophrenia. Randomized controlled trial. An acute inpatient care unit of an University Psychiatric Centre. Sixty-four out of 88 eligible patients with schizophrenia. Patients were randomly assigned to either a single progressive muscle relaxation session during 25 minutes or a resting control condition with the opportunity to read for an equal amount of time. Before and after the single interventions the State anxiety inventory and the Subjective exercise experiences scale were completed. Effect sizes were calculated. Only within progressive muscle relaxation, participants (n=27) showed decreased state anxiety, psychological stress and fatigue and increased subjective well-being. Between-group differences in post scores were found for state anxiety, subjective well-being and psychological stress, but not for fatigue. The effect size favouring progressive muscle relaxation was 1.26 for subjective well-being and -1.25 and -1.02 for respectively state anxiety and psychological stress. Progressive muscle relaxation is highly effective in reducing acute feelings of stress and anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. A reduction in stress and state anxiety is associated with an increase in subjective well-being.

  15. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, E.R.; van Stralen, K.J.; le Cessie, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case–control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present

  16. Exercise responsive genes measured in peripheral blood of women with chronic fatigue syndrome and matched control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whistler, Toni; Jones, James F; Unger, Elizabeth R; Vernon, Suzanne D

    2005-03-24

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is defined by debilitating fatigue that is exacerbated by physical or mental exertion. To search for markers of CFS-associated post-exertional fatigue, we measured peripheral blood gene expression profiles of women with CFS and matched controls before and after exercise challenge. Women with CFS and healthy, age-matched, sedentary controls were exercised on a stationary bicycle at 70% of their predicted maximum workload. Blood was obtained before and after the challenge, total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells, and signal intensity of the labeled cDNA hybridized to a 3800-gene oligonucleotide microarray was measured. We identified differences in gene expression among and between subject groups before and after exercise challenge and evaluated differences in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Exercise-responsive genes differed between CFS patients and controls. These were in genes classified in chromatin and nucleosome assembly, cytoplasmic vesicles, membrane transport, and G protein-coupled receptor ontologies. Differences in ion transport and ion channel activity were evident at baseline and were exaggerated after exercise, as evidenced by greater numbers of differentially expressed genes in these molecular functions. These results highlight the potential use of an exercise challenge combined with microarray gene expression analysis in identifying gene ontologies associated with CFS.

  17. Exercise responsive genes measured in peripheral blood of women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and matched control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Elizabeth R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is defined by debilitating fatigue that is exacerbated by physical or mental exertion. To search for markers of CFS-associated post-exertional fatigue, we measured peripheral blood gene expression profiles of women with CFS and matched controls before and after exercise challenge. Results Women with CFS and healthy, age-matched, sedentary controls were exercised on a stationary bicycle at 70% of their predicted maximum workload. Blood was obtained before and after the challenge, total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells, and signal intensity of the labeled cDNA hybridized to a 3800-gene oligonucleotide microarray was measured. We identified differences in gene expression among and between subject groups before and after exercise challenge and evaluated differences in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Exercise-responsive genes differed between CFS patients and controls. These were in genes classified in chromatin and nucleosome assembly, cytoplasmic vesicles, membrane transport, and G protein-coupled receptor ontologies. Differences in ion transport and ion channel activity were evident at baseline and were exaggerated after exercise, as evidenced by greater numbers of differentially expressed genes in these molecular functions. Conclusion These results highlight the potential use of an exercise challenge combined with microarray gene expression analysis in identifying gene ontologies associated with CFS.

  18. Subjective Sleep Complaints in Pediatric Depression: A Controlled Study and Comparison with EEG Measures of Sleep and Waking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, Michele A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Children with major depressive disorder (MDD) often complain of sleep disturbances; however, polysomnographic studies have failed to find objective evidence of these disturbances. This article examines subjective sleep reports of children with MDD and healthy controls focusing on comparing subjective and objective sleep measures.…

  19. Effects of cervical headgear and pendulum appliance on vertical dimension in growing subjects: a retrospective controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Franchi, Lorenzo; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the effects on vertical dentoskeletal dimension produced by cervical headgear (CHG) or Pendulum (P) both followed by full fixed appliances in growing patients with Class II malocclusion. The CHG group (CHGG) consisted of 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) with a mean age of 11.5 years. The P group (PG) comprised 40 patients (21 females, 19 males) with a mean age of 11.6 years. Mean treatment duration with the CHG and P appliances were 1.5 years and 8.2 months, respectively. Lateral cephalograms were available before treatment (T1) and at the end of fixed therapy (T2) with a mean interval of 3.5 years. The effects of the 2 protocols were compared with a matched control group (CG) of 25 untreated Class II subjects (13 females, 12 males). The ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc tests was used to evaluate between-group differences at T1 and during the T1-T2 interval (P < 0.05). CHGG showed significantly greater decreases in both Sella-Nasion to A point angle and A-Nasion-B point anglel when compared with both PG (-1.2 and -0.9 degrees, respectively) and CG (-1.9 and -1.5 degrees, respectively). No significant between-group differences were recorded for any of the vertical skeletal measurements. Both CHGG and PG showed significantly greater improvement in molar relationships with respect to CG (+2.5mm). Both distalizing protocols were effective in the correction of Class II malocclusion without increasing the vertical dimension at the end of comprehensive treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Personality features in ultra-high risk for psychosis: a comparative study with schizophrenia and control subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ana; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Robles-García, Rebeca; Azcárraga, Mariana; Guizar, Diana; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Several variables have been identified as risk factors for conversion to overt psychosis in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals. Although almost two-thirds of them do not experience a transition to psychosis, they still exhibit functional disabilities. Other subjective developmental features may be useful for a more precise identification of individuals at UHR. Avoidant behaviors are consistently reported in schizophrenia and in UHR individuals and may be the reflection of a pattern of personality. Thus, personality features in UHR individuals deserves further research. The objective of the present study was to compare temperament and character dimensions between UHR individuals, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. One hundred participants (25 UHR individuals, 25 schizophrenia patients and 50 control subjects) where evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Univariate ANOVAs followed by Bonferroni tests were used. UHR individuals and schizophrenia patients exhibited higher levels of Harm Avoidance (HA) when compared to control subjects. For HA1 Anticipatory worry vs Uninhibited optimism and HA4 Fatigability & asthenia, UHR and schizophrenia groups showed similar scores and both groups were higher compared to control subjects. With respect to Cooperativeness (CO), UHR and schizophrenia reported lower scores than control subjects, in particular CO2 Empathy vs Social disinterest and CO3 Helpfulness vs unhelpfulness. This study replicates and extends the consideration of HA as a psychopathological related endophenotype and gives us further information of the possible role of personality features in the expression of some of the social dysfunctions observed both in prodromal subjects and schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suboccipital decompression enhances heart rate variability indices of cardiac control in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Paul D; Hensel, Kendi L; Pacchia, Christina F; Smith, Michael L

    2013-02-01

    Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) focused on the upper cervical spine is theorized to affect the function of the vagus nerve and thereby influence the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This study was designed to determine the acute effect of upper cervical spine manipulation on cardiac autonomic control as measured by heart rate variability. Nineteen healthy, young adult subjects underwent three different experimental interventions administered in random order: cervical OMT, sham manipulation, and time control. Six minutes of electrocardiographic data were collected before and after each intervention, and heart rate variability was assessed by both time-domain and frequency-domain measures. No differences in resting heart rate or any measure of heart rate variability were observed between the baseline periods prior to each intervention. The OMT protocol resulted in an increase in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (0.12±0.082 seconds, p0.11 for all variables). These data support the hypothesis that upper cervical spine manipulation can acutely affect measures of heart rate variability in healthy individuals.

  2. Suboccipital Decompression Enhances Heart Rate Variability Indices of Cardiac Control in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Paul D.; Hensel, Kendi L.; Pacchia, Christina F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) focused on the upper cervical spine is theorized to affect the function of the vagus nerve and thereby influence the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This study was designed to determine the acute effect of upper cervical spine manipulation on cardiac autonomic control as measured by heart rate variability. Design Nineteen healthy, young adult subjects underwent three different experimental interventions administered in random order: cervical OMT, sham manipulation, and time control. Six minutes of electrocardiographic data were collected before and after each intervention, and heart rate variability was assessed by both time-domain and frequency-domain measures. Results No differences in resting heart rate or any measure of heart rate variability were observed between the baseline periods prior to each intervention. The OMT protocol resulted in an increase in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (0.12±0.082 seconds, p0.11 for all variables). Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that upper cervical spine manipulation can acutely affect measures of heart rate variability in healthy individuals. PMID:22994907

  3. The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of various Congressional mandates to protect the environment from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In the context of this framework, the Office of Research and Development within the USEPA developed the Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) to characterize the endocrine action of a suspected EDC. One important endpoint of the MEOGRT is fecundity of breeding pairs of medaka. Power analyses were conducted to determine the number of replicates needed in proposed test designs and to determine the effects that varying reproductive parameters (e.g. mean fecundity, variance, and days with no egg production) will have on the statistical power of the test. A software tool, the MEOGRT Reproduction Power Analysis Tool, was developed to expedite these power analyses by both calculating estimates of the needed reproductive parameters (e.g. population mean and variance) and performing the power analysis under user specified scenarios. The manuscript illustrates how the reproductive performance of the control medaka that are used in a MEOGRT influence statistical power, and therefore the successful implementation of the protocol. Example scenarios, based upon medaka reproduction data collected at MED, are discussed that bolster the recommendation that facilities planning to implement the MEOGRT should have a culture of medaka with hi

  4. [Anatomical contents in the Rorschach test: comparison between a population of nurses and a control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebert, J; Thiltges, E; Wertz, C; Blavier, A

    2013-04-01

    The study of answer contents to a Rorschach test leads to numerous debates and controversies. From a pragmatic point of view, the recurrent question is to understand the meaning of a content (or its repetition) in a protocol. From a discursive and perceptive point of view, it is hazardous to give an interpretation other than descriptive and contextual. Indeed, no single interpretative theory or analysis method is able to determine with certainty and rigor a strict correlation between people's psychological functioning and the contents they perceive. In this empirical context, we studied the "anatomy" answers (frequencies and formal qualities) in a population of nurses (n=38) matched with a control group (non-medical subjects, n=38). The Rorschach test was administrated according to the recommendations of the Integrated System. The average of An+Xy answers was clearly and significantly higher in the nurse population (3.58) than in the control group (0.89) and than in the three comparative norms that we selected (from 0.96 to 1.83). Concerning the formal quality, the repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant interaction effect: although subjects in the control group gave a similar number of ordinary, unusual and minus forms for An+Xy answers, the nurses gave more erroneous (minus) forms (1.79) than unusual forms (1.21) and finally than ordinary forms (0.58). Two hypotheses may be suggested in order to explain our findings. On one hand, it is highly probable that our results are linked to the everyday body confrontation in a nurse's job. On the other hand, we suggest that by giving An+Xy answers, nurses tend to reveal some idiosyncratic characteristics in order to show their own identity. Indeed, our nurse subjects were selected because of their job, and so they complied with the social identity that was implicitly expected. This is congruent with the complex functioning in social reality: in a social group, people will not verbalize all of their

  5. Conditions affecting the activity of glucocerebrosidase purified from spleens of control subjects and patients with type 1 Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J. M.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Brouwer-Kelder, E. M.; van Weely, S.; Barranger, J. A.; Tager, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Glucocerebrosidase was purified to homogeneity from spleens of control subjects and Type 1 Gaucher disease patients by immunoaffinity chromatography. Activation of the enzyme by taurocholate, phosphatidylserine and sphingolipid activator protein 2 (saposin C; SAP-2) was investigated by titration of

  6. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  7. Efficacy of the Group Music and Imagery method (GrpMI) for women suffering from fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) affects about 2-4% of the world population. Patients, mostly women, experience chronic widespread pain, fatigue, stiffness, sleep disturbances, and psychological disorders, especially depression and anxiety. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess...... the efficacy of Group Music and Imagery (GrpMI), including relaxation, music listening and spontaneous imagery, for subjective psychological wellbeing, functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety and depression in women with FM. Methods: Fifty-six women aged 35 to 65 (M = 51.3) diagnosed with FM...... groups found a significant increase in psychological wellbeing and a reduction in the rest of the variables, whereas the control groups only showed decreases in trait anxiety and trait depression. No significant differences were observed in the control groups at the follow-up, while the experimental...

  8. Fasting serum concentration of short-chain fatty acids in subjects with microscopic colitis and celiac disease: no difference compared with controls, but between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Bjerregaard, Jens Holst; Skovbjerg, Hanne; Nyman, Margareta

    2013-06-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, have been shown to have many positive health effects. The amount and type of SCFAs formed from dietary fibre by the colonic microbiota depends on the substrate available and is reflected in blood. The total intake and type of dietary fibre in people with gastrointestinal diseases differs considerably from healthy subjects. To compare fasting SCFA concentrations in subjects with microscopic colitis (MC), celiac disease and controls without these diseases. SCFAs were also analysed over 6.5 h in young healthy subjects, who had eaten a fibre-rich breakfast, to identify a possible peak concentration of SCFAs after a meal. SCFAs in serum were pre-concentrated using hollow fibre-supported liquid membrane extraction and gas chromatography. The MC group had a higher concentration of valeric acid than the control group (p differences in other SCFA concentrations were seen between groups, but the control group tended to have higher concentration of acetic acid (p = 0.1). Furthermore, males had higher concentrations of SCFAs (with the exception of valeric acid) than females (p different for a long time. The results might have been different if SCFAs had been recorded over a longer period.

  9. Motivation toward Physical Exercise and Subjective Wellbeing: The Mediating Role of Trait Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Motivation toward physical exercise (MPE) and trait self-control (TSC) were identified as key predictors of subjective wellbeing (SWB). However, there has not been any research designed to examine the mediating role of TSC in the relationship between MPE and SWB. The present study utilizes self-determination theory, control-process theory of self-regulation, and theory of multiple pathways of TSC in order to examine whether TSC mediates the relationships of autonomous MPE (A-MPE), controlled MPE (C-MPE), and impersonal MPE (NO-MPE) with SWB using structural equation modeling (XLSTAT PLS). Three hundred seventeen adult American individuals (Mage = 32.97, SDage = 11.30), who reported to be regular exercisers, voluntarily answered questionnaires assessing MPE, TSC, and SWB. Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between A-MPE, TSC, and SWB, and negative relationships of C-MPE and NO-MPE with TSC and SWB. Mediation analyses revealed that TSC mediated the relationships of A-MPE (partial mediation) and C-MPE (full mediation) with SWB, but did not mediate the relationship between NO-MPE and SWB. The estimates of the quality of the hypothesized model were acceptable (outer model GoF = 0.935; absolute GoF = 0.330; relative GoF = 0.942; inner model GoF = 1.008; R2 = 36.947%). Finally, this study supports the view that MPE can influence SWB through TSC, and incites to pursue the examination of the relationships between self-determined motivation, self-regulation mechanisms, and health-related outcomes. PMID:27761126

  10. Motivation toward Physical Exercise and Subjective Wellbeing: The Mediating Role of Trait Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Motivation toward physical exercise (MPE) and trait self-control (TSC) were identified as key predictors of subjective wellbeing (SWB). However, there has not been any research designed to examine the mediating role of TSC in the relationship between MPE and SWB. The present study utilizes self-determination theory, control-process theory of self-regulation, and theory of multiple pathways of TSC in order to examine whether TSC mediates the relationships of autonomous MPE (A-MPE), controlled MPE (C-MPE), and impersonal MPE (NO-MPE) with SWB using structural equation modeling (XLSTAT PLS). Three hundred seventeen adult American individuals (Mage = 32.97, SDage = 11.30), who reported to be regular exercisers, voluntarily answered questionnaires assessing MPE, TSC, and SWB. Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between A-MPE, TSC, and SWB, and negative relationships of C-MPE and NO-MPE with TSC and SWB. Mediation analyses revealed that TSC mediated the relationships of A-MPE (partial mediation) and C-MPE (full mediation) with SWB, but did not mediate the relationship between NO-MPE and SWB. The estimates of the quality of the hypothesized model were acceptable (outer model GoF = 0.935; absolute GoF = 0.330; relative GoF = 0.942; inner model GoF = 1.008; R2 = 36.947%). Finally, this study supports the view that MPE can influence SWB through TSC, and incites to pursue the examination of the relationships between self-determined motivation, self-regulation mechanisms, and health-related outcomes.

  11. Motivation toward Physical Exercise and Subjective Wellbeing: The Mediating Role of Trait Self-Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Briki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivation toward physical exercise (MPE and trait self-control (TSC were identified as key predictors of subjective wellbeing (SWB. However, there has not been any research designed to examine the mediating role of TSC in the relationship between MPE and SWB. The present study utilizes self-determination theory, control-process theory of self-regulation, and theory of multiple pathways of TSC in order to examine whether TSC mediates the relationships of autonomous MPE (A-MPE, controlled MPE (C-MPE, and impersonal MPE (NO-MPE with SWB using structural equation modeling (XLSTAT PLS. Three hundred seventeen adult American individuals (Mage = 32.97, SDage = 11.30, who reported to be regular exercisers, voluntarily answered questionnaires assessing MPE, TSC, and SWB. Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between A-MPE, TSC, and SWB, and negative relationships of C-MPE and NO-MPE with TSC and SWB. Mediation analyses revealed that TSC mediated the relationships of A-MPE (partial mediation and C-MPE (full mediation with SWB, but did not mediate the relationship between NO-MPE and SWB. The estimates of the quality of the hypothesized model were acceptable (outer model GoF = .935; absolute GoF = .330; relative GoF = .942; inner model GoF = 1.008; R2 = 36.947%. Finally, this study supports the view that MPE can influence SWB through TSC, and incites to pursue the examination of the relationships between self-determined motivation, self-regulation mechanisms, and health-related outcomes.

  12. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    selects the mitochondria based on an antibody recognizing the mitochondrial outer membrane and not by size through gradient centrifugation. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP synthesis and ATP consumption is 35% lower in isolated mitochondria from myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects...... or not in the mitochondria of diabetic skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes. ATP synthesis was measured on mitochondria isolated from cultured myotubes established from lean (11/9), obese (9/11) and subjects with type 2 diabetes (9/11) (female/male, n=20 in each group), precultured under normophysiological...... compared to lean control. The ATP synthesis rate without ATP consumption was not different between groups and there were no significant gender differences. The mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes in vivo is partly based on a primarily impaired ATP synthesis....

  13. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  14. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  15. Effectiveness of square stepping exercise among subjects with Parkinson's disease: A pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasudhan Ravichandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder that seriously affects body balance and gait; therefore, increases the risk of fall and related complications. Freezing of gait and postural instability are disabling symptoms, which compromises motor independence among Parkinson's disease patients. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study analyses the effects of square-stepping exercise (SSE among Parkinson's disease patients in terms of improving balance and reducing fall risk. Materials and Methods: This is a pilot randomized controlled study, in which thirty male and female Parkinson's disease patients between 60 and 70 years of age were selected by simple random sampling method and randomly divided into SSE group (N-15 and conventional physiotherapy (CPT group (N-15. Interventions were provided for 4 weeks. Baseline and posttest outcomes were measured using the Berg balance scale (BBS and timed up and go test (TUG. Results: Statistical measures of mean, standard deviation, and t-test were performed using SPSS 21. SSE exhibited statistical significant improvement in BBS (P < 0.05 and TUG (P < 0.0001 compared to CPT group. Conclusion: SSE is more effective in improving balance and gait in Parkinson's disease. Although further studies with larger samples are required, the result of this study implies that SSE could be used as a mean of rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease.

  16. Women's autonomy and subjective well-being: How gender norms shape the impact of self-help groups in Odisha, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, T.J. de; Kempen, L.A.C.M. van; Linssen, R.; Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents impact estimates of women's self-help group (SHG) membership on subjective well-being in Odisha, India, using 2008 survey data in a quasi-experimental design. It finds that, while there is evidence of a positive impact of SHG membership on women's autonomy, on average, SHG

  17. The effects of Kinesio taping on muscle tone in healthy subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Aparicio-García, Carlos; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pilar; Simón-Martínez, Cristina; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Fernández-Rodríguez, José Manuel

    2014-04-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) has been proposed to modulate muscle tone. However no studies have systematically studied the efficacy of KTon this primary outcome measure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) applied over the gastrocnemius muscles on muscle tone, extensibility, electromyography (EMG) and strength. Nineteen healthy subjects were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. KT and sham-tape were applied onto the gastrocnemius muscles of all subjects in two randomized sessions. Measurements before, at 10 min and 24 h after the intervention were taken. Outcome measurements included passive resistive torque to ankle dorsiflexion, dorsiflexion passive range of motion (PROM), surface Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG and maximal isometric voluntary force (MIVF). No significant differences were found between the sham-tape and KT groups for passive resistive torque, PROM nor maximal plantarflexion isometric voluntary force. A short-term increase of GM EMG activity was found in the KT group during the PROM mobilization, which was not maintained at 24 h following treatment. A short-term decrease in dorsiflexion force was produced 10 min after KT with respect to sham-tape application. These results demonstrate that the application of KT in the gastrocnemius muscles has no effect on healthy muscle tone, extensibility nor strength. However a short-term increase of GM EMG activity after KT treatment suggests the activation of central nervous system mechanisms, although without a therapeutic implication. Further studies with more appropriate designs are needed to clarify the physiological and therapeutic effects of this taping technique.

  18. sUBJECtIVE WELL-BEInG, REFEREnCE GRoUPs AnD RELAtIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies by the Leyden school are, however, focused on exploring reference groups within the European context. ... is unemployed as well as the age and race of the individual. Within the South African ...... computer, camera, electric stove, gas stove, microwave, fridge, washing machine, sewing/ knitting machine, lounge ...

  19. Brainstem auditory evoked response characteristics in normal-hearing subjects with chronic tinnitus and in non-tinnitus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: While most of the people with tinnitus have some degrees of hearing impairment, a small percent of patients admitted to ear, nose and throat clinics or hearing evaluation centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. This study was performed to better understanding of the reasons of probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the auditory brainstem function in normal-hearing patients with chronic tinnitus.Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study, 52 ears (26 with and 26 without tinnitus were examined. Components of the auditory brainstem response (ABR including wave latencies and wave amplitudes were determined in the two groups and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.Results: The mean differences between the absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that was not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of waves I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only, the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly higher (p=0.04.Conclusion: The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the latter ones, can be considered as an indication of plastic changes in neuronal activity and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in normal-hearing patients.

  20. A validation study of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in different groups of Dutch subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P; Ormel, J; Sloekers, PPA; Kempen, GIJM; Speckens, AEM; VanHemert, AM; van Hemert, A.M.

    Background. Research on the dimensional structure and reliability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and its relationship with age is scarce. Moreover, its efficacy in determining the presence of depression in different patient groups has been questioned. Methods. Psychometric

  1. The Impact of Technology on the Command, Control, and Organizational Structure of Insurgent Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-17

    THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE COMMAND, CONTROL, AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF INSURGENT GROUPS A thesis presented to the...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE COMMAND, CONTROL, AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF...Kevin C. Leahy Thesis Title: The Impact of Technology on the Command, Control, and Organizational Structure of Insurgent Groups Approved by

  2. A placebo-controlled evaluation of butterbur and fexofenadine on objective and subjective outcomes in perennial allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D K C; Gray, R D; Robb, F M; Fujihara, S; Lipworth, B J

    2004-04-01

    There are presently no placebo-controlled data regarding the effects of butterbur (BB) on subjective and objective outcomes in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. We performed a placebo-controlled evaluation of the effects of BB and fexofenadine (FEX) on subjective and objective outcomes in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Sixteen patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and house dust mite sensitization were randomized in double-blind cross-over fashion to receive for 1 week either BB 50 mg twice daily, FEX 180 mg once daily and placebo (PL) once daily, or PL twice daily. The peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) response to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) challenge administered as a single 400 mg/mL dose was measured over a 60-min period after challenge, and domiciliary total nasal symptom score was recorded. Pre-challenge values for mean+/-SEM PNIF (L/min) were not significantly different comparing all groups; BB (138+/-8), FEX (140+/-9), and PL (138+/-8). The maximum % PNIF fall from baseline after nasal AMP challenge was significantly attenuated (P<0.05) compared to PL (46+/-3), with BB (34+/-3) and FEX (39+/-3). The area under the 60-min time-response curve (%.min) was also significantly attenuated (P<0.05) compared to PL (1734+/-156), with BB (1052+/-258) and FEX (1194+/-161). There was also a significant reduction (P<0.05) in total nasal symptom score with BB (1.8+/-0.4) and FEX (1.8+/-0.4), compared to PL (2.8+/-0.5). There were no significant differences between BB and FEX for any outcomes. BB and FEX, in comparison to PL, were equally effective in attenuating the nasal response to AMP and in improving nasal symptoms, highlighting a potential role for BB in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  3. Comparison between group and personal rehabilitation for dementia in a geriatric health service facility: single-blinded randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigeya; Honda, Shin; Nakano, Hajime; Sato, Yuko; Araya, Kazufumi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of rehabilitation involving group and personal sessions on demented participants. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial included 60 elderly participants with dementia in a geriatric health service facility, or R oken. Staff members, who did not participate in the intervention, examined cognitive function, mood, communication ability, severity of dementia, objective quality of life, vitality, and daily behaviour. After a baseline assessment, participants were randomly divided into three groups: (i) group intervention; (ii) personal intervention; and (iii) control. The 1-h group intervention (3-5 subjects) and 20-min personal intervention (one staff member per participant) were performed twice a week for 12 weeks (24 total sessions). The cognitive rehabilitation programme consisted of reminiscence, reality orientation, and physical exercise, and it was based on five principles of brain-activating rehabilitation; (i) pleasant atmosphere; (ii) communication; (iii) social roles; (iv) praising; and (v) errorless support. Data were analyzed after the second assessment. Outcome measures were analyzed in 43 participants-14 in the control group, 13 in group intervention, and 16 in personal intervention. Repeated measure ancova showed a significant interaction for cognitive function score (Mini-Mental State Examination) between group intervention and controls ( F  = 5.535, P = 0.029). In the post-hoc analysis, group intervention showed significant improvement (P = 0.016). Global severity of dementia tended to improve (P = 0.094) in group intervention compared to control (Mann-Whitney U -test). There were no significant interactions or improvements for other measurements. Group rehabilitation for dementia is more effective for improving cognitive function and global severity of dementia than personal rehabilitation in Roken. © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Camelina Sativa Oil, but not Fatty Fish or Lean Fish Improved Serum Lipid Profile in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Metabolism - a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Ursula S; Lankinen, Maria A; de Mello, Vanessa D; Manninen, Suvi M; Kurl, Sudhir; Pulkki, Kari J; Laaksonen, David E; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2017-12-22

    The aim of the study was to examine whether lean fish (LF), fatty fish (FF) and camelina sativa oil (CSO), a plant-based source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), differ in their metabolic effects in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism. Altogether 79 volunteers with impaired fasting glucose, BMI 25-36 kg/m2 , age 43-72 years, participated in a 12-week randomized controlled trial with four parallel groups, i.e. the FF (4 fish meals/week), LF (4 fish meals/week), CSO (10 g/day ALA) and control (limited intakes of fish and source of ALA) groups. The proportions of EPA and DHA increased in plasma lipids in the FF group, and the proportion of ALA increased in the CSO group (P < 0.0001 for all). In the CSO group total and LDL-cholesterol (C) concentrations decreased compared with the FF and LF groups, LDL-C/HDL-C and ApoB/ApoA-I ratios decreased compared with the LF group. There were no significant changes in glucose metabolism or markers of low-grade inflammation. A diet enriched in CSO improves serum lipid profile as compared with a diet enriched in FF or LF in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, with no differences in glucose metabolism or concentrations of inflammatory markers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of in vivo segmental foot motion during walking and step descent in patients with midfoot arthritis and matched asymptomatic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Smita; Baumhauer, Judith F; Tome, Josh; Nawoczenski, Deborah A

    2009-05-29

    The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo segmental foot motion during walking and step descent in patients with midfoot arthritis and asymptomatic control subjects. Segmental foot motion during walking and step descent was assessed using a multi-segment foot model in 30 patients with midfoot arthritis and 20 age, gender and BMI matched controls. Peak and total range of motion (ROM), referenced to subtalar neutral, were examined for each of the following dependent variables: 1st metatarso-phalangeal (MTP1) dorsiflexion, 1st metatarsal (MT1) plantarflexion, ankle dorsiflexion, calcaneal eversion and forefoot abduction. The results showed that, compared to level walking, step descent required greater MTP1 dorsiflexion (pplantarflexion (pdorsiflexion (pdorsiflexion (pdorsiflexion (pplantarflexion excursion compared to control subjects (p=0.03). However, during step descent, both groups showed similar MT1 plantarflexion excursion. During walking, patients with midfoot arthritis showed similar calcaneus eversion excursion compared to control subjects. However, during step descent, patients with midfoot arthritis showed significantly greater calcaneus eversion excursion compared to control subjects (p=0.03). Independently or in combination, these motions may contribute to articular stress and consequently to symptoms in patients with midfoot arthritis.

  6. Lactate: Brain Fuel in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison with Normal Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil A.; Horning, Michael A.; McArthur, David L.; Hovda, David A.; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-2H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-13C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (pcerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as 13CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-13C]lactate tracer and 13C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75–80% of 13CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ∼70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the injured brain. Undiminished cerebral lactate fractional

  7. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

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    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  8. Roentgenographic findings in hyaline membrane disease treated with exogenous surfactant: comparison with control group

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    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Chae Ha; Lim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Sook; Byen, Ju Nam; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun Univ. College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To compare, with the use of chest radiographic findings, improvement and complications in newborns treated with exogenous surfactant for hyaline membrane disease (HMD), and an untreated control group. Thirty-six patients with HMD were randomly assigned to a control group (n=18) or surfactant treated group (n=18). As part of an initial evaluation of their pulmonary status, we then performed a retrospective statistical analysis of chest radiographic findings obtained in exogenous surfactant treated and untreated infants within the first 90 minutes of life. Subsequent examinations were performed at less than 24 hours of age. Chest radiograph before treatment showed no significant differences between the two groups, but significant improvement was noted in the surfactant treated group, in contrast to the control group. The most common chest radiographic finding after surfactant administration was uniform (n=15) or disproportionate (n=2) improvement of pulmonary aeration. Patent ductus arteriosus developed in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Air leak occurred in three cases in the treated group and in five cases in the control group. In one treated patient pulmonary hemorrhage developed and intracranial hemorrhage occurred in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was developed in 6 cases of treated group and 3 cases of control group. A chest radiograph is considered to be helpful in the evaluation of improvement and complications of HMD in infants treated with surfactant.

  9. Usage and Impact of Controlled Vocabularies in a Subject Repository for Indexing and Retrieval

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    Timo Borst

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, the German National Library for Economics (ZBW supports both indexing and retrieval of Open Access scientific publications like working papers, postprint articles and conference papers by means of a terminology web service. This web service is based on concepts organized as a ‘Standard Thesaurus for Economics’ (STW, which is modelled and regularly published as Linked Open Data. Moreover, it is integrated into the institution’s subject repository for automatically suggesting appropriate key words while indexing and retrieving documents, and for automatically expanding search queries on demand to gain better search results. While this approach looks promising to augment ‘off the shelf’ repository software systems in a lightweight manner with a disciplinary profile, there is still significant uncertainty about the effective usage and impact of controlled terms in the realm of these systems. To cope with this, we analyze the repository’s logfiles to get evidence of search behaviour which is potentially influenced by auto suggestion and expansion of scientific terms derived from a discipline’s literature.

  10. Temperature measurement and control system for transtibial prostheses: Single subject clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Zheng, Yong Ping; Leung, Aaron K L; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Masoumi, Mehdi; Safari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-05

    The snug fit of a prosthetic socket over the residual limb can disturb thermal balance and put skin integrity in jeopardy by providing an unpleasant and infectious environment. The prototype of a temperature measurement and control (TM&C) system was previously introduced to resolve thermal problems related to prostheses. This study evaluates its clinical application in a setting with reversal, single subject design. The TM&C system was installed on a fabricated prosthetic socket of a man with unilateral transtibial amputation. Skin temperature of the residual limb without prosthesis at baseline and with prosthesis during rest and walking was evaluated. The thermal sense and thermal comfort of the participant were also evaluated. The results showed different skin temperature around the residual limb with a temperature decrease tendency from proximal to distal. The TM&C system decreased skin temperature rise after prosthesis wearing. The same situation occurred during walking, but the thermal power of the TM&C system was insufficient to overcome heat build-up in some regions of the residual limb. The participant reported no significant change of thermal sense and thermal comfort. Further investigations are warranted to examine thermography pattern of the residual limb, thermal sense, and thermal comfort in people with amputation.

  11. Early information processing deficit in schizophrenia. New findings using schizophrenic subgroups and manic control subjects.

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    Saccuzzo, D P; Braff, D L

    1981-02-01

    In recent years, the idea that schizophrenia involves a primary disturbance of the higher cognitive (ie, cortical) thinking processes has been challenged by investigators who have shown that there may be a primary disturbance in schizophrenia in the early stages of information processing that occurs during the first few hundred milliseconds after the stimulus reaches the sense organs. Among the hypothesized early information processing deficits are deficiencies in iconic storage (a brief peripheral memory store) and slowness of processing from iconic storage to a more permanent memory system. Three experiments were conducted using tachistoscopically presented stimuli in order to evaluate these two stages of information processing (iconic storage and speed of processing) in schizophrenic and control subjects. Results converged in supporting the hypothesis, that independent of iconic storage and sensory registration, slow information processing is a relatively stable deficit of schizophrenic patients with a poor prognosis. The schizophrenic patients with a good prognosis had a similar deficit, which was reversible. Results are discussed as they relate to the early information processing deficit theories of schizophrenia.

  12. Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Mediates the Association between Self-Control Skills and Subjective Well-Being

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    Hod Orkibi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although studies have shown that self-control skills (SCSs are positively linked to both personal and interpersonal outcomes in adolescent students, studies on the putative mechanisms underlying this relationship are scarce. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory and previous studies, we theorized that the association between students’ SCSs and their subjective well-being (SWB in school may be mediated by students’ perceived satisfaction of their basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The sample consisted of 1576 Israeli adolescent students (54% girls in grades 10–12 (mean age 16 enrolled in 20 schools. A mediation model was tested with structural equation modeling and a robust bootstrap method for testing indirect effects, controlling for school-level variance. The findings supported the hypothesized model and a post hoc multi-group comparison analysis yielded gender invariance in the model. The findings suggest that both girls and boys with high SCSs may perceive themselves as having greater needs satisfaction in school and consequently higher school-related SWB. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  13. Effect of elastic taping on postural control deficits in subjects with healthy ankles, copers, and individuals with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Christina A; Needle, Alan R; Rose, William C; Swanik, Charles B; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2013-10-01

    Ankle sprains are the most common injury among physically active people, with common sequelae including repeated episodes of giving way, termed functional ankle instability. Copers are a cohort in ankle research comprised of those who have sprained their ankle but have not suffered any further dysfunction. The use of an elastic tape, Kinesio Tape, in sports medicine practice has recently gained popularity and may help improve postural control deficits related to functional ankle instability. The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate and prolonged effects of Kinesio Taping on postural control in healthy, coper, and unstable ankles as measured through single-limb balance on a force plate. Sixty physically active, college-aged participants (72.5 ± 9.7 cm, 74.2 ± 16.2 kg, 21.5 ± 2.6 years) were stratified into healthy, coper, or unstable groups using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) combined with their history of ankle injury. Dependent variables included time-to-boundary (TTB) measures and traditional center of pressure (COP) measures in both the mediolateral (frontal) and anteroposterior (sagittal) planes. Testing was performed prior to tape application, immediately after application of the tape, 24 hours following tape application, and immediately after tape removal. Significant differences between groups were observed for COP standard deviation and range in the sagittal plane. Significant differences between tape conditions for TTB absolute minima and standard deviation were also noted. Post hoc testing revealed large to medium effect sizes for the group differences and very small effect sizes for the differences between conditions. Our study did not reveal decisively relevant changes following application of Kinesio Tape to the ankle. However, we did observe sagittal plane postural control deficits in subjects with ankle instability measured through summary COP variables over 20-second trials. Ankle instability is a concern for many

  14. One-footed and externally disturbed two-footed postural control in patients with chronic low back pain and healthy control subjects. A controlled study with follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, S; Aalto, H; Taimela, S; Hurri, H; Pyykkö, I; Alaranta, H

    1998-10-01

    A study of postural control during one-footed and externally disturbed two-footed stance among healthy control subjects and patients with chronic low back pain at the beginning of a functional back restoration program and 6 months later at follow-up examination. To study postural control cross-sectionally among control subjects and patients with low back pain, and to evaluate the effects of functional restoration on the postural control parameters in a follow-up examination. Deficits of motor skills and coordination have been reported in association with musculoskeletal disorders. It has been found that patients with chronic low back pain have impaired psychomotor control, but the impairment is reversible with successful low back rehabilitation. It is insufficiently known how functional activation and intensive physical training affect postural control. Sixty-one healthy volunteers (32 men, 29 women) and altogether 99 patients with low back pain participated in the study. Sixty-eight patients (33 men, 35 women) had moderate and 31 (18 men, 13 women) had severe low back pain. Postural stability was measured with a force platform. In two-footed stance, vibration stimulation on calf and back muscles was used to disturb the balance. Center point of force-velocity (cm/sec), average position shift in anteroposterior direction (cm), and maximal position shift in lateral direction (cm) were used as the parameters. Reliability of all tests was acceptable. Center point of force-velocity was the most sensitive parameter and the one-footed measurement the most sensitivetest for evaluating postural stability. At the beginning, the patients with severe low back pain had poorer one-footed postural control compared with the control subjects (P = 0.0003). The subgroup of patients with moderate low back pain participated in the restoration program. The outcome of the restoration program was considered good if the disability because of low back pain (Oswestry index) decreased during

  15. A within-group design of nontreatment seeking 5-HTTLPR genotyped alcohol-dependent subjects receiving ondansetron and sertraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Zywiak, William H; McGeary, John E; Leggio, Lorenzo; McGeary, Chinatsu; Wang, Shirley; Grenga, Andrea; Swift, Robert M

    2009-02-01

    Serotonergic mechanisms are associated with the development of alcohol dependence (AD), however, studies evaluating serotonergic medications have produced conflicting results. One hypothesis suggests that differential response may be due to a functional polymorphism of the 5-HTTLPR promoter region of the serotonin re-uptake transporter (5-HTT). The L/L genotype is postulated to be associated with early onset alcoholism and the S/S or S/L genotypes associated with late onset alcoholism. The aim of this study was to match and mismatch L/L, S/S, or S/L genotypes with administration of ondansetron and sertraline. Fifteen nontreatment seeking alcohol-dependent individuals were randomized to 1 of 2 counterbalanced arms to receive either 200 mg/d of sertraline or ondansetron 0.5 mg/d for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then received placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE. Participants then received the alternate drug for 2 weeks followed by a third ASAE. At the first ASAE compared to sertraline, ondansetron significantly improved drinking outcomes for the L/L genotype for the ASAE volume consumed (100% reduction based on between-subjects comparison, t = 2.35), and for drinks per drinking day during the 7 days prior to the ASAE (79% reduction and t = 4.34). Compared with ondansetron for S/S or S/L genotypes, outcomes at ASAE 1 for sertraline and S/S or S/L genotypes are opposite than hypothesized. Overall, subjects reduced drinking across their participation in the trial, as there appears to be an order effect. This study suggests that ondansetron may reduce alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent individuals who have the L/L genotype as measured naturalistically and during the ASAE. By contrast there was no support that sertraline reduces alcohol use in individuals who have S/S or S/L genotypes. Evidence in the literature suggests that AD in some individuals may be influenced by a gene by socio-environmental interaction making

  16. Effects of oral α-lipoic acid administration on body weight in overweight or obese subjects: a crossover randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nong; Yan, Weili; Hu, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yongdi; Wang, Fugang; Zhang, Weiguo; Wang, Qian; Wang, Xiaoling; Sun, Kehong

    2017-05-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has shown beneficial properties on diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral ALA on body weight in subjects with overweight or obese. Single-centre, randomized, double-blind, crossover controlled study. A total of 166 subjects of Chinese Han ethnicity with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were screened and 103 subjects fulfilled the study requirements, in terms of informed consent and participation to the study. The subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive either ALA (1200 mg/day) or placebo treatment in a crossover design for 8 weeks. The primary end-point was the change in body weight. The secondary end-points were the changes in waist circumference, BMI, lipid profile, plasma leptin levels and the adverse events that occurred following ALA treatment. The changes in the body weight and waist circumference noted in the ALA group were significantly different compared to the placebo group as demonstrated by mixed model statistical analysis (both P weight reduction was seen in the ALA group, and no significant differences were noted as regards cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and adverse events between the two groups. The administration of ALA was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were noted. Oral administration of ALA (1200 mg/day) for 8 weeks induced mild weight loss accompanied by a reduction in waist circumference. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Improving data availability for brain image biobanking in healthy subjects: Practice-based suggestions from an international multidisciplinary working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Pernet, Cyril; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Matthews, Paul M; van der Lugt, Aad; Mackay, Clare; Lanyon, Linda; Mazoyer, Bernard; Boardman, James P; Thompson, Paul M; Fox, Nick; Marcus, Daniel S; Sheikh, Aziz; Cox, Simon R; Anblagan, Devasuda; Job, Dominic E; Dickie, David Alexander; Rodriguez, David; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-06-01

    Brain imaging is now ubiquitous in clinical practice and research. The case for bringing together large amounts of image data from well-characterised healthy subjects and those with a range of common brain diseases across the life course is now compelling. This report follows a meeting of international experts from multiple disciplines, all interested in brain image biobanking. The meeting included neuroimaging experts (clinical and non-clinical), computer scientists, epidemiologists, clinicians, ethicists, and lawyers involved in creating brain image banks. The meeting followed a structured format to discuss current and emerging brain image banks; applications such as atlases; conceptual and statistical problems (e.g. defining 'normality'); legal, ethical and technological issues (e.g. consents, potential for data linkage, data security, harmonisation, data storage and enabling of research data sharing). We summarise the lessons learned from the experiences of a wide range of individual image banks, and provide practical recommendations to enhance creation, use and reuse of neuroimaging data. Our aim is to maximise the benefit of the image data, provided voluntarily by research participants and funded by many organisations, for human health. Our ultimate vision is of a federated network of brain image biobanks accessible for large studies of brain structure and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Weight-related quality of life in Spanish obese subjects suitable for bariatric surgery is lower than in their North American counterparts: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixàs, Assumpta; Lecube, Albert; Morales, María-José; Calañas, Alfonso; Moreiro, José; Cordido, Fernando; Díaz, María-Jesús; Masmiquel, Lluís; Moreno, Basilio; Vidal, Josep; Goday, Albert; Arrizabalaga, Juan-José; García-Luna, Pedro-Pablo; Iglesias, Paloma; Burguera, Bartolomé; Rubio, Miguel-Angel; Monereo, Susana; Crosby, Ross D; Kolotkin, Ronette L

    2013-04-01

    Obesity impairs quality of life, but the perception of the impairment could be different from one country to another. The purpose was to compare weight-related quality of life (QOL) between cohorts from Spain and North America. A cross-sectional case-control study was performed between two populations. Four hundred Spanish and 400 North American obese subjects suitable for bariatric surgery closely matched for race, gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) were included. Two non-obese control groups matched for gender, age, and BMI from each population were also evaluated (n = 400 in each group). The participants completed the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) questionnaire, a measure of weight-related QOL. Spanish morbidly obese patients showed poorer QOL than their North American counterparts in physical function, sexual life, work, and total score. By contrast, Spanish non-obese control subjects reported better QOL in all domains than their North American counterparts. Women, both in Spain and North America, reported reduced QOL compared to men on the domain of self-esteem. In addition, North American women reported reduced QOL on the sexual life domain compared to men. BMI correlated negatively with all domains of QOL except for self-esteem in both national groups. Spanish obese subjects suitable for bariatric surgery report poorer weight-related quality of life than their North American counterparts, and obese women, regardless of nationality, perceive a reduced quality of life compared to men.

  19. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the CD-1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul; Reeve, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    Current regulatory thinking allows for the use of single control groups for rodent carcinogenicity testing although there has been a trend until recently to use dual control groups. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether a shift from dual to single control groups will affect the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. A recent evaluation of dual control carcinogenicity data in the rat (Baldrick, Toxicol Pathol 2005, 33: 283-291) showed that although no major differences in tumor incidences between the control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred and in cases were a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. In this paper, the results of 10 mouse carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2004, with 2 control groups, are presented. As in the rat, interstudy variation was seen and in some cases, the use of dual control groups assisted in the tumor risk assessment. Thus, the continued use of 2 control groups can have a vital role in mouse carcinogenicity studies. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used mouse strain.

  20. SUBJECTIVE CRITERIA OF SELF-ACTIVITY CONTROL OF THE RUSSIAN AND SLOVENIAN MANAGERS: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boštjančič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The results of the first stage of the Russian-Slovenian crosscultural research are provided in the present article; the purpose is identification of the key factors that have an impact on the choice of control criteria of a management activity by the Russian and Slovenian leaders.Methods. Empirical information acquisition was made on the basis of the questionnaire «Subjective criteria of monitoring of activities performance» by G. Miroljubova and F. Ismagilova. The correlation analysis using nonparametric criteria (Kendall’s tau-b and Spearman’s rho, Mann – Whitney U-test and a method of descriptive statistics were used to process the received results of the research. Calculation of data was performed by means of a software package SPSS Statistics 17,0.Results. The research unit which is stated in the publication has comparative character and includes three stages. The difference of managers’ positions in Russia and Slovenia concerning self-checking of managerial activities was studied at the first stage. When researching the Russian managerial activity, listeners and graduates of the Presidential program of preparation of a managerial personnel provided by the Business School of the Ural State Federal University named after B. N. Yeltsin (Ekaterinburg were engaged. The research has showed that both groups of measurable and weakly-measurable parameters are equally presented in the structure of subjective control criteria among managers. The significant differences are revealed between average values of the measured criteria of all types (natural, binary, criteria of a ratio and fitting in the Russian (56,11 and Slovenian (60,39 samples. Scientific novelty. Activities control is a capability of a person to influence on the process and result of own work that is an extremely important aspect of professional competence of leading experts and managers. This aspect should be considered in programs of managerial professional training

  1. Prolonged release melatonin for improving sleep in totally blind subjects: a pilot placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Roth,1 Tali Nir,2 Nava Zisapel2,3 1Henry Ford Sleep Disorders Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Neurobiology Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Introduction: Melatonin, secreted by the pineal gland during the night phase, is a regulator of the biological clock and sleep tendency. Totally blind subjects frequently report severe, periodic sleep problems, with 50%–75% of cases displaying non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (N24HSWD due to inability to synchronize with the environmental day–night cycle. Melatonin immediate-release preparations are reportedly effective in N24HSWD. Here, we studied the efficacy and safety of prolonged-release melatonin (PRM, a registered drug for insomnia, for sleep disorders in totally blind subjects living in normal social environments. The primary endpoint was demonstration of clinically meaningful effects on sleep duration (upper confidence interval [CI] limit >20 minutes whether significant or not to allow early decision-making on further drug development in this indication. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registry – NCT00972075. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-principle study, 13 totally blind subjects had 2 weeks' placebo run-in, 6 weeks' randomized (1:1 PRM (Circadin® or placebo nightly, and 2 weeks' placebo run-out. Outcome measures included daily voice recorded sleep diary, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC, WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5, and safety. Results: Mean nightly sleep duration improved by 43 minutes in the PRM and 16 minutes in the placebo group (mean difference: 27 minutes, 95% CI: -14.4 to 69 minutes; P=0.18; effect size: 0.82 meeting the primary endpoint. Mean sleep latency decreased by 29 minutes with PRM over placebo (P=0.13; effect size: 0.92 and nap duration decreased in the PRM but not placebo group. The variability in sleep onset/offset and

  2. WAIS Performance in Unincarcerated Groups of MMPI-Defined Sociopaths and Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Albert N.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation examines WAIS performance in groups of 32 sociopaths and 33 normal controls defined by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory criteria. Sociopaths and normal controls show no differences in overall level of intellectual functioning. (Author)

  3. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  4. Exacerbation of signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis by a controlled adverse environment challenge in subjects with a history of dry eye and ocular allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes PJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulo J Gomes,1 George W Ousler,1 Donna L Welch,1 Lisa M Smith,1 Jeffrey Coderre,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora Inc, Andover, MA; 2Harvard Medical School, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, MA, USABackground: The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a controlled adverse environment (CAE challenge on subjects with both allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye.Methods: Thirty-three subjects were screened and 17 completed this institutional review board-approved study. Subjects underwent baseline ocular assessments and conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC on days 0 and 3. Those who met the ocular redness and itching criteria were randomized to receive either the controlled adverse environment (CAE challenge (group A, n = 9 or no challenge (group B, n = 8 at day 6. Thirty minutes after CAE/no-CAE, subjects were challenged with allergen and their signs and symptoms graded. Exploratory confocal microscopy was carried out in a subset of subjects at hourly intervals for 5 hours post-CAC on days 3 and 6.Results: Seven minutes post-CAC, subjects exposed to the CAE had significantly greater itching (difference between groups, 0.55 ± 0.25, P = 0.028, conjunctival redness (0.59 ± 0.19, P = 0.002, episcleral redness (0.56 ± 0.19, P = 0.003 and mean overall redness (mean of conjunctival, episcleral, and ciliary redness, 0.59 ± 0.14, P < 0.001. The mean score at 7, 15, and 20 minutes post-CAC for conjunctival redness (0.43 ± 0.17, P = 0.012, episcleral redness (0.49 ± 0.15, P = 0.001, mean overall redness in all regions (0.43 ± 0.15, P = 0.005, and mean chemosis (0.20 ± 0.08, P = 0.017 were also all significantly greater in CAE-treated subjects. Confocal microscopic images of conjunctival vessels after CAC showed more inflammation in CAE-treated subjects.Conclusion: In subjects with both dry eye and allergic conjunctivitis, exposure to adverse environmental conditions causes an ocular surface perturbation that can intensify allergic reactions

  5. THE RESEARCH MATRIX OF POSITIONING THE QUASIGENDER GROUPS AS SHADOW SUBJECTS IN LIMINAL POLITICAL PROCESSES IN RUSSIA

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    Маргарита Витальевна Швец

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a new politological concept of “liminarity” is used in the methological aspect (L.V. Smorgunov, F.A. Shezbukova. It is applied to the situations, when power structures are in the position of losing some ligitimity and the process of legimination of resisting the authorities begins. In these conditions the public political space is actively joined by the actors  with a shadow status, non-public, escaping any contact with the official authoritues.One of such vivid modern examples typical for Russian is quasigender groups (LGBT-community, which appear under liminarity during the transition from the shadow into the public position. They are a modern wave (a second global wave of gender emancipation, which are grounded on their rights’ defense, legalization of their relations (including family in the civil legal field.The author points out approaches to the explanation of the political behavior of quasigender groups, which try to come out of the shadow into the public forms of interpersonal relations.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-98

  6. Bootstrap Signal-to-Noise Confidence Intervals: An Objective Method for Subject Exclusion and Quality Control in ERP Studies

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    Nathan A Parks

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of event-related potential (ERP data includes several steps to ensure that ERPs meet an appropriate level of signal quality. One such step, subject exclusion, rejects subject data if ERP waveforms fail to meet an appropriate level of signal quality. Subject exclusion is an important quality control step in the ERP analysis pipeline as it ensures that statistical inference is based only upon those subjects exhibiting clear evoked brain responses. This critical quality control step is most often performed simply through visual inspection of subject-level ERPs by investigators. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective, and susceptible to investigator bias, as there are no standards as to what constitutes an ERP of sufficient signal quality. Here, we describe a standardized and objective method for quantifying waveform quality in individual subjects and establishing criteria for subject exclusion. The approach uses bootstrap resampling of ERP waveforms (from a pool of all available trials to compute a signal-to-noise ratio confidence interval (SNR-CI for individual subject waveforms. The lower bound of this SNR-CI (SNRLB yields an effective and objective measure of signal quality as it ensures that ERP waveforms statistically exceed a desired signal-to-noise criterion. SNRLB provides a quantifiable metric of individual subject ERP quality and eliminates the need for subjective evaluation of waveform quality by the investigator. We detail the SNR-CI methodology, establish the efficacy of employing this approach with Monte Carlo simulations, and demonstrate its utility in practice when applied to ERP datasets.

  7. Bootstrap Signal-to-Noise Confidence Intervals: An Objective Method for Subject Exclusion and Quality Control in ERP Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Nathan A.; Gannon, Matthew A.; Long, Stephanie M.; Young, Madeleine E.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of event-related potential (ERP) data includes several steps to ensure that ERPs meet an appropriate level of signal quality. One such step, subject exclusion, rejects subject data if ERP waveforms fail to meet an appropriate level of signal quality. Subject exclusion is an important quality control step in the ERP analysis pipeline as it ensures that statistical inference is based only upon those subjects exhibiting clear evoked brain responses. This critical quality control step is most often performed simply through visual inspection of subject-level ERPs by investigators. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective, and susceptible to investigator bias, as there are no standards as to what constitutes an ERP of sufficient signal quality. Here, we describe a standardized and objective method for quantifying waveform quality in individual subjects and establishing criteria for subject exclusion. The approach uses bootstrap resampling of ERP waveforms (from a pool of all available trials) to compute a signal-to-noise ratio confidence interval (SNR-CI) for individual subject waveforms. The lower bound of this SNR-CI (SNRLB) yields an effective and objective measure of signal quality as it ensures that ERP waveforms statistically exceed a desired signal-to-noise criterion. SNRLB provides a quantifiable metric of individual subject ERP quality and eliminates the need for subjective evaluation of waveform quality by the investigator. We detail the SNR-CI methodology, establish the efficacy of employing this approach with Monte Carlo simulations, and demonstrate its utility in practice when applied to ERP datasets. PMID:26903849

  8. Model and Effectiveness of Endurance Exercise to Increase Physical Fitness in Intellectual Disability Subjects with Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Z Tamin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to design a model and assess the effectiveness of endurance exercise to increase physical fitness in intelectual disability (ID patients with obesity. Methods: a randomized-controlled clinical trial was performed in ID patients with obesity aged 10-30 years old from all Special School in DKI Jakarta, which were randomly allocated into 3 groups and then given 3 different type of exercises: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise for 20 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercise for 24-25 minutes (type I, lower extremity muscles endurance exercises for 10 RM followed by cardiorespiratory endurance exercises for 26-27 minutes (type II, and threw a tennis ball with 10 m distance for 10 minutes as control (type III. These program was performed 3 times a week for 4 months. Assesment of the exercise effectiveness was done by measuring maximum load that can be lifted and six-minutes walking test on rectangular track which was converted with the VO2 max prediction formula. Analysis was perfomed with Kruskal Wallis test. Results: two hundred and twelve (212 subjects were included in the study, randomly allocated into three types (I, II, and III of exercises groups. The type II of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing lower extremity muscles endurance level compared to type I and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Meanwhile, type I of endurance exercise model was proved to be more effective in increasing cardiorespiratory endurance level compared to type II and III for ID patients with obesity (p<0.05. Conclusion: lower extremity muscles endurance exercise followed by a cardiorespiratory endurance exercise can be used to increase physical fitness in ID patients with obesity. Key words: intelectual disability patient, obesity, lower extremity muscles and cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, lower extremity muscles endurance level, cardiorespiratory endurance level.

  9. Demanda por grupos, psicologia e controle Group demand, psychology and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão de Oliveira Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz uma reflexão sobre uma capacitação para o trabalho grupal, destinado às equipes das UBSs (Unidades Básica de Saúde do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde e agentes comunitários de saúde de um município do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Trata-se de analisar o pedido explicitado pela equipe, de mostrar a reflexão a respeito desse pedido, as circunstâncias dos problemas colocados, a experiência dos vários trabalhadores da equipe e a escuta do que se passa do lado da população. Parar para ouvir os parceiros do trabalho e refletir sobre a intervenção fez a equipe trabalhar sua sensibilidade diante das questões da população, do que vem a ser saúde e poder assumir outra postura que não seja a de servir ao controle da população e trabalhar para a construção da sociedade de controle.This article brings a reflection about a training for group work developed with UBSs (Basic Units of Health technical staff from SUS (Unified System of Health and agents of health from a county in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The procedure involves: (1 to analyze the explicit demand form the crew, (2 to show a reflection about this demand, (3 to show the context of the problems, (4 to consider the experience of workers on the crew, and (5 to listen to what happens from population's standpoint. Stop listening to the job partners and reflecting about the intervention made the crew work.

  10. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  11. An Adaptive Neuromuscular Controller for Assistive Lower-Limb Exoskeletons: A Preliminary Study on Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Versatility is important for a wearable exoskeleton controller to be responsive to both the user and the environment. These characteristics are especially important for subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI, where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery. Here we demonstrate the capability of a novel, biologically-inspired neuromuscular controller (NMC which uses dynamical models of lower limb muscles to assist the gait of SCI subjects. Advantages of this controller include robustness, modularity, and adaptability. The controller requires very few inputs (i.e., joint angles, stance, and swing detection, can be decomposed into relevant control modules (e.g., only knee or hip control, and can generate walking at different speeds and terrains in simulation. We performed a preliminary evaluation of this controller on a lower-limb knee and hip robotic gait trainer with seven subjects (N = 7, four with complete paraplegia, two incomplete, one healthy to determine if the NMC could enable normal-like walking. During the experiment, SCI subjects walked with body weight support on a treadmill and could use the handrails. With controller assistance, subjects were able to walk at fast walking speeds for ambulatory SCI subjects—from 0.6 to 1.4 m/s. Measured joint angles and NMC-provided joint torques agreed reasonably well with kinematics and biological joint torques of a healthy subject in shod walking. Some differences were found between the torques, such as the lack of knee flexion near mid-stance, but joint angle trajectories did not seem greatly affected. The NMC also adjusted its torque output to provide more joint work at faster speeds and thus greater joint angles and step length. We also found that the optimal speed-step length curve observed in healthy humans emerged for most of the subjects, albeit with relatively longer step length at faster speeds. Therefore, with very few sensors and no predefined

  12. Intrinsic, Identified, and Controlled Types of Motivation for School Subjects in Young Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frederic; Chanal, Julien; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school…

  13. A Case-Control Study of Personality Style and Psychopathology in Parents of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Knecht, Susan; Poustka, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    To probe the specificity of traits that might be conceptualised as the broader phenotype of autism, parents of subjects with autism from simplex and multiplex families as well as parents of subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and mental retardation (MR) were assessed using the Personality Style and…

  14. Efficacy of an orlistat-resveratrol combination for weight loss in subjects with obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzola-Paniagua, María Angélica; García-Salgado López, Enrique Raúl; Calvo-Vargas, Cesar G; Guevara-Cruz, Martha

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an orlistat-resveratrol (O-R) combination in subjects with obesity over a 6-month period. This study was a double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients fulfilling the selection criteria (age from 20 to 60 years and body mass index (BMI) ≥30 and ≤39.9 kg/m(2) ) consumed an energy-reduced diet with 500 fewer calories than their usual diet for 2 weeks. Then the participants were randomly assigned to four groups, placebo, resveratrol, orlistat, or O-R, and they consumed the energy-reduced diet for 6 months. The study consisted of seven visits. During each visit, a 24-h recall was performed, along with measurements of anthropometric and serum biochemical parameters. A total of 161 participants were selected. Of these, 84 participants completed the study. A significant weight loss of -6.82 kg (95% CI -8.37 to -5.26) was observed in the O-R group compared with -3.50 kg (-5.05 to -1.95, P = 0.021) in the placebo group. In contrast, the -6.02 kg (-7.68 to -4.36) orlistat and -4.68 kg (-6.64 to -2.71) resveratrol monotherapy losses did not significantly differ from the placebo. Significant decreases in BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, triglycerides, leptin, and leptin/adiponectin ratio were observed with the O-R combination. The O-R combination was the most effective weight loss treatment. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

  16. Comparing physical exercise in groups to group cognitive behaviour therapy for the treatment of panic disorder in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Sjøbø, Trond; Gjestad, Bente A; Birknes, Birthe; Martinsen, Egil W; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical exercise can reduce symptoms for subjects suffering from panic disorder (PD). The efficacy of this intervention has so far not been compared to an established psychotherapy, such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Assessment of controlled long-term effects and the clinical significance of the treatment are also lacking. To compare physical exercise to CBT as treatment for PD, and assess controlled long-term and clinically significant effects. PD-patients were randomized to either three weekly sessions of physical exercise (n = 17), or one weekly session of CBT (n = 19). Both treatments ran for 12 weeks, were manualized and administered in groups. Patients were assessed twice before the start of treatment, at post-treatment and at 6 and 12 months thereafter. Primary outcome-measures consisted of the Mobility Inventory (MI), the Agoraphobia Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ). A two-way repeated measures MANOVA of these measures demonstrated a significant effect of time, F(16, 544) = 7.28, p < .01, as well as a significant interaction effect, F(16, 544) = 1.71, p < .05, in favour of CBT. This finding was supported by the assessment of clinically significant changes of avoidant behaviour and of treatment-seeking one year later. Group CBT is more effective than group physical exercise as treatment of panic disorder, both immediately following treatment and at follow-up assessments.

  17. Mechanisms of change in control group drinking in clinical trials of brief alcohol intervention: implications for bias toward the null.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Judith A; Bernstein, Edward; Heeren, Timothy C

    2010-09-01

    Reductions in control group consumption over time that are possibly related to research design affect the impact of brief alcohol interventions (BAI) in clinical settings. We conducted a systematic review to identify research design factors that may contribute to control group change, strategies to limit these effects and implications for researchers. Studies with control group n > 30 were selected if they published baseline and outcome consumption data, conducted trials in clinical settings in Anglophone countries and did not censor gender or age. Among 38 studies cited in 20 reviews through October 2009, 16 met criteria (n = 31-370). In 54%, controls received alcohol specific handouts, advice and/or referral. Both the number and depth of assessments were highly variable. The percentage change in consumption ranged from-0.10 to-0.84 (mean-0.32), and effect size from 0.04 to 0.70 (mean 0.37). Published data were insufficient for meta-analysis. Researchers should consider strategies to reduce the impact of research design factors, such as procedures to enhance sample diversity, blind subjects to study purpose to limit social desirability bias, reduce the number and depth of instruments (assessment reactivity), and finally, analytic techniques to decrease the impact of outliers and regression to the mean. This review identifies problems with retrospective analysis of predictors of control group change, and underscores the need to design prospective studies to permit identification, quantification and adjustment for potential sources of bias in BAI trials.

  18. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  19. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frizziero Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies

  20. Control group design, contamination and drop-out in exercise oncology trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Courneya, Kerry S; Velthuis, Miranda J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Jones, Lee W; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-oncology trials and explores the association with contamination and drop-out rates. Randomized controlled exercise-oncology trials from two Cochrane reviews were included. Additionally, a computer-aided search using Medline (Pubmed), Embase and CINAHL was conducted after completion date of the Cochrane reviews. Eligible studies were classified according to three control group design characteristics: the exercise instruction given to controls before start of the study (exercise allowed or not); and the intervention the control group was offered during (any (e.g., education sessions or telephone contacts) or none) or after (any (e.g., cross-over or exercise instruction) or none) the intervention period. Contamination (yes or no) and excess drop-out rates (i.e., drop-out rate of the control group minus the drop-out rate exercise group) were described according to the three design characteristics of the control group and according to the combinations of these three characteristics; so we additionally made subgroups based on combinations of type and timing of instructions received. 40 exercise-oncology trials were included based on pre-specified eligibility criteria. The lowest contamination (7.1% of studies) and low drop-out rates (excess drop-out rate -4.7±9.2) were found in control groups offered an intervention after the intervention period. When control groups were offered an intervention both during and after the intervention period, contamination (0%) and excess drop-out rates (-10.0±12.8%) were even lower. Control groups receiving an intervention during and after the study intervention period have lower contamination and drop-out rates. The present findings can be

  1. Depressive Symptoms are the Main Predictor for Subjective Sleep Quality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment--A Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Seidel

    Full Text Available Controlled data on predictors of subjective sleep quality in patients with memory complaints are sparse. To improve the amount of comprehensive data on this topic, we assessed factors associated with subjective sleep quality in patients from our memory clinic and healthy individuals.Between February 2012 and August 2014 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and subjective cognitive decline (SCD from our memory clinic and healthy controls were recruited. Apart from a detailed neuropsychological assessment, the subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II.One hundred fifty eight consecutive patients (132 (84% MCI patients and 26 (16% SCD patients and 75 healthy controls were included in the study. Pairwise comparison of PSQI scores showed that non-amnestic MCI (naMCI patients (5.4 ± 3.5 had significantly higher PSQI scores than controls (4.3 ± 2.8, p = .003 Pairwise comparison of PSQI subscores showed that naMCI patients (1.1 ± 0.4 had significantly more "sleep disturbances" than controls (0.9 ± 0.5, p = .003. Amnestic MCI (aMCI (0.8 ± 1.2, p = .006 and naMCI patients (0.7 ± 1.2, p = .002 used "sleep medication" significantly more often than controls (0.1 ± 0.6 Both, aMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 and naMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 patients showed significantly higher BDI-II scores than healthy controls (6.1 ± 5.3. Linear regression analysis showed that the subjective sleep quality was predicted by depressive symptoms in aMCI (p < .0001 and naMCI (p < .0001 patients as well as controls (p < .0001. This means, that more depressive symptoms worsened subjective sleep quality. In aMCI patients we also found a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and global cognitive function (p = .002.Depressive symptoms were the main predictor of subjective sleep quality in MCI

  2. Induced Opening of the Gastroesophageal Junction Occurs at a Lower Gastric Pressure in Gerd Patients and in Hiatal Hernia Subjects than in Normal Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Vegesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine intragastric pressure threshold for inducing gastroesophageal junction (GEJ opening in normal control subjects with and without hiatal hernia, and in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods. This study was performed in 13 normal volunteers, 5 volunteers with hiatal hernia, and 3 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. During endoscopy a pressure transducer was used to measure baseline gastric pressures. The pressure in the stomach was measured while air was insufflated into the stomach until the gastroesophageal junction opened on endoscopic view. Results. There were two patterns of GEJ opening in normal volunteers. The mean opening pressure for Gastroesophageal junction in normal pattern-I, normal pattern-II, hiatal hernia, and Gastroesophageal reflux patients was 11.5, 12.6, 3.4, and 1.3 mmHg, respectively. Conclusions. GEJ opening is induced at a significantly lower pressure in subjects with hiatal hernia and in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease than in normal volunteers.

  3. The quality of control groups in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shepard P; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate control group selection in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used nonrandomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine whether authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Thirty-seven nonrandomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18 (49%) identified sources of selection bias. In our review of nonrandomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of bariatric surgery on gout incidence in the Swedish Obese Subjects study: a non-randomised, prospective, controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Cristina; Peltonen, Markku; Neovius, Martin; Jacobson, Peter; Jacobsson, Lennart; Rudin, Anna; Carlsson, Lena M S

    2017-04-01

    To assess the long-term effect of bariatric surgery on the incidence of gout and hyperuricaemia in participants of the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. This report includes 1982 subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 1999 obese controls from the SOS study, a prospective intervention trial designed to assess the effect of bariatric surgery compared with conventional treatment. None of the subjects had gout at baseline. An endpoint on gout incidence was created based on information on gout diagnosis and use of gout medications through national registers and questionnaires. Median follow-up for the incidence of gout was about 19 years for both groups. Moreover, the incidence of hyperuricaemia over up to 20 years was examined in a subgroup of participants having baseline uric acid levels gout compared with usual care (adjusted HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.75, pgout event was 32 (95% CI 22 to 59). The effect of bariatric surgery on gout incidence was not influenced by baseline risk factors, including body mass index. During follow-up, the surgery group had a lower incidence of hyperuricaemia (adjusted HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.58, pgout and hyperuricaemia in obese subjects. NCT01479452; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. MUNIX and incremental stimulation MUNE in ALS patients and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Jasna; Johnsen, Birger; Christensen, Peter Broegger

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS.......This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS....

  6. Diabetes self-care behaviors and disease control in support group attenders and nonattenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chii-Jun

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence rate and mortality rate of diabetes continue to increase annually. Complications associated with poor control of diabetes include renal dialysis, amputation, heart disease, stroke, retinopathy, and vascular disease, all of which have an impact at the individual, family, and national level. This study compares diabetes self-care behavior and disease control efficacy between attenders and nonattenders of a diabetes support group. We used a questionnaire with good validity and reliability to conduct a cross-sectional survey. Diabetes support groups have been established throughout Taiwan for around 2 years. Participants for this study were recruited randomly from a register of support group participants. Support group instructors were asked to collect questionnaires from those attending and not attending their support groups. Ten groups volunteered to participate in this study. We received 147 valid questionnaires from participants attending support groups (attenders) and 93 questionnaires from participants who did not (nonattenders). There were no statistically significant differences between support group attenders and nonattenders in terms of age, educational level, or time since diagnosis of diabetes. Thus, we assumed these two groups as adequately similar to conduct statistical comparisons. Scores for diabetes self-care behavior, disease control, and use of the diabetes passport were all significantly higher among support group attenders than their nonattender peers. Results indicate that people attending diabetes support groups are more likely to have better self-care behavior and disease control than nonattenders. Therefore, we suggest that the government actively promote policies supportive of diabetes support groups.

  7. Characterization of EEG patterns in brain-injured subjects and controls after a Snoezelen® intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Peña, Carlos; Poza Crespo, Jesús; Gutiérrez, María T.; Prada, Esther; Mendoza, Nuria; Hornero Sánchez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Producción Científica Background and objective. The aim of this study was to assess the changes induced in electroencephalographic (EEG) activity by a Snoezelen® intervention on individuals with brain-injury and control subjects. Methods: EEG activity was recorded preceding and following a Snoezelen® session in 18 people with cerebral palsy (CP), 18 subjects who have sustained traumatic brain-injury (TBI) and 18 controls. EEG data were analyzed by means of spectral and nonlinear measures: ...

  8. Command and Control of Guerrilla Groups in the Philippines, 1941-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Command and Control of Guerrilla Groups in the Philippines, 1941-1945 A Monograph by MAJ Thomas R. Nypaver Texas Army National Guard...Groups in the Philippines, 1941-1945 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Thomas R...of Candidate: MAJ Thomas R. Nypaver Monograph Title: Command and Control of Guerrilla Groups in the Philippines, 1941-1945 Approved by

  9. General Immune Status and Oral Microbiology in Patients with Different Forms of Periodontitis and Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jana; Jentsch, Holger; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Sack, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunological processes in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, especially the aggressive form, are not well understood. This study examined clinical as well as systemic immunological and local microbiological features in healthy controls and patients with different forms of periodontitis. Materials and Methods 14 healthy subjects, 15 patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, and 11 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal examination was performed and peripheral blood was collected from each patient. Lymphocyte populations as well as the release of cytokines by T-helper cells were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent spot assay. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from each individual and immediately cultivated for microbiological examination. Results When stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lipopolysaccharide, a higher IL-1β release was found in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis compared to the other groups (pperiodontitis showed the highest percentage of memory B-cells without class switch (p = 0.01). The subgingival plaque differed quantitatively as well as qualitatively with a higher number of Gram-negative anaerobic species in periodontitis patients. Prevotella denticola was found more often in patients with aggressive periodontitis (pperiodontitis, seems to be associated with an activation of the systemic immune response. Conclusion Differences between aggressive periodontitis and moderate chronic periodontitis are evident, which raises the question of an inadequate balance between systemic immune response and bacterial infection in aggressive periodontitis. PMID:25299619

  10. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M; Handrakis, John P; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Jensen, A Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n=20; TETRA: C4-C8), high paraplegia (n=10; HP: T2-T5), low paraplegia (n=9; LP: T7-T12), and non-SCI controls (n=10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R-R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (Pgroups compared to the TETRA and control groups (Pgroup compared to the TETRA and control groups (Pgroup compared to the LP and TETRA groups (Pgroups (P<0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated.

  11. Brief Group Intervention Using Emotional Freedom Techniques for Depression in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Church

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred thirty-eight first-year college students were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Thirty students meeting the BDI criteria for moderate to severe depression were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. The treatment group received four 90-minute group sessions of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques, a novel treatment that combines exposure, cognitive reprocessing, and somatic stimulation. The control group received no treatment. Posttests were conducted 3 weeks later on those that completed all requirements (N=18. The EFT group (n=9 had significantly more depression at baseline than the control group (n=9 (EFT BDI mean=23.44, SD=2.1 versus control BDI mean=20.33, SD=2.1. After controlling for baseline BDI score, the EFT group had significantly less depression than the control group at posttest, with a mean score in the “nondepressed” range (P=.001; EFT BDI mean=6.08, SE=1.8 versus control BDI mean=18.04, SE=1.8. Cohen's d was 2.28, indicating a very strong effect size. These results are consistent with those noted in other studies of EFT that included an assessment for depression and indicate the clinical usefulness of EFT as a brief, cost-effective, and efficacious treatment.

  12. FORMATION CONTROL OF MULTIPLE UNICYCLE-TYPE ROBOTS USING LIE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youwei Dong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the formation control of a multi-robots system is investigated. The proposed control law, based on Lie group theory, is applied to control the formation of a group of unicycle-type robots. The communication topology is supposed to be a rooted directed acyclic graph and fixed. Some numerical simulations using Matlab are made to validate our results.

  13. Improvement of glycaemia control in subjects with type 2 diabetes by self-monitoring of blood glucose: comparison of two management programs adjusting bedtime insulin dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-S; Wu, T-E; Jap, T-S; Lin, S-H; Hsiao, L-C; Lin, H-D

    2008-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important for patients treated with insulin to detect asymptomatic hypoglycaemia and to guide patients towards reaching blood glucose goal. This study compared two management programs for adjusting bedtime insulin dose: program 1 (performed by study subjects) vs. program 2 (performed by study subjects and reminded by investigators). This is a prospective, open-level, 28-week randomized trial in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic subjects. One hundred subjects treated with oral antidiabetic drugs plus bedtime insulin with glycated haemoglobin A(1C) (A1C) >8.0% were screened and received a structure education package in a 4-week run-in period. Seventy-eight subjects were randomized to two treatment programs (adjust insulin dose by themselves with or without investigators' reminder) and reviewed by the investigators at a 4-week interval clinical visit. The mean SMBG decreased significantly in both groups, with a greater decrease observed in program 2 vs. program 1 (from 198.7 +/- 43.1 to 122.6 +/- 21.9 mg/dl vs. from 194.0 +/- 42.7 to 151.6 +/- 37.7 mg/dl, p Bedtime insulin dose increased in both groups with a greater increase in program 2 (from 14.4 +/- 8.7 to 27.4 +/- 12.8 IU vs. from 14.3 +/- 8.3 to 18.4 +/- 6.2 IU, p weight changes. Systematically titrating bedtime insulin dose added to oral therapy, especially combined with health care reminders, can safely improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes with poor glycaemic control. This regimen may facilitate safe and effective insulin therapy in routine medical practice and improve achievement of recommended standards of diabetes care.

  14. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use.

  15. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on objective and subjective sleep parameters in women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, Cecile A; Reich, Richard R; Paterson, Carly L; Jim, Heather S; Ramesar, Sophia; Alinat, Carissa B; Budhrani, Pinky H; Farias, Jerrica R; Shelton, Melissa M; Moscoso, Manolete S; Park, Jong Y; Kip, Kevin E

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer survivors (MBSR(BC)) on multiple measures of objective and subjective sleep parameters among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Data were collected using a two-armed randomized controlled design among BCS enrolled in either a 6-week MBSR(BC) program or a usual care (UC) group with a 12-week follow-up. The present analysis is a subset of the larger parent trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01177124). Seventy-nine BCS participants (mean age 57 years), stages 0-III, were randomly assigned to either the formal (in-class) 6-week MBSR(BC) program or UC. Subjective sleep parameters (SSP) (i.e., sleep diaries and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and objective sleep parameters (OSP) (i.e., actigraphy) were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after completing the MBSR(BC) or UC program. Results showed indications of a positive effect of MBSR(BC) on OSP at 12 weeks on sleep efficiency (78.2% MBSR(BC) group versus 74.6% UC group, p = 0.04), percent of sleep time (81.0% MBSR(BC) group versus 77.4% UC group, p = 0.02), and less number waking bouts (93.5 in MBSR(BC) group versus 118.6 in the UC group, p < 0.01). Small nonsignificant improvements were found in SSP in the MBSR(BC) group from baseline to 6 weeks (PSQI total score, p = 0.09). No significant relationship was observed between minutes of MBSR(BC) practice and SSP or OSP. These data suggest that MBSR(BC) may be an efficacious treatment to improve objective and subjective sleep parameters in BCS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-02

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subjective cognitive complaints and the role of executive cognitive functioning in the working population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC, involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. METHODS: Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases or low (controls levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning.

  19. Sensorimotor control of tracking movements at various speeds for stroke patients as well as age-matched and young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (Pcontrols controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging.

  20. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel K W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Ng, Petrus Y N

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59%) of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48) to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18), which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, Pcontrol group's participants did not show any significant change. This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants.

  1. A randomised, single-blind, single-dose, three-arm, parallel-group study in healthy subjects to demonstrate pharmacokinetic equivalence of ABP 501 and adalimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Primal; Chow, Vincent; Zhang, Nan; Moxness, Michael; Kaliyaperumal, Arunan; Markus, Richard

    2017-03-01

    To demonstrate pharmacokinetic (PK) similarity of biosimilar candidate ABP 501 relative to adalimumab reference product from the USA and European Union (EU) and evaluate safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of ABP 501. Randomised, single-blind, single-dose, three-arm, parallel-group study; healthy subjects were randomised to receive ABP 501 (n=67), adalimumab (USA) (n=69) or adalimumab (EU) (n=67) 40 mg subcutaneously. Primary end points were area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf) and the maximum observed concentration (Cmax). Secondary end points included safety and immunogenicity. AUCinf and Cmax were similar across the three groups. Geometrical mean ratio (GMR) of AUCinf was 1.11 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (USA), and 1.04 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (EU). GMR of Cmax was 1.04 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (USA) and 0.96 between ABP 501 and adalimumab (EU). The 90% CIs for the GMRs of AUCinf and Cmax were within the prespecified standard PK equivalence criteria of 0.80 to 1.25. Treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate and were reported for 35.8%, 24.6% and 41.8% of subjects in the ABP 501, adalimumab (USA) and adalimumab (EU) groups; incidence of antidrug antibodies (ADAbs) was similar among the study groups. Results of this study demonstrated PK similarity of ABP 501 with adalimumab (USA) and adalimumab (EU) after a single 40-mg subcutaneous injection. No new safety signals with ABP 501 were identified. The safety and tolerability of ABP 501 was similar to the reference products, and similar ADAb rates were observed across the three groups. EudraCT number 2012-000785-37; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Bias from historical control groups used in orthodontic research: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Koretsi, Vasiliki; Jäger, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The validity of meta-analysis is dependent upon the quality of included studies. Here, we investigated whether the design of untreated control groups (i.e. source and timing of data collection) influences the results of clinical trials in orthodontic research. This meta-epidemiological study used unrestricted literature searching for meta-analyses in orthodontics including clinical trials with untreated control groups. Differences in standardized mean differences (ΔSMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to the untreated control group through multivariable random-effects meta-regression controlling for nature of the interventional group and study sample size. Effects were pooled with random-effects synthesis, followed by mixed-effect subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Studies with historical control groups reported deflated treatment effects compared to studies with concurrent control groups (13 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.53, -0.10; P = 0.004). Significant differences were found according to the type of historical control group (based either on growth study or clinical archive; 11 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.59; P groups in orthodontic clinical research was associated with deflation of treatment effects, which was independent from whether the interventional group was prospective or retrospective and from the study's sample size. Caution is warranted when interpreting clinical studies with historical untreated control groups or when interpreting systematic reviews that include such studies. PROSPERO (CRD42015024179). None. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Food groups and laryngeal cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Cristina; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Levi, Fabio; Dal Maso, Luigino; Franceschi, Silvia

    2002-07-20

    Besides tobacco and alcohol, diet has been thought to be associated with laryngeal cancer risk. We thus analyzed the role of various food groups, as well as specific seasoning fats, in a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy and the Swiss Canton of Vaud from 1992 to 2000. Our study included 527 incident, histologically confirmed cases and 1,297 frequency-matched controls, selected among patients admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute, nonneoplastic conditions, unrelated to smoking, alcohol consumption and long-term modifications of diet. The subjects' usual diet was investigated through a validated food frequency questionnaire, including 78 foods and beverages. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models. After adjustment for major confounding factors, a significant trend of increasing risk was observed for eggs (OR = 1.7 for the highest compared to the lowest quintile), red meat (OR = 3.1), processed meat (OR = 1.7), fish (OR = 1.6) and sugars (OR = 1.6). Significant inverse associations were observed for pulses (OR = 0.7), raw vegetables (OR = 0.2), cooked vegetables (OR = 0.3), citrus fruit (OR = 0.6) and other fruit (OR = 0.5). In regard to seasoning fats, a significant reduction of cancer risk was observed for olive oil (OR = 0.4) and specific seed oils (OR = 0.6), while mixed seed oils were directly associated with laryngeal cancer risk (OR = 2.2). Our study suggests that increasing vegetables and fruit, decreasing meat consumption and perhaps substituting olive oil or specific seed oils for other types of seasoning lipids might help reduce laryngeal cancer risk. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  5. Adherence of type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells: more in diabetic women than in control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Meiland, Ruby; van Lith, Emiel C.; Brouwer, Ellen C.; Gaastra, Wim; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with diabetes have bacteriuria more often than women without diabetes. Because Escherichia coli adhere better to vaginal cells of nondiabetic patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) than to those obtained from healthy control subjects, it was hypothesized that E.

  6. Information and Choice of A-Level Subjects: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with Linked Administrative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter; Davies, Neil M.; Qiu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the effects of an intervention which provided information about graduate wages to 5593 students in England, using a blinded cluster randomised controlled trial in 50 schools (registration: AEARCTR-0000468). Our primary outcome was students' choice of A-level subjects at age 16. We also recorded the students' expectations of future…

  7. Correlation between two-dimensional video analysis and subjective assessment in evaluating knee control among elite female team handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    . The present study investigated the correlation between a two-dimensional (2D) video analysis and subjective assessment performed by one physiotherapist in evaluating knee control. We also tested the correlation between three simple clinical tests using both methods. A cohort of 186 female elite team handball...

  8. The Impact of Subjective Work Control, Job Strain and Work-Family Conflict on Fertility Intentions : a European Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, Katia; Mills, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women's labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women's subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over

  9. The impact of subjective work control, job strain and work–family conflict on fertility intentions: a European comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, K.H.; Mills, M.

    2011-01-01

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women's labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women's subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over

  10. An adaptive neuromuscular controller for assistive lower-limb exoskeletons : A preliminary study on subjects with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Amy R.; Dzeladini, Florin; Brug, Tycho J.H.; Tamburella, Federica; Tagliamonte, Nevio L.; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Van Der Kooij, Herman; IJspeert, Auke Jan

    2017-01-01

    Versatility is important for a wearable exoskeleton controller to be responsive to both the user and the environment. These characteristics are especially important for subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI), where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery.

  11. An adaptive neuromuscular controller for assistive lower-limb exoskeletons : A preliminary study on subjects with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Amy R.; Dzeladini, Florin; Brug, Tycho J.H.; Tamburella, Federica; Tagliamonte, Nevio L.; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, H.; Ijspeert, Auke J.

    2017-01-01

    Versatility is important for a wearable exoskeleton controller to be responsive to both the user and the environment. These characteristics are especially important for subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI), where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery.

  12. Blastocystis is associated with decrease of fecal microbiota protective bacteria: comparative analysis between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourrisson, Céline; Scanzi, Julien; Pereira, Bruno; NkoudMongo, Christina; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Cian, Amandine; Viscogliosi, Eric; Livrelli, Valérie; Delbac, Frédéric; Dapoigny, Michel; Poirier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is a protistan parasite living in the digestive tract of many animals, including humans. This highly prevalent intestinal parasite is suspected to be linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), a chronic functional bowel disorder. Here, we first compared the prevalence of Blastocystis among 56 IBS patients (40 IBS with constipation (IBS-C), 9 IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), 4 mixed IBS (IBS-M) and 3 unsubtyped IBS (IBS-U) according to the Rome III criteria) and 56 control (i.e. without any diagnosed chronic or acute gastrointestinal disorder) subjects. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis spp. was observed in the IBS group, but was only statistically significant in men (36.8% in the IBS group versus 4.8% in the control group). We then conducted a meta-analysis including epidemiological studies attempting to determine whether Blastocystis carriage could be linked to IBS, and highlighted that IBS patients had a relative risk of 2.34 to be infected by Blastocystis when compared to non-IBS subjects. We also looked for Dientamoeba fragilis, which is often associated with IBS, and identified this parasite only in some IBS patients (n = 6/56). Several studies provided evidence for a major role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBS. Thus, we investigated the possible impact of Blastocystis carriage on the enteric bacterial community through quantification of 8 major bacterial groups from the enteric flora. Our data indicated that men with IBS-C had a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium sp. when infected by Blastocystis. Interestingly, in control subjects (i.e. without any gastrointestinal disorder) positive for Blastocystis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is known for its anti-inflammatory properties, was significantly decreased in men. Our results support the hypothesis that Blastocystis might be linked to the pathophysiology of IBS-C and intestinal flora imbalance.

  13. Blastocystis Is Associated with Decrease of Fecal Microbiota Protective Bacteria: Comparative Analysis between Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourrisson, Céline; Scanzi, Julien; Pereira, Bruno; NkoudMongo, Christina; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Cian, Amandine; Viscogliosi, Eric; Livrelli, Valérie; Delbac, Frédéric; Dapoigny, Michel; Poirier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is a protistan parasite living in the digestive tract of many animals, including humans. This highly prevalent intestinal parasite is suspected to be linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), a chronic functional bowel disorder. Here, we first compared the prevalence of Blastocystis among 56 IBS patients (40 IBS with constipation (IBS-C), 9 IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), 4 mixed IBS (IBS-M) and 3 unsubtyped IBS (IBS-U) according to the Rome III criteria) and 56 control (i.e. without any diagnosed chronic or acute gastrointestinal disorder) subjects. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis spp. was observed in the IBS group, but was only statistically significant in men (36.8% in the IBS group versus 4.8% in the control group). We then conducted a meta-analysis including epidemiological studies attempting to determine whether Blastocystis carriage could be linked to IBS, and highlighted that IBS patients had a relative risk of 2.34 to be infected by Blastocystis when compared to non-IBS subjects. We also looked for Dientamoeba fragilis, which is often associated with IBS, and identified this parasite only in some IBS patients (n = 6/56). Several studies provided evidence for a major role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBS. Thus, we investigated the possible impact of Blastocystis carriage on the enteric bacterial community through quantification of 8 major bacterial groups from the enteric flora. Our data indicated that men with IBS-C had a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium sp. when infected by Blastocystis. Interestingly, in control subjects (i.e. without any gastrointestinal disorder) positive for Blastocystis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is known for its anti-inflammatory properties, was significantly decreased in men. Our results support the hypothesis that Blastocystis might be linked to the pathophysiology of IBS-C and intestinal flora imbalance. PMID:25365580

  14. Blastocystis is associated with decrease of fecal microbiota protective bacteria: comparative analysis between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and control subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Nourrisson

    Full Text Available Blastocystis is a protistan parasite living in the digestive tract of many animals, including humans. This highly prevalent intestinal parasite is suspected to be linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, a chronic functional bowel disorder. Here, we first compared the prevalence of Blastocystis among 56 IBS patients (40 IBS with constipation (IBS-C, 9 IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D, 4 mixed IBS (IBS-M and 3 unsubtyped IBS (IBS-U according to the Rome III criteria and 56 control (i.e. without any diagnosed chronic or acute gastrointestinal disorder subjects. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis spp. was observed in the IBS group, but was only statistically significant in men (36.8% in the IBS group versus 4.8% in the control group. We then conducted a meta-analysis including epidemiological studies attempting to determine whether Blastocystis carriage could be linked to IBS, and highlighted that IBS patients had a relative risk of 2.34 to be infected by Blastocystis when compared to non-IBS subjects. We also looked for Dientamoeba fragilis, which is often associated with IBS, and identified this parasite only in some IBS patients (n = 6/56. Several studies provided evidence for a major role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBS. Thus, we investigated the possible impact of Blastocystis carriage on the enteric bacterial community through quantification of 8 major bacterial groups from the enteric flora. Our data indicated that men with IBS-C had a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium sp. when infected by Blastocystis. Interestingly, in control subjects (i.e. without any gastrointestinal disorder positive for Blastocystis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is known for its anti-inflammatory properties, was significantly decreased in men. Our results support the hypothesis that Blastocystis might be linked to the pathophysiology of IBS-C and intestinal flora imbalance.

  15. Effect of phytosterols and inulin-enriched soymilk on LDL-cholesterol in Thai subjects: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietsiriroje, Noppadol; Kwankaew, Jirateep; Kitpakornsanti, Sunita; Leelawattana, Rattana

    2015-11-09

    Hypercholesterolemia, particularly high LDL-c and non-HDL-c levels, is a traditional risk for cardiovascular disease. Ingestion of diets containing phytosterols and inulin can reduce plasma LDL-c and triglyceride levels, respectively. Phytosterols and inulin-enriched soymilk may be an alternative for a supplemental diet to improve both LDL-c and non-HDL-c to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Two hundred and forty subjects who were 18 years old or older and had a baseline LDL-c of 130 mg/dl or higher were enrolled into the double-blinded randomized controlled trial study. Subjects were randomly assigned into the study group that received 2 g/day of phytosterols and 10 g/day of inulin-enriched soymilk or into the control group that received standard soymilk. The lipid profile was measured every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were 1) to determine the LDL-c reduction after consumption of phytosterols and inulin-enriched soymilk for 8 weeks and 2) to compare the difference of the LDL-c levels between the study and control groups. The secondary outcomes were to compare the difference of TC, TG and HDL-c between the study and control groups. At the end of the study, the median LDL-c levels decreased significantly from 165 (132, 254) mg/dl to 150 (105, 263) mg/dl in the study group (p inulin reduced TC and LDL-c better than standard soymilk. It had no effect on TG and HDL-c levels compared to standard soymilk. Both soymilk products were comparably safe. Thai Clinical Trial Registry: TCTR20150417001 date: April 17, 2015.

  16. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Rest, O.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F. J.; van Staveren, W.A.; Dullemeijer, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Groot, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking. Objective: To investigate the effect of

  17. Psychopathology of Eating Disorders: A Controlled Comparison of Bulimic, Obese, and Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Beck Depression Inventory, and a body image assessment were administered to 15 bulimic, 15 normal, and 15 obese women. Results showed that bulimics evidenced significantly more psychopathology than did normal and obese subjects; bulimics were more depressed, anxious,…

  18. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, O van de; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, W.A. van; Dullemeijer, C.; Olderikkert, M.G.; Beekman, A.T.; Groot, CP de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of

  19. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6-8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p autism spectrum disorder. The interventions' similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  1. Control Synthesis for a Class of Hybrid Systems Subject to Configuration-Based Safety Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Michael; Lin, Feng; Meyer, George

    1997-01-01

    We examine a class of hybrid systems which we call Composite Hybrid Machines (CHM's) that consists of the concurrent (and partially synchronized) operation of Elementary Hybrid Machines (EHM's). Legal behavior, specified by a set of illegal configurations that the CHM may not enter, is to be achieved by the concurrent operation of the CHM with a suitably designed legal controller. In the present paper we focus on the problem of synthesizing a legal controller, whenever such a controller exists. More specifically, we address the problem of synthesizing the minimally restrictive legal controller. A controller is minimally restrictive if, when composed to operate concurrently with another legal controller, it will never interfere with the operation of the other controller and, therefore, can be composed to operate concurrently with any other controller that may be designed to achieve liveness specifications or optimality requirements without the need to reinvestigate or reverify legality of the composite controller. We confine our attention to a special class of CHM's where system dynamics is rate-limited and legal guards are conjunctions or disjunctions of atomic formulas in the dynamic variables (of the type x less than or equal to x(sub 0), or x greater than or equal to x(sub 0)). We present an algorithm for synthesis of the minimally restrictive legal controller. We demonstrate our approach by synthesizing a minimally restrictive controller for a steam boiler (the verification of which recently received a great deal of attention).

  2. The Demand-Control Model: Specific demands, specific Control, and well-defined groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Dollard, M.F.; Dormann, C.; Blanc, P.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Demand-Control Model (DCM), accompanied by three goals. Firstly, we used alternative, more focused, and multifaceted measures of both job demands and job control that are relevant and applicable to today's working contexts. Secondly, this study intended to

  3. The effect of waiting: A meta-analysis of wait-list control groups in trials for tinnitus distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, Hugo; Weise, Cornelia; Rief, Winfried; Andersson, Gerhard

    2011-04-01

    The response rates and effects of being placed on a wait-list control condition are well documented in psychiatric populations. Despite the usefulness of such estimates and the frequent use of no-treatment controls in clinical trials for tinnitus, the effect of waiting in a tinnitus trial has not been investigated systematically. The aim of the present study was to quantify the overall effect of wait-list control groups on tinnitus distress. Studies were retrieved via a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of cognitive behaviour therapy for tinnitus distress. Outcomes of psychometrically robust tinnitus-specific measures (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Tinnitus Questionnaire, Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire) from wait-list control groups were quantified using meta-analytic techniques. Percentage of change and standard mean difference effect sizes were calculated using the pre and post wait period. Eleven studies involving 314 wait-list subjects with tinnitus were located. The analysis for a waiting period of 6 to 12 weeks revealed a mean decrease in scores on tinnitus-specific measures of 3% to 8%. Across studies, a statically significant small mean within-group effect size was obtained (Hedges' g=.17). The effects were moderated by methodological quality of the trial, sample characteristics (i.e., age, tinnitus duration), time of the wait-list and how diagnosis was established. Subjects in a tinnitus trial improve in tinnitus distress over a short waiting phase. The effects of waiting are highly variable and depend on the characteristics of the sample and of the trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative evaluation of the reliability of three methods of assessing gingival biotype in dentate subjects in different age groups: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Patel, Jayanti R; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Patel, Ravi; Arora, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    In the modern competitive society, a pleasing appearance often dictates the difference between success and failure in both our personal and professional lives. Evaluation of gingival biotype is very important from the start of treatment plan to the final restorative placement to provide excellent esthetics. For the study, subjects were divided into 4 groups of different ages, from 20-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years. 30 subjects (15 men and 15 women) were selected in each group for the study. Examination of the thickness of Gingival Biotype was done in 3 different ways; - Direct visual, William's Graduated Probe and Using modified wax caliper. The McNemar test showed statistically significant differences in the way gingival biotype was identified when comparing visual assessment with assessment using direct measurement (P Biotype among the different age groups. Gingival biotype identification by visual assessment is statistically significantly different from assessment with direct measurement. Gingival biotype identification by assessment with a periodontal probe is not statistically significantly different from direct measurement.

  5. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: Implications for cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M.; Handrakis, John P.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Jensen, A. Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A.; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n = 20; TETRA: C4–C8), high paraplegia (n = 10; HP: T2–T5), low paraplegia (n = 9; LP: T7–T12), and non-SCI controls (n = 10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R–R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R–R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.05); daytime HR was higher in both paraplegic groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01) and nighttime HR was significantly elevated in the LP group compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P < 0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated. PMID:21903013

  6. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. SITUATIONAL CONTROL OF HOT BLAST STOVES GROUP BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kobysh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was developed the control system of group of hot blast stoves, which operates on the basis of the packing heating control subsystem and subsystem of forecasting of modes duration in the hot blast stoves APCS of iron smelting in a blast furnace. With the use of multi-criteria optimization methods, implemented the adjustment of control system conduct, which takes into account the current production situation that has arisen in the course of the heating packing of each hot blast stove group. Developed a situation recognition algorithm and the choice of scenarios of control based on a decision tree.

  8. Group treatments for sensitive health care problems: a randomised controlled trial of group versus individual physiotherapy sessions for female urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark MD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to compare effectiveness of group versus individual sessions of physiotherapy in terms of symptoms, quality of life, and costs, and to investigate the effect of patient preference on uptake and outcome of treatment. Methods A pragmatic, multi-centre randomised controlled trial in five British National Health Service physiotherapy departments. 174 women with stress and/or urge incontinence were randomised to receive treatment from a physiotherapist delivered in a group or individual setting over three weekly sessions. Outcome were measured as Symptom Severity Index; Incontinence-related Quality of Life questionnaire; National Health Service costs, and out of pocket expenses. Results The majority of women expressed no preference (55% or preference for individual treatment (36%. Treatment attendance was good, with similar attendance with both service delivery models. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in symptom severity or quality of life outcomes between the models. Over 85% of women reported a subjective benefit of treatment, with a slightly higher rating in the individual compared with the group setting. When all health care costs were considered, average cost per patient was lower for group sessions (Mean cost difference £52.91 95%, confidence interval (£25.82 - £80.00. Conclusion Indications are that whilst some women may have an initial preference for individual treatment, there are no substantial differences in the symptom, quality of life outcomes or non-attendance. Because of the significant difference in mean cost, group treatment is recommended. Trial Registration Trial Registration number: ISRCTN 16772662

  9. Immediate Effects of Combining Local Techniques in the Craniomandibular Area and Hamstring Muscle Stretching in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Cocera-Morata, Francisco Miguel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2015-08-01

    To assess the immediate effects on vertical mouth opening, orofacial mechanosensitivity, and lumbar and suboccipital mobility after adding a myofascial induction technique to a multimodal protocol in subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A randomized and double-blind controlled trial was carried out. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Sixty subjects (35±11.22 years) with TMD, and restricted mobility of the mandibular condyles and the first cervical vertebrae, were recruited and randomized to either a control group (CG) (n=30) or an experimental group (EG) (n=30). The CG underwent a neuromuscular technique over the masseter muscles and passive hamstring muscle stretching. A suboccipital muscle inhibition technique was added to this protocol in the EG. Primary measurements were made of vertical mouth opening and pressure pain threshold of the masseter muscles. Secondary outcome measures included pressure algometry of the trigeminal nerve, suboccipital range of motion, and lumbar spine mobility, assessed with the sit-and-reach (SAR) test and lumbar forward bending. All evaluations were collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. In the intragroup comparison, the EG observed an increase in suboccipital flexion (p0.05). The inclusion of a myofascial induction maneuver in a protocol combining local (neuromuscular treatment) and distal techniques (hamstring stretching) in subjects with TMD has no impact on improving mouth opening, suboccipital and lumbar mobility, and orofacial sensitivity to mechanical pressure.

  10. Concise Neural Nonaffine Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles Subject to Parametric Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Bu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel simplified neural control strategy is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV directly using nonaffine models instead of affine ones. For the velocity dynamics, an adaptive neural controller is devised based on a minimal-learning parameter (MLP technique for the sake of decreasing computational loads. The altitude dynamics is rewritten as a pure feedback nonaffine formulation, for which a novel concise neural control approach is achieved without backstepping. The special contributions are that the control architecture is concise and the computational cost is low. Moreover, the exploited controller possesses good practicability since there is no need for affine models. The semiglobally uniformly ultimate boundedness of all the closed-loop system signals is guaranteed via Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the investigated control methodology in the presence of parametric uncertainties.

  11. Reinforcement of intestinal epithelial barrier by arabinoxylans in overweight and obese subjects: A randomized controlled trial: Arabinoxylans in gut barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salden, Bouke N; Troost, Freddy J; Wilms, Ellen; Truchado, Pilar; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Pieper, Dietmar H; Jáuregui, Ruy; Marzorati, Massimo; van de Wiele, Tom; Possemiers, Sam; Masclee, Ad A

    2017-02-03

    Obesity and metabolic diseases are associated with alterations in microbial composition and impaired gut barrier. Previous in vitro and animal studies have shown that arabinoxylans (AX) have the potential to modulate gut microbiota and gut barrier and therefore could have a protective role. Primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AX on intestinal permeability. Secondary aims included the effect of AX on gene transcription and protein expression of tight junctions (TJ), intestinal microbiota composition and activity, immune response and metabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 47 overweight subjects were randomly assigned to groups receiving 7.5 g/d AX (n = 16), 15 g/d AX (n = 17) or 15 g/d placebo (n = 14) for 6 wks. Intestinal permeability was investigated using a multi-sugar test. Sigmoid colon tissue was obtained from a subgroup (n = 26) for analyzing gene transcription and mucosal expression of TJ proteins. Fecal samples were collected to assess microbial composition and activity. Furthermore, the production of cytokines by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was examined. Blood was also sampled for measuring metabolic markers. No significant changes in gastrointestinal permeability and TJ protein expression were observed after 6 wks AX supplementation compared to placebo. However, gene transcription of occludin was upregulated in the 7.5 g AX group, and transcription of claudin-3 and claudin-4 were upregulated in the 15 g AX group compared to placebo. Furthermore, fecal microbiota diversity was decreased after 6 wks 15 g AX treatment, but no change in relative abundance of dominant phyla was observed. AX intake significantly decreased fecal pH and increased fecal concentrations of total SCFAs, acetate, propionate and butyrate, compared to placebo. Additionally, a decreased TNFα production by stimulated PBMCs was observed after 15

  12. Efficacy of a 3-month lifestyle intervention program using a Japanese-style healthy plate on body weight in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Keiko; Katayama, Tomomi; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sakane, Naoki

    2014-11-24

    The portion size of food is a determinant of energy intake, linking with obese traits. A healthy plate for portion control has recently been made in a Japanese style. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate on weight reduction in overweight and obese diabetic Japanese subjects. We randomized overweight and obese diabetic subjects (n = 19, 10 women) into an intervention group including educational classes on lifestyle modification incorporating the healthy plate (n = 10) or a waiting-list control group (n = 9). The intervention period was three months, and the educational classes using the healthy plate were conducted monthly in a group session for the intervention group. The body weight, blood glycemic and metabolic measures, and psychosocial variables were measured at the baseline and after the 3-month intervention in both groups. The impression of the intervention was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. There was one drop-out in the control group. No adverse events were reported in the groups. Subjects in the intervention group had a greater weight change from baseline to the end of the 3-month intervention period (-3.7 +/- 2.5 [SD] kg in the intervention group vs. -0.1 +/- 1.4 kg in the control group, P = 0.002). Most subjects recorded that the use of a healthy plate could be recommended to other people. The lifestyle intervention program using the Japanese-style healthy plate, which was developed for portion control, may effectively reduce body weight in overweight and obese diabetic subjects in Japan. Further studies are needed to establish the efficacy of this methodology on weight management.

  13. Predictor-based control for an inverted pendulum subject to networked time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghommam, J; Mnif, F

    2017-03-01

    The inverted pendulum is considered as a special class of underactuated mechanical systems with two degrees of freedom and a single control input. This mechanical configuration allows to transform the underactuated system into a nonlinear system that is referred to as the normal form, whose control design techniques for stabilization are well known. In the presence of time delays, these control techniques may result in inadequate behavior and may even cause finite escape time in the controlled system. In this paper, a constructive method is presented to design a controller for an inverted pendulum characterized by a time-delayed balance control. First, the partial feedback linearization control for the inverted pendulum is modified and coupled with a state predictor to compensate for the delay. Several coordinate transformations are processed to transform the estimated partial linearized system into an upper-triangular form. Second, nested saturation and backstepping techniques are combined to derive the control law of the transformed system that would complete the design of the whole control input. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is illustrated by numerical simulations. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Objective approach for fending off the sublingual immunotherapy placebo effect in subjects with pollenosis: double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralimarkova, Tanya Z; Popov, Todor A; Staevska, Maria; Mincheva, Roxana; Lazarova, Cvetelina; Racheva, Rumyana; Mustakov, Tihomir B; Filipova, Violina; Koleva, Margarita; Bacheva, Kalina; Dimitrov, Vasil D

    2014-07-01

    Symptom scoring for the assessment of allergen immunotherapy is associated with a substantial placebo effect. To assess the ability of exhaled breath temperature (EBT), a putative marker of airway inflammation, to evaluate objectively the efficacy of grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy in a proof-of-concept study. This was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 56 subjects (mean ± SD 30 ± 12 years old, 33 men) sensitized to grass pollen. The objective measurements were EBT, spirometry, and periostin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in blood. Overall discomfort scored on a visual analog scale was used as a proxy for subjective symptoms. Evaluations were performed before, during, and after the grass pollen season. Fifty-one subjects (25 and 26 in the active treatment and placebo groups, respectively) were assessed before and during the pollen season. The mean pre- vs in-season increase in EBT was significantly smaller (by 59.1%) in the active treatment than in the placebo group (P = .030). Of the other objective markers, only the blood periostin level increased significantly during the pollen season (P = .047), but without intergroup differences. Subjectively, the mean pre- vs in-season increase in the visual analog scale score was 32.3% smaller in the active treatment than in the placebo group, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .116). These results suggest that the efficacy of grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy can be assessed by EBT, a putative quantitative measurement of airway inflammation, which is superior in its power to discriminate between active and placebo treatment than a subjective assessment of symptoms assessed on a visual analog scale. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01785394. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Jahromi, Fatemeh Nikhalat

    2013-09-01

    The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy female students (24.3 ± 2.6 years) completed three testing session with a break period of at least 2 days. During each session, postural control was assessed during two 30-s trials of bipedal stance with eyes close before and after the fatigue protocol. Fatigue protocols were performed by 60% of their unfatigued Maximum Voluntary Contraction of unilateral ankle plantar flexors, bilateral lumbar extensors and bilateral neck extensors. One of the three fatigue protocols was performed on each session. The result showed that fatigue had a significant effect on COP velocity and it increase COP velocity but there was not found any difference in postural sway between muscle groups. Localized muscle fatigue caused deficits in postural control regardless of the location of fatigue. Authors suggest the possibility of the contributions of central mechanisms to postural deficits due to fatigue and it seems that difference was not between muscle groups due to central fatigue.

  16. Group cognitive remediation therapy for chronic schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuping; Zou, Yizhuang; Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yang, Fude; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Yunlong; Fan, Fengmei; Zhou, Dongfeng

    2016-07-28

    Individual-level cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for cognitive improvement and social function amelioration. Here, we aimed to test the efficacy of group-based CRT in Chinese subjects with schizophrenia. One-hundred and four inpatients were randomly assigned to either 40 sessions of small-group CRT therapy or therapeutic contact-matched Musical and Dancing Therapy (MDT). Cognitive and social functioning, as well as clinical symptoms, were evaluated over the course of treatment. Specifically, cognitive function was evaluated using a battery of cognitive measurements, clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and social function was evaluated using the Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation-30. All patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Forty-four individuals in the CRT group and 46 in the MDT group completed all of the planned treatments and analyses. Cognitive functions, especially cognitive flexibility and memory, showed significant improvement in the CRT group over the course of the study. The MDT group also showed improvement in several cognitive flexibility assessments, but the degree of improvement was significantly greater in the CRT group. Several social-function factors exhibited a significant improvement in the CRT group, but not in the MDT group. Cognitive function improvement correlated positively with social function without predicting social function change. We conclude that group-based CRT is an effective and promising therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Wind turbine inverter robust loop-shaping control subject to grid interaction effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Mikkel Peter Sidoroff; Wu, Qiuwei; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    with integral effect while bounding the induced change. The design was tested in an aggregated model of the London Array offshore wind power plant and compared with traditional PI controller designs. Robust stability and performance and a reduction of control effort by 25% are obtained over the full envelope...

  18. Characterisation and control of a flexible robot subject to torque ripple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocena, Jose Ignacio

    The investigation is part of a project which included the design and control of a new type of robot and aimed at investigating the problem of contact with hard surfaces and end tip vibration control during motions. The project was motivated by the unsatisfactory results obtained by passive compliance methods. The manipulator used includes compliance as a design feature in the controllable directions while being mechanically stiff against orthogonal link motion. A two level control system is shown to control the vibrations and to provide trajectory tracking. The modeling and identification process reveals a series of nonlinearities particularly affecting flexible manipulators. Some identification techniques are shown to be affected by such nonlinearities, especially backlash, and systematically fail. Robust identification techniques are used to overcome this problem. Torque ripple generated by the Switched Reluctance (SR) direct drive motors is demonstrated to be the most problematic of all. Such torque ripple, its frequency changing with velocity, excites the vibrational modes of the arm. It is argued that the complexity of the SR torque ripple mechanism prevents open loop compensation and the only potential solution is to use feedback, based on strain gauge sensors. The joint servos use a strain feedback inner loop controller in each link transmission to control vibrations. Grid disturbance rejection, which attenuates torque ripple and other nonlinearities, is demonstrated. A simple rigid body inverse dynamic controller is then demonstrated to provide good trajectory tracking for the joint strain servoed arm.

  19. CONTROL OF THE FINANCES OF THE ECONOMIC SUBJECTS: THE CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGIES OF THE CREDITING OF MARKET SUBJECTS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE SCARCITY OF THE LIQUIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Gryzunova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is proposed the solution of vital problem -search of the sources of the crediting of enterprises.For the search for the sources of funds and guaranteesthey attempt to act in two directions: credit organizationsenlarge the technologies of scoring, and enterprises themselves attempt to master the system of cash pooling. Oncethis technology was approved by the group of states, bythen most important companies, it is now possibly for theenterprises of small business. The contemporary state of information transparency makes it possible to build long-term relations in bank retail, thus, that all participants inthe economic chain obtained positive experience fromthe collaboration. I.e., goes the active standardization ofthe entire system for the control of business in the worldunder the aegis of Basel agreement. Application of the automated scoring systems gives to banks the possibilityto reorganize the system of credit activity.

  20. Design of Robust AMB Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Varying and Uncertain Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the design and simulation results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjectedto uncertain and changing dynamic seal forces. Specifically, a turbocharger with a hole-pattern seal mounted acrossthe balance piston is considered. The dynamic forces of the seal, which...... are dependent on the operational conditions,have a significant effect on the overall system dynamics. Furthermore, these forces are considered uncertain.The nominal and the uncertainty representation of the seal model are established using results from conventionalmodelling approaches, i.e. CFD and Bulkflow......, and experimental results. Three controllers are synthesized: I) AnH∞ controller based on nominal plant representation, II) A µ controller, designed to be robust against uncertaintiesin the dynamic seal model and III) a Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) controller, designed to provide a unifiedperformance over a large...

  1. Autonomous Pointing Control of a Large Satellite Antenna Subject to Parametric Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shunan; Liu, Yufei; Radice, Gianmarco; Tan, Shujun

    2017-03-10

    With the development of satellite mobile communications, large antennas are now widely used. The precise pointing of the antenna's optical axis is essential for many space missions. This paper addresses the challenging problem of high-precision autonomous pointing control of a large satellite antenna. The pointing dynamics are firstly proposed. The proportional-derivative feedback and structural filter to perform pointing maneuvers and suppress antenna vibrations are then presented. An adaptive controller to estimate actual system frequencies in the presence of modal parameters uncertainty is proposed. In order to reduce periodic errors, the modified controllers, which include the proposed adaptive controller and an active disturbance rejection filter, are then developed. The system stability and robustness are analyzed and discussed in the frequency domain. Numerical results are finally provided, and the results have demonstrated that the proposed controllers have good autonomy and robustness.

  2. Autonomous Pointing Control of a Large Satellite Antenna Subject to Parametric Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunan Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of satellite mobile communications, large antennas are now widely used. The precise pointing of the antenna’s optical axis is essential for many space missions. This paper addresses the challenging problem of high-precision autonomous pointing control of a large satellite antenna. The pointing dynamics are firstly proposed. The proportional–derivative feedback and structural filter to perform pointing maneuvers and suppress antenna vibrations are then presented. An adaptive controller to estimate actual system frequencies in the presence of modal parameters uncertainty is proposed. In order to reduce periodic errors, the modified controllers, which include the proposed adaptive controller and an active disturbance rejection filter, are then developed. The system stability and robustness are analyzed and discussed in the frequency domain. Numerical results are finally provided, and the results have demonstrated that the proposed controllers have good autonomy and robustness.

  3. Molecular biomarkers for weight control in obese individuals subjected to a multi-phase dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Montastier, Emilie; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Context: While calorie restriction has proven beneficial for weight loss, long-term weight control is variable between individuals. Objective: To identify biomarkers of successful weight control during a dietary intervention (DI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Adipose tissue (AT...... 8-weeks of low-calorie diet, then 6-months of ad libitum diet. Outcome Measure: Weight changes at the end of DI. Results: We evaluated 6 genes that had altered expression during DI, encode secreted proteins, and have not previously been implicated in weight control (EGFL6, FSTL3, CRYAB, TNMD, SPARC......, IGFBP3); as well as genes for which baseline expression was different between those with good and poor weight control (ASPN, USP53). Changes in plasma concentration of EGFL6, FSTL3 and CRYAB mirrored AT mRNA expression, all decreased during DI in individuals with good weight control. ASPN and USP53 had...

  4. Global synchronization of memristive neural networks subject to random disturbances via distributed pinning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenyuan; Yang, Shaofu; Wang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents theoretical results on global exponential synchronization of multiple memristive neural networks in the presence of external noise by means of two types of distributed pinning control. The multiple memristive neural networks are coupled in a general structure via a nonlinear function, which consists of a linear diffusive term and a discontinuous sign term. A pinning impulsive control law is introduced in the coupled system to synchronize all neural networks. Sufficient conditions are derived for ascertaining global exponential synchronization in mean square. In addition, a pinning adaptive control law is developed to achieve global exponential synchronization in mean square. Both pinning control laws utilize only partial state information received from the neighborhood of the controlled neural network. Simulation results are presented to substantiate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quasi-Experiments in Schools: The Case for Historical Cohort Control Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara M. Walser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increased emphasis on using experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate educational programs; however, educational evaluators and school leaders are often faced with challenges when implementing such designs in educational settings. Use of a historical cohort control group design provides a viable option for conducting quasi-experiments in school-based outcome evaluation. A cohort is a successive group that goes through some experience together, such as a grade level or a training program. A historical cohort comparison group is a cohort group selected from pre-treatment archival data and matched to a subsequent cohort currently receiving a treatment. Although prone to the same threats to study validity as any quasi-experiment, issues related to selection, history, and maturation can be particularly challenging. However, use of a historical cohort control group can reduce noncomparability of treatment and control conditions through local, focal matching. In addition, a historical cohort control group design can alleviate concerns about denying program access to students in order to form a control group, minimize resource requirements and disruption to school routines, and make use of archival data schools and school districts collect and find meaningful.

  6. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Following recent clarification in Europe that a single control group is now acceptable for rodent carcinogenicity studies, the use of dual controls may be reduced or disappear. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether this latter situation has improved the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. In this paper, the results of 13 rat carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2002, with 2 control groups, are presented. Although no major differences in tumor incidences between these dual control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred. In cases where a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. Thus, the continued use of dual control groups has a vital role in the assessment of tumoriogenic risk. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms, and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used rat strain.

  7. Automated mapping of hippocampal atrophy in 1-year repeat MRI data from 490 subjects with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Jonathan H; Tu, Zhuowen; Apostolova, Liana G; Green, Amity E; Avedissian, Christina; Madsen, Sarah K; Parikshak, Neelroop; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-03-01

    As one of the earliest structures to degenerate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the hippocampus is the target of many studies of factors that influence rates of brain degeneration in the elderly. In one of the largest brain mapping studies to date, we mapped the 3D profile of hippocampal degeneration over time in 490 subjects scanned twice with brain MRI over a 1-year interval (980 scans). We examined baseline and 1-year follow-up scans of 97 AD subjects (49 males/48 females), 148 healthy control subjects (75 males/73 females), and 245 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 160 males/85 females). We used our previously validated automated segmentation method, based on AdaBoost, to create 3D hippocampal surface models in all 980 scans. Hippocampal volume loss rates increased with worsening diagnosis (normal=0.66%/year; MCI=3.12%/year; AD=5.59%/year), and correlated with both baseline and interval changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global and sum-of-boxes Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) scores. Surface-based statistical maps visualized a selective profile of ongoing atrophy in all three diagnostic groups. Healthy controls carrying the ApoE4 gene atrophied faster than non-carriers, while more educated controls atrophied more slowly; converters from MCI to AD showed faster atrophy than non-converters. Hippocampal loss rates can be rapidly mapped, and they track cognitive decline closely enough to be used as surrogate markers of Alzheimer's disease in drug trials. They also reveal genetically greater atrophy in cognitively intact subjects.

  8. The Associations between Regional Gray Matter Structural Changes and Changes of Cognitive Performance in Control Groups of Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    In intervention studies of cognitive training, the challenging cognitive tests, which were used as outcome measures, are generally completed in more than a few hours. Here, utilizing the control groups' data from three 1-week intervention studies in which young healthy adult subjects underwent a wide range of cognitive tests and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after the intervention period, we investigated how regional gray matter (GM) density (rGMD) of the subjects changed through voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Statistically significant increases in rGMD were observed in the anatomical cluster that mainly spread around the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG). Moreover, mean rGMD within this cluster changes were significantly and positively correlated with performance changes in the Stroop task, and tended to positively correlate with performance changes in a divergent thinking task. Affected regions are considered to be associated with performance monitoring (dACC) and manipulation of the maintained information including generating associations (rSFG), and both are relevant to the cognitive functions measured in the cognitive tests. Thus, the results suggest that even in the groups of the typical "control group" in intervention studies including those of the passive one, experimental or non-experimental factors can result in an increase in the regional GM structure and form the association between such neural changes and improvements related to these cognitive tests. These results suggest caution toward the experimental study designs without control groups.

  9. Improving Student Confidence in Using Group Work Standards: A Controlled Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Wong, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This is a replication of a study that examined the effects of teaching foundation competencies in group work to social work students and assessed their self-confidence in applying these skills. This study improves on the first by utilizing a controlled design. Method: Twenty-six master of social work students were taught group work…

  10. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (page difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  11. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  12. Effect of interferential current therapy on pain perception and disability level in subjects with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz-Cabello, Manuel; Maya-Martín, Julián; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos

    2017-02-01

    To assess the short-term efficacy of transregional interferential current therapy on pain perception and disability level in chronic non-specific low back pain. A randomized, single-blinded (the assessor collecting the outcome data was blinded), controlled trial. A private physiotherapy research clinic. A total of 64 individuals, 20 men and 44 women, mean (SD) age was 51 years (11.93), with low back pain of more than three months, with or without pain radiating to the lower extremities above the knee, were distributed into a control ( n = 20) or an experimental group ( n = 44). A 2:1 randomization ratio was used in favour of the latter. A transregional interferential current electrotherapy protocol was performed for participants in the experimental group, while the control group underwent a 'usual care' treatment (massage, mobilization and soft-tissue techniques). All subjects received up to 10 treatment sessions of 25 minutes over a two-week period, and completed the intervention and follow-up evaluations. Self-perceived pain was assessed with a Visual Analogue Scale. Secondary measure included the Oswestry Low Back Disability Index. Evaluations were collected at baseline and after the intervention protocol. Significant between-group differences were found for interferential current therapy on pain perception ( p = 0.032) and disability level ( p = 0.002). The observed differences in the between-group mean changes were of 11.34 mm (1.77/20.91) and 13.38 points (4.97/21.78), respectively. A two-week transregional interferential current treatment has shown significant short-term efficacy, when compared with a 'usual care' protocol, on self-perceived pain and functionality in subjects with chronic low back pain.

  13. Simulated flight path control of fighter pilots and novice subjects at +3 Gz in a human centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar; Guardiera, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We have previously shown that subjects produce exaggerated manual forces in +3 Gz. When subjects execute discrete flight path changes in a flight simulator, their performance is less stable in +3 Gz than in +1 Gz. Here we explore whether Gz-related deficits are found with continuous flight path changes. Novice subjects and fighter pilots sat in a high-fidelity flight simulator equipped with the reproduction of the Eurofighter 2000 cockpit, including the realistic flight stick, and pursued continuous altitude changes of a target airplane in +1 Gz and +3 Gz. Subjects also produced verbal responses in a Stroop task. Pursuit and Stroop tasks were administered alone and concurrently. Flight instability increased in +3 Gz compared to +1 Gz in novices (+46%), but not in pilots (+3%), and even there only during the first minute. Flight performance improved after the first minute in both subject groups. Stroop reaction time was higher in novices (+5.27%) than in pilots (+3.77%) at +3 Gz. Dual-task costs did not differ between groups or Gz levels. Deficits of force production in high Gz are largely compensated for when subjects apply forces to produce a continuously changing flight path. This compensation seems not to require additional cognitive resources and may be achieved by using visual feedback. Force production deficits in high Gz seem to have no appreciable effects on flight performance and cognitive load of experienced pilots using a force-plus-displacement stick in +3 Gz. It remains to be shown whether this conclusion extends to purely isometric sticks and to higher Gz levels.

  14. Subject-specific modulation of local field potential spectral power during brain-machine interface control in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kelvin; Dangi, Siddharth; Orsborn, Amy L.; Gastpar, Michael C.; Carmena, Jose M.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have predominantly utilized spike activity as the control signal. However, an increasing number of studies have shown the utility of local field potentials (LFPs) for decoding motor related signals. Currently, it is unclear how well different LFP frequencies can serve as features for continuous, closed-loop BMI control. Approach. We demonstrate 2D continuous LFP-based BMI control using closed-loop decoder adaptation, which adapts decoder parameters to subject-specific LFP feature modulations during BMI control. We trained two macaque monkeys to control a 2D cursor in a center-out task by modulating LFP power in the 0-150 Hz range. Main results. While both monkeys attained control, they used different strategies involving different frequency bands. One monkey primarily utilized the low-frequency spectrum (0-80 Hz), which was highly correlated between channels, and obtained proficient performance even with a single channel. In contrast, the other monkey relied more on higher frequencies (80-150 Hz), which were less correlated between channels, and had greater difficulty with control as the number of channels decreased. We then restricted the monkeys to use only various sub-ranges (0-40, 40-80, and 80-150 Hz) of the 0-150 Hz band. Interestingly, although both monkeys performed better with some sub-ranges than others, they were able to achieve BMI control with all sub-ranges after decoder adaptation, demonstrating broad flexibility in the frequencies that could potentially be used for LFP-based BMI control. Significance. Overall, our results demonstrate proficient, continuous BMI control using LFPs and provide insight into the subject-specific spectral patterns of LFP activity modulated during control.

  15. Group Navigation and Control for Marine Autonomous Robotic Complex Based on Hydroacoustic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-09

    Abstract— This paper is devoted to the collective control and group navigation based on hydroacoustic communication intended for marine...moving on the depth of 3600 m and surface beacon. One of the mentioned purpose of ATM 900 modem is the providing AUV group communication and navigation...in near term future are connected with usage more vehicles in the group . Consequently we need to design communication protocol allowing the

  16. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  17. Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: Silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brenda J.; Robbins, Martha M.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Steklis, H. Dieter; Steklis, Netzin Gerald; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Christophe; Vigilant, Linda

    2005-01-01

    To determine who fathers the offspring in wild mountain gorilla groups containing more than one adult male silverback, we genotyped nearly one-fourth (n = 92) of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) living in the Virunga Volcanoes region of Africa. Paternity analysis of 48 offspring born into four groups between 1985 and 1999 revealed that, although all infants were sired by within-group males, the socially dominant silverback did not always monopolize reproduction within his group. Instead, the second-ranking male sired an average of 15% of group offspring. This result, in combination with previous findings that second-ranking males fare best by not leaving the group but by staying and waiting to assume dominance even if no reproduction is possible while waiting, is not consistent with expectations from a reproductive skew model in which the silverback concedes controllable reproduction to the second-ranking male. Instead, the data suggest a “tug-of-war” scenario in which neither the dominant nor the second-ranking male has full control over his relative reproductive share. The two top-ranked males were typically unrelated and this, in combination with the mixed paternity of group offspring, means that multimale gorilla groups do not approximate family groups. Instead, as long-term assemblages of related and unrelated individuals, gorilla groups are similar to chimpanzee groups and so offer interesting possibilities for kin-biased interactions among individuals. PMID:15964984