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Sample records for subjects blood histamine

  1. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine...... content at donation, and histamine concentration in samples drawn from the units on days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median plasma histamine concentration was 4.8 (range 1.9-14.3) nmol/l (n = 18). Median total cell-bound histamine content was 417...

  2. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.; Lollies, P.

    1985-05-01

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as greater than or equal to 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was less than or equal to 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of greater than or equal to 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions.

  3. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  4. The role of histamine in opening blood-tumor barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng; Cai, Xin-Jun; Qin, Jing; Xie, Fa-Jun; Han, Na; Lu, Hong-Yang

    2016-05-24

    Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) reduce the permeability for drugs into tumor tissues. We found that histamine might serve as an essential regulator of BTB function. Further, we aim to determine the role of H2 receptor expression in BTB permeability, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms thereof. Transmission electron microscopy showed that histamine disrupted the integrity of tight junctions (TJ) and increased the number of pinosomes in the cytoplasm. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and trans-endothelial resistance detection (TEER) assays revealed that histamine could open BTB and this action was inhibited by cimetidine. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays showed that histamine decreased the expression of tight junction proteins zonula occluden-1(ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-5. Further, quantitative RT-PCR assay showed that the expression of H2 receptor could represent and predicted histamine-induced BTB permeability. In conclusion, histamine opened BTB by down-regulating the TJ-associated proteins. The levels of H2 receptor expression was correlated with the histamine-induced BTB permeability.

  5. Histamine release from cord blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent Windelborg; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Herlin, Troels

    1990-01-01

    of less than 0.5 IU/ml, although sensitivity to anti-IgE was universally increased. Preincubation with pharmacologic agents modulating the IgE-mediated HR produced effects generally similar to previous findings in adult blood. However, the effects of inhibiting the cyclooxygenase pathway in cord blood...... differed from our observations in adult blood, and may represent a maturational phenomenon. The family history of allergy was obtained by a questionnaire, and clinical observations were gathered from patient records. None of these parameters were found to influence HR with any secretagogue. However, HR...

  6. [Free histamine and free serotonin in the blood plasma in symptomatic respiratory erythrocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydyborets, S V; Gaĭdukova, S N

    1994-01-01

    Fluorometric analysis was carried out of the blood plasma content of free histamin (FH) and free serotonin (FS) in 27 patients with chronic non-obstructive bronchitis (ChNB), 52 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis (ChOB) presenting with symptomatic erythrocytosis (SE) and in 29 normal subjects. Comparative analysis of the results obtained showed that in SE caused by ChOB the FH and FS content is significantly higher (p treatment (p < 0.001).

  7. Histamine Induces Vascular Hyperpermeability by Increasing Blood Flow and Endothelial Barrier Disruption In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashina, Kohei; Tsubosaka, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Omori, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Koji; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a mediator of allergic inflammation released mainly from mast cells. Although histamine strongly increases vascular permeability, its precise mechanism under in vivo situation remains unknown. We here attempted to reveal how histamine induces vascular hyperpermeability focusing on the key regulators of vascular permeability, blood flow and endothelial barrier. Degranulation of mast cells by antigen-stimulation or histamine treatment induced vascular hyperpermeability and tissue swelling in mouse ears. These were abolished by histamine H1 receptor antagonism. Intravital imaging showed that histamine dilated vasculature, increased blood flow, while it induced hyperpermeability in venula. Whole-mount staining showed that histamine disrupted endothelial barrier formation of venula indicated by changes in vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) localization at endothelial cell junction. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) by L-NAME or vasoconstriction by phenylephrine strongly inhibited the histamine-induced blood flow increase and hyperpermeability without changing the VE-cadherin localization. In vitro, measurements of trans-endothelial electrical resistance of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) showed that histamine disrupted endothelial barrier. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) or Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), NOS attenuated the histamine-induced barrier disruption. These observations suggested that histamine increases vascular permeability mainly by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vascular dilation and subsequent blood flow increase and maybe partially by PKC/ROCK/NO-dependent endothelial barrier disruption. PMID:26158531

  8. Effects of intranasal histamine on the cough reflex in subjects with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevkova, J; Brozmanova, M; Pecova, R; Tatar, M

    2005-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of nasal histamine on the intensity of coughing and the effects of intensified nasal breathing following nasal histamine on cough sensitivity (CS) in 14 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The study consisted of two parts performed one week apart. First, baseline CS to capsaicin was determined, followed by intranasal histamine challenge (4 mg/ml, 0.1 ml) and the count of the number of coughs to inhaled capsaicin on the background of most intensive nasal symptoms (sneezing, itching, rhinorrhea, and nasal blockage) evoked by histamine. In the second part, CS was determined after intranasal histamine followed by 10 min of intensified nasal breathing through the nose or mouth in a randomized order at 2-day intervals. The number of coughs induced after intranasal histamine was significantly higher, compared with intranasal saline, [9 (7-12) vs. 4.5 (4-6), Pbreathing failed to cause any changes in CS. We conclude that stimulation of nasal mucosa with histamine enhanced the cough response in subjects with allergic rhinitis.

  9. A method for production and determination of histamine releasing activity from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampen, G T; Poulsen, L K; Reimert, C M

    1997-01-01

    Histamine releasing factors, i.e. cytokines capable of inducing histamine release from basophils or mast cells, have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of, for example, allergic late-phase reactions. Here we describe a controlled method for production and determination of histamine...... releasing activity (HRA) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC). MNC were incubated with concanavalin A (Con A) for 2 h and cultured for another 40 h in fresh serum free medium. The culture supernatants were concentrated 19-25 fold by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off: 3000 Da...

  10. Regional variations of skin blood flow response to histamine: evaluation by spectrophotometry and laser Doppler flowmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Ethel; Aviram, Guy; Zeltser, D.; Brenner, Sarah; Maibach, Howard I.

    1996-01-01

    To study inherent differences in skin function related to regional variation, we tested the hypothesis that different reactivities of small blood vessels via their direct and indirect activation by histamine play an important role in the observed regional variation of processes. Histamine was administered to three cutaneous regions in 20 volunteers, and the induced response was quantified utilizing spectrophotometry and laser Doppler flowmetry. The back exhibited the greatest response, followed by the forearm and ankle in decreasing order of responsiveness. We suggest that the intensity of the wheal and flare response may partly be related to the local reactivity of the blood vessels once the histamine actually reached them, and to their indirect dilatation via the axonal reflex. These blood vessel response observations may provide initial insight into inherent functional differences influencing cutaneous manifestations of endogenous and exogenous diseases.

  11. Inhibitory effect of furosemide on histamine release from human basophils

    OpenAIRE

    貴谷, 光; 草浦, 康浩; 本家, 尚子; 谷水, 将邦; 光延, 文裕; 御舩, 尚志; 岡崎, 守宏; 谷崎, 勝朗

    1992-01-01

    Inhibitory effect of furosemide on histamine release from basophils induced by anti-IgE was examined in 4 healthy subjects and 8 patients with atopic asthma. The experiments of basophil histamine release were carried out by using whole blood method. The mean values of histamine release after 15 min preincubation with furosemide atvarious concentrations were not significantly decreased, in both healthy and asthmatic subjects compared to those of histamine release without furosemide. The result...

  12. Effects of inspiratory resistance, inhaled beta-agonists and histamine on canine tracheal blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, W.T.; Baile, E.M.; Brancatisano, A.; Pare, P.D.; Engel, L.A. (Dept. of Respiratory Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia))

    1992-01-01

    Tracheobronchial blood flow is potentially important in asthma as it could either influence the clearance of mediators form the airways, thus affecting the duration and severity of bronchoispasm, or enhance oedema formation with a resultant increase in airflow obstruction. In anaesthetized dogs, spontaneously breathing via a tracheostomy, we investigated the effects of three interventions which are relevant to acute asthma attacks and could potentially influence blood flow and its distribution to the mucosa and remaining tissues of the trachea: (1) increased negative intrathoracic pressure swings (-25[+-]1 cmH[sub 2]O) induced by an inspiratory resistance; (2) variable inhaled doses of a beta-adrenoceptor-agonist (terbutaline); and (3) aerosolized histamine sufficient to produce a threefold increase in pulmonary resistance. Microspheres labelled with different radioisotopes were used to measure blood flow. Resistive breathing did not influence tracheobronchial blood flow. Following a large dose of terbutaline, mucosal blood flow (Qmb) increased by 50%. After inhaled histamine, Qmb reached 265% of the baseline value. We conclude that, whereas increased negative pressure swings do not influence tracheobronchial blood flow or its distribution, inhalation of aerosolized terbutaline, corresponding to a conventionally nebulized dose, increases mucosal blood flow. Our results also confirm that inhaled histamine, in a dose sufficient to produce moderate bronchoconstriction, increases tracheal mucosal blood flow in the area of deposition. (au).

  13. Effect of intravenous magnesium sulphate on airway calibre and airway reactivity to histamine in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J M; Britton, J

    1996-11-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study we have investigated the effect of intravenous magnesium on airway calibre and airway reactivity to histamine in 20 subjects with mild to moderate asthma. After baseline measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), subjects received 100 ml normal saline with or without 2 g of magnesium sulphate by infusion over 20 min. Measurements of FEV1 were repeated at 5 min intervals throughout the infusion, and the provocative dose of histamine required to drop the FEV1 by 20% from baseline (PD20FEV1) was determined at 20 min. The area under the curve (AUC) in litre minutes for change from baseline in FEV1 between 0 and 20 min was significantly higher on the magnesium study day (mean difference in AUC (95% CI) 1.71 (0.02-3.4), P = 0.049). The increase in FEV1 from baseline with magnesium relative to saline was maximal at 20 min (mean difference (95% CI) 0.13 (0.02-0.23) l, P = 0.01). Log PD20FEV1 to histamine was not significantly different after magnesium and saline (mean difference in log PD20FEV1 (95% CI) 0.04 (-0.19 to 0.27), P = 0.7). We conclude that intravenous magnesium is a weak bronchodilator but does not alter airway reactivity at this dose in stable asthmatic subjects.

  14. Histamine elimination from the cerebrospinal fluid across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: involvement of plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT/SLC29A4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Takuya; Nakazawa, Ayumi; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2016-11-01

    The elimination of histamine, an excitatory neurotransmitter, from the brain/CSF across the blood-brain barrier and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) was investigated using Wistar rats, which were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. An in vivo intracerebral microinjection study suggested that there was only partial efflux of [3 H]histamine from the rat brain across the blood-brain barrier. The [3 H]histamine elimination clearance from the rat CSF was 3.8-fold greater than that of a CSF bulk flow marker, and the elimination of [3 H]histamine was significantly inhibited by the co-administration of unlabeled histamine, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated process in histamine elimination from the CSF. The uptake study of [3 H]histamine by the isolated rat choroid plexus revealed histamine elimination from the CSF across the BCSFB. The [3 H]histamine uptake by TR-CSFB3 cells, a model cell line for the BCSFB, exhibited temperature-dependent and saturable kinetics, suggesting the involvement of carrier-mediated transport of histamine at the BCSFB. In the inhibition study, [3 H]histamine uptake by TR-CSFB3 cells was significantly inhibited by substrates and/or inhibitors of plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT/SLC29A4), but not affected by substrates of organic cation transporters. These results suggest the elimination of histamine from the CSF via plasma membrane monoamine transporter at the BCSFB. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Histamine immunocytochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Johansson, O; Liang, Y

    2000-01-01

    We report that basophils in peripheral blood can be stained using histamine immunocytochemistry. The staining is based on the fixation of leucocytes with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (CDI) and the subsequent incubation of these cells with antisera raised against histamine...... conjugated to different carrier proteins using CDI. The staining appears to be specific for basophils and stained cells can be examined using both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In addition, histamine immunocytochemistry can be combined with conventional immunocytochemistry by incubating...... leucocytes with antibodies to cell surface antigens prior to or following fixation of the cells with CDI. Thus, histamine immunocytochemistry may be a valuable tool in future studies of human basophils....

  16. Temporal responses of cutaneous blood flow and plasma catecholamine concentrations to histamine H1- or H2-receptor stimulation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Alsbjørn, B; Thuesen, B

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the effect of histamine and H1- or H2-receptor antagonists on cutaneous blood flow and catecholamine release in man. Histamine was infused alone or in combination with mepyramine, an H1-antagonist or cimetidine, an H2-antagonist for 2 h. Cutaneous blood flow was measured continuou......We have studied the effect of histamine and H1- or H2-receptor antagonists on cutaneous blood flow and catecholamine release in man. Histamine was infused alone or in combination with mepyramine, an H1-antagonist or cimetidine, an H2-antagonist for 2 h. Cutaneous blood flow was measured...... that histamine causes an immediate cutaneous vasodilatation through H1-receptors and a more sustained response through H2-receptors. The vasodilatation is accompanied by an increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations. Despite the continuous infusion of histamine, blood flow decreased during the last hour...

  17. Arrhythmogenic effect of sympathetic histamine in mouse hearts subjected to acute ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gonghao; Hu, Jing; Li, Teng; Ma, Xue; Meng, Jingru; Jia, Min; Lu, Jun; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2012-02-10

    The role of histamine as a newly recognized sympathetic neurotransmitter has been presented previously, and its postsynaptic effects greatly depended on the activities of sympathetic nerves. Cardiac sympathetic nerves become overactivated under acute myocardial ischemic conditions and release neurotransmitters in large amounts, inducing ventricular arrhythmia. Therefore, it is proposed that cardiac sympathetic histamine, in addition to norepinephrine, may have a significant arrhythmogenic effect. To test this hypothesis, we observed the release of cardiac sympathetic histamine and associated ventricular arrhythmogenesis that was induced by acute ischemia in isolated mouse hearts. Mast cell-deficient mice (MCDM) and histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC(-/-)) mice were used to exclude the potential involvement of mast cells. Electrical field stimulation and acute ischemia-reperfusion evoked chemical sympathectomy-sensitive histamine release from the hearts of both MCDM and wild-type (WT) mice but not from HDC(-/-) mice. The release of histamine from the hearts of MCDM and WT mice was associated with the development of acute ischemia-induced ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The incidence and duration of induced ventricular arrhythmias were found to decrease in the presence of the selective histamine H(2) receptor antagonist famotidine. Additionally, the released histamine facilitated the arrhythmogenic effect of simultaneously released norepinephrine. We conclude that, under acute ischemic conditions, cardiac sympathetic histamine released by overactive sympathetic nerve terminals plays a certain arrhythmogenic role via H(2) receptors. These findings provided novel insight into the pathophysiological roles of sympathetic histamine, which may be a new therapeutic target for acute ischemia-induced arrhythmias.

  18. Mononuclear blood cell sulfidoleukotriene generation in the presence of interleukin-3 and whole blood histamine release in honey bee and yellow jacket venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, F E; Marti-Wyss, S; Blumer, S; Cuhat-Stark, I; Wüthrich, B

    1997-01-01

    Cross-linking IgE on basophils is known to cause both sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) generation and histamine release. We recently developed an ELISA to determine sulfidoleukotriene generation by blood mononuclear cells which employs pretreatment with IL-3 to enhance leukotriene generation (cellular antigen stimulation test, CAST). Here, we compared the CAST and whole blood histamine release in response to honey bee/yellow jacket venom (BV/YJV) in 23 patients clinically suspected of type-I allergy to these venoms. Of these, 17 were diagnosed as "definitive venom allergics," defined by a positive skin test at 100 ng/ml of venom or less. The six in whom such skin reactivity was absent were labelled "suspected venom allergics." Both venoms stimulated sulfidoleukotriene generation and histamine release also from control individuals (n = 10). In patients, insect venoms generally stimulated histamine release and sulfidoleukotriene generation in excess of the mean + 3 SD of values obtained with control individuals. However, about half of the patients reacted predominantly with either histamine release or sulfidoleukotriene generation. No overall correlation was found between threshold doses necessary to stimulate sulfidoleukotriene generation (ThsLT) and histamine release (ThHist). (Linear correlation coefficients between ThsLT and ThHist were -0.02 for honey bee venom and 0.13 for yellow jacket, n = 23). Both findings are in contrast to the concept that these responses occur in parallel. From results with "definitive venom allergics," CAST sensitivity was calculated as 100% for honey bee venom and 83% for yellow jacket, and that of the histamine release assay as 62.5% for honey bee venom and 50% for yellow jacket. Specificity of the CAST was calculated as 77% for honey bee venom and 100% for yellow jacket, and that of the histamine release assay as 44% for honey bee venom and 60% for yellow jacket. Thus, CAST results are closer to skin test results than to those of the whole

  19. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) attenuates in vitro mast cell and peripheral blood mononucleocyte cell histamine release induced by N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, James; Thompson, John Paul

    2010-02-01

    The treatment of acute paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is frequently complicated by an anaphylactoid reaction to the antidote. The mechanism that underlies this reaction is unclear. We used the human mast cell line 1 (HMC-1) and human peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs) to investigate the effects of NAC and paracetamol on histamine secretion in vitro. HMC-1 and human PBMCs were incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations of NAC +/- paracetamol. Cell viability was determined by the Trypan Blue Assay, and histamine secretion was measured by ELISA. NAC was toxic to HMC-1 cells at 100 mg/mL and to PBMCs at 67 mg/mL. NAC increased HMC-1 and PBMC histamine secretion at concentrations of NAC from 20 to 50 mg/mL and 2.5 to 100 mg/mL, respectively. NAC-induced histamine secretion by both cell types was reduced by co-incubation with 2.5 mg/mL of paracetamol. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is capable of modifying histamine secretion in vitro. This may explain the clinical observation of a lower incidence of adverse reactions to NAC in vivo when higher concentrations of paracetamol are present than when paracetamol concentrations are low. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) attenuates in vitro mast cell and PBMC cell histamine release induced by NAC.

  20. Histamine affects interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interferon-gamma production by human T cell clones from the airways and blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwels, F. H.; Hol, B. E.; Lutter, R.; Bruinier, B.; Bast, A.; Jansen, H. M.; Out, T. A.

    1998-01-01

    High levels of histamine can be found in the airways of asthma patients. This study describes the effects of histamine on anti-CD3-induced production of IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma by T cell clones from subjects with allergic asthma and healthy subjects. T cell clones were obtained from

  1. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    Histamine release induced by Staphylococcus aureus was examined in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in non-atopic individuals. Approximately half of the individuals responded with mediator release to the bacterium, and the release was found to be time- and concentration dependent. N......23187 resulted in histamine release. S. aureus-induced histamine release from basophils was examined in leukocyte suspensions obtained from the same individuals, and in all experiments release was found. The dose-response curves were similar to those obtained with BAL cells. The bacteria...

  2. The Effects of a Chactoid Scorpion Venom and Its Purified Toxins on Rat Blood Pressure and Mast Cells Histamine Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Lazarovici

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the venom of the Chactoid family of scorpions on blood pressure was scantly investigated and was addressed in the present study using the venom of the Israeli scorpion, Scorpio maurus palmatus. Blood pressure in rats was monitored via cannulated femoral artery, while venom and toxins were introduced into femoral vein. Venom injection elicited a biphasic effect, expressed first by a fast and transient hypotensive response, which lasted up to 10 min, followed by a hypertensive response, which lasted up to one hour. It was found that these effects resulted from different venom components. Phospholipase A2 produced the hypotensive effect, while a non-enzymatic neurotoxic polypeptide fraction produced the hypertensive effect. Surprisingly, the main neurotoxic polypeptide to mice had no effect on blood pressure. In vitro experiments indicated that the hypertensive factors caused histamine release from the peritoneal mast cells, but this effect is assumed to be not relevant to their in vivo effect. In spite of the cytotoxic activity of phospholipase A2, it did not release histamine. These findings suggest that the effects of venom and isolated fractions on blood pressure parameters are mediated by different mechanisms, which deserve further pharmacological investigation.

  3. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    . No difference was found between the patients who responded and those who did not respond in regard to age, sex, smoker/non-smoker, % recovery of BAL-fluid, total cell count, differential cell counts, histamine content per mast cell, or diagnoses. Also stimulation of the BAL-cells with the calcium-ionophore A...

  4. Cytokine production by PBMC and serum from allergic and non-allergic subjects following in vitro histamine stimulation to test fexofenadine and osthole anti-allergic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordulewska, Natalia Karolina; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Cieślińska, Anna; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Jarmołowska, Beata

    2016-11-15

    FXF is a third-generation antihistamine drug and osthole is assumed a natural antihistamine alternative. This paper compares peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) incubation with FXF and osthole, by studying FXF, osthole and histamine cytokine secretion in PBMC in vitro cultures. Mabtech kits determined the interleukins IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and TNF-α. The influence of the above active substances on cytokine secretion in PBMC's and serum was assessed: cytokines were IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and TNF-α; and cytokine levels secreted by untreated PBMCs in pure culture medium formed the absolute control (ctrl). We determined that osthole affects PBMC cytokine secretion to almost precisely the same extent as FXF (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF). In addition osthole had greater IL-13 blocking ability than FXF. Moreover, we observed significantly decreased IL-4 level in histamine/osthole theatment compared to histamine alone. Meanwhile, FXF not significantly decrease the level of IL-4 increased by histamine. This data indicates osthole's strong role in allergic inflamation. All results confirm our hypothesis that osthole is a natural histamine antagonist and therefore can be beneficially used in antihistamine treatment of conditions such as allergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  6. Histamine Induces Alzheimer's Disease-Like Blood Brain Barrier Breach and Local Cellular Responses in Mouse Brain Organotypic Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeyn, Jonathan C.; Wu, Hao; Hobbs, Reilly D.; Levin, Eli C.; Nagele, Robert G.; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2015-01-01

    Among the top ten causes of death in the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the only one that cannot be cured, prevented, or even slowed down at present. Significant efforts have been exerted in generating model systems to delineate the mechanism as well as establishing platforms for drug screening. In this study, a promising candidate model utilizing primary mouse brain organotypic (MBO) cultures is reported. For the first time, we have demonstrated that the MBO cultures exhibit increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability as shown by IgG leakage into the brain parenchyma, astrocyte activation as evidenced by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuronal damage-response as suggested by increased vimentin-positive neurons occur upon histamine treatment. Identical responses—a breakdown of the BBB, astrocyte activation, and neuronal expression of vimentin—were then demonstrated in brains from AD patients compared to age-matched controls, consistent with other reports. Thus, the histamine-treated MBO culture system may provide a valuable tool in combating AD. PMID:26697497

  7. Heterogeneous effects of histamine on proliferation of lung- and blood-derived T-cell clones from healthy and asthmatic persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, B. E.; Krouwels, F. H.; Bruinier, B.; Lutter, R.; Bast, A.; Wierenga, E. A.; Jansen, H. M.; Out, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the effects of histamine on the proliferation and the intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of T-lymphocyte clones (TLC) generated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or peripheral blood (PB) from healthy and asthmatic persons. TLC from either compartment

  8. [Determination and correlation analysis of contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine in necrotic tissue, blood, and urine of patients with diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-rong; Rong, Xin-zhou; Fan, Gui-cheng; Li, Qing-hui; Wei, Ya-ming

    2013-12-01

    To determine and perform a correlation analysis of the contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine in necrotic tissue, blood, and urine of patients with diabetic foot (DF). Ten patients with severe wet necrotizing DF hospitalized from January 2011 to January 2012 were assigned as group DF, and 10 orthopedic patients with scar but without diabetes or skin ulcer hospitalized in the same period were assigned as control group. Samples of necrotic tissue from feet of patients in group DF and normal tissue from extremities of patients in control group, and samples of blood and 24-hour urine of patients in both groups were collected, and the amount of each sample was 10 mL. Contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine were determined with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data got from the determination of blood and urine were processed with t test, and those from necrotic or normal tissue with Wilcoxon rank sum test. The correlation of contents of polyamines between necrotic tissue and blood, blood and urine were processed with simple linear regression analysis. (1) Contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine in the necrotic tissue of group DF were (186.1 ± 26.8), (78.553 ± 12.441), (33 ± 10) mg/kg, which were significantly higher than those in normal tissue of control group [(2.2 ± 1.2), (1.168 ± 0.014), 0 mg/kg, with Z values respectively -3.780, -3.781, -4.038, P values all below 0.01]. The content of putrescine in necrotic tissue of group DF was significantly higher than those of cadaverine and histamine (with Z values respectively -3.780, -3.630, P values all below 0.01). (2) Contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine in the blood of group DF were (0.075 ± 0.013), (0.022 ± 0.003), (0.052 ± 0.014) mg/L, and they were significantly higher than those in the blood of control group [(0.014 ± 0.009), (0.013 ± 0.003), (0.016 ± 0.008) mg/L, with t values respectively 6.591, 2.207, 3.568, P putrescine in the

  9. Wheal-and-flare responses to intradermally injected adenosine 5'-monophosphate, hypertonic saline, and histamine: comparison of atopic and nonatopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukanovic, R; Finnerty, J P; Holgate, S T

    1989-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in increasing concentrations, and saline solutions of corresponding tonicity, were injected intradermally in seven atopic and seven normal subjects. Skin wheal-and-flare responses were elicited in a dose-dependent fashion in all subjects, and no difference was found between responses produced by AMP and responses produced by saline of corresponding tonicity. Also, no difference in response to AMP and saline was found between atopic and nonatopic subjects. We further investigated, in seven atopic subjects, whether the skin wheal-and-flare response to the single, highest dose of AMP, saline, and histamine could be inhibited by preadministration of 180 mg of terfenadine, a potent H1 antagonist. A significant inhibition of the wheal-and-flare response to histamine and no significant inhibition to AMP were found. There was a significant inhibition of the flare response caused by hypertonic saline but no inhibition of the wheal response. We interpret these findings as indicating that AMP does not specifically lead to mast cell degranulation in the skin and that there are functional differences between cutaneous and lung mast cells. The observation that terfenadine significantly inhibited the flare response to hypertonic saline suggests that this stimulus produced histamine release.

  10. Mast cell degranulation and de novo histamine formation contribute to sustained postexercise vasodilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; McCord, Jennifer L; Ely, Matthew R; Sieck, Dylan C; Buck, Tahisha M; Luttrell, Meredith J; MacLean, David A; Halliwill, John R

    2017-03-01

    In humans, acute aerobic exercise elicits a sustained postexercise vasodilation within previously active skeletal muscle. This response is dependent on activation of histamine H1 and H2 receptors, but the source of intramuscular histamine remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that interstitial histamine in skeletal muscle would be increased with exercise and would be dependent on de novo formation via the inducible enzyme histidine decarboxylase and/or mast cell degranulation. Subjects performed 1 h of unilateral dynamic knee-extension exercise or sham (seated rest). We measured the interstitial histamine concentration and local blood flow (ethanol washout) via skeletal muscle microdialysis of the vastus lateralis. In some probes, we infused either α-fluoromethylhistidine hydrochloride (α-FMH), a potent inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, or histamine H1/H2-receptor blockers. We also measured interstitial tryptase concentrations, a biomarker of mast cell degranulation. Compared with preexercise, histamine was increased after exercise by a change (Δ) of 4.2 ± 1.8 ng/ml (P histamine in skeletal muscle increases with exercise and results from both de novo formation and mast cell degranulation. This suggests that exercise produces an anaphylactoid signal, which affects recovery, and may influence skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blood flow to previously active skeletal muscle remains elevated following an acute bout of aerobic exercise and is dependent on activation of histamine H1 and H2 receptors. The intramuscular source of histamine that drives this response to exercise has not been identified. Using intramuscular microdialysis in exercising humans, we show both mast cell degranulation and formation of histamine by histidine decarboxylase contributes to the histamine-mediated vasodilation that occurs following a bout of aerobic exercise. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Epigallocatechin gallate-induced histamine release in patients with green tea-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, T; Sato, A; Chida, K; Hayakawa, H; Akiyama, J; Iwata, M; Taniguchi, M; Reshad, K; Hara, Y

    1997-07-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate is the causative agent of green tea-induced asthma. To determine whether an IgE-mediated mechanism plays a pathogenetic role in this disorder, we measured histamine release after in vitro exposure to epigallocatechin gallate. Subjects included eight patients (four men and four women) with green tea-induced asthma, who had been diagnosed by skin test and inhalation challenge, and eight controls (four asthmatic subjects with no previous exposure tea dust and four healthy volunteers). Heparinized whole blood samples were taken and incubated with epigallocatechin gallate at various concentrations (final concentration range, 0.003 to 300 micrograms/mL) for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C. After centrifugation, histamine was measured in the cell-free supernatants by radioimmunoassay. Histamine release was expressed as a percentage of total histamine. A result higher than 10% was considered positive. In one of the tea-sensitive patients, epigallocatechin gallate did not cause histamine release. Five of the other seven patients (71%) demonstrated a positive, dose-dependent histamine release to epigallocatechin gallate. In asthmatic and normal controls, histamine release was not observed at any epigallocatechin gallate concentration. Furthermore, a significant correlation was noted between the maximum percentage histamine release and the threshold epigallocatechin gallate concentration for intradermal skin testing. These results indicate that an IgE-mediated response is the basis for green tea-induced asthma.

  12. Histamine, antihistamines, and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Histamine is a central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter. It acts in the brain via three receptors, H(1), H(2), and H(3). It is a mediator of "wakefulness" and its activity is necessary to maintain wakefulness, alertness, and reaction time. These activities can be impaired by H(1)-antagonists (reverse agonists) capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. By blocking the homeostatic effects of histamine in the CNS, drowsiness and functional impairment with or without drowsiness can occur. Several tests have been designed to assess the effects of antihistamines on the CNS. These include subjective measurements of drowsiness and more objective measurements of impairment. Second-generation antihistamines have been designed to minimize blood-brain barrier penetration by reducing lipophilicity and increasing the affinity for P-aminnoglycoprotein.

  13. Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine h(1) receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Norito; Hamada, Takahiro; Dainichi, Teruki; Karashima, Tadashi; Nakama, Takekuni; Yasumoto, Shinichiro

    2010-01-01

    Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses were evaluated in 10 healthy subjects in comparison with placebo, fexofenadine hydrochloride, and bepotastine besilate. Olopatadine significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch, starting 30 minutes after oral administration. Olopatadine was more effective than fexofenadine and bepotastine. None of the drugs studied impaired performance of word processing tasks. These results suggest that olopatadine can suppress skin symptoms caused by histamine soon after administration.

  14. Effects of Olopatadine Hydrochloride, a Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist, on Histamine-Induced Skin Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Norito; Hamada, Takahiro; Dainichi, Teruki; Karashima, Tadashi; Nakama, Takekuni; Yasumoto, Shinichiro

    2010-01-01

    Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses were evaluated in 10 healthy subjects in comparison with placebo, fexofenadine hydrochloride, and bepotastine besilate. Olopatadine significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch, starting 30 minutes after oral administration. Olopatadine was more effective than fexofenadine and bepotastine. None of the drugs studied impaired performance of word processing tasks. These results suggest that olopatadine can suppress skin symptoms caused by histamine soon after administration. PMID:20886023

  15. Sensitization of the histamine H1 receptor by increased ligand affinity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, S.M.; Verheule, S.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Smit, M.J.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; de Laat, S.

    1998-01-01

    Histamine regulates a variety of physiological processes including inflammation, gastric acid secretion, and neurotransmission. The cellular response to histamine is subject to dynamic control, and exaggerated histamine reactivity in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes and other stimuli is important

  16. Is there a significance of histamine in the control of the human male sexual response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckert, S; Wilken, M; Stief, C; Trottmann, M; Kuczyk, M; Becker, A

    2012-05-01

    Although histamine has been suggested to be involved in the control of male sexual function, including the induction of penile erection, its role in the human corpus cavernosum penis is still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to evaluate the course of histamine plasma levels through different stages of sexual arousal in the systemic and cavernous blood of healthy male subjects. Thirty four (34) healthy men were exposed to erotic stimuli to elicit penile erection. Blood was aspirated from the corpus cavernosum and a cubital vein during the penile conditions flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity and detumescence. Blood was also collected in the post-ejaculatory period. Plasma levels of histamine (ng ml(-1)) were determined by means of a radioimmunoassay. Histamine slightly decreased in the cavernous blood when the penis became tumescent. During rigidity, histamine decreased further but remained unaltered in the phase of detumescence and after ejaculation. In the systemic circulation, no alterations were observed with the initiation or termination of penile erection, whereas a significant drop was registered following ejaculation. Results are not in favour of the hypothesis of an excitatory role of histamine in the control of penile erection. Nevertheless, the amine might mediate biological events during the post-ejaculatory period. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. In vivo histamine optical nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Kevin J; Clark, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels in vivo. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate in vitro and in vivo monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of in vivo nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  18. Histamine fish poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nosić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is a chemical intoxication associated with intake of fishes with high histamine content. Histamine is developed in fish tissue post mortem due to bacterial decarboxilation of free amino-acid histidine. This paper deals with causes of histamine development in fish meat and with histamine influence on human health. Prevention of histamine fish poisoning would also be discussed. The case histories of histamine food poisoning in our country and in the world would be described. Histamine levels used in Regulation would be presented.

  19. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10-min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10-min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60-min postirradiation. Animals given the mast-cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels.

  20. COMPARISON OF HISTAMINE AND ACETYLCHOLINE FOR USE IN BRONCHIAL CHALLENGE TESTING IN ATOPIC AND NONATOPIC SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC AIRWAYS OBSTRUCTION - A REVIEW OF 180 CASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIMENO, F; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR; VANALTENA, R

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic yield for bronchial hyperresponsiveness from histamine and acetylcholine challenge tests. The records of 180 cases from the last 10 years were analysed. They were selected because their hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine or

  1. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects....

  2. Effects of Olopatadine Hydrochloride, a Histamine H 1 Receptor Antagonist, on Histamine-Induced Skin Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Hashimoto; Norito Ishii; Takahiro Hamada; Teruki Dainichi; Tadashi Karashima; Takekuni Nakama; Shinichiro Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses were evaluated in 10 healthy subjects in comparison with placebo, fexofenadine hydrochloride, and bepotastine besilate. Olopatadine significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch, starting 30 minutes after oral administration. Olopatadine was more effective than fexofenadine and bepotastine. None of the drugs studied impaired performance of word processing tasks. Th...

  3. Vascular Effects of Histamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Ackad and Brody, 1975). Also, coronary arteries of some patients with coronary artery disease have been reported to be hyperresponsive to histamine and to contain significantly higher concentrations of histamine (Kalsner and Richards, 1984). Mast cells present in post capillary venules also secrete histamine which induce ...

  4. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of CEP-26401, a high-affinity histamine-3 receptor antagonist, following single and multiple dosing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelstein, Ofer; Stevens, Jasper; Van Gerven, Joop; Nathan, Pradeep J; Maynard, James P; Mayleben, David W; Hellriegel, Edward; Yang, Ronghua

    2016-10-01

    CEP-26401 is a novel orally active, brain-penetrant, high-affinity histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist, with potential therapeutic utility in cognition enhancement. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose escalation studies with single (0.02 to 5 mg) or multiple administration (0.02 to 0.5 mg once daily) of CEP-26401 were conducted in healthy subjects. Plasma and urine samples were collected to investigate CEP-26401 pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamic endpoints included a subset of tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and nocturnal polysomnography. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling was conducted on one CANTAB and one polysomnography parameter of interest. CEP-26401 was slowly absorbed (median tmax range 3-6 hours) and the mean terminal elimination half-life ranged from 24-60 hours. Steady-state plasma concentrations were achieved within six days of dosing. CEP-26401 exhibits dose- and time-independent pharmacokinetics, and renal excretion is a major elimination pathway. CEP-26401 had a dose-dependent negative effect on sleep, with some positive effects on certain CANTAB cognitive parameters seen at lower concentrations. The derived three compartment population pharmacokinetic model, with first-order absorption and elimination, accurately described the available pharmacokinetic data. CEP-26401 was generally well tolerated up to 0.5 mg/day with most common treatment related adverse events being headache and insomnia. Further clinical studies are required to establish the potential of low-dose CEP-26401 in cognition enhancement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  6. Histamine and Histamine Receptors in Allergic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Seike, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we will first introduce the pathophysiological process of several skin diseases including allergic dermatitis, a common skin disease, including chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD), and atopic dermatitis (AD). In CACD and AD patients, repeated skin exposure to antigens contributes to the development of chronic eczematous lesions. Repeated application of haptens on mice allows emulation of the development of CACD in humans. Further, we will focus on H1, H2, and H4 histamine receptors and their effects on CACD and AD. Histamine-deficient mice, with a knockout histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene, were used to investigate the role of histamine in CACD and AD. Histamine induces infiltration of inflammatory cells, including mast cells and eosinophils, and elevates Th2 cytokine levels in CACD. Histamine promotes the development of eczematous lesions, elevates IgE serum levels, and induces scratching behavior in CACD. The administration of H1 or H4 receptor antagonists was effective to ameliorate these symptoms in murine CACD models. The combination of H1 and H4 receptor antagonists is a potential therapeutic target for chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as CACD and AD, since combined therapy proved to be more effective than monotherapy.

  7. In vitro study of histamine and histamine receptor ligands influence on the adhesion of purified human eosinophils to endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Wójcik, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-15

    It is a well-known fact that histamine is involved in eosinophil-dependent inflammatory responses including cellular chemotaxis and migration. Nevertheless, the relative role of histamine receptors in the mechanisms of eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells is not known. Therefore the aim of presented study was to examine the effect of selective histamine receptors ligands on eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. For that purpose the highly purified human eosinophils have been isolated from the peripheral blood. The viability and functional integrity of isolated eosinophils have been validated in several tests. Histamine as well as 4-methylhistamine (selective H4 agonist) in concentration-dependent manner significantly increased number of eosinophils that adhere to endothelium. Among the selective histamine receptors antagonist or H1 inverse agonist only JNJ7777120 (histamine H4 antagonist) and thioperamide (dual histamine H3/H4 antagonist) had direct effect on eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells. Antagonists of H1 (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) H2 (ranitidine and famotidine) and H3 (pitolisant) histamine receptors were ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that histamine receptor H4 plays a dominant role in histamine-induced eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of Histamine and Its Receptors in Cerebral Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Histamine is recognized as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain, and it plays a major role in the pathogenic progression after cerebral ischemia. Extracellular histamine increases gradually after ischemia, and this may come from histaminergic neurons or mast cells. Histamine alleviates neuronal damage and infarct volume, and it promotes recovery of neurological function after ischemia; the H1, H2, and H3 receptors are all involved. Further studies suggest that histamine alleviates excitotoxicity, suppresses the release of glutamate and dopamine, and inhibits inflammation and glial scar formation. Histamine may also affect cerebral blood flow by targeting to vascular smooth muscle cells, and promote neurogenesis. Moreover, endogenous histamine is an essential mediator in the cerebral ischemic tolerance. Due to its multiple actions, affecting neurons, glia, vascular cells, and inflammatory cells, histamine is likely to be an important target in cerebral ischemia. But due to its low penetration of the blood-brain barrier and its wide actions in the periphery, histamine-related agents, like H3 antagonists and carnosine, show potential for cerebral ischemia therapy. However, important questions about the molecular aspects and pathophysiology of histamine and related agents in cerebral ischemia remain to be answered to form a solid scientific basis for therapeutic application. PMID:22860191

  9. Histamine and the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, J Paul; Ellender, Tommas J

    2016-07-01

    The neuromodulator histamine is released throughout the brain during periods of wakefulness. Combined with an abundant expression of histamine receptors, this suggests potential widespread histaminergic control of neural circuit activity. However, the effect of histamine on many of these circuits is unknown. In this review we will discuss recent evidence for histaminergic modulation of the basal ganglia circuitry, and specifically its main input nucleus; the striatum. Furthermore, we will discuss recent findings of histaminergic dysfunction in several basal ganglia disorders, including in Parkinson's disease and most prominently, in Tourette's syndrome, which has led to a resurgence of interest in this neuromodulator. Combined, these recent observations not only suggest a central role for histamine in modulating basal ganglia activity and behaviour, but also as a possible target in treating basal ganglia disorders. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter......-individual scatter was pronounced and unpredictable from the hypertensive organ damages. It is argued, that home readings should be used to greater extent in the evaluation of patients with hypertension....

  11. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  12. Circadian profiling reveals higher histamine plasma levels and lower diamine oxidase serum activities in 24% of patients with suspected histamine intolerance compared to food allergy and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzer, T C; Tietz, E; Waldmann, E; Schink, M; Neurath, M F; Zopf, Y

    2017-11-20

    Histamine intolerance is thought to trigger manifold clinical symptoms after ingesting histamine-rich food due to reduced activity of diamine oxidase (DAO). No study has hitherto systematically assessed daily fluctuations of histamine levels and DAO activities in symptomatic patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of histamine intolerance, to therefore establish day profiles of histamine levels and DAO activities, and to compare the results between patients with suspected histamine intolerance, food allergy and healthy controls. We determined day profiles of histamine plasma levels and DAO serum activities in 33 patients with suspected histamine intolerance, in 21 patients with proven food allergy and in 10 healthy control patients. Clinical symptoms, food intolerances and further clinical and laboratory chemical parameters were evaluated. Twenty-four percent (8 of 33) suspected histamine-intolerant patients showed elevated histamine levels during the day. That might be caused by constantly and significantly reduced DAO activities in these patients compared to food-allergic and control patients. The remaining 25 patients presented normal histamine levels and DAO activities, but an increased prevalence of multiple food intolerances compared to the other subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. There was no correlation between subjective complaints and serological histamine parameters in patients with suspected histamine intolerance. We determined by daily profiling that decreased DAO activities correlated with elevated histamine levels in a subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. This finding discriminates these patients from food intolerant individuals with similar clinical symptoms and strongly suggests the presence of histamine intolerance. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  13. Histamine modulates microglia function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Histamine is commonly acknowledged as an inflammatory mediator in peripheral tissues, leaving its role in brain immune responses scarcely studied. Therefore, our aim was to uncover the cellular and molecular mechanisms elicited by this molecule and its receptors in microglia-induced inflammation by evaluating cell migration and inflammatory mediator release. Methods Firstly, we detected the expression of all known histamine receptor subtypes (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R), using a murine microglial cell line and primary microglia cell cultures from rat cortex, by real-time PCR analysis, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Then, we evaluated the role of histamine in microglial cell motility by performing scratch wound assays. Results were further confirmed using murine cortex explants. Finally, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were evaluated by ELISA measurements to determine the role of histamine on the release of these inflammatory mediators. Results After 12 h of treatment, 100 μM histamine and 10 μg/ml histamine-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles significantly stimulated microglia motility via H4R activation. In addition, migration involves α5β1 integrins, and p38 and Akt signaling pathways. Migration of microglial cells was also enhanced in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/ml), used as a positive control. Importantly, histamine inhibited LPS-stimulated migration via H4R activation. Histamine or H4R agonist also inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β release in both N9 microglia cell line and hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. Conclusions To our knowledge, we are the first to show a dual role of histamine in the modulation of microglial inflammatory responses. Altogether, our data suggest that histamine per se triggers microglia motility, whereas histamine impedes LPS-induced microglia migration and IL-1β release. This last datum assigns a new putative anti-inflammatory role for

  14. A single dose of histamine-receptor antagonists before downhill running alters markers of muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Matthew R; Romero, Steven A; Sieck, Dylan C; Mangum, Joshua E; Luttrell, Meredith J; Halliwill, John R

    2017-03-01

    Histamine contributes to elevations in skeletal muscle blood flow following exercise, which raises the possibility that histamine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response to exercise. We examined the influence of antihistamines on postexercise blood flow, inflammation, muscle damage, and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in a model of moderate exercise-induced muscle damage. Subjects consumed either a combination of fexofenadine and ranitidine (blockade, n = 12) or nothing (control, n = 12) before 45 min of downhill running (-10% grade). Blood flow to the leg was measured before and throughout 120 min of exercise recovery. Markers of inflammation, muscle damage, and DOMS were obtained before and at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postexercise. At 60 min postexercise, blood flow was reduced ~29% with blockade compared with control (P histamine-receptor blockade reduced postexercise blood flow, had no effect on the pattern of inflammatory markers, increased serum creatine kinase concentrations, attenuated muscle strength loss, and reduced pain perception following muscle-damaging exercise.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Histamine appears to be intimately involved with skeletal muscle during and following exercise. Blocking histamine's actions during muscle-damaging exercise, via common over-the-counter antihistamines, resulted in increased serum creatine kinase, an indirect marker of muscle damage. Paradoxically, blocking histamine's actions attenuated muscle strength loss and reduced perceptions of muscle pain for 72 h following muscle-damaging exercise. These results indicate that exercise-induced histamine release may have a broad impact on protecting muscle from exercise-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Rapid desensitization of the histamine H2 receptor on the human monocytic cell line U937

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Shukrula, S R; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we have subjected the histamine H2 receptor on the monocytic cell line U937 to a thorough pharmacological characterization using a series of selective histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor agonists and antagonists. Recent reports have demonstrated the existence of a histamine H2

  16. On histamine and appetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eTorrealba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain histamine may influence a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions, but its responsibility in waking up has casted a long shadow on other important functions of this neurotransmitter. Here we review evidence indicating a central role of brain histamine in motivation, emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity. We review evidence supporting a dysfunction of histamine neurons and its cortical input in certain forms of decreased motivation (apathy. We finally discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction as a dysfunction of motivation.

  17. Allergy, Histamine and Antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Martin K

    2017-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on the role in allergic disease of histamine acting on H1-receptors. It is clear that allergy has its roots in the primary parasite rejection response in which mast cell-derived histamine creates an immediate hostile environment and eosinophils are recruited for killing. This pattern is seen in allergic rhinitis where the early events of mucus production and nasal itching are primarily histamine mediated whereas nasal blockage is secondary to eosinophil infiltration and activation. In asthma, the role of histamine is less clear. Urticaria is characterized by mast cell driven pruritic wheal and flare-type skin reactions that usually persist for less than 24 h. Although the events leading to mast cell degranulation have been unclear for many years, it is now becoming evident that urticaria has an autoimmune basis. Finally, the properties of first- and second-generation H1-antihistamines and their role in allergic is discussed.

  18. Serum diamine oxidase activity in patients with histamine intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, G; Breda, D; Di Gioacchino, M; Burastero, S E

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to various foods, excluding bona fide coeliac disease and lactose intolerance, represents a growing cause of patient visits to allergy clinics.Histamine intolerance is a long-known, multifaceted clinical condition triggered by histamine-rich foods and alcohol and/or by drugs that liberate histamine or block diamine oxidase (DAO), the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of ingested histamine. Histamine limitation diets impose complex, non-standardized restrictions that may severely impact the quality of life of patients. We retrospectively evaluated 14 patients who visited allergy outpatient facilities in northern Italy with a negative diagnosis for IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, coeliac disease, conditions related to gastric hypersecretion, and systemic nickel hypersensitivity, and who previously underwent a histamine limitation diet with benefits for their main symptoms. Serum diamine oxidase levels and the clinical response to diamine oxidase supplementation were investigated. We found that 10 out of 14 patients had serum DAO activityintolerance. Moreover, 13 out of 14 patients subjectively reported a benefit in at least one of the disturbances related to food intolerances following diamine oxidase supplementation. The mean value (±SD) of diamine oxidase activity in the cohort of patients with histamine intolerance symptoms was 7.04±6.90 U/mL compared to 39.50±18.16 U/mL in 34 healthy controls (P=0.0031). In patients with symptoms triggered by histamine-rich food, measuring the serum diamine oxidase activity can help identify subjects who can benefit from a histamine limitation diet and/or diamine oxidase supplementation.Properly designed, controlled studies investigating histamine intolerance that include histamine provocation are indispensable for providing insights into the area of food intolerances, which are currently primarily managed with non-scientific approaches in Italy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Histamine release from basophil leukocytes in asthma patients after in vitro provocation with various neuromuscular blocking drugs and intravenous anaesthetic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H; Søndergaard, I

    1987-01-01

    Basophil histamine release is a relatively new investigation technique, which can be used in the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Our aim in this investigation was to determine reference values for asthma patients and normal subjects. Blood from eight asthmatic patients and eight normal subj...

  20. Histamine and astrocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurič, Damijana M; Kržan, Mojca; Lipnik-Stangelj, Metoda

    2016-09-01

    Astrocytes support the brain through numerous functional interactions in health and disease. The recent advances in our knowledge of astrocyte involvement in various neurological disorders raised up several questions about their role and functioning in the central nervous system. From the evidence discussed in this review, we show that histamine importantly influences the main astrocytic activities such as ion homeostasis, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter clearance, neurotrophic activity and immune response. These processes are mediated through at least three histamine receptor subtypes, H1, H2 and H3, expressed on the astrocyte surface. Thus, we recognize histamine as an important player in the modulation of astrocytic functions that deserves further considerations in exploring involvement of astrocytes in neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Histamine Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Visciano, Pierina; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production. Generally, the good quality of raw material and hygienic practices during food processing as well as the use of histidine decarboxylase-negative starter cultures can minimize the occurrence of histamine. Further studies are necessary to estimate the human exposure and the relationship between the total amount of the biogenic amines ingested with food and health effects.

  2. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  3. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists as immunomodulators: new therapeutic views?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Considerable evidence has emerged to suggest that histamine participates in the regulation of the inflammatory response, immune reaction, coagulation cascade, and cardiovascular function. Furthermore, histamine may play a major role in the growth of normal and malignant tissue as a regulator of p...... antagonists as adjuvant single drugs to reduce trauma-, blood transfusion- and sepsis-induced immunosuppression has led to research in combined treatment regimens in major surgery, particularly, of patients operated on for malignant diseases....

  4. Intensive blood pressure lowering increases cerebral blood flow in older subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryambake, Dinesh; He, Jiabao; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T; Blamire, Andrew M; Ford, Gary A

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). Intensive (blood pressure (BP) lowering in older people might give greater reduction in cardiovascular risk, but there are concerns that this might produce hypoperfusion which may precipitate falls and possibly stroke. We determined the effect of intensive compared with usual BP lowering on CBF in hypertensive older subjects. Individuals aged >70 years with a history of systolic hypertension on 1 or no BP lowering drugs were recruited from primary care (n=37; age, 75±4 years; systolic BP, >150 mm Hg) and randomized to receive intensive (target BP, hypertension increases CBF, compared with BP lowering to usual target. These findings suggest hypertension in older people shifts the autoregulatory CBF curve rightward and downward and is reversible with BP lowering.

  5. Blood pressure variations in Subjects with different Haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    variations in blood pressures as well as relating the blood pressures in different haemoglobin. (HB) genotypes to each other. Blood pressures in 20 steady and crisis states SCD patients respectively with 40 apparently healthy heterozygous HB AS and HB AA genotype (age and sex –matched). They were aged between 20 ...

  6. Blood pressure variations in Subjects with different Haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies on low blood pressure in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD) have sought various hypotheses on the mechanism of their low blood pressure. However, these studies have not compared the role of the single inheritance of the s-gene in the variations in blood pressures as well as relating the ...

  7. Histamine Applied Topically to the Nasal Mucosa Increases the Transmucosal Nitrous Oxide Exchange for the Middle Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miriam S; Alper, Cuneyt M; Martin, Brian S; Cetin, Selma; El-Wagaa, Jenna A; Doyle, William J

    2017-04-01

    Determine if the middle ear transmucosal nitrous oxide (N2O) exchange rate is affected by nasal inflammation caused by topical application of histamine. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 20 adults were challenged intranasally with histamine (5 mg) and placebo on separate occasions. At each session, the subjects were fitted with a non-rebreathing mask and breathed room air for 20 minutes, 50% N2O:50% O2 for 20 minutes, and 100% O2 for 10 minutes. Throughout, heart rate, blood pressure, and blood O2 saturation were monitored, and bilateral middle ear pressure was recorded by tympanometry every minute. The primary outcome measure was the slope of the middle ear pressure-time function for the 50% N2O:50% O2 breathing period, which is a measure of the transmucosal N2O exchange-constant. The effects of challenge substance, session, and period on the measured vital signs and of treatment, session, ear disease history, and test ear on the pressure-time slopes were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVAs. The post-challenge total symptom score and the slope of the middle ear pressure-time function were greater after histamine when compared to placebo challenge. Of the signs, only heart rate was affected, responding to challenge substance and study period. The transmucosal N2O exchange rate for the middle ear is increased during inflammation caused by nasal histamine exposure.

  8. Histamine, histamine receptors and antihistamines: new concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Fachini Jardim; Maruta, Celina W; Machado Filho, Carlos d'Apparecida

    2010-01-01

    Drugs with antihistamine action are the most commonly prescribed medication in daily dermatologic practice, both to adults and children. This article addresses new concepts of the role of histamine receptors (H1 receptors) and discusses the anti-inflammatory effects of these drugs. Second generation antihistamines differs from first generation because of their high specificity and affinity for peripheral H1-receptors. Second generation antihistamines are also less likely to produce sedation because they have less effect on the central nervous system. Although the efficacy of the various H1-antihistamines in the treatment of allergic patients is similar, even when comparing first- and second-generation drugs, these drugs are still very different in terms of their chemical structure, pharmacology and toxic properties. Consequently, knowledge of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics is essential for a better medical care, especially that offered to pregnant women, children, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities.

  9. Sensory responses of human skin to synthetic histamine analogues and histamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, M.G.; Greaves, M W

    1980-01-01

    The potential for itch production in human skin of the synthetic analogues of histamine, 2-methyl histamine (an H1-receptor agonist) and 4-methyl histamine and dimaprit (H2-receptor agonists) has been studied in vivo and compared with histamine. Itch thresholds for 2-methyl histamine were consistently much higher than for histamine (P < 0.001). The H1-receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine raised the itch thresholds to 2-methyl histamine and histamine significantly (P < 0.001). Pruritus was not...

  10. β-thalassemia minor, carbohydrate malabsorption and histamine intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Schenk, Michael; Lackner, Sonja; Holasek, Sandra J; Mangge, Harald

    2017-10-01

    Background: β-thalassemia minor is characterized by reduced β-haemoglobin chain synthesis and sometimes mild anaemia, although carriers of β-thalassemia minorare usually clinically asymptomatic.Nonspecific abdominal complaints may be caused by gastrointestinal carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose and fructose) and/or malabsorption of biogenic amines (histamine), or proteins (gluten). Objectives: We report on two patients with β-thalassemia minor suffering nonspecific abdominal symptoms due to a carbohydrate and histamine malabsorption. Design/methods: The diagnosis of β-thalassemia minorwas done with peripheral blood smear and cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Carbohydrate malabsorption was diagnosed with hydrogen breath tests and, histamine intolerance (HIT) with a serum diamine oxidase value diet free of symptom causing carbohydrates and histamine.

  11. In Vivo Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels in vivo. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate in vitro and in vivo monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of in vivo nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  12. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    UAER. Because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure is a superior predictor of hypertensive target organ involvement, we aimed to investigate blood pressure profile in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAER. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed with a portable recorder in 27 subjects...... with an elevated UAER (>6.6 microg/min, overnight urine collection) and 46 normoalbuminuric control subjects. Mean+/-SD systolic and diastolic ambulatory blood pressures (24-hour) were significantly higher in subjects with elevated UAER than in normoalbuminuric controls (134+/-12 versus 128+/-11 mm Hg and 78...

  13. H1 but not H2 histamine antagonist receptors mediate anxiety-related behaviors and emotional memory deficit in mice subjected to elevated plus-maze testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Serafim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of H1 and H2 receptors in anxiety and the retrieval of emotional memory using a Trial 1/Trial 2 (T1/T2 protocol in an elevated plus-maze (EPM. Tests were performed on 2 consecutive days, designated T1 and T2. Before T1, the mice received intraperitoneal injections of saline (SAL, 20 mg/kg zolantidine (ZOL, an H2 receptor antagonist, or 8.0 or 16 mg/kg chlorpheniramine (CPA, an H1 receptor antagonist. After 40 min, they were subjected to the EPM test. In T2 (24 h later, each group was subdivided into two additional groups, and the animals from each group were re-injected with SAL or one of the drugs. In T1, the Student t-test showed no difference between the SAL and ZOL or 8 mg/kg CPA groups with respect to the percentages of open arm entries (%OAE and open arm time (%OAT. However, administration of CPA at the highest dose of 16 mg/kg decreased %OAE and %OAT, but not locomotor activity, indicating anxiogenic-like behavior. Emotional memory, as revealed by a reduction in open arm exploration between the two trials, was observed in all experimental groups, indicating that ZOL and 8 mg/kg CPA did not affect emotional memory, whereas CPA at the highest dose affected acquisition and consolidation, but not retrieval of memory. Taken together, these results suggest that H1 receptor, but not H2, is implicated in anxiety-like behavior and in emotional memory acquisition and consolidation deficits in mice subjected to EPM testing.

  14. Comparison of methods for intestinal histamine application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, S; Søondergaard, I; Poulsen, L K

    1991-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether introduction of histamine in enterosoluble capsules produced the same amount of urinary histamine metabolites as that found after application of histamine through a duodeno-jejunal tube. Secondly, to examine whether a histamine-restrictive or a fast ...

  15. Histamine 50-Skin-Prick Test: A Tool to Diagnose Histamine Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Kofler; Hanno Ulmer; Heinz Kofler

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and ...

  16. Sustained improvement in blood lipids, coagulation, and fibrinolysis after major weight loss in obese subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marckmann, P; Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1998-01-01

    To study whether major weight loss causes sustained improvement in blood lipids and haemostatic profile in obese subjects, and to compare the influence of two different slimming and maintenance regimens...

  17. Prognostic value of the morning blood pressure surge in 5645 subjects from 8 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on the prognostic significance of the morning blood pressure surge (MS) produced inconsistent results. Using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome, we analyzed 5645 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 54.0% women) randomly...

  18. Sources of variability of resting cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    measurements acquired in 152 healthy, young subjects using (133)Xe single-photon emission computed tomography. Cerebral blood flow was correlated positively with both end-tidal expiratory PCO2 (PETCO2) and female gender and inversely with hematocrit (Hct). Between- and within-subject CO2 reactivity......Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) show large variability among healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effect of established factors influencing CBF on the variability of resting CBF. We retrospectively analyzed spontaneous variability in 430 CBF...... was not significantly different. Including PETCO2, Hct and gender in the model reduced between-subject and within-subject variance by 14% and 13.5%, respectively. Within-subject variability was mainly influenced by PETCO2 and between-subject variability mostly by Hct, whereas gender appeared to be of little added value...

  19. The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on histamine induced headache and arterial dilatation in migraineurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Christiansen, I; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2003-01-01

    , temporal and radial arteries. In a double blind crossover design 12 patients were randomized to receive pretreatment with L-NMMA (6 mg/kg) or placebo i.v. over 15 min followed on both study days by histamine (0.5 microg/kg/min) i.v. for 20 min. Headache scores, mean maximal blood velocity (Vmean......We have previously proposed that histamine causes migraine via increased NO production. To test this hypothesis, we here examined if the NOS inhibitor, L-NG methylarginine hydrochloride (L-NMMA:546C88), could block or attenuate histamine induced migraine attacks and responses of the middle cerebral...... the use of a NOS inhibitor in the highest possible dose did not block the histamine-induced headache response or arterial dilatation. Either the concentration of L-NMMA reaching the smooth muscle cell was insufficient or, histamine dilates arteries and causes headache via NO independent mechanisms. Our...

  20. [Histamine metabolism disorder in pathogenesis of chronic pelvic pain in patients with external genital endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazov, M R; Radzinskiy, V Y; Khamoshina, M B; Nosenko, E N; Tokaeva, E S; Barsegyan, L K; Zakirova, Y R

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To study features of histamine metabolism in patients with chronic pelvic pain associated with external genital endometriosis. Methods. For quantitative assessment of histamine level in peripheral blood was taken from 100 patients which than was centrifuged. In blood serum histamine concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method with reagents «Histamine ЕLISA» on the machine BAE-1000 Histamine (Labor Diagnostika Nord - LDN, Hermany). A pain syndrome was assessed by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), quality of life assessment - by Endometriosis Health Profile Questionnaire (EHR-30), level of anxiety was determined by Spielberger-Khanin questionnaire. The results. Showed statistically higher histamine level in patients with severe pain according to VAS. After assessment of results obtained from Spielberger-Khanin questionnaire 100% experimental group's women with external genital endometriosis (n = 60) were noted to be have high level of state and trait anxiety, then 40% women of control group (n = 16) have moderate level of anxiety. The incidence of depression in women with chronic pelvic pain was 58.3% (n = 35) and the main part (n = 20) were women with severe stage of pelvic pain according to VAS. Conclusions. Psycho emotional condition of women with external genital endometriosis associated pelvic pain characterized by higher depression and anxiety levels, with significant decrease quality of life. Direct relationship also was found between pain syndrome intensity and histamine level in peripheral blood in patients with external genital endometriosis.

  1. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO/sub 2/ did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow.

  2. Role of H1 receptors and P-selectin in histamine-induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion in postcapillary venules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asako, H; Kurose, I; Wolf, R; DeFrees, S; Zheng, Z L; Phillips, M L; Paulson, J C; Granger, D N

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this study was to define the nature, magnitude, and mechanisms of histamine-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules of the rat mesentery using intravital microscopic techniques. Superfusion of the mesentery with histamine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) resulted in a dose-related increase in the number of rolling leukocytes, a reduction in rolling velocity, and an increased clearance of FITC-labeled rat albumin from blood to superfusate. The histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes and increased albumin clearance were prevented by histamine H1 (hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine) but not H2 (cimetidine) receptor antagonists. Because histamine induces expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin in cultured endothelial cells, a monoclonal antibody directed against rat P-selectin and soluble sialyl-LewisX oligosaccharide (the carbohydrate ligand to P-selectin) were also tested as inhibitors. Both were effective in preventing the histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes, but neither agent attenuated the increased albumin clearance. These observations suggest that (a) histamine recruits rolling leukocytes and increases albumin leakage in postcapillary venules via H1 receptor activation, (b) histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes is mediated in part by P-selectin expressed on the endothelial cell surface, and (c) the histamine-induced vascular albumin leakage is unrelated to leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Our results are consistent with the view that histamine may act as a mediator of acute inflammatory reactions.

  3. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine...... the effect of intranasal azelastine or systemic cetirizine (both potent antihistamines) on the allergen-induced release of mast-cell mediators from the human nasal mucosa in vivo. METHODS: Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 11) and control subjects not allergic to birch pollen (n = 5) were included......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...

  4. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Histamine 2 blocker potentiates the effects of histamine 1 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Histamine is responsible for the wheal and flare reaction in various allergic conditions. Classical antihistamines are the drugs which block the H 1 receptors and are widely used in various allergic conditions, whereas H 2 blockers are mainly used for acid peptic disease. Although H 1 receptor-mediated actions of histamine are primarily responsible for vasodilatation, vasopermeability, and itching, it has been observed that combined blocking of both H 1 and H 2 receptors may provide better relief. Aim: To compare the efficacy of levocetirizine (H 1 blocker versus levocetirizine and ranitidine (H 2 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal. Methods: Fifteen volunteers were given a single dose of levocetirizine 5 mg on day 1 and a single dose of levocetirizine 5 mg with ranitidine 150 mg twice a day on day 7. A pretest was performed by intradermal histamine prick test. After administration of the drugs, the prick test was repeated at 1 hour, 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours, and the size of the wheal measured and statistically analyzed. Results: At 1 hour, there was no statistically significant difference in the wheal size between levocetirizine alone and the combination of levocetirizine and ranitidine. Levocetirizine with ranitidine resulted in statistically significant reduction of wheal size at 2, 3, 6, and 24 hours when compared with levocetirizine alone. Conclusion: H2 blocker potentiates the effects of an H1 blocker in suppressing histamine-induced wheal.

  6. Histamine Formation in a Dry Salted Twaite Shad ( Alosa fallax lacustris ) Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconi, Mauro; Bellagamba, Federica; Bernardi, Cristian; Martino, Piera Anna; Moretti, Vittorio Maria

    2017-01-01

    Landlocked shad is a freshwater clupeid fish ( Alosa fallax lacustris ) whose consumption is associated with the risk of scombrotoxin poisoning. Traditionally, fresh shad are subjected to an artisanal processing procedure, consisting of dry salting and maturation under pressure, to give a fish product named missoltino , which is stored in large metallic barrels and is sold to local consumers and restaurants. In recent years, the introduction of modern food packaging technologies has enabled this product to also be distributed in shops and supermarkets. Consequently, the determination of the safety of this product is an urgent issue. The aims of the present research were to measure histamine levels and histamine-forming bacteria in shad products collected at different phases of preparation and ripening, in order to minimize poison hazards, to provide technical information about risk, and to standardize the production process. One hundred twenty-six samples of shad (21 fresh fish and 105 dried) at different phases of preparation and ripening were collected from seven producers and were analyzed for chemical composition, histamine content, and microbiological properties. After 130 days of ripening, samples from three producers presented unacceptable amounts of histamine (>200 mg/kg), according to European Union legislation. A moderate negative correlation was found between histamine levels and salt content (r =-0.504, P histamine levels and water phase salt content (r =-0.415, P histamine. The most effective preventive measures for histamine formation and accumulation in salted shad were strictly related to fish handling and storage conditions during processing.

  7. Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper in presumably healthy subjects of vegetarian food habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.D.

    Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper has been studied in presumably healthy subjects of a particular ethnic group in India who are vegetarians. A definite 24-hr variation has been observed for both blood and urinary copper. The peak for blood copper was 1500 hr and the lowest value was 0600 hr, with values of 0.185 mg/100 ml and 0.160 mg/100 ml respectively. The urinary peak and trough occurred at 0600 and 0300 hr, respectively. Remarkably higher 24-hr copper excretion values were noted (64.49 ..mu..g/day) with a range of 15-100 ..mu..g/day. The blood level of copper (0.134 mg/100 ml) remained within the range reported. One subject out of 25 deviated from the group with respect to circadian phasing and amplitude to urinary copper excretion. 20 references.

  8. Thigh and calf blood flows after isometric contraction in untrained and trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K; Shimaoka, M; Matsui, H; Miyamura, M

    1983-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether or not there were any differences between untrained and trained subjects in the changes of blood flow in the ipsilateral and contralateral lower limbs after isometric exercise. Blood flow of the thigh and calf in both right and left legs were measured simultaneously before and after isometric contraction with mercury-in-silastic strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. In the present study, the main pattern of blood flow responses in the active and non-active limbs was strikingly similar in all subjects: a significant fall in blood flow immediately after isometric contraction at a force of about 50% of maximal muscle strength for 15 sec was observed in the non-active lower limbs. Peak blood flow of the exercised thigh in the trained group was significantly higher than that in the untrained ones. From these results, it was suggested that higher blood flow after isometric exercise in the trained subjects may be due to the improvement of degree of vasodilation in the lower limb as a result of physical training.

  9. High blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol administration. Difference between alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, M A; Matsuzaki, S; Feinman, L; Lieber, C S

    1975-02-20

    Blood actaldehyde and ethanol levels were measured in 11 subjects, six with chronic alcholoism and five nonalcholic controls, after alcohol had been given intravenously. Despite a progressive fall in blood ethanol over a range of 54 to 33 mM/acetaldehyde did not decrease in any of the 11 subjects. The mean acetaldehyde plateau level was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher in alcoholic (42.7 plus or minus 1.2 mum) than in nonalcoholic (26.5 plus or minus 1.5 mum) subjects. When the mean blood ethanol concentration reached 24 mM,the acetaldehyde plateau ended abruptly in each subject. The ethanol concentration at which this fall of blood acetaldehyde occurred suggests desaturation of an ethanol oxidizing system other than alcohol dehydrogenase and indicates that at high ethanol blood levels, such a system contributes to ethanol oxidation. The highet acetaldehyde levels in alcholism may result from both greater activity of this system and mitochondrial damage, and could contribut to the neurologic, hepatic and cardiac complications of alcoholism.

  10. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  11. Muscle relaxants and histamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J

    1995-01-01

    Many anaesthetic drugs and adjuvants can cause the release of histamine by chemical (anaphylactoid) or immunologic (anaphylactic) mechanisms. While both types of reactions can be clinically indistinguishable, they are mechanistically different. In anaphylactoid reactions, only preformed mediators are released, of which histamine may be the most clinically important. In true immunologic reactions, mast cell degranulation occurs, and many vasoactive substances (including histamine) are released. Clinical signs and symptoms of both classes of reactions include hypotension (most common), tachycardia, bronchospasm, or cutaneous manifestations. Anaphylactoid reactions may occur commonly under anaesthesia in response to many drugs, including induction agents, some opiates, plasma expanders, and curariform relaxants. Anaphylactic reactions are far less common than anaphylactoid reactions, but they nevertheless represent more than half of the life-threatening reactions that occur in anaesthetic practice. Muscle relaxants are the most frequently implicated class of drugs; suxamethonium is the most common agent implicated in anaphylactic reactions during anaesthesia, but even drugs without apparent chemical histamine release (i.e., vecuronium) are frequently implicated in anaphylactic reactions.

  12. Blood flow in the forearm in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects under local thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Muscle blood flow in the forearm of patients with rheuma-toid arthritis and healthy volunteers following treatment with temperature increasingarm baths, mudpacks and short- or decimeter-wave diathermy was studied in thisinvestigation. The aim of the study was to find out the difference of reactive hyperemia between the different temperature methods as well as the influence on theconsensual reaction. Subjects: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stage 3 according toSteinbrocker, as well as 80 healthy human subjects had been assigned numerically in the four therapy- and controlgroups. Patients with diseases influencing the peripheral blood flow were excluded. Design: Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in both forearms with the subjects lyingsupine. The application of the local heat therapies had been excluded on the left forearm. The forearm blood flow wasmonitored before heat therapy, directly after as well as in two further 10 minutes intervals. An analysis of variancewas used to determine the influence on blood flow of the response to the heat therapies in patients with rheumatoidarthritis and healthy subjects.Results: Under homogeneous starting conditions and a statistically uniformed high blood flow in rest the reactive values of blood flow on the left-hand side of application and the right consensual side showed high significant differencesbetween all methods of therapy. Differences between the patients and the healthy subjects only showed tendencies withpartially lower reactions, concerning the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All methods of heat therapy caused a statistically provable consensual reaction that turned out smaller after diathermic methods. Here the post therapeuticreaction of the blood flow on the side of application was also lower or rather shorter. Conclusion: Greater differences of the blood flow in rest between the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthysubjects

  13. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...

  14. Effects of Mirtogenol® on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwalt, Robert D.; Gianni, Belcaro; Paolo, Morazzoni; Bombardelli, Ezio; Burki, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The most important variable risk factor for developing glaucoma is intraocular hypertension. Timely lowering of high intraocular pressure (IOP) significantly lowers the likelihood of developing glaucoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the food supplement Mirtogenol® (Mirtoselect® and Pycnogenol®) on IOP and ocular blood flow in a product evaluation study. Methods Thirty-eight asymptomatic subjects with intraocular hypertension were either given Mirtogenol® (20 subjects) or were not treated (18 subjects). The visual acuity, IOP, and ocular blood flow were measured at two, three, and six months. Results After two months of supplementation with Mirtogenol®, the mean IOP decreased from a baseline of 25.2 mmHg to 22.2 mmHg. After three months of treatment with Mirtogenol®, the IOP was significantly lowered compared to that of untreated controls (p<0.05) to 22.0 mmHg. No further improvement was found after six months. Nineteen of the twenty patients taking Mirtogenol had a decreased IOP after three months. Only marginal effects on the IOP were found in the 18 control subjects. No side effects were observed. Ocular blood flow (central retinal, ophthalmic, and posterior ciliary arteries) improved both in the systolic and diastolic components as measured by Color Doppler imaging. After three months of treatment, the improvement of ocular blood flow was significant as compared to both baseline and control group (p<0.05). Conclusions An improved ocular blood flow may contribute to the prevention of glaucoma. The results of this study indicate that Mirtogenol® may represent a safe preventative intervention for lowering the risk for developing symptomatic glaucoma by controlling IOP and improving ocular blood flow. PMID:18618008

  15. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  16. Measuring histamine and cytokine release from basophils and mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Skov, Per S

    2014-01-01

    Basophils and mast cells are known for their capability to release both preformed and newly synthesized inflammatory mediators. In this chapter we describe how to stimulate and detect histamine released from basophils in whole blood, purified basophils, in vitro cultured mast cells, and in situ s...... skin mast cells. We also give an example of an activation protocol for basophil and mast cell cytokine release and discuss approaches for cytokine detection....

  17. Cysteinyl leukotrienes mediate histamine hypersensitivity ex vivo by increasing histamine receptor numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pynaert, G.; Grooten, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Hyperresponsiveness to histamine is a key feature of a variety of pathological conditions, including bronchial asthma, food allergy, colitis ulcerosa, and topical allergic disorders. Cells isolated from hyperresponsive individuals do not display exaggerated histamine responses ex vivo and thus the

  18. Histamine and Tyramine in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    CATALOG NUMBER AFIT/CI/NR 85-62T ___ _ 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Histamine and Tyramine in Food THESIS /D/ -y)j49 S...Tyramine from Theobroma Cacoa. Phytochemistry . 16:1602. (78) Udenfriend, S., W. Lovenberg and A. Sjoerdsma. 1959. Physiologically Active Amines in Common...Polyphenols Isolated from the Leaves. Phytochemistry , 6:417-422. (89) Wheaton, T. A. and I. Stewart. 1970. The Distribution of Tyramine, N-methyltyrauine

  19. Histaminuria from histamine-rich foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, J M

    1983-11-01

    Using a highly specific and sensitive assay, the histamine content of foodstuffs and the effect of ingesting these foodstuffs on urinary histamine excretion were measured. Certain vegetables (spinach, eggplant), cheeses (Parmesan, blue, Roquefort), and red wines (Chianti and Burgundy) had a high content of histamine. Although only 0.21% of the ingested histamine was excreted unchanged in the urine, the histamine content of some of the foods was so high (Parmesan cheese, 185 micrograms/g; spinach, 60 micrograms/g; baked eggplant, 26 micrograms/g) that they caused histaminuria. Patients collecting urine for analysis for 24-hour histamine excretion for diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis or carcinoid syndrome should avoid intake of these foods and beverages on the day of the urine collection.

  20. Brain Histamine -Methyltransferase as a Possible Target of Treatment for Methamphetamine Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Kitanaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotypical behaviors induced by methamphetamine (METH overdose are one of the overt symptoms of METH abuse, which can be easily assessed in animal models. Currently, there is no successful treatment for METH overdose. There is increasing evidence that elevated levels of brain histamine can attenuate METH-induced behavioral abnormalities, which might therefore constitute a novel therapeutic treatment for METH abuse and METH overdose. In mammals, histamine N -methyltransferase (HMT is the sole enzyme responsible for degrading histamine in the brain. Metoprine, one of the most potent HMT inhibitors, can cross the blood-brain barrier and increase brain histamine levels by inhibiting HMT. Consequently, this compound can be a candidate for a prototype of drugs for the treatment of METH overdose.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay...... and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed...... and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. RESULTS: For samples taken in the winter, relative...

  2. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  3. Numerical simulation of solitary blood waves in an elastic tube subjected to a localised deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntchantcho, R.; Noubissie, S.; Woafo, P.

    2007-12-01

    In order to well apprehend what really happens in a locally deformed elastic tube, a numerical analysis of the liquid flow in such a media has been undertaken. A cylindrical tube with constant rigidity subjected to a localised dilatation is first considered and results obtained help to understand the behaviour and the developing process of aneurysm. The analysis of the effects of stenoses on blood flow is also done.

  4. Histamine regulates murine primary dendritic cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Heiko; Neumann, Detlef; Kloth, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The modulation of antigen uptake and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) by histamine may function as a regulator of inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine the impact of histamine on antigen uptake by and activation of murine DCs. DCs from spleen and lung were either identified by flow cytometry or were immunomagnetically enriched. Cells were stimulated with histamine, and the regulation of MHC-II and co-stimulatory molecule expression (CD80, CD86, and ICOS-L) and antigen uptake were quantified by flow cytometry. Individual contributions of the histamine receptor subtypes were determined by using the antagonists mepyramine (histamine H1-receptor: H1R), famotidine (H2R), and JNJ 7777120 (H4R). Histamine accelerated the uptake of soluble antigen via the H1R, H2R, and H4R in splenic DCs. Co-stimulatory molecule expression was enhanced already by enrichment procedures, thus, the analyses were performed in unseparated cell populations. Histamine enhanced the expression of CD86 and ICOS-L while expression of CD80 was unaffected. Antagonism at H1R, H2R, and H4R and at H1R and H4R reduced the histamine-induced enhanced expression of CD86 and ICOS-L, respectively. Histamine contributes to the regulation of the immunological synapse by stimulation of antigen uptake and activation of DCs via H1R, H2R, and H4R.

  5. D-dimer and histamine in early stage bacteremia: A prospective controlled cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Michael; Steiner, Margarete Maria; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Lagler, Heimo; Buchtele, Nina; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Boehm, Thomas; Jilma, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Plasma histamine levels and D-dimer predict disease severity and mortality in advanced septic shock. We hypothesized that increased plasma histamine levels parallel coagulation activation and yield prognostic significance already at a very early stage of bacteremia. This prospective controlled cohort study enrolled 72 consecutive non-surgical non-ICU-ward inpatients with newly culture-diagnosed bacteremia and a Pitt Bacteremia score ≤2 to determine the extent of histamine and D-dimer release and their predictive role on outcome at the earliest stage of blood stream infection. Age-matched healthy adults served as internal controls (n=36). A binominal logistic regression and a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to ascertain the effects of D-dimer and histamine on in-hospital mortality. In contrast to plasma histamine, D-dimer levels were significantly higher within hours of culture-proven bacteremia. In-hospital mortality occurred in 17%. Histamine levels were neither associated with D-dimer level (r=0.04; p>0.05) nor with ICU admissions (r=0.06; p>0.05) and outcome (crude OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.3-1.9; p=0.6). In contrast, early-elevated D-dimer levels predicted mortality: the odds to die increased with the D-dimer level, and was 12.6 (crude OR, 95% CI 3-52; p=0.001) in patients with a D-dimer ≥4μg/mL (n=13). Histamine levels are elevated in only few patients (4%) with newly diagnosed bacteremia. Our findings suggest that D-dimer, but not plasma histamine, could be a promising marker of lethality already at a very early stage of blood stream infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Histamine induces activation of protein kinase D that mediates tissue factor expression and activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng; Wu, Daniel Dongwei; Xu, Xuemin

    2012-01-01

    Histamine, an inflammatory mediator, has been shown to influence the pathogenesis of vascular wall cells. However, the molecular basis of its influence is not well understood. Our data reveal that histamine markedly induces protein kinase D (PKD) activation in human aortic smooth muscle cells. PKD belongs to a family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and its function in vascular disease is largely unknown. Our data show that histamine-induced PKD phosphorylation is dependent on the activation of histamine receptor 1 and protein kinase C (PKC). To determine the role of PKD in the histamine pathway, we employed a small-interfering RNA approach to downregulate PKD expression and found that PKD1 and PKD2 are key mediators for expression of tissue factor (TF), which is the key initiator of blood coagulation and is important for thrombosis. Our results show that PKD2 predominantly mediates histamine-induced TF expression via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, whereas PKD1 mediates histamine-induced TF expression through a p38 MAPK-independent pathway. We demonstrate that histamine induces TF expression via the PKC-dependent PKD activation. Our data provide the first evidence that PKD is a new component in histamine signaling in live cells and that PKD has a novel function in the histamine signaling pathway leading to gene expression, as evidenced by TF expression. Importantly, our data reveal a regulatory link from histamine to PKD and TF, providing new insights into the mechanisms of coagulation and the development of atherothrombosis. PMID:23001835

  7. Right here, right now: the impact of the blood donation context on anxiety, attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and intention to donate blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowes, Rebekah; Masser, Barbara M

    2012-07-01

    While research has established the role of anticipated emotions in augmented Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) models of donor behavior, research has yet to consider the impact of immediate emotions that may be triggered by the blood donor context on respondents' intentions to donate blood. This study explored the impact of blood donor paraphernalia on respondents' positivity toward blood donation and on the interrelationships typically observed in TPB blood donation studies. Seventy-six participants were randomly allocated to complete TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy along with intention to donate blood in either an affectively "hot" (blood donation paraphernalia) or a cold (control) condition. Anxiety about donating blood was also assessed. Respondents in the affectively hot condition reported significantly greater anxiety about donating blood along with less positive attitudes, weaker subjective norms, lower self-efficacy, and lower intention to donate than respondents in the cold control condition. In support of extant TPB research, correlational analyses indicated that the relationships between attitudes, self-efficacy, and intention were not impacted upon by condition. Blood donation paraphernalia induces anxiety in donors and results in diminished positivity toward donating. An awareness of what donors experience as a function of the context of blood donation may allow blood services to effectively intervene to bolster donors' positivity toward blood donation at the point where donation can take place. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  9. Whole blood rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) profiles in subjects with non-neoplastic portal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Valeria; Spiezia, Luca; Senzolo, Marco; Rodriguez-Castro, Kryssia I; Maggiolo, Sara; Simioni, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    The coagulation pattern and the determinants of portal vein thrombosis (PVT), both in patients with and without cirrhosis, are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate whole blood thromboelastometry profile, performed by ROTEM®, of both cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic subjects with PVT. Two different groups were considered: i) 14 non-cirrhotic PVT patients, ii) 35 cirrhotic patients with PVT. Controls were sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers and cirrhotic subjects without PVT, respectively. ROTEM® assays (i.e. INTEM, EXTEM, NATEM, and FIBTEM) and traditional coagulative parameters (i.e. platelet count, PT/INR, aPTT, and fibrinogen) were performed on blood samples from each subject. There were no significant differences in ROTEM® profile, as for INTEM, EXTEM, and NATEM assays, and in traditional coagulative parameters, between PVT patients, both with and without cirrhosis, and control groups. Interestingly, Maximum Clot Firmness (MCF) in FIBTEM was significantly higher in non-cirrhotic PVT patients (19 mm) than in healthy volunteers (11 mm, p<0.05). The amplitude of MCF in FIBTEM revealed to be a useful tool to discriminate non-cirrhotic subjects with PVT from those without thrombotic events. Larger prospective studies are needed to evaluate the relevance of the association between the alterations of ROTEM® profiles and PVT in cirrhotic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  11. Persistent Histamine Excitation of Glutamatergic Preoptic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarean, Iustin V.

    2012-01-01

    Thermoregulatory neurons of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) represent a target at which histamine modulates body temperature. The mechanism by which histamine excites a population of MnPO neurons is not known. In this study it was found that histamine activated a cationic inward current and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, actions that had a transient component as well as a sustained one that lasted for tens of minutes after removal of the agonist. The sustained component was blocked by TRPC channel blockers. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed expression of TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC7 subunits in neurons excited by histamine. These studies also established the presence of transcripts for the glutamatergic marker Vglut2 and for the H1 histamine receptor in neurons excited by histamine. Intracellular application of antibodies directed against cytoplasmic sites of the TRPC1 or TRPC5 channel subunits decreased the histamine-induced inward current. The persistent inward current and elevation in intracellular Ca2+ concentration could be reversed by activating the PKA pathway. This data reveal a novel mechanism by which histamine induces persistent excitation and sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in glutamatergic MnPO neurons. PMID:23082195

  12. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  13. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lactate influx into red blood cells from trained and untrained human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, M S; Kremer, D E; Smith, E W; Gladden, L B

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fractional contributions of the three pathways of lactate transport (band 3 system, nonionic diffusion, and monocarboxylate pathway) into red blood cells (RBC) from trained and untrained humans. Blood samples were obtained from 19 male subjects: 5 untrained, 5 aerobically-trained, 5 competitive collegiate cross-country runners, and 4 competitive collegiate sprinters. The influx of lactate into the RBC was measured by a radioactive tracer technique using [14C]lactate. Discrimination of each pathway of lactate transport was achieved by using PCMBS (1 mM) to block the monocarboxylate pathway and DIDS (0.2 mM) to block the band 3 system. Nonionic diffusion was calculated as the difference between total lactate influx and the sum of band 3 and monocarboxylate lactate influx. Total lactate influx into the RBC from the more aerobic individuals (trained subjects and cross-country runners) was significantly faster at 1.6 mM lactate concentration ([La]) as compared with the influx into RBC of the untrained subjects. Total influx of lactate was significantly higher (P untrained subjects at 41 mM [La]. There were no significant differences among the four groups with regard to the total influx of lactate at 4.1, 8.1, and 20 mM [La]. In general, the percentage of total lactate influx accounted for by each of the three parallel pathways at 1.6, 8.1, and 41.0 mM [La] was not different among the four groups of subjects. Overall, the groups were more similar than different with regard to RBC lactate influx.

  15. Protective effect of histamine microinjected into cerebellar fastigial nucleus on stress gastric mucosal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiao; Yang, Jun; Fei, Su-Juan; Zhu, Jin-Zhou; Zhu, Sheng-Ping; Liu, Zhang-Bo; Li, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jian-Fu

    2015-12-10

    In the study, we investigated the effect of histamine microinjected into cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) on stress gastric mucosal damage (SGMD), and its mechanisms in rats. The model of SGMD was established by restraining and water (21±1°C)-immersion for 3h. The gastric mucosal damage index (GMDI) indicated the severity of gastric mucosal damage. Histamine or receptor antagonist was microinjected into the FN. The decussation of superior cerebellar peduncle (DSCP) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were destroyed, respectively. The pathological changes of gastric mucosa were evaluated using biological signal acquisition system, Laser-Doppler flowmeter, and western blotting. We found that the microinjection of histamine (0.05, 0.5, and 5μg) into FN significantly attenuated the SGMD, in a dose-dependent manner, whereas, the microinjection of histamine H2 receptor antagonist, ranitidine, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antagonist, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) exacerbated the SGMD. The protective effect of histamine on SGMD was abolished by electrical lesion of DSCP or chemical ablation of LHA. The microinjection of histamine decreased the discharge frequency of the greater splanchnic nerve, and the gastric mucosal blood flow was increased. In addition, the cellular proliferation was enhanced, but the cellular apoptosis was reduced in the gastric mucosa. Also the pro-apoptosis protein, Bax, and caspase-3 were down-regulated, and the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2 was up-regulated following microinjection of histamine. In conclusion, the FN participated in the regulation of SGMD after histamine microinjected into FN, and cerebellar-hypothalamic circuits (include: DSCP, LHA) contribute to the process, which may provide a new therapeutic strategy for SGMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  17. The effect of hyperoxia on central blood pressure in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siński, Maciej; Dobosiewicz, Anna; Przybylski, Jacek; Abramczyk, Piotr; Gaciong, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperoxia increases total peripheral resistance by acting locally but also inhibits the activity of carotid body chemoreceptors. We studied the effect of hyperoxia on central pressure in normotensive subjects. Material and methods Medical air followed by 100% oxygen was provided to 19 subjects (12/7 female/male, age 28.2 ±1.1 years) for 15 min through a non-rebreather mask. Central blood pressure was then measured using applanation tonometry. Results After the first 2 min of hyperoxia, heart rate decreased significantly (65 ±2.6 beats/min vs. 61 ±2.1 beats/min, p = 0.0002). Peripheral and central blood pressure remained unchanged, while hemoglobin oxygen saturation and subendocardial viability ratio index increased (97 ±0.4% vs. 99 ±0.2%, p = 0.03; 168 ±8.4% vs. 180 ±8.2%, p = 0.009). After 15 min of 100% oxygen ventilation, heart rate and peripheral and central blood pressures remained unchanged from the first 2 min. The augmentation index, augmentation pressure and ejection duration increased as compared to baseline values and those obtained at 2 min (–5.1 ±2.9% vs. –1.2 ±2.6%, p = 0.005 and –4.6 ±2.7% vs. –1.2 ±2.6%, p = 0.0015; –1.3 ±0.7 mm Hg vs. –0.2 ±1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.003 and –1.1 ±0.7 mm Hg vs. –0.2 ±1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.012; 323 ±3.6 ms vs. 330 ±3.5 ms, p = 0.0002 and 326 ±3.5 ms vs. 330 ±3.5 ms, p = 0.021, respectively). Conclusions The present study shows that hyperoxia does not affect central blood pressure in young healthy subjects and may improve myocardial blood supply estimated indirectly from applanation tonometry. PMID:27695489

  18. Symptoms of pseudoallergy and histamine metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kacik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine intolerance is a poorly investigated type of hypersensitivity responsible for a number of often serious symptoms, erroneously interpreted as food allergy. Endogenous histamine originates from the histidine amino acid with the help of the histidine decarboxylase enzyme. Apart from the endogenous production histamine may be supplied to the body with food. Slow-maturing and fermenting products are characterised by particularly high levels of histamine. Some food products stimulate excessive release of histamine from stores in the body as well as containing significant amounts of it. These products include spices, herbs, dried fruits and a large group of food additives. Histamine intolerance is considered to be a condition in which the amount of histamine in the body exceeds its tolerance threshold, which leads to the development of adverse reactions. These reactions primarily include skin symptoms (pruritus, urticaria, skin reddening, acne lesions, angioedema, respiratory symptoms (nasal obstruction and watery discharge, sneezing, coughing, wheezing, gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, bloating, nervous system symptoms (headaches, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, panic attacks, cardiovascular symptoms (tachycardia, hypotension, chest pain, primary dysmenorrhoea and many more. It is estimated that nearly 1% of society is susceptible to histamine intolerance. The diagnosis of this disorder is based on observing at least two characteristic symptoms and their disappearance or improvement following histamine-free diet. A new, although not easily accessible diagnostic tool is assay for serum diamine oxidase activity, which correlates to a significant extent with symptoms of histamine intolerance. Normal activity of diamine oxidase is considered to be the amount of >80 HDU/mL, decreased activity – 40–80 HDU/mL and severely decreased activity – <40 HDU/mL. Currently the option of diamine oxidase supplementation is

  19. Effects of soy supplementation on blood lipids and arterial function in hypercholesterolaemic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, K; Hansen, B; Jacobsen, R

    2005-01-01

    : Subjects were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of daily intake of either a soy supplement, Abalon (30 g soy protein, 9 g cotyledon fibre and 100 mg isoflavones) or placebo (30 g of casein). The soy supplement and placebo were provided in two sachets daily that were stirred in water. Fasting plasma lipids, TNF......-alpha, homocysteine, insulin sensitivity, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), serum insulin, serum glucose, blood pressure as well as Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and plasma lipids to a fat-rich meal were recorded before and after the intervention. In a sub study...... in 32 subjects, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after the intervention. RESULTS: In the main study, no difference in fasting plasma lipid levels or insulin sensitivity was found between soy-based supplement and placebo. A significant postprandial...

  20. The dynamics of histamine level in patients with chronic urticaria under the influence of different methods of treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dytyatkovska Ye.M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the efficiency of different methods of chronic urticaria treatment. All patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment scteme. The paper shows the dynamics of histamine level in blood plasma, intestine disbiosis in patients with chronic urticaria under the influence of different treatment complexes. It was proved that there exists the correlation between the serum histamine level and method of treatment. Intro¬ducing bionorm into the treatment allows to decrease histamine level and correspondingly to significantly improve clinical effect and patients’ life quality.

  1. Low prevalence of connexin-40 gene variants in atrial tissues and blood from atrial fibrillation subjects

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    Tchou Gregory D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The atrial gap junction protein connexin-40 (Cx40 has been implicated to play an important role in atrial conduction and development of atrial fibrillation (AF. However, the frequency of Cx40 mutations in AF populations and their impact on Cx40 expression remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify polymorphisms in the Cx40 gene GJA5, investigate the potential functional role of these polymorphisms, and determine their allelic frequencies. The prevalence of nonsynonymous Cx40 mutations in blood and atrial tissue was also compared to mutation frequencies reported in prior studies. Methods We conducted direct sequencing of the GJA5 coding and 3′ UTR regions in blood samples from 91 lone AF subjects and 67 atrial tissue-derived samples from a lone cohort, a mixed AF cohort, and several transplant donors. Reporter gene transfection and tissue allelic expression imbalance assays were used to assess the effects of a common insertion/deletion polymorphism on Cx40 mRNA stability and expression. Results We identified one novel synonymous SNP in blood-derived DNA from a lone AF subject. In atrial tissue-derived DNA from lone and mixed AF subjects, we observed one novel nonsynonymous SNP, one rare previously reported synonymous SNP, and one novel 3′ UTR SNP. A previously noted 25 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 3′ UTR was found to be common (minor allele frequency = 0.45 but had no effect on Cx40 mRNA stability and expression. The observed prevalence of nonsynonymous Cx40 mutations in atrial tissues derived from lone AF subjects differed significantly (p = 0.03 from a prior atrial tissue study reporting a high mutation frequency in a group of highly selected young lone AF subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that Cx40 coding SNPs are uncommon in AF populations, although rare mutations in this gene may certainly lead to AF pathogenesis. Furthermore, a common insertion/deletion polymorphism in the Cx40 3

  2. Identification on Histamine Content and Histamin-Forming Bacteria of Boiled Badeng Slender Tuna

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    Yuliana Syalviana Fatuni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pindang is a semi-dried product which relatively short lasting products. Due to the rapid formation of histamine and bacterial enzyme activities contained in the fish, it is necessary to study and identify the histamine levels either on fresh tuna or in its pindang. This study aims to analyze histamine and histamine-forming bacteria in processed pindang tuna (A. rochei. Fresh tuna (A. rochei was obtained from TPI Cisolok Palabuhanratu. The fish was processed according to pindang badeng method (20% salt added, boiled for 8 hours. The product then stored at room temperature and observed for 0,8,16,24 and 32 hours. Analysis were conducted through chemical (histamine and TVB and microbiological test (TPC, identification of bacteria, histamine levels in bacteria. The results showed that the stored pindang for 32 hours can reactivate the production of histamine and increase their levels significantly. This is consistent with the increase on the value of TVB and TPC in pindang products. Six types of histamine-forming bacteria found on pindang tuna that are P. vulgaris, H. alvei, M. Morganii, E. aerogenes, K. oxytoca, K. pneumoniae. Activity test results showed that K. pneumoniae and H. alvei form the highest and the lowest levels of histamine formation respectively.Keywords: Histamine, bacterial, boiled tuna (Auxis rochei

  3. Effect of histamine on the electrophysiology of the human parietal pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritas, V K; Tsantsaridou, A; Tepetes, K; Tsilimingas, N; Gourgoulianis, K I; Molyvdas, P A; Hatzoglou, C

    2011-01-30

    Histamine is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases and regulates the permeability of different tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of histamine on the electrophysiology of human parietal pleura and the underlying mechanisms involved. Pleural specimens were obtained from patients subjected to thoracic surgery and were mounted in Ussing chambers. Histamine solutions (1μM to 1mM) were applied in native and pretreated specimens with dimetindene maleate, cetirizine, ranitidine, amiloride and ouabain. Trans-mesothelial resistance was determined (R(TM)). Histamine induced a rapid R(TM) increase on the mesothelial (p = 0.008) and a decrease on the interstitial surface (p = 0.029). This effect was dose-dependent and was totally abolished by dimetindene maleate, cetirizine and amiloride and partially by ranitidine and ouabain. Histamine induces acute electrochemical changes in human pleura mainly via interaction with the H(1) and partially with the H(2) histamine receptors. It also interferes with trans-cellular permeability and therefore may participate in pleural fluid recycling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of histamine in Iranian cheese using enzyme-linked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histamine is a simple chemical substance created during processing of the amine acid histidine. Histamine is also an agent in inflammation and the increased presence of histamine causes allergic reaction. Histamine may play a role in the increased prevalence of food intolerances. The objective of this study was to ...

  5. Duplex Color Doppler Evaluation of Retinal Arterial Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects without Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashah Binte Amin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a vascular disorder affecting the microvasculature of retina. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of retina. If untreated, it may lead to blindness which is usually preventable if retinopathy is diagnosed early and treated promptly. In ophthalmology, color Doppler imaging is a new method that enables us to assess the orbital vasculature. It allows for simultaneous two dimensional anatomical and Doppler evaluations of hemodynamic characteristics of retinal artery. Objective: To observe the difference between Doppler flow velocity indices (peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and resistive index of retinal artery in type 2 diabetic subjects without retinopathy and those of normal controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out in the department of Radiology and Imaging, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM in collaboration with Ophthalmology Outpatient Department, BIRDEM, Dhaka from July 2011 to June 2013. Eighty diabetic patients without retinopathy aged 27–68 years were enrolled as cases and age and sex matched 80 healthy subjects were selected as controls. Type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetics with retinopathy, hypertensive and dyslipidemic subjects were excluded from the study. All the selected subjects underwent duplex Doppler ultrasonography of both eyes using 5 to 7.5 MHZ linear phase transducer. Duplex color Doppler findings including spectral analysis (PSV, EDV and RI were recorded. Unpaired t test was done to compare blood flow velocity indices of retinal artery in type 2 diabetic patients without retinopathy and that of healthy control subjects. p value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Majority (42.5% and 47.5% of subjects were in 4th decade of life in both groups with predominance of males. The mean duration of diabetes was 4.56 ± 2.1 years. Mean peak systolic

  6. Analytical Methods for the Quantification of Histamine and Histamine Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard

    2017-01-01

    The endogenous metabolite histamine (HA) is synthesized in various mammalian cells but can also be ingested from exogenous sources. It is involved in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological processes. So far, four different HA receptors (H1R-H4R) have been described and numerous HAR antagonists have been developed. Contemporary investigations regarding the various roles of HA and its main metabolites have been hampered by the lack of highly specific and sensitive analytic methods for all of these analytes. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the method of choice for identification and sensitive quantification of many low-molecular weight endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, different methodological aspects of HA quantification as well as recommendations for LC-MS/MS methods suitable for analysis of HA and its main metabolites are summarized.

  7. Histamine Release from Mast Cells and Basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils represent the most relevant source of histamine in the immune system. Histamine is stored in cytoplasmic granules along with other amines (e.g., serotonin), proteases, proteoglycans, cytokines/chemokines, and angiogenic factors and rapidly released upon triggering with a variety of stimuli. Moreover, mast cell and basophil histamine release is regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. The engagement of different receptors can trigger different modalities of histamine release and degranulation. Histamine released from mast cells and basophils exerts its biological activities by activating four G protein-coupled receptors, namely H1R, H2R, H3R (expressed mainly in the brain), and the recently identified H4R. While H1R and H2R activation accounts mainly for some mast cell- and basophil-mediated allergic disorders, the selective expression of H4R on immune cells is uncovering new roles for histamine (possibly derived from mast cells and basophils) in allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Thus, the in-depth knowledge of mast cell and basophil histamine release and its biologic effects is poised to uncover new therapeutic avenues for a wide spectrum of disorders.

  8. Degradation of Histamine by Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from Miso Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Lee, Yi-Chen; Huang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Yu-Ru; Su, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-10-01

    Histamine is a toxic chemical and is the causative agent of food poisoning. This foodborne toxin may be degraded by the oxidative deamination activity of certain microorganisms. In this study, we isolated four histamine-degrading Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria from miso products. Among them, L. plantarum D-103 exhibited 100% degradation of histamine in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth containing 50 ppm of histamine after 24 h of incubation at 30°C. The optimal growth, histamine oxidase, and histamine-degrading activity of L. plantarum D-103 were observed in histamine MRS broth at pH 7.0, 3% NaCl, and 30°C. It also exhibited tolerance to broad ranges of pH (4 to 10) and salt concentrations (0 to 12%) in histamine MRS broth. Therefore, the histamine-degrading L. plantarum D-103 might be used as an additive culture to prevent histamine accumulation in miso products during fermentation.

  9. [Characteristics of blood aggregation in human subjects of different age categories during normobaric interval hypo-oxytraining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, L A; Stepanov, V K; Dvornikov, M V

    2006-01-01

    Blood aggregation was studied in human subjects of different age groups given normobaric hypooxytraining. The experiment was performed with participation of two groups of volunteers: experienced human subjects well-adapted to hypoxia and young non-adapted subjects. NOT protocol included 7 min of breathing hypoxic mixture (90% N2 and 10% O2) and 3 min of breathing atmospheric air at room temperature, 6 cycles every other day during one month. Blood aggregation was assessed by 26 parameters with the use of a multifunctional diagnostic system that permitted biophysical (rheologic), biochemical (coagulative) and mathematic (systemic) diagnostics. Two groups of the human subjects displayed significantly different reactions to of blood aggregation to the extreme factor (NOT). There was a marked dependence of the blood aggregation reaction to the hypoxic factor on the body protective-adaptive potential. Our data substantiate the need to develop NOT protocols for pilots of specific ages.

  10. Isoflavonoids do not inhibit in vivo lipid peroxidation in subjects with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, J M; Puddey, I B; Croft, K D; Mori, T A; Rivera, J; Beilin, L J

    1999-07-01

    The isoflavonoids genistein and daidzein have been shown to have antioxidant activity in vitro, but their effects on in vivo oxidation have not been assessed. The newly described F2-isoprostanes are believed to currently represent the best available marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation. Therefore we have assessed the effects of a 55 mg daily isoflavonoid supplement on urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations in subjects with high-normal blood pressure (BP). A total of 59 subjects completed an 8-week parallel design, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study. F2-isoprostanes, isoflavonoids and creatinine were measured in 24-h urine samples taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. There were significant increases in urinary excretion of genistein (5.22+/-0.75 mg/day, P genistein and daidzein excretion were not significantly correlated with changes in F2-isoprostanes in the isoflavonoid treatment group. These results are not consistent with the suggestion that the two soy derived isoflavonoids have in vivo antioxidant activity at a level of intake achievable by dietary means and in subjects with high-normal BP.

  11. Relation between Ocular Comfort, Arachidonic Acid Mediators, and Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Simin; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Contact lenses are associated with discomfort during wear. This may be the result of stimulation of the ocular surface and production of pro-inflammatory mediators which are then released into the tears. This study examined changes in the concentration in tears of arachidonic acid metabolites (AAM) prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and resolvin-D1, as well as histamine in a general contact lens population in the morning and evening. Tears were collected twice a day (morning and evening) for up to 10 days on two different occasions (with and without contact lens wear) from 30 experienced contact lens wearers for analysis of AAM and a separate group (N = 33) for analysis of histamine. Ocular comfort was rated subjectively on an ordinal scale at each time of tear collection. Tears were analyzed using commercial immunoassay-based kits. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed model test. Ocular comfort decreased from morning to evening with and without contact lenses (p = 0.001), and the difference in comfort in the evening was greater with contact lens wear (80.9 ± 16.2 vs. 75.5 ± 16.8; p = 0.008). The total concentration of PGs (10.7 ± 10.8 ng/ml), cysteinyl leukotrienes (8.7 ± 0.38 ng/ml), resolvin-D1 (1.6 ± 0.5 ng/ml), or histamine 13.8 ± 10.4 ng/ml) did not change during the day or during contact lens wear (p > 0.05). Prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, resolvin-D1, or histamine concentrations did not alter in relation to changes in comfort of the eye during the day or during contact lens wear. These results suggest that release of these mediators is not responsible for contact lens discomfort.

  12. Simple and rapid determination of histamine in food using a new histamine dehydrogenase from Rhizobium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsuneo; Horiuchi, Tatsuo; Nishimura, Ikuko

    2005-11-15

    A colorimetric enzyme assay for the quantitative analysis of histamine in food has been developed using a new histamine dehydrogenase (HDH) from Rhizobium sp. The HDH specifically catalyzes the oxidation of histamine but not other biogenic amines such as putrescine and cadaverine. The principle of our photometric assay is as follows. The HDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of histamine in the presence of 1-methoxy PMS (electron carrier), which converts WST-8 (tetrazolium salt) to a formazan. This product is measured in the visible range at 460 nm. The correlation between the histamine level and absorbance was acceptable, ranging from 0 to 96 microM with histamine standard solutions, corresponding to 0 to 30 microM of the reaction solution (r = 1.000, CV = 1.0% or less). Assays of canned tuna (in oil and soup) and raw tuna with 45-675 micromol/kg histamine added showed good recoveries of 96-113, 98-108, and 100-106%. The histamine contents of a commercial canned tuna and fish meal containing histamine at high concentrations were determined using the new method and other reference methods (HPLC method, Association of Official Analytical Chemists official method, and two commercial enzyme immunoassay test kits). This simple and rapid enzymatic method is as reliable as the conventional methods.

  13. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  14. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  15. Effect of Stress-free Therapy on Cerebral Blood Flow: Comparisons among patients with metabolic cardiovascular disease, healthy subjects and placebo-treated subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryotokuji, Kenji; Ishimaru, Keisou; Kihara, Kazuhiko; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Nakashima, Takuma; Otani, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: We have developed a Stress-free Therapy® device wherein “Pinpoint Plantar Long-wavelength Infrared Light Irradiation (PP-LILI)” increases peripheral-deep body temperature and blood flow volume and stabilizes blood pressure as well as significantly reduces stress hormones such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol without using drugs. Moreover, we have found this therapy to significantly improve blood glucose and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on this background of clinical efficacy, we validated changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with metabolic cardiovascular disease and examined the efficacy of Stress-free Therapy® on cerebral blood flow as compared to that in healthy control subjects and placebo-treated patients. Results: The change in cerebral blood flow volume during 15-minute PP-LILI was 5.1 ± 1.8 mL/min in patients with metabolic cardiovascular disease, showing a significant increase (P<0.05) of 3.1 mL/min as compared with the mean blood flow value after resting for 15 minutes. Conclusions: Our results suggested Stress-free Therapy® to significantly increase cerebral blood flow, possibly leading to the prevention of metabolic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24771966

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow during comprehension and speech (in cerebrally healthy subjects)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechevalier, B.; Petit, M.C.; Eustache, F.; Lambert, J.; Chapon, F.; Viader, F. (Service de Neurologie-Dejerine, Chu de Caen (France))

    1989-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method in 10 cerebrally healthy subjects at rest and during linguistic activation tests. These consisted of a comprehension test (binaural listening to a narrative text) and a speech test (making sentences from a list of words presented orally at 30-s intervals). The comprehension task induced a moderate increase in the mean right CBF and in both inferior parietal areas, whereas the speech test resulted in a diffuse increase in the mean CBF of both hemispheres, predominating regionally in both inferior parietal, left operculary, and right upper motor and premotor areas. It is proposed that the activation pattern induced by linguistic stimulation depends on not only specific factors, such as syntactic and semantic aspects of language, but also the contents of the material proposed and the attention required by the test situation.

  17. Cowhage-induced itch as an experimental model for pruritus. A comparative study with histamine-induced itch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histamine is the prototypical pruritogen used in experimental itch induction. However, in most chronic pruritic diseases, itch is not predominantly mediated by histamine. Cowhage-induced itch, on the other hand, seems more characteristic of itch occurring in chronic pruritic diseases. OBJECTIVES: We tested the validity of cowhage as an itch-inducing agent by contrasting it with the classical itch inducer, histamine, in healthy subjects and atopic dermatitis (AD patients. We also investigated whether there was a cumulative effect when both agents were combined. METHODS: Fifteen healthy individuals and fifteen AD patients were recruited. Experimental itch induction was performed in eczema-free areas on the volar aspects of the forearm, using different itch inducers: histamine, cowhage and their combination thereof. Itch intensity was assessed continuously for 5.5 minutes after stimulus application using a computer-assisted visual analogue scale (COVAS. RESULTS: In both healthy and AD subjects, the mean and peak intensity of itch were higher after the application of cowhage compared to histamine, and were higher after the combined application of cowhage and histamine, compared to histamine alone (p<0.0001 in all cases. Itch intensity ratings were not significantly different between healthy and AD subjects for the same itch inducer used; however AD subjects exhibited a prolonged itch response in comparison to healthy subjects (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Cowhage induced a more intense itch sensation compared to histamine. Cowhage was the dominant factor in itch perception when both pathways were stimulated in the same time. Cowhage-induced itch is a suitable model for the study of itch in AD and other chronic pruritic diseases, and it can serve as a new model for testing antipruritic drugs in humans.

  18. Beetroot supplementation lowers daily systolic blood pressure in older, overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajja, A; Sutyarjoko, A; Lara, J; Rennie, K; Brandt, K; Qadir, O; Siervo, M

    2014-10-01

    Although inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation are associated with decreased systolic blood pressure (BP), these results have primarily been obtained from short-term trials that focused on healthy young adults. Therefore, we hypothesized that oral supplementation of beetroot juice concentrate would decrease systolic BP in overweight older participants but that the decline in BP would not be sustained after a 1-week interruption of the beetroot juice supplementation. For 3 weeks, 24 participants were randomized to either the beetroot juice concentrate or blackcurrant juice group, with a 1-week postsupplementation phase (week 4). Changes in systolic and diastolic BP were assessed during the supplementation and postsupplementation phases. Blood pressure was measured using 3 different methods: (1) resting clinic BP, (2) 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, and (3) home monitoring of daily resting BP. The first 2 methods were applied at baseline and after weeks 3 and 4. Daily measurements were conducted throughout the study, with 21 subjects completing the study (beetroot/blackcurrant = 10/11; male/female = 12/9; age = 62.0 ± 1.4 years; body mass index = 30.1 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)). After 3 weeks, beetroot juice supplementation was not associated with significant changes in resting clinic BP or 24-hour ABPM. Conversely, beetroot juice concentrate reduced daily systolic BP after 3 weeks (-7.3 ± 5.9 mm Hg, P = .02); however, the effect was not maintained after the interruption of the supplementation (week 4, 2.8 ± 6.1 mm Hg, P = .09). In overweight older subjects, beetroot juice concentrate supplementation was associated with beneficial effects on daily systolic BP, although the effects were not significant when measured by 24-hour ABPM or resting clinic BP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Onset and duration of action of topical antihistamine: a study of histamine skin test response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danarti, Retno; Waskito, Fajar; Indrastuti, Niken

    2008-08-01

    Most patients who require skin prick testing cannot deal with their pruritus without taking antihistamines (AH). Orally administered AH has a quick onset of action, but it will suppress skin test responses (STR) from several days to weeks. In this study, we aimed to determine the onset and duration of action of single topical AH application by observing histamine-STR suppression over time. A two-step, randomized, intraindividual parallel-comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on the volar side of the forearm. Step 1 was aimed to determine the onset, while step 2 determined the duration of action. The topical AH tested was a single application of 5% doxepin hydrochloride cream, while 10 mg/ml histamine dihydrochloride was used to test the skin responses. Our 10 subjects' mean age was 35.8 +/- 3.179 years. Histamine wheal response was suppressed starting on minute 90 and the wheal width were back to >/= 7 mm(2 )on minute 270. Significant histamine reactivity difference between genders (P = 0.201) and atopic status (P = 1.000), which could be a source of bias in histamine STR, was not found among our subjects. Single application of topical AH has an onset of action in 90 min and duration of action skin prick testing after a few hours, without influencing the patient's STR.

  20. Cytogenetic genotoxic investigation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of subjects with dental composite restorative filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettini, F; Savino, M; Corsalini, M; Cantore, S; Ballini, A

    2015-01-01

    Dental composite resins are biomaterials commonly used to aesthetically restore the structure and function of teeth impaired by caries, erosion, or fracture. Residual monomers released from resin restorations as a result of incomplete polymerization processes interact with living oral tissues. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of a common dental composite material (Enamel Plus-HFO), in subjects with average 13 filled teeth with the same material, compared to a control group (subjects having neither amalgam nor composite resin fillings). Genotoxicity assessment of composite materials was carried out in vitro in human peripheral blood leukocytes using sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) cytogenetic tests. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses confirmed the absence of a relationship between SCE/cell, high frequency of SCE(HFC) or CA frequencies and exposure to dental composite materials. These results indicate that composite resins used for dental restorations differ extensively in vivo in their cytotoxic and genotoxic potential and in their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair.

  1. Effects of bepotastine and fexofenadine on histamine-induced flare, wheal and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Hideaki; Ikoma, Akihiko; Fukuoka, Miyuki; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Urticaria is mainly caused by mast cell-derived histamine through the histamine H(1) receptor. Antihistamines are occasionally used on demand upon a recurrence of urticaria; therefore, rapidly acting agents should be explored. The onset of action is assumed to depend on time to maximum concentration (T(max)), but the speed of action needs to be evaluated not only through blood concentration analysis but also by measuring in vivo effectiveness. In this study, we chose two representative second-generation antihistamines (bepotastine and fexofenadine) with relatively short T(max) values and evaluated their effects on histamine-induced skin responses using both visual and laser Doppler imaging scales. Suppression of histamine-induced flare and itch was observed 3 and 6 h after administration of both antihistamines. Attenuation of itch was seen 30 min after the administration of each drug and thereafter until 6 h. In addition, bepotastine suppressed flare formation after only 30 min following application. These results suggest that antihistamines suppress histamine-induced itch and flare, followed by wheal formation, and that bepotastine suppresses skin symptoms sooner after administration than fexofenadine does, which is relatively consistent with the T(max) results. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Increased release of histamine in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Skov, P S; Mosbech, H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental perfume exposure may cause respiratory symptoms. Individuals with asthma and perfume contact allergy report such symptoms more frequently than others. However, immunologic mechanisms have not been demonstrated and the symptoms are not associated with IgE-mediated allergy....... The study aimed to investigate whether basophils from patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume released more histamine in the presence of perfume as compared with healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine release was measured by the glass fibre method. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers (n......=20) and patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume (n=17) attending a dermatological outpatient clinic for patch testing. The effect of an international brand perfume was investigated using the basophil histamine release test with perfume. Furthermore, basophils from a healthy non...

  3. Effect of carnosine on the immunosuppressive effect of histamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpan, Yu. V.

    1985-04-01

    This paper studies the ability of carnosine (beta-imidazole-lactate) to affect histamine-induced immunosuppression of proliferative activity of various lymphocyte subpopulations and the realization of this effect through surface histamine receptors of the cells. The experiments were carried out on mice; lymphocytes were incubated with tritium-labeled thymidine for 4 h, after which their radioactivity was determined on a scintillation counter. The results show that histamine has an inhibitory action on antigen-induced proliferation of T suppressor lymphocytes through H-2 histamine receptors, for this effect was considerably inhibited by the H-2 histamine blockers metiamide, but not by the H-1 histamine blocker mepyramine.

  4. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and indirect blood pressure evaluation in dogs subjected to different sedation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mondardo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sedation protocols on blood pressure and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in dogs. In total, 24 male mixed-breed dogs with a mean weight of 9.87±3.0kg were used.Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, which were subjected to sedation using the following protocols: acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1 and butorphanol (0.3mgkg-1 (AB; acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1and methadone (0.5mgkg-1 (AM; acepromazine (0.03mgkg-1, methadone (0.5mgkg-1, and midazolam (0.3mgkg-1(MAM; and methadone only (0.5mgkg-1 (M. Indirect blood pressure (BP measurements and computerized electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography (ECO were performed immediately before the application of the sedation protocol (baseline, and the same evaluations were repeated after 15 minutes. BP decreased in groups AB, MAM, and AM compared to baseline values. Electrocardiographic measurements showed decreased heart rates (HRs after sedation in all groups, and bradycardia was observed after sedation in two dogs from group M and one animal from group AM. The P-wave duration increased after sedation in groups AM and M. After sedation, no changes in cardiac dimensions were revealed byECO.Fractional shortening (FS decreased after sedation in the AM group, and dogs from group AB exhibited a smaller decrease in FS compared with the other groups. The cardiac index (CI was lower in groups AM and M than in the other groups. Animals from group AB were less resistant to examination and exhibited the most favorable sedation scores. It was concluded that the combination of acepromazine and butorphanol was the best sedation protocol for performing echocardiogram measurementsbecause dogs were less resistant to examinations and echocardiographic parameters of FS and CI remained stable.

  5. Blood pressure and left ventricular mass in subjects with type 2 diabetes and gingivitis or chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Edward; Napora, Magdalena; Blach, Anna; Budlewski, Tadeusz; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Jedynasty, Krystyna; Krajewski, Jarosław; Gorska, Renata

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to answer the question of whether chronic periodontitis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and systemic and central blood pressure (CBP). One hundred and fifty-five subjects with type 2 diabetes (67 F, 88 M, mean age 61.1±6.9 years, BMI 32.7±5.7 kg/m(2)) were divided according to their periodontal status into biofilm-gingival interface - healthy (BGI-H, 14 subjects), BGI-gingivitis (BGI-G, 119 subjects) and BGI-periodontitis (BGI-P, 22 subjects) groups. In all subjects, LVM, systemic and CBP were measured. The LVM index (LVMI) was calculated. (1) BGI-P and BGI-G subjects, respectively, had higher (mean; 95% CI) LVM (238.6 g; 206.6-267.4 and 222.8 g; 207.0-238.2) versus BGI-H subjects (170.3 g; 125.5-217.8).
(2) BGI-P and BGI-G subjects, respectively, had higher (mean; 95% CI) LVM1 (95.2 g/m(2) ; 82.9-107.4) and 87.8 g/m(2) ; 81.5-94.1) versus BGI-H subjects (63.7 g/m(2) ; 45.2-62.3).
(3) BGI-P subjects had higher central and systemic systolic and diastolic blood pressure than subjects from BGI-G and BGI-H groups. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, periodontitis and gingivitis are associated with increased LVM and periodontitis is associated with increased central and systemic blood pressure. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. ABO blood types and cancer risk--a cohort study of 339,432 subjects in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Chi-Pang; Lin, Jie; Wen, Christopher; Pu, Xia; Huang, Maosheng; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2015-04-01

    The associations of laboratory-based ABO phenotypes with cancer risks and mortality have not been systematically determined. The study subjects were 339,432 healthy individuals with laboratory-based blood types from a Taiwan cohort. Compared to blood type O, blood type A was significantly associated with an elevated risk of stomach cancer incidence (Hazard Ratio [HR], 1.38 [95% CI, 1.11-1.72]) and mortality (HR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.02-1.86]) compared with blood type O, after adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and body mass index. Non-O blood types were associated with an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, with blood type B reaching statistical significance for incidence (HR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.02-2.48]) and mortality (HR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.02-2.60]). In contrast, kidney cancer risk was inversely associated with blood type AB (HR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.18-0.93]) compared to type O. Cancer risks vary in people with different ABO blood types, with elevated risks of stomach cancer associated with blood type A and pancreatic cancer associated with non-O blood types (A, B, and AB). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Histamine Clearance Through Polyspecific Transporters in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takeo; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Histamine plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in diverse brain functions, and clearance of histamine is essential to avoid excessive histaminergic neuronal activity. Histamine N-methyltransferase, which is an enzyme in the central nervous system that metabolizes histamine, is localized to the cytosol. This suggests that a histamine transport process is essential to inactivate histamine. Previous reports have shown the importance of astrocytes for histamine transport, although neuronal histamine transport could not be ruled out. High-affinity and selective histamine transporters have not yet been discovered, although it has been reported that the following three polyspecific transporters transport histamine: organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, OCT3, and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). The K m values of human OCT2, OCT3, and PMAT are 0.54, 0.64, and 4.4 mM, respectively. The three transporters are expressed in the brain, and their regional distribution is different. Recent studies revealed the contribution of OCT3 and PMAT to histamine transport by primary human astrocytes. Several investigations using mice supported the importance of OCT3 for histamine clearance in the brain. However, further studies are required to elucidate the detailed mechanism of histamine transport in the brain.

  8. Association of myasthenia gravis with polymorphisms in the gene of histamine N-methyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellermayer, Blanka; Polgar, Noemi; Pal, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is the main metabolizing enzyme of histamine. Histamine modulates immune responses and plays a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders.......Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is the main metabolizing enzyme of histamine. Histamine modulates immune responses and plays a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders....

  9. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Cornali, Claudio; Porteri, Enzo; Mardighian, Dikran; Pinardi, Chiara; Fontanella, Marco M; Rodella, Luigi F; Rezzani, Rita; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Gasparotti, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences.

  10. [Blood examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiko

    2009-11-01

    Allergic blood examination such as radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is an important and sensitive method for detecting the allergen against allergic diseases including bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. In this review, blood examination such as RAST and histamine release test (HRT) will be discussed. In 1967, Wide et al developed allergen detecting system such as RAST that measures the allergen specific IgE antibody. Now, several systems including capsulated hydrophilic carrier polymer (CAP)-RAST or multiple antigen simultaneous test (MAST) by using the fluoroenzyme immunoassay (FEIA) or other methods by using the ELISA are available. Another method for blood test is HRT that measures histamine release from the peripheral blood basophils after antigen addition in vitro. In general, HRT is thought to be more sensitive than RAST but available for only ten allergens. Also, 10-20% of patients are non-responder for this test.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of rupatadine at four times the recommended dose against histamine- and platelet-activating factor-induced flare responses and ex vivo platelet aggregation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, M K

    2010-12-01

    European guidelines recommend increasing H1-antihistamine doses up to fourfold in poorly responding patients with urticaria. To assess the efficacy and tolerability of high-dose rupatadine (40 mg) against platelet-activating factor (PAF)- and histamine-induced flare responses in human skin and to verify its anti-PAF activity by assessing its inhibition of PAF-induced platelet aggregation in the blood of subjects receiving rupatadine 40 mg. In the flare study, six male volunteers received a single dose of rupatadine 40 mg. Flares were induced before dosing and up to 96 h afterwards by intradermal PAF and histamine. In the ex vivo study, four male volunteers received an oral dose of rupatadine 40 mg and blood samples were taken 4 h afterwards. Platelet aggregation was assessed in platelet-rich plasma by incubation for 5 min with PAF. Rupatadine 40 mg reached maximal plasma levels of 15·1 ± 4·4 ng mL⁻¹)1 at 1 h and its metabolite, desloratadine, 5·2 ± 0·9 ng mL⁻¹)1 at 2 h. Neither was detectable at 12 h. Inhibition of histamine- and PAF-induced flares was significant within 2 h, maximal at 6 h (87·8 ± 3·1% and 87·1 ± 2·5% inhibition, respectively, P Rupatadine 40 mg inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo by 82 ± 9% (P = 0·023). A single oral dose of rupatadine 40 mg was well tolerated with mild transient somnolence being reported. A single dose of rupatadine at four times the recommended dose is well tolerated, highly effective for up to 72 h against PAF- and histamine-induced dermal flares and has demonstrable PAF-receptor antagonism ex vivo.

  12. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  13. Determination of histamine and identification of histamine-producing bacteria in frozen Longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Koohdar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish is considered as highly perishable food which spoils soon after death if not preserved properly. Consumption of spoiled fish results in the outbreaks of food poisoning such as histamine poisoning. Biogenic amines are the causative agents of histamine poisoning which are produced by various bacterial species. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of histamine and to identify the histamine-producing bacteria onfrozen Longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol hunted from south of Iran. Microbial examinations and measurement of histamine were performed on the muscles around the gills of twenty five frozen samples. The results indicated that the mean ± SE Log CFU/g for total microbial and psychotrophic counts were 4.81 ± 0.26 and 4.66 ± 0.25, respectively. Different bacterial isolates were identified as histamine-producing bacteria i.e., Clostridium perfringens (24.4% followed by Proteus spp. (23.0%, Klebsiella spp. (13.9%, and Enterobacter spp. (11.1%. Histamine content in 65.0% of the samples was more than the maximum acceptable level of 50 ppm. Therefore, there is a seafood safety risk in the current harvesting and post harvesting methods used in Longtail tuna industry.

  14. Histamine and Skin Barrier: Are Histamine Antagonists Useful for the Prevention or Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Benedetto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Atopic Dermatitis (AD, the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease, is characterized by an overactive immune response to a host of environmental allergens and dry, itchy skin. Over the past decade important discoveries have demonstrated that AD develops in part from genetic and/or acquired defects in the skin barrier. Histamine is an aminergic neurotransmitter involved in physiologic and pathologic processes such as pruritus, inflammation, and vascular leak. Enhanced histamine release has been observed in the skin of patients with AD and antihistamines are often prescribed for their sedating and anti-itch properties. Recent evidence suggests that histamine also inhibits the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and impairs the skin barrier, raising the question whether histamine might play a role in AD barrier impairment. This, coupled with the notion that histamine’s effects mediated through the recently identified histamine receptor H4R, may be important in allergic inflammation, has renewed interest in this mediator in allergic diseases. In this paper we summarize the current knowledge on histamine and histamine receptor antagonists in AD and skin barrier function.

  15. Histamine type 1-receptor activation by low dose of histamine undermines human glomerular slit diaphragm integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglia, Eleonora; Pini, Alessandro; Moggio, Aldo; Grange, Cristina; Premoselli, Federica; Miglio, Gianluca; Tiligada, Katerina; Fantozzi, Roberto; Chazot, Paul L; Rosa, Arianna Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Histamine has been reported to decrease the ultrafiltration coefficient, which inversely correlates with glomerular permselectivity, however the mechanism(s) underling this effect have never been investigated. This study aimed to assess whether histamine could exert a direct detrimental effect on podocyte permeability and the possible involvement of two key proteins for the glomerular slit diaphragm (SD) integrity, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and P-cadherin. The effect of histamine (100 pM-1000nM) on coloured podocytes junctional integrity was evaluated functionally by a transwell assay of monolayer permeability and morphologically by electron microscopy. Histamine receptor (H1-4R) presence was evaluated at both mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (immunofluorescence) levels. The Kd and Bmax values for [3H]mepyramine were determined by saturation binding analysis; IP1 and cAMP production evoked by histamine were measured by TR-FRET. ZO-1, P-cadherin and vimentin expression was assessed by qRT-PCR and quantitative immunoblotting. Histamine elicited a time- and sigmoidal dose-dependent (maximum effect at 8h, 10nM) increase in podocyte paracellular permeability widening the paracellular spaces. Only H1R was predominantly localised to the podocyte membrane. Consistently, histamine elicited a sigmoidal dose-dependent increase in IP1, but not in cAMP. Histamine exposure evoked a concentration-dependent reduction in both ZO-1 and P-cadherin and a parallel induction of vimentin mRNA expression with a maximum effect after 6h, and protein expression with a maximum effect after 8h. These effects were prevented by the selective H1R antagonist chlorpheniramine. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that histamine, via the H1R, modifies SD morphological and functional integrity, in part, by decreasing the expression of ZO-1 and P-cadherin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in body weight and blood pressure: paradoxical outcome events in overweight and obese subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Ivers, L; Gebski, V; Finer, N; Legler, U F; Sharma, A M; James, W P T; Coutinho, W; Caterson, I D

    2014-09-01

    The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the relationship between early changes (both increases and decreases) in body weight and blood pressure, and the impact of these changes on subsequent cardiovascular outcome events. A total of 9804 male and female subjects, aged 55 years or older, with a body mass index of 27-45 kg m(-2) were included in this current subanalysis of the SCOUT trial. Subjects were required to have a history of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (hypertension, dyslipidemia, current smoking or diabetic nephropathy) to assess cardiovascular outcomes. Post hoc subgroup analyses of weight change (categories) and blood pressure were performed overall and by treatment group (6-week sibutramine followed by randomized placebo or continued sibutramine). The primary outcome event (POE) was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death. Time-to-event analyses of the POE were performed using Cox regression models with factors for treatment, subgroups and interactions. During the initial 6-week sibutramine treatment period, systolic blood pressure decreased progressively with increasing weight loss in hypertensive subjects (-8.1±10.5 mm Hg with <5 kg weight loss to -10.8±11.0 mm Hg with ⩾5 kg weight loss). The highest POE incidence occurred mainly in groups with increases in both weight and blood pressure. However, with long-term sibutramine treatment, a markedly lower blood pressure tended to increase POEs. Modest weight loss and modest lower blood pressure each reduced the incidence of cardiovascular events, as expected. However, the combination of early marked weight loss and rapid

  17. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...

  18. Gas phase equilibrium structure of histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Denis S; Rykov, Anatolii N; Grikina, Olga E; Khaikin, Leonid S

    2016-02-17

    The first gas electron diffraction (GED) experiment for histamine was carried out. The equilibrium structure of histamine in the gas phase was determined on the basis of the data obtained. The refinement was also supported by the rotational constants obtained in previous studies [B. Vogelsanger, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 7864-7869; P. Godfrey, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 10724-10732] and quantum chemical calculations. The proposed mechanism of tautomerization by simultaneous intermolecular transfer of hydrogens in a histamine dimer helps to explain the distribution of tautomers in different experiments. The estimations of the conformational interconversion times provided the explanation for the absence of some conformers in the rotational spectroscopy experiments.

  19. Use of a new glass microfibre histamine release method to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni. Individuals with different degrees of exposure to the disease show differing antibody biological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Ebbesen, F.; Vennervald, B.

    1996-01-01

    A new glass microfibre histamine release method was used to study the modulation of the host response in human schistosomiasis mansoni to improve our understanding of the role of basophils in the development of immunity in schistosomiasis mansoni. The histamine release from umbilical cord blood b...

  20. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Guler; Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Günlüoğlu, Mehmet Zeki

    2017-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is accepted as a powerful predictor of outcomes in patients with CVD. To study RDW in patients with COPD, and to compare the value of this measurement with clinical, echocardiographic, nutritional and laboratory status. Secondly, we aimed to determine the effect of smoking on RDW values in healthy subjects. One hundred and seventy-five patients with stable COPD and 210 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographic, clinical, nutritional status, echocardiographic, and laboratory characteristics, RDW values were recorded and compared. RDW values were higher in the COPD group than in controls (15±2.3% vs. 13.8±2.5%, p<0.001). In COPD patients, RDW levels positively correlated with CRP levels (r=0.27, P<.001), albumin levels (r=0.23, P=.04), right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) (r=0.24, P=.001), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r=0.1, P=.02), and presence of CVD (r=0.24, P=.02). In multivariable logistic regression suggested that presence of CVD (4.3; 95% CI: 1.3 to 11; P=.01), and presence of RVD (3.1; 95% CI: 1.7 to 8.3; P=.02) were independently related to elevated RDW levels in COPD patients. In the healthy population, correlations analysis showed only a significant correlation between RDW and cigarette smoking years (r=0.57, P<.001). RDW is independently associated with CVD and RVD in patients with COPD. In the healthy population, RDW is also associated with smoking status. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood pressure differences between office and home settings among Japanese normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hisao; Ukai, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hareaki; Yuasa, Shouhei; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Chin, Keiichi; Katsumata, Takuma; Umemura, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    This study attempted to clarify the differences in blood pressure (BP) between the office (clinic) and home settings in patients with controlled, sustained, masked or white-coat hypertension. The following formula was used: office mean systolic BP (omSBP)-mean morning home SBP (mmhSBP)/office mean diastolic BP (omDBP)-mean morning home DBP (mmhDBP). The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. The omSBP-mmhSBP/omDBP-mmhDBP calculation yielded the following results: among normotensive subjects, -1.1±11.2/-1.7±8.5 mm Hg (mean SBP and mean DBP were higher at home than in the office; n=451, P=0.038 in SBP, P=0.000 in DBP); in controlled hypertensive patients, -0.42±10.9/-2.2±8.2 mm Hg (n=1362, P=0.160 in SBP, P=0.000 in DBP); among sustained hypertensive patients, 5.6±14.7/0.048±9.9 mm Hg (n=1370, P=0.000 in SBP, P=0.857 in DBP); in masked hypertensive patients, -15.3±12.9/-9.3±9.5 mm Hg (n=1308, both P=0.000); and among white-coat hypertensive patients, 23.7±13.2/8.2±9.1 mm Hg (n=580, both P=0.000). Our results showed a difference of 5 mm Hg in SBP among sustained hypertensive patients, as recommended by the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension; however, in other hypertensive patient types, the differences in SBP and DBP between office and home measurements differed by >5 mm Hg. Office and home BP measurements should be interpreted cautiously, keeping in mind the clinical setting.

  2. Methacholine induces wheal-and-flare reactions in human skin but does not release histamine in vivo as assessed by the skin microdialysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Skov, P S

    1995-12-01

    A number of investigations have indicated that cholinergic agonists release histamine from isolated mast cells and suggested that cholinergic stimulation releases histamine in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the cutaneous wheal-and-flare reaction induced by methacholine challenge in human skin involves histamine release as measured by the skin microdialysis technique. Five hollow dialysis fibers were inserted intradermally in forearm skin in eight healthy subjects. Each fiber was perfused with Kreb's-Ringer bicarbonate at a rate of 3 microliters/min. Dialysates were collected in 2-min fractions before skin challenge and for 20 min after intradermal injection of methacholine 10(-3)-10(-1) M, the vehicle, and a positive control, codeine phosphate 0.3 mg/ml. Histamine was assayed spectrofluorometrically. Methacholine caused a statistically significant dose-related wheal-and-flare reaction, the flare reaction to methacholine 10(-1) M being comparable with that seen with codeine 0.3 mg/ml. No significant histamine release was observed with methacholine, cumulative histamine release of 16 +/- 8 nM by methacholine 10(-1) M being similar to vehicle responses of 15 +/- 9 nM. Histamine release by codeine was 2524 +/- 435 nM. In conclusion, methacholine-induced wheal-and-flare reactions in human skin appeared not to involve histamine release from skin mast cells.

  3. Feasibility study for the non-invasive blood pressure estimation based on ppg morphology: normotensive subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik; Min, Se Dong

    2017-01-10

    Blood pressure is a critical bio-signal and its importance has been increased with the aged society and the growth of cardiovascular disease population. However, most of hypertensive patients have been suffered the inconvenience in monitoring blood pressure in daily life because the measurement of the blood pressure depends on the cuff-based technique. Nowadays there are many trials to measure blood pressure without cuff, especially, photoplethysmography (PPG) based research is carried out in various ways. Our research is designed to hypothesis the relationship between vessel wall movement and pressure-flow relationship of PPG and to validate its appropriateness by experimental methods. PPG waveform is simplified by approximate model, and then it is analyzed as the velocity and the acceleration of blood flow using the derivatives of PPG. Finally, we develop pressure index (PI) as an estimation factor of blood pressure by combining of statistically significant segments of photoplethysmographic waveform. Twenty-five subjects were participated in the experiment. As a result of simulation, correlation coefficients between developed PI and blood pressure were represented with R = 0.818, R = 0.827 and R = 0.615 in systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure, respectively, and both of result showed the meaningful statistically significance (P blood pressure but could not find the absolute pressure value. Moreover, proposed index has the limitation of diastolic pressure tracing. However, the result shows that the proposed PI is statistically significantly correlated with blood pressures, and it suggests that the proposed PI as a promising additional parameter for the cuff less blood pressure monitoring.

  4. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we asses...

  5. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high ...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects....... glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...

  6. ADAM10 gene expression in the blood cells of Alzheimer's disease patients and mild cognitive impairment subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzine, Patricia Regina; Marcello, Elena; Borroni, Barbara; Kamphuis, Willem; Hol, Elly; Padovani, Alessandro; Nascimento, Carla Crispim; De Godoy Bueno, Patricia; Assis Carvalho Vale, Francisco; Iost Pavarini, Sofia Cristina; Di Luca, Monica; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    ADAM10 is a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). ADAM10 protein levels are reduced in platelets of AD patients. The aim was to verify the total blood and platelet ADAM10 gene expression in AD patients and to compare with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy subjects. No

  7. Association among low whole blood viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and diabetic retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, C; Scarinci, F; Scorcia, V; Bruzzichessi, D; Fiorentino, R; Randazzo, G; Scorcia, G; Gnasso, A

    2011-01-01

    Haemorheological variables influence endothelial function through the release of several factors. Clinical studies have described an association among blood viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and macro-angiopathy. Few data are reported about the association between haemorheological variables and micro-angiopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between these variables and retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes. 111 men, 79 postmenopausal women, and 95 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Haematocrit and haemoglobin were measured by standard methods. Blood viscosity was calculated according to the formula (0.12× haematocrit)+(0.17× (plasma proteins-2.07)). Subjects were grouped according to the presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy, while the severity of retinopathy was classified according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and whole blood viscosity were significantly lower in subjects with retinopathy compared to subjects without retinopathy in both sexes. These variables significantly decreased with increasing severity of retinopathy. A multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the independent inverse association among viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and retinopathy (p<0.01). Results demonstrate the association among low viscosity, haemoglobin, haematocrit and diabetic retinopathy. The mechanisms responsible for this association can be hypothesised. Reduced haemoglobin might cause direct organ damage. Low blood viscosity, through the reduction of shear stress, might inhibit the anti-atherogenic functions of endothelial cells.

  8. Correlations between histamine-induced wheal, flare and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, U; Ring, J; Scharein, E; Bromm, B

    1996-07-01

    Correlations between the skin reactions wheal and flare and the subjectively reported degree of itch were investigated in response to 1% histamine, intradermally applied by standardized skin prick and by iontophoresis. Experiments were performed with 15 male volunteers using a threefold repeated measures design (skin prick, and iontophoresis with 0.13 mA for 10 s and with 2.0 mA for 10 s). Skin reactions (perpendicular diameters) were determined at the time of their maximum (10 min). Itch was rated on a computerized visual analogue scale which was anchored upon the individual scratch threshold. Most effective in producing itch was the skin prick which caused strong sensations markedly above the scratch threshold during the entire period of measurement (30 min), whereas iontophoresis induced only transient itch sensations. On the other hand, the largest wheals were generated by iontophoresis of both intensities (mean 10 or 14 mm vs 6 mm with skin prick). The higher current induced higher itch, wheal and flare responses, but after eliminating this effect of stimulus intensity, no correlations were found. In contrast, skin prick-induced flare reactions varied with the degree of itch above the scratch threshold (r = 0.56; P skin prick compared with iontophoresis. It is hypothesized that in iontophoresis the brief (10-s) histamine bolus passed the most superficial pruritoceptive C fibres too quickly to induce long-lasting itch sensations, whereas the skin prick caused a deposit at the dermal-epidermal junction releasing histamine during the entire time of measurement. Consequently, both the C fibre-mediated itch and the axon reflex flare were more pronounced with the skin prick, and the wheal resulting from a permeability increase in the postcapillary venule walls was an independent phenomenon.

  9. Cerebral artery blood velocity in normal subjects during acute decreases in barometric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, E; Sorteberg, W; Owe, J O; Lindegaard, K F; Rusten, K; Sorteberg, A; Gjerstad, L

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the effect of acute changes in barometric pressure on regional cerebral perfusion we studied the middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood velocity in five healthy male volunteers by means of a low-pressure chamber. The MCA blood velocity, arterial blood and respiratory gases were measured at the barometric pressures of 1, 0.8, 0.65, and 0.5 atmospheres. The observed blood velocity (Vo) showed no systematic changes. Decreases in barometric pressure induced hypoxia and hypocapnia. When normalizing the MCA blood velocity (Vn) to a standard P(CO2) (5.3 kPa), thereby correcting for the hypoxic induced hypocapnia, we obtained an inverse relationship between cerebral artery blood velocity and arterial blood oxygen content (CaO2). The oxygen supply to the brain, estimated as the product of Vo and CaO2, decreased with lowering of the barometric pressure. However, the product of Vn and CaO2 remained constant. This suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism attempting to maintain a constant oxygen supply to the brain during acute changes in CaO2, if the hyperventilation induced decrease in PCO2 can be omitted. In the artificial situation of a low pressure chamber, our findings are quite similar to those obtained at sea level. This indicates that the underlying mechanisms of control of cerebral blood flow do not change during acute exposure to altitude.

  10. Light-scattering properties of undiluted human blood subjected to simple shear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Kolkman, R.G.M.; de Mul, F.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed into the effect of simple shear on the light-scattering properties of undiluted human blood. Undiluted human blood was enclosed between two glass plates with an adjustable separation between 30 and 120 mm and with one plate moving parallel to the other.

  11. Changes in Histidine Decarboxylase, Histamine N-Methyltransferase and Histamine Receptors in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Ling; Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other monoamine neurotransmitters, information on the association between the histaminergic system and neuropsychiatric disorders is scarce, resulting in a lack of histamine-related treatment for these disorders. The current chapter tries to combine information obtained from genetic

  12. Histamine Immunoreactive Elements in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of the Snail, Biomphalaria spp., Intermediate Host for Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R Habib

    Full Text Available Histamine appears to be an important transmitter throughout the Animal Kingdom. Gastropods, in particular, have been used in numerous studies establishing potential roles for this biogenic amine in the nervous system and showing its involvement in the generation of diverse behaviours. And yet, the distribution of histamine has only previously been described in a small number of molluscan species. The present study examined the localization of histamine-like immunoreactivity in the central and peripheral nervous systems of pulmonate snails of the genus Biomphalaria. This investigation demonstrates immunoreactive cells throughout the buccal, cerebral, pedal, left parietal and visceral ganglia, indicative of diverse regulatory functions in Biomphalaria. Immunoreactivity was also present in statocyst hair cells, supporting a role for histamine in graviception. In the periphery, dense innervation by immunoreactive fibers was observed in the anterior foot, perioral zone, and other regions of the body wall. This study thus shows that histamine is an abundant transmitter in these snails and its distribution suggest involvement in numerous neural circuits. In addition to providing novel subjects for comparative studies of histaminegic neurons in gastropods, Biomphalaria is also the major intermediate host for the digenetic trematode parasite, which causes human schistosomiasis. The study therefore provides a foundation for understanding potential roles for histamine in interactions between the snail hosts and their trematode parasites.

  13. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  14. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  15. Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

  16. Effect of respiratory pattern on automated clinical blood pressure measurement: an observational study with normotensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakova, Natalia; Nwobodo, Nnenna Harmony Nzeribe; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fei; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that deep breathing could reduce blood pressures (BP) in general. It is also known that BP is decreased during inhalation and increased during exhalation. Therefore, the measured BPs could be potentially different during deep breathing with different lengths of inhalation and exhalation. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate the effect of different respiratory patterns on BPs. Forty healthy subjects (20 males and 20 females, aged from 18 to 60 years) were recruited. Systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP) were measured using a clinically validated automated BP device. There were two repeated measurement sessions for each subject. Within each session, eight BP measurements were performed, including 4 measurements during deep breathing with different respiratory patterns (Pattern 1: 4.5 s vs 4.5 s; Patter 2: 6 s vs 2 s; Pattern 3: 2 s vs 6 s; and Pattern 4: 1.5 s vs 1.5 s, respectively for the durations of inhalation and exhalation) and additional 4 measurements from 1 min after the four different respiratory patterns. At the beginning and end of the two repeated measurement sessions, there were two baseline BP measurements under resting condition. The key experimental results showed that overall automated SBP significantly decreased by 3.7 ± 5.7 mmHg, 3.9 ± 5.2 mmHg, 1.7 ± 5.9 mmHg and 3.3 ± 5.3 mmHg during deep breathing, respectively for Patterns 1, 2, 3 and 4 (all p Pattern 3). Similarly, the automated DBPs during deep breathing in pattern 1, 2 and 4 decreased by 3.7 ± 5.0 mmHg, 3.7 ± 4.9 mmHg and 4.6 ± 3.9 mmHg respectively (all p Pattern 3 with a decrease of 1.0 ± 4.3 mmHg, p = 0.14). Correspondingly, after deep breathing, automated BPs recovered back to normal with no significant difference in comparison with baseline BP (all p > 0.05, except for SBP in Pattern 4). In summary, this study has quantitatively demonstrated that the measured automated BPs decreased

  17. Regulation of the Cardiovascular System by Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuichi; Hattori, Kohshi; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Histamine mediates a wide range of cellular responses, including allergic and inflammatory reactions, gastric acid secretion, and neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Histamine also exerts a series of actions upon the cardiovascular system but may not normally play a significant role in regulating cardiovascular function. During tissue injury, inflammation, and allergic responses, mast cells (or non-mast cells) within the tissues can release large amounts of histamine that leads to noticeable cardiovascular effects. Owing to intensive research during several decades, the distribution, function, and pathophysiological role of cardiovascular H1- and H2-receptors has become recognized adequately. Besides the recognized H1- and H2-receptor-mediated cardiovascular responses, novel roles of H3- and H4-receptors in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology have been identified over the last decade. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of cardiovascular function and dysfunction mediated by histamine receptors, including H3- and H4-receptors, their potential mechanisms of action, and their pathological significance.

  18. Histamine and histamine type-2 receptor antagonists in psoriasis. Mechanisms and speculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1991-01-01

    The findings that the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) improves psoriasis raise the possibility that cellular immune processes may play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is broadly agreed that histamine released by mast cells is one of the molecules involved in the pathog......The findings that the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) improves psoriasis raise the possibility that cellular immune processes may play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is broadly agreed that histamine released by mast cells is one of the molecules involved...... in the pathogenesis. This is supported by the findings that CsA and methotrexate (Mxt) reduce formation and release of histamine. However, the well known side-effects of CsA and Mxt may argue potential use of other agents acting on formation and action of histamine. Such agents may be the histamine-2 receptor...... antagonists, previously reported to have a clinical effect on psoriasis. But randomised short-term studies have disclosed that these drugs have no beneficial or even an aggravating effect on the disease. This article reports on recent findings of improvement in psoriasis using high doses of the histamine-2...

  19. Histamine in diabetes: Is it time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Alessandro; Obara, Ilona; Battell, Emma; Chazot, Paul L; Rosa, Arianna Carolina

    2016-09-01

    The first studies of histamine and diabetes date back to the 1950s. Since that time the involvement of histamine in diabetes was related to its well known vasoactive properties and permeability leakage effects. In particular, the first evidence for a correlation between histamine and diabetes arose in 1989 when an increase in plasma and leucocyte histamine content was observed. Limited independent evidence followed in the subsequent two decades, focusing on both histamine glyceamic control and macro- and microvascular complications of diabetes. However, recent observations have sparked the question whether it is time to reconsider the functional contribution of histamine in diabetes. We reveal an interesting upsurge in the field which provides scope for new insights into the role of histamine in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is associated with the presence of coronary artery calcium in subjects with normal blood pressure but not in subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joo-Wook; Lee, Sung Ho; Byrne, Christopher D; Chung, Pil-Wook; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-02-01

    An association has been described between high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in some studies but not in others. This finding may be explained by a differential impact of inflammation according to the absence or presence of certain co-existing risk factors. Because hypertension may be an effect modifier of inflammation on CVD, our aim was to investigate the relationship between hs-CRP and pre-clinical atherosclerosis in subjects with normal blood pressure and hypertension. Data were analyzed from 14,584 Korean subjects. Subjects were stratified according to: a) 6030 (41.3%) patients with normal blood pressure (hypertension (120-139 mmHg and 80-89 mmHg) and c) 2924 (20.0%) patients with hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg). Prevalence and odds ratio for the association between increased hs-CRP (>2 mg/L) and presence of CAC (coronary artery calcium) were calculated. In both normal and pre-hypertensive groups, the prevalence of CAC >0 was higher in subjects with increased hs-CRP concentrations (>2 mg/L). Adjusting for age, sex, cerebrovascular accident, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus, lifestyle, obesity, fasting glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, there was a significant association between higher hs-CRP levels (>2 mg/L) and CAC score in the normal group (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.16; p = 0.010); a borderline significant association in the pre-hypertensive group (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.99-1.76; p = 0.054); and no association in the hypertensive group (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.76-1.33; p = 0.94). Higher hs-CRP levels (>2 mg/L) are associated with pre-clinical atherosclerosis in subjects with normal blood pressure but not hypertension. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of fatigue induced by strength training on blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on blood pressure response after strength training in hypertensive subjects, trying to identify the effect of failure in this response. We performed a literature search in SciELO, LILACS, PubMed / MedLine databases. Out of 9377 studies, only six met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Five studies (83.3% reported a reduction in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Regarding failure, 66.7% (n = 4 of the studies performed the sets until failure while 33.3% (n = 2 interrupted exercise before failure. Out of the four studies that used protocols until failure, 75% (n=3 observed a reduction in blood pressure, and the two studies who discontinued before the series also showed a reduction of failure. The magnitude of blood pressure reduction was similar among studies that employed both protocols. Thus, the results indicated that the reduction in blood pressure after strength training in subjects with hypertension is independent of the occurrence of failure.

  2. Effects of Administration of Fostamatinib on Blood Concentrations of an Oral Contraceptive in Healthy Female Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Scientific Terminology Rheumatoid Arthritis, Healthy Female Volunteers, Pharmacokinetics, Oral Contraceptive, Drug-drug Interaction; Laymen Terminology Level of Oral Contraceptive in Blood, Oral Contraceptive, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Drug -Drug Interaction

  3. Association between mercury concentrations in blood and hair in methylmercury-exposed subjects at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul J

    2004-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were measured in paired hair and blood samples from a cohort of about 1000 children examined at birth and at 7 and 14 years of age. The ratio between concentrations in maternal hair (in microg/g) and in cord blood (microg/L) was approximately 200, but samples from...... the children at age 14 years showed a ratio of about 250. These findings are in accordance with previous data from smaller studies. However, an even higher ratio of about 360 was seen at 7 years of age, suggesting that hair strands at this age retain more mercury. The 95th percentile of the hair-to-blood ratio...... mercury concentrations, a tendency that could not be explained by potential confounders, such as alcohol intake or number of amalgam fillings. The total imprecision (coefficient of variation) for the blood determinations averaged about 30%, thereby substantially exceeding normal laboratory imprecision...

  4. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul; Björck, Inger M E

    2005-07-01

    Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under the curve (AUC)] after whey ingestion. Postprandial GIP responses were higher after whey ingestion, whereas no differences were found in GLP-1 between the reference and test meals. It can be concluded that the addition of whey to meals with rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates stimulates insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  5. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Bighamian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called target volume ratio. The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift, and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE of 0.6 % and 9.5 % across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes.

  6. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Reisner, Andrew T; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called "target volume ratio"). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift), and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.6 and 9.5% across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes.

  7. [Blood biochemical parameters of tilted primates periodically subjected to gravitational stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, M A; Aiusheva, I A; Rudneva, R I; Korol'kov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Head-down tilting of primates (HOT) is a universal method of studying the hypokinetic syndrome effects on functionality of various body systems. Clinical biochemical blood assay was performed in a 25-day HDT experiment (-5 degrees) with 11 Macaca rhesus. One group of animals was kept tilted all the time through, whereas the other was periodically returned into the orthostatic position for 30 to 120 minutes 4-5 times a week. Dry chemistry was employed in biochemical analysis of blood serum and enzyme immunodetection (EID) in measuring blood hormones. As a rule, the biochemical parameters of primates' serum were within the physiological norm range. Shifts in protein, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism were sought for and enzymic activity in blood serum and hormone concentrations were determined. HDT did not produce noteworthy changes in blood concentrations of somatotropic hormone, thyrotrophic hormone (TTH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) or cortisol. Animals of both groups showed statistically reliable decrease in blood osteocalcine. The preventive complex did not contribute materially to the control of metabolic homeostasis and endocrine function of the primates adapting to the 25-day HDT.

  8. Intra-arterial blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de Souza Nery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe blood pressure responses during resistance exercise in hypertensive subjects and to determine whether an exercise protocol alters these responses. INTRODUCTION: Resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement for aerobic exercise for hypertensive patients. However, blood pressure changes during this kind of exercise have been poorly investigated in hypertensives, despite multiple studies of normotensives demonstrating significant increases in blood pressure. METHODS: Ten hypertensive and ten normotensive subjects performed, in random order, two different exercise protocols, composed by three sets of the knee extension exercise conducted to exhaustion: 40% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM with a 45-s rest between sets, and 80% of 1RM with a 90-s rest between sets. Radial intra-arterial blood pressure was measured before and throughout each protocol. RESULTS: Compared with normotensives, hypertensives displayed greater increases in systolic BP during exercise at 80% (+80±3 vs. +62±2 mmHg, P<0.05 and at 40% of 1RM (+75±3 vs. +67±3 mmHg, P<0.05. In both exercise protocols, systolic blood pressure returned to baseline during the rest periods between sets in the normotensives; however, in the hypertensives, BP remained slightly elevated at 40% of 1RM. During rest periods, diastolic blood pressure returned to baseline in hypertensives and dropped below baseline in normotensives. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise increased systolic blood pressure considerably more in hypertensives than in normotensives, and this increase was greater when lower-intensity exercise was performed to the point of exhaustion.

  9. Unaltered blood coagulation and platelet function in healthy subjects exposed to acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, Matti; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Siimes, Martti A; Siitonen, Simo; Parkkola, Kai; Lemponen, Marja; Lassila, Riitta

    2011-07-01

    Acute hypoxia has been suspected to cause blood coagulation and platelet activation. Our aim was to study blood coagulation and platelet function during a short hypoxic exposure. Healthy nonsmoking men (N = 10) inhaled a normobaric hypoxic gas mixture containing 8% of oxygen (92% nitrogen) for 7 min via a face mask. Venous blood was collected 5 min before and during the 5 to 7 min of hypoxia exposure (i.e., pretest and hypoxia samples, respectively) while monitoring arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) with pulse oximetry. Blood sampling was completed in 2 min and the face mask was removed. Venous epinephrine and norepinephrine, complete blood counts, and a panel of coagulation markers were analyzed. Platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, and thrombin receptor activating peptide was studied with Multiplate and shear force-dependent functions with PFA-100R (collagen/epinephrine and collagen/ADP cartridges), both assays in whole blood. During hypoxia, SaO2 declined from 98 to 58% (ranges 97-99% vs. 42-85%), while heart rate increased from 69/min to 94/min (SD 11 vs. SD 13). Venous epinephrine and norepinephrine levels also increased. This short hypoxia induced minor but uniform increases in red cells, reticulocytes, and leukocytes and decreases in platelet counts. Plateletfunctions and prothrombin time, APTT, thrombin time, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels or von Willebrand factor (VWF), antithrombin, factor V (FV) or FVIII activities did not change. Profound acute hypoxia failed to affect blood coagulation or platelet functions in healthy individuals.

  10. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, and one possible explanation is that elevated UAE reflects a generalized vascular dysfunction. The present study tests whether the plasma concentrations of the two main endothelial vasoactive substances (nitric oxide...... and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are changed in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAE (>6.6 microg/ min-the 90th percentile in the background population) and to test associations between these concentrations and systemic blood pressure. Twenty-seven subjects with elevated UAE were compared with 46 matched...

  11. Shilajit: evalution of its effects on blood chemistry of normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Jha, Jagrati; Shrinivas, V; Dwivedi, L K; Suresh, P; Sinha, M

    2003-10-01

    The effect of Shilajit on blood chemistry was studied in normal human volunteers. Administration of two gms of Shilajit for 45 days did not produced any significant change in physical parameters i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate and body weight and similarly no charge was observed in hematological parameters. A signification reduction in Serum Triglycerides, Serum cholesterol with simultaneous improvement in HDL Cholesterol was seen, besides Shilajit also improved antioxidant status of volunteers. Results of study suggest hypolipidemic and strong antioxidant activity of Shilajit.

  12. Assessment of pre-ejection period in ambulatory subjects using seismocardiogram in a wearable blood pressure monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanqun Zhang; Cottrell, Amber C; Henry, Isaac C; McCombie, Devin B

    2016-08-01

    The ability to monitor arterial blood pressure continuously with unobtrusive body worn sensors may provide a unique and potentially valuable assessment of a patient's cardiovascular health. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) offers an attractive method to continuously monitoring blood pressure. However, PWV technologies based on timing measurements between the ECG and a distal PPG suffer from inaccuracies on mobile patients due to the confounding influence of pre-ejection period (PEP). In this paper, we presented a wearable, continuous blood pressure monitor (ViSi Mobile) that can measure and track changes in PEP. PEP is determined from precordial vibrations captured by an accelerometer coupled to the patient's sternum. The performance of the PEP measurements was evaluated on test subjects with postural change and patient activity. Results showed potential to improve cNIBP accuracy in active patients.

  13. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Erenumab (AMG 334) and Capsaicin-Induced Dermal Blood Flow in Healthy and Migraine Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Chen, Jiyun Sunny; de Hoon, Jan; Van Hecken, Anne; Yan, Lucy; Wu, Liviawati Sutjandra; Hamilton, Lisa; Vargas, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Capsaicin-induced dermal blood flow (CIDBF) is a validated biomarker used to evaluate the target engagement of potential calcitonin gene-related peptide-blocking therapeutics for migraine. To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and quantify the inhibitory effects of erenumab (AMG 334) on CIDBF, CIDBF data were pooled from a single- and a multiple-dose study in healthy and migraine subjects. Methods Repeated capsaicin challenges and DBF measurements were performed and serum erenumab...

  14. [Histamine food poisonings in Japan and other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Miou; Yamamoto, Miyako; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Histamine food poisonings are allergy-like food poisonings caused by the ingestion of spoiled fish containing markedly elevated histamine levels. We examined histamine food poisonings in Japan from 1998 to 2008. In average 8 food poisonings and 150 cases were reported annually and there was no fatality case. In more than 80% of remaining food samples, histamine content exceeded 20 mg/100 g. These poisonings were caused by tuna, billfish (marlin) and mackerel, which contained higher level of histamine than other fishes in histamine food poisonings in Japan. Cooking methods of these fishes were mainly "broiled". We also studied histamine food poisonings in other countries. Tuna was the main fish in histamine food poisonings reported to Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the US and Ozfoodnet in Australia from 2000 to 2006. In the US, histamine food poisonings were also caused by mahimahi and escolar fish. Our review will be useful for in taking measures to reduce risk of histamine food poisonings.

  15. The Lancet Weight Determines Wheal Diameter in Response to Skin Prick Testing with Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Lundgaard, Anna Charlotte; Petersen, Anne S; Hauberg, Lise E; Sharma, Neha; Hansen, Sofie D; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Skin prick test (SPT) is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization. Although not previously assessed qualitatively, lancet weight is hypothesized to be important when performing SPT to minimize the frequency of false positives, false negatives, and unwanted discomfort. Accurate weight-controlled SPT was performed on the volar forearms and backs of 20 healthy subjects. Four predetermined lancet weights were applied (25 g, 85 g, 135 g and 265 g) using two positive control histamine solutions (1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL) and one negative control (saline). A total of 400 SPTs were conducted. The outcome parameters were: wheal size, neurogenic inflammation (measured by superficial blood perfusion), frequency of bleeding, and the lancet provoked pain response. The mean wheal diameter increased significantly as higher weights were applied to the SPT lancet, e.g. from 3.2 ± 0.28 mm at 25 g to 5.4 ± 1.7 mm at 265 g (presponse increased significantly. At 265 g saline evoked two wheal responses (/160 pricks) below 3 mm. The applied weight of the lancet during the SPT-procedure is an important factor. Higher lancet weights precipitate significantly larger wheal reactions with potential diagnostic implications. This warrants additional research of the optimal lancet weight in relation to SPT-guidelines to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the procedure.

  16. Development of common metrics for donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention for the blood donation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Janis L; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; France, Christopher R; McGlone, Sarah T; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Shaz, Beth H

    2014-03-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior has been widely used in blood donation research, but the lack of uniform, psychometrically sound measures makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions or compare results across studies. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to develop such measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were conducted on survey responses collected from college students (n = 1080). The resulting scales were then administered to an independent sample of experienced donors (n = 433) for additional CFAs and to test whether the Theory of Planned Behavior model provided a good fit to the data. CFAs conducted on both samples support the use of six-item scales, with two factors each, to measure donation attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control and a single-factor three-item scale to measure donation intention. Further, structural equation modeling of these measures revealed that the Theory of Planned Behavior provided a strong fit to the data (comparative fit index, 0.976; root mean square error of approximation, 0.041; standardized root mean square residual, 0.055) and accounted for 73.7% of the variance in donation intention. The present findings confirm the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior to the blood donation context and more importantly provide psychometric support for the future use of four brief measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are changed in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAE (>6.6 microg/ min-the 90th percentile in the background population) and to test associations between these concentrations and systemic blood pressure. Twenty-seven subjects with elevated UAE were compared with 46 matched...... controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...

  18. The influence of adverse reactions, subjective distress, and anxiety on retention of first-time blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Anne; Abraham, Charles; Ruiter, Robert A C; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of adverse events (i.e., needle reactions, fatigue, and vasovagal reactions) and feelings of distress and anxiety on retention of first-time blood donors. All effects were explored separately for men and women. First-time blood donors (n = 2438) received a questionnaire, asking them about their experience of adverse events, subjective distress, and anxiety at their first donation. Provision of a second donation was checked approximately 18 months later. After exclusion of nonresponders and donors who did not experience an adverse event, 1278 first-time donors were included in the logistic regression analyses. Nine percent of donors who experienced an adverse event at their first donation did not return for a second donation. Vasovagal reactions decreased retention in both males and females (men-odds ratio [OR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.89; women-OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.98). Fatigue decreased retention in males only (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.91), and subjective distress decreased retention in females only (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92). In addition to decreasing vasovagal reactions, retention interventions could productively target coping with fatigue and reducing subjective distress after adverse reactions. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  19. The effect of phenylephrine on arterial and venous cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Sato, Kohei; Fisher, James P

    2011-01-01

    Sympathetic regulation of the cerebral circulation remains controversial. Although intravenous phenylephrine (PE) infusion reduces the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-determined measure of frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c) O(2) ) and increases middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V...

  20. Enzymatically hydrolyzed lactotripeptides do not lower blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zander, Kim; Bots, Michiel L.; Bak, Annette A. A.; Koning, Mettina M. G.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several placebo-controlled clinical studies suggest that products containing isoleucyl-prolyl-proline and valyl-prolylproline are able to lower blood pressure without adverse effects. The most efficient way of producing high concentrations of these lacto-tripeptides (LTPs) is enzymatic

  1. Pulmonary blood flow and its distribution in highly trained endurance athletes and healthy control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Heinonen (Ilkka); M.J. Savolainen (Markku); C. Han (Chunlei); J. Kemppainen (Jukka); V. Oikonen (Vesa); M. Luotolahti (Matti); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); D. Merkus (Daphne); J. Knuuti (Juhani); K.K. Kalliokoski (Kari)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPulmonary blood flow (PBF) is an important determinant of endurance sports performance, yet studies investigating adaptations of the pulmonary circulation in athletes are scarce. In the present study, we investigated PBF, its distribution, and heterogeneity at baseline and during

  2. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shikora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51±2 years, BMI 37±1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL were 9±1% and 25±4% (P<0.0001, and HbA1c declined by 0.3±0.1% and 1.0±0.2% (P=0.02, baseline 7.8±0.2%. In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n=15, mean arterial pressure reduced by 7±3 mmHg and 8±3 mmHg (P=0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00555958.

  3. Expression of activated Fc gamma RII discriminates between multiple granulocyte-priming phenotypes in peripheral blood of allergic asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanters, Deon; ten Hove, Willem; Luijk, Bart; van Aalst, Corneli; Schweizer, René C; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Bracke, Madelon; Koenderman, Leo

    2007-11-01

    Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway and systemic immune responses. Systemic responses include priming of peripheral blood eosinophils, which is enhanced after allergen challenge. In a subpopulation of asthmatic subjects, neutrophils are associated with bronchial inflammation. We sought to monitor systemic granulocyte priming in allergic asthmatic subjects as a consequence of chronic and acute inflammatory signals initiated by allergen challenge. Blood was taken at baseline and 6 to 24 hours after allergen challenge in asthmatic subjects with and without late asthmatic responses. Systemic granulocyte priming was studied by using expression of cellular markers, such as alpha-chain of Mac-1 (alpha m)/CD11b, L-selectin/CD62L, and an activation epitope present on Fc gamma RII/CD32 recognized by monoclonal phage antibody A17. Eosinophils of asthmatic subjects have a primed phenotype identified by cell-surface markers. Neutrophils of these patients were subtly primed, which was only identified after activation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. After allergen challenge, an acute increase in eosinophil priming characterized by enhanced expression of activated Fc gamma RII was found in patients experiencing a late asthmatic response and not in patients with a single early asthmatic response. In contrast, expression of alpha m/CD11b and L-selectin on granulocytes was not different between control and asthmatic subjects and was not affected by allergen challenge. Interestingly, expression of both adhesion molecules was positively correlated, and alpha m expression on eosinophils and neutrophils correlated positively with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Different phases, phenotypes, or both of allergic asthma are associated with distinct priming profiles of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Insight in differences of systemic innate responses will lead to better definition of asthma subtypes and to better designs of new therapeutic options.

  4. Wavelet coherence analysis of spontaneous oscillations in cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations and arterial blood pressure in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ruofei; Zhang, Ming; Li, Zengyong; Xin, Qing; Lu, Liqian; Zhou, Weiei; Han, Qingyu; Gao, Yuanjin

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to assess the relationship between spontaneous oscillations in changes in cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations (Delta [HbO2]) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals in healthy elderly subjects during the resting state using wavelet coherence analysis. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and ABP signals were obtained from simultaneous measurements in 33 healthy elderly subjects (age: 70.7±7.9 years) and 27 young subjects (age: 25.2±3.7 years) during the resting state. The coherence between Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations in six frequency intervals (I, 0.4-2 Hz; II, 0.15-0.4 Hz; III, 0.05-0.15 Hz; IV, 0.02-0.05 Hz, V, 0.005-0.0095 Hz and VI, 0.005-0.0095 Hz) was analyzed using wavelet coherence analysis. In elderly subjects, the Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations were significantly wavelet coherent in interval I, and wavelet phase coherent in intervals I, II and IV. The wavelet coherence in interval I was significantly higher (p=0.040), in elderly subjects than in young subjects whereas that in interval V significantly lower (p=0.015). In addition, the wavelet phase coherence in interval IV was significantly higher in elderly subjects than in young subjects (p=0.028). The difference in the wavelet coherence of the elderly subjects and the young subjects indicates an altered cerebral autoregulation caused by aging. This study provides new insight into the dynamics of Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations and may be useful in identifying the risk for dynamic cerebral autoregulation processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Platelet-activating factor induces histamine release from human skin mast cells in vivo, which is reduced by local nerve blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Church, M K; Skov, P S

    1997-05-01

    Intradermal injection of platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes wheal and flare reactions, which are inhibited by antihistamines. However, PAF does not release histamine from human dispersed skin mast cells in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and possible mechanisms of PAF-induced histamine release in human skin in vivo with the use of dermal microdialysis. Hollow dialysis fibers were inserted into the upper dermis in forearm skin and each fiber was perfused with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution at a rate of 3.0 microliters/min. PAF (4.5 to 36 mumol/L), lyso-PAF (36 mumol/L), vehicle (negative control), and codeine 750 or 250 mumol/L (positive control) were injected intradermally above separate fibers. Dialysate was collected in 2-minute fractions for 20 minutes and histamine analyzed spectrofluorometrically. PAF, but not lyso-PAF, caused statistically significant dose-related histamine release and wheal and flare reactions. Intradermal mepivacaine administration significantly abrogated flare reactions by PAF and codeine and inhibited histamine release and wheal reactions by PAF but not by codeine. Long-term topical capsaicin administration inhibited histamine release and wheal reactions by PAF but not by codeine. It inhibited flare reactions induced by both compounds. PAF did not release histamine from blood basophils. These data suggest that PAF induced histamine release from mast cells in intact human skin indirectly via neurogenic activation. Further, on the intradermal injection of PAF histamine release and the skin responses, the wheal and the flare, are differentially regulated by neurogenic components.

  6. Changes in gene expression induced by histamine, fexofenadine and osthole: Expression of histamine H1 receptor, COX-2, NF-κB, CCR1, chemokine CCL5/RANTES and interleukin-1β in PBMC allergic and non-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordulewska, Natalia Karolina; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Cieślińska, Anna; Matysiewicz, Michał; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, Edyta

    2017-03-01

    Fexofenadine (FXF) is a third-generation antihistamine drug and osthole is assumed as a natural antihistamine alternative. This paper compares results of histamine, FXF and osthole impact on HRH-1, COX-2, NF-κB-p50, CCR1 mRNA expression. We also measured mRNA expression of IL-1β and CCL5/RANTES in incubated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to compared how histamine, FXF and osthole had influence on expression level and interacts on product secretion. The purpose was to investigate expression pattern in asthma PBMC. The cultures were treated 72h with FXF and osthole. We measured mRNA expression of histamine HRH-1, COX-2, NF-κB-p50, CCR1, IL-1β and CCL5/RANTES with Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR). The present study suggest that osthole may be a potential inhibitor of histamine H1 receptor activity. We also demonstrated that cells cultured with histamine increase COX-2 mRNA expression and osthole reduce it. Allergy remains one of the most common chronic diseases in Europe and it is rapidly approaching epidemic proportions; with current predictions estimating that the number of allergy-afflicted will equal the healthy population by 2020. It is therefore paramount to find new pharmaceuticals which successfully combat allergic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Bighamian; Andrew Reisner; Jin-Oh Hahn

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called target volume ratio). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifyi...

  8. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Redaelli, Gabriella; Croci, Marina; Conti, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP) levels in hypertensive (controlled or not) obese patients. In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP normalized BP levels (in 49% after a weight loss normalize BP levels avoiding the aggressive use of multiple antihypertensive drugs. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil has no effect on cerebral blood flow or blood velocity, but nevertheless induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Jacobsen, Torsten Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are important hemodynamic regulators in many tissues. Glyceryl trinitrate markedly dilates large cerebral arteries and increases cGMP. Here, the authors study the effect of sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of cGMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase 5 on cerebral hemodynamics...... and headache induction. Ten healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study where placebo or sildenafil 100 mg (highest therapeutic dose) were administered on two separate days. Blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (Vmca) was recorded by transcranial Doppler...

  10. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function with regard to blood cadmium in Croatian male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasović, Jasna; Cvitković, Petar; Pizent, Alica; Colak, Bozo; Telisman, Spomenka

    2004-12-01

    In 123 Croatian men with no occupational exposure to metals, the influence of cadmium on reproductive parameters was examined after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, and biomarkers of lead, copper, zinc, and selenium. The following variables were measured: blood cadmium (BCd), blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum copper (SCu), serum zinc (SZn), serum selenium (SSe), activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in blood, testis size, semen quality (including sperm concentration, motility, viability, and morphology), indicators in seminal fluid (the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C4, fructose, zinc, acid phosphatase, and citric acid), and hormones in serum (follicle-stimulating hormone--FSH, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol). The median and range BCd values were 2.94 (0.49-11.93) microg/L in 61 smokers and 0.59 (0.20-3.71) microg/L in 62 nonsmokers (p metals, and other potential confounders when assessing the influence of a particular metal on reproductive function in men, is emphasized.

  11. The effect of foot overpronation on Achilles tendon blood supply in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzis, K; Kalogeris, M; Mandalidis, D; Geladas, N; Karteroliotis, K; Athanasopoulos, S

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon blood flow in individuals with overpronated feet during non-weight- and weight-bearing positions. Achilles tendon blood flow was measured by means of the pulsatility index (PI) and the resistance index (RI) in 15 male individuals with overpronated feet and 15 counterparts with normal feet, using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDI). Achilles tendon ultrasonographic (US) assessment was performed at its musculo-tendinous junction (MTJ), mid-tendon (MT), and osseotendinous junction (OTJ) at a non-weight-bearing relaxed position (RP) and during two-leg stance (TLS) and one-leg upright stance (OLS). PI and RI indices were significantly greater in individuals with overpronated feet compared to individuals with normal feet at the OTJ in OLS position (P < 0.01), and at MT in both TLS (P < 0.001) and OLS positions (P < 0.001). All individuals demonstrated also greater PI and RI indices at MT followed by the OTJ and MTJ in all positions (P < 0.001), and in OLS compared to TLS and the RP at the OTJ (P < 0.01) as well as at MT and MTJ (P < 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that foot overpronation may affect Achilles tendon blood flow, particularly at mid-tendon, thus enhancing the possibility for injury. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sickle erythrocytes enhance phenylephrine and histamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    for phenylephrine (PE) and histamine (H) contractions in control carotid arterial rings were 5.1. (±1.4) x10-6 (n=7) and .... CO2 gas mixture. The rings were given an initial load of 2g, at 37oC and pH 7.4 and were allowed to equilibrate for 60 minutes. Protocol. The rings were first contracted with 80mM K+, to induce reference ...

  13. Morphological and biochemical indicators of blood of rats poisoned by carbon tetrachloride and subject to action of liposomal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutyj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the research on the influence of a developed complex liposomal preparation on the dynamics of morphological and biochemical indicators of the blood of rats subjected to modeled oxidative stress caused by intermuscular injection of 50% carbon tetrachloride at a dose of 0.25 ml per 100 g of body mass. We found that in conditions of intoxication by carbon tetrachloride, the physiological level of hematological indicators of the researched animals’ body was disrupted. This is indicated by the reduction in the amount of erythrocytes, hemoglobin content, concentration of hemoglobin per erythrocyte, increase in the amount of leucocytes, mass of hemoglobin per erythrocyte and increase of colour indicator. Also, we detected suppression of protein synthesis function of the liver. The levels of total protein and albumin fraction were below the normal physiological level. High indicators were observed in the levels of creatinine, urea and total bilirubin. In order to normalize the functional state of the liver under oxidative stress it is reasonable to use a liposomal preparation which contains butafosfan, interferon, thistle and vitamins. In order to normalize morphological and biochemical indicators of the blood of rats subject to intoxication of carbon tetrachloride it is reasonable to use a liposomal preparation that contains butafosfan, selenium, thistle, methionine and vitamins. Using the liposomal preparation Butaselmevit for rats under oxidative stress the morphological and biochemical indicators in the blood normalized. On the 14th day the indictors of the number of erythrocytes, the hemoglobin content, the white blood cell count and red blood indexes compared to control came within the physiological indicators, indicating a recovery of hematopoietic function of the bone marrow and normalized indicators of the functional state of the liver.

  14. Photobacterium phosphoreum caused a histamine fish poisoning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Masashi; Yoda, Tomoko; Ishibashi, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Teizo

    2004-04-01

    An incident of histamine fish poisoning (HFP) occurred due to the consumption of iwashi maruboshi (dried sardine) in Osaka, Japan in March 2002. A histamine-producing bacterial strain, YS4-7, was isolated from iwashi maruboshi that contained 1700 mg of histamine per kilogram. This strain was identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by biochemical examinations and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. P. phosphoreum YS4-7 showed greater capability as a histamine producer at 4 and 12 degrees C than Morganella morganii JCM 1672. Strain YS4-7 produced 546 mg of histamine per kilogram in a sardine homogenate stored for 12 h at 20 degrees C. M. morganii, Raoultella planticola and Hafnia alvei have been isolated from fish implicated in HFP incidents, whereas this is the first report of P. phosphoreum being the causative bacterium in a sporadic case of histamine food poisoning.

  15. Blood cell gene expression profiling in subjects with aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars K; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Sønder, Søren U

    2008-01-01

    with untreated localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) or generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Differentially expressed genes were validated in groups of subjects with LAgP, GAgP, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and controls. METHODS: Candidate genes were identified...

  16. Effect on blood lipids of two daily servings of Camembert cheese. An intervention trial in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis; Paillard, Francois; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Romon, Monique; Bonhomme, Cécile; Schmitt, Bernard; Donazzolo, Yves; Defoort, Catherine; Mallmann, Cécilia; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Bresson, Jean-Louis

    2014-12-01

    As a concentrated source of saturated fat, cheese consumption is considered to be associated with increased cholesterolemia and generally forbidden in dietary guidelines for adults with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of saturated fatty acids on lipid parameters and blood pressure with regards to different types of dairy products: Camembert and full-fat yoghurt. One-hundred and fifty-nine moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects without treatment were instructed to consume two full-fat yoghurts (2 × 125 g) per day for 3 weeks (run-in period) and then for a further period of 5 weeks, either two full-fat yoghurts or two 30 g servings of Camembert cheese per day. We observed that over the 5-week daily consumption of two servings of Camembert cheese, blood pressure and serum lipids did not change in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects. These results suggest that fermented cheese such as Camembert could be consumed daily without affecting serum lipids or blood pressure.

  17. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  18. Smoking influences salivary histamine levels in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, K; Haririan, H; Laky, M; Matejka, M; Andrukhov, O; Rausch-Fan, X

    2012-05-01

    Histamine, a potent vasoactive amine, is increased in saliva of periodontitis patients. The present study aimed to further investigate the diagnostic potential of histamine for periodontal disease and assessed smoking, a major risk factor of periodontitis, as a possible influencing factor. Salivary and serum samples of 106 participants (60 periodontitis patients, 46 controls) were collected. Salivary histamine was determined by a commercially available ELISA kit, and serum C-reactive protein was measured by a routine laboratory test. Cigarettes per day and packyears were assessed as smoking exposure parameters. Statistically significantly increased levels of salivary histamine and serum C-reactive protein were detected between the patient and control group (P = 0.022 and P = 0.001). Salivary histamine levels were significantly higher in smoking compared with non-smoking patients (P smoking exposure parameters (P Smoking, an established and common risk factor of periodontitis, was assessed as a possible influencing factor for salivary histamine. Most interestingly, salivary histamine differed highly significantly between smoking and non-smoking periodontitis patients. Our results suggest a possible involvement of histamine in tobacco-exacerbated periodontal disease, but do not suggest salivary histamine as a reliable diagnostic marker for periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and show how well treatments are working. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  20. Histamine and histamine type-2 receptor antagonists in psoriasis. Mechanisms and speculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1991-01-01

    The findings that the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) improves psoriasis raise the possibility that cellular immune processes may play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease. It is broadly agreed that histamine released by mast cells is one of the molecules involved...... antagonists, previously reported to have a clinical effect on psoriasis. But randomised short-term studies have disclosed that these drugs have no beneficial or even an aggravating effect on the disease. This article reports on recent findings of improvement in psoriasis using high doses of the histamine-2...

  1. Influence of physical activity and dietary habits on lipid profile, blood pressure and BMI in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muros Molina, J J; Oliveras López, Ma J; Mayor Reyes, Ma; Reyes Burgos, T; López García de la Serrana, H

    2011-01-01

    The present study was determined the influence of physical activity and dietary habits on lipid profile, blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Identify the relationship between physical activity and proper nutrition and the probability of suffering from myocardial infarction (MI). Hundred chronically ill with MS who were active and followed a healthy diet were classified as compliant, while the remaining subjects were classified as non-compliant. The compliant subjects show lower BMI values (30.8±4.9 vs 32.5±4.6), as well as lower levels of triacylglycerol (130.4±48.2 vs 242.1±90.1), total cholesterol (193.5±39 vs 220.2±52.3) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (105.2±38.3 vs 139.2±45). They show higher values in terms of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (62.2±20.1 vs 36.6±15.3), with statistically significant differences. In terms of both systolic and diastolic pressure, no differences were revealed between the groups; however, those who maintain proper dietary habits show lower systolic blood pressure levels than the inactive subjects. The probability of suffering from MI greatly increases among the group of non-compliant subjects. Our results demonstrate how performing aerobic physical activity and following an individualized, Mediterranean diet significantly reduces MS indicators and the chances of suffering from MI.

  2. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists are superior to traditional antihistamines in the attenuation of experimental pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Paul J; Williams, Kacy N; Desai, Pragnya J; Karlsson, Lars; McQueen, Daniel; Thurmond, Robin L

    2007-01-01

    Histamine is a potent mediator of itch in humans, yet histamine H(1) receptor antagonists have been shown to be of limited use in the treatment of certain chronic pruritic diseases. The histamine H(4) receptor is a recently described histamine receptor, expressed on hematopoietic cells, linked to the pathology of allergy and asthma. The contribution of the novel histamine H(4) receptor to histaminergic and allergic pruritus was investigated. Histamine and a selective histamine H(4) receptor agonist caused scratching responses in mice, which were almost completely attenuated in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice or by pretreatment with the selective histamine H(4) receptor antagonist, JNJ 7777120. Pruritus induced by allergic mechanisms was also potently inhibited with histamine H(4) receptor antagonist treatment or in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice. In all cases, the inhibitory effect of histamine H(4) receptor antagonist was greater than those observed with histamine H(1) receptor antagonists. The histamine H(4) receptor-mediated pruritus was shown to be independent of mast cells or other hematopoietic cells and may result from actions on peripheral neurons. These results demonstrate that the histamine H(4) receptor is involved in pruritic responses in mice to a greater extent than the histamine H(1) receptor. Histamine H(4) receptor antagonists may have therapeutic utility for treating chronic pruritic diseases in humans where histamine H(1) receptor antagonists are not effective.

  3. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells show increased histamine metabolism when exposed to oscillatory shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlatos, S I; Hollis, T M

    1987-03-01

    Oscillatory shear stress applied to the lining of blood vessels causes endothelial cell injury, one of the essential postulated prerequisites to the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this investigation was to study effects of shear stress on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), in vitro, for varying lengths of time (6 h, 12 h, 24 h) on BAEC histamine content (HC) and histidine decarboxylase activity (HD). Low intensity stress (1.6 dynes/cm2) as well as intermediate and high intensity shear stresses (3.5 dynes/cm2 and 7.6 dynes/cm2) resulted in an accelerated HD (281%) and elevated HC (144%). These data indicate that oscillatory shear stress produces increases in histamine metabolism.

  4. A simple, low cost and fast improved fluorimetric method for Histamine measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorpak Z

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The well-known fluorimetric method for histamine measurement which is one of the common methods in diagnostic laboratories was modified to accelerate and facilitate measurement of serum histamine levels and decrease the costs and restrictions. The modified method needs only 1 ml of whole blood (or serum instead of about 10 ml in original method which is difficult almost or impossible specially for children. In addition, very small amounts of the expensive materials are needed and the samples are saved for about 15 days in -20°C which makes no significant changes. Because in most cases, sample can not be read at sampling day, the saving possibility is an advantage for improved method.

  5. Water ingestion affects orthostatic challenge-induced blood pressure and heart rate responses in young healthy subjects: gender implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, L A; Aaron, A O; Micheal, O S; Oyeyipo, I P

    2011-11-23

    Evidence exists that women have lower orthostatic tolerance than men during quiescent standing. Water ingestion has been demonstrated to improve orthostatic tolerance in patients with severe autonomic dysfunction. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that water ingestion would improve orthostatic tolerance in healthy young women more than in aged-matched men. Thirty seven (22 men and 15 women) healthy subjects aged 22.5± 1.7 and 21.5±1.4 (means±SD) respectively, ingested 50ml (control) and 500ml of water 40min before orthostatic challenge on two separate days of appointment in a randomized controlled, cross-over design. Seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate were determined. Orthostatic tolerance was assessed as the time to presyncope during standing. Ingesting 500ml of water significantly improves orthostatic tolerance by 22% (32.0 ± 5.2 vs 26.2 ± 2.4min; pwater, seated systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure rose significantly in men while only systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure rose significantly in women. However ingesting 500ml of water did not have significant effect on seated heart rate in both men and women. Ingestion of 500ml of water significantly attenuated both the orthostatic challenge-induced increased heart rate and decreased pulse pressure responses especially in women. Diastolic blood pressure tended to be positively correlated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in men than in women. Pulse pressure correlated positively while heart rate correlated negatively to orthostatic tolerance in women but not in men independent of other correlates. Water ingestion is associated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in women but weakly in men independent of other correlates. In conclusion, the findings in the present study demonstrated that water ingestion caused improvement strongly in young women than in young men. This improvement is associated with increased pulse pressure

  6. Circadian blood pressure variability in type 1 diabetes subjects and their nondiabetic siblings - influence of erythrocyte electron transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoni Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normotensive non-diabetic relatives of type 1 diabetes (T1D patients have an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise testing that is associated with indices of metabolic syndrome and increased oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the circadian variability of blood pressure and the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI in healthy siblings of T1D patients vs healthy control subjects who had no first-degree relative with T1D. Secondary aims of the study were to explore the influence of both cardiovascular autonomic function and erythrocyte electron transfer activity as oxidative marker on the ambulatory blood pressure profile. Methods Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was undertaken in 25 controls, 20 T1D patients and 20 siblings. In addition to laboratory examination (including homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity and clinical testing of autonomic function, we measured the rate of oxidant-induced erythrocyte electron transfer to extracellular ferricyanide (RBC vfcy. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP midline-estimating statistic of rhythm and pulse pressure were higher in T1D patients and correlated positively with diabetes duration and RBC vfcy; autonomic dysfunction was associated with diastolic BP ecphasia and increased AASI. Siblings had higher BMI, lower insulin sensitivity, larger SBP amplitude, and higher AASI than controls. Daytime SBP was positively, independently associated with BMI and RBC vfcy. Among non-diabetic people, there was a significant correlation between AASI and fasting plasma glucose. Conclusions Siblings of T1D patients exhibited a cluster of sub-clinical metabolic abnormalities associated with consensual perturbations in BP variability. Moreover, our findings support, in a clinical setting, the proposed role of transplasma membrane electron transport systems in vascular pathobiology.

  7. Histamine intolerance in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaar, F; Melde, A; Magerl, M; Zuberbier, T; Church, M K; Maurer, M

    2016-10-01

    Histamine intolerance and pseudoallergy to foods have been suggested to be causes of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) with some patients reporting exacerbation with histamine-rich foods. The study aim was to identify the rate of histamine-intolerant CSU patients and to characterize the relevance of histamine intolerance as an underlying cause of CSU. A cohort of 157 of moderate to severe CSU patients (UAS7 ≥ 10) was asked to provide a detailed clinical history, particularly in relation to symptom development after eating histamine-rich foods. They subsequently undertook a histamine-free pseudoallergen-low diet followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled oral histamine provocation (75 mg). One third of patients (34%) had a positive history of histamine intolerance. There was no statistical difference between the mean UAS7 scores of patients with positive and negative histories (22.4 ± 1.0 vs. 22.7 ± 0.8). When kept on diet, 46% of patients responded with reduced CSU activity (UAS7 reduction of ≥7). Following double-blind, placebo-controlled oral histamine provocation, 17% of patients gave a positive weal response. There appeared to be little relationship between patient history, response to diet and the weal response to oral histamine provocation. First, the history-positive and -negative groups contained similar proportions of diet and histamine provocation weal-positive patients. Second, the diet-positive and -negative groups contained similar proportions of history-positive and histamine provocation weal-positive patients. Third, the histamine provocation weal-positive and -negative groups had similar rates of history- and diet-positive patients. Finally, only 2 of the 157 patients were positive in all three domains. CSU due to histamine intolerance appears to be rare and cannot be diagnosed based on the history. The study confirms that avoidance diets low in pseudoallergens can improve urticaria symptoms, this is probably not due to the absence of

  8. Histamine-induced paradoxical GH response to TRH/GnRH in men and women: dependence on gonadal steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Thuesen, B; Dejgaard, A

    1990-01-01

    A stimulatory GH response to TRH and GnRH occurs frequently in patients with various pathological conditions, but is absent in normal subjects. We have previously shown that histamine induced a paradoxical GH response to TRH in normal men. Since gonadal steroids influence GH secretion, we...

  9. The effect of circadian blood pressure pattern on presence of fragmented QRS complexes in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Mehmet; Karabag, Yavuz; Karakoyun, Suleyman; Akdeniz, Bahri

    2017-08-01

    The association of deteriorated circadian blood pressure (BP) variability with presence of fragmented QRS (fQRS) on electrocardiography (ECG) is not clear. The present study aims to evaluate the relationship of BP patterns with presence of fQRS on ECG. A total of 338 consecutive newly diagnosed and never treated hypertensive patients who are without left ventricular hypertrophy and underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Patients were classified as dippers, nondippers, and reverse dippers according to ambulatory BP monitoring results. The groups were compared regarding frequency of fQRS on ECG. The frequency of fQRS was significantly higher in reverse dippers compared with dippers (37.7% vs. 20.6%, P = .013). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nighttime systolic BP was found to be an independent predictor of fQRS on ECG (P reverse dipping BP pattern in hypertensive patients (P = .004, odds ratio: 2.416, 95% confidence interval = 1.327-4.396). In conclusion, as a marker of fibrosis and higher fibrotic burden within myocardium, fQRS may be useful to determine the high-risk hypertensive patients in the absence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Histamine and histamine receptors in Tourette syndrome and other neuropsychiatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Pittenger, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The potential contributions of dysregulation of the brain's histaminergic modulatory system to neuropsychiatric disease, and the potential of histamine-targeting medications as therapeutic agents, are gradually coming into focus. The H3R receptor, which is expressed primarily in the central nervous system, is a promising pharmacotherapeutic target. Recent evidence for a contribution of histamine dysregulation to Tourette syndrome and tic disorders is particularly strong; although specific mutations in histamine-associated genes are rare, they have led to informative studies in animal models that may pave the way for therapeutic advances. A controlled study of an H3R antagonist in Tourette syndrome is ongoing. Preclinical studies of H3R antagonists in schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder, and narcolepsy have all shown promise. Recently reported controlled studies have been disappointing in schizophrenia and attention deficit disorder, but the H3R antagonist pitolisant shows promise in the treatment of narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness and is currently under regulatory review for these conditions. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Histamine and epidermal growth factor in women with fibrocystic changes of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieja, K; Stanosz, S; Glowińska, N

    2003-04-01

    In this study, the blood serum concentrations of histamine (HA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) of women with fibrocystic changes (FCCs) of the breast were estimated. The control group comprised 32 women (mean age 44.9+/-4.4 years) without any pathologic changes in their breasts. The study group was made up of 81 women (mean age 44.5+/-3.5 years) with FCCs. The changes were divided into three subtypes: fibrous, cystic, and fibrocystic. In women with FCCs the concentrations of HA (Pbreasts (control group). The concentration of EGF in blood serum was significantly higher in women with the fibrocystic subtype of FCC (Pdisease.

  12. Large-scale subject-specific cerebral arterial tree modeling using automated parametric mesh generation for blood flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mahsa; Tangen, Kevin; Alaraj, Ali; Du, Xinjian; Charbel, Fady T; Linninger, Andreas A

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel technique for automatic parametric mesh generation of subject-specific cerebral arterial trees. This technique generates high-quality and anatomically accurate computational meshes for fast blood flow simulations extending the scope of 3D vascular modeling to a large portion of cerebral arterial trees. For this purpose, a parametric meshing procedure was developed to automatically decompose the vascular skeleton, extract geometric features and generate hexahedral meshes using a body-fitted coordinate system that optimally follows the vascular network topology. To validate the anatomical accuracy of the reconstructed vasculature, we performed statistical analysis to quantify the alignment between parametric meshes and raw vascular images using receiver operating characteristic curve. Geometric accuracy evaluation showed an agreement with area under the curves value of 0.87 between the constructed mesh and raw MRA data sets. Parametric meshing yielded on-average, 36.6% and 21.7% orthogonal and equiangular skew quality improvement over the unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The parametric meshing and processing pipeline constitutes an automated technique to reconstruct and simulate blood flow throughout a large portion of the cerebral arterial tree down to the level of pial vessels. This study is the first step towards fast large-scale subject-specific hemodynamic analysis for clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Histamine and antihistamines in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddenkotte, Jörg; Maurer, Marcus; Steinhoff, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Itching (pruritus) is perhaps the most common symptom associated with inflammatory skin diseases and can be a lead symptom ofextracutaneous disease (e.g., malignancy, infection, metabolic disorders). In atopic dermatitis itching sensations constitute one of the most prominent and distressing features. The most characteristic response to itching is the scratch reflex: a more or less voluntary, often sub-conscious motor activity, to counteract the itch by slightly painful stimuli. The benefit of a short-termed relieve from itching through this scratch reflex though is counteracted by a simultaneous damage of the epidermal layer of the skin which leads to increased transepidermal water loss and drying, which in turn results in a cycle of more itching and more scratching. A wide range of peripheral itch-inducing stimuli generated within or administered to the skin are able to trigger pruritus, one of them being histamine. Based on early experiments, histamine has been suggested to may play a key role in the pathogenesis ofAD. This is reflected by a history for antihistamines in the therapeutic medication of AD patients. Antihistamines are believed to share a common antipruritic effect and therefore are prescribed to the vast majority of AD patient suffering from itch to act alleviating. The level of evidence in support of the benefits of antihistamine treatment, however, is low. To assess the benefit of antihistamines in the treatment of AD in a better way, their mechanisms and specific effects need to be understood more precisely. In particular their precise indication is crucial for successful use. This book chapter will therefore summarize and assess the role of histamine in AD and the efficacy of antihistamines in its treatment based on results of basic research and clinical studies.

  14. DETERMINATION OF HISTAMINE IN FISH USING ELISA TECHNIQUE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUGER, C; SEWING, U; STENGEL, G; KEMA, [No Value; WESTERMANN, J; MANZ, B

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of histamine in fish and fish products via competitive ELISA is described. The advantages of this method are easy sample preparation and handling, screening capabilities, and low costs. Automation enables the performance of the assay with higher series of samples. The Histamine-ELISA is

  15. HISTAMINE PRESENCE IN SARDINIAN CHEESES: A RISK ASSESSMENT CONTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of histamine in Sardinian cheeses (Pecorino Sardo dolce, Pecorino Sardo maturo, Pecorino Romano, Fiore Sardo e Casizolu del Montiferru were determined. The histamine values detected were lower respect to levels reported in the literature (500-1000 ppm.

  16. [Histamine intolerance - are the criteria of an adverse reaction met?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Imke

    2016-06-01

    Searching the internet for an explaination of recurring symptoms, many people come across the so-called histamine intolerance disorder. Also many practitioners like to diagnose this disorder without making sure that reproducibility, a prerequisite for an adverse reaction, is present. Consequently, presumably affected persons are often advised to follow a low-histamine diet. Depending on the source of information, these diets often avoid a huge variety of foods containing more or less histamine, which has a considerable impact on patient quality of life. While most persons benefit from such a diet in the beginning - this might be due to the change in dietary habits or the expectation of symptom improvement by dieting - in the long run the expected loss of symptoms will not happen. Underlying a diminished capacity for histamine degradation, the lack of partial or complete symptom improvement might be due to the fact that endogenous histamine release is responsible for reactions. The role of ingested histamine is discussed controversially. However, it is more than obvious that the histamine content of a certain food alone is not enough to predict its tolerance.If histamine intolerance is suspected, an individual diagnostic and therapeutic procedure is mandatory in order to minimize avoidance and to preserve a high quality of life. Ideally this is done in a close cooperation between allergologists and nutritionists/dieticians.

  17. Association of polymorphisms of two histamine-metabolizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Histamine released from mast cells and basophils plays a key role in the development of allergic diseases such as allergic asthma, rhinitis or anaphylaxis. Histamine-metabolizing enzymes: N-methyltransferase (HNMT) and amiloride binding protein 1(ABP) are involved in allergic inflammation.

  18. Molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the histamine H4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, Rob; Chazot, Paul L; Shenton, Fiona C; Lim, Herman D; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2009-05-01

    The elucidation of the human genome has had a major impact on histamine receptor research. The identification of the human H4 receptor by several groups has been instrumental for a new appreciation of the role of histamine in the modulation of immune function. In this review, we summarize the historical developments and the molecular and biochemical pharmacology of the H4 receptor.

  19. Activation of the canonical beta-catenin pathway by histamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, Sander H.; Hardwick, James C.; Diab, Remco M.; van Santen, Marije M.; Versteeg, Henri H.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; Richel, Dick J.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2003-01-01

    Histamine signaling is a principal regulator in a variety of pathophysiological processes including inflammation, gastric acid secretion, neurotransmission, and tumor growth. We report that histamine stimulation causes transactivation of a T cell factor/beta-catenin-responsive construct in HeLa

  20. Review: Vascular Effects of Histamine | Ebeigbe | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four subtypes of receptors (HFour subtypes of receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4) mediate the actions of histamine. In the vascular wall, the effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype located on presynaptic neurones. Alterations in vascular responses to ...

  1. The Intriguing Role of Histamine in Exercise Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Meredith J; Halliwill, John R

    2017-01-01

    In humans, histamine is a molecular transducer of physical activity responses, and antihistamines modify more than 25% of the genes responding to exercise. Although the upstream signal that results in release of histamine within exercising skeletal muscle remains to be identified, it is likely a fundamental exercise response and not an allergic reaction.

  2. Relationship between heart rate variability, blood pressure and arterial wall properties during air and oxygen breathing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Beata; Szyndler, Anna; Czechowicz, Krzysztof; Kucharska, Wiesława; Graff, Grzegorz; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stephane; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies reported that normobaric hyperoxia influences heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still not fully understood. Several factors are considered including degeneration of endothelium-derived nitric oxide by reactive oxygen species, the impact of oxygen-free radicals on tissues and alterations of autonomic nervous system function. Recently, new devices for the detailed non-invasive assessment of large and small arteries have been developed. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) as a potential indicator of autonomic balance and its relation to blood pressure and vascular properties during medical air (MAB) and 100% oxygen breathing (OXB) in healthy volunteers. In 12 healthy subjects we assessed heart rate and blood pressure variability, baroreflex sensitivity, respiratory frequency, common carotid artery diameter and its wall distensibility, as well as changes in the digital artery pulse waveform, stroke index and systemic vascular resistance during MAB and OXB. Mean and systolic blood pressure have increased significantly while digital pulse amplitude and carotid artery diameter were significantly lower during hyperoxia. Heart rate variability measures did not differ during MAB and OXB. However, the correlations between spectral HRV components and those hemodynamic parameters which have changed due to hyperoxia varied substantially during MAB (correlated significantly) and OXB (no significant correlations were noted). Our findings suggest that autonomic nervous system might not be the main mediator of the cardiovascular changes during 100% oxygen breathing in healthy subjects. It seems that the direct vascular responses are initial consequences of hyperoxia and other cardiovascular parameter alterations are secondary to them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microdialysis combined blood sampling technique for the determination of rosiglitazone and glucose in brain and blood of gerbils subjected to cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Wayne H-H; Chuang, Hsiu-Chun; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Lee, Maw-Rong; Chou, Chi-Chi; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2011-03-25

    Rosiglitazone is a potent synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist which improves glucose control in the plasma and reduces ischemic brain injury. However, the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone in the brain is still unclear. In this study, a method using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with microdialysis and an auto-blood sampling system was developed to determine rosiglitazone and glucose concentration in the brain and blood of gerbils subjected to treatment with rosiglitazone (3.0 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The results showed the limit of detection was 0.04 μg L(-1) and the correlation coefficient was 0.9997 for the determination of rosiglitazone in the brain. The mean parameters, maximum drug concentration (C(max)) and the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC(inf)), following rosiglitazone administration were 1.06±0.28 μg L(-1) and 296.82±44.67 μg min L(-1), respectively. The time to peak concentration (C(max) or T(max)) of rosiglitazone occurred at 105±17.10 min, and the mean elimination half-life (t(1/2)) from brain was 190.81±85.18 min after administration of rosiglitazone. The brain glucose levels decreased to 71% of the basal levels in the rosiglitazone-treated group when compared with those in the control (pglucose levels to 80% at 1h after pretreatment of rosiglitazone (pdetermination of rosiglitazone and glucose concentrations in brain and plasma. Rosiglitazone was effective at penetrating the blood-brain barrier as evidenced by the rapid appearance of rosiglitazone in the brain, and rosiglitazone may contribute to a reduction in the extent of injuries related to cerebral ischemic stroke via its hypoglycemic effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Histamine poisoning and control measures in fish and fishery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histamine poisoning is one of the most common form of intoxication caused by the ingestion of fish and fishery products. Cooking, canning or freezing cannot reduce the levels of histamine because this compound is heat stable. All humans are susceptible to histamine and its effects can be described as intolerance or intoxication depending on the severity of the symptoms. The amount of histamine in food, the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity in human organism represent the main factors affecting the toxicological response in consumers. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by European Legislation, up to a maximum of 200 mg/kg in fresh fish and 400 mg/kg in fishery products treated by enzyme maturation in brine.

  5. Rhinovirus-induced alterations on peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotype and costimulatory molecule expression in normal and atopic asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, N G; Stanciu, L A; Papi, A; Holgate, S T; Johnston, S L

    2002-04-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) infection is the commonest trigger of acute asthma exacerbations; however, the immune response to these viruses and any potential implications in the mechanisms leading to asthma exacerbations are not well understood. To assess the effects of in vitro RV infection on the phenotype and expression of costimulatory molecules on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal and atopic asthmatic subjects, as a model for RV antigen presentation. PBMC from seven normal and seven asthmatic subjects were exposed to one infectious unit/cell of RV16 for 48 h. Surface expression of CD25, CD28, CD40, CD54, CD80, CD86 and CTLA-4 was evaluated on CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14 and CD19 PBMC subpopulations by three-colour flow cytometry. No changes in the percentage of CD3, CD4, CD8 or CD19 were observed. CD14 was significantly reduced by the infection and this was more pronounced in normal subjects. On Th cells CTLA-4 was increased after RV infection only in the asthmatic group. Levels of CD80 and CD86 in the control cultures were lower in the asthmatic group. RV infection induced a significant increase of CD80 on monocytes and of CD86 on B cells, which occurred in both groups but were less marked in atopic asthmatic subjects. Exposure of PBMC to RV is able to activate the antigen presentation machinery. Differences between normal and atopic asthmatic individuals are compatible with the hypothesis that an aberrant immune response to RV may be involved in the development of acute exacerbations in atopic asthmatic subjects.

  6. IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysate lowers blood pressure in subjects with stage 1 hypertension, a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloek Joris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk derived peptides have been identified as potential antihypertensive agents. The primary objective was to investigate the effectiveness of IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysates (MPH on reducing blood pressure (BP as well as to investigate safety parameters and tolerability. The secondary objective was to confirm or falsify ACE inhibition as the mechanism underlying BP reductions by measuring plasma renin activity and angiotensin I and II. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study including 70 Caucasian subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Study treatments consisted of daily consumption of two capsules MPH1 (each containing 7.5 mg Isoleucine-Proline-Proline; IPP, MPH2 (each containing 6.6 mg Methionine-Alanine-Proline, 2.3 mg Leucine-Proline-Proline, 1.8 mg IPP, or placebo (containing cellulose for 4 weeks. Results In subjects with stage 1 hypertension, MPH1 lowered systolic BP by 3.8 mm Hg (P = 0.0080 and diastolic BP by 2.3 mm Hg (P = 0.0065 compared with placebo. In prehypertensive subjects, the differences in BP between MPH1 and placebo were not significant. MPH2 did not change BP significantly compared with placebo in stage I hypertensive or prehypertensive subjects. Intake of MPHs was well tolerated and safe. No treatment differences in hematology, clinical laboratory parameters or adverse effects were observed. No significant differences between MPHs and placebo were found in plasma renin activity, or angiotensin I and II. Conclusions MPH1, containing IPP and no minerals, exerts clinically relevant BP lowering effects in subjects with stage 1 hypertension. It may be included in lifestyle changes aiming to prevent or reduce high BP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471263

  7. Histamine induces NF-κB controlled cytokine secretion by orbital fibroblasts via histamine receptor type-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Virakul (Sita); T. Phetsuksiri (Tanachaporn); C. van Holten-Neelen; B. Schrijver (Benjamin); L. van Steensel (Leendert); V.A.S.H. Dalm (Virgil); A.D.A. Paridaens (Dion); W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); P.M. van Hagen (Martin); W.A. Dik (Willem)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMast cells and their products are likely to be involved in regulating orbital fibroblast activity in Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Histamine is abundantly present in granules of mast cells and is released upon mast cell activation. However, the effect of histamine on orbital fibroblasts

  8. Substantial Inter-Subject Variability in Blood Pressure Responses to Glucose in a Healthy, Non-obese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathriona R. Monnard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A large inter-subject variability in the blood pressure (BP response to glucose drinks has been reported. However, the underlying factors remain elusive and we hypothesized that accompanying changes in glucose metabolism affect these BP responses.Methods: Cardiovascular and glycemic changes in response to a standard 75 g oral-glucose-tolerance-test were investigated in 30 healthy, non-obese males. Continuous cardiovascular monitoring, including beat-to-beat BP, electrocardiographically deduced heart rate and impedance cardiography, was performed during a 30 min baseline and continued up to 120 min after glucose ingestion. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for the assessment of glucose, insulin and c-peptide. Additionally, we evaluated body composition by using validated bioelectrical impedance techniques.Results: Individual overall changes (i.e., averages over 120 min for systolic BP ranged from −4.9 to +4.7 mmHg, where increases and decreases were equally distributed (50%. Peak changes (i.e., peak averages over 10 min intervals for systolic BP ranged from −1.3 to +9.5 mmHg, where 93% of subjects increased systolic BP above baseline values (similar for diastolic BP whilst 63% of subjects increased peak systolic BP by more than 4 mmHg. Changes in peak systolic BP were negatively associated with the calculated Matsuda-index of insulin sensitivity (r = −0.39, p = 0.04 but with no other evaluated parameter including body composition. Moreover, besides a trend toward an association between overall changes in systolic BP and total fat mass percentage (r = +0.32, p = 0.09, no association was found between other body composition parameters and overall BP changes.Conclusion: Substantial inter-subject variability in BP changes was observed in a healthy, non-obese subpopulation in response to an oral glucose load. In 63% of subjects, peak systolic BP increased by more than a clinically relevant 4 mmHg. Peak systolic

  9. Cold urticaria patients exhibit normal skin levels of functional mast cells and histamine after tolerance induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring Tannert, Line; Stahl Skov, Per; Bjerremann Jensen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Cold urticaria is a skin condition characterized by rapid appearance of itchy wheals and occasionally angioedema in response to cold stimulation. Antihistamines do not sufficiently protect all patients from symptoms, even when used in higher than standard doses. In these patients, desensitization...... to cold can be beneficial. The aim was to investigate whether desensitization can lower temperature thresholds and reduce release of histamine in the skin. Cold urticaria patients were subjected to desensitization and assessed for skin responses to cold stimulation and codeine before and after. Histamine...... levels mediated by cold and codeine were determined by cutaneous microdialysis before and after desensitization in patients and healthy controls. Desensitization to cold resulted in protection from cold-induced symptoms and lower temperature thresholds in six out of nine patients. Desensitization also...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus and influenza A virus stimulate human bronchoalveolar cells to release histamine and leukotrienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1989-01-01

    Mediator release was examined from superficially lying cells in the airway epithelium obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in 13 non-atopic individuals. The BAL-cells were incubated (20 min, 37 degrees C) with Staphylococcus (Staph.) aureus or with human influenza A virus Staph. aureus...... was found to release histamine from cells from 7 of the 13 individuals and influenza A virus in 3 of 5 persons. Furthermore, Staph, aureus stimulated the BAL-cells to release leukotriene B4 in 7 of 11 subjects, whereas no release was found by influenza A virus in 7 examined persons. When cells from 4...... persons were stimulated with Staph. aureus no release of leukotriene C4 was found. The mediator release caused by bacteria and virus might be of importance for the exacerbation of bronchial asthma in upper respiratory tract infections, since histamine is assumed to increase the epithelial permeability...

  11. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can affect people who have a diet ... 2015 More on this topic for: Teens Blood Types Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Hemophilia When Cancer Keeps You ...

  12. Monocytes and neutrophils as 'bad guys' for the outcome of interleukin-2 with and without histamine in metastatic renal cell carcinoma--results from a randomised phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, F; Hokland, M; Marcussen, N

    2006-01-01

    Histamine (HDC) inhibits formation and release of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, and thereby protects natural killer (NK) and T cells against oxidative damage. Thus, the addition of histamine may potentially improve the efficacy of interleukin-2 (IL-2). We have explored this potential...... mechanism clinically in two randomised phase II trials in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In parallel with the clinical trial in Denmark (n=63), we obtained serial blood samples and tumour biopsies searching for a potential histamine effect in situ. At baseline and on-treatment weeks 3 and 8, we...

  13. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    blood were found in Korea. • Gender was found to influence the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. • Significant positive associations between PFAS levels and age of subjects were found. • Occupation was a determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations.

  14. Weight loss and blood pressure reduction in obese subjects in response to nutritional guidance using information communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Kanako; Sakurai, Nozomi; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome caused by visceral-fat obesity is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. This study used a new information communication technology (ICT) to investigate body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) changes in response to nutritional guidance. Obese subjects with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or impaired glucose tolerance received guidance with the ICT method (n = 13) or face-to-face according to conventional methods (n = 39). The effects of the methods were compared. After 12 weeks, significant weight loss and BP reduction were observed in the ICT group. Also, significant higher improvements were observed in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and HbA(1c) in the ICT-group compared with those groups using the conventional method. The effectiveness of the ICT method in reducing BW, BP, total and LDL cholesterol, and HbA(1c) was demonstrated.

  15. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  16. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during isoflurane-induced hypotension in patients subjected to surgery for cerebral aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J B; Cold, G E; Hansen, E S

    1987-01-01

    ). Controlled hypotension to an average MAP of 50-55 mm Hg was induced by increasing the dose of isoflurane, and maintained at an inspired concentration of 2.2 +/- 0.2%. This resulted in a significant decrease in CMRO2 (to 1.73 +/- 0.16 ml/100 g min-1), while CBF was unchanged. After the clipping......Cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were measured during isoflurane-induced hypotension in 10 patients subjected to craniotomy for clipping of a cerebral aneurysm. Flow and metabolism were measured 5-13 days after the subarachnoid haemorrhage by a modification...... of the aneurysm the isoflurane concentration was reduced to 0.75%. There was a significant increase in CBF, although CMRO2 was unchanged, compared with pre-hypotensive values. These changes might offer protection to brain tissue during periods of induced hypotension....

  17. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP(24)) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models......, which included both ABP(24) and eGFR, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.008) both total (513 deaths) and cardiovascular (206) mortality; eGFR only predicted cardiovascular mortality (P=0.012). Furthermore, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.0056) fatal combined with nonfatal events as a result of all cardiovascular causes...... (555 events), cardiac disease (335 events), or stroke (218 events), whereas eGFR only predicted the composite cardiovascular end point and stroke (P≤0.035). The interaction terms between ABP(24) and eGFR were all nonsignificant (P≥0.082). For cardiovascular mortality, the composite cardiovascular end...

  18. Exercise responsive genes measured in peripheral blood of women with chronic fatigue syndrome and matched control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whistler, Toni; Jones, James F; Unger, Elizabeth R; Vernon, Suzanne D

    2005-03-24

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is defined by debilitating fatigue that is exacerbated by physical or mental exertion. To search for markers of CFS-associated post-exertional fatigue, we measured peripheral blood gene expression profiles of women with CFS and matched controls before and after exercise challenge. Women with CFS and healthy, age-matched, sedentary controls were exercised on a stationary bicycle at 70% of their predicted maximum workload. Blood was obtained before and after the challenge, total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells, and signal intensity of the labeled cDNA hybridized to a 3800-gene oligonucleotide microarray was measured. We identified differences in gene expression among and between subject groups before and after exercise challenge and evaluated differences in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Exercise-responsive genes differed between CFS patients and controls. These were in genes classified in chromatin and nucleosome assembly, cytoplasmic vesicles, membrane transport, and G protein-coupled receptor ontologies. Differences in ion transport and ion channel activity were evident at baseline and were exaggerated after exercise, as evidenced by greater numbers of differentially expressed genes in these molecular functions. These results highlight the potential use of an exercise challenge combined with microarray gene expression analysis in identifying gene ontologies associated with CFS.

  19. Exercise responsive genes measured in peripheral blood of women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and matched control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Elizabeth R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is defined by debilitating fatigue that is exacerbated by physical or mental exertion. To search for markers of CFS-associated post-exertional fatigue, we measured peripheral blood gene expression profiles of women with CFS and matched controls before and after exercise challenge. Results Women with CFS and healthy, age-matched, sedentary controls were exercised on a stationary bicycle at 70% of their predicted maximum workload. Blood was obtained before and after the challenge, total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells, and signal intensity of the labeled cDNA hybridized to a 3800-gene oligonucleotide microarray was measured. We identified differences in gene expression among and between subject groups before and after exercise challenge and evaluated differences in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Exercise-responsive genes differed between CFS patients and controls. These were in genes classified in chromatin and nucleosome assembly, cytoplasmic vesicles, membrane transport, and G protein-coupled receptor ontologies. Differences in ion transport and ion channel activity were evident at baseline and were exaggerated after exercise, as evidenced by greater numbers of differentially expressed genes in these molecular functions. Conclusion These results highlight the potential use of an exercise challenge combined with microarray gene expression analysis in identifying gene ontologies associated with CFS.

  20. Histamine Potentiates Cyclosomatostatin-Induced Catalepsy in Old Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The decreased level of somatostatin and increased level of histamine are detected in the Parkinsonian brain. In old Wistar rats, the brain somatostatin deficiency can initiate catalepsy that suggests the pathogenic significance of this abnormality in Parkinson’s disease (PD. The ability of histamine to affect the somatostatin deficiency action is not studied. Objectives The current study aimed to examine if histamine alters the cataleptogenic activity of the brain somatostatin deficiency in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods The animals used in the study were 100 - 110 and 736 - 767 days old. Catalepsy was evaluated by the bar test. The inhibition of the brain somatostatin activity was simulated by I.C.V. administration of cyclosomatostatin (cycloSOM, a somatostatin receptor antagonist. Results CycloSOM (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 µg and histamine (1.0 and 10.0 µg alone were ineffective in both young and old animals. In combination, however, cycloSOM and histamine initiated cataleptic response in old rats. Effect of the combination was inhibited by H1 and H2 but not H3 antagonists. Conclusions CycloSOM and histamine synergistically exert catalepsy in old rats. In light of these data, the combination of the decreased brain level of somatostatin and increased brain level of histamine may be of pathogenic relevance for extrapyramidal signs in PD.

  1. In vivo histamine voltammetry in the mouse premammillary nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Srimal; Abdalla, Aya; Robke, Rhiannon; Wood, Kevin M; Zeqja, Anisa; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2015-06-07

    Histamine plays a major role in the mediation of allergic reactions such as peripheral inflammation. This classical monoamine is also a neurotransmitter involved in the central nervous system but its role in this context is poorly understood. Studying histamine neurotransmission is important due to its implications in many neurological disorders. The sensitivity, selectivity and high temporal resolution of fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) offer many advantages for studying electroactive neurotransmitters. Histamine has previously been studied with FSCV; however, the lack of a robust Faradaic electrochemical signal makes it difficult to selectively identify histamine in complex media, as found in vivo. In this work, we optimize an electrochemical waveform that provides a stimulation-locked and unique electrochemical signal towards histamine. We describe in vitro waveform optimization and a novel in vivo physiological model for stimulating histamine release in the mouse premammillary nucleus via stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. We demonstrate that a robust signal can be used to effectively identify histamine and characterize its in vivo kinetics.

  2. Effect of negative ionisation of inspired air on the response of asthmatic children to exercise and inhaled histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, I; Amirav, I; Shochina, M; Amitai, I; Bar-Yishay, E; Godfrey, S

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of negative ionisation of inspired air on bronchial reactivity, 11 asthmatic children were challenged twice by exercise and 10 were challenged twice by histamine inhalation. The children breathed negatively ionised air (4 X 10(5) - 10 X 10(5) ions/cm3) or control room air in random order in a double-blind fashion. All challenges were matched in terms of basal lung function and the exercise tests were matched in terms of ventilation and respiratory heat loss. Exercise-induced asthma was significantly attenuated by exposure to negatively ionised air, the mean postexercise fall in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) being 29% (SE 5%) of the initial value after the control and 21% (3%) after the ionised air test (p less than 0.02). Ten of the 11 subjects developed less exercise-induced asthma while breathing ionised air. Although the median dose of histamine (cumulative breath units) which caused a constant fall in FEV1 for each individual was higher with the ionised air challenge than with the control challenge the difference was not significant. Five of the 10 subjects were less sensitive to histamine and the other five more sensitive when breathing ionised air. It is concluded that negative ionisation of inspired air can modulate the bronchial response to exercise but the effect on the response to histamine is much more variable. PMID:6351332

  3. Search for the presence of six Mycoplasma species in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects seropositive and seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacic, R; Launay, V; Tuppin, P; Lafeuillade, A; Feuillie, V; Montagnier, L; Grau, O

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma penetrans was investigated by using specific PCR assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects infected or not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Only M. fermentans was detected in 5.8% of 154 HIV-seropositive and 11.1% of 90 HIV-seronegative subjects.

  4. Radioprotective potential of histamine on rat small intestine and uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, E.; Massari, N.; Croci, M.; Martinel Lamas, D.; Prestifilippo, J.P.; Ciraolo, P.; Bergoc, R.M.; Rivera, E.S.; Medina, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve knowledge about histamine radioprotective potential investigating its effect on reducing ionising radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage on the rat small intestine and uterus. Forty 10-week-old male and 40 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Histamine and histamine-5Gy groups received a daily subcutaneous histamine injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 24 h before irradiation. Histamine-5Gy and untreated-5Gy groups were irradiated with a dose of whole-body Cesium-137 irradiation. Three days after irradiation animals were sacrificed and tissues were removed, fixed, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferation, apoptosis and oxidative DNA markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate chromosomal damage. Histamine treatment reduced radiation-induced mucosal atrophy, oedema and vascular damage produced by ionising radiation, increasing the number of crypts per circumference (239±12 vs 160±10; Phistamine decreased the frequency of micronuclei formation and also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG immunoreactivity, a marker of DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, radiation induced flattening of the endometrial surface, depletion of deep glands and reduced mitosis, effects that were completely blocked by histamine treatment. The expression of a proliferation marker in uterine luminal and glandular cells was markedly stimulated in histamine treated and irradiated rats. The obtained evidences indicate that histamine is a potential candidate as a safe radio-protective agent that might increase the therapeutic index of radiotherapy for intra-abdominal and pelvic cancers. However, its efficacy needs to be carefully investigated in prospective clinical trials. PMID:23361244

  5. Are blood pressure and diabetes additive or synergistic risk factors? outcome in 8494 subjects randomly recruited from 10 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    It remains unknown whether diabetes and high blood pressure (BP) are simply additive risk factors for cardiovascular outcome or whether they act synergistically and potentiate one another. We performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in 8494 subjects (mean age, 54.6 years; 47.0% women; 6.9% diabetic...... as the reference group, the adjusted hazard ratios for the cardiovascular endpoint were 1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-2.11) for white-coat hypertension, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.22-2.60) for masked hypertension and 2.44 (95% CI, 1.92-3.11) for sustained hypertension. The hazard ratios for non-diabetic subjects...... were not different from those of diabetic patients (P-values for interaction, 0.09¿P¿0.72). In conclusion, in a large international population-based database, both diabetes mellitus and BP contributed equally to the risk of cardiovascular complications without evidence for a synergistic effect.Hypertension...

  6. [Ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive subjects. Definition of reference values as a function of age by the Spacelabs instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagny, J Y; Delva, R; Aouizerate, M; Chatellier, G; Battaglia, C; Devriès, C; Plouin, P F; Corvol, P; Ménard, J

    1987-10-10

    For a finer assessment, by repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements, of the cardiovascular risk associated with BP levels, new instruments have been developed which provide multiple reading during periods of activity. However, the lack of epidemiological studies makes it necessary to determine reference ambulatory BP levels by another method. Twelve-hour recordings were taken with the Spacelabs instrument in 130 volunteers (45% males) aged from 20 to 90 years during their various activities. Mean systolic and diastolic BP values +/- SD were calculated per age-groups of 10 years each. That this sample was representative of the general population was confirmed by the fact that BP fluctuations and variations according to age and sex in these 130 subjects were identical with those observed in the population of an entire town (Framingham). The concept of hypertension, as defined by ambulatory BP recordings, is discussed. This study provides, for the first time, reference ambulatory BP values according to age and sex, measured in normotensive subjects with the Spacelabs instrument. These values constitute a preliminary step indispensable to evaluate this technique in hypertensive patients.

  7. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangwei; Chen, Fei; Zhu, Mingping; Chen, Aiqing; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP) variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP). They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD) of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV) were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  8. Histamine release from gut mast cells from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolte, Hendrik; Spjeldnæs, Nikolaj; Kruse, Aksel

    1990-01-01

    of macroscopically inflamed and normal tissue. Mast cells and corresponding basophils were challenged with anti-IgE, anti-IgG, subclass anti-IgG4, and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and results were compared with those from nine patient control subjects. The mast cell count in patients with ulcerative...... colitis was increased compared with that in control subjects and patients with Crohn's disease, and the mast cell count obtained from inflamed tissue was greater than that of normal tissue. The study also shows the heterogeneity of the responsiveness of the histamine releasing cells to various...

  9. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mancusi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products. In this study forty-eight samples of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, fresh or processed were sampled from fish shops and supermarkets in the City of Bologna in the period from January to July 2010. Concentration of histamine was assessed using ELISA quantitative test and presence of psicrotrophic histamine forming bacteria was searched using a modified Niven agar medium which allow detection of suspect colonies that were confirmed by PCR for detecting the presence of the histidine decarboxylase genes in their DNA. The positive colonies were then identified on the basis of their morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical characteristics with API20E. The differential capability of the Niven agar was found to be low and approximately one fifth of the suspect colonies were confirmed by the PCR test, which however included both strong and weak histamine producing strains. The presence of Morganella morganii was associated with concentration of histamine 460 mg∙kg-1 above the allowed limit in a sample of tuna sampled from a fish shop. The same bacterium was found in samples of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. High histamine concentration (between 258 and > 300 mg∙kg-1 were observed in salted European pilchard and European anchovy (228 mg∙kg-1 sold loose in supermarkets. Because temperature abuse could occur when Tuna (fresh/defrozen are hold on chopping board to sell fresh cuts and during shelf life of salted pilchard and pickled anchovies held in opened cans in chilled display cabinets for extended period, which might results in very high histamine concentration, controls on time and temperature at the retail, in addition to those done during the harvest and processing are needed. The studies aiming at

  10. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eKhanfar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®, the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures.

  11. The Lancet Weight Determines Wheal Diameter in Response to Skin Prick Testing with Histamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalte H Andersen

    Full Text Available Skin prick test (SPT is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization.Although not previously assessed qualitatively, lancet weight is hypothesized to be important when performing SPT to minimize the frequency of false positives, false negatives, and unwanted discomfort.Accurate weight-controlled SPT was performed on the volar forearms and backs of 20 healthy subjects. Four predetermined lancet weights were applied (25 g, 85 g, 135 g and 265 g using two positive control histamine solutions (1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL and one negative control (saline. A total of 400 SPTs were conducted. The outcome parameters were: wheal size, neurogenic inflammation (measured by superficial blood perfusion, frequency of bleeding, and the lancet provoked pain response.The mean wheal diameter increased significantly as higher weights were applied to the SPT lancet, e.g. from 3.2 ± 0.28 mm at 25 g to 5.4 ± 1.7 mm at 265 g (p<0.01. Similarly, the frequency of bleeding, the provoked pain, and the neurogenic inflammatory response increased significantly. At 265 g saline evoked two wheal responses (/160 pricks below 3 mm.The applied weight of the lancet during the SPT-procedure is an important factor. Higher lancet weights precipitate significantly larger wheal reactions with potential diagnostic implications. This warrants additional research of the optimal lancet weight in relation to SPT-guidelines to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the procedure.

  12. BLOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit (altruism). '35 An individual who gives blood in replacement for that which has been given to his relation is referred to as family replacement donor. '2 But when a person donates blood for the purpose of transfusing a. defined patient, such a person is referred to as. AHMED S. G. AND HASSAN A. W. a directed donor.

  13. The histamine content of dried flying fish products in Taiwan and the isolation of halotolerant histamine-forming bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Feng Kung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty dried flying fish products were purchased from fishing village stores in Taiwan and tested to detect the presence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Except for histamine and cadaverine, the average content of various biogenic amines in the tested samples was less than 3.5 mg/100 g. Eight (26.6% dried flying fish samples had histamine levels greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration guideline of 5 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or scombroid products, whereas four (13.3% samples contained more than the hazard action level of 50 mg/100 g. One histamine-producing bacterial isolate was identified as Staphylococcus xylosus by 16S rDNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification. This isolate was capable of producing 507.8 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH. The S. xylosus isolate was a halotolerant bacterium that had a consistent ability to produce more than 300 ppm of histamine at 3% sodium chloride concentration in TSBH medium after 72 hours.

  14. Absorption of 51Cr EDTA across the human nasal airway barriers in the presence of topical histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, L; Wollmer, P; Pipkorn, U; Persson, C G

    1991-01-01

    Whether histamine, a mediator that causes exudation, affects the airway absorption of luminal solutes has been examined in a study of eight healthy volunteers. Fluid containing the absorption tracer chromium-51 labelled EDTA was instilled into one nasal cavity for 15 minutes, with a nasal pool-device (total volume 14 ml). The airway absorption of 51Cr EDTA determined by urinary recovery of radioactivity corresponded to 0.095 (SE 0.023) ml of the instillate in the absence of histamine. When histamine was added to the nasal instillate at a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml, which is known to produce substantial exudation of plasma into the airway lumen, the absorption of 51Cr EDTA was unchanged (0.093 (0.025) ml of the instillate). Separate experiments excluded the possibility that any swallowed portion of 51Cr EDTA could have contributed significantly to the amount absorbed. The present data agree with previous observations in guinea pig tracheobronchial airways, where histamine and other exudative agents did not increase the mucosal absorption of solutes from the airway lumen. These data suggest that the potent protein systems of blood plasma can transverse the endothelial-epithelial linings and operate on the surface of the airway mucosa without compromising its integrity as a barrier to luminal material. PMID:1948790

  15. Histamine induces NF-κB controlled cytokine secretion by orbital fibroblasts via histamine receptor type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virakul, Sita; Phetsuksiri, Tanachaporn; van Holten-Neelen, Conny; Schrijver, Benjamin; van Steensel, Leendert; Dalm, Virgil A S H; Paridaens, Dion; van den Bosch, Willem A; van Hagen, P Martin; Dik, Willem A

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells and their products are likely to be involved in regulating orbital fibroblast activity in Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Histamine is abundantly present in granules of mast cells and is released upon mast cell activation. However, the effect of histamine on orbital fibroblasts has not been examined so far. Orbital tissues from GO patients and controls were analyzed for the presence of mast cells using toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemical detection of CD117 (stem cell factor receptor). Orbital fibroblasts were cultured from GO patients and healthy controls, stimulated with histamine and cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CXCL10 and CXCL11) were measured in culture supernatants. Also hyaluronan levels were measured in culture supernatants and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) and hyaluronidase (HYAL) gene expression levels were determined. In addition, histamine receptor subtype gene expression levels were examined as well as the effect of the histamine receptor-1 (HRH1) antagonist loratadine and NF-κB inhibitor SC-514 on histamine-induced cytokine production. Mast cell numbers were increased in GO orbital tissues. Histamine stimulated the production of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 by orbital fibroblasts, while it had no effect on the production of CCL5, CCL7, CXCL10, CXCL11 and hyaluronan. Orbital fibroblasts expressed HRH1 and loratadine and SC-514 both blocked histamine-induced IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 production by orbital fibroblasts. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that histamine can induce the production of NF-κB controlled-cytokines by orbital fibroblasts, which supports a role for mast cells in GO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Histamine Stimulates Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Bronchial Epithelial Cells via Histamine H1 Receptor and Dual Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Balázs; Boudreau, Howard E.; Park, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Besides granulocytes, the airway epithelium can produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species and can contribute to asthma-related oxidative stress. Histamine is a major inflammatory mediator present in large quantities in asthmatic airways. Whether histamine triggers epithelium-derived oxidative stress is unknown. We therefore aimed at characterizing human airway epithelial H2O2 production stimulated by histamine. We found that air–liquid interface cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and an immortalized BEC model (Cdk4/hTERT HBEC) produce H2O2 in response to histamine. The main source of airway epithelial H2O2 is an NADPH dual oxidase, Duox1. Out of the four histamine receptors (H1R–H4R), H1R has the highest expression in BECs and mediates the H2O2–producing effects of histamine. IL-4 induces Duox1 gene and protein expression levels and enhances histamine-induced H2O2 production by epithelial cells. Using HEK-293 cells expressing Duox1 or Duox2 and endogenous H1R, histamine triggers an immediate intracellular calcium signal and H2O2 release. Overexpression of H1R further increases the oxidative output of Duox-expressing HEK-293 cells. Our observations show that BECs respond to histamine with Duox-mediated H2O2 production. These findings reveal a mechanism that could be an important contributor to oxidative stress characteristic of asthmatic airways, suggesting novel therapeutic targets for treating asthmatic airway disease. PMID:23962049

  17. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mancusi, R; Bini, R.M; Cecchini, M; Delle Donne, G; Rosmini, R; Trevisani, M

    2012-01-01

    Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products...

  19. Histamine selectively potentiates acid-sensing ion channel 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaeva, Elina I; Tikhonova, Tatiana B; Magazanik, Lev G; Tikhonov, Denis B

    2016-10-06

    Although acid-sensitive ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in brain functions, the exact mechanism of their physiological activation remain unclear. A possible answer to the intriguing question is that some presently unknown endogenous ligand(s) positively modulate ASICs and enhance their responses to physiologically significant level. In the present work we found that histamine selectively potentiates ASIC1a homomers in CHO cells. Action of histamine was particularly pronounced at modest acidifications, which cause minor response. At these conditions micromolar concentrations of histamine have provided significant potentiation of ASIC1a response. We proposed that histamine and possibly some other endogenous amines can positively modulate ASICs functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ligands of histamine receptors modulate acid-sensing ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteinikov, V Y; Korosteleva, A S; Tikhonova, T B; Potapieva, N N; Tikhonov, D B

    2017-09-02

    Recently we found that synthetic compounds containing amino group linked to hydrophobic or aromatic moiety are potent modulators of the proton-gated channels (ASICs). These structures have clear similarity with ligands of histamine receptors. We have also demonstrated that histamine potentiates homomeric ASIC1a by shifting its activation dependence to less acidic conditions. In the present work the action of a series of histamine receptors ligands on recombinant ASIC1a and ASIC2a was characterized. Two types of action were found for ASIC1a. 1-methylhistamine, N-alpha-methylhistamine, dimaprit and thioperamide caused significant potentiation, which was pH-dependent and voltage-independent. The H4R antagonist A943931 caused inhibition, which is likely due to voltage-dependent pore block. ASIC2a were virtually insensitive to the drugs tested. We conclude that ligands of histamine receptors should also be considered as ASIC modulators. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Wakeful Rest in Older Subjects with Mild to Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Arbour, Caroline; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during wakeful rest in older subjects with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls, and to identify markers of OSA severity that predict altered rCBF. High-resolution (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during wakeful rest. Research sleep laboratory affiliated with a University hospital. Fifty untreated OSA patients aged between 55 and 85 years, divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. N/A. Using statistical parametric mapping, rCBF was compared between groups and correlated with clinical, respiratory, and sleep variables. Whereas no rCBF change was observed in mild and moderate groups, participants with severe OSA had reduced rCBF compared to controls in the left parietal lobules, left precentral gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyri, and right precuneus. Reduced rCBF in these regions and in areas of the bilateral frontal and left temporal cortex was associated with more hypopneas, snoring, hypoxemia, and sleepiness. Higher apnea, microarousal, and body mass indexes were correlated to increased rCBF in the basal ganglia, insula, and limbic system. While older individuals with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor and parietal areas, respiratory variables and subjective sleepiness were correlated with extended regions of hypoperfusion in the lateral cortex. Interestingly, OSA severity, sleep fragmentation, and obesity correlated with increased perfusion in subcortical and medial cortical regions. Anomalies with such a distribution could result in cognitive deficits and reflect impaired vascular regulation, altered neuronal integrity, and/or undergoing neurodegenerative processes. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP. They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P<0.01. For the hypertensive group, SD of repeats decreased from 6.5 to 5.5 mmHg for SBP and from 6.7 to 4.2 mmHg for MAP, and CV decreased from 4.2% to 3.6% for SBP and from 5.8% to 3.8% for MAP (all P<0.05. In conclusion, polynomial curve fitting of oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  3. Extra virgin olive oil use is associated with improved post-prandial blood glucose and LDL cholesterol in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violi, F; Loffredo, L; Pignatelli, P; Angelico, F; Bartimoccia, S; Nocella, C; Cangemi, R; Petruccioli, A; Monticolo, R; Pastori, D; Carnevale, R

    2015-07-20

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a key component of the Mediterranean diet and seems to account for the protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. We tested the effect of EVOO, added to Mediterranean-type meal, on post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile. Post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile were investigated in 25 healthy subjects who were randomly allocated in a cross-over design to a Mediterranean-type meal added with or without 10 g EVOO (first study), or Mediterranean-type meal with EVOO (10 g) or corn oil (10 g; second study). Glycemic profile, which included glucose, insulin, dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) protein and activity, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and lipid profile, which included, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C), were analyzed before and 2 h after the meal. In the first study, 2 h after meal, subjects who assumed a meal with EVOO had significantly lower blood glucose (PEVOO. The second study showed that compared with corn oil, EVOO improved both glycemic and lipid profile. Thus, a significantly smaller increase of glucose (PEVOO showed a significantly less increase of LDL-C (PEVOO improves post-prandial glucose and LDL-C, an effect that may account for the antiatherosclerotic effect of the Mediterranean diet.

  4. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Betty J; Anousheh, Ramtin; Fan, Jing; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. Design Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. Setting Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. Subjects Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. Results Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β =−6·8, Pvegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0·37 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·74), 0·57 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·92) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·50, 1·70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. Conclusions We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass. PMID:22230619

  5. Electrical field stimulation causes oxidation of exogenous histamine in Krebs-Henseleit buffer: A potential source of error in studies of isolated airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Hulsmann (Anthon); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractElectric field stimulation (EFS) relaxes human histamine-precontracted airways in vitro. This relaxation is only partly neurally mediated. Nonneural relaxation has been also shown in blood vessels and is due to the generation of oxygen radicals by EFS. In isolated airways the origin of

  6. Formation of histamine and biogenic amines in cold-smoked tuna: An investigation of psychrotolerant bacteria from samples implicated in cases of histamine fish poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2006-01-01

    Two outbreaks and a single case of histamine fish poisoning associated with cold-smoked tuna (CST) were reported in Denmark during 2004. The bacteria most likely responsible for histamine formation in CST implicated in histamine fish poisoning was identified for the first time in this study...

  7. Granule maturation in mast cells: histamine in control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Jenny; Gurish, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are derived from committed progenitors that originate in the BM. They mature into histochemically distinguishable, metachromatic mast cells containing numerous cytoplasmic secretory granules. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that mast cell granule maturation is very tightly regulated by many factors including different granule components such as proteoglycans. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Nakazawa et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2014. 44: 204-214] highlight a role for mast cell derived histamine as another factor critical for mast cell maturation. Using histidine decarboxylase (HDC) deficient mice that are unable to make histamine, they show poorly formed secretory granules and decreased secretory granule protease expression in peritoneal mast cells. Co-culturing BM-derived mast cells with fibroblasts normally drives granule maturation, but HDC-deficient BM-derived mast cells fail to do so. Exogenously provided histamine partly restores granule differentiation as evidenced by increased tryptase and chymase activity, and this is histamine receptor type H4 -dependent. However, H4 -deficient mice have intact granule formation in peritoneal mast cells, suggesting that when HDC is functional, the intrinsic histamine production is sufficient for most granule maturation processes and H4 is dispensable. This study highlights the role of histamine in the regulation of mast cell maturation, although the cytosolic target remains unknown. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Branched-chain amino acids increase arterial blood ammonia in spite of enhanced intrinsic muscle ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2011-01-01

    metabolism of ammonia and amino acids in 14 patients with cirrhosis and in 7 healthy subjects by combining [(13)N]ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) of the thigh muscle with measurements of blood flow and arteriovenous (A-V) concentrations of ammonia and amino acids. PET was used to measure...... the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia and the A-V measurements were used to measure the total ammonia metabolism across the thigh muscle. After intake of BCAA, blood ammonia increased more than 30% in both groups of subjects (both P PET) was unaffected (P...... = 0.75), but the metabolic removal rate (PET) increased significantly because of increased blood ammonia in both groups (all P

  9. Office blood pressure is a predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion in subjects with white coat hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Masoura, Konstantina; Pietri, Panagiota; Vyssoulis, Gregory; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-15

    White coat hypertension (WCH) is related to target organ damage and increased cardiovascular risk. Arterial elastic properties and urinary protein excretion are determinants of cardiovascular performance and predictors of outcomes. We investigated whether office blood pressure (BP) is a better determinant of arterial and renal function than the ambulatory BP in WCH patients. We studied 440 consecutive untreated non-diabetic patients with WCH (office BP >140/90 mmHg, mean daytime ambulatory BP 0.5). Hierarchical multilevel linear regression analysis showed that office systolic BP is an independent determinant of cfPWV (P=0.050), AIx (P=0.029), albumin (P=0.002) and ACR (P=0.001) and has a borderline association with α1-microglobulin (P=0.088). In non-diabetic WCH individuals, office systolic BP is an independent predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion, whereas ambulatory BP is not. This finding suggests that office BP may be a marker of cardiovascular risk in subjects with WCH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Draijer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  11. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Erenumab (AMG 334) and Capsaicin-Induced Dermal Blood Flow in Healthy and Migraine Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Chen, Jiyun Sunny; de Hoon, Jan; Van Hecken, Anne; Yan, Lucy; Wu, Liviawati Sutjandra; Hamilton, Lisa; Vargas, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    Capsaicin-induced dermal blood flow (CIDBF) is a validated biomarker used to evaluate the target engagement of potential calcitonin gene-related peptide-blocking therapeutics for migraine. To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and quantify the inhibitory effects of erenumab (AMG 334) on CIDBF, CIDBF data were pooled from a single- and a multiple-dose study in healthy and migraine subjects. Repeated capsaicin challenges and DBF measurements were performed and serum erenumab concentrations determined. A population analysis was conducted using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. Effects of body weight, gender, and age on model parameters were evaluated. Two-compartment target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) model assuming binding of erenumab in the central compartment best described the nonlinear PK of erenumab. Subcutaneous absorption half-life was 1.6 days and bioavailability was 74%. Erenumab produced a maximum inhibition of 89% (95% confidence interval: 87-91%). Erenumab concentrations required for 50% and 99% of maximum inhibition were 255 ng/mL and 1134 ng/mL, respectively. Increased body weight was associated with increased erenumab clearance but had no effect on the inhibitory effect on CIDBF. Our results show that erenumab pharmacokinetics was best characterized by a TMDD model and resulted in potent inhibition of CIDBF.

  12. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  13. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  14. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects...... offspring with parental type 2 diabetes (6.7%) was significantly (P pressure...... UAER, fasting insulin level, and 24-h AMBP and a reduced diurnal blood pressure variation. This study indicates that parental type 2 diabetes has an impact on the cardiac autonomic function in nondiabetic subjects....

  15. Immunochemical cross-reactivity between albumin and solid-phase adsorbed histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Nolte, H; Søndergaard, I

    1990-01-01

    For production of an antibody against histamine, this was coupled to human serum albumin (HSA) and used for immunization of rabbits. To test the antiserum, an immunoradiometric assay was developed comprising solid-phase bound histamine, antisera and radiolabelled protein A. Titration and inhibition...... experiments revealed that histamine adsorbed onto a solid-phase could bind the antiserum. However, neither free histamine nor histamine coupled to unrelated carriers could inhibit the binding of antiserum to the solid-phase histamine. Cross-reactivity was demonstrated between HSA and solid-phase bound...

  16. The future antihistamines: histamine H3 and H4 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fuqu; Bonaventure, Pascal; Thurmond, Robin L

    2010-01-01

    The field of histamine research has progressed far from a century ago when the first biological functions of histamine were identified. It is now known that histamine function is mediated by four histamine receptors, which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor family. While antihistamines that target the first two receptors have enjoyed clinical and commercial success, efforts to find new antihistamines against the histamine H3 and H4 receptors are still in the early stages. Here we will review the therapeutic potential of targeting these new histamine receptors.

  17. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Saudek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the module. Methods: We analyzed institutional and national item difficulties for BD items from the NBME pediatrics content area item analysis reports from 2011 to 2014 before (pre and after (post the pilot (October 2012. Total scores of 590 NBME subject examination students from examinee performance profiles were analyzed pre/post. t-Tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze item difficulties for institutional versus national scores and pre/post comparisons of item difficulties and total scores. Results: BD scores for our institution were 0.65 (±0.19 compared to 0.62 (±0.15 nationally (P=0.346; Cohen's d=0.15. The average of post-consecutive BD scores for our students was 0.70(±0.21 compared to examinees nationally [0.64 (±0.15] with a significant mean difference (P=0.031; Cohen's d=0.43. The difference in our institutions pre [0.65 (±0.19] and post [0.70 (±0.21] BD scores trended higher (P=0.391; Cohen's d=0.27. Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national norms. Conclusions: Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above

  18. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy, untrained subjects: effects of different exercise intensities controlled by individual anaerobic threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Kathleen; Hilberg, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The influence of different exercise intensities on haemostasis in healthy, untrained subjects has not been intensively studied. We investigated untrained subjects for alterations in coagulation and fibrinolysis induced by two exercise intensities, precisely controlled by individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Twenty-five healthy, untrained non-smokers (age 25 ± 3 years; relative VO(2) peak 43.1 ± 5.2 ml/kg/min) underwent exercise tests at 80% (moderate) and 100% (strenuous) of IAT for 60 min. Blood samples were taken after 30 min rest and immediately after exercise. The present results reveal that an exercise intensity at 100% IAT induces a more pronounced coagulation activity than exercises at 80% IAT. 100% IAT led to a significant higher increase in FVIII (80% IAT 85 ± 33 to 114 ± 30% vs. 100% IAT 81 ± 20 to 132 ± 29%) and TAT (80% IAT 2.5 ± 1.4 to 2.9 ± 1.0 μg/l vs. 100% IAT 2.6 ± 1.0 to 5.4 ± 4.2 μg/l). Furthermore, both exercises affected fibrinolysis, but it was significantly higher at 100% IAT (tPA activity; 80% IAT 0.44 ± 0.17 to 4.65 ± 2.67 U/ml vs. 100% IAT 0.43 ± 0.19 to 6.47 ± 3.97 U/ml). The data show that fibrinolytic activity is significantly elevated already after moderate exercise (80% IAT). After strenuous exercise (100% IAT), coagulation is more sharply enhanced together with a higher increase of fibrinolysis in comparison with 80% IAT. However, haemostasis seems to be in balance after moderate as well as after strenuous exercise intensity in healthy, untrained participants. Based on these data, exercise-induced changes of both haemostatic systems should also be tested in patients with cardiovascular diseases in order to be in a position to give recommendations for endurance training modalities in rehabilitation training.

  19. Histamine and Immune Biomarkers in CNS Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cacabelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimmune dysregulation is a common phenomenon in different forms of central nervous system (CNS disorders. Cross-links between central and peripheral immune mechanisms appear to be disrupted as reflected by a series of immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD7, HLA-DR, CD25, CD28, and CD56 which show variability in brain disorders such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, migraine, epilepsy, vascular dementia, mental retardation, cerebrovascular encephalopathy, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, cranial nerve neuropathies, mental retardation, and posttraumatic brain injury. Histamine (HA is a pleiotropic monoamine involved in several neurophysiological functions, neuroimmune regulation, and CNS pathogenesis. Changes in brain HA show an age- and sex-related pattern, and alterations in brain HA levels are present in different CNS regions of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Brain HA in neuronal and nonneuronal compartments plays a dual role (neurotrophic versus neurotoxic in a tissue-specific manner. Pathogenic mechanisms associated with neuroimmune dysregulation in AD involve HA, interleukin-1β, and TNF-α, whose aberrant expression contributes to neuroinflammation as an aggravating factor for neurodegeneration and premature neuronal death.

  20. Metabolic clearance rate and blood production rate of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in normal subjects, during pregnancy, and in hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, J. M.; Forest, M. G.; Morera, A. M.; Bertrand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and blood production rate (BP) of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the conversion of plasma testosterone to plasma dihydrotestosterone, and the renal clearance of androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone have been studied in man. In eight normal men, the MCRT (516±108 [SD] liters/m2/day) was significantly greater than the MCRDHT (391±71 [SD] liters/m2/day). In seven females, the MCRT (304±53 [SD] liters/m2/day) was also greater than the MCRDHT (209±45 [SD] liters/m2/day) and both values were less than their respective values in men (P hyperthyroidism, the MCR for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were similar to those observed in pregnant females, but the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (2.78±1.7%) (SD) was greater, and similar to that found in men. In men the production of dihydrotestosterone was 0.39±0.1 (SD) mg/day, 50% being derived from the transformation of plasma testosterone. In women the production of DHT was 0.05±0.028 (SD) mg/day, only 10% coming from testosterone. During pregnancy, the production of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are similar to that in normal women. In three patients with testicular feminization syndrome (an adult with hyperthyroidism and two children) these two MCRs were greatly reduced compared to the normal females, but the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone was in the limits of normal male range In the normal subjects the renal clearance of androstenedione was greater than that of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Less than 20% of the dihydrotestosterone and less than 10% of the androstenedione in the urine is derived from the plasma dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione. PMID:5020435

  1. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Betty J; Anousheh, Ramtin; Fan, Jing; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-10-01

    Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β = -6.8, P vegetarians (β = -9.1, P vegetarians (mainly the vegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0.37 (95 % CI 0.19, 0.74), 0.57 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.92) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.50, 1.70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass.

  2. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza-Silva, Eduardo; Wittrup Christensen, Steffan; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occur within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result ...... that eccentric contractions decreased vessel diameter, impaired the blood flow response and promoted hyperalgesia. Thus, the results suggest that the blood flow reduction may be involved in the increased pain response after eccentric exercise....

  3. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  4. Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine mechanisms in mediating the effects of small intestinal glucose on blood pressure and antropyloroduodenal motility in older subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentilcore, Diana; Little, Tanya J.; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Samsom, Melvin; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine mechanisms in mediating the effects of small intestinal glucose on blood pressure and antropyloroduodenal motility in older subjects. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G692-G698, 2007. First published August 9, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00199.2007.-Postprandial

  5. Frequency of Th17 CD20+cells in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients is higher compared to healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggleton, Paul; Bremer, Edwin; Tarr, Joanna M.; de Bruyn, Marco; Helfrich, Wijnand; Kendall, Alexandra; Haigh, Richard C.; Viner, Nick J.; Winyard, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a T cell driven autoimmune disease, therefore, the ability of B cell depleting biologics, e.g., anti-CD20 antibodies, to alleviate RA is unclear. This study examined the proportions of IL-17-secreting lymphocytes in the blood of healthy subjects

  6. The Histamine H4 Receptor: From Orphan to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Thurmond

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The histamine H4 receptor (H4R was first noted as a sequence in genomic databases that had features of a G-protein coupled receptor. This putative receptor was found to bind histamine consistent with its homology to other histamine receptors and thus became the fourth member of the histamine receptor family. Due to the previous success of drugs that target the H1 and H2 receptors, an effort was made to understand the function of this receptor and determine if it represented a drug target. Taking advantage of the vast literature on histamine, a search for histamine activity that did not appear to be mediated by the other three histamine receptors was undertaken. From this asthma and pruritus emerged as areas of particular interest. Histamine has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but antihistamines that target the H1 and H2 receptors have not been shown to be effective for this condition. The use of selective ligands in animal models of asthma has now potentially filled this gap by showing a role for the H4R in mediating lung function and inflammation. A similar story exists for chronic pruritus associated with conditions such as atopic dermatitis. Antihistamines that target the H1 receptor are effective in reducing acute pruritus, but are ineffective in pruritus experienced by patients with atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, animal models have now suggested a role for the H4R in mediating pruritic responses, with antagonists to the H4R reducing pruritus in a number of different conditions. The anti-pruritic effect of H4R antagonists has recently been shown in human clinical studies, validating the preclinical findings in the animal models. A selective H4R antagonist inhibited histamine-induced pruritus in health volunteers and reduced pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. The history to date of the H4R provides an excellent example of the deorphanization of a novel receptor and the translation of this into

  7. Effects of a thromboxane receptor antagonist on prostaglandin D2 and histamine induced bronchoconstriction in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Jarad, N; Hui, K P; Barnes, N

    1994-01-01

    Many prostanoids including are prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha and PGD2 are potent bronchoconstrictor agents. There is evidence to suggest that airway thromboxane (TP) receptor may act as a common receptor for their bronchoconstrictor actions. We tested the hypothesis that inhaled prostaglandin (PG) D2-induced bronchoconstriction is mediated by interacting with the TP receptor antagonist, ICI 192605, on the bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled PGD2 in a double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossed-over trial in normal subjects. The effect of ICI 192605 on histamine induced bronchoconstriction served as control for non-specific bronchodilatory actions. The study had two phases; the first consisted of two inhaled PGD2 challenge study days, and the second phase was that of inhaled histamine. Each study day was separated by at least a week. On each study day, the challenge tests were carried out 30 min after ingestion of 100 mg ICI 192605 or placebo. Doubling concentrations of agonist were given till more than 35% fall in post-diluent specific airway conductance (sGaw) occurred. The concentration needed to cause a fall in a sGaw of 35% post-diluent value (PC35sGaw) was then determined from linear interpolation of the log dose-response. Eight male subjects (median age 26, range 20-35 years) completed the study. ICI 192605 did not change baseline airway calibre 30 min after ingestion on either PGD2 or histamine study days. ICI 192605 significantly shifted the dose-response curve to inhaled PGD2 to the right by a median of 3.4 fold (Wilcoxon rank sign test, P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. PENINGKATAN KADAR HISTAMIN PADA IKAN LAUT YANG SUDAH DIOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarismawati Djarismawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  It was very difficult to recover the condition of people·s nutntion especially among the children during the economic crisis, even though that problem could be overcome by consuming protein especially from sea-fish. But handling food originated from sea-fish was very difficult, because sea-fish could be easily contaminated by toxins. In this study the histamine contents in fresh and processed sea-fish will be analized. The objective of the study was to test the best way of fish cooking to minimize the histamine content. The limiting time of the fish remain fresh after taken from the market was also studied. The result showed that the time taken to bring the fish from the sampling points to the laboratory and the way of fish cooking would influence the histamine content in cooked fish. We also found that cooking fish with coconut milk has resulted the lowest histamine content as compared with frying or roasting. Keywords: histamine, sea fish, nutrition

  9. Neuronal histamine and cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Binder, Sonja; De Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Dere, Ekrem

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular amyloid plaque deposits, mainly composed of amyloid-beta peptide and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles consisting of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Amyloid-beta represents a neurotoxic proteolytic cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein. The progressive cognitive decline that is associated with Alzheimer's disease has been mainly attributed to a deficit in cholinergic neurotransmission due to the continuous degeneration of cholinergic neurons e.g. in the basal forebrain. There is evidence suggesting that other neurotransmitter systems including neuronal histamine also contribute to the development and maintenance of Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits. Pathological changes in the neuronal histaminergic system of such patients are highly predictive of ensuing cognitive deficits. Furthermore, histamine-related drugs, including histamine 3 receptor antagonists, have been demonstrated to alleviate cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes findings from animal and clinical research on the relationship between the neuronal histaminergic system and cognitive deterioration in Alzheimer's disease. The significance of the neuronal histaminergic system as a promising target for the development of more effective drugs for the treatment of cognitive symptoms is discussed. Furthermore, the option to use histamine-related agents as neurogenesis-stimulating therapy that counteracts progressive brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease is considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Histamine formation in Japanese marine fish species and the effect of frozen storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Ryota; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kato, Noboru; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Araki, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    To investigate histamine formation in Japanese marine fish, model samples were made from fish meat mixed with intestines of commercial 73 fish species. After the samples were stored at 25℃ for 12 hr, histamine was detected in 35 fish species at 50 mg/kg or more. These fish species might potentially be related to histamine poisoning. In addition, the effect of frozen storage at -45℃ on histamine formation was examined. Although histamine was formed in some fish species, and Photobacterium damselae and Photobacterium iliopiscarium were isolated from the frozen samples, the amount of histamine formed in the model samples was reduced in all tested fish species after frozen storage. Therefore frozen storage of fish may be effective to control histamine formation, even though histamine forming bacteria survived under these conditions.

  11. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  12. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  13. Randomized, single-blind, crossover comparison of two rupatadine tablet formulations on histamine-induced cutaneous response in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, Pingali; Naidu, Maddireddi U R; Reddy, B S Parthasarathy; Reddy, Mohan

    2007-11-01

    Rupatadine is a histamine receptor type 1 antagonist that has been used to treat allergic rhinitis and urticaria. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 2 rupatadine tablet formulations on the inhibition of histamine-induced wheal-and-flare cutaneous responses. In this single-blind, single oral dose, crossover study, healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive 10 mg of either a rupatadine reference or test formulation after an overnight fast. After a 10-day washout period, the subjects were crossed over to receive the other formulation. Subjects were asked to sit with their arm resting on the table while histamine was injected intradermally. The skin prick test was performed on the upper half of the volunteers' forearms before administration and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after study drug administration. Fifteen minutes after each skin prick test, the wheal-and-flare responses were visualized under a bright lamp. AUC0-24 was the primary end point.The 90% CI of least squares mean ratio (%) of the test: reference formulations for maximum inhibition of histamine-induced wheal-and-flare response (Imax%), Tmax, AUC0-24 mm(2)/h, and AUC0-24%/hr were expected to be within 80% to 125% of untransformed data and 80% to 120% of log-transformed data for the 2 formulations to be considered pharmacodynamically equivalent. Subjects were monitored for any spontaneously reported adverse event (AE) throughout the study. In addition, they were specifically asked about the occurrence of any AEs on a checklist (ie, drowsiness, dizziness, dryness of mouth, itching sensation, headache, nausea) throughout the study. Of the 15 subjects assessed for inclusion, 12 healthy male volunteers (mean [SD] age, 30 [5] years; height, 162 [6] cm; weight, 58 [6] kg) participated in the study. Administration of reference and test formulations of rupatadine significantly inhibited the histamine-induced cutaneous responses in all subjects (P Wheal Imax% with the reference and test

  14. Histamine Recycling Is Mediated by CarT, a Carcinine Transporter in Drosophila Photoreceptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Xu; Futing An; Borycz, Jolanta A.; Janusz Borycz; Ian A Meinertzhagen; Tao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is an important chemical messenger that regulates multiple physiological processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Even so, how glial cells and neurons recycle histamine remains to be elucidated. Drosophila photoreceptor neurons use histamine as a neurotransmitter, and the released histamine is recycled through neighboring glia, where it is conjugated to ?-alanine to form carcinine. However, how carcinine is then returned to the photoreceptor remains unclear. In an mRNA...

  15. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists: the new antihistamines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping; Thurmond, Robin L; Ling, Ping; Karlsson, Lars

    2004-11-01

    Antihistamines (histamine H1 receptor antagonists) are a mainstay treatment for atopic allergy, yet they are only partially effective in relieving the symptoms of the disease. They also have very limited value for the treatment of asthma, despite the well-characterized bronchoconstrictory effects of histamine. The recent discovery of a fourth histamine receptor (H4), and the realization that it is exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cell types that are most implicated in the development and symptomatology of allergy and asthma, suggests that pharmacological targeting of the H4 receptor, either alone or in combination with H1 receptor antagonists, may prove useful for treating both allergy and asthma. Here we review the known biology associated with the H4 receptor, as well the effects of a highly selective H1 receptor antagonist.

  16. Histamine poisoning from ingestion of fish or scombroid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, Vincenzo; Masciari, Peppino; Pezzi, Mario; Mola, Assunta; Tiburzi, Simona Paola; Zinzi, Maria Concetta; Scozzafava, Annamaria; Verre, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel) out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis.

  17. Histamine Poisoning from Ingestion of Fish or Scombroid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tortorella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scombroid poisoning is due to the ingestion of poorly preserved fish (especially tuna, sardines, and mackerel out of the cold chain. Under the influence of the proliferation of gram negative bacteria that occurs for heating, the histidine content in the muscle of the fish is converted into histamine, by the action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase. If the histamine is ingested in large quantities, it causes an anaphylactoid reaction with a variety of symptoms from moderate to severe to life-threating. We will describe two cases that came under our observation after consuming a meal of bluefin tuna. The diagnosis of scombroid syndrome was made on the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical one. The rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms after treatment with histamines H1-H2 receptor blockers confirmed the suspected diagnosis.

  18. In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IFN-γ release assay enhances T cell responses in subjects with latent tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv L Gaur

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immunity via pathogen recognition receptors (PRR modulates adaptive immune responses. PRR ligands are being exploited as vaccine adjuvants and as therapeutics, but their utility in diagnostics has not been explored. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs are functional T cell assays used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI; however, novel approaches are needed to improve their sensitivity.In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IGRA (QuantiFERON®-TB GOLD In-Tube with Toll-like receptor agonists poly(I:C, LPS, and imiquimod was performed on blood from subjects with LTBI and negative controls.In vitro immunomodulation significantly enhanced the response of T cells stimulated with M. tuberculosis antigens from subjects with LTBI but not from uninfected controls. Immunomodulation of IGRA revealed T cell responses in subjects with LTBI whose T cells otherwise do not respond to in vitro stimulation with antigens alone. Similar to their in vivo functions, addition of poly(I:C and LPS to whole blood induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and IFN-α and enhanced the surface expression of antigen presenting and costimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells.In vitro immunomodulation of whole blood IGRA may be an effective strategy for enhancing the sensitivity of T cells for diagnosis of LTBI.

  19. An overview of anti-allergic drug therapy and the histamine-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histamine is also secreted in the fundus of the stomach, where its function is to interact with histamine-2 (H2) receptors, and thereby stimulate the secretion of gastric acid by the stomach's parietal cells.1-3. Histamine is a particularly important mediator of the inflammatory process. This process, as a pathophysiological entity ...

  20. REPEATED PROVOCATION TESTS IN ASTHMATIC-CHILDREN FOR TESTING TACHYPHYLAXIS TO HISTAMINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROORDA, RJ; GERRITSEN, J; VANAALDEREN, WMC; SCHOUTEN, JP; KNOL, K

    1991-01-01

    Tachyphylaxis to histamine was investigated in 16 children, aged 7-15 years, with mild asthma. Three consecutive histamine challenges were performed at intervals of 24 hours and 1 hour, respectively. No significant differences in IVC, FEV1, and PC20-histamine values between the three measurements

  1. Psychomotor performance, subjective and physiological effects and whole blood Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in heavy, chronic cannabis smokers following acute smoked cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwope, David M; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-07-01

    Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the illicit drug most frequently observed in accident and driving under the influence of drugs investigations. Whole blood is often the only available specimen collected during such investigations, yet few studies have examined relationships between cannabis effects and whole blood concentrations following cannabis smoking. Nine male and one female heavy, chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked ad libitum one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in whole blood and plasma. Assessments were performed before and up to 6 h after smoking, including subjective [visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales], physiological (heart rate, blood pressure and respirations) and psychomotor (critical-tracking and divided-attention tasks) measures. THC significantly increased VAS responses and heart rate, with concentration-effect curves demonstrating counter-clockwise hysteresis. No significant differences were observed for critical-tracking or divided-attention task performance in this cohort of heavy, chronic cannabis smokers. The cannabis influence factor was not suitable for quantifying psychomotor impairment following cannabis consumption and was not precise enough to determine recent cannabis use with accuracy. These data inform our understanding of impairment and subjective effects following acute smoked cannabis and interpretation of whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in forensic investigations.

  2. Non-dipping pattern in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is associated with metabolic abnormalities in a random sample of middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, Olavi; Vasunta, Riitta-Liisa; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-11-01

    A reduction in the blood pressure decline at night (pattern') is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to evaluate whether ABPM characteristics are associated with metabolic abnormalities in subjects without known hypertension or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This is a cross-sectional population-based study on middle-aged subjects (n=462). Two distinct definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used: National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results suggested that subjects characterized by non-dipping in 24 h ABPM were more obese (P=0.014). After adjustment for body mass index, age and sex, non-dippers had higher very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (P=0.003), total (P=0.029)-and VLDL-triglycerides (P=0.026) and oral glucose tolerance test 2 h blood glucose (P=0.027) compared with dippers. Non-dipping status was more common among subjects with MetS (Ppattern. The percentage decline in blood pressure from day to night decreased with the number of metabolic abnormalities (P=0.012). In conclusion, ABPM non-dipping status is an independent predictor of glucose intolerance. It is also associated with several other metabolic abnormalities. Whether non-dipping pattern is causally related to these metabolic aberrations remains to be explored in a future prospective follow-up of this cohort.

  3. Histamine H2 receptor - Involvement in gastric ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Brown, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    The involvement of the H1 and H2 receptors for histamine in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers was investigated in rats. Metiamide, an H2 receptor antagonist, reliably reduced ulceration produced by stress alone or by a combination of stress and aspirin. In contrast, pyrilamine, which blocks only the H1 receptor, was without effect under these same conditions. The results support the hypothesis that histamine mediates both stress and stress plus aspirin induced ulceration by a mechanism involving the H2 receptor.

  4. In vivo evidence of a functional association between immune cells in blood and brain in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegawa, Naoki; Collste, Karin; Forsberg, Anton; Schain, Martin; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Jucaite, Aurelija; Lekander, Mats; Olgart Höglund, Caroline; Kosek, Eva; Lampa, Jon; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars; Varrone, Andrea; Cervenka, Simon

    2016-05-01

    Microglia, the resident macrophages in the central nervous system, are thought to be maintained by a local self-renewal mechanism. Although preclinical and in vitro studies have suggested that the brain may contain immune cells also from peripheral origin, the functional association between immune cells in the periphery and brain at physiological conditions is poorly understood. We examined 32 healthy individuals using positron emission tomography (PET) and [(11)C]PBR28, a radioligand for the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) which is expressed both in brain microglia and blood immune cells. In 26 individuals, two measurements were performed with varying time intervals. In a subgroup of 19 individuals, of which 12 had repeat examinations, leukocyte numbers in blood was measured on each day of PET measurements. All individuals were genotyped for TSPO polymorphism and categorized as high, mixed, and low affinity binders. We assessed TSPO binding expressed as total distribution volume of [(11)C]PBR28 in brain and in blood cells. TSPO binding in brain was strongly and positively correlated to binding in blood cells both at baseline and when analyzing change between two PET examinations. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between change of leukocyte numbers and change in TSPO binding in brain, and a trend-level correlation to change in TSPO binding in blood cells. These in vivo findings indicate an association between immunological cells in blood and brain via intact BBB, suggesting a functional interaction between these two compartments, such as interchange of peripherally derived cells or a common regulatory mechanism. Measurement of radioligand binding in blood cells may be a way to control for peripheral immune function in PET studies using TSPO as a marker of brain immune activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative activity of cetirizine and mizolastine on histamine-induced skin wheal and flare responses at 24 h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, A; Mélac, M; Pauli, G; Frossard, N

    2002-03-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the activity of cetirizine 10 mg with that of mizolastine 10 mg vs placebo at 24 h after intake in healthy volunteers. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, three-way cross-over study with a wash-out period of 7 +/- 2 days between each period. The study included 36 healthy volunteers (18--50 years, mean age = 32 years; 9 males). The objective measurement was the cutaneous reactivity to increasing concentrations of histamine (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 mg ml(-1)) administered by prick tests. The reactivity was evaluated by the wheal and flare areas (mm2). The AUC (area under curves) values of the wheal and flare areas as a function of the log2 transformed histamine concentration were calculated for each subject and treatment, and compared. A highly significant treatment effect was evidenced both for wheal and flare responses (P = 0.0001). This indicates the good activity of both cetirizine 10 mg and mizolastine 10 mg in inhibiting skin wheal and flare reactions to histamine. In addition, the mean AUC values significantly differed between cetirizine and mizolastine (64.8 and 117.8 log2 (mg ml(-1)) x mm2 for wheal, and 939.4 and 2340.8 for flare, respectively; P = 0.0001), with a superior activity of cetirizine than mizolastine at 24 h after intake both on wheal and flare responses. The tolerance of cetirizine and mizolastine was good. The severity of the adverse events was never more than 'moderate', 'fatigue' being the most frequent reported symptom [cetirizine (6 subjects), placebo (3), mizolastine (5)], followed by 'somnolence' [cetirizine (0), placebo (1), mizolastine (3)]. There was no serious adverse event. This study shows that cetirizine (10 mg) suppresses skin reactivity to histamine more effectively than mizolastine (10 mg) 24 h after intake in healthy volunteers.

  6. Abnormal blood rheology and chronic low grade inflammation: possible risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in Lewis negative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Wenby, Rosalinda B; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N; Kono, Naoko; Wang, Jun; Baskurt, Oguz K; Fisher, Timothy C; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that abnormal hemorheology and chronic low-grade inflammation are more prevalent in Lewis negative individuals, possibly contributing to premature atherosclerosis. We enrolled 223 healthy subjects (154 females, mean age: 64yrs). Conventional risk factors, markers of inflammation and hemorheological profiles were measured; Lewis blood group was determined by serology. Conventional risk factors (age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, smoking habit) did not differ among Lewis phenotypes. However, markers of inflammation (WBC, hs-CRP, ESR) were significantly elevated and rheological parameters (RBC aggregation, plasma viscosity) were abnormal in Lewis negative subjects, especially when compared to the Le(a-b+) group. With a prevalence of 33% in select populations, our data support the hypothesis that Le(a-b-) represents a pro-inflammatory phenotype that may contribute to the elevated cardiovascular risk in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A facile molecularly imprinted polymer-based fluorometric assay for detection of histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaotong; Ashley, Jon; Zhou, Tongchang

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is a biogenic amine naturally present in many body cells. It is also a contaminant that is mostly found in spoiled food. The consumption of foods containing high levels of histamine may lead to an allergy-like food poisoning. Analytical methods that can routinely screen histamine are thus...... urgently needed. In this paper, we developed a facile and cost-effective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based fluorometric assay to directly quantify histamine. Histamine-specific MIP nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) were synthesized using a modified solid-phase synthesis method. They were then immobilized...

  8. Gastric bypass surgery is followed by lowered blood pressure and increased diuresis - long term results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallersund

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare two bariatric surgical principles with regard to effects on blood pressure and salt intake. BACKGROUND: In most patients bariatric surgery induces a sustained weight loss and a reduced cardiovascular risk profile but the long-term effect on blood pressure is uncertain. METHODS: Cohort study with data from the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study involving 480 primary health care centres and 25 surgical departments in Sweden. Obese patients treated with non-surgical methods (Controls, n = 1636 and n = 1132 at 2 y and 10 y follow up, respectively were compared to patients treated with gastric bypass (GBP, n = 245 and n = 277, respectively or purely restrictive procedures (vertical banded gastroplasty or gastric banding; VBG/B, n = 1534 and n = 1064, respectively. RESULTS: At long-term follow-up (median 10 y GBP was associated with lowered systolic (mean: -5.1 mm Hg and diastolic pressure (-5.6 mmHg differing significantly from both VBG/B (-1.5 and -2.1 mmHg, respectively; p<0.001 and Controls (+1.2 and -3.8 mmHg, respectively; p<0.01. Diurnal urinary output was +100 ml (P<0.05 and +170 ml (P<0.001 higher in GBP subjects than in weight-loss matched VBG/B subjects at the 2 y and 10 y follow-ups, respectively. Urinary output was linearly associated with blood pressure only after GBP and these patients consumed approximately 1 g salt per day more at the follow-ups than did VBG/B (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The purely restrictive techniques VBG/B exerted a transient blood pressure lowering effect, whereas gastric bypass was associated with a sustained blood pressure reduction and an increased diuresis. The daily salt consumption was higher after gastric bypass than after restrictive bariatric surgery.

  9. Hypomethylation of serum blood clot DNA, but not plasma EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA, from vitamin B12-deficient subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin P Quinlivan

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001 lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.23±0.66%; n = 248 and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,859±9,699 cpm; n = 17 than DNA from B12-replete women (4.44±0.18%; n = 128 and 26,049±2,814 cpm; n = 11 [correlation between assays: r = -0.8538; p<0.001; n = 28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.45±0.15%; n = 77 vs. 4.47±0.15%; n = 47 and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,378±4,094 cpm; n = 17 vs. 26,610±2,292 cpm; n = 11. Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection.

  10. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Minka Samuel R; Oben Julius E; Ngondi Judith L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dietary fibres are frequently used for the treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis seeds in the management of obesity. This was carried out as a double blind randomised study involving 40 subjects (mean age 42.4 years). Twenty-eight subjects received Irvingia gabonensis (IG) (1.05 g three time a day for one month) while 12 were on placebo (P) and the same schedule. During the one-month study period all subjects were on a normoca...

  11. Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on large-bowel functions, blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in young healthy male subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Wezendonk, B.; Srikumar, T.S.; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the intake of 15 g nondigestible oligosaccharides per day on various parameters of large-bowel function, as well as on blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in man. Design: Latin square, randomized, double-blind, diet-controlled. Setting: Metabolic

  12. Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two

  13. Accuracy evaluation of five blood glucose monitoring systems obtained from the pharmacy: a European multicenter study with 453 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, C.J.; Pohlmeier, H.; Behnke, T.; Schmid, V.; Grenningloh, M.; Forst, T.; Pfutzner, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the performance of five recently introduced blood glucose (BG) monitoring (BGM) devices under daily routine conditions in comparison with the YSI (Yellow Springs, OH) 2300 Stat Plus glucose analyzer. METHODS: Five hundred one diabetes

  14. Role of Histamine and Its Receptor Subtypes in Stimulation of Conjunctival Goblet Cell Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Densen; Li, Dayu; Hayashi, Chisato; Shatos, Marie; Hodges, Robin R.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of histamine and its receptors on goblet cell secretion. Methods. Cultured rat and human goblet cells were grown in RPMI 1640. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugate was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Cultured rat goblet cells were homogenized and either RNA was isolated for RT-PCR or proteins were isolated for Western blot analysis for presence of histamine receptors subtypes H1 through H4. The localization of these receptors was determined in rat and human goblet cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results. Histamine stimulated goblet cell secretion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. All four histamine receptors were present in cultured rat and human goblet cells. Use of agonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes indicated that the rank order of agonist stimulation was H1 = H3 > H4 > H2. Using antagonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes determined that H2 and H3, but not the H1 and H4, antagonists, inhibited histamine-stimulated conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Conclusions. Rat and human conjunctival goblet cells are a direct target of histamine, which induces secretion. All four histamine receptors are present in rat and human conjunctiva and are active in rat conjunctival goblet cells. These findings suggest that all four histamine receptor subtypes are important for conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Blockage of histamine receptor subtypes could prevent the excess mucus production associated with ocular allergy. PMID:22467574

  15. Determination of histamine in Iranian cheese using enzyme-linked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(3), pp. 308-310, 16 January, 2013. Available online ... cheese were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in Iran. In the two cheese samples of the 44 samples .... more histamine than fresh cheese (Numanoglu et al.,. 2008). This can be explained by the ...

  16. Effects of different monosaccharides on histamine-stimulated gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monosaccharides such as glucose, fructose and galactose have been established as the main energy source for physiological activities in the body. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different monosaccarides on histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion and also to investigate whether acute ...

  17. Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO synthase ...

  18. Histamine in hemorrhagic shock - A new approach with microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raum, M; Nagelschmidt, M; Rixen, D; Keiser, F; Gregor, S; Tiling, T; Bouillon, B; Neugebauer, E; Redl, H

    2005-01-01

    Microdialysis is a new approach for monitoring after hemorrhagic shock. The advantage of microdialysis is the local measurement of microcirculation and local changes of mediators. Until now this was mostly used in neuromonitoring. In this experiment we were focussed on the local changes of histamine

  19. Anti-histaminic potentials of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of ailments and diseases has gained acceptance both in the developed and developing countries. Mast cell is reportedly known as the source of inflammatory mediators including histamine and some other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study attempts to establish the ...

  20. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J.

    2016-01-01

    in 2012. This leaves betahistine (Betaserc) as the only drug for potential prevention of the incapacitating attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing loss. However, the histamine receptors targeted by betahistine have never been demonstrated in the human ES. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate...

  1. Histamine receptors and antihistamines: from discovery to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Mauro; Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Annunziato, Lucio; Marone, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and the identification of histamine marked a milestone in both pharmacological and immunological research. Since Sir Henry Dale and Patrick Laidlaw described some of its physiological effects in vivo in 1910, histamine has been shown to play a key role in the control of gastric acid secretion and in allergic disorders. Using selective agonists and antagonists, as well as molecular biology tools, four histamine receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R) have been identified. The Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Daniel Bovet in 1957 for the discovery of antihistamines (anti-H1R) and to Sir James Black in 1988 for the identification of anti-H2R antagonists. Anti-H1R and anti-H2R histamine receptor antagonists have revolutionized the treatment of certain allergic disorders and gastric acid-related conditions, respectively. More recently, anti-H3R antagonists have entered early-phase clinical trials for possible application in obesity and a variety of neurologic disorders. The preferential expression of H4R by several immune cells and its involvement in the development of allergic inflammation provide the rationale for the use of anti-H4R antagonists in allergic and in other immune-related disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Histamine and tyramine production by bacteria isolated from spoiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows7

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Bacterial strains (32) from spoiled sardine were isolated and investigated for their ability to produce histamine ... spoilage because their precursor amino acids are decar- boxylated .... Ammonia and biogenic amine production by bacteria isolated from spoiled sardine in histidine decarboxylase broth (mg/L).

  3. Histamine is not released in acute thermal injury in human skin in vivo: a microdialysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Pedersen, Juri L; Skov, Per S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal models have shown histamine to be released from the skin during the acute phase of a burn injury. The role of histamine during the early phase of thermal injuries in humans remains unclear. PURPOSE: The objectives of this trial were to study histamine release in human skin during...... the acute phase of a standardized thermal injury in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine concentrations in human skin were measured by skin microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibers were inserted into the dermis in the lower leg in male healthy volunteers. A standardized superficial thermal injury...... was elicited by a heating thermode (49 degrees C) applied to the skin for 5 min. Histamine in dialysate was analyzed for up to 2 h after the injury using two different analytical methods. RESULTS: Spectrofluorometric assay of histamine showed no histamine release in separate studies using 2-min samples over 20...

  4. Extra virgin olive oil use is associated with improved post-prandial blood glucose and LDL cholesterol in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Violi, F.; Loffredo, L; Pignatelli, P; Angelico, F; Bartimoccia, S.; C. Nocella; Cangemi, R; Petruccioli, A; Monticolo, R; Pastori, D; Carnevale, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a key component of the Mediterranean diet and seems to account for the protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Design: We tested the effect of EVOO, added to Mediterranean-type meal, on post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile. Subjects: Post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile were investigated in 25 healthy subjects who were randomly allocated in a cross-over design to a Mediterranean-...

  5. Effects of the amount of rice in meals on postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension: a within-subjects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung Tae; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-08-01

    To determine the effect of the amount of rice carbohydrates consumed during mealtime on the extent of decrease in postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension. The incidence of postprandial hypotension is as high as 74% in older people with hypertension. A within-subjects repeated measures design was used. Thirty-nine older people in nursing homes received a full serving and a half-serving of rice on two separate days, in random order blood pressure and heart rate were measured before each meal and every 15 minutes for a total of 120 minutes after each meal. Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the paired t-test with a Bonferroni adjustment using IBM spss version 19.0. The control and intervention conditions yielded significantly different patterns in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Postprandial hypotension was less frequent under the intervention condition; however, decrease in rice intake did not significantly affect heart rate. Reducing the amount of rice intake per meal prevents postprandial blood pressure decreases in the older people. Small and frequent meals with decreased carbohydrate content are recommended to prevent postprandial hypotension and its complications in the older people. Patients, dieticians and caregivers of older patients should be aware of the importance of diet, especially of decreasing the amount of carbohydrate in a meal. Smaller and more frequent meals are recommended for older people to slow gastric emptying. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the Histamine Content and Potential Toxicity of Some of Consumable food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background & aim: Consuming high amounts of histamine with food causes histamine poisoning among its consumers. Much information about the content of histamine in various food products is not available in the country. In the present study, the amount of histamine in food samples consumed in human diet which are based on existing data sources can contain histamine were measured. Methods: In the present study, 240 samples of 16 different types of food consumed in the human diet were examined. Histamine was extracted with 75 % ethanol- 0.4 N HCl in fresh and canned fish samples and extracted in other samples with  0.1 N HCl. After passing the extracts through ion exchange chromatography, the fluorescence derivative of histamine which was generated by O-phthaldialdehyde and the amount of fluorescent light was measured at excitation wavelength of 350 nm and emission wavelength of 444 nm respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Spinach, fresh fish, canned fish and aubergine samples showed the high level of histamine with the mean levels of 5.04, 3.83, 2.77 and 2.64 mg/100g respectively. All samples tested contains histamine but 53.3, 20.0, 13.3 and 13.3 percent of the samples of these foods contains higher amounts histamine (5mg/100gr  respectively.Low levels of histamine was observed in a number of samples including tomato, pickles, nuts, bananas, oranges, melons, cheese, curd, yogurt and dough but no detectable histamine was found  olive and tea. Conclusion: In addition to confirming the fact that fish and seafood products have a high risk of histamine poisoning, but it showed that the risk of histamine poisoning in humans after consumption of fish and its products will not be less than spinach and aubergine.

  7. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Cho, Byung Mann; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006-2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median=4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median=1.30 ng/mL)>PFNA (median=0.85 ng/mL)>PFHxS (median=0.47 ng/mL)>PFOSA (median=0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Mirtogenol® potentiates latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and improves ocular blood flow in asymptomatic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Steigerwalt Jr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert D Steigerwalt Jr1, Gianni Belcaro1, Paolo Morazzoni2, Ezio Bombardelli2, Carolina Burki3, Frank Schönlau4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, San Valentino, Italy; 2Indena S.p.A. Scientific Department, Milan, Italy; 3Horphag Research (UK Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland; 4Horphag Research (UK Ltd. South Kensington, London UKPurpose: The dietary supplement Mirtogenol® was previously shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. We here present the effects of this supplement on IOP in comparison as well as in combination with latanoprost eye drops. Methods: Seventy-nine patients with asymptomatic ocular hypertension were randomly assigned to three groups receiving either the supplement, or latanoprost eye drops, or both in combination. Intraocular pressure and retinal blood flow were investigated in monthly intervals over 24 weeks.Results: Mirtogenol alone lowered IOP from baseline 38.1 to 29.0 mmHg after 16 weeks, with little further improvement during the following eight weeks. Latanoprost rapidly lowered IOP from baseline 37.7 to 27.2 mmHg within four weeks, without further effects thereafter. The combination of the supplement and latanoprost lowered IOP from 38.0 to 27.3 mmHg after four weeks, and further decreased IOP to 24.2 mmHg after six weeks. After 24 weeks IOP with the combination treatment (23.0 mmHg was significantly lower than with latanoprost alone (27.2 mmHg. Mirtogenol and latanoprost individually showed comparable effects for gradually increasing central artery blood flow with treatment duration. Combination treatment showed higher systolic blood flow velocity throughout the trial period. The diastolic blood flow velocity gradually increased with treatment duration in all three groups. From twelve weeks onwards, the diastolic component with combination treatment was higher than with individual treatments.Conclusions: Mirtogenol lowered elevated IOP in patients almost as effectively as

  9. Oral magnesium supplements decrease high blood pressure (SBP>155 mmHg) in hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medications: a targeted meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Plesset, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we examined 44 human studies involving oral magnesium (Mg) supplementation for hypertension (HT), sorting them according to HT status, Mg dose and anti-hypertensive medication usage. We found that while some studies reported a significant lowering of blood pressure with Mg supplementation, others did not. We present here our first meta-analysis of a uniform subset from this series of studies. Seven studies, involving 135 hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medication continuously for at least six months, with no more than a two-week washout and with a mean starting systolic blood pressure (SBP)>155 mmHg, demonstrated a mean change of -18.7 mmHg [95% CI=-14.95 to -22.45] p155 mmHg starting SBP values or not complying as regards anti-hypertensive medication usage, showed mean changes in both SBP and DBP with oral Mg that, while not approaching the high-responder values of the present study, appeared to include some high-responder subjects combined with low- or non-responder subjects. This uniform subset of seven studies showed a strong effect of Mg treatment in hypertension, which is in stark contrast to results of three other meta-analyses. Using non-uniform sets of studies, the small effects reported in previous meta-analyses may reflect a blending of dissimilar studies, which acted to seriously underestimate the potential of Mg in hypertension in some (but not all) subjects. Within studies, blending of non-, moderate and highresponder subjects in any one study might mask strong effects of Mg treatment in some subjects.

  10. Does smoking interfere with the effect of histamine H2-receptor antagonists on intragastric acidity in man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, P; Cilluffo, T; Fimmel, C J; Emde, C; von Ritter, C; Kohler, W; Gugler, R; Gasser, T; Blum, A L

    1987-05-01

    The interaction between smoking and the effect of histamine H2-antagonists on intragastric acidity was examined in a double blind double dummy placebo controlled study. Healthy volunteers, 11 smokers and 10 non-smokers, were given, on four separate days at least one week apart, either placebo or cimetidine 800 mg nocte or ranitidine 2 X 150 mg per day or ranitidine 300 mg nocte. Tablets were taken at 2115 and 0900 h. Smokers smoked a cigarette hourly from 0700 to 2300 h. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner were standardised. Intragastric acidity was measured with a combined intragastric glass electrode and a solid state recorder. The subjects were fully ambulatory. The three histamine H2-receptor antagonist regimens were less effective (p = 0.04) in smokers than in non-smokers, but the difference between acidity of smokers and non-smokers was small. Means of medians of pH during a 24-h period with placebo, cimetidine 800 mg, ranitidine 2 X 150 mg and ranitidine 300 mg were 1.6, 2.3, 3.1, and 2.7 in smokers and 1.5, 2.7, 3.2, and 3.1 in non-smokers, respectively. In a second part of the study seven chronic smokers were reexamined after acutely stopping smoking: inhibition of gastric acidity by histamine H2-receptor antagonists was similar before and after withdrawal. Smoking does not affect intragastric acidity in untreated volunteers and only slightly decreases the effectiveness of histamine H2-receptor antagonists on intragastric acidity. This effect best in part explains the unfavourable effect of smoking on healing of peptic ulcer in patients treated with these drugs.

  11. Comparison of intraocular pressure, blood pressure, ocular perfusion pressure and blood flow fluctuations during dorzolamide versus timolol add-on therapy in prostaglandin analogue treated glaucoma subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januleviciene, Ingrida; Siaudvytyte, Lina; Diliene, Vaida; Barsauskaite, Ruta; Paulaviciute-Baikstiene, Daiva; Siesky, Brent; Harris, Alon

    2012-03-21

    To compare the effects of dorzolamide and timolol add-on therapy in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients previously treated with prostaglandin analogue (Pg), by evaluating fluctuations in the intraocular (IOP), blood (BP), ocular perfusion pressures (OPP) and retrobulbar blood flow (RBF) parameters. 35 OAG patients (35 eyes), 31 women (88.6%) age 63.3 (8.9) years were evaluated in a 3 month randomized, cross-over, single-masked study. During the experiments BP, heart rate, IOP and OPP were assessed 4 times per day (8-12-16-20 h). RBF was measured twice per day (8-20 h) using Color Doppler imaging in the ophthalmic (OA), central retinal (CRA), nasal (nSPCA) and temporal (tSPCA) posterior ciliary arteries. In each vessel, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end-diastolic velocity (EDV) were assessed and vascular resistance (RI) calculated. Both add-on therapies lowered IOP in a statistically significant manner from 15.7 ± 2.4 mmHg at latanoprost baseline to 14.9 ± 2.2 mmHg using dorzolamide (p add-on therapy showed smaller IOP (2.0 ± 1.4), SPP (13.3 ± 7.9), systolic BP (13.5 ± 8.7) and diastolic BP (8.4 ± 5.4) fluctuations as compared to both latanoprost baseline or timolol add-on therapies. Higher difference between morning and evening BP was correlated to decreased evening CRA EDV in the timolol group (c = -0.41; p = 0.01). With increased MAP in the morning or evening hours, we found increased evening OA RI in timolol add-on group (c = 0.400, p = 0.02; c = 0.513, p = 0.002 accordingly). Higher MAP fluctuations were related to impaired RBF parameters during evening hours-decreased CRA EDV (c = -0.408; p = 0.01), increased CRA RI (c = 0.576; p add-on group. OPP fluctuations correlated with increased nSPCA RI (c = 0.453; p = 0.006) in the timolol group. OPP fluctuations were not related to IOP fluctuations in both add-on therapies (p add-on therapies lowered IOP in a statistically significant fashion dorzolamide add-on therapy showed lower fluctuations in IOP, SPP

  12. Older age is associated with greater central aortic blood pressure following the exercise stress test in subjects with similar brachial systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masatake; Oshima, Kazutaka; Iwasaki, Yoichi; Kumai, Yuto; Avolio, Alberto; Yamashina, Akira; Takazawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Brachial systolic pressure (BSP) is often monitored during exercise by the stress test; however, central systolic pressure (CSP) is thought to be a more direct measure of cardiovascular events. Although some studies reported that exercise and aging may play roles in changes of both BSP and CSP, the relationship between BSP and CSP with age following the exercise stress test remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the relationship between BSP and CSP measured after exercise. Ninety-six subjects underwent the diagnostic treadmill exercise stress test, and we retrospectively divided them into the following 3 groups by age: the younger age group (43 ± 4 years), middle age group (58 ± 4 years), and older age group (70 ± 4 years). Subjects exercised according to the Bruce protocol, to achieve 85 % of their age-predicted maximum heart rate or until the appearance of exercise-associated symptoms. BSP, CSP, and pulse rate (PR) were measured using a HEM-9000AI (Omron Healthcare, Japan) at rest and after exercise. BSP, CSP, and PR at rest were not significantly different among the 3 groups (p = 0.92, 0.21, and 0.99, respectively). BSP and PR immediately after exercise were not significantly different among the groups (p = 0.70 and 0.38, respectively). However, CSP immediately after exercise was 144 ± 18 mmHg (younger age), 149 ± 17 mmHg (middle age), and 158 ± 19 mmHg (older age). CSP in the older age group was significantly higher than that in the younger age group (p age groups after exercise, CSP was higher in the older age group. Therefore, older subjects have a higher CSP after exercise, which is not readily assessed by conventional measurements of BSP.

  13. Blood homocysteine and fasting insulin levels are reduced and erythrocyte sedimentation rates increased with a glycophospholipid-vitamin formulation: a retrospective study in older subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevations in Homocyteine (Hcys levels in the blood have been correlated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and stroke, loss of cognition and memory, and other chronic medical conditions. Objective: A retrospective study was initiated to determine if Hcys levels and other blood markers were altered in subjects taking an oral functional food supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids (NT Factor® and vitamins. Methods: Thirty-five patients (28 females, 7 males, Av. Age=60.7±9.6 years who had used the functional food Advanced Physician’s FormulaTM with NTFactor® in tablet form each day were enrolled in a retrospective study on blood chemistry. This retrospective study followed a prospective study on the use of the same supplement to reduce fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue. Participants were patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis or other fatiguing illnesses. Subjects had blood drawn over a 6-month period, and routine blood testing was performed. In this laboratory study the results were analyzed for differences, and statistical analyses were performed. Results: All participants responded in the study and showed an average reduction of 31.8% in Hcys levels (from 10.85±0.42 to 7.40±0.42 µmol/L; t-test, p<0.001; Wilcoxon, p<0.001. Women responded better than men: women (from 11.06±0.50 to 8.67±0.82 µmol/L, 34.4% reduction, t-test, p< 0.001; Wilcoxon, p<0.001 versus men (from 10.80±0.51 to 7.01±0.47 µmol/L, 21.6% reduction, t-test, p< 0.0862. Differences were also found in fasting insulin levels (from 12.80±3.11 to 5.30±1.77 µIU/mL, 58.6% reduction, t-test, p<0.005 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. ESR increased from 10.5±2.21 to 20.19±3.20 mm/hr (92.2% increase, t-test, p<0.0314; Wilcoxon, p<0.0154. Other tests were not significantly different after 6 months of supplement, there were no side effects from the test supplement, and none of the participants had

  14. Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almér Lars-Olof

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibre food intake is related to a reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fibre cereals on the rate of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose response and satiety in healthy subjects. Methods Gastric emptying rate (GER was measured by standardized real time ultrasonography. Twelve healthy subjects were assessed using a randomized crossover blinded trial. The subjects were examined after an 8 hour fast and after assessment of normal fasting blood glucose level. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose measurements were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 min after ingestion of sour milk with corn flakes (GER1, cereal bran flakes (GER2 or wholemeal oat flakes (GER3. Results The median value was, respectively, 42% for GER1, 33 % for GER2 and 51% for GER3. The difference between the GER after ingestion of bran flakes compared to wholemeal oat flakes was statistically significant (p = 0.023. The postprandial delta blood glucose level was statistically significantly lower at 40 min (p = 0.045 and 120 min (p = 0.023 after the cereal bran flakes meal. There was no statistical significance between the areas under the curve (AUCs of the cereals as far as blood glucose and satiety were concerned. Conclusion The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of either bran flakes or wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. However, the study does show that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher fibre content. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy

  15. A novel framework for fluid/structure interaction in rapid subject specific simulations of blood flow in coronary artery bifurcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Practical difficulties, particularly long model development time, have limited the types and applicability of computational fluid dynamics simulations in numerical modeling of blood flow in serial manner. In these simulations, the most revealing flow parameters are the endothelial shear stress distribution and oscillatory shear index. The aim of this study was analyze their role in the diagnosis of the occurrence and prognosis of plaque development in coronary artery bifurcations. Methods. We developed a novel modeling technique for rapid cardiovascular hemodynamic simulations taking into account interactions between fluid domain (blood and solid domain (artery wall. Two numerical models that represent the observed subdomains of an arbitrary patient-specific coronary artery bifurcation were created using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT coronagraphy and ultrasound measurements of blood velocity. Coronary flow using an in-house finite element solver PAK-FS was solved. Results. Overall behavior of coronary artery bifurcation during one cardiac cycle is described by: velocity, pressure, endothelial shear stress, oscillatory shear index, stress in arterial wall and nodal displacements. The places where (a endothelial shear stress is less than 1.5, and (b oscillatory shear index is very small (close or equal to 0 are prone to plaque genesis. Conclusion. Finite element simulation of fluid-structure interaction was used to investigate patient-specific flow dynamics and wall mechanics at coronary artery bifurcations. Simulation model revealed that lateral walls of the main branch and lateral walls distal to the carina are exposed to low endothelial shear stress which is a predilection site for development of atherosclerosis. This conclusion is confirmed by the low values of oscillatory shear index in those places.

  16. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on exercise-induced free radical production in young and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Christoph; Zdzieblik, Denise; Dressler, Patrick; Fink, Bruno; Gollhofer, Albert; König, Daniel

    2018-02-16

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the acute local and systemic effects of low-load resistance exercise (30% 1RM) with partial vascular occlusion on exercise-induced free radical production and to compare these effects with other established training methods. Fifteen young and healthy males (25 ± 3 years) performed the following four sessions in a counterbalanced order on separate days: low-load resistance exercise (LI: 30% 1RM), low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (LIBR: 30% 1RM), high-load resistance exercise (HI: 80% 1RM) and an additional session without exercise but blood flow restriction only (BR). Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes prior to and immediately after exercise sessions from the right index finger and first toe. To analyze concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used. Additionally, mitochondrial ROS production was measured by adding inhibitors of electron transport chain complex III. There was an increased systemic ROS generation after the LIBR session from 0.838 ± 0.096-0.901 ± 0.095 µmol/l/min. However, no local or systemic time × condition interaction was detected for ROS production. Regarding mitochondrial ROS production, results were not different between the conditions. Although the low-load resistance exercise session with partial vascular occlusion elicited systemic increases of ROS production, no significant changes were seen on a local level. We assume that this ROS concentration might not be high enough to induce cellular damage but is rather involved in muscle remodulation. However, this needs to be confirmed by future research.

  17. The Effect of Low Volume Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Pre-hypertensive Subjects: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnik, Benjamin C; Smith, Joshua R; Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Clinically pre-hypertensive adults are at a greater risk of developing hypertension, stiffened arteries, and other cardiovascular risks. Endurance exercise training has been shown to improve elevated resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. However, a primary barrier preventing individuals from engaging in regular physical activity is a lack of time. The purpose of our study was to determine if a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocol would be as effective as continuous aerobic endurance training (ET) on resting blood pressure in pre-hypertensive participants. Additionally, this study investigated the effects of HIIT vs. ET on CRP. Twelve pre-hypertensive participants (33.3±6.1 yrs; 3M/9W) participated in 8 weeks of cycle ergometer exercise training. The ET exercised for 30 continuous min/day, 4 days/week at 40% VO2max reserve. The HIIT exercised at a 1:1 work-to-rest for 20 min/day, 3 days/week at 60% peak power. Resting mean arterial pressure and CRP were compared throughout the study. Both groups showed decreases (p<0.001) in mean arterial pressure (ET: -11.5 ± 5.9 mmHg; HIIT: -8.6 ± 4.8 mmHg) following the 8 weeks. For CRP, there was a significant decrease (p=0.014) as a main effect of time. VO2max increased (p<0.001) approximately 25% for both HIIT and ET. These preliminary data suggest HIIT and ET similarly decreased resting blood pressure and increased VO2max.

  18. Influence of Blood Pressure and Other Clinical Variables on Long-Term Mortality in a Cohort of Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Daniel M; Meneilly, Graydon S; Moleski, Luc; Trottier, Lise; Lanthier, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure (HBP) are commonly associated conditions in the elderly population. An effect of treatments, biologic and anthropometric variables on long-term mortality is unknown in this population. To determine the prevalence of HBP control in a sample of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes with office blood pressure (BP) readings and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and evaluate the influence of BP, anthropometric and laboratory variables on long term mortality. Cohort study in patients living at home in the area of Sherbrooke, ≥65 years old, receiving reimbursement for antidiabetic medication. The study included medical history, 2 sets of BP measurements, 2 24-hour urinary collections for microalbuminuria, 1 24-hour ABPM, blood level of creatinine and glycosylated hemoglobin. Charts were reanalyzed 8 years later for analysis of cardiovascular and total mortality cases. 198 patients were initially recruited. By history, 83% of the subjects had diagnoses and treatments for high blood pressure. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with an 8-year increased risk for cardiovascular mortality were creatinine ≥84 µmol/L, office seated systolic blood pressure ≤130 and diastolic BP ≤67.6 over 24 hours. Factors associated with total mortality were lower waist circumference, serum creatinine ≥84 and diastolic BP ≤67.6 over 24 hours. Lower systolic and diastolic BP (office and ABPM), lower waist circumference and higher creatinine values are associated with an increased mortality risk. This suggests that a lower BP, declining kidney function and frailty are factors associated with this observation. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cerebral autoregulation in response to posture change in elderly subjects-assessment by wavelet phase coherence analysis of cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations and arterial blood pressure signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanjin; Zhang, Ming; Han, Qingyu; Li, Wenhao; Xin, Qing; Wang, Yan; Li, Zengyong

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to assess the dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in response to posture change using wavelet phase coherence (WPCO) of cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations (Delta [HbO2]) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals in healthy elderly subjects. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and ABP signals were obtained from simultaneous measurements in 16 healthy elderly subjects (age: 68.9±7.1 years) and 19 young subjects (age: 24.9±3.2 years). The phase coherence between Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations in six frequency intervals (I, 0.6-2 Hz; II, 0.15-0.6 Hz; III, 0.05-0.15 Hz; IV, 0.02-0.05 Hz, V, 0.0095-0.02 Hz and VI, 0.005-0.0095 Hz) was analyzed using WPCO. The sit-to-stand posture change induces significantly lower WPCO in interval III (F=5.50 p=0.025) in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects. However, the stand-to-sit posture change induces higher WPCO in intervals II (F=5.25 p=0.028) and V (F=6.22 p=0.018) in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects. The difference of WPCO in response to posture change between the elderly and the young subjects indicates an altered CA due to aging. This study provides new insight into the dynamics of CA and may be useful in identifying the risk for dCA processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Accumulation of neutral lipids in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a distinctive trait of Alzheimer patients and asymptomatic subjects at risk of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmas Manuela

    2009-11-01

    observed great variability in the neutral lipid-peripheral blood mononuclear cells data and in plasma lipid analysis of the subjects enrolled as Alzheimer's disease-first-degree relatives. However, about 30% of them tend to display a peripheral metabolic cholesterol pattern similar to that exhibited by Alzheimer's disease patients. Conclusion We suggest that neutral lipid-peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol determinations might be of interest to outline a distinctive metabolic profile applying to both Alzheimer's disease patients and asymptomatic subjects at higher risk of disease.

  1. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK TEH HIJAU (Camellia sinensis SEBAGAI PENGHAMBAT PEMBENTUKAN HISTAMIN PADA IKAN SEBELUM DIOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sri Heruwati

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian penggunaan ekstrak teh hijau (Camellia sinensis sebagai penghambat pembentukan histamin pada ikan telah dilakukan. Ikan, terutama dari jenis skombroid, sangat rentan mengalami kerusakan karena terjadinya perubahan asam amino histidin yang terkandung dalam ikan menjadi senyawa histamin yang bersifat alergen, yang dikatalisasi oleh enzim histamin dekarboksilase (HDC. Teh hijau diketahui mengandung polifenol berupa senyawa epigalokatekingalat (EGCG yang merupakan penghambat enzim HDC, sehingga dekarboksilasi histidin menjadi histamin dapat dicegah. Perendaman ikan tongkol dalarn ekstrak teh hijau pada konsentrasi 0, 2, dan 4% dilakukan selama 30 menit, diikuti dengan pernindangan dalam larutan gararn 15% selama 30 menit diteruskan dengan penyimpanan ikan pindang pada suhu kamar. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan setiap hari selarna 4 hari penyimpanan untuk diamati perubahan mutu kimiawi (TVB dan kadar histarnin, mikrobiologi JPC dan bakteri pembentuk histamin, serta organoleptik (kenampakan, bau, tekstur, lendir, rasa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang direndam dalam ekstrak teh 4% mempunyai kadar histamin 21,3 ppm, jauh lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ikan yang direndam dalam ekstrak teh 2% dan 0% yang masing-masing mencapai 64,4 pprn dan 101,4 ppm. Penghambatan pembentukan histamin oleh ekstrak teh hijau masih terjadi selama penyimpanan, yang terlihat dari rendahnya jumlah bakteri pembentuk histarnin dan kadar histamin dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Pada penyimpanan hari ke-3, penghambatan pembentukan histamin oleh ekstrak teh hijau tidak efektif, kemungkinan karena terlalu tingginya jurnlah bakteri pembentuk histamin, yaitu mencapai 108 cfu/g.

  2. Gender Differences in Histamine-Induced Depolarization and Inward Currents in Vagal Ganglion Neurons in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Nan; Qian, Zhao; Xu, Wen-Xiao; Xu, Bing; Lu, Xiao-Long; Yan, Zhen-Yu; Han, Li-Min; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Mei; Schild, John; Qiao, Guo-Fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has shown gender differences regarding the critical roles of histamine in the prevalence of asthma, anaphylaxis, and angina pectoris. Histamine depolarizes unmyelinated C-type neurons without any effects on myelinated A-type vagal ganglion neurons (VGNs) in male rats. However, little is known if VGNs from females react to histamine in a similar manner. Membrane depolarization and inward currents were tested in VGNs isolated from adult rats using a whole-cell patch technique. Results from males were consistent with the literature. Surprisingly, histamine-induced depolarization and inward currents were observed in both unmyelinated C-type and myelinated A- and Ah-type VGNs from female rats. In Ah-type neurons, responses to 1.0 μM histamine were stronger in intact females than in males and significantly reduced in ovariectomized (OVX) females. In C-type neurons, histamine-induced events were significantly smaller (pA/pF) in intact females compared with males and this histamine-induced activity was dramatically increased by OVX. Female A-types responded to histamine, which was further increased following ovariectomy. Histamine at 300 nM depolarized Ah-types in females, but not Ah-types in OVX females. In contrast, the sensitivity of A- and C-types to histamine was upregulated by OVX. These data demonstrate gender differences in VGN chemosensitivity to histamine for the first time. Myelinated Ah-types showed the highest sensitivity to histamine across female populations, which was changed by OVX. These novel findings improve the understanding of gender differences in the prevalence of asthma, anaphylaxis, and pain. Changes in sensitivity to histamine by OVX may explain alterations in the prevalence of certain pathophysiological conditions when women reach a postmenopausal age. PMID:24339729

  3. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  4. The effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rahimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both or insulin resistance. Curcumin inhibits NF-κB signaling pathway. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of Nano-curcumin on HbA1C, fast blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy type-2 diabetic patients (fasting blood glucose (FBG ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hr postprandial blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl randomly receivedeither Curcumin (as nano-micelle 80 mg/day or placebo for 3 months in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, and lipids profile were checked before and after the intervention. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were done using the SPSS 11.5 software. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. (RCT registration code: IRCT2013081114330N1 Results: Mean age, BMI, FBG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, LDL, HDL, HbA1c , and  sex and had no significant difference at the baseline between the groups. In Nano-curcumin group, a significant decrease was found in HbA1C, FBG, TG, and BMI comparing results of each subject before and after the treatment (p

  5. Vasopeptidase-activated latent ligands of the histamine receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François

    2013-11-01

    Whether peptidases present in vascular cells can activate prodrugs active on vascular cells has been tested with 2 potential latent ligands of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). First, a peptide consisting of the antihistamine cetirizine (CTZ) condensed at the N-terminus of ε-aminocaproyl-bradykinin (εACA-BK) was evaluated for an antihistamine activity that could be revealed by degradation of the peptide part of the molecule. CTZ-εACA-BK had a submicromolar affinity for the BK B2 receptor (B2R; IC50 of 590 nM, [(3)H]BK binding competition), but a non-negligible affinity for the human H1 receptor (H1R; IC50 of 11 μM for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding). In the human isolated umbilical vein, a system where both endogenous B2R and H1R mediate strong contractions, CTZ-εACA-BK exerted mild antagonist effects on histamine-induced contraction that were not modified by omapatrilat or by a B2R antagonist that prevents endocytosis of the BK conjugate. Cells expressing recombinant ACE or B2R incubated with CTZ-εACA-BK did not release a competitor of [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. Thus, there is no evidence that CTZ-εACA-BK can release free cetirizine in biological environments. The second prodrug was a blocked agonist, L-alanyl-histamine, potentially activated by aminopeptidase N (APN). This compound did not compete for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. The human umbilical vein contractility assay responded to L-alanyl-histamine (EC50 54.7 μM), but the APN inhibitor amastatin massively (17-fold) reduced its apparent potency. Amastatin did not influence the potency of histamine as a contractile agent. One of the 2 tested latent H1R ligands, L-alanyl-histamine, supported the feasibility of pro-drug activation by vascular ectopeptidases. © 2013.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of ''free thyroxin'' in dried blood spots on filter paper - preliminary observations on the effective differentiation of subjects with congenital hypothyroidism from those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin and normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, H.; Miyai, K.; Ichihara, K.; Amino, N.; Harada, T.; Nose, O.; Tanizawa, O.

    1982-03-01

    In this sensitive, simple method for measuring ''free thyroxin'' (FT/sub 4/) in eluates of dried blood spots on filter paper by use of a radioimmunoassay kit (Amerlex Free T/sub 4/ RIA), the measurable range of FT/sub 4/ is 1.8 to 57 ng/L (equivalent to the concentration in serum), or 7 to 237 fg/tube. The mean coefficients of variation for within assay-within spots, within assay-between spots, and between assays were 5.3%, 5.0%, and 6.2%, respectively. FT/sub 4/ in blood spotted on filter paper is stable for at least a month when dried and kept at either -20/sup 0/C, 4/sup 0/C, room temperature (about 25/sup 0/C), or 37/sup 0/C. The results for FT/sub 4/ in dried blood spots correlated closely with the free-T/sub 4/ concentration in serum (r = 0.99). The method can be used to differentiate cases of primary and secondary hypothyroidism from normal subjects and those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin. This method may be useful in screening for congenital hypothyroidism, because sample-retesting is not necessary.

  7. Inhibition of basophil histamine release by gangliosides. Further studies on the significance of cell membrane sialic acid in the histamine release process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    Histamine release from human basophils was inhibited by preincubation of the cells with a glucolipid mixture containing sialic acid-containing gangliosides. This was true for histamine release induced by anti-IgE, Concanavalin A and the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas the release induced by S. ...

  8. A comparative study on basophil activation test, histamine release assay, and passive sensitization histamine release assay in the diagnosis of peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, L. F.; Juel-Berg, N.; Hansen, K. S.; Clare Mills, E. N.; van Ree, R.; Poulsen, L. K.; Jensen, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundAllergy can be diagnosed using basophil tests. Several methods measuring basophil activation are available. This study aimed at comparing basophil activation test (BAT), histamine release assay (HR), and passive sensitization histamine release assay (passive HR) in the diagnosis of peanut

  9. Study to investigate the difference in reaction to intracutaneously and orally administered histamine between suspected histamine-intolerant patients and healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Broeder E; Kortboyer JM; Koers WJ; Bruijnzeel-Koomen CAFM; de Haan-Brand A; Wolthers BG; Breukelman H; Meulenbelt J; NVIC; ARO; afdeling Dermatologie en Allergologie (Academisch Ziekenhuis Utrecht); afdeling KCSB (Academisch Ziekenhuis Groningen)

    1996-01-01

    In een dubbelblinde placebo gecontroleerde, vergelijkende studie werd aan 16 histamine intolerante patienten en aan 16 gezonde proefpersonen histamine toegediend. Het doel van de studie was het ontwikkelen van een relatief simpele en betrouwbare test voor het stellen van de diagnose

  10. Improvement of glycaemia control in subjects with type 2 diabetes by self-monitoring of blood glucose: comparison of two management programs adjusting bedtime insulin dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-S; Wu, T-E; Jap, T-S; Lin, S-H; Hsiao, L-C; Lin, H-D

    2008-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important for patients treated with insulin to detect asymptomatic hypoglycaemia and to guide patients towards reaching blood glucose goal. This study compared two management programs for adjusting bedtime insulin dose: program 1 (performed by study subjects) vs. program 2 (performed by study subjects and reminded by investigators). This is a prospective, open-level, 28-week randomized trial in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic subjects. One hundred subjects treated with oral antidiabetic drugs plus bedtime insulin with glycated haemoglobin A(1C) (A1C) >8.0% were screened and received a structure education package in a 4-week run-in period. Seventy-eight subjects were randomized to two treatment programs (adjust insulin dose by themselves with or without investigators' reminder) and reviewed by the investigators at a 4-week interval clinical visit. The mean SMBG decreased significantly in both groups, with a greater decrease observed in program 2 vs. program 1 (from 198.7 +/- 43.1 to 122.6 +/- 21.9 mg/dl vs. from 194.0 +/- 42.7 to 151.6 +/- 37.7 mg/dl, p Bedtime insulin dose increased in both groups with a greater increase in program 2 (from 14.4 +/- 8.7 to 27.4 +/- 12.8 IU vs. from 14.3 +/- 8.3 to 18.4 +/- 6.2 IU, p weight changes. Systematically titrating bedtime insulin dose added to oral therapy, especially combined with health care reminders, can safely improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes with poor glycaemic control. This regimen may facilitate safe and effective insulin therapy in routine medical practice and improve achievement of recommended standards of diabetes care.

  11. Effects of anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic substances on human thermoregulation during cold provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribukait, A; Nobel, G; Mekjavic, I B; Eiken, O

    2010-01-15

    The roles of histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in the regulation of body temperature have been studied almost exclusively in animals. Recently, we have found that motion sickness, i.e. a condition where hippocampal cholinergic mismatch signals induce a release of histamine in the vomiting centre, accelerates the decline in body temperature in men during exposure to cold. In the present study we measured the thermoregulatory effects of two substances commonly used against motion sickness, i.e. the histamine (H1) receptor blocker dimenhydrinate (DMH) and the muscarine receptor blocker scopolamine (SCOP). In three trials, control (CN), DMH and SCOP, 10 male subjects were immersed in 15 degrees C water for a maximum of 90 min. The trials were separated by a minimum of three days and their order was alternated between subjects. In all trials the subject received, in a double blind fashion, a transdermal patch (SCOP or placebo) 12-14 h before immersion and a tablet (DMH or placebo) 1h before immersion. Mean skin temperature, rectal temperature (T(rec)), the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (T(ff)), and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) were recorded. The fall in T(rec) was smaller in the DMH than in the CN and SCOP conditions. The recordings of T(ff) and VO(2) suggest that SCOP attenuates peripheral vasoconstriction while DMH increases shivering thermogenesis. Notably, thermal discomfort was reduced in the SCOP condition. Findings are thoroughly discussed in the context of animal studies on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of thermoregulation and motion sickness.

  12. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  13. Effects of strength training with blood flow restriction on torque, muscle activation and local muscular endurance in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JBC Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyse the effects of six weeks of strength training (ST, with and without blood flow restriction (BFR, on torque, muscle activation, and local muscular endurance (LME of the knee extensors. Thirty-seven healthy young individuals were divided into four groups: high intensity (HI, low intensity with BFR (LI+BFR, high intensity and low intensity + BFR (COMB, and low intensity (LI. Torque, muscle activation and LME were evaluated before the test and at the 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks after exercise. All groups had increased torque, muscle activation and LME (p<0.05 after the intervention, but the effect size and magnitude were greater in the HI, LI+BFR and COMB groups. In conclusion, the groups with BFR (LI+BFR and COMB produced magnitudes of muscle activation, torque and LME similar to those of the HI group.

  14. Relationship between blood- and cerebrospinal fluid-bound neurotransmitter concentrations and conditioned pain modulation in pain-free and chronic pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Alexandre J; Beaudet, Nicolas; Daigle, Kathya; Sabbagh, Robert; Sansoucy, Yanick; Marchand, Serge; Sarret, Philippe; Goffaux, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Descending pain inhibition is an endogenous pain control system thought to depend partially on the activation of bulbospinal monoaminergic pathways. Deficits in descending pain inhibition have been reported in numerous human chronic pain conditions, but there is currently no consensus regarding the neurochemical correlates responsible for this deficit. The aims of this study were to 1) assess the efficacy of descending pain inhibition in pain-free and chronic pain subjects, 2) screen for changes in centrally (ie, cerebrospinal fluid) and peripherally (ie, plasma) acting monoamine concentrations, and 3) explore the relationship between descending pain inhibition and monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations. Our results clearly show a deficit in pain inhibition, along with lower plasma norepinephrine and metanephrine concentrations in chronic pain subjects, compared to pain-free subjects. No differences were found in cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter concentrations. Finally, our results revealed a positive relationship between blood-bound norepinephrine and metanephrine concentrations and the efficacy of descending pain inhibition. Thus, basal monoamine levels in blood were related to descending pain inhibition. This finding supports the emerging idea that individual differences in descending pain inhibition may be linked to individual differences in peripheral processes, such as monoamines release in blood, which are possibly related to cardiovascular control. This article presents psychophysical and neurochemical findings that indicate that the latent potential of descending pain inhibitory responses is associated with differential activity in peripheral processes governed by monoamine neurotransmitter release, bringing insights into the relationship between descending pain inhibition and cardiovascular control in humans. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Gharipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein (CRP and white blood cell (WBC are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS. This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp. Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures and for those with and without MetS. The age and

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of desloratadine derivatives as antagonist of histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gai-Zhi; Xu, Hai-Wei; Chen, Guang-Wei; Wang, Peng; Wang, Ya-Na; Liu, Hong-Min; Yu, De-Quan

    2010-02-15

    A series of desloratadine derivatives were stereoselectively synthesized and evaluated for H(1) antihistamine activity. For the evaluation of H(1) antihistamine activity, the in vitro histamine-induced contraction of the guinea-pig ileum assay (HC) was used. The synthesized desloratadine derivatives 7, 8 and 9 are structurally related to rupatadine and were generated by replacement of the 5-methyl-3-pyridine group of rupatadine with gamma-alkylidene butenolide. Their H(1) antihistamine activities have shown a high dependence on the exact nature of the substituent in the lactone ring. Optimum structures 7, 8a and 8g display potent activity inhibiting histamine-induced effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Prick tests for histamine and cow milk in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, F J; Jiménez, A

    1995-01-01

    Three hundred and one children were evaluated in six different rural areas in Tlaxcala, State (México). Through skin prick tests which included histamine, glycerine, cow's milk antigen and a drop fulfill a registration form including: personal data; personal and family atopic background; degree and frequency of gastrointestinal, respiratory and cutaneous diseases, as well as the child temperament. Besides, feeding history (length and type of breast-feeding). Six cases were found positive to cow's milk antigen (1.9%) by Prick test but none of them had showed signology related to (83%) were breast-fed at least for the first month of life. Histamine wheal size increased progressively up to eight months of age and reached a plateau.

  18. Reduced mRNA expression of PTGDS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    that mRNA expression of PTGDS and AKR1C3 is deregulated in rapid-cycling disorder patients in a euthymic or current affective state compared with healthy control subjects, and that expression alters with affective states. METHODS: PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells......BACKGROUND: Disturbances related to the arachidonic acid cascade and prostaglandin metabolism may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, as supported by a recent genome-wide association study meta-analysis; however, evidence from clinical studies on a transcriptional level...... was measured in 37 rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repeated measurements of PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression were obtained in various affective states during 6-12 months...

  19. Effect of methylmercury on histamine release from rat mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graevskaya, Elizabeth E.; Rubin, Andrew B. [Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Department of Biophysics, 119899, Vorobjovy Gory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yasutake, Akira; Aramaki, Ryoji [National Institute for Minamata Disease, 4058-18 Hama, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is well known as a significant environmental hazard, particularly as a modulator of the immune system. As it is acknowledged that the critical effector cells in the host response participating in various biological responses are mast cells, we tried to define the possible contribution of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-evoked effects. We investigated the effects of methylmercury on the rat mast cell degranulation induced by non-immunological stimuli (the selective liberator of histamine, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187) both in vivo and in vitro. Using the cells prepared from methylmercury-intoxicated rats through a 5-day treatment of MeHgCl (10 mg/kg/day), we observed the suppression of calcium ionophore A23187- and 48/80-induced histamine release, which was enhanced with time after treatment. Similar suppression was observed in the ionophore-stimulated release, when cells were prepared from rat with a single treatment of MeHgCl (20 mg/kg). It should be noted that when cells from the control rat were pre-incubated with methylmercury in vitro at a 10{sup -8} M concentration for 10 min, A23187 and compound 48/80-stimulated histamine release was significantly enhanced. However, when the pre-incubation period was prolonged to 30 min, the release was suppressed. An increase in the methylmercury concentration to 10{sup -6} M also suppressed the histamine release. These results show that methylmercury treatment can modify mast cell function depending on concentration and time, and might provide an insight into the role of mast cells in the development of methylmercury-stimulated effects. (orig.)

  20. Studi Bakteri Pembentuk Histamin Pada Ikan Kembung Peda Selama Proses Pengolahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoek Indriati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Histamin merupakan salah satu senyawa biogenik amin yang dianggap sebagai penyebab utama keracunan makanan yang berasal dari ikan, terutama dari kelompok skombroid. Peda adalah produk fermentasi ikan yang umumnya dibuat dari ikan kembung yang merupakan kelompok ikan skombroid, yang diketahui banyak mengandung asam amino histidin bebas, sehingga potensial menimbulkan masalah keracunan histamin. Untuk mengetahui jenis‑jenis bakteri yang berperan pada pembentukan histamin pada ikan peda, telah diisolasi bakteri pembentuk histamin selama proses pengolahan peda, menggunakan media Niven yang sudah dimodifikasi. Isolat yang diperoleh diidentifikasi menggunakan BIOLOG Micro StationTm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat 15 jenis bakteri pembentuk histamin pada bagian daging dan 11 jenis pada bagian isi perut. Selama proses fermentasi, saat histamin diproduksi secara intensif, bakteri pada ikan peda didominasi oleh Enterobacter spp. dan Staphylococcus spp. Enterobacter spp. sudah berada pada bahan baku, baik pada daging maupun pada isi perut, sedangkan Staphylococcus spp. merupakan bakteri yang mengkontaminasi selama proses pengolahan.

  1. Osthole inhibits histamine-dependent itch via modulating TRPV1 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Niu-Niu; Shi, Hao; Yu, Guang; Wang, Chang-Ming; Zhu, Chan; Yang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Min; Wang, Zhong-li; Gegen, Tana; He, Qian; Tang, Kehua; Lan, Lei; Wu, Guan-Yi; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Osthole, an active coumarin isolated from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, has long been used in China as an antipruritic herbal medicine; however, the antipruitic mechanism of osthole is unknown. We studied the molecular mechanism of osthole in histamine-dependent itch by behavioral test, Ca2+ imaging, and electrophysiological experiments. First, osthole clearly remitted the scratching behaviors of mice induced with histamine, HTMT, and VUF8430. Second, in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, osthole showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect to histamine. On the same neurons, osthole also decreased the response to capsaicin and histamine. In further tests, the capsaicin-induced inward currents were inhibited by osthole. These results revealed that osthole inhibited histamine-dependent itch by modulating TRPV1 activity. This study will be helpful in understanding how osthole exerts anti-pruritus effects and suggests that osthole may be a useful treatment medicine for histamine-dependent itch. PMID:27160770

  2. Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjects but not in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizkan, S; Deyneli, O; Yasar, M; Arpa, M; Gunes, M; Yazici, D; Sirikci, O; Haklar, G; Imeryuz, N; Yavuz, D G

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners were thought to be metabolically inactive, but after demonstrating that the gustatory mechanism was also localized in the small intestine, suspicions about the metabolic effects of artificial sweeteners have emerged. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of artificial sweeteners (aspartame and sucralose) on blood glucose, insulin, c-peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Eight newly diagnosed drug-naive type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 51.5±9.2 years; F/M: 4/4) and eight healthy subjects (mean age 45.0±4.1 years; F/M: 4/4) underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). During OGTT, glucose, insulin, c-peptide and GLP-1 were measured at 15- min intervals for 120 min. The OGTTs were performed at three settings on different days, where subjects were given 72 mg of aspartame and 24 mg of sucralose in 200 ml of water or 200 ml of water alone 15 min before OGTT in a single-blinded randomized order. In healthy subjects, the total area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was statistically significantly lower in the sucralose setting than in the water setting (P=0.002). There was no difference between the aspartame setting and the water setting (P=0.53). Total AUC of insulin and c-peptide was similar in aspartame, sucralose and water settings. Total AUC of GLP-1 was significantly higher in the sucralose setting than in the water setting (P=0.04). Total AUC values of glucose, insulin, c-peptide and GLP-1 were not statistically different in three settings in type 2 diabetic patients. Sucralose enhances GLP-1 release and lowers blood glucose in the presence of carbohydrate in healthy subjects but not in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients.

  3. Mast cell-derived histamine mediates cystitis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells trigger inflammation that is associated with local pain, but the mechanisms mediating pain are unclear. Interstitial cystitis (IC is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin and without consistent inflammation, but IC symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. We hypothesized that mast cells mediate pelvic pain directly and examined pain behavior using a murine model that recapitulates key aspects of IC.Infection of mice with pseudorabies virus (PRV induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with lamina propria mast cell accumulation dependent upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF, TNF-mediated bladder barrier dysfunction, and pelvic pain behavior, but the molecular basis for pelvic pain is unknown. In this study, both PRV-induced pelvic pain and bladder pathophysiology were abrogated in mast cell-deficient mice but were restored by reconstitution with wild type bone marrow. Pelvic pain developed normally in TNF- and TNF receptor-deficient mice, while bladder pathophysiology was abrogated. Conversely, genetic or pharmacologic disruption of histamine receptor H1R or H2R attenuated pelvic pain without altering pathophysiology.These data demonstrate that mast cells promote cystitis pain and bladder pathophysiology through the separable actions of histamine and TNF, respectively. Therefore, pain is independent of pathology and inflammation, and histamine receptors represent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC and other chronic pain conditions.

  4. A systematic review of the effect of paracetamol on blood pressure in hypertensive and non-hypertensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Emma J; Dear, James W; Webb, David J

    2013-01-01

    Aim To review current evidence on the effect of paracetamol on blood pressure (BP), the quality of the previous studies and the validity of the results, and to summarize these findings. Methods A systematic literature review was performed by searching PubMed, the Cochrane library and EMBASE for publications between the years 1963 and 2012. Results We identified three case reports, seven prospective observational trials, six randomized controlled trials, one commentary and two reviews. Some, but not all, of the observational studies, which included over 147 000 patients, showed an increased risk of hypertension with paracetamol use. The randomized studies were generally small and the results were inconsistent. Three studies, which included 104 patients, showed an increase of systolic BP by ∼4 mmHg, two studies, which included 27 patients, reported no change in BP and one study, which included 21 patients, reported a fall in BP although no placebo arm was included for comparison. Conclusions The overall effect of paracetamol on BP is unclear. Given that paracetamol is often suggested as a safer alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), it would seem that further prospective evidence is now needed to address the effect of paracetamol on BP. This would be best done with larger studies in relevant cohorts using BP measured by ambulatory BP monitoring as the primary endpoint. PMID:23145789

  5. Genes and miRNA expression signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy subjects and patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, Simona; Vacca, Michele; Cariello, Marica; Graziano, Giusi; D'Orazio, Andria; Salvia, Roberto; Sasso, Rosa Cinzia; Sabbà, Carlo; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk but molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Here we aimed to identify genes and miRNAs expression changes mediated by acute high- and low-polyphenols EVOO intake. Pre- and post-challenge gene and miRNAs expression analysis was performed on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 12 healthy subjects and 12 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) by using microarray and RT-qPCR. In healthy subjects, acute intake of EVOO rich in polyphenols was able to ameliorate glycaemia and insulin sensitivity, and to modulate the transcription of genes and miRNAs involved in metabolism, inflammation and cancer, switching PBMCs to a less deleterious inflammatory phenotype; weaker effects were observed in patients with MS as well as in healthy subjects following low-polyphenol EVOO challenge. Concluding, our study shows that acute high-polyphenols EVOO intake is able to modify the transcriptome of PBMCs through the modulation of different pathways associated with the pathophysiology of cardio-metabolic disease and cancer. These beneficial effects are maximized in healthy subjects, and by the use of EVOO cultivars rich in polyphenols. Nutrigenomic changes induced by EVOO thus legitimate the well-known beneficial effects of EVOO in promoting human health and, potentially, preventing the onset of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Measurement of plasma histamine: description of an improved method and normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.; Warren, K.; Merlin, S.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Kaliner, M.

    1982-08-01

    The single isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine was modified to increase its sensitivity and to facilitate measurement of plasma histamine levels. The modification involved extracting /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine (generated by the enzyme N-methyltransferase acting on histamine in the presence of S-(methyl-/sup 3/H)-adenosyl-L-methionine) into chloroform and isolating the /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC was developed in acetone:ammonium hydroxide (95:10), and the methylhistamine spot (Rf . 0.50) was identified with an o-phthalaldehyde spray, scraped from the plate, and assayed in a scintillation counter. The assay in plasma demonstrated a linear relationship from 200 to 5000 pg histamine/ml. Plasma always had higher readings than buffer, and dialysis of plasma returned these values to the same level as buffer, suggesting that the baseline elevations might be attributable to histamine. However, all histamine standard curves were run in dialyzed plasma to negate any additional influences plasma might exert on the assay. The arithmetic mean (+/- SEM) in normal plasma histamine was 318.4 +/- 25 pg/ml (n . 51), and the geometric mean was 280 +/- 35 pg/ml. Plasma histamine was significantly elevated by infusion of histamine at 0.05 to 1.0 micrograms/kg/min or by cold immersion of the hand of a cold-urticaria patient. Therefore this modified isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine is extremely sensitive, capable of measuring fluctuations in plasma histamine levels within the normal range, and potentially useful in analysis of the role histamine plays in human physiology.

  7. Histamine suppresses epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and impairs skin barrier function in a human skin model

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwandtner, M; Mildner, M.; Mlitz, V; Gruber, F; Eckhart, L; Werfel, T.; Gutzmer, R.; Elias, P M; Tschachler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting conditions in the presence and absence of histamine, histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. The expression of differentiation-associated gen...

  8. Increase in numbers of CD8 positive lymphocytes and eosinophils in peripheral blood of subjects with late asthmatic reactions induced by toluene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotto, S; Fabbri, L M; Rado, V; Mapp, C E; Maestrelli, P

    1991-02-01

    Occupational asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI) shares several features with allergic asthma, but the mechanism of action of TDI is poorly understood. Ten sensitised subjects, previously shown to develop a dual or late asthmatic reaction after inhaling TDI were examined. In each subject, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured and venous blood was taken before, and 30 minutes and eight, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exposure to TDI (0.005-0.015 ppm for 10-30 minutes). Filtered air was used as a control. Differential leucocyte counts were determined and phenotypic analysis was performed by immunofluorescence on mononuclear cells using monoclonal antibodies (anti-CD3, anti-CD4, anti-CD8, and anti-HLA-DR). Five subjects developed a dual asthmatic reaction and five had a late reaction. Percentage of CD8 positive lymphocytes increased significantly eight hours after exposure to TDI (from 27 +/- 3 (SEM) % to 42.1 +/- 5%) in the subjects with an isolated late reaction. A delayed significant further increase in suppressor/cytotoxic T lymphocytes was seen in seven of the 10 subjects 48 hours after active exposure (from 27 +/- 2% to 42 +/- 4.8%), irrespective of the type of asthmatic reaction developed after exposure to TDI. Eosinophil percentage increased from 2.5% +/- 1.0 to 6.4% +/- 1.2 24 hours after exposure to TDI and the increase was sustained for up to 48 hours (4.7 +/- 1.1%). No significant variations of FEV1 or cell percentages were seen in the controls. In conclusion, the events triggered by exposure to TDI in sensitised subjects included changes in lung function and systemic effects which lasted longer than bonchoconstriction and concerned suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes and eosinophils. These results suggest that TDI induced late asthmatic reactions may be associated with an immunological response to TDI or to its products.

  9. Possible role of histamine in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases: implications for immunotherapy with histamine-2 receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H

    1992-01-01

    the possibility, that histamine is one of the molecules involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cell mediated regulation and suppression of autoreactive T cells seem to be ineffective in controlling the enhanced immune reaction in patients where the discrimination between self and non-self is changed....... A consequence of this may be induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-g) production and release by cytotoxic T cells, subsequently leading to expression of MHC II molecules on non-immune tissues. As immunotherapy may be of value in some autoimmune diseases the use of histamine-2 receptor antagonists should...... autoantigens and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II restriction molecules presented by non-immune, aberrant cells, subsequently leading to damage on healthy tissues. Psoriasis is suggested to be an autoimmune disease and in severe, uncontrollable psoriasis CsA and Mx are of value in reducing...

  10. Juice Powder Concentrate and Systemic Blood Pressure, Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium and Antioxidant Status in Hypertensive Subjects: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Houston

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because micronutrients from plants may have beneficial cardiovascular effects, the hypothesis that an encapsulated juice powder concentrate might affect several measures of vascular health was tested in free living adults at low cardiovascular risk. Blood pressure, vascular compliance, lipid and antioxidant markers, and serial electron beam tomography (to calculate a coronary artery calcium score as a measure of atherosclerosis burden, were monitored in 51 pre-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects over 2 years. By the end of follow-up, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly (−2.4 ± 1.0 mmHg, P < 0.05 and −2.2 ± 0.6 mmHg, P < 0.001, and large artery compliance improved significantly (1.9 ± 0.6 ml mmHg−1 × 100, P < 0.01. The progression of coronary artery calcium score was smaller than expected compared with a historical database (P < 0.001. Laboratory testing showed a significant decrease in homocysteine (P = 0.05, HDL cholesterol (P = 0.025 and Apo A (P = 0.004, as well as a significant increase in β-carotene, folate, Co-Q10 and α-tocopherol (all P < 0.001. The phytonutrient concentrate we utilized induced several favorable modifications of markers of vascular health in the subjects. This study supports the notion that plant nutrients are important components of a heart healthy diet.

  11. The Effects of Different High-Protein Low-Carbohydrates Proprietary Foods on Blood Sugar in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Alessandra; Karsten, Bettina; Bosco, Gerardo; Gómez-López, Manuel; Brandão, Paula Paraguassú; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week. After determining the GS of each food in each individual, the mean GS of each test food was calculated. All test foods, compared with glucose, produced a significantly lower glycemic response. The GS of all test food resulted in being lower than 25 and the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose (mean 122 ± 15 mg/dL) and after the intake of the sweet test foods (mean 89 ± 7 mg/dL) was 33 mg/dL (P test foods (mean 91 ± 8 mg/dL) was of 31 mg/dL (P < .001). The reformulation of ultraprocessed ready-to-consume foods in a low-CHO, high-protein version can produce a significantly lower glycemic response whilst maintaining the valued ready-to-use format and high palatability demanded by consumers. The low impact on postprandial glycemia and the nutritional characteristics of these proprietary foods makes them useful in both weight control management strategies and in the care management of diabetes.

  12. Differential up-regulation of neurotrophin receptors and functional activity of neurotrophins on peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and nonatopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, U; Deneka, N; Bruder, M; Kapp, A; Wedi, B

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that neurotrophins have a pivotal role in neuroimmune interactions. Indeed, in contrast to nonatopic subjects (NA), neurotrophins have been shown to be increased in atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of the study was to assess the functional role of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin (NT)-3 and -4 and the expression of pan-neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and tyrosine kinase (trk)A, -B and -C on peripheral blood eosinophils in AR, AD and NA. Peripheral blood eosinophils of patients with AR, AD and NA were purified by CD16 negative selection (purity>98%). Neurotrophin receptor expression was analysed by FACS analysis. Apoptosis test (FACS analysis) and chemotactic index (modified Boyden chamber assay) were assessed after stimulation with BDNF, NT-3/-4 and NGF. The expression of trkA-C and p75(NTR) was significantly higher in AD>AR>NA (PNeurotrophin receptor expression and neurotrophin functional activity was greatest in AD>AR>NA. AD eosinophils are pre-activated and may therefore better respond to neurotrophins. With this study, we provide new pathophysiologic insights into atopic diseases with a functional role of neurotrophins in peripheral blood eosinophils in AD and AR.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of MR perfusion imaging using blood pool contrast agent in subjects without pulmonary diseases and in patients with pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansch, Andreas; Hinneburg, Uta [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Jena (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Gera (Germany); Kohlmann, Peter; Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS - Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Boettcher, Joachim [SRH Klinikum Gera, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Gera (Germany); Malich, Ansgar [Suedharzkrankenhaus Nordhausen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nordhausen (Germany); Wolf, Gunter [University Hospital Jena, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany); Pfeil, Alexander [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Jena (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Gera (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the feasibility of time-resolved parallel three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion using a blood pool contrast agent. Quantitative perfusion analysis was performed using novel software to assess pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in a quantitative manner. The evaluation of lung perfusion in the normal subjects showed an increase of PBF, PBV ventrally to dorsally (gravitational direction), and the highest values at the upper lobe, with a decrease to the middle and lower lobe (isogravitational direction). MTT showed no relevant changes in either the gravitational or isogravitational directions. In comparison with normally perfused lung areas (in diseased patients), the pulmonary embolism (PE) regions showed a significantly lower mean PBF (20 {+-} 0.6 ml/100 ml/min, normal region 94 {+-} 1 ml/100 ml/min; P < 0.001), mean PBV (2 {+-} 0.1 ml/100 ml, normal region 9.8 {+-} 0.1 ml/100 ml; P < 0.001) and mean MTT (3.8 {+-} 0.1 s; normal region 6.3 {+-} 0.1; P < 0.001). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using time-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to determine normal range and regional variation of pulmonary perfusion and perfusion deficits in patients with PE. (orig.)

  14. Combined nattokinase with red yeast rice but not nattokinase alone has potent effects on blood lipids in human subjects with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nae-Cherng; Chou, Chien-Wen; Chen, Chung-Yin; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Yang, Yi-Chueh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel comparison study was to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of orally administrated nattokinase and nattokinase combined with red yeast rice (RYR) extract on blood lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia. A total of 47 patients with hyperlipidemia were assigned to one of three groups: 1. nattokinase-mono formula (50 mg/capsule), 2. combined formula of nattokinase with RYR (300 mg of extract/capsule) and 3. placebo. Subjects received a twice daily dose of two capsules for six months. The mono formula showed no effects on blood lipids until month six, while the combined formula ameliorated all of measured lipids starting from month one. In the combined group significant decreases were found with regard to: triglycerides (TG) by 15%, total cholesterol (TC) by 25%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 41%, TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio by 29.5%, and increases in HDL-C by 7.5%. These changes were sustained until the end of study. After controlling for baseline levels, only the combined group, but not mono group, showed a significant difference (pnattokinase supplementation and shows that the combined formula has relatively more potent effects than the mono formula on lowering of blood lipids, suggesting that combined nattokinase with RYR will be a better neutraceutical for patients with hyperlipidemia than nattokinase alone.

  15. Preliminary study of Histamine in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss samples from fish markets in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Mashak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Histidine is one of non-protein nitrogen extractives which found in fish such as Salmonidae family (trout is belonged this family.Members of this family has high amounts of Histidine compared to other foods. Some Salmon microbial flora can decarboxylated Histidine to Histamine and this metabolite is a hazard component for human. Evaluation of Histamine levels in Salmon via a fast and accurate method can be useful for decreasing the intensity of these hazards. In this study evaluated psychrophilic and mesophilic aerobic bacteria and also histamine level in purchased salmon samples from fish markets in Tehran by ELISA method (Rida Screen Histamine Kits. A total of 60 samples of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss purchased from fish markets and assayed for Histamine by using Rida Screen Histamine ELISA Kits. Bacterial enumeration was performed on 10-fold diluted samples at 25°C and 35°C for mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, respectively. The range of Histamine content was 4 to 28mg/100g (14.18mg/100g. 12.50 percent of samples had Histamine content above the international standard level (20mg/100g. Data achieved by bacterial enumeration and ELISA test were analyzed by Pearson correlation test indicated that direct relationship between histamine and the number of bacteria in fish samples is established (p

  16. Degradation of histamine by Bacillus polymyxa isolated from salted fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is the causative agent of scombroid poisoning, a foodborne chemical hazard. Histamine is degraded by the oxidative deamination activity of certain microorganisms. In this study, eight histamine-degrading bacteria isolated from salted fish products were identified as Rummeliibacillus stabekisii (1 isolate, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (1 isolate, Bacillus cereus (2 isolates, Bacillus polymyxa (1 isolate, Bacillus licheniformis (1 isolate, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (1 isolate, and Bacillus subtilis (1 isolate. Among them, B. polymyxa exhibited the highest activity in degrading histamine than the other isolates. The ranges of temperature, pH, and salt concentration for growth and histamine degradation of B. polymyxa were 25–37°C, pH 5–9, and 0.5–5% NaCl, respectively. B. polymyxa exhibited optimal growth and histamine-degrading activity at 30°C, pH 7, and 0.5% NaCl in histamine broth for 24 hours of incubation. The histamine-degrading isolate, B. polymyxa, might be used as a starter culture in inhibiting histamine accumulation during salted fish product fermentation.

  17. Sensory and histamine assessment of the freshness of Sardine (Sardine sindensis during different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Storage of fish under refrigerated conditions from the time it is caught until when it is consumed has been found to be very important in reducing outbreaks of histamine poisoning. Methods: Low temperatures control bacterial histamine formation during fish processing. The shelf life of sardine (sardine sindensis during storage at ambient temperature (33°C, ice box temperature (0°C and freezing temperature (-7°C were studied in terms of sensory and histamine production. The sensory acceptability limit was up to one day at ambient temperature and 11 days at ice storage condition. However, freezing storage had a good preserving effect on sensory acceptability at the end of experiment. The formation of histamine was determined at day 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16 and 18 of experiment using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fluorometeric method. Results: Histamine development had not exceeded the permissible level (200 mg/kg recommended by the FAO (2012 during storage condition at -7°C throughout the experiment. At 0°C, histamine concentration was lower than safe level for up to 16 days (135 mg/kg. At ambient temperature, the sardine was spoiled on 3rd day and histamine concentration was found 500.48 mg/kg which was above the FAO recommended level for histamine. Conclusion: Freezing storage condition has a good preserving effect on sensory acceptability and histamine production and seems the best means of storage.

  18. Polyamines affect histamine synthesis during early stages of IL-3-induced bone marrow cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Faroldi, Gianni; Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Abrighach, Hicham; Berdasco, María; Fraga, Mario F; Esteller, Manel; Urdiales, José L; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Fajardo, Ignacio

    2009-09-01

    Mast cells synthesize and store histamine, a key immunomodulatory mediator. Polyamines are essential for every living cell. Previously, we detected an antagonistic relationship between the metabolisms of these amines in established mast cell and basophilic cell lines. Here, we used the IL-3-driven mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC) culture system to further investigate this antagonism in a mast cell model of deeper physiological significance. Polyamines and histamine levels followed opposite profiles along the bone marrow cell cultures leading to BMMCs. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)-induced polyamine depletion resulted in an upregulation of histidine decarboxylase (HDC, the histamine-synthesizing enzyme) expression and activity, accompanied by increased histamine levels, specifically during early stages of these cell cultures, where an active histamine synthesis process occurs. In contrast, DFMO did not induce any effect in either HDC activity or histamine levels of differentiated BMMCs or C57.1 mast cells, that exhibit a nearly inactive histamine synthesis rate. Sequence-specific DNA methylation analysis revealed that the DFMO-induced HDC mRNA upregulation observed in early bone marrow cell cultures is not attributable to a demethylation of the gene promoter caused by the pharmacological polyamine depletion. Taken together, the results support an inverse relationship between histamine and polyamine metabolisms during the bone marrow cell cultures leading to BMMCs and, moreover, suggest that the regulation of the histamine synthesis occurring during the early stages of these cultures depends on the concentrations of polyamines. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Histamine: a new immunomodulatory player in the neuron-glia crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Rocha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is an amine acting as a major peripheral inflammatory mediator. In the brain, histamine was initially viewed as a neurotransmitter, but new evidences support its involvement in the modulation of innate immune responses. Recently, we showed that histamine modulates microglial migration and cytokine release. Its pleiotropic actions, ranging from neurotransmission to inflammation, highlight histamine as a key player in a vast array of brain physiologic activities and also in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we emphasize the role of histamine as a modulator of brain immune reactions, either by acting on invading peripheral immune cells and/or on resident microglial cells. We also unveil the putative involvement of histamine in the microglial-neuronal communication. We first show that histamine modulates the release of inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide, by microglia cells. Consequently, the microglia secretome released upon histamine stimulation fosters dopaminergic neuronal death. These data may reveal important new pharmacological applications on the use histamine and antihistamines, particularly in the context of Parkinson’s disease.

  20. Histamine-HisCl1 Receptor Axis Regulates Wake-Promoting Signals in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yangkyun; Jang, Donghoon; Sonn, Jun Young; Choe, Joonho

    2013-01-01

    Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1) and ora transientless (Ort), are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF). Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons. PMID:23844178

  1. Roles of histamine on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Tian, Tian; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Morii, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a limited number of cells that are essential for maintenance, recurrence, and metastasis of tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been recognized as a marker of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and that ALDH1 high population was more tumorigenic, invasive, and resistant to apoptosis than ALDH1 low population. Histamine plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, we examined the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of histamine increased ALDH1 high population, which was consistent with the result that histamine enhanced the invasive ability and the resistance to anticancer drug. Among 4 types of histamine receptors, histamine H1 and H2 receptor (H1R and H2R) were expressed in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of H1R agonist but not H2R agonist increased ALDH1. The antagonist H1R but not H2R inhibited the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression. These results indicated that histamine increased the expression of ALDH1 via H1R but not H2R. These findings may provide the evidence for exploring a new strategy to suppress CICs by inhibiting ALDH1 expression with histamine. PMID:25045085

  2. Extended-gate organic field-effect transistor for the detection of histamine in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiki, Tsukuru; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-04-01

    As part of our ongoing research program to develop health care sensors based on organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices, we have attempted to detect histamine using an extended-gate OFET. Histamine is found in spoiled or decayed fish, and causes foodborne illness known as scombroid food poisoning. The new OFET device possesses an extended gate functionalized by carboxyalkanethiol that can interact with histamine. As a result, we have succeeded in detecting histamine in water through a shift in OFET threshold voltage. This result indicates the potential utility of the designed OFET devices in food freshness sensing.

  3. Quality control of the analysis of histamine in fish by proficiency test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Warlley P.; Tette, Patrícia A. S.; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of histamine is required by the European Union for the importation of tuna and other Scombroid fish. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of the analysis of histamine in fish, by means of reference material (RM) and of proficiency test (PT). Sample analysis carried out using RM provided 89.4% recovery. During the proficiency test, the histamine content of the sample was 311.9 mg/kg and the z-score was zero. These results assure the good performance of the laboratory in the analysis of histamine in fish, asuring reliability of results to clients.

  4. Selective histamine uptake rescues photo- and mechanoreceptor function of histidine decarboxylase-deficient Drosophila mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzig, J; Burg, M; Gruhn, M; Pak, W L; Buchner, E

    1998-09-15

    In insects, histamine is found both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and in the CNS and is known to function as a fast neurotransmitter in photoreceptors that have been shown to express selectively the hdc gene. This gene codes for histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme for histamine synthesis. Fast neurotransmission requires the efficient removal of the transmitter from the synaptic cleft. Here we identify in Drosophila photo- and mechanoreceptors a histamine uptake mechanism that can restore the function of these receptors in mutants unable to synthesize histamine. When apparent null mutants for the hdc gene imbibe aqueous histamine solution or are genetically "rescued" by a transgene ubiquitously expressing histidine decarboxylase under heat-shock control, sufficient amounts of histamine selectively accumulate in photo- and mechanoreceptors to generate near-normal electrical responses in second-order visual interneurons and qualitatively to restore wild-type visual and mechanosensory behavior. This strongly supports the proposal that histamine functions as a fast neurotransmitter also in a certain class of mechanoreceptors. A set of CNS-intrinsic neurons that in the wild type contain high concentrations of histamine apparently lacks this uptake mechanism. We therefore speculate that histamine of intrinsic neurons may function as a neuromodulator rather than as a fast transmitter.

  5. Age-Related Changes in Ocular Blood Velocity in Suspects with Glaucomatous Optic Disc Appearance. Comparison with Healthy Subjects and Glaucoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Asejczyk-Widlicka

    Full Text Available To evaluate retrobulbar blood flow characteristics of glaucoma suspects with glaucomatous optic disc appearance (GODA in comparison to healthy control group (CG and primary open angle glaucoma patients (POAG and assess the effect of age.145 patients from a single glaucoma clinic were enrolled and classified into two diagnostic groups (GODA and POAG. Third group of subjects consisted of 67 age matched individuals (CG. Retrobulbar blood velocity measurement in central retinal artery was performed using color Doppler imaging (CDI. CDI images were processed in custom software leading a range of parameter estimates from a continuous waveform signal. The effect of age on the estimated parameters was evaluated with the stepwise forward regression and ANCOVA in which age was used as a continuous factor. One-way ANOVA was used to test for the differences in the CDI parameters between the three considered groups. Correlation between restive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI was assessed with a bilinear fitting guaranteeing no discontinuities in RI intercept estimate. Fisher test was used to assess the applicability of a bilinear PI/RI relationship, while the statistics of the RI intercept estimate were evaluated using the bootstrap.ANCOVA showed significant interaction between age and group (p<0.05 for five out of nine considered CDI parameters. The RI intercept for CG and GODA groups was 0.602±0.047, and 0.574±0.044 respectively, while the RI intercept of 0.934±0.066 was found for the POAG.The observed similarity of CG and GODA group and dissimilarity between GODA and POAG groups in terms of PI/RI relationship is remarkable. Age may play some role in the different mechanisms occurring in blood velocity dynamics in GODA and POAG subjects but it is not a strongly determining factor.

  6. [Comparative activity of antihistamines on area under dose-response curve from histamine-induced wheal and flare responses in human skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2004-12-01

    To compare the activity of antihistamines by the index of area under dose-response curve (AUDRC) obtained from histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. Mizolastine 10 mg, loratadine 10 mg, and placebo were given to 90 healthy volunteers and 60 allergic patients in a double-blind and randomized manner. Histamine titration tests (histamine concentrations 54.3, 20.0, 7.3, and 2.7 mmol/L) were performed for each one before dosing and 2, 4, and 24 hours after dosing. The reactivity was evaluated by histamine-induced wheal and flare areas. The AUDRC values of the wheal and flare areas as a function of the natural logarithm transformed histamine concentration were calculated for each subject, and compared. There was no significant difference of the wheal and flare areas between health volunteers and allergic patients. The AUDRC(27-54.3 mmol/l.) for wheal and flare of mizolastine was 115.7, 23.4, 7.7, 49.8 and 902.1, 40.9, 2.6, 46.9 ln (mmol/L) x mm2 at each time (before dosing and 2, 4, 24 hours after dosing) respectively. Compared with loratadine [116.2, 80.2, 49.7, 71.9 and 957.6, 495.3, 153.5, 205.9 ln (mmol/L) x mm2], mizolastine decreased AUDRC(2.7 - 54.3 mmol/L significantly (P wheal and flare inhibition test is a reliable pharmacodynamic model for antihistamines, and AUDRC may be an useful index to predict antihistamines pharmacodynamic activity.

  7. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of the antimalarial effect of Actelion-451840 in an induced blood stage malaria study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dingemanse, Jasper; Mathis, Alexandre; Marquart, Louise; Möhrle, Jörg J; McCarthy, James S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to use data from an experimental induced blood stage malaria clinical trial to characterize the antimalarial activity of the new compound Actelion-451840 using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling. Then, using simulations from the model, the dose and dosing regimen necessary to achieve cure of infection were derived. Eight healthy male subjects were infected with blood stage P. falciparum. After 7 days, a single dose of 500 mg of Actelion-451840 was administered under fed conditions. Parasite and drug concentrations were sampled frequently. Parasite growth and the relation to drug exposure were estimated using PK/PD modelling. Simulations were then undertaken to derive estimates of the likelihood of achieving cure in different scenarios. Actelion-451840 was safe and well tolerated. Single dose treatment markedly reduced the level of P. falciparum parasitaemia, with a weighted average parasite reduction rate of 73.6 (95% CI 56.1, 96.5) and parasite clearance half-life of 7.7 h (95% CI 7.3, 8.3). A two compartment PK/PD model with a steep concentration-kill effect predicted maximum effect with a sustained concentration of 10-15 ng ml(-1) and cure achieved in 90% of subjects with six once daily doses of 300 mg once daily. Actelion-451840 shows clinical efficacy against P. falciparum infections. The PK/PD model developed from a single proof-of-concept study with eight healthy subjects enabled prediction of therapeutic effects, with cure rates with seven daily doses predicted to be equivalent to artesunate monotherapy. Larger doses or more frequent dosing are not predicted to achieve more rapid cure. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. H3 histamine receptor antagonist pitolisant reverses some subchronic disturbances induced by olanzapine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Magdalena; Kuder, Kamil; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Olczyk, Adrian; Żmudzka, Elżbieta; Rak, Aleksandra; Bednarski, Marek; Pytka, Karolina; Sapa, Jacek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    The use of atypical antipsychotic drugs like olanzapine is associated with side effects such as sedation and depression-like symptoms, especially during the initial period of the use. It is believed that the occurrence of these undesirable effectsis mainly the result of the histamine H1receptors blockade by olanzapine. In addition, use of olanzapine increases the level of triglycerides in the blood, which correlates with growing obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pitolisant - H3 histamine antagonist - on subchronic olanzapine-induced depresion-like symptoms, sedation and hypertriglicerydemia. Forced swim test was conducted to determinate depressive-like effect of olanzapine and antidepressive-like activity during the co-administered pitolisant. The test was performed after the first and fifteenth day of the treatment of the mice. The spontaneous activity of the mice was measured on the fourteenth day of the treatment with a special, innovative RFID-system (Radio-frequency identification system) - TraffiCage (TSE-Systems, Germany). Triglyceride levels were determined on the sixteenth day of the experiment after 15 cycles of drug administration. Daily olanzapine treatment (4 mg/kg b.w., i.p., d.p.d) for 15 days significantly induces sedation (p < 0.05) and prolongs immobility time in forced swim tests (FST) in mice (p < 0.05); and also elevates the level of triglycerides (p < 0.05). Administration of pitolisant (10 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) subsequentto olanzapine normalizes these adverse effects. This study presents a promising alternative for counteracting some behavioral changes and metabolic disturbances which occur in the early period of treatment with antipsychotic drugs.

  9. Glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in high trained compared to low trained athletes and untrained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, M; Mencarelli, M; Fedele, V; Ceccarelli, I; Pecorelli, A; Grasso, G; Aloisi, A M; Muscettola, M

    2009-11-01

    Physiological needs during prolonged exercise are a potent stimulus for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hence, athletes undergoing daily endurance training sessions may have frequent and prolonged phases of endogenous hypercortisolism. Since chronic glucocorticoids treatment leads to down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GR-alpha) mRNA expression, endurance training could lead to modulation of GR expression. The aim of the study was to evaluate GR-alpha and GR-beta mRNA expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma cortisol, ACTH and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) concentrations at rest in subjects undergoing different training regimes. Nine high trained (HT) swimmers (training volume: 21.6+/-1.7 hours/week in 10-12 sessions) were compared with two age-matched control groups represented by 8 low trained (LT) runners (training volume: 6.4+/-2.6 h/week in 3-5 sessions) and 9 untrained subjects. Expression of GR was determined by RT-PCR of total RNA. Hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay methods. HT athletes showed 10 times less GR-alpha mRNA expression than the untrained subjects, while LT athletes exhibited values about twofold less than the untrained subjects. GR-beta mRNA expression was undetectable in all subjects. No differences were observed among the three groups in hormone levels. GR- alpha mRNA expression is repressed in proportion to the amount and frequency of the stressful stimuli due to training. Hence, this down-regulation may be a consequence of the frequent and prolonged exposure to cortisol acute elevations induced by training. GR-beta did not play an important role in inducing the down-regulation of GR-alpha mRNA expression observed.

  10. Formation of histamine and biogenic amines in cold-smoked tuna: an investigation of psychrotolerant bacteria from samples implicated in cases of histamine fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Jette; Dalgaard, Paw

    2006-04-01

    Two outbreaks and a single case of histamine fish poisoning associated with cold-smoked tuna (CST) were reported in Denmark during 2004. The bacteria most likely responsible for histamine formation in CST implicated in histamine fish poisoning was identified for the first time in this study. Product characteristics and profiles of biogenic amines in the implicated products were also recorded. In the single poisoning case, psychrotolerant Morganella morganii-like bacteria most likely was responsible for the histamine production in CST with 2.2% +/- 0.6% NaCl in the water phase (WPS). In outbreak 1, Photobacterium phosphoreum most likely formed the histamine in CST with 1.3% +/- 0.1% WPS. In outbreak 2, which involved 10 persons, the bacteria responsible for histamine formation could not be determined. The measured concentrations of WPS were very low compared with those of randomly collected commercial samples of CST and cold-smoked blue marlin (4.1 to 12.7% WPS). Challenge tests at 5 degrees C with psychrotolerant M. morganii and P. phosphoreum in CST with 4.4% WPS revealed growth and toxic histamine formation by the psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria but not by P. phosphoreum. In a storage trial with naturally contaminated CST containing 6.9% WPS, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microbiota, and no significant histamine formation was observed during the shelf life of about 40 days at 5 degrees C and of about 16 days at 10 degrees C. To prevent toxic histamine formation, CST should be produced with >5% WPS and distributed with a declared 5 degrees C shelf life of 3 to 4 weeks or less.

  11. Influence of the Chungkookjang on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dae-Young; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kang, Hee-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ha, Ki-Chan; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Park, Eun-Ok; Kim, Min-Gul; Yun, Seok-Kwon; Chae, Soo-Wan; Cho, Back-Hwan

    2011-12-05

    Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ) has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80) who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), and eosinophil cationic protein. This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT). If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients. NCT01402141.

  12. Influence of the Chungkookjang on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Dae-Young

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses. Methods/Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80 who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and eosinophil cationic protein. Discussion This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT. If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients

  13. Discrimination Between Patients With Alzheimer Disease and Healthy Subjects Using Layer Analysis of Cerebral Blood Flow and Xenon Solubility Coefficient in Xenon-Enhanced Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sase, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Homaro; Kawashima, Ena; Tan, Xin; Sawa, Yutaka

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for discriminating between patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy subjects using layer analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and xenon solubility coefficient (λ) in xenon-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Xenon-enhanced CT was performed on 27 patients with AD (81.7 [3.3] years old) and 15 healthy volunteers (78.6 [4.0] years old) using a wide volume CT. For each subject, we created the first- (surface) to sixth-layer images of CBF and λ for the 6 viewing directions (layer thickness, 5 mm). For the discriminant views, receiver operating characteristic curves for the ratio of CBF to λ were created to identify patients with AD. For the third- and fourth-layer left lateral views, which were designated as the discriminant views, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 96.8% and 97.4%, respectively. With the use of the discriminant views obtained by xenon-enhanced CT, we could effectively discriminate between patients with AD and healthy subjects using both CBF and λ.

  14. Evidence that histamine is the causative toxin of scombroid-fish poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J D; Margolies, G R; Rowland, J; Roberts, L J

    1991-03-14

    The highest morbidity worldwide from fish poisoning results from the ingestion of spoiled scombroid fish, such as tuna and mackerel, and its cause is not clear. Histamine could be responsible, because spoiled scombroid fish contain large quantities of histamine. Whether histamine is the causative toxin, however, has remained in question. To address this issue, we investigated whether histamine homeostasis is altered in poisoned people. The urinary excretion of histamine and its metabolite, N-methylhistamine, was measured in three persons who had scombroid-fish poisoning (scombrotoxism) after the ingestion of marlin. We measured 9 alpha, 11 beta-dihydroxy-15-oxo-2,3,18,19-tetranorprost-5-ene-1,20-dioic acid (PGD-M), the principal metabolite of prostaglandin D2, a mast-cell secretory product, to assess whether mast cells had been activated to release histamine. The fish contained high levels of histamine (842 to 2503 mumol per 100 g of tissue). Symptoms of scombrotoxism--flushing and headache--began 10 to 30 minutes after the ingestion of fish. In urine samples collected one to four hours after fish ingestion, the levels of histamine and N-methylhistamine were 9 to 20 times and 15 to 20 times the normal mean, respectively. During the subsequent 24 hours, the levels fell to 4 to 15 times and 4 to 11 times the normal values. Levels of both were normal 14 days later. PGD-M excretion was not increased at any time. Two persons treated with diphenhydramine had prompt amelioration of symptoms. Scombroid-fish poisoning is associated with urinary excretion of histamine in quantities far exceeding those required to produce toxicity. The histamine is most likely derived from the spoiled fish. These results identify histamine as the toxin responsible for scombroid-fish poisoning.

  15. Histamine transport and metabolism are deranged in salivary glands in Sjogren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegaev, Vasily; Nies, Anne T; Porola, Pauliina; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, Jóse L; Sillat, Tarvo; Schwelberger, Hubert G; Chazot, Paul L; Katebe, Mwape; Mackiewicz, Zygmunt; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Nordström, Dan C E

    2013-09-01

    To study histamine transport and metabolism of salivary gland (SG) epithelial cells in healthy controls and SS patients. Enzymes and transporters involved in histamine metabolism were analysed in cultured human submandibular salivary gland (HSG) epithelial cells and tissue sections using quantitative real-time PCR and immunostaining. HSG cells were used to study [(3)H]histamine uptake [(±1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP)] and efflux by liquid scintillation counting. mRNA levels of l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and histamine-N-methyltransferase (HNMT) were similar in the control and SS glands, but diamine oxidase was not expressed at all. Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) in healthy SG was localized in the acinar and ductal cells, whereas OCT2 was restricted to the myoepithelial cells. Both transporters were significantly decreased in SS at mRNA and protein levels. OCT3-mRNA levels in HSG cells were significantly higher than those of the other studied transporters. Uptake of [(3)H]histamine was inhibited by MPP in a time-dependent manner, whereas [(3)H]histamine-preloaded HSG cells released it. Ductal epithelial cells are non-professional histamine-producing cells able to release histamine via OCTs at the resting state up to ∼100 nM, enough to excite H3R/H4R(+) epithelial cells, but not H1R, which requires burst release from mast cells. At the stimulated phase, 50-60 μM histamine passes from the interstitial fluid through the acinar cells to saliva, whereas uptake by ductal cells leads to intracellular degradation by HNMT. OCT3/histamine/H4R-mediated cell maintenance and down-regulation of high histamine levels fail in SS SGs.

  16. Histamine suppresses epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and impairs skin barrier function in a human skin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwandtner, M; Mildner, M; Mlitz, V; Gruber, F; Eckhart, L; Werfel, T; Gutzmer, R; Elias, P M; Tschachler, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting conditions in the presence and absence of histamine, histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. The expression of differentiation-associated genes and epidermal junction proteins was quantified by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence labeling. The barrier function of human skin models was tested by the application of biotin as tracer molecule. Results The addition of histamine to human keratinocyte cultures and organotypic skin models reduced the expression of the differentiation-associated proteins keratin 1/10, filaggrin, and loricrin by 80–95%. Moreover, the addition of histamine to skin models resulted in the loss of the granular layer and thinning of the epidermis and stratum corneum by 50%. The histamine receptor H1R agonist, 2-pyridylethylamine, suppressed keratinocyte differentiation to the same extent as did histamine. Correspondingly, cetirizine, an antagonist of H1R, virtually abrogated the effect of histamine. The expression of tight junction proteins zona occludens-1, occludin, claudin-1, and claudin-4, as well as that of desmosomal junction proteins corneodesmosin and desmoglein-1, was down-regulated by histamine. The tracer molecule biotin readily penetrated the tight junction barrier of skin cultures grown in the presence of histamine, while their diffusion was completely blocked in nontreated controls. Conclusions Our findings suggest a new mechanism by which mast cell activation and histamine release contribute to skin barrier defects in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:23157658

  17. PUNISHING AND CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS HISTAMINE IN RATS: PHARMACOLOGICAL SELECTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2014-01-01

    Although drugs may serve as reinforcers or punishers of operant behavior, the punishing function has received much less experimental attention than the reinforcing function. A sensitive method for studying drug-induced punishment is to assess choice for a punished response over an unpunished response. In these experiments, rats chose between pressing one lever and receiving a sucrose pellet or pressing another lever and receiving a sucrose pellet plus an intravenous injection of histamine. When sucrose was delivered equally frequently for either the punished or the unpunished response, rats selected the unpunished lever consistently, but decreases in the punished response did not differ as a function of intravenous histamine dose (0.1–1 mg/kg/inj). Changing the procedure so that sucrose was delivered on the unpunished lever with p = .5 increased the rats’ responding on the punished lever with saline injections. In addition, the same range of histamine doses produced a much larger range of responses on the punished lever that was dose dependent. Using these procedures to assess the receptors mediating histamine’s effects, the histamine H1-receptor antagonists, pyrilamine and ketotifen, antagonized the punishing effect of histamine, but the histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine did not. However, ranitidine pretreatments reduced histamine-induced heart-rate increases to a greater extent than did the histamine H1-receptor antagonists when administered at the same doses examined under conditions of histamine punishment. Overall, the present findings extend the general hypothesis that activation of histamine H1-receptors mediates the punishing effects of histamine. They also introduce methods for rapidly assessing pharmacological mechanisms underlying drug-induced punishment. PMID:23982898

  18. Synergistic mucus secretion by histamine and IL-4 through TMEM16A in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Wan; Lee, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Min Jeong; Lee, Hyun Jae; Oh, Ryung; Min, Hyun Jin; Namkung, Wan; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Sang Nam; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Cho, Hyung-Ju

    2017-09-01

    Histamine is an important mediator of allergic reactions, and mucus hypersecretion is a major allergic symptom. However, the direct effect of histamine on mucus secretion from airway mucosal epithelia has not been clearly demonstrated. TMEM16A is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel, and it is closely related to fluid secretion in airway mucosal epithelia. We investigated whether histamine directly induces fluid secretion from epithelial cells or submucosal glands (SMG) and mechanisms related, therewith, in allergic airway diseases. In pig airway tissues from the nose or trachea, histamine was a potent secretagogue that directly induced strong responses. However, gland secretion from human nasal tissue was not induced by histamine, even in allergic rhinitis patients. Histamine type 1 receptor (H1R) and histamine type 2 receptor (H2R) were not noted in SMG by in situ hybridization. Cultured primary human nasal epithelial (NHE) cells were used for the measurement of short-circuit current changes with the Ussing chamber. Histamine-induced slight responses of anion secretions under normal conditions. The response was enhanced by IL-4 stimulation through TMEM16A, which might be related to fluid hypersecretion in allergic rhinitis. Pretreatment with IL-4 augmented the histamine response that was suppressed by a TMEM16A inhibitor. TMEM16A expression was enhanced by 24-h treatment of IL-4 in human nasal epithelial cells. The expression of TMEM16A was significantly elevated in an allergic rhinitis group, compared with a control group. We elucidated histamine-induced fluid secretions in synergy with IL-4 through TMEM16A in the human airway epithelium. In addition, we observed species differences between pigs and humans in terms of gland secretion of histamine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkkinen Essi S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High salt intake is linked to hypertension whereas a restriction of dietary salt lowers blood pressure (BP. Substituting potassium and/or magnesium salts for sodium chloride (NaCl may enhance the feasibility of salt restriction and lower blood pressure beyond the sodium reduction alone. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effect on blood pressure of replacing NaCl (Regular salt with a novel mineral salt [50% sodium chloride and rich in potassium chloride (25%, magnesium ammonium potassium chloride, hydrate (25%] (Smart Salt. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with an intervention period of 8-weeks in subjects (n = 45 with systolic (SBP 130-159 mmHg and/or diastolic (DBP 85-99 mmHg. During the intervention period, subjects consumed processed foods salted with either NaCl or Smart Salt. The primary endpoint was the change in SBP. Secondary endpoints were changes in DBP, daily urine excretion of sodium (24-h dU-Na, potassium (dU-K and magnesium (dU-Mg. Results 24-h dU-Na decreased significantly in the Smart Salt group (-29.8 mmol; p = 0.012 and remained unchanged in the control group: resulting in a 3.3 g difference in NaCl intake between the groups. Replacement of NaCl with Smart Salt resulted in a significant reduction in SBP over 8 weeks (-7.5 mmHg; p = 0.016. SBP increased (+3.8 mmHg, p = 0.072 slightly in the Regular salt group. The difference in the change of SBP between study groups was significant (p Conclusions The substitution of Smart Salt for Regular salt in subjects with high normal or mildly elevated BP resulted in a significant reduction in their daily sodium intake as well as a reduction in SBP. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN01739816

  20. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-07-21

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non-significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Biosensor cell assay for measuring real-time aldosterone-induced release of histamine from mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Emil G; Andersen, Kenneth; Svenningsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The aims were to develop a method for real-time detection of histamine release and to test if incubation with aldosterone induces histamine release from isolated, perfused mice mesenteric arteries. METHODS: Fura-2 loaded HEK-293 cells transfected with the histamine H1 receptor was used...... as a sensitive biosensor assay for histamine release from isolated mouse mesenteric arteries. Activation of the H1 receptor by histamine was measured as an increased number of intracellular Ca(2+) transient peaks using fluorescence imaging RESULTS: The developed biosensor was sensitive to histamine...... by the histamine H1 blocker pyrilamine. Mesenteric arteries from mast cell deficient SASH mice induced similar pyrilamine-sensitive Ca(2+) transient response in the biosensor cells. Mesenteric arteries from wild type and SASH mice expressed histamine decarboxylase mRNA, indicating that mast cells are not the only...

  2. Drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects: biological variations and importance of pre-analytical steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siest, Gérard; Jeannesson, Elise; Marteau, Jean-Brice; Samara, Anastasia; Pfister, Michèle; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2009-05-01

    Quantification in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mRNA of drug metabolizing enzymes or drug targets could give interesting, new information in the field of pharmacogenomics and molecular mechanisms. However, for the interpretation of these data, it is necessary to know mRNA biological variations. In this review, we propose a strategy based on the production and interpretation of clinical chemistry reference values. We discuss the concept of reference values; the necessity to master pre-analytical variations of CYP and ABC transporters; the choice of the analytical methods and of the reference genes; and finally the biological variations themselves. In particular, we focus on the importance of considering homogeneity for age, sex, degree of adiposity, tobacco and alcohol intake, food habits, and drug consumption, including their inductive effects, at the phase of subject recruitment. All this information is useful to define the partition and exclusion factors to obtain mRNA reference limits.

  3. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels in Human Subjects Undergoing Head-Down Tilt During 70-Day Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew C.; Predovic, Marina; Lim, Shiyin; Askin, Kayleigh N.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Mason, Sara Stroble; Zanello, Susana B.; Young, Millenia; hide

    2017-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions [1]. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within blood vessels of the retina that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated for two studies in 30deg infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis(Registered Trademark) images with NASA's innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software [2,3]. The retrospective studies include: (1) before, during and after (pre, mid and post) 6º head-down tilt (HDT) in human subjects during 70 days of bed rest, and (2) before and after missions to the International Space Station (ISS) by U.S. crew members. Results for both studies are almost complete. A preliminary example for HDT is described below.

  4. Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, I; Nadel, J A; Graf, P D; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Skin mast cells release the neutral protease chymase along with histamine during degranulation. To test the hypothesis that chymase modulates histamine-induced plasma extravasation, we measured wheal formation following intradermal injection of purified mast cell chymase and histamine into the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. We found that chymase greatly augments histamine-induced wheal formation. The magnitude of the potentiating effect increases with increasing doses of chymase and becomes m...

  5. Spinal histamine in attenuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in the spinal nerve ligation-induced model of experimental neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Viisanen, Hanna; You, Hao-Jun; Pertovaara, Antti

    2016-02-05

    Here we studied whether and through which mechanisms spinal administration of histamine dihydrochloride (histamine) attenuates pain behavior in neuropathic animals. Experiments were performed in rats with spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathy and a chronic intrathecal catheter for spinal drug delivery. Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed with monofilaments while radiant heat was used for assessing nociception. Ongoing neuropathic pain and its attenuation by histamine was assessed using conditioned place-preference test. Following spinal administration, histamine at doses 0.1-10µg produced a dose-related mechanical antihypersensitivity effect. With prolonged treatment (twice daily 10µg for five days), the antihypersensitivity effect of spinal histamine was reduced. In place-preference test, neuropathic animals preferred the chamber paired with histamine (10µg). Histamine (10µg) failed to influence heat nociception in neuropathic animals or mechanically induced pain behavior in a group of healthy control rats. Histamine-induced mechanical antihypersensitivity effect was prevented by spinal pretreatment with zolantidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist), prazosine (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and bicuculline (γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A, GABA(A), receptor antagonist), but not by pyrilamine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), atipamezole (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), or raclopride (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist). A-960656, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist alone that presumably increased endogenous histamine levels reduced hypersensitivity. Additionally, histamine prevented central (presumably postsynaptically-induced) facilitation of hypersensitivity induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The results indicate that spinal histamine at the dose range of 0.1-10µg selectively attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity and ongoing pain in neuropathy. The spinal histamine-induced antihypersensitivity effect involves histamine H2 and GABA(A) receptors and

  6. Effect of low-level laser therapy on blood flow and oxygen- hemoglobin saturation of the foot skin in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heu, Franziska; Forster, Clemens; Namer, Barbara; Dragu, Adrian; Lang, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: This study on healthy test subjects intends to show whether one-off Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has an instant effect on the perfusion or the oxygenation of the skin tissue. These possible instant effects may have an influence on the accelerated wound healing which is often observed after application of LLLT, in addition to the usual postulated effects of LLLT which occur with a time delay normally. Study design/materials and methods: The study was carried out double-blind and placebo-controlled in two batches of testing. The test subjects received one-off LLLT on a defined area of the arch of the foot. Simultaneously a placebo treatment was carried out on the corresponding contralateral area. In the first batch of tests, the blood flow was measured immediately before and after treatment using thermography and LDI. In the second batch of tests, the blood flow and the oxygen saturation were determined immediately before and after the treatment using an O2C device. Results: No evidence that the LLLT has a significant instant effect on the circulation or the oxygen saturation could be found. Conclusion: No immediate effect of an LLLT on the perfusion or oxygenation situation is to be expected with physiologically normal starting conditions. An additional investigation should be carried out in which either the radiation dose is varied or the starting conditions are pathological (e.g. chronic wounds) in order to rule out immediate effects on circulation or oxygen saturation as the cause of the improved wound healing which is often observed. PMID:24155546

  7. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  8. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  9. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5 h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18 h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18 h PE), number of neutrophils (2 h PE) and monocytes (18 h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals.

  10. Clinical Development of Histamine H4 Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Robin L; Venable, Jennifer; Savall, Brad; La, David; Snook, Sandra; Dunford, Paul J; Edwards, James P

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) provided a new avenue for the exploration of the physiological role of histamine, as well as providing a new drug target for the development of novel antihistamines. The first step in this process was the identification of selective antagonists to help unravel the pharmacology of the H4R relative to other histamine receptors. The discovery of the selective H4R antagonist JNJ 7777120 was vital for showing a role for the H4R in inflammation and pruritus. While this compound has been very successful as a tool for understanding the function of the receptor, it has drawbacks, including a short in vivo half-life and hypoadrenocorticism toxicity in rats and dogs, that prevented advancing it into clinical studies. Further research let to the discovery of JNJ 39758979, which, similar to JNJ 7777120, was a potent and selective H4R antagonist and showed anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic activity preclinically. JNJ 39758979 advanced into human clinical studies and showed efficacy in reducing experimental pruritus and in patients with atopic dermatitis. However, development of this compound was terminated due to the occurrence of drug-induced agranulocytosis. This was overcome by developing another H4R antagonist with a different chemical structure, toreforant, that does not appear to have this side effect. Toreforant has been tested in clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, or psoriasis. In conclusions there have been many H4R antagonists reported in the literature, but only a few have been studied in humans underscoring the difficulty in finding ligands with all of the properties necessary for testing in the clinic. Nevertheless, the clinical data to date suggests that H4R antagonists can be beneficial in treating atopic dermatitis and pruritus.

  11. Effect of Resveratrol Administration on the Element Metabolism in the Blood and Brain Tissues of Rats Subjected to Acute Swimming Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Arslangil, Dilek; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Patlar, Suleyman

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine how resveratrol administration affects the element metabolism in the blood and brain cortex tissues of rats subjected to an acute swimming exercise. The study was carried out on Wistar-Albino-type adult male rats supplied by the Center. Group 1 is the control group. Group 2 is the swimming control group. Group 3 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) + swimming group. Group 4 is the resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) group. Blood and brain cortex tissues were analyzed for some elements. The acute swimming exercise led to increases in the rats' serum iron, selenium, lead, cobalt, and boron levels, while the resveratrol-swimming group has increases in copper, phosphorus, and calcium values. The brain cortex tissue of the resveratrol-swimming group had significantly higher molybdenum levels than others. The results obtained in the study indicate that acute swimming exercise altered the distribution of elements in the serum to a considerable extent; however, resveratrol's affect is limited. Especially, resveratrol supplementation may have a regulatory affect on serum iron and magnesium levels.

  12. An overview of anti-allergic drug therapy and the histamine-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and corticosteroid medication (when indicated, and in most instances, used locally). The article provides an overview of the nature and the management of allergic disease and the histamine 1 antihistamines. Keywords: anti-allergic drug therapy, H1 antihistamines, histamine receptors, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, allergy ...

  13. En route to new blockbuster antihistamines:surveying the offspring of the expanding histamine receptor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, R.; Vischer, H.F.; Wijtmans, M.; De Esch, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the recognition of two new histamine receptors at the start of the new millennium, the field of histamine research has seen a clear revival. In the last 10 years, many academic and industrial groups have taken up the challenge to target these new members of the aminergic G-protein-coupled

  14. Allergic manifestations and cutaneous histamine responses in patients with McCune Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jill D; Turpin, Angela L; Sands, Scott A

    2013-05-01

    McCune Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare disorder characterized by precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, and fibrous dysplasia. Its cause is an activating mutation in the GNAS gene, encoding a subunit of the stimulatory G protein, Gsalpha (Gsα). The action of any mediator that signals via Gsα and cyclic AMP can be up regulated in MAS. We had observed gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, and anaphylaxis in McCune Albright patients. As histamine is known to signal via histamine 1 (H1) and histamine 2 (H2) receptors, which couple with stimulatory G proteins, we attempted to mechanistically link histamine responsiveness to the activating GNAS mutation. We hypothesized that responsiveness to histamine skin testing would differ between MAS patients and healthy controls. After obtaining informed consent, we performed a systematic review of histamine responsiveness and allergic manifestations in 11 MAS patients and 11 sex-matched, Tanner-stage matched controls. We performed skin prick testing, quantifying the orthogonal diameters of wheals and erythema. We also quantitated G protein mRNA expression. The peak wheal and flare responses to histamine were significantly higher in MAS patients compared to controls. This study suggests that MAS patients may be at risk for exaggerated histamine responsiveness compared to unaffected controls.

  15. Exploring polyamine regulation by nascent histamine in a human-transfected cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrighach, H; Fajardo, I; Sánchez-Jiménez, F; Urdiales, J L

    2010-02-01

    There are multiple lines of evidence suggesting interplay between histamine and polyamines in several mammalian cell types. However, the complex metabolic context makes it difficult to elucidate the mechanisms involved. Histamine's effects can be elicited after its binding to any of the four subtypes of G-protein coupled histamine membrane receptors. In addition, intracellular histamine can also interfere with polyamine metabolism, since there are several metabolic connections between the synthesis and degradation pathways of both types of amines. In order to dissect the metabolic effects of intracellular histamine on polyamine metabolism, we chose a well-known cell culture line, i.e., the human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293 cells). Initially, we show that HEK-293 cells lack a polyamine metabolic response to extracellular histamine, even over a wide range of histamine concentrations. HEK-293 cells were transfected with active and inactive versions of human histidine decarboxylase, and changes in many of the overlapping metabolic factors and limiting steps were tested. Overall, the results indicate a regulatory effect of histamine on the post-transcriptional expression of ornithine decarboxylase and suggest that this effect is primarily responsible for the decrease in polyamine synthesis and partial blockade of cell-cycle progression, which should affect cell proliferation rate.

  16. Histamine prevents polyamine accumulation in mouse C57.1 mast cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, I; Urdiales, J L; Paz, J C; Chavarría, T; Sánchez-Jiménez, F; Medina, M A

    2001-02-01

    The effects of histamine on polyamine uptake and metabolism was studied in a mouse mast cell line (C57.1), as a cell model in which both biogenic amines are important for maintaining cell function and viability. Results obtained after incubations with exogenous histamine indicated that histamine prevents polyamine accumulation by affecting polyamine uptake. A plasma membrane transport system for polyamines has been also studied in mast cells. It seems to be a Na(+)-dependent uptake with high affinity for both spermine and spermidine and lower affinity for putrescine and agmatine. Polyamine uptake was reduced in both cells treated with exogenous histamine and histamine-preloaded cells. However, ornithine decarboxylase activity and cell proliferation were not affected by histamine. Incubation with histamine enhanced the spermidine/spermine acetyl transferase induction caused by N(1)-ethyl-N(11)-[(cyclopropyl)methyl]-4,8-diazaundecane, suggesting that polyamine acetylation could be another mechanism by which histamine prevents polyamine accumulation in C57.1 mast cells.

  17. Effect of copper exposure on histamine concentrations in the marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedarini, B.; Klaver, L.; Giesen, D.; Roessink, I.; Widianarko, B.; van Straalen, N.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crustaceans can store excess copper in the hepatopancreas, an organ playing a role in digestive activity as well as in neurosecretory control. Here, we studied the effect of copper exposure on the level of histamine, an indicator of food spoilage in edible crustaceans. Histamine is also a

  18. Inducible and titratable silencing of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons in vivo with histamine-gated chloride channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokala, Navin; Liu, Qiang; Gordus, Andrew; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in neuroscience has been facilitated by tools for neuronal activation and inactivation that are orthogonal to endogenous signaling systems. We describe here a chemical-genetic approach for inducible silencing of Caenorhabditis elegans neurons in intact animals, using the histamine-gated chloride channel HisCl1 from Drosophila and exogenous histamine. Administering histamine to freely moving C. elegans that express HisCl1 transgenes in neurons leads to rapid and potent inhibition of neural activity within minutes, as assessed by behavior, functional calcium imaging, and electrophysiology of neurons expressing HisCl1. C. elegans does not use histamine as an endogenous neurotransmitter, and exogenous histamine has little apparent effect on wild-type C. elegans behavior. HisCl1-histamine silencing of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons leads to behavioral effects matching their known functions. In addition, the HisCl1-histamine system can be used to titrate the level of neural activity, revealing quantitative relationships between neural activity and behavioral output. We use these methods to dissect escape circuits, define interneurons that regulate locomotion speed (AVA, AIB) and escape-related omega turns (AIB), and demonstrate graded control of reversal length by AVA interneurons and DA/VA motor neurons. The histamine-HisCl1 system is effective, robust, compatible with standard behavioral assays, and easily combined with optogenetic tools, properties that should make it a useful addition to C. elegans neurotechnology. PMID:24550306

  19. Enhancement of ionizing radiation response by histamine in vitro and in vivo in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinel Lamas, Diego J; Cortina, Jorge E; Ventura, Clara; Sterle, Helena A; Valli, Eduardo; Balestrasse, Karina B; Blanco, Horacio; Cremaschi, Graciela A; Rivera, Elena S; Medina, Vanina A

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective potential of histamine on healthy tissue has been previously demonstrated. The aims of this work were to investigate the combinatorial effect of histamine or its receptor ligands and gamma radiation in vitro on the radiobiological response of 2 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of the radiosensitizing action and to evaluate the histamine-induced radiosensitization in vivo in a triple negative breast cancer model. Results indicate that histamine significantly increased the radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. This effect was mimicked by the H1R agonist 2-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)histamine and the H4R agonists (Clobenpropit and VUF8430) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Histamine and its agonists enhanced radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks, apoptosis and senescence. These effects were associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, which correlated with the inhibition of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in MDA-MB-231 cells. Histamine was able also to potentiate in vivo the anti-tumoral effect of radiation, increasing the exponential tumor doubling time. We conclude that histamine increased radiation response of breast cancer cells, suggesting that it could be used as a potential adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy. PMID:25482934

  20. Histamine inhibits the production of interleukin-12 through interaction with H2 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pouw Kraan, T. C.; Snijders, A.; Boeije, L. C.; de Groot, E. R.; Alewijnse, A. E.; Leurs, R.; Aarden, L. A.

    1998-01-01

    IL-12 is essential for T helper 1 (Th1) development and inhibits the induction of Th2 responses. Atopic diseases, which are characterized by Th2 responses, are associated with the overproduction of histamine. Here we present evidence that histamine, at physiological concentrations, strongly inhibits

  1. Determination of histamine in fish by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy using silver colloid SERS substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janči, Tibor; Valinger, Davor; Gajdoš Kljusurić, Jasenka; Mikac, Lara; Vidaček, Sanja; Ivanda, Mile

    2017-06-01

    This study was focused on development of a rapid and sensitive method for histamine determination in fish based on Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) using simple and widely available silver colloid SERS substrate. Extraction of histamine with 0.4M perchloric acid and purification with 1-butanol significantly shortened sample preparation (30min) and provided clear SERS spectra with characteristic Raman bands of histamine. Principal component analysis effectively distinguished SERS spectra of fish samples with different histamine content. Partial least square (PLS) regression models confirmed reliability of detection and spectral analysis of histamine with SERS. In histamine concentration range 0-200mgkg-1, significant in legislative and fish quality control aspects, PLS regression model based on spectral range 1139.9-1643.7cm-1 showed linear trend with R2pred=0.962, RPD=7.250. Presented protocol for histamine extraction and purification followed by SERS analysis coupled with chemometric approach, enabled development of rapid and inexpensive method for histamine determination in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Histamine release positive test associates with disease remission in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Background. Histamine release (HR) test has previously been shown to predict the presence of endogenous histamine-releasing factors in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Objectives and methods. Twenty CSU patients unresponsive to antihistamine treatment were enrolled in order to evaluate...

  3. Inhibition of in vivo histamine metabolism in rats by foodborne and pharmacologic inhibitors of diamine oxidase, histamine N-methyltransferase, and monoamine oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, J.Y.; Taylor, S.L.

    1985-11-01

    When (/sup 14/C)histamine was administered orally to rats, an average of 80% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine at the end of 24 hr. About 10% of the total dose was excreted via the feces. Analysis of 4-hr urine samples found imidazoleacetic acid to be the predominant metabolite (60.6%), with N tau-methylimidazoleacetic acid (8.6%), N tau-methylhistamine (7.3%), and N-acetylhistamine (4.5%) to be the minor metabolites. Histamine metabolism was inhibited by simultaneous oral administration of aminoguanidine, isoniazid, quinacrine, cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, and beta-phenylethylamine. The administration of inhibitors resulted in an increased amount of unmetabolized histamine and a decreased amount of metabolites reaching the urine. Pharmacologic inhibitors were found to be more potent and have a longer duration of action than foodborne ones. The inhibitors could potentiate food poisoning caused by histamine by inhibiting its metabolism.

  4. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles ...... of beta1 and beta2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR)....

  5. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michael T.; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are the main source of cortical acetylcholine, and their activation by histamine elicits cortical arousal. TWIK-like acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels modulate neuronal excitability and are expressed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, but the role of TASK channels in the histamine-basal forebrain cholinergic arousal circuit is unknown. We first expressed TASK channel subunits and histamine Type 1 receptors in HEK cells. Application of histamine in vitro inhibited the acid-sensitive K+ current, indicating a functionally coupled signaling mechanism. We then studied the role of TASK channels in modulating electrocortical activity in vivo using freely behaving wild-type (n = 12) and ChAT-Cre:TASKf/f mice (n = 12), the latter lacking TASK-1/3 channels on cholinergic neurons. TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly altered endogenous electroencephalogram oscillations in multiple frequency bands. We then identified the effect of TASK channel deletion during microperfusion of histamine into the basal forebrain. In non-rapid eye movement sleep, TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly attenuated the histamine-induced increase in 30–50 Hz activity, consistent with TASK channels contributing to histamine action on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In contrast, during active wakefulness, histamine significantly increased 30–50 Hz activity in ChAT-Cre:TASKf/f mice but not wild-type mice, showing that the histamine response depended upon the prevailing cortical arousal state. In summary, we identify TASK channel modulation in response to histamine receptor activation in vitro, as well as a role of TASK channels on cholinergic neurons in modulating endogenous oscillations in the electroencephalogram and the electrocortical response to histamine at the basal forebrain in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attentive states and cognitive function are associated with the generation of γ EEG activity

  6. Infrared spectra of the protonated neurotransmitter histamine: competition between imidazolium and ammonium isomers in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagutschenkov, A.; Langer, J.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.; Dopfer, O.

    2011-01-01

    The infrared (IR) spectrum of protonated histamine (histamineH(+)) was recorded in the 575-1900 cm(-1) fingerprint range by means of IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The IRMPD spectrum of mass-selected histamineH(+) ions was obtained in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron

  7. Histamine release induced from rat mast cells by the ionophore A23187 in the absence of extracellular calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1980-01-01

    Isolated rat mast cells were used to study whether ionophore A23187 could induce histamine release by mobilizing cellular calcium. The histamine release was a slow process which was completed after about 20 min incubation with A23187. The A23187-induced histamine release was inhibited after...

  8. Mechanism of histamine release from rat mast cells induced by the ionophore A23187: effects of calcium and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1978-01-01

    1 The mechanism of histamine release from a pure population of rat mast cells induced by the lipid soluble antibiotic, A23187, has been studied and compared with data for anaphylactic histamine release reported in the literature. 2 Histamine release induced by A23187 in the presence of calcium 10...

  9. Effects of histamine and antihistamines on the kinetics of carbon dioxide in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.C.; Chambers, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of chlorpheniramine (an H1 histamine inhibitor) and metiamide (an H2 inhibitor) on response to 14C pulse-labeling of carbon dioxide in the rat in the presence and absence of histamine. Neither chlorpheniramine nor metiamide alone had any effect upon the gastric venous/arterial ratio (VG/A) or the peripheral venous/arterial ratio (Vp/A). As in the case with no drug present, Vp/A rose with time following pulse-labeling to a value of 1.15-1.20. The presence of a preexisting steady-state infusion of histamine caused no changes in the ratios in the presence or absence of the inhibitors. The inhibitors did completely abolish the oscillations of both VG/A and Vp/A caused by initiation of histamine infusion coincident with the pulse-labeling. The results suggest that the histamine effects are largely mediated through H1 receptors.

  10. Measurement of histamine release from human lung tissue ex vivo by microdialysis technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Dan; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Nolte, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Currently no method is available for measurement of mediator release from intact human lung. In this study, a microdialysis technique was used to measure histamine release from mast cells in human lung tissue ex vivo. MATERIAL: Microdialysis fibers of 216 microm were inserted...... responses were observed but data could be reproduced within individual donors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a potent basophil secretagogue, did not induce histamine release in lung tissue which indicated mast cells to be the histamine source. Substance P did not release histamine in the lung tissue....... CONCLUSIONS: The microdialysis technique allowed measurements of histamine release from mast cells in intact lung ex vivo. The method may prove useful since a number of experiments can be performed in a few hours in intact lung tissue without any dispersion or enzymatic treatment....

  11. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in histamine-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Vogelsang, Thomas W; Knigge, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The neurotransmitter histamine is involved in the regulation of appetite and in the development of age-related obesity in mice. Furthermore, histamine is a mediator of the anorexigenic action of leptin. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible role of histamine...... in the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: Histamine-deficient histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC-KO) mice and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice were given either a standard diet (STD) or HFD for 8 weeks. Body weight, 24-hour caloric intake, epididymal adipose tissue size, plasma leptin......-KO mice compared to STD-fed HDC-KO mice was observed, while no such difference was observed in WT mice. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we conclude that histamine plays a role in the development of HFD-induced obesity....

  12. Leukotriene C4 and histamine in early allergic reaction in the nose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Robinson, C; Rømeling, F

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the measurements of LTC4 and histamine in nasal lavage fluids and blown secretions as a possible model of the early mediator events during nasal allergy. A nasal challenge with grass pollen extract was undertaken on two separate occasions in 20 patients with a history of seasonal......mTc-labelled albumin as an exogenous marker added to the fluid. The amounts of admixture in the nasal lavages did not correlate to the concentrations of LTC4 and histamine, indicating that the variable amounts of nasal secretion in nasal lavage do not constitute a confounding variable...... for measurements of LTC4 and histamine. In the pre-challenge lavages, the median concentrations, of LTC4 and histamine were 1.7 and 52 nmol/l respectively. Following allergen challenge neither LTC4 nor histamine measured in nasal lavage showed any significant change from pre-challenge baseline values. However...

  13. Comparative analysis of the in vitro cytotoxicity of the dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-04-15

    Tyramine and histamine, the most toxic biogenic amines (BA), are often found in high concentrations in certain foods. Prompted by the limited knowledge of BA toxicity, and increasing awareness of the risks associated with high intakes of dietary BA, the in vitro cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine was investigated. Tyramine and histamine were toxic for HT29 intestinal cell cultures at concentrations commonly found in BA-rich food, as determined by real-time cell analysis. Surprisingly, tyramine had a stronger and more rapid cytotoxic effect than histamine. Their mode of action was also different, while tyramine caused cell necrosis, histamine induced apoptosis. To avoid health risks, the BA content of foods should be reduced and legal limits established for tyramine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Existence of carcinine, a histamine-related compound, in mammalian tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flancbaum, L.; Brotman, D.N.; Fitzpatrick, J.C.; Van Es, Theodorus; Kasziba, E.; Fisher, H. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Carcinine ({beta}-alanylhistamine) was synthesized in vitro from histamine and {beta}-alanine. It was detected quantitatively using an HPLC method previously described for the quantification of the related compounds histamine, histidine, carnosine and 3-methylhistamine. Carcinine was identified in several tissues of the rat, guinea pig, mouse and human, and was then shown to be metabolically related in vivo to histamine, histidine, carnosine and 3-methylhistamine through radioisotopic labeling. The results demonstrate that carcinine may be concurrently quantitated using the same HPLC method as that used to measure histamine, histidine, carnosine and 3-methylhistamine. These findings suggest a role for carcinine in the carnosine-histidine-histamine metabolic pathway and the mammalian physiologic response to stress.

  15. Basophil histamine release in the diagnosis of house dust mite and dander allergy of asthmatic children. Comparison between prick test, RAST, basophil histamine release and bronchial provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, P A; Ebbesen, F; Nolte, H; Skov, P S

    1990-04-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the glass fibre-based basophil histamine release test with skin test (Phazet), RAST (Phadebas) and bronchial provocation test in children with allergic asthma. The study comprised 68 selected children with a case history of extrinsic allergic asthma to danders (cat and dog) and house-dust mite. Skin prick test, RAST, and histamine release were performed in all children and the bronchial provocation test was used as a reference of "true allergic asthma". A total of 81 allergen bronchial challenges were performed and 44 children experienced 49 positive provocations. In 2.9% (2/68) of the children histamine release could not be performed due to technical difficulties (low histamine release with anti-IgE). Concordances in the range 76-87% were observed with no significant difference between the tests. The highest concordance (87%) was found between histamine release and bronchial provocation test followed by skin prick test vs bronchial provocation (84%) and RAST vs bronchial provocation (80%). The sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each test. All tests showed sensitivities in the range 90-94% and no significant difference between them was observed. The specificity of histamine release, skin prick test, and RAST was 0.78, 0.69, and 0.63, respectively. The specificity of histamine release was better than RAST demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals. In conclusion, it was found that the histamine release test is a convenient diagnostic method and the study indicates a diagnostic value comparable to the common diagnostic methods in clinical allergy.

  16. Effects of short-term exercise in the heat on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and sweat composition of tropic-dwelling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohamed; Sirisinghe, Roland Gamini; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1+/-0.1 degrees C, rh: 70.0+/-4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes.After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77+/-0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14+/-0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a

  17. Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index (AASI) is Unable to Estimate Arterial Stiffness of Hypertensive Subjects: Role of Nocturnal Dipping of Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Raimondo, Domenico; Casuccio, Alessandra; Di Liberti, Rosangela; Musiari, Gaia; Zappulla, Valentina; D'Angelo, Alessandra; Pinto, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index (AASI) has been proposed as an indirect and simpler method to estimate the Arterial Stiffness (AS). AASI, calculated from a set of data collected during a 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), is defined as 1 minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressure (BP) values. For a given increase in diastolic BP, the increase in systolic BP is smaller in a compliant compared to a stiff artery; the stiffer the arterial tree, the closer AASI is to 1. AASI was demonstrated to predict cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular events and to be associated with target organ damage. Taking into account the almost complete absence of data regarding the ability of AASI to predict the different degree of AS when hypertensives are divided into four classes of dipping in relation to the extent of the nocturnal reduction of BP (extreme dippers, dippers, mild dippers and reverse dippers) aim to clarify the ability of AASI to estimate the different degree of AS of hypertensive subjects with different nocturnal BP profile and resulting in different extent of organ damage. We enrolled 816 subjects (403 men and 413 women) with essential hypertension, referred to the U.O.C of Medicina Interna e Cardioangiologia of the University of Palermo; 173 subjects (71 men and 102 women, mean age 44.4 ± 14.6 years) without a history of hypertension were enrolled as controls. The analysis of data was performed by dividing the population into four categories in relation to the extent of the nocturnal decline of BP: 124 extreme dipper (mean age 54,8 ± 12,4 years, men 46.8 %); 287 dipper (mean age 55,9 ± 14,2 years, men 54,0 %); 271 mild dipper (mean age 61,5 ± 14,7 years, men 52,0 %); 134 reverse dipper (mean age 61,5 ± 14,7 years, men 33.6 %). The mean value of AASI was significantly higher for mild and reverse dippers versus control patients and versus the other categories of dipping. The multiple regression analysis with AASI as

  18. Histamine determination in Koopeh cheese in West-Azerbaijan province by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Razavi Rohani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Histamine as a primary heterocyclic amine has an important role in human physiology particularly in nervous system as a chemical mediator and neurotransmitter that was found in many foods such as cheese, milk, meat, fish, beer, wine and vegetables. Increasing of histamine concentration in foods is often related to low quality of raw materials, contamination, improper food processing or storage. Therefore, the amount of histamine content is used as a good indicator of hygienic quality in foods and the degree of freshness or spoilage of foods. Histamine can cause symptoms in sensitive consumers such as: redness of face, sweating, palpitations, headache, oral burning and bright red rashes. Cheese provides an ideal environment for the production of proteolytic releases of free amino acids and biogenic amines such as histamine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of histamine in Koopeh cheese as one of the most popular types of traditional cheeses made from raw sheep milk or sometimes cow milk in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. Experiments conducted by HPLC method on 70 samples of traditional Koopeh cheese revealed that the least amount of histamine was 2.43 ppm and the highest value was estimated at 1102.24 ppm. The average amount of histamine in cheese samples was 304.23 ± 150.89 ppm. Histamine production in cheese and other foods is based on the presence and growth of decarboxylase-positive microorganisms. Therefore, providing guidelines that reduce the population of these types of microorganisms will be effective on decreasing the amount of biogenic amines and histamine in particular.

  19. Strain-dependent induction of neutrophil histamine production and cell death by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Hong; Song, Yuanlin; Lynch, Susan V.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P.; Caughey, George H.

    2012-01-01

    Airway diseases often feature persistent neutrophilic inflammation and infection. In cystic fibrosis bronchitis, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated frequently. Previously, this laboratory revealed that neutrophils become major sources of histamine in mice with tracheobronchitis caused by the wall-less bacterium Mycoplasma pulmonis. To test the hypothesis that more-broadly pathogenic P. aeruginosa (which expresses cell wall-associated LPS and novel toxins) has similar effects, we incubated naïve mouse neutrophils with two strains of P. aeruginosa. Strain PAO1 greatly increased neutrophil histamine content and secretion, whereas strain PA103 depressed histamine production by killing neutrophils. The histamine-stimulating capacity of PAO1, but not PA103-mediated toxicity, persisted in heat-killed organisms. In PAO1-infected mice, lung and neutrophil histamine content increased. However, PAO1 did not alter production by mast cells (classical histamine reservoirs), which also resisted PA103 toxicity. To explore mechanisms of neutrophil-selective induction, we measured changes in mRNA encoding histidine decarboxylase (rate-limiting for histamine synthesis), probed involvement of endotoxin-TLR pathways in Myd88-deficient neutrophils, and examined contributions of pyocyanin and exotoxins. Results revealed that PAO1 increased histamine production by up-regulating histidine decarboxylase mRNA via pathways largely independent of TLR, pyocyanin, and type III secretion system exotoxins. PAO1 also increased histidine decarboxylase mRNA in neutrophils purified from infected lung. Stimulation required direct contact with neutrophils and was blocked by phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. In summary, Pseudomonas-augmented histamine production by neutrophils is strain-dependent in vitro and likely mediated by up-regulation of histidine decarboxylase. These findings raise the possibility that Pseudomonas-stimulated neutrophils can enhance airway inflammation by

  20. Increased brain histamine H3 receptor expression during hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anichtchik Oleg V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibernation is a state of extremely reduced physiological functions and a deep depression of CNS activity. We have previously shown that the histamine levels increase in the brain during hibernation, as does the ratio between histamine and its first metabolite, suggesting increased histamine turnover during this state. The inhibitory histamine H3 receptor has both auto- and heteroreceptor function, rendering it the most likely histamine receptor to be involved in regulating the activity of histamine as well as other neurotransmitters during hibernation. In view of accumulating evidence that there is a global depression of transcription and translation during hibernation, of all but a few proteins that are important for this physiological condition, we reasoned that an increase in histamine H3 receptor expression would clearly indicate an important hibernation-related function for the receptor. Results In this study we show, using in situ hybridization, that histamine H3 receptor mRNA increases in the cortex, caudate nucleus and putamen during hibernation, an increase that is accompanied by elevated receptor binding in the cerebral cortex, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. These results indicate that there is a hibernation-related increase in H3 receptor expression in cortical neurons and in striatopallidal and striatonigral GABAergic neurons. GTP-γ-S binding autoradiography shows that the H3 receptors in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra can be stimulated by histamine throughout the hibernation cycle, suggesting that they are functionally active during hibernation. Conclusions These results show that the histamine H3 receptor gene is one of the few with a transcript that increases during hibernation, indicating an important role for the receptor in regulating this state. Moreover, the receptor is functionally active in the basal ganglia, suggesting a function for it in regulating e.g. dopaminergic transmission

  1. Aspirin augments IgE-mediated histamine release from human peripheral basophils via Syk kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroaki; Yokooji, Tomoharu; Morita, Hironobu; Ooi, Mina; Urata, Kana; Ishii, Kaori; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Yanase, Yuhki; Hiragun, Takaaki; Mihara, Shoji; Hide, Michihiro

    2013-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially aspirin, and food additives (FAs) may exacerbate allergic symptoms in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria and food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA). Augmentation of histamine release from human mast cells and basophils by those substances is speculated to be the cause of exacerbated allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of aspirin on IgE-mediated histamine release. The effects of NSAIDs, FAs or cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors on histamine release from human basophils concentrated by gravity separation were evaluated. Benzoate and tartrazine, which have no COX inhibitory activity, augmented histamine release from basophils similar to aspirin. In contrast, ibuprofen, meloxicam, FR122047 and NS-398, which have COX inhibitory activity, did not affect histamine release. These results indicate that the augmentation of histamine release by aspirin is not due to COX inhibition. It was observed that aspirin augmented histamine release from human basophils only when specifically activated by anti-IgE antibodies, but not by A23187 or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. When the IgE receptor signaling pathway was activated, aspirin increased the phosphorylation of Syk. Moreover, patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA tended to be more sensitive to aspirin as regards the augmentation of histamine release, compared with healthy controls. Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  2. Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood oxygenation, perfusion index, skin conductance, and their variability induced during and after grounding human subjects for 40 minutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Gaetan

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that grounding produces quantifiable physiologic changes. This study was set up to reproduce and expand earlier electrophysiologic and physiologic parameters measured immediately after grounding with improved methodology and state-of-the-art equipment. A multiparameter double-blind experiment was conducted with 14 men and 14 women (age range: 18-80) in relatively good health. Subjects were screened for health problems using a commonly used health questionnaire. They were seated in a comfortable recliner and measured during 2-hour grounding sessions, leaving time for signals to stabilize before, during, and after grounding (40 minutes for each period). Sham 2-hour grounding sessions were also recorded with the same subjects as controls. This report presents results for 5 of the 18 parameters measured. The parameters reported here are: skin conductance (SC), blood oxygenation (BO), respiratory rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and perfusion index (PI). This study was performed in a rented facility in Encinitas, California. The facility was chosen in a quiet area for its very low electromagnetic noise. For each session, statistical analyses were performed on four 10-minute segments: before and after grounding (sham grounding for control session) and before and after ungrounding (sham ungrounding). There was an immediate decrease in SC at grounding and an immediate increase at ungrounding on all subjects. RR increased during grounding, and the effect lasted after ungrounding. RR variance increased immediately after grounding then decreased. BO variance decreased during grounding, followed by a dramatic increase after ungrounding. PR and PI variances increased toward the end of the grounding period, and this change persisted after ungrounding. These results warrant further research to determine how grounding affects the body. Grounding could become important for relaxation, health maintenance and disease prevention.

  3. Effect of Febuxostat on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Subjects With Hyperuricemia and Hypertension: A Phase 2 Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardhana, Lhanoo; McLean, Lachy; Punzi, Henry A; Hunt, Barbara; Palmer, Robert N; Whelton, Andrew; Feig, Daniel I

    2017-11-04

    Hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension, with elevated serum uric acid levels postulated to have a causal role in the development of hypertension. Consequently, serum uric acid reduction may help lower blood pressure (BP). A Phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to assess the potential BP-lowering effects of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat in subjects with hypertension and hyperuricemia (serum uric acid ≥0.42 mmol/L [≥7.0 mg/dL]). Subjects (n=121) were randomized 1:1 to febuxostat 80 mg once daily or to placebo. The primary end point was change from baseline to Week 6 in 24-hour mean ambulatory systolic BP (SBP). Additional end points included the following: change from baseline to Week 3 in 24-hour mean SBP and changes from baseline to Weeks 3 and 6 in 24-hour mean ambulatory diastolic BP, serum uric acid, mean daytime and nighttime ambulatory SBP/diastolic BP, and clinic SBP/diastolic BP. For the overall study population, there were no significant differences between febuxostat and placebo for changes from baseline to Weeks 3 or 6 in ambulatory, daytime or nighttime, or clinic SBP or diastolic BP. However, in a preplanned subgroup analysis, there was a significant decrease in SBP from baseline to Week 6 in subjects with normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥90 mL/min) treated with febuxostat versus placebo; least squares mean difference, -6.7; 95% confidence interval -13.3 to -0.0; P=0.049. This study suggests that febuxostat may lower BP in hyperuricemic patients with hypertension and normal renal function; further studies should be conducted to confirm this finding. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01496469. © 2017 The Authors and Takeda Pharmaceuticals. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Histamine and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2011-12-01

    In this review we celebrate a century of progress since the initial description of the physiologic and pathologic roles of histamine and 70 years of progress since the introduction of H(1)-antihistamines for clinical use. We discuss histamine and clinically relevant information about the molecular mechanisms of action of H(1)-antihistamines as inverse agonists (not antagonists or blockers) with immunoregulatory effects. Unlike first (old)-generation H(1)-antihistamines introduced from 1942 to the mid-1980s, most of the second (new)-generation H(1)-antihistamines introduced subsequently have been investigated extensively with regard to clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety; moreover, they are relatively free from adverse effects and not causally linked with fatalities after overdose. Important advances include improved nasal and ophthalmic H(1)-antihistamines with rapid onset of action (in minutes) for allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis treatment, respectively, and effective and safe use of high (up to 4-fold) doses of oral second-generation H(1)-antihistamines for chronic urticaria treatment. New H(1)-antihistamines introduced for clinical use include oral formulations (bilastine and rupatadine), and ophthalmic formulations (alcaftadine and bepotastine). Clinical studies of H(3)-antihistamines with enhanced decongestant effects have been conducted in patients with allergic rhinitis. Additional novel compounds being studied include H(4)-antihistamines with anti-inflammatory effects in allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and other diseases. Antihistamines have a storied past and a promising future. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phosphorescent nanosensors for in vivo tracking of histamine levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Kevin J.; Clark, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Continuously tracking bio-analytes in vivo will enable clinicians and researchers to profile normal physiology and monitor diseased states. Current in vivo monitoring system designs are limited by invasive implantation procedures and bio-fouling, limiting the utility of these tools for obtaining physiologic data. In this work, we demonstrate the first success in optically tracking histamine levels in vivo using a modular, injectable sensing platform based on a diamine oxidase and a phosphorescent oxygen nanosensor. Our new approach increases the range of measureable analytes by combining an enzymatic recognition element with a reversible nanosensor capable of measuring the effects of enzymatic activity. We use these enzyme nanosensors (EnzNS) to monitor the in vivo histamine dynamics as the concentration rapidly increases and decreases due to administration and clearance. The EnzNS system measured kinetics that match those reported from ex vivo measurements. This work establishes a modular approach to in vivo nanosensor design for measuring a broad range of potential target analytes. Simply replacing the recognition enzyme, or both the enzyme and nanosensor, can produce a new sensor system capable of measuring a wide range of specific analytical targets in vivo. PMID:23767828

  6. Membrana shrapnelli of maturing rats. The occurrence of mast cells, and histamine content in relation to otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemar, L; Alm, P E; Bloom, G D; Hellström, S; Stenfors, L E

    1984-01-01

    The membrana shrapnelli or pars flaccida of 12 day old rats is thick (84 micron) and almost completely fills the lateral attic compartment. Histologically it is characterized by a thickened layer of stratified squamous epithelium and a lamina propria whereas an inner epithelial lining is difficult to discern. Mast cells are numerous and distributed throughout the lamina propria. At day 21 and day 30 the thickness of the pars flaccida is reduced and histologically it resembles that of the adult. Mast cells are mainly located in the vicinity of blood vessels and in a layer just beneath the squamous epithelium. The number of mast cells per unit area of pars flaccida is considerably higher in young rats as compared to adults. At day 12 their number is roughly 2.1 times that of the adult and at day 21 and 30 about 1.5 times. Except for a slightly raised level of histamine at day 30 the concentration of histamine in the pars flaccida of young rats did not differ from values obtained in the adult. Previous experimental studies have indicated that mast cells in the pars flaccida may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OME. It is interesting to note that the pars flaccida of young rats contains more mast cells than that of the adult. Should this also be the case in the pars flaccida of young humans it is tempting to suggest that mast cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of OME in children too.

  7. Mast cells and histamine are triggering the NF-κB-mediated reactions of adult and aged perilymphatic mesenteric tissues to acute inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamutdinova, Irina Tsoy; Dusio, Giuseppina F.; Gasheva, Olga Yu.; Skoog, Hunter; Tobin, Richard; Peddaboina, Chander; Meininger, Cynthia J.; Zawieja, David C.; Newell-Rogers, M. Karen; Gashev, Anatoliy A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to establish mechanistic links between the aging-associated changes in the functional status of mast cells and the altered responses of mesenteric tissue and mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLVs) to acute inflammation. We used an in vivo model of acute peritoneal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide treatment of adult (9-month) and aged (24-month) F-344 rats. We analyzed contractility of isolated MLVs, mast cell activation, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) without and with stabilization of mast cells by cromolyn or blockade of all types of histamine receptors and production of 27 major pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult and aged perilymphatic mesenteric tissues and blood. We found that the reactivity of aged contracting lymphatic vessels to LPS-induced acute inflammation was abolished and that activated mast cells trigger NF-κB signaling in the mesentery through release of histamine. The aging-associated basal activation of mesenteric mast cells limits acute inflammatory NF-κB activation in aged mesentery. We conclude that proper functioning of the mast cell/histamine/NF-κB axis is necessary for reactions of the lymphatic vessels to acute inflammatory stimuli as well as for interaction and trafficking of immune cells near and within the collecting lymphatics. PMID:27875806

  8. Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic subjects in SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, R; Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1995-06-01

    The development of an animal model representative of the in vivo situation of human atopic diseases is always of interest for a better understanding of IgE production and regulation. Along these lines, mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) engrafted with lymphocytes from atopic subjects might be a suitable model for such studies. This study aims to analyze the production of Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in SCID mice after transplantation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic patients sensitive to grass pollens and from nonatopic donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transplanted into SCID mice, which were then challenged with Lol p I, and antibody responses (IgG and IgE) were analyzed over a 6-week period. Total IgG antibody was measured in each mouse serum after transplantation. Also, most mice (regardless of whether donors were atopic) that were challenged with Lol p I produced specific IgG antibody. Total IgE antibody production was observed only in mice grafted with cells from atopic patients. Lol p I-specific IgE antibodies were also produced after immunization with Lol p I. Although IgG antibody/response tended to plateau, the IgE antibody response increased until it peaked and declined thereafter. Interferon-gamma was detected in sera from mice producing IgE antibody, which supports a possible role of interferon-gamma in the decrease of IgE response. This study suggests that the SCID mouse model could represent an interesting approach to studying specific, total IgG and IgE antibody production, and ultimately their regulation.

  9. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans.

  10. Pharmacological studies of jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) venom: evidence for the presence of histamine, and haemolytic and eicosanoid-releasing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszek, M A; Hodgson, W C; Sutherland, S K; King, R G

    1992-09-01

    Jumper ant venom was prepared by extraction of venom sacs in distilled water and centrifugation to remove insoluble material. Jumper ant venom (2 micrograms/ml) produced a biphasic response on isolated guinea-pig ileum, i.e. an initial rapid contraction followed by a slower prolonged contraction. The histamine antagonist mepyramine (0.1 microM) inhibited the first phase of this response by greater than 90%. In the isolated rat stomach fundus strip (which is insensitive to histamine), jumper ant venom (6 micrograms/ml) produced only a single contraction. No tachyphylaxis was observed to repeated doses of jumper ant venom in guinea-pig ileum or rat fundus strip. Responses to jumper ant venom of the egg-albumin-sensitised guinea-pig ileum were not significantly different before and after an in vitro anaphylactic response induced by egg albumin (0.5 mg/ml). Fluorometric assay revealed a mean value of 0.9 +/- 0.2% of the dry weight as histamine in jumper ant venom. Both the lipoxygenase/cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor BW755C and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin significantly inhibited the second phase response to jumper ant venom of the guinea-pig ileum, and the response of the rat fundus strip. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (0.1 microM), the bradykinin antagonist [Thi5,8,D-Phe7]-bradykinin (10 microM) and the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (20 microM) did not affect either phase of the venom response in guinea-pig ileum. Jumper ant venom caused haemolysis of guinea-pig blood. The degree of haemolysis was significantly reduced when boiled venom was used. These results suggest that jumper ant venom contains histamine and may cause the release of cyclo-oxygenase products. It also contains a heat-sensitive haemolytic factor.

  11. Effects of low-fat dairy intake on blood pressure, endothelial function, and lipoprotein lipids in subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki KC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kevin C Maki,1 Tia M Rains,1 Arianne L Schild,1 Mary R Dicklin,1 Keigan M Park,2 Andrea L Lawless,1 Kathleen M Kelley1 1Biofortis Clinical Research, Addison, IL, USA; 2Dairy Research Institute/National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL, USA Objective: This randomized crossover trial assessed the effects of 5 weeks of consuming low-fat dairy (one serving/day each of 1% fluid milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt versus nondairy products (one serving/day each of apple juice, pretzels, and cereal bar on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, vascular function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI] and augmentation index, and plasma lipids. Methods: Patients were 62 men and women (mean age 54.5 years, body mass index 29.2 kg/m2 with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (mean resting SBP/DBP 129.8 mmHg/80.8 mmHg while not receiving antihypertensive medications. A standard breakfast meal challenge including two servings of study products was administered at the end of each treatment period. Results: Dairy and nondairy treatments did not produce significantly different mean SBP or DBP in the resting postprandial state or from premeal to 3.5 hours postmeal (SBP, 126.3 mmHg versus 124.9 mmHg; DBP, 76.5 mmHg versus 75.7 mmHg, premeal (2.35 versus 2.20 or 2 hours postmeal (2.33 versus 2.30 RHI, and premeal (22.5 versus 23.8 or 2 hours postmeal (12.4 versus 13.2 augmentation index. Among subjects with endothelial dysfunction (RHI ≤ 1.67; n = 14 during the control treatment, premeal RHI was significantly higher in the dairy versus nondairy condition (2.32 versus 1.50, P = 0.002. Fasting lipoprotein lipid values were not significantly different between treatments overall, or in subgroup analyses. Conclusion: No significant effects of consuming low-fat dairy products, compared with low-fat nondairy products, were observed for blood pressures, measures of vascular function, or lipid variables in the overall sample, but results from subgroup analyses

  12. Antitumor activity of platinum(II) complexes with histamine and radioiodinated histamine in a transplantable murine adenocarcinoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnuszek, Piotr [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: pgarnuszek@il.waw.pl; Karczmarczyk, Urszula; Maurin, Michal [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: Antitumor activity of the dichloroplatinum(II)-histamine complexes labeled with I-125 or I-131 was investigated in a transplantable murine adenocarcinoma (MA) model. Methods: The tumor model was obtained in C3H/W female mice after subcutaneous inoculation of the tumor cells derived from the mice bearing a mammary tumor of spontaneous origin. Antitumor activities of the platinum-histamine complexes were investigated in three independent experiments, which differed in applied doses of preparations (PtCl{sub 2}Hist, PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist, PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 131}I]Hist, PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist and PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 131}I]Hist), treatment schedules as well as stages of the disease progress in the animals used. Experiment 1 included long-term, multidose treatment with low single doses (treatment duration 31-32 days; 8-10 doses of ca. 0.25{center_dot}MTD{sub Pt} each). Experiment 2 included short-term, multidose treatment with higher single doses (4xca. 0.5{center_dot}MTD{sub Pt} up to Day 13 of the treatment). Experiment 3 included long-term concomitant multidose treatment with higher single doses (9x0.9-0.4{center_dot}MTD{sub Pt} up to Day 33). Results: The long-term treatment with the platinum-histamine preparations revealed inhibiting activity on the tumor growth and size in comparison to control groups. The most intensive and significant antitumor effects were observed for the radioactive complexes. The tumor growth delay factors (GDFs) observed in Experiment 1 were 0.4, 0.7, and 1.2 for PtCl{sub 2}Hist, PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 131}I]Hist, and PtCl{sub 2}Hist/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist, respectively. Significant (P<.05) prolongations of median survivals (MS) were found in Experiment 2 following the treatment with higher single doses of PtCl{sub 2}Hist and PtCl{sub 2}His/PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist (Ratio MS{sub tr}/MS{sub con} ca. 1.4). A slightly less potent activity was observed for PtCl{sub 2}Hist

  13. Involvement of histamine in endothelium-dependent relaxation of mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamutdinova, Irina Tsoy; Maejima, Daisuke; Nagai, Takashi; Bridenbaugh, Eric; Thangaswamy, Sangeetha; Chatterjee, Victor; Meininger, Cynthia J; Gashev, Anatoliy A

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the basic principles of lymphatic function, still remains, to a large degree, rudimentary and will require significant research efforts. Recent studies of the physiology of the MLVs suggested the presence of an EDRF other than NO. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lymphatic endothelium-derived histamine relaxes MLVs. We measured and analyzed parameters of lymphatic contractility in isolated and pressurized rat MLVs under control conditions and after pharmacological blockade of NO by L-NAME (100 μM) or/and histamine production by α-MHD (10 μM). Effectiveness of α-MHD was confirmed immunohistochemically. We also used immunohistochemical labeling and Western blot analysis of the histamine-producing enzyme, HDC. In addition, we blocked HDC protein expression in MLVs by transient transfection with vivo-morpholino oligos. We found that only combined pharmacological blockade of NO and histamine production completely eliminates flow-dependent relaxation of lymphatic vessels, thus confirming a role for histamine as an EDRF in MLVs. We also confirmed the presence of HDC and histamine inside lymphatic endothelial cells. This study supports a role for histamine as an EDRF in MLVs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Histamine skin reactivity increases with body mass index in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Wan; Lee, Keun-Hwa; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sook; Lee, Jaechun; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Jeong Hong

    2015-02-01

    Histamine skin prick testing is most commonly used to diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and histamine reactivity is used as a standardized positive control in the interpretation of a skin prick test. However, reactivity to histamine differs among individuals for reasons that are poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and histamine skin reactivity in children. A total of 451 children (246 boys, 205 girls) aged 7-8 years were enrolled in this study. The skin prick test was performed with 26 aeroallergens commonly found in Korea. Other information was collected, including sex, age, BMI, parental allergy history, and parental smoking status. Multivariate analysis was used to confirm the association between histamine skin reactivity and BMI. The histamine wheal size was revealed to be associated with BMI (Spearman's Rho 0.161, pSkin responses to histamine were primarily correlated with increased BMI. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implication of BMI when interpreting the results of skin prick test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Allergen skin prick test should be adjusted by the histamine reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Skin prick test results are mostly reported as mean wheal diameter obtained with one concentration of allergen. Differences in technique between personnel causes variation in wheal size. The research question was whether the influence of differences in skin prick test technique among assistants and centers can be reduced by relating the allergen wheal response to that of histamine. Two methods for estimating skin reactivity, the method of Nordic Guidelines using histamine as a reference and the method of Brighton et al. [Clin Allergy 1979;9:591-596] not using histamine as a reference, were applied to data from two biological standardization trials, using the same batch of freeze-dried timothy pollen preparation. The concentration defining the Nordic biological unit, defined as a concentration of allergen eliciting a wheal of the same size as that of histamine dihydrochloride 10 mg/ml, did not differ between the centers. When not using histamine as a reference, applying the method of Brighton et al., there was a 15-fold difference in the estimate of the biological activity between the trials that was eliminated by adjusting the allergen response to that of the histamine reference. To reduce the influence of differences in test technique among assistants and centers responses to allergen-induced skin prick tests should be compared to that of histamine. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Targeting of histamine producing cells by EGCG: a green dart against inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Esther; Medina, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis

    2010-09-01

    The human body is made of some 250 different cell types. From them, only a small subset of cell types is able to produce histamine. They include some neurons, enterochromaffin-like cells, gastrin-containing cells, mast cells, basophils, and monocytes/macrophages, among others. In spite of the reduced number of these histamine-producing cell types, they are involved in very different physiological processes. Their deregulation is related with many highly prevalent, as well as emergent and rare diseases, mainly those described as inflammation-dependent pathologies, including mastocytosis, basophilic leukemia, gastric ulcer, Crohn disease, and other inflammatory bowel diseases. Furthermore, oncogenic transformation switches some non-histamine-producing cells to a histamine producing phenotype. This is the case of melanoma, small cell lung carcinoma, and several types of neuroendocrine tumors. The bioactive compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been shown to target histamine-producing cells producing great alterations in their behavior, with relevant effects on their proliferative potential, as well as their adhesion, migration, and invasion potentials. In fact, EGCG has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral, and anti-angiogenic effects and to be a potent inhibitor of the histamine-producing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase. Herein, we review the many specific effects of EGCG on concrete molecular targets of histamine-producing cells and discuss the relevance of these data to support the potential therapeutic interest of this compound to treat inflammation-dependent diseases.

  17. Histidine decarboxylases and their role in accumulation of histamine in tuna and dried saury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Masashi; Yoda, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2007-03-01

    Histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) such as Photobacterium phosphoreum and Raoultella planticola possess histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which converts histidine into histamine. Histamine fish poisoning (HFP) is attributable to the ingestion of fish containing high levels of histamine produced by HPB. Because freezing greatly decreases the histamine-producing ability of HPB, especially of P. phosphoreum, it has been speculated that HFP is caused by HDC itself from HPB cells autolyzing during frozen storage, even when HPB survive frozen storage. Here we constructed recombinant HDCs of P. phosphoreum, Photobacterium damselae, R. planticola, and Morganella morganii and investigated the ability of HDCs to produce sufficient histamine to cause HFP. To elucidate the character of these HDCs, we examined the specific activity of each recombinant HDC at various temperatures, pH levels, and NaCl concentrations. Further, we also investigated the stability of each HDC under different conditions (in reaction buffer, tuna, and dried saury) at various temperatures. P. damselae HDC readily produced sufficient histamine to cause HFP in fish samples. We consider that if HDC is implicated as an independent cause of HFP in frozen-thawed fish, the most likely causative agent is HDC of P. damselae.

  18. Histidine Decarboxylases and Their Role in Accumulation of Histamine in Tuna and Dried Saury▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Masashi; Yoda, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2007-01-01

    Histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) such as Photobacterium phosphoreum and Raoultella planticola possess histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which converts histidine into histamine. Histamine fish poisoning (HFP) is attributable to the ingestion of fish containing high levels of histamine produced by HPB. Because freezing greatly decreases the histamine-producing ability of HPB, especially of P. phosphoreum, it has been speculated that HFP is caused by HDC itself from HPB cells autolyzing during frozen storage, even when HPB survive frozen storage. Here we constructed recombinant HDCs of P. phosphoreum, Photobacterium damselae, R. planticola, and Morganella morganii and investigated the ability of HDCs to produce sufficient histamine to cause HFP. To elucidate the character of these HDCs, we examined the specific activity of each recombinant HDC at various temperatures, pH levels, and NaCl concentrations. Further, we also investigated the stability of each HDC under different conditions (in reaction buffer, tuna, and dried saury) at various temperatures. P. damselae HDC readily produced sufficient histamine to cause HFP in fish samples. We consider that if HDC is implicated as an independent cause of HFP in frozen-thawed fish, the most likely causative agent is HDC of P. damselae. PMID:17220267

  19. FT-Raman and QM/MM study of the interaction between histamine and DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Chica, A.J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Soriano, A. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica/IcMol, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot Valencia (Spain); Tunon, I. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica/IcMol, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Jimenez, F.M. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Silla, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica/IcMol, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot Valencia (Spain); Ramirez, F.J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: ramirez@uma.es

    2006-05-31

    The interaction between histamine and highly polymerized calf-thymus DNA has been investigated using FT-Raman spectroscopy and the hybrid QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) methodology. Raman spectra of solutions containing histamine and calf-thymus DNA, at different molar ratios, were recorded. Solutions were prepared at physiological settings of pH and ionic strength, using both natural and heavy water as the solvent. The analysis of the spectral changes on the DNA Raman spectra when adding different concentrations of histamine allowed us to identify the reactive sites of DNA and histamine, which were used to built two minor groove and one intercalated binding models. They were further used as starting points of the QM/MM theoretical study. However, minimal energy points were only reached for the two minor groove models. For each optimized structure, we calculated analytical force constants of histamine molecule in order to perform the vibrational dynamics. Normal mode descriptions allowed us to compare calculated wavenumbers for DNA-interacting histamine to those measured in the Raman spectra of DNA-histamine solutions.

  20. Histamine H1 Receptor Gene Expression and Drug Action of Antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    The upregulation mechanism of histamine H1 receptor through the activation of protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) and the receptor gene expression was discovered. Levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA and IL-4 mRNA in nasal mucosa were elevated by the provocation of nasal hypersensitivity model rats. Pretreatment with antihistamines suppressed the elevation of mRNA levels. Scores of nasal symptoms were correlatively alleviated to the suppression level of mRNAs above. A correlation between scores of nasal symptoms and levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa was observed in patients with pollinosis. Both scores of nasal symptoms and the level of histamine H1 receptor mRNA were improved by prophylactic treatment of antihistamines. Similar to the antihistamines, pretreatment with antiallergic natural medicines showed alleviation of nasal symptoms with correlative suppression of gene expression in nasal hypersensitivity model rats through the suppression of PKCδ. Similar effects of antihistamines and antiallergic natural medicines support that histamine H1 receptor-mediated activation of histamine H1 receptor gene expression is an important signaling pathway for the symptoms of allergic diseases. Antihistamines with inverse agonist activity showed the suppression of constitutive histamine H1 receptor gene expression, suggesting the advantage of therapeutic effect.

  1. Evaluation of the antihistamine effects of olopatadine, cetirizine and fexofenadine during a 24 h period: a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled comparison in skin responses induced by histamine iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hitoshi; Zhang, Yan; Morita, Eishin

    2008-07-01

    Potency of the antihistamine effects of olopatadine, cetirizine and fexofenadine in standard-dose application were compared from 11.5 to 24 h after application. The test was designed in a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study of ten healthy volunteers on histamine-induced flare and wheal response using an iontophoresis technique. The suppressive effect of olopatadine on the wheals induced by a 0.1-mA histamine iontophoresis lasted for 24 h after dosing. Fexofenadine administered using the same regimen was the least effective among three drugs tested. Suppression of the wheal response by cetirizine, taken once-daily, decreased with time. Olopatadine completely suppressed even the wheal response induced by a 0.2-mA histamine iontophoresis, although fexofenadine and cetirizine were less effective on the wheals induced by the same histamine challenge. There were no significant differences in subjective drowsiness and objective cognitive function between drug- and placebo-treated subjects. These results demonstrate that olopatadine is the most potent antihistamine among the three H(1)-blockers when administered in a standard dosage.

  2. Histamine as a Radiosensitizer of Malignant Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, E. S.; Medina, V.; Cricco, G.; Mohamed, N.; Croci, M.; Martin, G.; Nunez, M.; Bergoc, R. M.

    2004-07-01

    It has been established that the treatment with Histamine (Hi) produces a significant growth inhibition of different cell lines derived from human neoplasia. In a model of Knockout mice completely depleted of endogenous Hi, it was observed a significant delay in bone marroe repopulation after whole body irradiation. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that histamine has a role in the regulation of haematopoiesis as well as an inhibitory effect on apoptosis. The objective of this paper was to study the possible effect of Hi as protector of normal cells and radiosensitizer of malignant ones. To study the effect of Hi on small-intestine and bone marrow, thirty made mice were randomly separeted into two groups: Control irradiated (C), and irradiated receiving Histamine (HI-group). All animals received a single dose of 10 Gy on whole-body employing a ''137Cs source of 189 TB{sub q} (Dose rate: 7.7 Gy/min) calibrated with TLD 700 dosimeter. Hi-group recieved a daily se injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 20 hs before irradiation. Mice were sacrificed 5 days after irradiation. Histopathological analysis indicated that intestinal mucosae of C group showed important injury, whist mucosae of Hi-treated mice showed mild mucosal atrophy with conservation of villous projections and absence of vascular congestive changes. In order to investigate the effect of Hi on radiosensitivity of transformed cells, MDA-MB-231 (human breast carcinoma cells) were irradiated in vitro with doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy. Results of radiobiological parameters indicate a significant increase on radiosensitivity of malignant cells. Employing specific fluorescent dyes and flow cytometric analysis we determined that the intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) are significant increased by Hi 10 {mu}M in control and also in irradiated MDA-MB-231 cells, while the levels of superoxide (SO{sub 2}) were not significantly modified by Hi-treatment. (Author) 9 refs.

  3. HISTAMINE IN CANNED SARDINES HISTAMINA EM CONSERVAS DE SARDINHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fancislene Bernardes Tebalti do Carmo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of histamine in 122 samples of canned sardines produced with three different species by three industries located in the municipalities of Sao Goncalo and Niteroi was evaluated. The samples were divided into five lots with copies of sardines from Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Morocco (S. pilchardus and Brazil (S. brasiliensis. The initial quality of raw material was evaluated by sensorial parameters and by the histamine level using a semi-quantitative method of thin-layer chromatography. The results of the samples from Venezuela and Morocco showed values below 5 mg/100g, and the national samples showed values similar or greater than 10 mg/100g. It follows that there is need for greater control and monitoring of temperature from capture to processing, to guarantee good quality to the final product, and to avoid risk of poisoning to the consumer.

    KEY WORDS: Canned fish, histamine, quality, sardines.

    O presente estudo avaliou a presença de histamina em 122 amostras de sardinha em conserva, produzidas com três diferentes espécies, por três indústrias, localizadas nos municípios de São Gonçalo e Niterói. As amostras foram divididas em cinco lotes com exemplares de sardinhas provenientes da Venezuela (Sardinella aurita, Marrocos (S. pilchardus e do Brasil (S. brasiliensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade inicial da matéria-prima por meio de parâmetros sensoriais e pelo teor de histamina utilizando-se o método de cromatografia em camada delgada. As amostras oriundas da Venezuela e Marrocos apresentaram valores abaixo de 5 mg/100 g e as nacionais, valores semelhantes ou superiores a 10 mg/100g. Conclui-se que há necessidade de um maior controle e monitorização da temperatura da sardinha desde a captura até o processamento, para que o produto final apresente boa qualidade e não represente perigo de intoxicação ao consumidor.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conserva, histamina, qualidade, sardinha.

  4. Effects of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on gastric emptying, satiety, and postprandial blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and ghrelin concentrations in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Hlebowicz, Anna; Lindstedt, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous study of healthy subjects showed that intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduced postprandial blood glucose and the gastric emptying rate (GER) without affecting satiety. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 1 and 3 g cinnamon on GER, postprandial blood...... cinnamon (P = 0.0082 and P = 0.0138, respectively, after Bonferroni correction). CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of 3 g cinnamon reduced postprandial serum insulin and increased GLP-1 concentrations without significantly affecting blood glucose, GIP, the ghrelin concentration, satiety, or GER in healthy subjects...... glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)], the ghrelin response, and satiety in healthy subjects. DESIGN: GER was measured by using real-time ultrasonography after ingestion of rice pudding...

  5. Membrane sialic acid influences basophil histamine release by interfering with calcium dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Skov, P S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the cell membrane content of sialic acid on basophil histamine release was examined in vitro in allergic patients and normal controls. Enzymatical removal of sialic acid enhanced histamine release induced by allergen and anti-IgE, whereas an increase in membrane sialic acid content....... This difference, together with the previous finding that alterations in membrane sialic acid content is reflected in the cell sensitivity to extracellular calcium, suggest an interaction between membrane sialic acid and the calcium channels involved in basophil histamine release....

  6. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), nocodazole, and taxol on mast cell histamine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Johansen, Torben

    1986-01-01

    Nocodazole depolymerized microtubules and increased the number of microfilaments, and dimethylsulfoxide increased the number of microfilaments. Both drugs inhibited compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat mast cells. Taxol, which increased the number of microtubules, had no effect...... on histamine release. These observations support the view that microtubules may not be directly involved in secretion, but apparently an increased number of microfilaments is associated with a decreased capacity of the mast cells for histamine release. We suggest that microfilaments have to be depolymerized...

  7. The relationship between energy metabolism and the action of inhibitors of histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, L G; Johansen, Torben

    1977-01-01

    1 Dextran-induced release of histamine from rat mast cells was inhibited equally in complete and glucose-free Tyrode solution by doxantrazole (0.03-3 micronmol/l), theophylline (0.1-3 mmol/l) and dicumarol (0.01-10 micronmol/litre). 2 Doxantrazole (3 micronmol/l), theophylline (3 mmol....... 4 These results suggest that dicumarol, like doxantrazole and theophylline, inhibits histamine release without affecting mast cell energy metabolism. In contrast, papaverine probably inhibits release by depleting ATP that is required for exocytosis. 5 Inhibition of histamine release by dibutyryl...

  8. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVIII. Histamine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Paul L.; Cowart, Marlon; Gutzmer, Ralf; Leurs, Rob; Liu, Wai L. S.; Stark, Holger; Thurmond, Robin L.; Haas, Helmut L.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a developmentally highly conserved autacoid found in most vertebrate tissues. Its physiological functions are mediated by four 7-transmembrane G protein–coupled receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R, H4R) that are all targets of pharmacological intervention. The receptors display molecular heterogeneity and constitutive activity. H1R antagonists are long known antiallergic and sedating drugs, whereas the H2R was identified in the 1970s and led to the development of H2R-antagonists that revolutionized stomach ulcer treatment. The crystal structure of ligand-bound H1R has rendered it possible to design new ligands with novel properties. The H3R is an autoreceptor and heteroreceptor providing negative feedback on histaminergic and inhibition on other neurons. A block of these actions promotes waking. The H4R occurs on immuncompetent cells and the development of anti-inflammatory drugs is anticipated. PMID:26084539

  9. Influence of iodinated contrast media on the activities of histamine inactivating enzymes diamine oxidase and histamine N-methyltransferase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuefner, M A; Feurle, J; Petersen, J; Uder, M; Schwelberger, H G

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media can cause pseudoallergic reactions associated with histamine release in significant numbers of patients. To clarify whether these adverse reactions may be aggravated by a compromised histamine catabolism we asked if radiographic contrast agents in vitro inhibit the histamine inactivating enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT). Nine iodinated contrast agents were tested in vitro. Following pre-incubation of purified porcine kidney DAO and recombinant human HMT with 0.1-10mM of the respective contrast medium (H2O and specific inhibitors of DAO and HMT as controls) enzyme activities were determined by using radiometric micro assays. None of the contrast media irrespective of their structure showed significant inhibition of the activities of DAO and HMT. Pre-incubation of the enzymes with specific inhibitors led to complete inhibition of the respective enzymatic activity. The iodinated contrast media tested in vitro did not exhibit inhibition of histamine converting enzymes at physiologically relevant concentrations. However due to the in vitro character of this study these results do not directly reflect the in vivo situation. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of low-fat dairy intake on blood pressure, endothelial function, and lipoprotein lipids in subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Rains, Tia M; Schild, Arianne L; Dicklin, Mary R; Park, Keigan M; Lawless, Andrea L; Kelley, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Objective This randomized crossover trial assessed the effects of 5 weeks of consuming low-fat dairy (one serving/day each of 1% fluid milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt) versus nondairy products (one serving/day each of apple juice, pretzels, and cereal bar) on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), vascular function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI] and augmentation index), and plasma lipids. Methods Patients were 62 men and women (mean age 54.5 years, body mass index 29.2 kg/m2) with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (mean resting SBP/DBP 129.8 mmHg/80.8 mmHg) while not receiving antihypertensive medications. A standard breakfast meal challenge inc