WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjects average age

  1. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  3. Time averaging, ageing and delay analysis of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Vinod, Deepak; Aghion, Erez; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    We introduce three strategies for the analysis of financial time series based on time averaged observables. These comprise the time averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) as well as the ageing and delay time methods for varying fractions of the financial time series. We explore these concepts via statistical analysis of historic time series for several Dow Jones Industrial indices for the period from the 1960s to 2015. Remarkably, we discover a simple universal law for the delay time averaged MSD. The observed features of the financial time series dynamics agree well with our analytical results for the time averaged measurables for geometric Brownian motion, underlying the famed Black-Scholes-Merton model. The concepts we promote here are shown to be useful for financial data analysis and enable one to unveil new universal features of stock market dynamics.

  4. Three-Dimensional Facial Averaging: A Tool for Understanding Facial Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambros, Val; Amos, Gideon

    2016-12-01

    The progression of facial shape with aging is the subject of various theories and assumptions but remains poorly understood. The authors have used the unique capabilities of the three-dimensional camera to average the faces of large numbers of subjects to understand this complex process. What the authors present here is a technique of analysis rather than detailed results.

  5. Age-specific average head template for typically developing 6-month-old infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Akiyama

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images. The resulting age-specific average templates in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system demonstrate sharper anatomical detail and clarity compared to existing infant average templates and successfully retains the average head size of the 6-month-old infant. An example usage of the average infant templates transforms magnetoencephalography (MEG estimated activity locations from MEG's subject-specific head coordinate space to the standard MNI152-like infant coordinate space. We also created a new atlas that reflects the true 6-month-old infant brain anatomy. Average templates and atlas are publicly available on our website (http://ilabs.washington.edu/6-m-templates-atlas.

  6. The Comparison of the Average Thresholds of Auditory Steady-State Response in Adult Subjective Idiopathic Tinnitus and Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasem Ahmad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is a common symptom among lots of people but little is known about its origins. This study was aimed at comparing the Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR thresholds in normal cases and patients with subjective idiopathic tinnitus (SIT in order to diagnose its real origins.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 19 patients with tinnitus and 24 normal cases aged 18-40 yr.The patients underwent broad medical tests to roll out any background reason for their tinnitus. ASSR thresholds were estimated in both groups at 20 and 40 amplitude modulation. The patients were selected from tinnitus patients in Research Center in Hazrat Rasoul Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: The mean ASSR thresholds at 40HZ modulation were worse in tinnitus patients compared to normal ones (p<0.05 but no significant statistical differences was detected at 20HZ. These results were found in both situations in which we averaged both ears thresholds and when we estimated the thresholds of the ears separately.Conclusion: It seems that the origin of the responses of the modulation of 40Hz, primary auditory cortex, midbrain regions and subcortical areas, in these patients is involved or the origin of their tinnitus is related to some kind of problems in these areas, although more investigation is needed about 20Hz.

  7. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  8. A Framework for Control System Design Subject to Average Data-Rate Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Eduardo; Derpich, Milan; Østergaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies discrete-time control systems subject to average data-rate limits. We focus on a situation where a noisy linear system has been designed assuming transparent feedback and, due to implementation constraints, a source-coding scheme (with unity signal transfer function) has to be ...

  9. Total incremental change with age equals average lifetime change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    ...(a) da = [[integral].sup.[infinity].sub.0](u(x) - u(0)d(x) dx. The left-hand expression in this equality can be interpreted as total incremental change, whereas the right-hand expression gives average lifetime change. 2. Proof Because everyone alive will die, (2) l(a) = [[integral].sup.[infinity].sub.a] d(x)dx. Substituting this in the left of (1) and...

  10. Subjective Meanings and Identification With Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberg, Pnina; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-01-01

    The "middle-age" life period has not been researched extensively and lacks a theoretical conceptualization. The present study explores subjective experiences of members of this age-group. This is a qualitative research, based on in-depth interviews and thematic analysis, which looks into the life stories of 25 Israeli residents aged 48-64 years. The results indicate that the definition of middle age is not clear-cut, and some participants regard their age negatively. Yet, participants report that this period is characterized by a relief of tasks, broader choice opportunity, a sense of liberation, peace of mind, experience, self-awareness, and self-acceptance. Description of middle age as a peak in life, with concerns about future old age, came up repeatedly. Middle-aged individuals' difficulties to identify with their age-group and the social concept that dichotomizes age into young versus old are discussed. The article calls for further research of and engagement with middle age.

  11. How Uninformed is the Average Data Subject? A Quest for Benchmarks in EU Personal Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria González Fuster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Information obligations have always been crucial in personal data protection law. Reinforcing these obligations is one of the priorities of the legislative package introduced in 2012 by the European Commission to redefine the personal data protection legal landscape of the European Union (EU. Those responsible for processing personal data (the data controllers must imperatively convey certain pieces of information to those whose data is processed (the data subjects, and they are expected to do so in an increasingly transparent manner. Beyond these punctual information requirements, however, data subjects appear to always be and inevitably remain in a state of relative ignorance, as in almost constant need of further guidance. Data subjects are nowadays often depicted as unknowing consumers of online services, services which surreptitiously take away from them personal data thus conceived as a valuable asset. In light of these developments, this contribution critically investigates how EU law is envisaging data subjects in terms of knowledge. The paper reviews the birth and evolution of information obligations as an element of European personal data protection law, and asks whether thinking of data subjects as consumers is consistent with the notion of average consumer functioning in EU consumer law. Finally, it argues that the time might have come to openly clarify when data subjects are unlawfully misinformed, and that, in the meantime, individuals might benefit not only from accessing more transparent information, but also from being made more aware of the limitations of the information available to them.   

  12. Average bioequivalence of two oral formulations of fluconazole in healthy subjects after multiple dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, I; Bozhinova, K; Terziivanov, D

    1999-06-01

    To assess the average bioequivalence of two oral dosage forms of fluconazole--test (Fungolon, Antibiotic Co.) and reference (Diflucan, Pfizer)--in 18 healthy volunteers in a multiple dose-balanced, two-period, crossover study design. The dosage regimen consisted of seven days treatment (first day 100 mg and 50 mg thereafter for six days given orally) and a washout period of two weeks between different treatments. Plasma samples were taken at regular time intervals according to the study protocol for measuring of plasma fluconazole concentrations. The primary and secondary parameters AUC(168-192), Cav, %PTF, Cmax, %Swing, %AUCF, 100 Cmax/AUC, T above Cav, and Tmax were estimated. The point estimates--geometric means of the ratios test (T)/reference (R) and the 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the ratios of expected medians (T)/(R), assuming a multiplicative model, estimated by parametric and nonparametric analysis--were in the defined ranges for accepting of bioequivalence for two of the primary metrics. The point estimates and the 90% CIs after parametric analysis of AUC(168-192) were 1.00 (0.98-1.02) and for the metric %PTF exceeded the accepted range for bioequivalence after parametric analysis the point estimate and 90% CI were 0.93 and (0.799-1.08). The two preparations were considered to be bioequivalent in the rate and extent of absorption with significant variability across subjects.

  13. Thinking About One's Subjective Well-Being: Average Trends and Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-08-01

    In two studies, participants reported what they had been thinking about while completing measures of subjective well-being (SWB). These thought reports were analyzed with respect to life domain, valence, and how strongly they were related to actual levels of SWB. Most people focused on their life circumstances (e.g., career) rather than on dispositional predictors (e.g., personality) of SWB. The domains mentioned most frequently (career, family, romantic life) were also the ones that were most strongly related to actual SWB, indicating that most of people think about things that actually contribute to their SWB. Some domains are predominantly mentioned in positive contexts (e.g., family) whereas others are predominantly mentioned in negative contexts (e.g., money). On average, people thought more about positive than about negative things, a result that is magnified for respondents high in extraversion or emotional stability. In sum, these findings provide insight into what people think contributes to their SWB; beliefs that may guide them as they make important decisions.

  14. How Old Do You Feel? The Role of Age Discrimination and Biological Aging in Subjective Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68) from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214). Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age. PMID:25738579

  15. How old do you feel? The role of age discrimination and biological aging in subjective age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Stephan

    Full Text Available Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68 from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214. Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age.

  16. Reevaluating the "subjective weathering" hypothesis: subjective aging, coping resources, and the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janel E

    2014-03-01

    The subjective weathering model contends that subjective aging is a key component of the stress process. This study reevaluates and extends this model by considering how adaptive capacities influence subjective aging and depressive symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,230), I investigate how earlier stressors and coping resources contribute to older age identities (ages 18-22) and how these self-perceptions influence subsequent depressive symptoms (ages 25-29). The results show that subjective weathering alone does not lead to depressive symptoms; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies an older age identity. Those with high levels of psychosocial maturity, regardless of subjective age, were least likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate that psychosocial maturity is an important adaptive resource that can shield young adults from the negative effects of "subjective weathering" or growing up fast.

  17. Effect of the VO2 time-averaging interval on the reproducibility of VO2max in healthy athletic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Adrian W; McNaughton, Lars R; Carroll, Sean

    2007-03-01

    Limited research has investigated the most appropriate oxygen uptake (VO2) data averaging method to obtain reliable and valid maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values. This study investigated the effect of the VO2 time-averaging interval on the reproducibility of VO2max. Twenty-two competitive distance runners (six female) performed two identical incremental treadmill tests to their limit of exercise tolerance separated by at least 48 h. Commencing at 7 km h(-1), running speed was increased by 1 km h(-1) per minute for five stages and 0.5 km h(-1) thereafter. Breath-by-breath VO2 data collected during each incremental test were time-averaged over 10-, 15-, 20-, 30- and 60-s and the highest averaged VO2 value was regarded as VO2max for each time-averaging interval. The VO2max values derived from different VO2 time-averaging intervals were significantly different for the first (F = 39.6; PVO2max to significantly increase as the time-averaging interval became shorter. The reproducibility of VO2max was similar for all five VO2 time-averages, with no significant differences between the within-subject variance (F = 0.4; P = 0.6). The results of this study suggests that the reproducibility of VO2max is not affected by the length of the VO2 time-average interval. However, VO2max was significantly altered by changing the VO2 time-averaging interval between 10 and 60 s. Consistency in the VO2 time-averaging interval is therefore an important methodological consideration for repeated determinations of VO2max.

  18. Variation in Subjective Aging by Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne; Barbee, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The past few decades have seen increased scholarly attention to gay and lesbian individuals' aging experiences; however, few studies examine differences in subjective aging by sexual minority status. We identify four perspectives on the association between sexual minority status and subjective aging-double jeopardy, crisis competence, gender interactive, and limited salience perspectives. We examine each perspective's predictions using data from the first wave of Midlife in the United States (1995-1996; MIDUS). Ordinary least square regression models reveal strongest support for the limited salience perspective, suggesting that sexual minority status has weaker effects on subjective aging than do other social factors, such as age, health, and gender. However, some results provide support for the gender interactive perspective, positing that the effect of sexual minority status on subjective aging varies by gender. Our study provides an organizational framework of theoretical perspectives that can guide further examinations of variation in aging experiences by sexual minority status.

  19. Subjective Age and Changes in Memory in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Caudroit, Johan; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The subjective experience of aging, indexed by how old or young an individual feels, has been related to well-being and health-related outcomes among older adults. The present study examined whether subjective age is associated with memory level and changes, as indexed by measures of immediate and delayed recall. A complementary purpose was to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms and physical activity in the relation between subjective age and memory changes. Participants were drawn from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Subjective age, baseline memory measures, and covariates were assessed during the 2008 wave (N = 5809), depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed again in the 2010 wave, and the follow-up memory measures were assessed in the 2012 wave. Regression analyses that included demographic, metabolic, and vascular covariates revealed that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with better concurrent performance and with slower decline in immediate and delayed recall. Bootstrap procedures indicated that fewer depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Additional analyses revealed that memory level and change were unrelated to changes in subjective age. Beyond chronological age, the subjective experience of age is associated with cognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Subjective age in the academic development of Algerian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. MERABET

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subjective age has been studied in various domains (health, consumption, work, but the works which investigated the subjective age that the students give themselves during their academic development are rare (Pavalache & Rioux, 2014. One-hundred-and-twenty-two Algerian students answered a questionnaire comprising (a an identification part (b the subjective age questionnaire by Gana, Alaphilippe and Bailly, (2002 and (c the questionnaire of subjective age in academic development (Pavalache & Rioux, 2014. The results show that the Algerian students have a tendency to rejuvenate themselves, all the more so if they are of male gender. They show the impact of the societal and cultural factors on subjective age in academic development of university students.

  1. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    Objectives The objective of this PhD. was to examine the relation between low weekly average maternal alcohol consumption and ‘Binge drinking' (defined as intake of 5 or more drinks per occasion) during pregnancy and information processing time (IPT) in children aged five years. Since a method...... that provided detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy and other lifestyle factors. These women were categorized in groups of prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking, timing and number of episodes. At the age of five years the children of these women...... questionnaires concerning development and current functioning. Results Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders maternal consumption of 1 - 4 drinks weekly was associated with statistically significantly longer IPT in offspring than maternal abstinence (p = 0.03) while a statistically non...

  2. Documentation of normal stratum corneum scaling in an average population: features of differences among age, ethnicity and body site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M; Kollias, N

    2011-03-01

    Scaling skin involves an imbalance between cell proliferation and desquamation, resulting in partially detached corneocytes at the stratum corneum (SC) surface that become visible as they scatter light. The purpose of this study was to document scaling skin with no associated pathology, to estimate the range of normal corneocyte detachment in the average population, and to determine if age, pigmentation and/or body sites of different exposures contribute to differences observed in the SC. Healthy African-American and Caucasian female subjects (n = 151) from a typical central New Jersey population, aged between 14 and 75 years, were evaluated on the dorsal forearm and upper inner arm. Dermatoscopy and adhesive tape were used to evaluate the appearance and adhesion of surface corneocytes. Transepidermal water loss and conductivity were measured to assess water-handling properties of the SC. Measurements were conducted during the winter. Corneocyte detachment observed with dermatoscopy became more prevalent with age and was more severe on the dorsal forearm and in Caucasian subjects. The distribution of the amount of corneocyte removal with adhesive tape increased with age. The range of values was larger in the dorsal forearm than the upper inner arm and was greater in Caucasian subjects than African-American subjects. Minimal changes were observed for water-handling properties. The architecture of the outer SC appears different between ages, body sites of different exposures, and individuals of different pigmentation groups, but minimal differences in water-handling properties are observed. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Stress and Subjective Age: Those With Greater Financial Stress Look Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Lee-Attardo, Angela; Lachman, Margie E

    2017-12-01

    Subjective indicators of age add to our understanding of the aging process beyond the role of chronological age. We examined whether financial stress contributes to subjective age as rated by others and the self. The participants ( N = 228), aged 26-75, were from a Boston area satellite of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal study. Participants reported how old they felt and how old they thought they looked, and observers assessed the participants' age based on photographs (other-look age), at two occasions, an average of 10 years apart. Financial stress was measured at Time 1. Controlling for income, general stress, health, and attractiveness, participants who reported higher levels of financial stress were perceived as older than their actual age to a greater extent and showed larger increases in other-look age over time. We consider the results on accelerated aging of appearance with regard to their implications for interpersonal interactions and in relation to health.

  4. Personality and subjective age among older adults: the mediating role of age-group identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Brice; Stephan, Yannick; Caudroit, Johan; Jaconelli, Alban

    2013-01-01

    A small body of research has highlighted the role of the five-factor model personality traits in subjective age. However, no study has yet focused on the mechanisms through which personality could be related to subjective age among older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mediating role of age-group identification in relation between personality traits and subjective age. It was hypothesized that both extraversion and openness to experience are positively related to a younger subjective age through the mediation of their negative relationship with age-group identification. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 501 older individuals aged from 60 to 95 years who completed measures of sociodemographic variables, self-rated health, personality, subjective age, and age-group identification. Multiple regression analysis revealed that openness to experience was positively related to subjective age through the complete mediation of age-group identification, whereas no support was found for the relationship between extraversion and subjective age. This study fills a gap in the existing literature and reveals that openness to experience is related to a youthful subjective age, because older open individuals tend to distance themselves from their age group. Therefore, this study confirms that personality deserves attention as a predictor of subjective age, independently of sociodemographic and health-related variables.

  5. Subjective Age and Cystatin C Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio; Neupert, Shevaun

    2017-10-16

    Cystatin C (CysC) is a marker of kidney function that is relevant for the health and cognition of older adults. Little is known about the link between psychological factors and CysC. Therefore, the present study examined whether subjective age is related to CysC level and changes in CysC over time. Participants were 5,066 individuals drawn from the Health and Retirement Study aged from 50 to 107 years (60% women, mean age = 69.36 years, SD = 9.54). They provided data on subjective age, demographic covariates, and CysC at baseline. CysC was assessed again 4 years later. Analysis revealed that an older subjective age was related to higher level of CysC at baseline and to an increase in CysC over 4 years, controlling for demographic factors. An older subjective age was also related to higher risk of exceeding the clinical threshold of CysC at baseline and 4 years later. Additional analysis revealed that disease burden, depressive symptoms, physical inactivity, and BMI partly mediated these associations. The present study provides new evidence on the role of subjective age as a psychological factor associated with individuals' risk of kidney dysfunction, an association beyond chronological age.

  6. Average bit error probability of binary coherent signaling over generalized fading channels subject to additive generalized gaussian noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-06-01

    This letter considers the average bit error probability of binary coherent signaling over flat fading channels subject to additive generalized Gaussian noise. More specifically, a generic closed form expression in terms of the Fox\\'s H function is offered for the extended generalized-K fading case. Simplifications for some special fading distributions such as generalized-K fading and Nakagami-m fading and special additive noise distributions such as Gaussian and Laplacian noise are then presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is illustrated by some numerical examples verified by computer based simulations for a variety of fading and additive noise parameters. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Being slower, feeling older? Experimentally induced cognitive aging experiences have limited impact on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-06-01

    Initial experimental research has shown that subjective age may change in response to induced aging experiences, but replication and extension are needed. The present study investigates if age-related cognitive gain or loss experiences evoke decreases/increases in subjective age. A multidimensional subjective age measure was used to explore domain-specific internalization effects. 78 individuals aged 59-70 years were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions and a control group. Participants took a cognitive attention test and received gain-oriented feedback on their accuracy or loss-oriented feedback on their processing speed. A mixed factors analysis of covariance was used to examine changes in feel age, look age, do age, and interest age. After being primed with age-related losses, participants reported older do ages as compared to before the experimental priming. Priming age-related gains had only a marginally significant effect on do age. All other subjective age dimensions remained unaffected by the experimental priming. Although previous research has shown that subjective age can be manipulated experimentally, findings from the present study underscore that a comprehensive and cross-domain improvement of subjective age may require personally relevant and repeated experiences of age-related gains.

  8. Longitudinal associations between perceived age discrimination and subjective well-being: variations by age and subjective life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidor, Sharon; Ayalon, Liat; Palgi, Yuval; Bodner, Ehud

    2017-07-01

    Perceived age discrimination can have negative effects on one's subjective well-being (SWB). The response to age discrimination might differ based on age, and based on perceived longevity, or subjective life expectancy (SLE). These differential effects have not yet been prospectively examined within adult life span samples. We examined the association between perceived age discrimination at baseline (T1) and SWB at follow-up (T2), and the moderation effect of SLE. We compared differences in these effects between middle-aged and older adults. Analyses were based on participants who took part in the 2008 (T1) and 2011 (T2) assessments of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS; listwise N = 1534), a population-based representative sample of the German adult population. Participants were categorized as middle-aged (ages 40-64; n = 919) or older adults (ages 65-93; n = 615). Regression analyses indicated that T1 perceived age discrimination significantly predicts lower T2 SWB among middle-aged, but not among older adults, after adjusting for covariates and T1 SWB. There is a significant interaction between age discrimination and SLE for predicting SWB, only among middle-aged participants, suggesting that age discrimination predicts decreases in SWB for those reporting higher, but not lower levels of SLE. People in the transition from midlife to old age, who hold higher SLE, appear to be more vulnerable to age discrimination. This may be due to the experience of age discrimination as an 'off-time', or unexpected event for those in midlife who have a higher expectation to live longer.

  9. Impact exercise and bone density in premenopausal women with below average bone density for age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen G; Walkley, Jeff W; Rich, Peter A

    2015-11-01

    To study the effects of two home-based impact exercise programs on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in adult premenopausal women with below average aBMD for age (negative Z-scores; 40.8 years; n = 107). Two unilateral impact exercise programs were employed, one targeting the total hip and lumbar spine (n = 42 pairs), the other the distal radius (n = 24 pairs) with some individuals performing both. Force plate data were used to establish exercise loading characteristics (peak loads, time to peak), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided bone data. Calcium intake, health and extraneous physical activity (PA) were determined by survey. Exercise for both hip and spine consisted of unilateral landings from adjustable steps (maximum height 63.5 cm) while impacts were delivered to the forearm by arresting falls against a wall. An exercise log was used to provide the exercise prescription, record each exercise bout and any injuries. Participants were randomly assigned to exercise or control groups and pair-matched (age, BMI, Z-score, aBMD). Compliance was calculated as the number of sessions completed divided by the total prescribed number (mean ~50 %). The programs delivered significant gains pre to post at each site compared with significant losses in controls (forearm: 3.9 vs -3.9 %; total hip: 2.0 vs -2.6 %; lumbar spine: 2.8 vs -2.9 % exercise and controls, respectively, all p exerciser lost bone at the target site regardless of compliance which was strongly correlated with bone gains (R (2) = 0.53-0.68, all p exercise provides an effective means of improving below average aBMD without supervision in this at risk population.

  10. Laryngeal penetration during deglutition in normal subjects of various ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, Alicia; Logemann, Jeri; Rademaker, Alfred; Pauloski, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the frequency of penetration of liquid, paste, and masticated materials into the airway during videofluoroscopic studies of normal swallow in 98 normal subjects who were from 20 to 94 years of age. The purposes of the study were to define frequency and level of penetration using the penetration-aspiration scale as a result of age, bolus volume, viscosity, and gender, and to describe the body's sensorimotor response to the penetration based on audible coughs or throat clearing on the audio channel of each videotaped fluoroscopic study. Frequencies of penetration were defined in relation to bolus volume, age, gender, and bolus viscosity from swallows of 1, 3, 5, and 10 ml and cup-drinking of thin liquids; 3 ml of pudding; (1/4) of a Lorna Doone cookie; and a bite of an apple. Results showed that penetrations were significantly more frequent after age 50 and thick viscosities penetrated only in subjects age 50 and over. For persons under 50, 7.4% of swallows exhibited penetration, while for people age 50 and over, 16.8% of swallows showed penetration. Significantly more penetration occurred on larger liquid boluses. There was no relationship between gender and frequency of penetration. None of the subjects that penetrated showed a sensorimotor response to the penetration, which may relate to the relatively shallow depth of the penetration.

  11. Subjective Technology Adaptivity Predicts Technology Use in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Stefan T; Lang, Frieder R; Beyer, Anja

    2017-01-01

    To date, not much is known about the psychological and motivational factors underlying technology use in late life. What are the interindividual determinants that lead older adults to invest in using technological innovations despite the age-related physiological changes that impose challenges on behavioral plasticity in everyday life? This research explores interindividual differences in subjective technology adaptivity - a general technology-related motivational resource that accounts for technology use in late life. More specifically, we investigate the influence of this factor relative to demographic characteristics, personality traits, and functional limitations in a longitudinal sample of community-dwelling older adults. We report results from a paper-and-pencil survey with 136 older adults between 59 and 92 years of age (mean = 71.4, SD = 7.4). Of those participants, 77 participated in a 2-year follow-up. We assessed self-reports of technology use, subjective technology adaptivity, functional limitations, and the personality traits openness to new experiences and neuroticism. Higher levels of subjective technology adaptivity were associated with technology use at the first measurement as well as increased use over the course of 2 years. Subjective technology adaptivity is a significant predictor of technology use in old age. Our findings contribute to improving the understanding of interindividual differences when using technological innovation in late life. Moreover, our findings have implications in the context of user involvement and may contribute to the successful development of innovative technology for older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Increased bilateral interactions in middle-aged subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien eHeetkamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the age-related neural reorganization is that old vs. young adults execute typical motor tasks by a more diffuse neural activation pattern including stronger ipsilateral activation during unilateral tasks. Whether such changes in neural activation are present already at middle age and affect bimanual interactions is unknown. We compared the amount of associated activity, i.e., muscle activity and force produced by the non-task hand and motor evoked potentials (MEPs produced by magnetic brain stimulation between young (mean 24 y, n = 10 and middle-aged (mean 50 y, n = 10 subjects during brief unilateral (7 levels of % maximal voluntary contractions, MVC and bilateral contractions (4 x 7 levels of % MVC combinations, and during a 120-s-long MVC of sustained unilateral index finger abduction. During the force production the excitability of the ipsilateral (iM1 or contralateral (cM1 primary motor cortex was assessed. The associated activity in the ‘resting’ hand was ~2-fold higher in middle-aged (28% of MVC vs. young adults (11% of MVC during brief unilateral MVCs. After controlling for background muscle activity, MEPs in iM1 were similar in the two groups during brief unilateral contractions. At low (bilateral forces only, MEPs evoked in cM1 were 30% higher in the middle-aged vs. young adults. At the start of the sustained contraction, the associated activity was higher in the middle-aged vs. young subjects and increased progressively in both groups (30% vs. 15% MVC at 120 s, respectively. MEPs were greater at the start of the sustained contraction in middle-aged subjects but increased further during the contraction only in young adults. Under these experimental conditions, the data provide evidence for the reorganization of neural control of unilateral force production as early as age 50. Future studies will determine if the altered neural control of such inter-manual interactions are of functional significance.

  13. Implementation of a reference-scaled average bioequivalence approach for highly variable generic drug products of agomelatine in Chinese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to apply the reference-scaled average bioequivalence (RSABE approach to evaluate the bioequivalence of 2 formulations of agomelatine, and to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of agomelatine in Chinese healthy male subjects. This was performed in a single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, four-way crossover study with a one-day washout period between doses. Healthy Chinese males were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg of either the test or reference formulation. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if 90% confidence intervals (CIs for the log-transformed ratios and ratio of geometric means (GMR of AUC and Cmax of agomelatine were within the predetermined bioequivalence range based on RSABE method. Results showed that both of the 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of AUC and Cmax of 7-desmethyl-agomelatine and 3-hydroxy-agomelatine were within the predetermined bioequivalence range. The 90% CIs for natural log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ of agomelatine (104.42–139.86, 101.33–123.83 and 97.90–117.94 were within the RSABE acceptance limits, and 3-hydroxy-agomelatine (105.55–123.03, 101.95–109.10 and 101.72–108.70 and 7-desmethyl-agomelatine (104.50–125.23, 102.36–111.50 and 101.62–110.64 were within the FDA bioequivalence definition intervals (0.80–1.25 for AUC and 0.75–1.33 for Cmax. The RSABE approach was successful in evaluating the bioequivalence of these two formulations.

  14. Correlations between tests of aging in Hiroshima subjects: an attempt to define physiologic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J.W.; Hashizume, Asaji; Jablon, Seymour

    1964-12-01

    Nine physiologic functions which change with age were measured in 437 subjects during their regular visits to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission clinic in Hiroshima, Japan. This pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of collecting such data in a population sample physiologic age score. Tests conducted consisted of: skin elasticity, systolic blood pressure, vital capacity, hand grip strength, light extinction time, vibrometer, visual activity, audiometry, and serum cholesterol. The study demonstrated that adequate sample data could be obtained, and that statistical treatment could construct a physiologic age for individual subjects. However, the tests were of limited value below age 40, and the validation of the concept of physiologic age requires eventual correlation with mortality. Since the ABCC program includes a highly accurate mortality survey, it is hoped that data on physiologic aging can be collected and eventually related to mortality. 11 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  15. The effects of aging on sleep architecture in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorffner, Georg; Vitr, Martin; Anderer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents normative data on healthy sleep, as measured by polysomnography (PSG), from "supernormal" subjects across the age range from 20 to about 90 years. The data originates from the SIESTA project database established in the late 1990s. While that data has been published and used in research in many ways, the novelty of the current analysis is (a) the focus on normative data following the latest sleep staging standard (AASM 2012), and (b) the results after narrowing down the data set by excluding outliers due to disturbed sleep pattern that can occur in a sleep lab and are thus not examples of "normal" sleep. Results demonstrate interesting dependencies of sleep architecture on age, in particular a reduction in total sleep time and changes in sleep stage distributions toward lighter sleep, which differ in detail between the two genders.

  16. Average Ambulatory Measures of Sound Pressure Level, Fundamental Frequency, and Vocal Dose Do Not Differ Between Adult Females With Phonotraumatic Lesions and Matched Control Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H; Mehta, Daryush D; Zeitels, Steven M; Burns, James A; Barbu, Anca M; Hillman, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Clinical management of phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions (nodules, polyps) is based largely on assumptions that abnormalities in habitual levels of sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (f0), and/or amount of voice use play a major role in lesion development and chronic persistence. This study used ambulatory voice monitoring to evaluate if significant differences in voice use exist between patients with phonotraumatic lesions and normal matched controls. Subjects were 70 adult females: 35 with vocal fold nodules or polyps and 35 age-, sex-, and occupation-matched normal individuals. Weeklong summary statistics of voice use were computed from anterior neck surface acceleration recorded using a smartphone-based ambulatory voice monitor. Paired t tests and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests resulted in no statistically significant differences between patients and matched controls regarding average measures of SPL, f0, vocal dose measures, and voicing/voice rest periods. Paired t tests comparing f0 variability between the groups resulted in statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes. Individuals with phonotraumatic lesions did not exhibit differences in average ambulatory measures of vocal behavior when compared with matched controls. More refined characterizations of underlying phonatory mechanisms and other potentially contributing causes are warranted to better understand risk factors associated with phonotraumatic lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Visualizing disease associations: graphic analysis of frequency distributions as a function of age using moving average plots (MAP) with application to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payami, Haydeh; Kay, Denise M; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Factor, Stewart A; McCulloch, Colin C

    2010-01-01

    Age-related variation in marker frequency can be a confounder in association studies, leading to both false-positive and false-negative findings and subsequently to inconsistent reproducibility. We have developed a simple method, based on a novel extension of moving average plots (MAP), which allows investigators to inspect the frequency data for hidden age-related variations. MAP uses the standard case-control association data and generates a birds-eye view of the frequency distributions across the age spectrum; a picture in which one can see if, how, and when the marker frequencies in cases differ from that in controls. The marker can be specified as an allele, genotype, haplotype, or environmental factor; and age can be age-at-onset, age when subject was last known to be unaffected, or duration of exposure. Signature patterns that emerge can help distinguish true disease associations from spurious associations due to age effects, age-varying associations from associations that are uniform across all ages, and associations with risk from associations with age-at-onset. Utility of MAP is illustrated by application to genetic and epidemiological association data for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. MAP is intended as a descriptive method, to complement standard statistical techniques. Although originally developed for age patterns, MAP is equally useful for visualizing any quantitative trait.

  18. The Analysis of Average Diameter of Erythrocytes in Children of Early Age with Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Shevchenko,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of inflammatory bronkholegochny process in children is followed by the permanent changes in system of an eritron aggravating finally the phenomena of a hypoxia of bodies and fabrics. Work purpose: studying of average diameter of erythrocytes at children of early age, patients with pneumonia and ARVI. Determination of average diameter of erythrocytes was carried out by a diffraction method on identical structure of chaotic objects at 36 children with pneumonia and at 41 children with a ARVI aged from 4 months till 3 years. The control group was made by 20 almost healthy children of the same age. During the sharp period of a disease the average diameter of erythrocytes was authentically increased both at pneumonia, and at a ARVI. Reliable difference of these indicators when comparing a toxic syndrome at pneumonia and a ARVI is revealed. Thus, at children of early age, patients with pneumonia and ARVI, in dynamics of a disease the natural changes of average diameter of erythrocytes having differential and diagnostic and predictive value are revealed.

  19. Aging underdamped scaled Brownian motion: Ensemble- and time-averaged particle displacements, nonergodicity, and the failure of the overdamping approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Bodrova, Anna; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and by computer simulations the ensemble- and time-averaged, nonergodic, and aging properties of massive particles diffusing in a medium with a time dependent diffusivity. We call this stochastic diffusion process the (aging) underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM). We demonstrate how the mean squared displacement (MSD) and the time-averaged MSD of UDSBM are affected by the inertial term in the Langevin equation, both at short, intermediate, and even long diffusion times. In particular, we quantify the ballistic regime for the MSD and the time-averaged MSD as well as the spread of individual time-averaged MSD trajectories. One of the main effects we observe is that, both for the MSD and the time-averaged MSD, for superdiffusive UDSBM the ballistic regime is much shorter than for ordinary Brownian motion. In contrast, for subdiffusive UDSBM, the ballistic region extends to much longer diffusion times. Therefore, particular care needs to be taken under what conditions the overdamped limit indeed provides a correct description, even in the long time limit. We also analyze to what extent ergodicity in the Boltzmann-Khinchin sense in this nonstationary system is broken, both for subdiffusive and superdiffusive UDSBM. Finally, the limiting case of ultraslow UDSBM is considered, with a mixed logarithmic and power-law dependence of the ensemble- and time-averaged MSDs of the particles. In the limit of strong aging, remarkably, the ordinary UDSBM and the ultraslow UDSBM behave similarly in the short time ballistic limit. The approaches developed here open ways for considering other stochastic processes under physically important conditions when a finite particle mass and aging in the system cannot be neglected.

  20. Feeling old today? Daily health, stressors, and affect explain day-to-day variability in subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Neupert, Shevaun D; Stephan, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age is an important correlate of health, well-being, and longevity. So far, little is known about short-term variability in subjective age and the circumstances under which individuals feel younger/older in daily life. This study examined whether (a) older adults' felt age fluctuates on a day-to-day basis, (b) daily changes in health, stressors, and affect explain fluctuations in felt age, and (c) the daily associations between felt age and health, stressors, or affect are time-ordered. Using an eight-day daily diary approach, N = 43 adults (60-96 years, M = 74.65, SD = 8.19) filled out daily questionnaires assessing subjective age, health, daily stressors, and affect. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Subjective age, health, daily stressors, affect. Intra-individual variability in felt age was not explained by time but by short-term variability in other variables. Specifically, on days when participants experienced more than average health problems, stress, or negative affect they felt older than on days with average health, stress, or negative affect. No time-ordered effects were found. Bad health, many stressors, and negative affective experiences constitute circumstances under which older adults feel older than they typically do. Thus, daily measures of subjective age could be markers of health and well-being.

  1. Use of apparent water age at groundwater production wells to evaluate maps of long term average groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, B.; Shakked, N.; Rink, K.; Kolditz, O.

    2012-04-01

    The long-term average groundwater recharge typically varies greatly in space due to differences in climate, soil, landuse, topography and groundwater levels. Long-term average recharge is a key input to steady- state groundwater models. This type of models is frequently used to determine the long-term safe yield to aquifer systems and to predict the fate of human-derived contaminants in capture zones of groundwater production wells. An accurate quantification of the spatial distribution of recharge is therefore important but difficult to achieve as it cannot be directly measured at regional scales. Several methods have been applied to indirectly estimate the spatial distribution of long-term average groundwater recharge including spatially distributed hydrological modelling and the regionalisation of catchment scale recharge estimated from long-term average baseflows. In the context of a groundwater model, it is difficult to evaluate the reliability of these recharge maps if groundwater levels are the only data set available for model calibration. Concentrations of environmental tracers measured at groundwater wells can be used to interpret the apparent groundwater age, which in turn is significantly influenced by the magnitude and spatial distribution of recharge contributing groundwater to the well. Thus, the apparent groundwater age at wells may be useful to assess the reliability of maps on long term average groundwater recharge. To test this hypothesis, a steady-state groundwater model was set up for a 180 km2 area in SW Germany, which is extensively used for groundwater production from a confined limestone aquifer. We tested three maps of long-term average recharge that were all computed using different methods. For each recharge map, the steady-state groundwater model was calibrated against water levels and mean groundwater ages were calculated for groundwater production wells from particle tracking methods. These computed groundwater ages were subsequently

  2. Explaining age differences in women's emotional well-being: The role of subjective experiences of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E; Toothman, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines explanations for the "paradox" of older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women. We consider the role of subjective experiences of aging in a society that devalues older women. Using a sample of women (n = 872) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (1995-1996 and 2004-2006), we examine the role of five components of the subjective experience of aging in explaining older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women: age identity, conceptions of the timing of middle age, aging attitudes, aging anxieties, and self-assessed physiological changes. We find that, compared with women 50-54 years old, those 35-39 years old report lower positive affect, and those 25-49 report higher negative affect. These patterns are partially explained by younger women's greater anxiety about declines in health and attractiveness and older women's more youthful identities. Our study underscores the value of considering the implications of our ageist and sexist society for women's emotional well-being across adulthood.

  3. Facets of Subjective Health From Early Adulthood to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Carol E; Finkel, Deborah; Panizzon, Matthew S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Subjective health is a complex indicator predicting longevity independent of objective health. Few studies examine genetic and environmental mechanisms underlying different facets of subjective health across the life course. METHOD: Three subjective health measures were examined in 12...... appears to be dependent on frame of reference and reflect different aspects of health. Results suggest different genetic and environmental mechanisms underlie each facet....

  4. The Impact of Subjective Age and Stigma on Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of shifts in age identification by older people (N=323) from "middle-aged" to "elderly" within the context of the labeling theory of deviance. Age identification was unrelated to attitudes toward old people and the label "elderly" did not affect self-esteem through any "gate-keeping" process. (Author)

  5. Subjective age-of-acquisition norms for 600 Turkish words from four age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göz, İlyas; Tekcan, Ali I; Erciyes, Aslı Aktan

    2016-10-14

    The main purpose of this study was to report age-based subjective age-of-acquisition (AoA) norms for 600 Turkish words. A total of 115 children, 100 young adults, 115 middle-aged adults, and 127 older adults provided AoA estimates for 600 words on a 7-point scale. The intraclass correlations suggested high reliability, and the AoA estimates were highly correlated across the four age groups. Children gave earlier AoA estimates than the three adult groups; this was true for high-frequency as well as low-frequency words. In addition to the means and standard deviations of the AoA estimates, we report word frequency, concreteness, and imageability ratings, as well as word length measures (numbers of syllables and letters), for the 600 words as supplemental materials. The present ratings represent a potentially useful database for researchers working on lexical processing as well as other aspects of cognitive processing, such as autobiographical memory.

  6. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age

  7. Road-runoff metal concentrations in Toledo, Ohio, and their relation to average daily traffic and age of pavement overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apul, D S; Miller, E; Jain, V

    2010-01-01

    Road runoff can contain metal concentrations and sampling of it can be expensive if auto-samplers are used. In this study, an inexpensive storm water sampling apparatus was developed and used for collecting the road runoff at eleven different sites in Toledo area. Sites were selected with the purpose of evaluating the effects of average daily traffic (ADT) and the age of pavement overlay on road runoff metal concentrations. Ag, As, Cd, and Mo concentrations were primarily below detection limit. Ba, Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn were observed in higher concentrations but lower than pavement surface; with time, as the pavement aged, these sources appeared to be depleted as observed by lower runoff concentrations in older pavements.

  8. Plasma clearance of noradrenaline does not change with age in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects....... Plasma clearance of noradrenaline was identical in the two groups. The increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration, with age, probably reflects an increased sympathetic nervous activity....

  9. Subjective age-of-acquisition norms for 7,039 Spanish words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Angeles; Fernandez, Angel; Díez, Emiliano

    2015-03-01

    Subjective estimations of age of acquisition (AoA) for a large pool of Spanish words were collected from college students in Spain. The average score for each word (based on 50 individual responses, on a scale from 1 to 11) was taken as an AoA indicator, and normative values for a total of 7,039 single words are provided as supplemental materials. Beyond its intrinsic value as a standalone corpus, the largest of its kind for Spanish, the value of the database is enhanced by the fact that it contains most of the words that are currently included in other normative studies, allowing for a more complete characterization of the lexical stimuli that are usually employed in studies with Spanish-speaking participants. The norms are available for downloading as supplemental materials with this article.

  10. Subjective age-of-acquisition norms for 4,640 verbs in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Ángeles; Díez, Emiliano; Fernandez, Angel

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have shown that how words are processed in a variety of language-related tasks is affected by their age of acquisition (AoA). Most AoA norms have been collected for nouns, a fact that limits the extent to which verb stimuli can be adequately manipulated and controlled in empirical studies. With the aim of increasing the number of verbs with AoA values in Spanish, 900 college students were recruited to provide subjective estimates for a total of 4,640 infinitive and reflexive forms. An AoA score for each verb was obtained by averaging the responses of the participants, and these norms were included, together with additional quantitative information (standard deviations, ranges, and z scores), in a database that can be downloaded with this article as supplemental materials.

  11. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  12. Feeling sad makes us feel older: Effects of a sad-mood induction on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-08-01

    A mood-induction paradigm was implemented in a sample of 144 adults covering midlife and old age (40-80 years) to investigate associations between mood and subjective age. Sad or neutral mood was induced by texts and music pieces. Subjective age was operationalized as felt age relative to chronological age. Participants receiving the sad-mood induction reported changes toward older felt ages from pre- to postinduction. Participants receiving the neutral-mood induction reported comparable levels of subjective age at pre- and postinduction. Effects were comparable across middle- and older aged participants. Results suggest that sad affective states might dampen subjective age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  14. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  15. Longitudinal research on subjective aging, health, and longevity : Current evidence and new directions for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Wurm, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we carry out a narrative review of the longitudinal impact of subjective aging on health and survival. We have a specifi c focus on the different pathways which can explain the relation of subjective aging to health and survival. We focus on the three most common conceptualizations

  16. Anxiety Sensitivity and Age: Roles in Understanding Subjective Social Status among Low Income Adult Latinos in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa

    2017-07-05

    One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.

  17. The reciprocal relationship between depression and physical morbidity: The role of subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit

    2017-09-01

    The study aims to examine whether the reciprocal effects of physical morbidity and depression are moderated by subjective age-that is, individuals' perception of themselves as young or old. Data from the first two waves of the Midlife in the United States study (1995-6, T1; 2004-6, T2; http://midus.wisc.edu/) were analyzed using a cross-lagged design. We assessed 3,591 individuals who participated in both waves and provided full data on all the relevant variables (mean age at T1 = 47.4). Depression and the number of chronic illnesses (the indicator of physical morbidity) were measured at both waves and were tested as predictors and outcomes in a cross-lagged model. The moderating role of subjective age was assessed by examining whether T1 variables interacted with subjective age in predicting T2 outcomes. Subjective age moderated the T1 depression-T2 morbidity relationship, so that the relationship was stronger for those with older subjective age. Subjective age did not moderate the T1 morbidity-T2 depression relationship. Older subjective age could be a risk factor for experiencing greater physical morbidity following depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Poisson-like model of sub-clinical signs from the examination of healthy aging subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J; Myklebust, Barbara; Myklebust, Joel; Reynolds, Norman; Duthie, Edmund

    2008-08-01

    Our studies of the standard neurological examination on 66 middle-aged (50-64 yrs) and elderly subjects (65-84 yrs) demonstrate that healthy elders have neurological deficits (or "signs") that are not associated with specific known neurological disease. The purpose of the current study is to describe this loss of neurological function in healthy aging subjects as seen through accumulated subclinical neurological signs present. Logistic regression is applied to the data on each of six signs. Parameters determined are used to describe the distribution of first occurrence times for each sign. The results are then used to construct a Poisson-like model that describes the accumulation in the number of signs present over time on average. This model is also used to simulate a longitudinal population to explore the variability in the number of signs present over time in an aging population. As the rate of arrival of the signs is heterogeneous, as determined through logistic regression, and the number of signs detected is finite, the resulting distributions of the number of signs over time have a different nature than Poisson. Our results suggest that we can expect to see on average one neurological deficit in healthy people by the age of 62, and that the expected number of deficits increases linearly at the rate of 1 additional sign every 12 years over a wide age range (age 70-90). The distribution of the number of deficits over time is also described. The linearity in the average rate at which signs appear in this population is somewhat of a surprise, in that an increasing (accelerating) rate might be anticipated. In addition to characterizing the neurological exam results in this group, we demonstrate a methodology that allows the comparison of groups and defines a rate of neurological aging.

  20. The Combined Effects of Daily Stressors and Major Life Events on Daily Subjective Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingtier, Jennifer A; Neupert, Shevaun D; Kotter-Grühn, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Stressors may be a contributing factor in determining how old an individual feels, looks, or would like to be. Currently, little research has been devoted to understanding the relationship between stressors and subjective age in older adults. We focus on the combined impact of major life-event stressors and daily stressors on multiple indicators of subjective age: felt age, ideal age, and look age. Furthermore, we examine the process by which daily stressors relate to subjective ages by testing whether positive affect, control, and negative affect mediate this relationship. Using a daily-diary design, the current study measured older adults' (60-96 years old) stressors, subjective ages, personal control, and affect. Felt, ideal, and look ages each demonstrated a unique pattern of interactions between daily stressors and major life-event stressors. Furthermore, our findings suggest that on the daily level, the relationship between stressors and felt age is mediated by negative affect but not by control and positive affect. Findings indicate the need to consider the broader contextual picture of stressors, as well as their differential impact on multiple indicators of subjective age.

  1. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  2. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  3. Average age at death in infancy and infant mortality level: Reconsidering the Coale-Demeny formulas at current levels of low mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny M. Andreev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The long-term historical decline in infant mortality has been accompanied by increasing concentration of infant deaths at the earliest stages of infancy. In the mid-1960s Coale and Demeny developed formulas describing the dependency of the average age of death in infancy on the level of infant mortality, based on data obtained up to that time. Objective: In the more developed countries a steady rise in average age of infant death began in the mid-1960s. This paper documents this phenomenon and offers alternative formulas for calculation of the average age of death, taking into account the new mortality trends. Methods: Standard statistical methodologies and a specially developed method are applied to the linked individual birth and infant death datasets available from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the initial (raw numbers of deaths from the Human Mortality Database. Results: It is demonstrated that the trend of decline in the average age of infant death becomes interrupted when the infant mortality rate attains a level around 10 per 1000, and modifications of the Coale-Demeny formulas for practical application to contemporary low levels of mortality are offered. Conclusions: The average age of death in infancy is an important characteristic of infant mortality, although it does not influence the magnitude of life expectancy. That the increase in average age of death in infancy is connected with medical advances is proposed as a possible explanation.

  4. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  5. Alternative computer mouse designs: performance, posture, and subjective evaluations for college students aged 18-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feathers, David J; Rollings, Kimberly; Hedge, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Students are faced with work demands requiring intense computer use throughout the week, often with cumulative hourly use per day exceeding that of adult workers. Extended daily computer use has been associated with a reported increase of musculoskeletal symptoms for college-aged students. New mouse designs offer alternative movement and postural strategies to potentially mitigate musculoskeletal stress for students. This study investigates the use of alternative computer mouse designs by college-aged students (18-25) through a precision task (point-and-click an on-screen target). Wrist movements, hand posture, and associated subjective user data were collected across innovative mouse designs to understand the physical impact and basic usability issues for this population. Twenty-one (21) healthy, right handed students (11 female; 10 male) were enrolled in this study. Five mouse designs were assessed by investigating hand fit, wrist movements, and subjective accounts of ease of use, perceived control, comfort and aesthetics. Human performance was captured for each mouse design in terms of peak velocity, average movement time, and fastest movement direction using an electrogoniometer as participants performed the ISO 9241 multipoint standard Fitts' task using the Generalized Fitts' Law Model Builder software (GFLMB v.1.1C; [1]) within a zero-error setting (point-and-click task). Hand measurements were taken in both standardized anthropometric positions and adapted hand positions on five alternative mouse designs for a total of seven sets of measurements for each participant. Subjective data was collected through a series of questionnaires that were administered before, during, and after the mouse tasks. Results for human performance, distal upper extremity posture (hand/wrist), and subjective data such as overall preference, ease of use, perceived control, and comfort are given for this population. Wrist extension exceeded 30 degrees for over 50% of the total

  6. Reduced Slow-Wave Rebound during Daytime Recovery Sleep in Middle-Aged Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Marjolaine; Gagnon, Jean-François; Latreille, Véronique; Vandewalle, Gilles; Martin, Nicolas; Filipini, Daniel; Doyon, Julien; Carrier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Cortical synchronization during NREM sleep, characterized by electroencephalographic slow waves (SW 75 µV), is strongly related to the number of hours of wakefulness prior to sleep and to the quality of the waking experience. Whether a similar increase in wakefulness length leads to a comparable enhancement in NREM sleep cortical synchronization in young and older subjects is still a matter of debate in the literature. Here we evaluated the impact of 25-hours of wakefulness on SW during a daytime recovery sleep episode in 29 young (27y ±5), and 34 middle-aged (51y ±5) subjects. We also assessed whether age-related changes in NREM sleep cortical synchronization predicts the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery sleep. Compared to baseline sleep, sleep efficiency was lower during daytime recovery sleep in both age-groups but the effect was more prominent in the middle-aged than in the young subjects. In both age groups, SW density, amplitude, and slope increased whereas SW positive and negative phase duration decreased during daytime recovery sleep compared to baseline sleep, particularly in anterior brain areas. Importantly, compared to young subjects, middle-aged participants showed lower SW density rebound and SW positive phase duration enhancement after sleep deprivation during daytime recovery sleep. Furthermore, middle-aged subjects showed lower SW amplitude and slope enhancements after sleep deprivation than young subjects in frontal and prefrontal derivations only. None of the SW characteristics at baseline were associated with daytime recovery sleep efficiency. Our results support the notion that anterior brain areas elicit and may necessitate more intense recovery and that aging reduces enhancement of cortical synchronization after sleep loss, particularly in these areas. Age-related changes in the quality of wake experience may underlie age-related reduction in markers of cortical synchronization enhancement after sustained wakefulness. PMID

  7. Reduced slow-wave rebound during daytime recovery sleep in middle-aged subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Lafortune

    Full Text Available Cortical synchronization during NREM sleep, characterized by electroencephalographic slow waves (SW 75 µV, is strongly related to the number of hours of wakefulness prior to sleep and to the quality of the waking experience. Whether a similar increase in wakefulness length leads to a comparable enhancement in NREM sleep cortical synchronization in young and older subjects is still a matter of debate in the literature. Here we evaluated the impact of 25-hours of wakefulness on SW during a daytime recovery sleep episode in 29 young (27 y ± 5, and 34 middle-aged (51 y ± 5 subjects. We also assessed whether age-related changes in NREM sleep cortical synchronization predicts the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery sleep. Compared to baseline sleep, sleep efficiency was lower during daytime recovery sleep in both age-groups but the effect was more prominent in the middle-aged than in the young subjects. In both age groups, SW density, amplitude, and slope increased whereas SW positive and negative phase duration decreased during daytime recovery sleep compared to baseline sleep, particularly in anterior brain areas. Importantly, compared to young subjects, middle-aged participants showed lower SW density rebound and SW positive phase duration enhancement after sleep deprivation during daytime recovery sleep. Furthermore, middle-aged subjects showed lower SW amplitude and slope enhancements after sleep deprivation than young subjects in frontal and prefrontal derivations only. None of the SW characteristics at baseline were associated with daytime recovery sleep efficiency. Our results support the notion that anterior brain areas elicit and may necessitate more intense recovery and that aging reduces enhancement of cortical synchronization after sleep loss, particularly in these areas. Age-related changes in the quality of wake experience may underlie age-related reduction in markers of cortical synchronization enhancement after

  8. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  9. Which social needs are important for subjective well-being? What happens to them with aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steverink, N; Lindenberg, S

    In this study the authors investigated how satisfaction levels of affection, behavioral confirmation, and status, as three human social needs, relate to age, physical loss, and subjective well-being. Results (N = 883, aged 65 to 98 years) revealed that (a) affection was relatively high and status

  10. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L M; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and subjective (felt and ideal) age. Data are from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults ages 25 to 74, collected in 1995 (n = 3032). Rates of MDE were lowest, and FMH highest, among the three oldest age cohorts (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years). Subjective age was linked with chronological age; with age, adults tend to feel younger, and want to be an age that is younger, than their actual age. As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH. However, wanting to be younger was related to a lower risk of FMH and unrelated to MDE.

  11. Quaternion Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  12. Age Identity in Context: Stress and the Subjective Side of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2010-01-01

    The passage of time is fundamentally experienced through people's interaction with their social worlds. Life-course scholars acknowledge the multiple aspects of time-based experience but have given little attention to age identity in a dynamic context. Drawing from a stress-process model, we expected that turbulence within people's family…

  13. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  14. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D Z; van den Broek, W J; Lamers, C B; Corstens, F H; Hoefnagels, W H

    1996-08-01

    To study free- and protein-bound cobalamin absorption and the correlation with atrophic gastritis in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. A cross-sectional study. Fifty-two healthy subjects, aged 26 to 87 years, apparently free from conditions known to influence the cobalamin status. Middle-aged subjects were defined as those younger than 65 years of age (median age 57 years) and older subjects as those 65 years and older (median age 75 years). Protein-bound cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of scrambled egg yolk, labeled in vivo with 57 Co-cobalamin by injecting a hen with 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. The percentage of 57 Co-cobalamin bound to protein was 65%. Free cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of crystalline 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. Plasma cobalamin, folate and fasting plasma gastrin, and pepsinogen A and C concentrations were determined. The median urinary excretion of egg yolk 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 12.3% (25th and 75th percentiles 10.5%-14.5%) compared with 11.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 9.8%-13.6%) in older subjects (P = .283). The median urinary excretion after administration of free 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 25.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 20.6%-30.7%) compared with 27.9% (25th and 75th percentiles 21.4%-34.5%) in older subjects (P = .694). Neither egg yolk nor free 57 Co-cobalamin excretion correlated with age. A ratio of pepsinogen A to pepsinogen C less than 1.6, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 13 subjects. Within the atrophic gastritis group, 11 subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and two subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration less than 17 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. All subjects had normal fasting plasma gastrin concentrations. Free

  15. Anterior chamber depth and iridocorneal angle in healthy White subjects: effects of age, gender and refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüfer, Florian; Schröder, Anke; Klettner, Alexa; Frimpong-Boateng, Adjoa; Roider, Johann B; Erb, Carl

    2010-12-01

    Prior to phakic intraocular lens implantation, it is important to obtain precise knowledge of the anterior chamber depth (ACD). Accurate topographic evaluation of the iridocorneal angle is helpful in estimating risk for angle-closure glaucoma. This study investigated the use of the Orbscan II system to measure ACD and the iridocorneal angle in healthy subjects and assessed the influences of age, gender and spherical equivalent on these parameters. The Orbscan II system was used to determine the ACD and iridocorneal angle in eight different positions in 390 healthy White subjects with a mean age of 41± 16years (range 10-80 years). The sample included 242 male and 148 female subjects. The influences of age, gender and spherical equivalent were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Mean ACD was 2.87 ± 0.04 mm in male subjects and 2.81±0.37mm in female subjects. The explanatory variables relevant to the ACD were age (partial regression coefficient B = -0.0115, p gender (B = 0.0996, p=0.0036). The mean iridocorneal angle (MIA) was 30.7 ± 2.0 ° in male and 31.6 ± 2.1° in female subjects. The variables relevant to the MIA were gender (B =- 0.865, p lenses. In addition, the angle is more severely constricted in the superior quadrant than in the temporal quadrant. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  16. Dendritic Cells from Aged Subjects Display Enhanced Inflammatory Responses to Chlamydophila pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sangeetha; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gupta, Sudhir; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CPn) is a common respiratory pathogen that causes a chronic and persistent airway infection. The elderly display an increased susceptibility and severity to this infection. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the initiators and regulators of immune responses. Therefore, we investigated the role of DCs in the age-associated increased CPn infection in vitro in humans. Though the expression of activation markers was comparable between the two age groups, DCs from aged subjects secreted enhanced levels of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and CXCL-10 in response to CPn. In contrast, the secretion of IL-10 and innate interferons, IFN-α and IFN-λ, was severely impaired in DCs from aged donors. The increased activation of DCs from aged subjects to CPn also resulted in enhanced proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T cells in a DC-T coculture. Furthermore, T cells primed with CPn-stimulated DCs from aged subjects secreted increased levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-10 compared to DCs obtained from young subjects. In summary, DCs from the elderly displayed enhanced inflammatory response to CPn which may result in airway remodeling and increase the susceptibility of the elderly to respiratory diseases such as asthma. PMID:25253920

  17. Examination of Associations Among Three Distinct Subjective Aging Constructs and Their Relevance for Predicting Developmental Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Allyson; Miche, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    This study examined (a) the empirical associations among three subjective aging (SA) constructs: felt age, attitudes toward own aging (ATOA), and awareness of age-related change (AARC); (b) the moderating role of chronological age in these associations; and (c) the predictive relevance of the SA constructs with regard to two developmental correlates: functional health and satisfaction with life. Participants were 819 adults aged 40-98 years from the United States and Germany. Parallel multiple mediation, moderated mediation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used. As hypothesized, AARC mediated the association between the global measures of SA (felt age and ATOA) and the developmental correlates. Specifically, more negative global subjective aging predicted more AARC losses, which predicted poorer health and well-being. Furthermore, this mediation pathway was moderated by chronological age, such that, with increasing age, greater AARC was more strongly related to poorer functional health (but not well-being). The multidimensional measure, AARC, accounted for a significant amount of the variance in the developmental correlates over and above the unidimensional SA constructs. A consistent pattern emerged supporting the role of domain specificity and valence. These findings support the need for conceptualizing SA across different behavioral domains and for distinguishing between positive and negative SA.

  18. A comparison of average wages with age-specific wages for assessing indirect productivity losses : Analytic simplicity versus analytic precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P; Tashjian, Cole; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Bhatt, Aomesh; Postma, Maarten J

    Objectives: Numerous approaches are used to estimate indirect productivity losses using various wage estimates applied to poor health in working aged adults. Considering the different wage estimation approaches observed in the published literature, we sought to assess variation in productivity loss

  19. Association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects over 90 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyun; Dong, Birong; Hao, Qiu Kui; Ding, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    Eating habits may have a key influence on cognitive function, however, the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive impairment in the elderly Chinese population has not been explored. The present study investigated the association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects >90 years of age. This study comprised data from subjects included in the 2005 Project of Longevity and Ageing in Dujiangyan, China. Subjects were divided into two groups: cognitive impairment group and normal group. Sociodemographic and dietary habit data were collected and cognitive function was assessed in all subjects using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 763 subjects (249 men, 514 women) were included. There was no statistically significant difference in eating habits between the two groups. Education level in the cognitive impairment group was significantly lower than in the normal group. Significant between-group differences were detected in factors relating to subjects' professions. Eating habits were not related to cognitive impairment in elderly Chinese people >90 years of age.

  20. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and telomere length in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbet, Matthew R; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M; Uchino, Bert N; Williams, Paula G; Smith, Timothy W; Gunn, Heather E; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Social Neuroscience Laboratory. One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. N/A. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging.

  1. Visualizing Disease Associations: Graphic Analysis of Frequency Distributions as a Function of Age Using Moving Average Plots (MAP) with Application to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Payami, Haydeh; Kay, Denise M.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Factor, Stewart A.; McCulloch, Colin C.

    2010-01-01

    Age-related variation in marker frequency can be a confounder in association studies, leading to both false positive and false negative findings and subsequently to inconsistent reproducibility. We have developed a simple method, based on a novel extension of moving average plots (MAP), which allows investigators to inspect the frequency data for hidden age-related variations. MAP uses the standard case-control association data and generates a birds-eye view of the frequency distributions acr...

  2. Response of the aroma fraction in sherry wines subjected to accelerated biological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, M B; Moreno, J J; Zea, L; Moyano, L; Medina, M

    1999-08-01

    The effect of an acceleration assay, carried out with a periodic aeration and an increased surface/volume ratio, on various aroma compounds of "fino" Sherry wines aging under a veil of a pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae race capensis G1 flor film yeast was studied. The results were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance, and the compounds simultaneously depending on acceleration conditions and aging time at p < 0.01 were subjected to principal component analysis. The first component, accounting for 86.14% of the overall variance, was mainly defined by acetaldehyde and its derivatives 1,1-diethoxyethane and acetoin. These compounds reached higher concentrations in accelerated aging wines in a shorter time than they did in control wines, and no browning problems were detected. Taking into account that these compounds can be used as indicators for biological aging of "fino" Sherry wines, the acceleration condition assayed can be applied to shorten the time of this process.

  3. Age-related MRI changes at 0. 1 T in cervical discs in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, I.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. (Finland)); Tertti, M.O. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. (Finland)); Komu, M.E. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. (Finland)); Paajanen, H.E.K. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Tampere Univ. Hospital (Finland)); Tuominen, J. (Dept. of Biostatistics, Turku Univ. (Finland)); Kormano, M.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    The age-dependent occurrence of cervical degenerative changes was studies using 0.1 T MRI in 89 asymptomatic volunteers aged 9 to 63 years. The degree of DD (disc darkening on T2[sup *]-weighted images), disc protrusions and prolapses, narrowing of disc spaces, dorsal osteophytes and spinal canal stenosis were assessed. Abnormalities were commoner in older subjects, 62% of being seen in those over 40 years old. In subjects aged less than 30 years there were virtually no abnormalities. DD was the most common abnormality, seen in 10% of discs; 57% DD was in subjects aged over 40. DD at the C5/6 level was the most common finding. No differences in abnormal findings between males and females was observed, nor any statistically significant association between DD and other abnormalities. Thus, DD begins later age in the cervical spine than in the lumbar region. Asymptomatic degenerative changes are common on MRI in the cervical spine after 30 years of age. (orig.)

  4. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  5. Changes in soleus H-reflex during walking in middle-aged, healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    -reflex amplitude during walking was affected by aging, and changes during the swing phase could be seen in the middle-aged subjects. Subdividing the 2 age groups into groups of facilitated or suppressed swing-phase H-reflex revealed that the H-reflex amplitude modulation pattern in the group with facilitated swing......INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of aging on stretch reflex modulation during walking, soleus H-reflexes obtained in 15 middle-aged (mean age 56.4±6.9 years) and 15 young (mean age 23.7±3.9 years) subjects were compared. METHODS: The H-reflex amplitude, muscle activity (EMG) of the soleus...... and tibialis anterior muscles, and EMG/H-reflex gain were measured during 4-km/h treadmill walking. RESULTS: The normalized H-reflex amplitude was lower in the swing phase for the middle-aged group, and there was no difference in muscle activity. EMG/H-reflex gain did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: H...

  6. Population Aging at Cross-Roads: Diverging Secular Trends in Average Cognitive Functioning and Physical Health in the Older Population of Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Steiber

    Full Text Available This paper uses individual-level data from the German Socio-Economic Panel to model trends in population health in terms of cognition, physical fitness, and mental health between 2006 and 2012. The focus is on the population aged 50-90. We use a repeated population-based cross-sectional design. As outcome measures, we use SF-12 measures of physical and mental health and the Symbol-Digit Test (SDT that captures cognitive processing speed. In line with previous research we find a highly significant Flynn effect on cognition; i.e., SDT scores are higher among those who were tested more recently (at the same age. This result holds for men and women, all age groups, and across all levels of education. While we observe a secular improvement in terms of cognitive functioning, at the same time, average physical and mental health has declined. The decline in average physical health is shown to be stronger for men than for women and found to be strongest for low-educated, young-old men aged 50-64: the decline over the 6-year interval in average physical health is estimated to amount to about 0.37 SD, whereas average fluid cognition improved by about 0.29 SD. This pattern of results at the population-level (trends in average population health stands in interesting contrast to the positive association of physical health and cognitive functioning at the individual-level. The findings underscore the multi-dimensionality of health and the aging process.

  7. Macular retinal sensitivity using MP-1 in healthy Malaysian subjects of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Aishah; Sharanjeet-Kaur; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Ngah, Nor Fariza

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of age and gender on macular sensitivity to light in healthy subjects of 4 age groups using the MP-1 microperimeter. A prospective study was carried out on 50 healthy subjects (age range: 18-60 years) divided into 4 age groups; 18-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years and 51-60 years. Full-threshold microperimetry of the central 10° of retina was performed utilizing 32 points with the MP-1. Macula area was divided into four quadrants, which were superior nasal (SN), inferior nasal (IN), inferior temporal (IT) and superior temporal (ST). Total mean sensitivity at 10° for age groups 18-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years and 51-60 years were 19.46 ± 0.30, 19.40 ± 0.39, 19.47 ± 0.35 and 18.73 ± 0.75 (dB), respectively. There was a significant difference in total mean retinal sensitivity at 10° and at the four quadrants with age but not for gender. The retinal sensitivity was highest in the IT quadrant and lowest in the SN quadrant for all age groups. The linear regression analysis revealed that there was a 0.019 dB, 0.016 dB, 0.022 dB, 0.029 dB and 0.029 dB per year age-related decline in mean macular sensitivity within the central 10° diameter in the SN, IN, IT and ST quadrants respectively. Among normal healthy subjects, there was a linear decline in retinal light sensitivity with increasing age with the highest reduction in the superior nasal quadrant and lowest in the inferior temporal quadrant. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective consequences of permanent pacemaker therapy in patients under the age of retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Petersen, J; Nielsen, B L

    1989-01-01

    During a 5-year period, 81 patients ages 20 to 60 years old had implantation of a permanent cardiac pacemaker at the University Hospital, Odense. At follow-up, during 1985, the 73 survivors received a semi-structured questionnaire regarding subjective consequences of pacemaker therapy, and 72...

  9. Subjective memory complaints in aging are associated with elevated cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T; Dziobek, Isabel; McHugh, Pauline; Sweat, Victoria; de Leon, Mony J; Javier, Elizabeth; Convit, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The origin and clinical significance of subjective memory complaints among middle aged and older individuals is not well understood. Associations with objective memory impairments, personality traits or mood disturbances have been reported. Elevated cortisol levels occur in aging and depression and causal links to cognitive or emotional problems have been suggested. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between basal and feedback indices of cortisol regulation and subjective memory impairment in a sample of healthy middle aged and older subjects (mean age 61.8 years) with (n=27) and without (n=19) subjective memory complaints. Participants with memory complaints had both higher basal cortisol levels and higher cortisol levels after dexamethasone. There was a significant group by gender interaction for basal cortisol levels, where women without memory complaints showed significantly lower cortisol levels, whereas no such difference was found for the men. All effects were not due to slight differences in depression scores. Differences in personality traits or in stress susceptibility might underlie the present findings. Future studies of memory complaints should take a comprehensive approach including relevant endocrine parameters.

  10. The Influence of Psychophysiological Variables on Aged Subjects' Functional Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Terry

    A study investigated the effects of selected psychophysiological factors known to affect cognitive functioning on the reading achievement of older adults. The subjects, 34 noninstitutionalized adults ranging in age from 50 to 88 years, completed measures of (1) self-reported mental and physical health, (2) nonverbal intelligence, (3) reading…

  11. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective…

  12. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  13. Does correlation exist between anorectal manometry and endoanal ultrasound findings in healthy subjects according to age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Martínez-Vilalta

    Full Text Available Background: different studies have demonstrated the correlation between anorectal manometry and endoanal ultrasonography data in patients with fecal incontinence, but there is no almost interest describing the same in healthy subjects according to age. Aims: to study the possible correlation between anorectal manometry and endoanal ultrasonography data in a homogeneous group of healthy women, also according to age. Material and methods: prospective observational study of a healthy subjects cohort (n = 14. Homogeneous group of healthy volunteer women divided in 2 subgroups according to age. Results: there was no proved correlation between the internal anal sphincter's measurement and the resting pressure in the whole sample as well as the analysis according to age. Neither there was any proved statistically significant correlation between the external anal sphincter's thickness and the squeeze pressure, in the whole sample and by groups. Conclusions: it does not exist statistically significant correlation between the thickness of the sphincters and its function in a healthy subjects homogeneous group, neither in 2 groups according to age.

  14. Natural occurrence of subjective aging experiences in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miche, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred; Oswald, Frank; Kaspar, Roman; Kolb, Maren

    2014-03-01

    The subjective experience of aging is a relevant correlate of developmental outcomes. However, traditional approaches fall short of capturing the inherent multidimensionality of subjective aging experiences (SAEs). Based on the concept of Awareness of Age-Related Change (AARC; Diehl, M. K., & Wahl, H.-W. (2010). Awareness of age-related change: Examination of a (mostly) unexplored concept. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65, 340-350. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbp110), this study provides a description of SAEs that is facet rich, and based on their natural occurrence, analyzes interindividual differences and associations with well-being. Data came from 225 participants (70-88 years) of the ongoing BEWOHNT study. Open-ended diary entries about age-related experiences were collected for more than 14 days and coded according to AARC domains and subdomains. Seventy percent of all participants had SAEs about physical functioning. About half of the sample reported experiences in the domains interpersonal relations, social-emotional and social-cognitive functioning (COGN-EMOT), and lifestyle. Thirty percent experienced aging in terms of changes in cognitive functioning. Contents of SAEs varied by gender, age group, and functional status. SAEs about COGN-EMOT were most consistently related to affective components of subjective well-being. Our results demonstrate the benefits of an open-ended approach to a multidimensional understanding of SAEs. Content-related, social-cognitive and social-emotional changes more than functional age-related changes were most important for well-being.

  15. Association between mercury concentrations in blood and hair in methylmercury-exposed subjects at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul J

    2004-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were measured in paired hair and blood samples from a cohort of about 1000 children examined at birth and at 7 and 14 years of age. The ratio between concentrations in maternal hair (in microg/g) and in cord blood (microg/L) was approximately 200, but samples from...... the children at age 14 years showed a ratio of about 250. These findings are in accordance with previous data from smaller studies. However, an even higher ratio of about 360 was seen at 7 years of age, suggesting that hair strands at this age retain more mercury. The 95th percentile of the hair-to-blood ratio...... mercury concentrations, a tendency that could not be explained by potential confounders, such as alcohol intake or number of amalgam fillings. The total imprecision (coefficient of variation) for the blood determinations averaged about 30%, thereby substantially exceeding normal laboratory imprecision...

  16. Caffeine Enhances Heart Rate Variability in Middle-Aged Healthy, But Not Heart Failure Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarius, Catherine F; Floras, John S

    2012-06-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF) due to left ventricular dysfunction, diminished heart rate variability (HRV) is an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Caffeine has been shown to increase HRV in young healthy subjects. Such an increase may be of potential benefit to patients with CHF. We hypothesized that intravenous infusion of caffeine would increase HRV in CHF, and in age-matched healthy control subjects. On two separate days, 11 patients (1F) with CHF (age=51.3±4.6 years; left ventricular ejection fraction=18.6±2.7%; mean±standard error) and 10 healthy control subjects (age=48.0±4.0) according to a double-blind randomization design, received either saline or caffeine (4 mg/kg) infusion. We assessed HRV over 7 minutes of supine rest (fast Fourier Transform analysis) to determine total spectral power as well as its high-frequency (HF) (0.15-0.50 Hz) and low-frequency (LF) (0.05-0.15 Hz) components, and recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) directly from the peroneal nerve (microneurography). In healthy control subjects, compared with saline, caffeine reduced both heart rate and sympathetic nerve traffic (p≤0.003) and increased the ratio of HF/total power (p≤0.05). Baseline LF power and the ratio LF/HF were significantly lower in CHF compared with controls (p=0.02), but caffeine had no effect on any element of HRV. Caffeine increases cardiac vagal heart rate modulation and reduces MSNA in middle-aged healthy subjects, but not in those with CHF.

  17. A simple scoring model for advanced colorectal neoplasm in asymptomatic subjects aged 40-49 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Mi; Kim, Hee Sun; Park, Jae Jun; Baik, Su Jung; Youn, Young Hoon; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Hyojin

    2017-01-09

    Limited data are available for advanced colorectal neoplasm in asymptomatic individuals aged 40-49 years. We aimed to identify risk factors and develop a simple prediction model for advanced colorectal neoplasm in these persons. Clinical data were collected on 2781 asymptomatic subjects aged 40-49 years who underwent colonoscopy for routine health examination. Subjects were randomly allocated to a development or validation set. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of advanced colorectal neoplasm. The prevalence of overall and advanced colorectal neoplasm was 20.2 and 2.5% respectively. Older age (45-49 years), male sex, positive serology of Helicobacter pylori, and high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were independently associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasm. BMI (body mass index) was not significant in multivariable analysis. We developed a simple scoring model for advanced colorectal neoplasm (range 0-9). A cutoff of ≥4 defined 43% of subjects as high risk for advanced colorectal neoplasm (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 58%; area under the receiver operating curve = 0.72) in the validation datasets. Older age (45-49 years), male sex, positive serology of H. pylori, high triglyceride level, and low HDL level were identified as independent risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasm.

  18. In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Lotus Root and Cucumber: A Pilot Comparative Study in Aged Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L; Gao, W; Wei, J; Pu, L; Yang, J; Guo, C

    2015-08-01

    To compare the effects of lotus root and cucumber on antioxidant function in aged subjects. Pilot comparative study. Research setting with vegetable intervention. Healthy aged subjects over the age of sixty. 30-day supplementation of lotus root or cucumber powder. Plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, activity of antioxidant enzymes, contents of some antioxidants, oxidation products, hemolysis, blood mononuclear cell DNA damage and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were measured before and after the intervention. Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, contents of vitamin C, total phenolics were significantly increased, while plasma uric acid content significantly decreased in both groups at the end of the intervention. Meanwhile, hemolysis was significantly reduced in both groups and DNA injury rate of blood mononuclear cells in lotus root group and the ratio of comet tail length to total length in cucumber group were also declined significantly post-intervention. However, plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, contents of reduced glutathione, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, oxidized low density lipoprotein, carbonyls and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were not changed significantly in both group after the intervention. These results suggest that lotus root and cucumber are not remarkably different in improving antioxidant function in aged subjects, though they are significantly different in antioxidant capacity in vitro. The benefits observed in this study may come from the additive or synergistic combinations of antioxidants contained in vegetables.

  19. Baroreflex Sensitivity in Relation to Clinical Characteristics in Subject Aged 40 to 80 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Latif, Tabassam

    2014-01-01

    women) with a mean age of 59 ± 11 years (range 41-79 years) were included. Baroreceptor activity was quantified through the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) and as a spontaneous function. BRS was tested against age, gender, smoking status, body size and predicted risk of coronary heart disease based......Baroreflex function measured as baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) mirrors an integrated capacity of the autonomic nervous system. We aimed to assess the relationship between measures of BRS and age and relevant clinical characteristics. 80 subjects participating in the Copenhagen City Heart study (43...... breathing and VM. We could not demonstrate any correlation between BRS, smoking status, and body size when adjusting for age and gender, whereas spontaneous BRS was reduced with increasing Framingham risk score. Principal component analysis revealed three component explaining 69% of the total variance...

  20. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    NO was measured in healthy subjects of 4 to 17 years according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (single breath online, exhalation flow 50 mL/s) with a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden) in 3 European and 2 US centers. Each child performed 3...... NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...

  1. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-12-17

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  2. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective. PMID:26694439

  3. Combat exposure, social relationships, and subjective well-being among middle-aged and older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mai See; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    This study described the association of subjective well-being with combat exposure and social relationships among middle-aged and older Veteran men in the USA. The stress-buffering hypothesis, which predicts social relationships may moderate the association between combat exposure and subjective well-being, was also examined. Data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2961) were used to estimate logistic regression models, focusing on three measures of subjective well-being: depression, life satisfaction, and self-reported health. In the fully adjusted models, there were no statistically significant relationships between combat exposure and the three indicators of subjective well-being. However, compared to Veterans who had lower scores on the social relationship index, Veterans who had higher scores were less likely to be depressed and less likely to report poor or fair health. Veterans who had higher scores on the social relationships index reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those Veterans who had lower scores. There was no evidence for a social relationships buffering effect. The results of this study demonstrated that combat exposure did not have a long-term relationship with subjective well-being. Longitudinal research designs with more comprehensive indicators of combat exposure may help researchers better understand some of the underlying complexity of this relationship. Complementary research with samples of women Veterans, as well as samples of Hispanic, and non-Black, non-White Veterans, is also needed.

  4. Emotional Intelligence Mediates the Relationship between Age and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Fang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Individuals' Subjective Well-being (SWB) increases as they grow older. Past literature suggests that emotional intelligence may increase with age and lead to higher levels of SWB in older adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to test whether emotional intelligence would mediate the relationship between age and SWB. A total of 360 Chinese adults (age range: 20 to 79 years old) participated in this study. They filled out questionnaires that assessed their age, life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale), affective well-being (The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and emotional intelligence (The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). Using Structural Equation Modeling, the mediation model was supported, χ(2) (75) = 194.21, p Emotional intelligence partially mediated the relationship between age and life satisfaction, and fully mediated the relationship between age and affective well-being. The findings suggest that older adults may use their increased emotional intelligence to enhance their SWB. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  6. Accelerated increase and relative decrease in subjective age and changes in attitudes toward own aging over a 4-year period: results from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Ayalon, Liat; Avidor, Sharon; Palgi, Yuval

    2017-03-01

    The passage of time may force people to adjust their subjective age in response to changes in their attitudes toward own aging (ATOA). Although positive associations have been found between well-being and both positive ATOA and younger subjective age, the relationships between changes in these measures have not been examined yet. We expected (1) a decrease in positive ATOA to be associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age and (2) an increase in positive ATOA to be associated with a relative decrease in subjective age. Participants were individuals and their spouses, aged 50 and over, recruited by the Health and Retirement Study, who provided responses to a question concerning one's subjective age in 2008 and 2012 (n = 4174). A change in subjective age over the two waves was regarded as (1) an accelerated increase if it was greater than 5 years (36.2 % of the sample); (2) a relative decrease (39.1 %), if it was less than the 3 years; (3) no change if it did not comply with criteria 1 or 2 (24.7 %). A decrease in positive ATOA over the two waves resulted in an accelerated increase in subjective age, and an increase resulted in a relative decrease in subjective age. Older age and more physical impairments and depressive symptoms in 2012 compared with 2008 were associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age. Our findings emphasize the consequences ATOA might have on subjective age experiences, and the need to improve them.

  7. The moderating effect of subjective age on the association between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Hee Yun; Shin, Hye Ri; Park, SeolWoo; Cho, Sung Eun

    2017-10-20

    Depressive symptoms are greatly associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. Recent growing body of literature has reported that the subjective perception of one's own age (subjective age) predicts both cognitive performance and mental well-being in old age. This study aims to examine whether subjective age moderates the association between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in a representative sample of Korean older adults. To address this research question, we employed the Stereotype-Embodiment Theory as a theoretical guide. Data are from the 2016 Dementia Literacy Survey collected by Kyung Hee University, and 526 community-dwelling Korean older adults (ages 60-79) completed the questionnaire about depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning, and subjective age. According to the hierarchical regression analysis, both higher levels of depressive symptoms and older subjective age were associated with poorer cognitive functioning. Further analyses showed that subjective age attenuated the effect of depressive symptoms on cognitive functioning: when older adults have a higher level of depression, those with younger subjective age reported a higher level of cognitive functioning than those with older subjective age. Based on the findings from this study, both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  8. Context influences on the relationship between views of aging and subjective age: The moderating role of culture and domain of functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; O'Brien, Erica L; Voss, Peggy; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene H; Popham, Lauren E

    2017-08-01

    Subjective age has been shown to reliably predict a variety of psychological and physical health outcomes, yet our understanding of its determinants is still quite limited. Using data from the Aging as Future project, the authors examined the degree to which views of aging influence subjective age and how this influence varies across cultures and domains of everyday functioning. Using data from 1,877 adults aged from 30 to 95 years of age collected in China, Germany, and the United States, they assessed how general attitudes about aging and perceptions of oneself as an older adult influenced subjective age estimates in 8 different domains of functioning. More positive attitudes about aging were associated with older subjective ages, whereas more positive views of self in old age were associated with younger subjective age. It is hypothesized that these effects are reflective of social-comparison processes and self-protective mechanisms. These influences varied considerably over contexts, with views of aging having a greater impact in domains associated with stronger negative stereotypes of aging (e.g., health) compared to those with more positive ones (e.g., family). Culture also moderated the impact of aging views in terms of the strength of prediction, direction of effect, and age of greatest influence, presumably due to cultural differences in the salience and strength of aging-related belief systems across contexts. The results illustrate the contextual sensitivity of subjective age and highlight the role played by an individual's views of old age-both in general and regarding oneself-in determining their own experience of aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other

  10. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Shaon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians. Methods Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999–2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042 aged 15–39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Χ2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR for correlation of age and risk factors. Results In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8% and 18 (1.4%, overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8 in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (≥ 130 mg/dl in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol ( Conclusion Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30–39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals.

  11. Age-related different relationships between ectopic adipose tissues and measures of central obesity in sedentary subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Maresca, Luciano; D'Adamo, Monica; Di Roma, Mauro; Lanzillo, Chiara; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Davide; Preziosi, Paolo; Bellia, Alfonso; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    ... (SAT) were simultaneously measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and related to waist circumference measurements and age in 32 sedentary subjects without cardiovascular disease (18 men; 14 women; mean age 48.5 ± 14 years...

  12. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Nolan, John M; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), photostress recovery time (PRT), reading performance and subjective visual function, using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). MP was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Letter CS, mesopic and photopic CS, photopic GD and mean reading speed were each significantly (p0.05, for all). MP relates positively to many measures of visual function in unsupplemented subjects with early AMD. The CREST trial will investigate whether enrichment of MP influences visual function among those afflicted with this condition. ISRCTN13894787. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John M; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), photostress recovery time (PRT), reading performance and subjective visual function, using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). MP was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Results Letter CS, mesopic and photopic CS, photopic GD and mean reading speed were each significantly (p0.05, for all). Conclusions MP relates positively to many measures of visual function in unsupplemented subjects with early AMD. The CREST trial will investigate whether enrichment of MP influences visual function among those afflicted with this condition. Trial registration number ISRCTN13894787. PMID:27091854

  14. Age-related changes of salivary IgA among healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeda Fatima Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The major immunoglobulin present in mucosal secretions (e.g. saliva is secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA. The potential functions of this secretory IgA include prevention of microbial attachment to surfaces by agglutination, blockage of receptor-mediated attachment, and altering surface hydrophobicity. IgA in saliva is detected early in life as the mucosal immune system develops and the oral cavity is exposed to microbes that make up the normal ecology, as well as to potential pathogens. Lower concentration of IgA in saliva is associated with increased risk for periodontal disease and caries. The secretory IgA is the first line of defense against pathogens that invade the mucosal surfaces. The immune system exhibits profound changes with age and this fact has been well documented. Aims and Objectives: To investigate and re-confirm that salivary IgA concentration undergoes changes with advancing age, and further, to find if there is any probable difference in salivary IgA levels between men and women. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples were taken from 120 healthy subjects aged 1-60 years who were divided into the following age groups: 1-10 years, 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years, and 51-60 years. The salivary IgA concentrations were measured by use of single radial immune diffusion technique and analyzed using the paired and unpaired Student′s t-test, and coefficient test as appropriate, and P values of less than 0.5 were considered significant. Results: The mean salivary IgA levels showed significant changes in each decade of the subjects selected. The mean salivary IgA levels were significantly higher in adults than those observed in children. Conclusion: These results showed that the salivary IgA levels exhibit age-related changes.

  15. Do the effects of subjective frequency and age of acquisition survive better word frequency norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Cortese, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Megastudies with processing efficiency measures for thousands of words allow researchers to assess the quality of the word features they are using. In this article, we analyse reading aloud and lexical decision reaction times and accuracy rates for 2,336 words to assess the influence of subjective frequency and age of acquisition on performance. Specifically, we compare newly presented word frequency measures with the existing frequency norms of Kucera and Francis (1967), HAL (Burgess & Livesay, 1998), Brysbaert and New (2009), and Zeno, Ivens, Millard, and Duvvuri (1995). We show that the use of the Kucera and Francis word frequency measure accounts for much less variance than the other word frequencies, which leaves more variance to be "explained" by familiarity ratings and age-of-acquisition ratings. We argue that subjective frequency ratings are no longer needed if researchers have good objective word frequency counts. The effect of age of acquisition remains significant and has an effect size that is of practical relevance, although it is substantially smaller than that of the first phoneme in naming and the objective word frequency in lexical decision. Thus, our results suggest that models of word processing need to utilize these recently developed frequency estimates during training or setting baseline activation levels in the lexicon.

  16. Assessing Communities' Age-Friendliness: How Congruent Are Subjective Versus Objective Assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menec, Verena H; Newall, Nancy E G; Nowicki, Scott

    2016-05-01

    The notion of age-friendliness is gaining increasing attention from policy makers and researchers. In this study, we examine the congruence between two types of age-friendly surveys: subjective assessments by community residents versus objective assessments by municipal officials. The study was based on data from 39 mostly rural communities in Manitoba, Canada, in which a municipal official and residents (M= 25 residents per community) completed a survey to assess age-friendly features in a range of domains, such as transportation and housing. Congruence between the two surveys was generally good, although the municipal official survey consistently overestimated communities' age-friendliness, relative to residents' ratings. The findings suggest that a survey completed by municipal officials can provide a reasonable assessment of age-friendliness that may be useful for certain purposes, such as cross-community comparisons. However, some caution is warranted when using only these surveys for community development, as they may not adequately reflect residents' views. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Effects of diet and age on oxidative damage products in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Valachovicová, M; Pauková, V; Dusinská, M

    2008-01-01

    Damage of molecules as a consequence of oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related to aging. Diet is a key environmental factor affecting the incidence of many chronic diseases. Antioxidant substances in diet enhance the DNA, lipid and protein protection by increasing the scavenging of free radicals. Products of oxidative damage of DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines or oxidized pyrimidines), lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids) and proteins (carbonyls) in relation to nutrition (vegetarian diet vs. non-vegetarian, traditional mixed diet) were measured in young women aged 20-30 years (46 vegetarians, 48 non-vegetarians) vs. older women aged 60-70 years (33 vegetarians, 34 non-vegetarians). In young subjects, no differences in values of oxidative damage as well as plasma values of antioxidative vitamins (C,beta-carotene) were observed between vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups. In older vegetarian group significantly reduced values of DNA breaks with oxidized purines, DNA breaks with oxidized pyrimidines and lipid peroxidation and on the other hand, significantly increased plasma values of vitamin C and beta-carotene were found compared to the respective non-vegetarian group. Significant age dependences of measured parameters (increase in all oxidative damage products and decrease in plasma vitamin concentrations in older women) were noted only in non-vegetarians. Vegetarian values of older women vs. young women were similar or non-significantly changed. The results suggest that increase of oxidative damage in aging may be prevented by vegetarian nutrition.

  18. Stroke awareness in two Estonian cities: better knowledge in subjects with advanced age and higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Liisa; Väli, Merle; Tomson, Kadi; Piirsoo, Erika; Schneider, Siim; Kõrv, Janika

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess stroke awareness of the Estonian population. Investigators were asked to fill in an original, closed-ended multiple-choice questionnaire about the definition, risk factors, symptoms and behavior at the onset of stroke by randomly selected subjects in public places of the two biggest cities in Estonia (Tallinn and Tartu). The study included 355 persons. Most of the respondents knew that stroke is an acute disease and that one should call the ambulance at the onset of a stroke. Speech disorder and paresis were the best known symptoms, while hypertension was the best known risk factor. There were no differences between the sexes, but advanced age and higher level of education were related to higher awareness. The overall knowledge was better compared to many other studies. Future awareness campaigns should be addressed to younger subjects with lower education. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Foveal slope measurements in subjects with high-risk of age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Raman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent reports indicated that the slope of the foveal depression influences the macular pigment (MP spatial profile. MP has been shown to confer possible protection against age-related macular degeneration (ARMD because of its antioxidant properties. Aims: To study the configuration of foveal slope and the foveal thickness in fellow eyes of subjects with unilateral neovascular ARMD. Settings and design: Case-control series. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 30 cases aged >50, who had unilateral choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM or disciform scar in the fellow eye and 29 controls aged >50, who had no sign of ARMD in the either eye. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, foveal thickness at different locations including the central subfield foveal thickness (CSFT was noted. The foveal slopes were calculated in the six radial scans (between 0.25° and 1° retinal eccentricity as well as the 3D scan. Results: Cases had a significantly higher CSFT when compared to controls (215.1 ± 36.19 μ vs. 193.0 ± 17.38 μ, P = 0.004. On the 3D scan, the cases had shallower superior (cases 1.32 ± 0.32 vs. controls 1.45 ± 0.13, P = 0.04 and temporal slopes (cases 1.27 ± 0.21 vs. controls 1.39 ± 0.12, P = 0.01 in comparison to the controls. Conclusions: We noted a shallower superior and temporal foveal slope and a higher CSFT in the fellow eyes of subjects with a unilateral neovascular ARMD. Prospective studies observing the development of CNVM in subjects with altered foveal slope might provide more information on this optical coherence tomography finding.

  20. Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Early Age of Obesity in Obese Italian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Sentinelli

    2012-01-01

    Aims of our study are to investigate: (1 the association of FTO gene SNPs rs9939609 and rs9930506 with body mass index (BMI and obesity-related parameters in a large cohort (n=752 of Italian obese subjects; (2 the association between the two FTO SNPs and age of onset of obesity. Our results demonstrate a strong association between FTO SNPs rs9939609 (P<0.043 and rs9930506 (P<0.029 with BMI in the Italian population. FTO rs9930506 was significantly associated with higher BMI in a G allele dose-dependent manner (BMI+1.4 kg/m2 per G allele. We also observed that the association with BMI of the two FTO variants varied with age, with the carriers of the risk alleles developing an increase in body weight earlier in life. In conclusion, our study further demonstrates a role of the genetic variability in FTO on BMI in a large Italian population.

  1. Age effects on cortical thickness in young Down's syndrome subjects: a cross-sectional gender study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Andrea; Moraschi, Marta [San Raffaele Foundation Rome, Rehabilitation Facility Ceglie Messapica, Rome (Italy); Cornia, Riccardo; Stella, Giacomo [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Education and Human Sciences, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Bozzao, Alessandro; Gagliardo, Olga [University Sapienza, NESMOS, Department of Neuroradiology, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Chiacchiararelli, Laura [University Sapienza, Department of Medical Physics, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Iani, Cristina [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Communication and Economy, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Albertini, Giorgio [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Paediatrics, Rome (Italy); Pierallini, Alberto [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in the characteristic pattern of age-related cortical thinning in men and women with Down's syndrome (DS) by means of MRI and automatic cortical thickness measurements and a cross-sectional design, in a large cohort of young subjects. Eighty-four subjects with DS, 30 females (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 22.8 ± 5.9) and 54 males (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 21.5 ± 6.5), were examined using a 1.5-T scanner. MRI-based quantification of cortical thickness was performed using FreeSurfer software package. For all subjects participating in the study, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between age and mean cortical thickness values has been evaluated. A significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in female DS subjects, predominantly in frontal and parietal lobes, bilaterally. In male DS subjects, a significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in the right fronto-temporal lobes and cingulate regions. Whole brain mean cortical thickness values were significantly negative correlated with age only in female DS subjects. Females with Down's syndrome showed a strong correlation between cortical thickness and age, already in early age. We suggest that the cognitive impairment due to hormonal deficit in the postmenopausal period could be emphasized by the early structural decline of gray matter in female DS subjects. (orig.)

  2. The Bourne Tragedy:
    Lost Subjects of the Bioconvergent Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Epstein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Bourne trilogy to explore several characteristics of what we term the bioconvergent age. First, we consider the imagined and actual interfaces of bioconvergence—of body, gadgetry, and electronic communications. We explore the ways in which the bioconvergent tendencies represented in and by Bourne reflect and cultivate a cultural unconscious deeply seduced by and imbricated in surveillant governmentality. Second, we consider the ways in which the trilogy achieves its effects through the deployment of both hyperrealism and verisimilitude. In this context, we explore the filmic interpellation of audiences into a fantasy of omnipotence and omni-science, on the one hand, and the underlying phantasy of a zero-sum world that uncouples morality from affect, on the other. Thus, we consider the ways in which Bourne articulates two interlinked phenomena—a distinctively American romance with the sociopathic/heroic subject and a paranoid, dystopic world that is and seems seductively real. Our third theme is the Bourne journey through an obsessional spiral of paranoia, action, and reaction. Here we explore the trilogy as a social description of the expulsive and retentive tendencies of the bioconvergent age, where the demand for instantaneity drives out all other considerations (morality, reason, connection and where the lost subject, in his interminable quest for himself, remains lost.

  3. Selected biomarkers of age-related diseases in older subjects with different nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Blazicek, P; Valachovicova, M; Spustova, V; Mislanova, C; Paukova, V

    2011-01-01

    The nutritionists introduce on the base of epidemiological and clinical studies that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Aging belongs to the main risks of cardiovascular disease. Markers of age-related diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, diabetes) were assessed in two nutritional groups of older apparently healthy non-obese non-smoking women aged 60-70 years, 45 vegetarians (lacto-ovo-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians) and 38 non-vegetarians (control group on a traditional mixed diet, general population). Vegetarian values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance are significantly reduced. Non-vegetarian average values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein are risk. Vegetarians have a better antioxidative status (significantly increased vitamin C, lipid-standardized vitamine E and beta-carotene plasma concentrations). Favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers in older vegetarian women document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of this disease as well as the vegetarian diet can be an additional factor in therapy. Vegetarians suffer from mild hyperhomocysteinemia; it is due to the lower vitamin B12 concentration. Vitamin B12 supplements are inevitable for the hyperhomocysteinemia prevention (Tab. 2, Ref. 26).

  4. Somatic component of risk of the development of vegetative-vascular dysfunction at children of the average and advanced school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Savchuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to estimate quantitatively factors of somatic component of risk of the development of vegetative-vascular dysfunction at children of the average and advanced school age. Material & Methods: 569 children of 14–17 years old are examined in order to the existence of somatopathies, violation of posture, level and harmony of physical development, extent of development of adipopexis, functional indicators of health. Influence of somatic factors on risk of developing of vegetative-vascular dysfunction was revealed by means of the correlation analysis. Results: the system of assessment and the integrated indicator of action of somatic factors on risk of the development of vegetative-vascular dysfunction are offered. 6,57% of pupils with the low level of probability of risk of developing of vegetative-vascular dysfunction, 24,25% of pupils with the level below the average, 38,36% of children of 14–17 years old with the average level of probability of risk of developing of vegetative-vascular dysfunction, 24,25% of teenagers with the average level of probability, 6,57% of pupils with the high level of probability of risk of developing of vegetative-vascular dysfunction are revealed. The reliable communications between the low level of functionality on the test of Ruffier and the disharmonious physical development (p<0,001, low indicators of power and respiratory indexes (p<0,05 are established statistically. Conclusions: the children of the group of risk, who need the individual approach at lessons of physical culture, are defined.

  5. Associations Among Individuals' Perceptions of Future Time, Individual Resources, and Subjective Well-Being in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Perceptions of future time are of key interest to aging research because of their implications for subjective well-being. Interestingly, perceptions about future time are only moderately associated with age when looking at the second half of life, pointing to a vast heterogeneity in future time perceptions among older adults. We examine associations between future time perceptions, age, and subjective well-being across two studies, including moderations by individual resources. Using data from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; Mage = 85 years), we link one operationalization (subjective nearness to death) and age to subjective well-being. Using Health and Retirement Study data (N = 2,596; Mage = 77 years), we examine associations of another future time perception indicator (subjective future life expectancy) and age with subjective well-being. Consistent across studies, perceptions of limited time left were associated with poorer subjective well-being (lower life satisfaction and positive affect; more negative affect and depressive symptoms). Importantly, individual resources moderated future time perception-subjective well-being associations with those of better health exhibiting reduced future time perception-subjective well-being associations. We discuss our findings in the context of the Model of Strength and Vulnerability Integration.

  6. Relationship between cell-mediated immunity to Varicella-Zoster virus and aging in subjects from the community-based Shozu Herpes Zoster study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Tang, Huamin; Hayashi, Kenichi; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2017-02-01

    Age-related declines in cell-mediated immunity (CMI) are associated with the incidence and severity of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. However, the level of Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV)-specific CMI associated with disease onset is unclear. This study aimed to examine factors associated with VZV-specific CMI, as measured by an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, in a Japanese cohort. The study enrolled 365 subjects aged 60 years and over, all of whom were taking part in the Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) study and had undergone four sets of blood and intradermal reaction tests during a 3 year follow-up period. The VZV-specific immunity profile of each subject was assessed, and linear mixed effects models were constructed to analyze IFN-γ ELISPOT results in association with a combination of factors. The model that best explained the IFN-γ ELISPOT results was selected using the Akaike Information Criteria. The best-fit model consisted of age group as the only explanatory fixed-effect variable. The model showed that VZV-specific CMI, quantified as numbers of spots on the ELISPOT assay, among subjects aged 70-79 was on average 10.30 points lower than that among subjects aged 60-69. There was no statistically significant difference between subjects aged 70-79 and those aged 80-89. Age was the only factor significantly associated with the level of VZV-specific CMI, as measured by the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. These results may represent an important step towards quantifying the relationship between VZV-specific CMI and the onset of HZ. J. Med. Virol. 89:313-317, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. “White spots” of the generational analysis: Objective and subjective meaning of the age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Trotsuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a rule, it goes without saying that the generational analysis is one of the major tasks of sociology, which aims to diagnose the state and trends of the social development by comparing value priorities, attitudes and behavioral patterns of the age subgroups that constitute the society. Despite the lack of a common definition of ‘generation’ in the scientific discourse and the differences in its interdisciplinary interpretations researchers agree that in sociology we define ‘generation’ not so much as a demographic group of the same age, but as a certain symbolic community whose members were raised in the similar social conditions. Unfortunately, the Russian sociology adheres to the fragmented version of generational analysis focusing mainly on the youth (less often on the working population as a whole and ‘forgets’ about the elderly and children due to several reasons, but the main ones are evident in both cases - the older generations are largely ignored, and for the youngest it is difficult to choose an adequate methodological approach. The article indicates the thematic priorities of generational analysis in its sociological format (focus on the social status and symbolic features of generations rather than on the culture of childhood, which is the subject of historical research, identifies its key concepts (generation and cohort and problems, summarized the differences of the methodological approaches (primarily quantitative and qualitative and research orientations especially in the study of older ages.

  8. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual...... perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of visual short-term memory based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates are presented at total sample level as well as at gender level. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory...... speed of Visual Short-term Memory (VTSM) but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular....

  9. Serial and subjective clustering on a verbal learning test (VLT) in children aged 5–15: The nature of subjective clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra; Rozendaal, Nico; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated which strategies children aged 5–15 years (N =408) employ while performing a multitrial free recall test of semantically unrelated words. Serial clustering (i.e., a relatively passive strategy) is an index of the sequential consistency of recall order. Subjective clustering

  10. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  11. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  12. METHOD OF CHOISE IN THE TREATMENT OF FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES IN SUBJECTS AGED OVER 65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Grubor3

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Of all femoral bone injuries, femoral neck fractures cause the largest number of surgical, medical and economic problems.The research aimed to determine, within the tested sample, the benefits of the treatment of femoral neck fractures with primary femoral prosthesis.The study involved 102 patients. The following parameteres were monitored: radiographic processing, BMD, times of sustaining the fracture, admission and surgical treatment, preoperative and postoperative complications, etc.The average age of patients was 86.2 years. FNFs (femoral neck fractures were classified using Garden’s classification: Type I accounted for 0% of femoral neck fractures, Type II for 5.88%, Type III for 50.98% and Type IV for 43.14%. The time interval between injury and surgery amounted to 3.9 days and chronic illnesses were reported in 50% of the patients. Fractures were treated with internal fixation: 22.54% with Müller plate, 2.94% with screws; and with endoprostheses: Austin-Moore partial endoprosthesis was used in 50.98% of the patients, cemented total endoprosthesis in 4.9%, and noncemented total prosthesis in 14.7%. General inhalation anaesthesia was used in 37.25% and spinal anaesthesia in 64.75% of the patients. 31.37% of the patients experienced complications. There were significant statistical differences in the time of verticalisation and full weight-bearing between the patients treated with endoprosthesis and those treated with internal fixation.In less physically active elderly patients secondary surgeries can be avoided byperforming primary arthroplasty. With displaced fractures there is a high risk of femoral head necrosis and pseudoarthrosis. In patients under the age of 65 who can endure a secondary operation in case of failure, the treatment of choice is internal fixation.Patients over the age of 65 need to be treated with primary arthroplasty in order to avoid secondary operations.

  13. Effects of differences in postprandial glycaemia on cognitive functions in healthy middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Radeborg, K; Björck, I

    2009-01-01

    To find useful methods for the studies of cognitive function during a postprandial period, and to use these methods to evaluate function after test meals differing in post meal glycaemia. Forty healthy volunteers aged 49-70 years were studied. A glucose solution (glucose 50 g) was provided through either a bolus or sipping regimen at breakfast to simulate a high-GI or a low-GI breakfast, respectively. Cognitive tests of working memory (WM) were performed at 35, 90, 120 and 150 min after commencing the breakfast, and a test of selective attention (SA) was performed at 170 min. Subjects with higher glucose tolerance performed better in the cognitive tests (Pglucose tolerance as covariate, the subjects performed better in the working memory test at 90 min (Pglucose concentration and by maintaining a higher glycaemia in the late postprandial period, respectively. A low-GI diet is preferable in the prevention of the risk of cognitive decline as a result of less efficient glucose regulation.

  14. Hyperthyrotropinaemia in untreated subjects with Down's syndrome aged 6 months to 64 years: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerovitch, Joseph; Antebi, Felice; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Bar-Tal, Ornit; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is inherent to Down's syndrome or if a high level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a feature in a subset of patients with Down's syndrome. Comparative analysis. Major health maintenance organisation (3.8 million insured). A data warehouse search identified all subjects with Down's syndrome who attended Clalit Health Services in 2006 and were tested for TSH and free thyroxine (T4) level on the day of diagnosis (intention-to-treat population). The study group consisted of patients who were not diagnosed with thyroid disease or did not receive thyroid-modulating medication (n=428). Their findings were compared with a control group of healthy age- and sex-matched subjects who were randomly selected from the general population. Distribution of free T4, TSH and total T3 levels. The distribution plot for TSH showed a significant shift of the curve to higher values in the study group compared with the controls (p≤0.0001). This finding held true on further analysis of the whole intention-to-treat population (p95th centile in the presence of normal-range free T4 levels.

  15. Stress, sense of coherence and subjective health in adolescents aged 13-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships between sex, age, stress and sense of coherence (SOC) and each of self-rated health (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHCs) in adolescents. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1239 adolescents aged 13-18 years. The participants reported scores on a questionnaire, including 12 items assessing SHC, the 13-item version of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire and the 30-item Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Data were analysed with descriptive, comparative and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Boys scored significantly higher on SRH than girls, whereas girls scored higher on SHCs. In the multivariate model, stress was significantly associated with SHCs, but not with SRH. SOC was significantly positively related to SRH and negatively related to SHC; the associations were significantly stronger for girls than for boys. A significant moderation effect (protective role) of SOC was found on the relation between stress and SHC. No causal conclusion was possible, but the findings may be used as a basis for further investigation of the role of stress and SOC in longitudinal studies and intervention studies.

  16. Dementia and oral health among subjects aged 75 years or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjälä, Anna-Maija Hannele; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Ruoppi, Piia; Komulainen, Kaija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Sulkava, Raimo; Knuuttila, Matti

    2012-03-01

     To study the association between diagnosed dementia and oral health, focusing on the type of dementia, among an elderly population aged 75 years or older. Elderly people with dementia are at risk from oral diseases, but to date, only a few studies have analysed the association between type of dementia and oral health, and their results are inconclusive. This cross-sectional study is based on the Geriatric multi-disciplinary strategy (Gems) study that included 76 demented and 278 non-demented subjects. The data were collected by means of an interview and an oral clinical examination. The type of dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Poisson's and logistic regression models were used to determine relative risks (RR), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence limits (CI). Our results showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease and those with other types of dementia had an increased likelihood of having carious teeth, teeth with deep periodontal pockets, and poor oral and denture hygiene, compared with non-demented persons. The results showed that the type of dementia does not seem to be an essential determinant of oral health. Among the elderly aged 75 years or older, patients with Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia are at increased risk of poor oral health and poor oral hygiene. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Serial and subjective clustering on a verbal learning test (VLT) in children aged 5-15: the nature of subjective clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra; Rozendaal, Nico; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated which strategies children aged 5-15 years (N = 408) employ while performing a multitrial free recall test of semantically unrelated words. Serial clustering (i.e., a relatively passive strategy) is an index of the sequential consistency of recall order. Subjective clustering (i.e., a more active strategy) is based on similar word groupings in successive trials. Previously, Meijs et al. (2009) found that the level of (serial and subjective) clustering increases with age. At all ages, the level of serial clustering correlates positively with the ability to recall information on VLT trials. However, subjective clustering is more predictive of VLT performance than serial clustering after ≥ 3 trials, but only in children aged 8+. Knowledge on how children organize words (based on, for example, sound or meaning) and how this relates to developmental stage is still lacking. This study revealed that the level of subjective clustering is primarily determined by the position of words in a VLT list. More specifically, primacy (i.e., recall of words 1-3 of the VLT list - whether recalled in the same order or reversed) and recency (i.e., recall of words 14-15) effects primarily determine level subjective organization over successive trials. Thus, older children still organize words based on the serial position of the VLT list and are much less likely to organize them based on any other feature of the words, for example, sound or meaning. This indicates that the most important information to be learned needs to be presented first or last, even in older children and even with repeated presentations.

  18. The Impact of Subject Age, Gender, and Arch Length on Attitudes of Syrian Dentists towards Shortened Dental Arches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakaria Nassani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the impact of subject age, gender, and arch length on dentists’ attitudes towards unrestored shortened dental arches. Materials and Methods. 93 Syrian dentists were interviewed and presented with 24 scenarios for male and female subjects of different ages and shortened dental arches of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analogue scale how they would value the health of the mouth if the posterior space was left unrestored. Results. A value of 0.0 represented the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 represented the best. The highest mean value (0.73 was assigned to a shortened dental arch with missing second molar teeth in the mouth of a 70-year-old subject. A 35-year-old female subject with an extremely shortened dental arch (all molar and premolar teeth are missing attracted the lowest mean value (0.26. The statistical analysis indicated a significant decrease in the value placed on unrestored shortened dental arches as the number of remaining teeth decreased (p<0.008. While subject gender had almost no impact on dentists’ attitudes towards shortened dental arches, the scenarios for the older shortened dental arch subjects attracted significantly higher values compared to the scenarios for the younger subjects (p<0.017. Conclusion. Subject age and arch length affect dentists’ attitudes towards shortened dental arches, but subject gender does not.

  19. Noninvasive detection of coronary artery wall thickening with age in healthy subjects using high resolution MRI with beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Firmin, David N

    2011-10-01

    To demonstrate coronary artery wall thickening with age in a small healthy cohort using a highly efficient, reliable, and reproducible high-resolution MR technique. A 3D cross-sectional MR vessel wall images (0.7 × 0.7 × 3 mm resolution) with retrospective beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction (B2B-RMC) were obtained in the proximal right coronary artery of 21 healthy subjects (age, 22-62 years) with no known cardiovascular disease. Lumen and outer wall (lumen + vessel wall) areas were measured in one central slice from each subject and average wall thickness and wall area/outer wall area ratio (W/OW) calculated. Imaging was successful in 18 (86%) subjects with average respiratory efficiency 99.3 ± 1.7%. Coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW significantly correlate with subject age, increasing by 0.088 mm and 0.031 per decade respectively (R = 0.53, P = 0.024 and R = 0.48, P = 0.046). No relationship was found between lumen area and vessel wall thickness (P = NS), but outer wall area increased significantly with vessel wall thickness at 19 mm(2) per mm (P = 0.046). This is consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Despite the small size of our healthy cohort, using high-resolution MR imaging and B2B-RMC, we have demonstrated increasing coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW with age. The results obtained are consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Subjects Born with Thalidomide Embryopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Alessia; Newman, Claus; Johnson, Martin; Eremin, Oleg; Friede, Tim; Malik, Omar; Nicholas, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital malformation that emerged as one extreme of a range of defects resulting from in utero exposure to thalidomide. Individuals with thalidomide embryopathy (TE) have reported developing symptoms suggestive of peripheral nervous system dysfunction in the mal-developed limbs in later life. Methods Case control study comparing TE subjects with upper limb anomalies and neuropathic symptoms with healthy controls using standard neurophysiological testing. Other causes of a peripheral neuropathy were excluded prior to assessment. Results Clinical examination of 17 subjects with TE (aged 50.4±1.3 [mean±standard deviation] years, 10 females) and 17 controls (37.9±9.0 years; 8 females) demonstrated features of upper limb compressive neuropathy in three-quarters of subjects. Additionally there were examination findings suggestive of mild sensory neuropathy in the lower limbs (n = 1), L5 radiculopathic sensory impairment (n = 1) and cervical myelopathy (n = 1). In TE there were electrophysiological changes consistent with a median large fibre neuropathic abnormality (mean compound muscle action potential difference -6.3 mV ([-9.3, -3.3], p = 0.0002) ([95% CI], p-value)) and reduced sympathetic skin response amplitudes (-0.8 mV ([-1.5, -0.2], p = 0.0089)) in the affected upper limbs. In the lower limbs there was evidence of sural nerve dysfunction (sensory nerve action potential -5.8 μV ([-10.7, -0.8], p = 0.0232)) and impaired warm perception thresholds (+3.0°C ([0.6, 5.4], p = 0.0169)). Conclusions We found a range of clinical features relevant to individuals with TE beyond upper limb compressive neuropathies supporting the need for a detailed neurological examination to exclude other treatable pathologies. The electrophysiological evidence of large and small fibre axonal nerve dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs may be a result of the original insult and merits further investigation. PMID:27100829

  1. Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Subjects Born with Thalidomide Embryopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Nicotra

    Full Text Available Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital malformation that emerged as one extreme of a range of defects resulting from in utero exposure to thalidomide. Individuals with thalidomide embryopathy (TE have reported developing symptoms suggestive of peripheral nervous system dysfunction in the mal-developed limbs in later life.Case control study comparing TE subjects with upper limb anomalies and neuropathic symptoms with healthy controls using standard neurophysiological testing. Other causes of a peripheral neuropathy were excluded prior to assessment.Clinical examination of 17 subjects with TE (aged 50.4±1.3 [mean±standard deviation] years, 10 females and 17 controls (37.9±9.0 years; 8 females demonstrated features of upper limb compressive neuropathy in three-quarters of subjects. Additionally there were examination findings suggestive of mild sensory neuropathy in the lower limbs (n = 1, L5 radiculopathic sensory impairment (n = 1 and cervical myelopathy (n = 1. In TE there were electrophysiological changes consistent with a median large fibre neuropathic abnormality (mean compound muscle action potential difference -6.3 mV ([-9.3, -3.3], p = 0.0002 ([95% CI], p-value and reduced sympathetic skin response amplitudes (-0.8 mV ([-1.5, -0.2], p = 0.0089 in the affected upper limbs. In the lower limbs there was evidence of sural nerve dysfunction (sensory nerve action potential -5.8 μV ([-10.7, -0.8], p = 0.0232 and impaired warm perception thresholds (+3.0°C ([0.6, 5.4], p = 0.0169.We found a range of clinical features relevant to individuals with TE beyond upper limb compressive neuropathies supporting the need for a detailed neurological examination to exclude other treatable pathologies. The electrophysiological evidence of large and small fibre axonal nerve dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs may be a result of the original insult and merits further investigation.

  2. Younger age at onset of sporadic Parkinson’s disease among subjects occupationally exposed to metals and pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Marcia H.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An earlier age at onset of Parkinson’s disease (PD has been reported to be associated with occupational exposures to manganese and hydrocarbon solvents suggesting that exposure to neurotoxic chemicals may hasten the progression of idiopathic PD. In this study the role of occupational exposure to metals and pesticides in the progression of idiopathic PD was assessed by looking at age at disease onset. The effects of heritable genetic risk factors, which may also influence age at onset, was minimized by including only sporadic cases of PD with no family history of the disease (n=58. Independent samples Student t-test revealed that subjects with occupational exposure to metals and/or pesticides (n=36 were significantly (p=0.013 younger than unexposed controls (n=22. These subjects were then divided into three groups [high (n=18, low (n=18, and unexposed (n=22] to ascertain if duration of exposure further influenced age at onset of PD. One-way ANOVA revealed that subjects in the high exposure group were significantly (p=0.0121 younger (mean age: 50.33 years than unexposed subjects (mean age: 60.45 years. Subjects were also stratified by exposure type (metals vs. pesticides. These results suggest that chronic exposure to metals and pesticides is associated with a younger age at onset of PD among patients with no family history of the disease and that duration of exposure is a factor in the magnitude of this effect.

  3. Beyond chronological age. Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Jansen; Dorien Kooij; Annet de Lange; Josje Dikkers

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  4. Beyond chronological age : Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  5. Tuning to the Positive: Age-Related Differences in Subjective Perception of Facial Emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Picardo

    Full Text Available Facial expressions aid social transactions and serve as socialization tools, with smiles signaling approval and reward, and angry faces signaling disapproval and punishment. The present study examined whether the subjective experience of positive vs. negative facial expressions differs between children and adults. Specifically, we examined age-related differences in biases toward happy and angry facial expressions. Young children (5-7 years and young adults (18-29 years rated the intensity of happy and angry expressions as well as levels of experienced arousal. Results showed that young children-but not young adults-rated happy facial expressions as both more intense and arousing than angry faces. This finding, which we replicated in two independent samples, was not due to differences in the ability to identify facial expressions, and suggests that children are more tuned to information in positive expressions. Together these studies provide evidence that children see unambiguous adult emotional expressions through rose-colored glasses, and suggest that what is emotionally relevant can shift with development.

  6. Brief Report : Influence of gender and age on parent reported subjective well-being in children with and without autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, Sander; Ma, Yujie; Koot, Hans M.; Wierda, Marlies; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with reduced Subjective well-being (SWB). To examine the influence of gender and age on well-being we collected parent reported SWB in children with or without ASD (total n = 1030), aged 8–14 years. Parents reported lower SWB for children with ASD

  7. European innovation partnership on active and healthy ageing: triggers of setting the headline target of 2 additional healthy life years at birth at EU average by 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagiewka, Karolina

    2012-10-22

    The objective of this paper is to provide analytical research that supported the European Commission in setting the global target of additional two healthy life years (HLY) at birth by 2020 in the EU on average, within the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (the EIP on AHA). It produces a straightforward analysis of HLY projections that helped the European Commission set a firm, politically sound, target. In order to reach that goal, policy makers need to commit to redefining health priorities and goals and developing and implementing relevant strategies and programmes. The study computes a simple simulation of the HLY at birth based on three demographic scenarios: compression of morbidity, expansion of morbidity and an intermediary scenario, the dynamic equilibrium, given the expected 2.1 year gain in male and 1.6 in female life expectancy (LE) by 2020. Data on HLY and projections of life expectancy were obtained from Eurostat and 2008 was taken as a baseline. For consistency and given data gaps, EU27 average values of HLY were calculated. In the EU27 as a whole, the difference between LE and HLY in 2008 was nearly 15 years for men and 20 years for women. The developments of healthy life expectancies across the EU Member States (MSs) are even more diverse that makes it difficult to model any robust EU level trends.Under compression of morbidity, life expectancy and HLY would increase by 2020 on average by 2.1 and 2.0 years for men and by 1.6 and 1.4 years for women respectively. The expected years with disability would remain unchanged while the HLY/LE ratio would improve leading to a 0.5% gain for both genders. Under expansion of morbidity, life expectancy would increase by 2.1 years for men and 1.4 years for women by 2020, while HLY would remain unchanged and the expected years with disability would increase by 2.1 years and 1.6 years in women. This would imply the deterioration of the HLY/LE ratio for both men and women generating a 2

  8. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  9. Impact of ageing on depression and activities of daily livings in normal elderly subjects living in old age homes and communities of Kanpur, U.P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanshika Sethi, Vijaylaxmi Verma, Udhbhav Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ageing is a progressive, generalized impairment of functions resulting in loss of adaptive response to stress and increasing the risk of age related disease. Methodology: A sample of 200 elderly subjects i.e. 100 from the community (group A and 100 from Old age home (group B of sixty & above years of age were taken by the convenience sampling method. The subjects were collected through various old age homes and community which includes Vaikunth Dham Old Age Home, Ishwar Prem Ashram, Swaraj Ashram, Ramkrishna Mission old age home and nearby community located in the Kanpur and Varanasi. The subjects were assigned a number to maintain the confidentiality of the subjects and then the scales were used to assess the scores i.e., Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and Barthel index of daily livings were used to check the level of depression & ADL’s and then the scores were compared. The results: The mean GDS scores for group A were 11.32 and for group B were 16.42 with a value of -6.981 with a p value of 0.00* and mean ADL’s scores on the Barthel index for group A were16. 54 and 17.98 for group B within value of -2.898 with a p value of 0.004* which shows there is a significant difference. Conclusion: Elderly subjects living in Old age home are more affected in terms of depression and ADL’s as compared to community dwelling elder subjects as old people living in their own homes were most able to cope in their homes. They received more support from relatives and friends than from health and social services

  10. Factors affecting perception thresholds of vertical whole-body vibration in recumbent subjects: Gender and age of subjects, and vibration duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Maeda, S.; Iwane, Y.; Iwata, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Some factors that may affect human perception thresholds of the vertical whole-body vibrations were investigated in two laboratory experiments with recumbent subjects. In the first experiment, the effects of gender and age of subjects on perception were investigated with three groups of 12 subjects, i.e., young males, young females and old males. For continuous sinusoidal vibrations at 2, 4, 8, 16, 31.5 and 63 Hz, there were no significant differences in the perception thresholds between male and female subjects, while the thresholds of young subjects tended to be significantly lower than the thresholds of old subjects. In the second experiment, the effect of vibration duration was investigated by using sinusoidal vibrations, at the same frequencies as above, modulated by the Hanning windows with different lengths (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 s) for 12 subjects. It was found that the peak acceleration at the threshold tended to decrease with increasing duration of vibration. The perception thresholds were also evaluated by the running root-mean-square (rms) acceleration and the fourth power acceleration method defined in the current standards. The differences in the threshold of the transient vibrations for different durations were less with the fourth power acceleration method. Additionally, the effect of the integration time on the threshold was investigated for the running rms acceleration and the fourth power acceleration. It was found that the integration time that yielded less differences in the threshold of vibrations for different durations depended on the frequency of vibration.

  11. Dendritic cells from aged subjects contribute to chronic airway inflammation by activating bronchial epithelial cells under steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S; Agrawal, S; Vahed, H; Ngyuen, M; BenMohamed, L; Gupta, S; Agrawal, A

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of the elderly to respiratory infections are not well understood. The crosstalk between the dendritic cells (DCs) and epithelial cells is essential in maintaining tolerance as well as in generating immunity in the respiratory mucosa. DCs from aged subjects display an enhanced basal level of activation, which can affect the function of epithelial cells. Our results suggest that this is indeed the scenario as exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) to supernatants from unstimulated DCs of aged subjects resulted in activation of PBECs. The expression of CCL20, CCL26, CXCL10, mucin, and CD54 was significantly increased in the PBECs exposed to aged DC supernatants, but not to young DC supernatants. Furthermore, aged DC supernatants also enhanced the permeability of the PBEC barrier. We also found that DCs from aged subjects spontaneously secreted increased levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and metalloproteinase A disintegrin family of metalloproteinase 10, which can affect the functions of PBECs. Finally, we demonstrated that TNF-α, present in the supernatant of DCs from aged subjects, was the primary pro-inflammatory mediator that affected PBEC functions. Thus, age-associated alterations in DC–epithelial interactions contribute to chronic airway inflammation in the elderly, increasing their susceptibility to respiratory diseases. PMID:24759206

  12. [Social determinants of subjective health in school children aged 11-15 years in Poland in the light of European data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a particularly significant period due to the risk of psycho-social disorders, life-style formation and making many important decisions about the future. THE AIM of the study is to provide an overall assessment of the impact of various elements of the environment on the risk of disorders of subjective health of schoolchildren aged 11-15 yrs, and to compare of the Polish data with European Union statistics. The data source is the last series of international studies on health related behaviour of schoolchildren (HBSC), conducted during the school year 2005/06. In general, the object of analysis comprises data related to 142 478 schoolchildren from a combined sample from 25 countries, on average aged 13.6 yrs (SD = 1.65), including 5489 Polish schoolchildren. The main outcome variable was the occurrence of at least one of three subjective health disorders: poor self-rated health, dissatisfaction with life and the intensity of recurrent subjective symptoms. The analysis included the impact of gender, age (in three age groups), country of residence (Poland vs. the other 24 countries) and the five components of the growing up environment: economic and social status of the family, communication with parents, functioning at school, peer support, problems in the area of domicile. Logistic regression models were estimated with a step-block procedure of variable selection, which provided relative risk indices (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The studies have shown that the strongest predictor of subjective health disorders consists of problems with functioning at school (OR = 3.14), disrupted communication with parents (OR = 2.15) and absence of peer support (OR = 1.87). However, after these factors were taken into account, the weak impact of the material status of the family (OR = 1.65) and area of residence (OR-= 1.94) continued to be noted. Young people in Poland report subjective health problems more often than their average European counterparts

  13. Physical activity, screen time and the risk of subjective health complaints in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Eimear; Kelly, Colette; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2017-03-01

    Internationally, subjective health complaints have become increasingly prevalent in children. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the determinants of health complaints is needed to inform effective policies and strategies. This study explores if meeting physical activity and total screen time (TST) recommendations are associated with the risk of reporting health complaints weekly or more. The 2014 Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected questionnaire data from 10,474 10-17year olds. Children reported how often they experienced eight health complaints as less than weekly or weekly or more. Children who met moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recommendations were active for 60min/day in the past seven days. Three types of screen based activity were categorised to reflect if children met TST recommendations of ≤2h/day. Poisson regression examined the association between meeting recommendations and the risk of health complaints. The prevalence of individual health complaints ranged from 20.4-44.3% in girls and from 10.1-35.4% in boys. Overall, 5.1% (4.5-5.6%) of girls and 8.7% (7.8-9.5%) of boys met both (physical activity and TST) recommendations, while two thirds of girls (67.3%, 66.1-68.5%) and over half of boys (55.0%, 53.5-56.6%) met neither recommendation. Not meeting TST recommendations was significantly associated with the risk of reporting health complaints while associations with physical activity were less apparent. Children who did not meet either recommendation had a significantly increased risk for six of the health complaints when compared to those who met both recommendations. As health complaints and poor lifestyle behaviours were common in children, population level measures are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of vitamin B-6 estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance for children aged 7-12 years using vitamin B-6 intake, nutritional status and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Huang, Yi-Chia; Hsiao, Li-Ju; Lee, Yi-Chun; Hsuen, Shou-Ying

    2002-10-01

    The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamin B-6 for children were recently estimated by extrapolating from adult values because of limited available information. To determine vitamin B-6 requirements and provide recommendations for intakes, vitamin B-6 intake, nutritional status and anthropometry of 168 healthy children (79 boys and 89 girls) were studied in Tainan, Taiwan. Direct and indirect vitamin B-6 status indicators were measured in plasma, erythrocytes and urine. Anthropometric data of children in this study were similar to those of the first Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted in 1993-1996. The plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) concentration of each child was >/=30 nmol/L, indicating an adequate vitamin B-6 status. Daily dietary vitamin B-6 intakes of boys and girls were 0.80 +/- 0.16 and 0.74 +/- 0.16 mg/d, respectively. Daily dietary vitamin B-6 intakes of children who had adequate urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) (>3.0 micro mol/L), erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity coefficient (EALT-AC) (children who had adequate plasma PLP, although the percentages of adequacy for urinary 4-PA, EALT-AC and EAST-AC ranged from 20 to 91%. Vitamin B-6 status indicators were strongly correlated with vitamin B-6 intake. Adequate values of PLP, EALT-AC, EAST-AC and urinary 4-PA were used to determine the EAR according to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) committee methodology. We determined the vitamin B-6 EAR (RDA) for boys and girls aged 7-12 y to be 0.84 (1.01) and 0.75 (0.89) mg/d, respectively.

  15. [Characteristics of blood aggregation in human subjects of different age categories during normobaric interval hypo-oxytraining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, L A; Stepanov, V K; Dvornikov, M V

    2006-01-01

    Blood aggregation was studied in human subjects of different age groups given normobaric hypooxytraining. The experiment was performed with participation of two groups of volunteers: experienced human subjects well-adapted to hypoxia and young non-adapted subjects. NOT protocol included 7 min of breathing hypoxic mixture (90% N2 and 10% O2) and 3 min of breathing atmospheric air at room temperature, 6 cycles every other day during one month. Blood aggregation was assessed by 26 parameters with the use of a multifunctional diagnostic system that permitted biophysical (rheologic), biochemical (coagulative) and mathematic (systemic) diagnostics. Two groups of the human subjects displayed significantly different reactions to of blood aggregation to the extreme factor (NOT). There was a marked dependence of the blood aggregation reaction to the hypoxic factor on the body protective-adaptive potential. Our data substantiate the need to develop NOT protocols for pilots of specific ages.

  16. What about Time? Examining Chronological and Subjective Age and their Relation to Work Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; de Lange, A.H.; Van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; Kooij, T.A.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aging workforce is becoming an increasingly important topic in today’s labor market. However, most scientific research and organizational policies focus on chronological age as the main determinant of successful aging. Based on life span developmental theories – primarily socioemotional

  17. What about time? : Examining chronological and subjective age and their relation to work motivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans,; De Lange,; Van der Heijden,; Kooij, T.A.M.; Jansen,; Dikkers,

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aging workforce is becoming an increasingly important topic in today’s labor market. However, most scientific research and organizational policies focus on chronological age as the main determinant of successful aging. Based on life span developmental theories – primarily socioemotional

  18. What about time? Examining chronological and subjective age and their relation to work motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Lange, A.H. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE - The aging workforce is becoming an increasingly important topic in today’s labor market. However, most scientific research and organizational policies focus on chronological age as the main determinant of successful aging. Based on life span developmental theories – primarily

  19. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  20. The ability of an electrocardiogram to predict fatal and non-fatal cardiac events in asymptomatic middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, Henri K; Tikkanen, Jani T; Kenttä, Tuomas V; Junttila, M Juhani; Aro, Aapo L; Anttonen, Olli; Kerola, Tuomas; Rissanen, Harri A; Knekt, Paul; Reunanen, Antti; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2016-11-01

    The long-term prognostic value of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) for predicting cardiac events in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects is not well defined. A total of 9511 middle-aged subjects (mean age 43 ± 8.2 years, 52% males) without a known cardiac disease and with a follow-up 40 years were included in the study. Fatal and non-fatal cardiac events were collected from the national registries. The predictive value of ECG was separately analyzed for 10 and 30 years. Major ECG abnormalities were classified according to the Minnesota code. Subjects with major ECG abnormalities (N = 1131) had an increased risk of cardiac death after 10-years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.1-2.5, p = 0.009) and 30-years of follow-up (HR 1.3, 95% CI, 1.1-1.5, p electrocardiogram are shown to have prognostic significance for cardiac events in elderly subjects without known cardiac disease. Our results suggest that ECG abnormalities increase the risk of fatal cardiac events also in middle-aged healthy subjects.

  1. Ventricular arrhythmias and risk of death and acute myocardial infarction in apparently healthy subjects of age >or=55 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, A; Nielsen, OW; Rasmussen, Verner

    2006-01-01

    arrhythmias were studied in a cohort of middle-aged and elderly subjects without apparent heart disease. Six hundred seventy-eight men and women aged 55 to 75 years without a history of heart disease or stroke were included. Baseline examinations included physical examinations, fasting laboratory testing......Increased ventricular ectopic activity and even more complex arrhythmias are not uncommon in subjects without apparent heart disease. However, their prognostic significance has been controversial and not updated in recent years. The prevalence and prognostic significance of different ventricular...

  2. Age-Associated Decline in Dendritic Cell Function and the Impact of Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Clements

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAging is accompanied by increased susceptibility to infection and age-associated chronic diseases. It is also associated with reduced vaccine responses, which is often attributed to immunosenescence and the functional decline of the immune system. Immunosenescence is characterized by a chronic, low-grade, inflammatory state termed inflammaging. Habitants of Mediterranean (MED regions maintain good health into old age; often attributed to MED diets.HypothesisAdoption of a MED-diet by elderly subjects, in Norfolk (UK, may improve immune responses of these individuals and in particular, dendritic cell (DC function.Experimental approachA total of 120 elderly subjects (65–79 years old recruited onto the Nu-AGE study, a multicenter European dietary study specifically addressing the needs of the elderly, across five countries, and were randomized to the control or MED-diet groups, for one year. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-intervention for DC analysis and were compared with each other, and to samples obtained from 45 young (18–40 years old subjects. MED-diet compliance was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography-with tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urine samples. Immune cell and DC subset numbers and concentrations of secreted proteins were determined by flow cytometric analysis.ResultsAs expected, reduced myeloid DC numbers were observed in blood samples from elderly subjects compared with young. The elevated secretion of the adipokine, resistin, after ex vivo stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects, was significantly reduced after MED-diet intervention.ConclusionThis study provides further evidence of numerical and functional effects of aging on DCs. The MED-diet showed potential to impact on the aging immune cells investigated and could provide an economical approach to address problems associated with our aging population.

  3. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  4. Emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of chronological age and subjective distance-to-death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    In light of mixed evidence regarding the associations between age, emotional complexity, and psychological distress, this study examined emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of age and subjective distance-to-death. A sample of 188 participants (age range = 29-100) rated their subjective distance-to-death and psychological distress, and reported their emotions across 14 days. Emotional complexity was unrelated to age, but negatively related to feeling closer to death. Moreover, emotional complexity was negatively related to psychological distress among those feeling closer to death. Results suggest that when death is perceived to be nearer, emotional complexity is hampered, yet becomes relevant in buffering psychological distress.

  5. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  6. Aging Versus Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Bone Composition and Maturation Kinetics at Actively-Forming Trabecular Surfaces of Female Subjects Aged 1 to 84 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Fratzl, Peter; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hassler, Norbert; Brozek, Wolfgang; Eriksen, Erik F; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis H; Shane, Elizabeth; Dempster, David; Cohen, Adi; Recker, Robert; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Bone strength depends on the amount of bone, typically expressed as bone mineral density (BMD), determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and on bone quality. Bone quality is a multifactorial entity including bone structural and material compositional properties. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether bone material composition properties at actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces in health are dependent on subject age, and to contrast them with postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. To achieve this, we analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy iliac crest biopsy samples from healthy subjects aged 1.5 to 45.7 years, paired biopsy samples from females before and immediately after menopause aged 46.7 to 53.6 years, and biopsy samples from placebo-treated postmenopausal osteoporotic patients aged 66 to 84 years. The monitored parameters were as follows: the mineral/matrix ratio; the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC); nanoporosity; the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content; the lipid content; and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content. The results indicate that these bone quality parameters in healthy, actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces are dependent on subject age at constant tissue age, suggesting that with advancing age the kinetics of maturation (either accumulation, or posttranslational modifications, or both) change. For most parameters, the extrapolation of models fitted to the individual age dependence of bone in healthy individuals was in rough agreement with their values in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, except for MMC, lipid, and Pyd content. Among these three, Pyd content showed the greatest deviation between healthy aging and disease, highlighting its potential to be used as a discriminating factor. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years and old age (75-90 years. However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory of socio-emotional selectivity (Socioemotional Selectivity Theory L.L. Carstensen, who makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the specificity and mechanisms of selection in social interaction in elderly and old age. Central mechanisms of socio-emotional selection in the later ages are the awareness of time and limited future time perspective, which enhances the awareness of mortality.

  8. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  9. Subjective health expectations of patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with antiVEGF drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Biró, Zsolt; Kölkedi, Zsófia; Dunai, Árpád; Németh, János; Baji, Petra; Rencz, Fanni; Gulácsi, László; Resch, Miklós D

    2017-10-10

    Subjective expectations regarding future health may influence patients' judgement of current health and treatment effects, as well as adherence to therapies in chronic diseases. We aimed to explore subjective expectations on longevity and future health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with antiVEGF injections and analyse the influencing factors. Consecutive AMD patients in two ophthalmology centres were included. Demographics, clinical characteristics and informal care utilisation were recorded. Current health was evaluated by the EQ-5D generic health status questionnaire and time trade-off (TTO) methods. Happiness was measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Subjective life-expectancy and expected EQ-5D status at ages 70, 80 and 90 were surveyed. T-test was applied to compare subgroups and Pearson correlations were performed to analyse relationships between variables. One hundred twenty two patients were involved (females 62%) with a mean (SD) age of 75.2 (7.9) years and disease duration of 2.9 (2.5) years. The majority were in AREDS-4 state, the better eye's ETDRS was 64.7 (15.4). EQ-5D and TTO revealed moderate deterioration of health (0.66 vs. 0.72, p = 0.131), happiness VAS was 6.3 (2.2). Correlation between EQ-5D and ETDRS was moderate (R = 0.242, p Subjective life-expectancy did not differ significantly from statistical life-expectancy and had no significant impact on TTO. The self-estimated mean EQ-5D score was 0.60, 0.40 and 0.24 for ages 70, 80 and 90 which is lower than the population norm of age-groups 65-74, 75-84 and 85+ (0.77, 0.63 and 0.63, respectively). Age, gender, current EQ-5D, need for informal care and happiness were deterministic factors of subjective health expectations. AMD patients with antiVEGF treatment have comparable HRQOL as the age-matched general public but expect a more severe deterioration of health with age. Older patients with worse HRQOL have worse

  10. Hypertension Is a Key Feature of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects Aging with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, Raquel; Negredo, Eugènia; Peck, Robert

    2016-01-01

    With widespread and effective antiretroviral therapy, the life expectancy in the HIV population has dramatically improved over the last two decades. Consequently, as patients are aging with HIV, other age-related comorbidities, such as metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease (CVD), have......, in particular in the aging population, and constitutes an important RF for CVD. Physicians should screen their patients for metabolic and cardiovascular risk at the regular visits to reduce MS and the associated CVD risk among people aging with HIV, since many of RF are under-diagnosed and under...

  11. Gender differences in health and aging of Atlantic cod subject to size selective fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney Almroth, Bethanie; Sköld, Mattias; Nilsson Sköld, Helen

    2012-09-15

    We have analyzed health and physiological aging parameters in male and female Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, captured in Kattegat, Skagerrak and in Öresund. Gender differences were clearly evident in a number of variables. Males had longer liver telomeres and higher catalase activities than females, while females had higher superoxide dismutase activity, liver somatic index and condition factor. Effects of age were found for males where levels of the antioxidant glutathione and telomere length declined with age, indicating physiological aging. Liver somatic index increased and percentage oxidized glutathione decreased with age. Between-site comparisons of males show that percentage oxidized glutathione and catalase were lowest in Kattegat, whereas protein carbonyls and condition factor were higher in Skagerrak. Females, on the other hand, showed no differences between sites or indications of somatic aging or age-related effects in egg quality, indicating that older and larger female cod are healthy and show no changes in eggs with age. In contrast, males showed indications of physiological aging and lower condition than females. The results emphasize the importance of conserving old mature fish, in particular high egg-productive females, when managing fisheries.

  12. Gender differences in health and aging of Atlantic cod subject to size selective fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethanie Carney Almroth

    2012-07-01

    We have analyzed health and physiological aging parameters in male and female Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, captured in Kattegat, Skagerrak and in Öresund. Gender differences were clearly evident in a number of variables. Males had longer liver telomeres and higher catalase activities than females, while females had higher superoxide dismutase activity, liver somatic index and condition factor. Effects of age were found for males where levels of the antioxidant glutathione and telomere length declined with age, indicating physiological aging. Liver somatic index increased and percentage oxidized glutathione decreased with age. Between-site comparisons of males show that percentage oxidized glutathione and catalase were lowest in Kattegat, whereas protein carbonyls and condition factor were higher in Skagerrak. Females, on the other hand, showed no differences between sites or indications of somatic aging or age-related effects in egg quality, indicating that older and larger female cod are healthy and show no changes in eggs with age. In contrast, males showed indications of physiological aging and lower condition than females. The results emphasize the importance of conserving old mature fish, in particular high egg-productive females, when managing fisheries.

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Cognitive Function in Young, Middle-Aged, and Elderly Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Hanneke; van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    Background and Purpose-Cognitive decline occurs earlier than previously realized and is already evident at the age of 45. Because cardiovascular risk factors are established risk factors for cognitive decline in old age, we investigated whether cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with

  14. Age-Related Changes in Objective and Subjective Speech Perception in Complex Listening Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Karen S.; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Wasiuk, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A frequent complaint by older adults is difficulty communicating in challenging acoustic environments. The purpose of this work was to review and summarize information about how speech perception in complex listening situations changes across the adult age range. Method: This article provides a review of age-related changes in speech…

  15. Physical activity of subjects aged 50-64 years involved in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftenberger, M; Schuit, A.J.; Tormo, M J; Boeing, H; Wareham, N; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kumle, M; Hjartåker, A; Chirlaque, M D; Ardanaz, E; Andren, C; Lindahl, B; Peeters, P H M; Allen, N E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Linseisen, J; Bergmann, M M; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Salvini, S; Panico, S; Riboli, E; Ferrari, P; Slimani, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe physical activity of participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a European prospective cohort study. Subjects: This analysis was restricted to participants in the age group

  16. Validation of a novel automatic sleep spindle detector with high performance during sleep in middle aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Christensen, Julie A. E.; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Many of the automatic sleep spindle detectors currently used to analyze sleep EEG are either validated on young subjects or not validated thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a fast and reliable sleep spindle detector with high performance in middle aged subjects....... An automatic sleep spindle detector using a bandpass filtering approach and a time varying threshold was developed. The validation was done on sleep epochs from EEG recordings with manually scored sleep spindles from 13 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.9 ± 9.7 years. The sleep spindle detector reached...... a mean sensitivity of 84.6 % and a mean specificity of 95.3 %. The sleep spindle detector can be used to obtain measures of spindle count and density together with quantitative measures such as the mean spindle frequency, mean spindle amplitude, and mean spindle duration....

  17. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric...

  18. Exploring Subjective Well-being in Older Age by Using Participant-generated Word Clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Linden; Steverink, Nardi; Hutter, Inge; Meijering, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Previous research has overlooked the heterogeneity in older adults' personal conceptions of subjective well-being (SWB), by not taking into account intradomain differences in the conceptions of SWB for different groups of older adults. The aim of this article is therefore to

  19. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  20. Chronic inhibition of the respiratory chain in human fibroblast cultures: differential responses related to subject chronological and biological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Pim; van Baalen, Laurens M; Dirks, Roeland W; Slagboom, P Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Tanke, Hans J; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Maier, Andrea B

    2012-05-01

    Respiratory chain function becomes less efficient with age resulting in increased levels of damaging reactive oxygen species. We compared rotenone-exposed fibroblast strains from young and old subjects and from offspring of nonagenarian siblings and the partners of the offspring. Rotenone increased reactive oxygen species levels, inhibited growth rate, and increased telomere shortening (all p < .05). Non-stressed strains from young subjects showed lower reactive oxygen species levels (p = .031) and higher growth rates (p = .002) than strains from old subjects. Stressed strains from young subjects showed smaller increases in reactive oxygen species levels (p = .014) and larger decreases in growth rate (p < .001) than strains from old subjects. Telomere-shortening rates were not different between groups. Stress-induced decreases in growth rate were larger in strains from offspring than from partners (p = .05). Strains from young and old subjects are differentially affected by chronic inhibition of the respiratory chain. Changed growth rates in strains from offspring resemble those from strains from young subjects.

  1. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Safford, Hugh D; North, Malcolm P; Fried, Jeremy S; Gray, Andrew N; Brown, Peter M; Dolanc, Christopher R; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Falk, Donald A; Farris, Calvin A; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Hagmann, R Keala; Knapp, Eric E; Miller, Jay D; Smith, Douglas F; Swetnam, Thomas W; Taylor, Alan H

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  2. The difference between alternative averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaupel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

  3. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T.; Safford, Hugh D.; North, Malcolm P.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gray, Andrew N.; Brown, Peter M.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Falk, Donald A.; Farris, Calvin A.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Hagmann, R. Keala; Knapp, Eric E.; Miller, Jay D.; Smith, Douglas F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Taylor, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the “stand age” variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical “mixed-severity” fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data. PMID:27196621

  4. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  5. Inaccuracy of age assessment from images of postpubescent subjects in cases of alleged child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L

    2013-03-01

    Despite frequent medical expert testimony authoritatively stating that images of individuals who are postpubescent indicate age less than 18 and therefore, child pornography, developmental experts have noted that a scientific basis for such estimation is lacking. In fact, recent studies have demonstrated a high degree of inaccuracy in such estimates, and that the stage of breast development often used as indicative of age under 18 years is present in a substantial percentage of adult women. Ten images of adult women from legitimate pornographic sites promoting youthful images were shown to 16 pediatric endocrinologists expert in evaluating maturation, who determined whether or not the individuals represented were under 18 years of age. They also provided information about what features were most important in their evaluations. Sixty-nine percent of the 160 estimates were that the images represented females under 18 years of age. There was wide variability in the designation of importance of the various features of maturation in reaching conclusions, with breast development and facial appearance considered most important. This study confirms that medical testimony, even by experts in adolescent development, can deem images of adult women selected for their youthful appearance to be under age 18 two thirds of the time. Thus, important as prosecuting users of child pornographic material may be, justice requires the avoidance of testimony that is not scientifically based.

  6. Age-related cutoffs for cervical movement behaviour to distinguish chronic idiopathic neck pain patients from unimpaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Wilke, Jan; Rickert, Marcus; Banzer, Winfried

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims to develop age-dependent cutoff values in a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional diagnostic test study. One hundred and twenty (120) asymptomatic subjects (n = 100, 36♀, 18 75 years, for normative values; n = 20, 23-75 years, 15♀, for selectivity analyses) and 20 patients suffering from idiopathic neck pain (selectivity analyses, 22-71 years, 15♀) were included. Subjects performed five repetitive maximal cervical flexion/extension movements in an upright sitting position. Cervical kinematic characteristics (maximal range of motion (ROM), coefficient of variation (CV) and mean conjunct movements in rotation and flexion (CM)) were calculated from raw 3D ultrasonic data. Regression analyses were conducted to reveal associations between kinematic characteristics and age and gender and thus to determine normative values for healthy subjects. Age explains 53 % of the variance in ROM (decrease 10.2° per decade), 13 % in CV (increase 0.003 per decade) and 9 % in CM (increase 0.57° per decade). Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted for differences between individual values of the kinematic characteristics and normative values to optimise cutoff values for distinguishing patients from unimpaired subjects (20 patients and 20 healthy). Cutoff values distinguished asymptomatic subjects' and chronic nonspecific neck patient's movement characteristics with sufficient quality (sensitivity 70-80 %, specificity 65-70 %). By including such classifications, the present findings expand actual research stating an age-related decrease in kinematic behaviour only using categorising span widths across decades. Future study is warranted to reveal our results' potential applicability for intervention onset decision making for idiopathic neck pain patients.

  7. [Subjective health of adolescents aged 11-15 years in Poland and other countries of the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska, Barbara; Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Mazur, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    to present results of the study concerning subjective health of adolescents aged 11, 13 and 15 years in 26 countries members of the European Union (EU) in 2005/06 and changes in perception of health among Polish adolescents between 2002 and 2006. data from the 2005/06 HBSC survey (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study), carried out in 26 EU countries among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds (N = 140,339) were analysed. For Polish adolescents results of two surveys from 2002 and 2006 were compared. The international standard questionnaire was used. Three subjective indicators of health were used: self-rated health, life satisfaction (using 0-10 points Cantril scale) and 8 subjective health complaints (headache, stomach-ache, back-ache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties in getting to sleep, feeling dizzy). subjective indicators of health markedly differ between adolescents in different EU countries. In all countries adolescents report recurrent (every day or more then once a week) somatic and psychological complaints. Multiple complaints (3 or more) experienced 8% of boys and 38% of girls. There are strong gender differences in subjective health. In all countries girls perceived their health worse than boys. In Polish adolescents some tendency of improvement of subjective health indicators was observed between 2002-2006. Existing differences in adolescents' subjective health in EU countries and gender differences are probably determined by many cultural, social and economical factors. These differences create health inequalities and probably will be maintained for a long time.

  8. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyes, C.L.M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and

  9. Aging in HIV-Infected Subjects: A New Scenario and a New View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Negredo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV-infected people aged 50 years or older is increasing rapidly; the proportion will increase from 28% to 73% in 2030. In addition, HIV-infected individuals may be more vulnerable to age-related condition. There is growing evidence that the prevalence of comorbidities and other age-related conditions (geriatric syndromes, functional or neurocognitive/mental problems, polypharmacy, and social difficulties is higher in the HIV-infected population than in their uninfected counterparts. However, despite the potential impact of this situation on health care, little information exists about the optimal clinical management of older HIV-infected people. Here we examine the age-related conditions in older HIV-infected persons and address clinical management according to author expertise and published literature. Our aim is to advance the debate about the most appropriate management of this population, including less well-studied aspects, such as frequency of screening for psychological/mental and social and functional capabilities.

  10. Balance Screening of Vestibular Function in Subjects Aged 4 Years and Older: A Living Laboratory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Bermúdez Rey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the various individual factors that contribute to balance and the relation to fall risk, we performed the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support, with 1,174 participants between 4 and 83 years of age. This research was conducted in the Living Laboratory® at the Museum of Science, Boston. We specifically focus on balance test condition 4, in which individuals stand on memory foam with eyes closed, and must rely on their vestibular system; therefore, performance in this balance test condition provides a proxy for vestibular function. We looked for balance variations associated with sex, race/ethnicity, health factors, and age. We found that balance test performance was stable between 10 and 39 years of age, with a slight increase in the failure rate for participants 4–9 years of age, suggesting a period of balance development in younger children. For participants 40 years and older, the balance test failure rate increased progressively with age. Diabetes and obesity are the two main health factors we found associated with poor balance, with test condition 4 failure rates of 57 and 19%, respectively. An increase in the odds of having fallen in the last year was associated with a decrease in the time to failure; once individuals dropped below a time to failure of 10 s, there was a significant 5.5-fold increase in the odds of having fallen in the last 12 months. These data alert us to screen for poor vestibular function in individuals 40 years and older or suffering from diabetes, in order to undertake the necessary diagnostic and rehabilitation measures, with a focus on reducing the morbidity and mortality of falls.

  11. Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    ) or cognitively impaired (N = 92). METHODS: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale measured subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, respectively. Depressive symptoms were determined using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). A neuropsychological battery was administered....... Our results suggest that sleep quality may be an early marker of cognitive decline in midlife.......UNLABELLED: In an increasingly aged population, sleep disturbances and neurodegenerative disorders have become a major public health concern. Poor sleep quality and cognitive changes are complex health problems in aging populations that are likely to be associated with increased frailty, morbidity...

  12. Analysis of inflammatory cells and mediators in skin wound biopsies to determine wound age in living subjects in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Judith; Lulf, Ronald; Korkmaz, H Ibrahim; Witte, Birgit I; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Begieneman, Mark P V; Schalkwijk, C G; Krijnen, Paul A J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Niessen, Hans W M; Reijnders, Udo J L

    2015-02-01

    In forensic medicine it is important to determine the age of skin wounds in living subjects. The aim of this study was to assess whether analysis of inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators in skin biopsies of wounds from living subjects could improve wound age determination. Biopsies (n=101), representing the superficial border area of a skin wound, were taken from skin injuries of known wound age (range: 4.5 hours to 25 days) of living subjects. All biopsies were analyzed for 3 inflammatory cell markers (MPO, CD45 and CD68) and 4 inflammatory mediators (MIP-1, IL-8, CML and vitronectin). For quantification, biopsies were subdivided in 4 different timeframes: 0.2-2 days, 2-4 days, 4-10 days and 10-25 days old wounds. Subsequently, a probability scoring system was developed. MPO, CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 (inflammatory cell markers) and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) positivity were maximal in wounds of 0.2-2 days old and then decreased in time. Remarkably, CD45, CD68 and CML showed a minor but non-significant increase again in 10-25 days old wounds. MPO and CD68 positivity was significantly lower in 4-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-4 days old wounds. MPO positivity was also significantly lower in 10-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-10 days old wounds. For CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 and CML no significant differences between the age groups were found. In case of vitronectin positivity in the extravasate or when the number of MIP-1 or IL-8-positive cells was more than 10 cells/mm(2) the probability that a wound was more than 10 days old was 0%. A probability scoring system of all analyzed markers can be used to calculate individual wound age probabilities in biopsies of skin wounds of living subjects. We have developed a probability scoring system of inflammatory cells and mediators that can be used to determine wound age in skin biopsies of living subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study regarding the Implications of Obesity as Perceived by a High-School Age Group of Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana DOBRESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to know the perception on the obesity problem of a high-school age group of subjects that are exposed to its undesired consequences by following their degree of awareness, and the involvement of factors that could influence, prevent, or improve this condition. Starting from the premises detached from the study of the professional literature, we have elaborated the hypothesis stating that presumably the identification of the opinions of a high-school age group of subjects regarding the effects of obesity and the importance of exercise in maintaining one’s fitness, could constitute a starting point for an applicative intervention in the sense of preventing and improving the apparition of this condition. The research methods used were: study of the bibliographical material, the questionnaire inquiry method, the statistical-mathematical method, and the graphical representation method. Conclusions: We identified both a willingness for practicing a physical activity, as well a diversity of activities towards which the group of subjects are oriented. The different orientation of the answers completes the picture of individual perceptions of the inquired segment of the population, the subjects being made aware of the effects obesity has on the body, as well as of the importance of exercise, a conclusion that confirms the hypothesis of this research.

  14. Food preferences of middle aged and elderly subjects in a Brazilian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mendonça, S N T G; Brandão, H C A D N T M; Brandão, W A P L N T M; Quintino, C A A; De Francisco, A; Teixeira, E

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess data on the consumption frequency of some food items and the places they are purchased, especially by adults and elderly subjects, and finally to determine their food preference using cluster and correspondence analyses as a diagnosis and prevention factor. Cross-sectional study. Town of Serranópolis do Iguaçú, State of Paraná, Brazil, city with 4,854 inhabitants of which 22% are over 50 years old. Two hundred and ninety five randomly selected subjects (96 men and 199 women), between 51 and 91 years old. A socio-demographic and food frequency questionnaire was applied via home visits including questions on socioeconomic, anthopometric and health characteristics concerning the consumption frequency of 45 food items and the places they were purchased, using a five point category scale to obtain consumption data as well. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the Quetelet Index and compared with the World Health Organization Report Consultation on obesity. The cluster and correspondence statistical analysis were used to determine their food preference. From the correspondence mapping (which explained 89.1 % of the variance), it was possible to determine aspects regarding the non-consumption of instant soups, frozen vegetables, cookies, crystallized fruits, canned fruit, distilled drinks and beer. The dimensional representation structure demonstrated that the population of Serranópolis, who were 62 % overweight, preferred high fat content products, suggesting a reevaluation of their eating habits in the expectation of preventing non transmissible chronic diseases. The value given to farm production in Serranópolis do Iguaçú was also observed.

  15. Middle-aged Subjects With Habitual Low-speed Cycling Exercise Have Greater Mononuclear Cell Responsiveness Against Human Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Chang Hsieh

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: The results reveal that the immune response of MNC, which are stimulated by PHA to suppress hepatitis B surface antigen expression, is greater in middle-aged subjects with low-speed HCE than in sedentary subjects.

  16. [Stereological investigation in the cerebral cortex of aging subjects (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, O; Abdel'Al, S; Schulz, U; Meier-Ruge, W

    1978-09-01

    Involving cortical regions, capillaries of the human cerebrum of two 19 and 27 years old men, a 69 years old woman and a 72 years old man were stereologically investigated by optical-electronic image-analysis. The cortical capillary net work was demonstrated by the alkaline phosphatase activity. Each cortex region comprised a determination of the stereological parameters diameter, projected area, specific surface area, capillary distances in linear direction of TV-lines and total length per unit cortex volume. A comparison between different cortex regions revealed a good correlation between increased values of the diameter and the projected area, a decreased specific surface area and diminished capillary distances, which entail a shortened distance of oxygen diffusion through the cortical tissue. During aging a diminished capillary surface area, which results from increased values of diameter and projected area is compensated by shortened capillary distances. Presumably an augmented capillary length is due to a condensation of the capillary net per unit cortex tissue. The behaviour of the registered stereological parameters seems to be an accommodation of the capillary net in the human cerebrum to metabolic and circulatory changes during aging.

  17. Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects: implications for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D B; Jeffery, I B; Cusack, S; O'Connor, E M; O'Toole, P W

    2015-01-01

    With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The microbiota composition and function, acting in concert with direct and indirect effects of habitual diet, is of great importance in remaining healthy and active. This is not a new concept, but until now the scale of the potential microbiota contribution was not appreciated. There are an estimated ten times more bacteria in an individual than human cells. The bacterial population is relatively stable in adults, but the age-related changes that occur later in life can have a negative impact on host health. This loss of the adult-associated microbiota correlates with measures of markers of inflammation, frailty, co-morbidity and nutritional status. This effect may be greater than that of diet or in some cases genetics alone. Collectively, the recent studies show the importance of the microbiota and associated metabolites in healthy aging and the importance of diet in its modulation. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. [Ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive subjects. Definition of reference values as a function of age by the Spacelabs instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagny, J Y; Delva, R; Aouizerate, M; Chatellier, G; Battaglia, C; Devriès, C; Plouin, P F; Corvol, P; Ménard, J

    1987-10-10

    For a finer assessment, by repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements, of the cardiovascular risk associated with BP levels, new instruments have been developed which provide multiple reading during periods of activity. However, the lack of epidemiological studies makes it necessary to determine reference ambulatory BP levels by another method. Twelve-hour recordings were taken with the Spacelabs instrument in 130 volunteers (45% males) aged from 20 to 90 years during their various activities. Mean systolic and diastolic BP values +/- SD were calculated per age-groups of 10 years each. That this sample was representative of the general population was confirmed by the fact that BP fluctuations and variations according to age and sex in these 130 subjects were identical with those observed in the population of an entire town (Framingham). The concept of hypertension, as defined by ambulatory BP recordings, is discussed. This study provides, for the first time, reference ambulatory BP values according to age and sex, measured in normotensive subjects with the Spacelabs instrument. These values constitute a preliminary step indispensable to evaluate this technique in hypertensive patients.

  19. Safety of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine in subjects aged 2-49years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Roger; Eaton, Abigail; Hansen, John; Aukes, Laurie; Caspard, Herve; Ambrose, Christopher S

    2017-03-01

    Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (Q/LAIV) was licensed in 2012 and replaced trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States during the 2013-2014 influenza season. This study assessed the safety of Q/LAIV in children and adults aged 2-49years. This was a prospective observational cohort study using data collected from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Post-vaccination events of interest were any hospitalization, hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infection, and the following medically attended events: hypersensitivity, seizures/convulsions, lower respiratory tract infection, wheezing, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Bell's palsy, encephalitis, neuritis, vasculitis, and narcolepsy/cataplexy. The rates of these events during the risk interval post-vaccination were compared with rates observed during reference periods later in the follow-up (within-cohort analysis) and with rates observed in frequency-matched unvaccinated controls and inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) recipients. A total of 62,040 eligible Q/LAIV recipients were identified during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Within-cohort comparisons of all Q/LAIV recipients as well as comparisons between Q/LAIV recipients and unvaccinated controls or IIV recipients did not show any significantly higher risk of hospitalizations or medically attended events following administration of Q/LAIV. Additional analyses by setting (clinic visits, emergency department visits, and hospital admissions) and age group (2-4, 5-8, 9-17, and 18-49years) also did not reveal clinically consistent findings that suggested any increased risk after administration of Q/LAIV. In this large population study of individuals aged 2-49years, no safety signals associated with the administration of Q/LAIV were observed. A much larger study population would be needed to confidently reject any association between Q/LAIV and very rare events, specifically those with an incidence of <1 event/10,000 person

  20. Survival of Salmonella on cuts of beef carcasses subjected to dry aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Sørensen, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the survival of 15 different strains of Salmonella of selected serotypes during prolonged cold storage of beef. Methods and Results: Fifteen strains of eight different serotypes of Salmonella were spiked onto fresh cuts beef portions, and the survival...... was followed during storage in a laboratory cooling system. Over a 14‐day period, all strains were reduced significantly in numbers; however, strains of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 and Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and PT8 survived significantly longer than strains of the serovars Dublin, Derby, Infantis...... and Newport. For five selected strains, the observations were verified in a pilot plant cooling facility mimicking industrial cooling. No significant differences in reduction were found between the two cooling methods. Conclusions: A significant reduction in Salmonella can be obtained by dry aging of beef...

  1. Estimated Daily Average Per Capita Water Ingestion by Child and Adult Age Categories Based on USDA's 1994-96 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current water ingestion estimates are important for the assessment of risk to human populations of exposure to water-borne pollutants. This paper reports mean and percentile estimates of the distributions of daily average per capita water ingestion for 12 age range groups. The a...

  2. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between Healthy Aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Back ground: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of dementia, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer's or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments.

    Methods: Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fMRI imaging in differentiating between Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Healthy Aging. To prove fMRI's ability, we compared resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects using Independent Component Algorithm (ICA. We examined 40 age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer's subjects.

    Results: The results show that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer's group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network.

    Conclusion: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD, MCI and Healthy Aging.


    Keywords: fMRI, Default Mode Network, Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Resting-State

  3. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, and 29.7 kg/m2). Patients taking antihypertensive agents or with renal insufficiency were excluded. All patients were evaluated with a continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (Finapres) in standing (1 min), squatting (1 min), and again standing position (1 min). Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were compared with two groups of 40 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy subjects. RESULTS Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly higher pulse pressure, heart rate, and double product of pulse pressure and heart rate (PP×HR) (type 1: 5,263 vs. 4,121 mmHg/min, P = 0.0004; type 2: 5,359 vs. 4,321 mmHg, P = 0.0023) levels than corresponding control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes regarding pulse pressure (59 vs. 58 mmHg), heart rate (89 vs. 88/min), and PP×HR (5,263 vs. 5,359 mmHg/min). CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased levels of peripheral PP, an indirect marker of arterial stiffness, and PP×HR, an index of pulsatile stress, comparable to those of nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes at similar mean age of 50 years. PMID:20693351

  4. Sleep Duration of Inpatients With a Depressive Disorder: Associations With Age, Subjective Sleep Quality, and Cognitive Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias J; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disturbances are common in depression; however, the association of sleep duration and subjective sleep quality has been rarely investigated. Thus, subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were analyzed in depressed inpatients. Questionnaire data comprising clinical and sleep-related questions were sampled over a one-year period from adult inpatients with depressive syndromes. Sleep duration and items related to sleep quality were analyzed by means of group comparisons (sleep duration categories) and correlation analyses. Data of 154 patients (age 58.2±17.0 years, 63.6% women) were analyzed. Mean sleep duration was 7.2±2.1 h (16.9% of patients were below and 7.1% above age-specific recommendations), 25-40% of patients reported almost always daytime sleepiness, non-restorative sleep, attention deficits, or memory complaints with significant correlations between all variables (Pdepression, and both were associated with poor sleep quality and subjectively impaired cognitive functions. Clinicians should be aware of these relationships. During hospitalization, a more individualized sleep-wake schedule should be applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of gender, age and anthropometric variables on plantar fascia thickness at different locations in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier [Department of Podiatry, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: javier.pascual@uem.es; Alarcon Garcia, Juan Maria [Ultrasound Unit, Hospital Nuestra Senora de America, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: The study was aimed to investigate plantar fascia thickness at different locations in healthy asymptomatic subjects and its relationship to the following variables: weight, height, sex and age. Material and methods: The study evaluates 96 feet of healthy asymptomatic volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured at four different locations: 1 cm proximal to the insertion of the plantar fascia, at the insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus and separate out 1 cm + 2 cm distal to the insertion. A 10 MHz linear-array transducer was used. Results: There were statistically significant differences in plantar fascia thickness at the four different locations (p < 0.001) although no differences in PF thickness were found between the two distal from insertion locations (1 and 2 cm). Multiple regression analysis showed sex as independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion. At origin and 1 cm distal to insertion weight was an independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness. Conclusions: There are differences of thickness at different locations of plantar fascia measured by ultrasonography. Thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion is influenced by sex and thickness at origin and at 1 cm distal to the insertion has a direct relationship with body weight. This could be attributed to the overloading effect that weight has on plantar fascia in healthy symptomatic subjects at these two locations. Height and age did not seem to influence as independent variables in plantar fascia thickness among non-painful subjects.

  6. Factors Affecting Early School-Age Children's Subjective Happiness: Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model of Parental Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kinoh; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Jungmin; Jeong, Hyoeun; Han, Jeongwon

    2017-12-01

    The present study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of cause-and-effect relationship, which used the 7(th) year data of the Panel Study on Korean Children, to investigate the effects of parenting stress, depression, and family interactions of the parents of early school-age children on children's subjective happiness. The present study included data of 1419 pairs of parents who participated in the mother and father survey of the Panel Study on Korean Children. The effects of parenting stress, depression, and parental family interactions on children's subjective happiness were analyzed as actor and partner effects using path analysis. Parenting stress had an actor effect on depression; maternal parenting stress (β=-.21, pactor effect on maternal family interaction; and paternal parenting stress (β=-.18, pactor effect on paternal family interaction (β=-.30, pactor effect (β=-.23, p<.001) and maternal depression had a partner effect on paternal family interactions (β=-.22, p<.001). Children's subjective happiness was found to have a statistically significant relationship with maternal family interaction (β=.40, p<.001). The significance of the study is in its provision of basic data for adjusting parents' family interactions that are closely related to the growth and development of children by confirming the effect of parents' parenting stress, depression, and family interaction on children's subjective happiness.

  7. Magnetization transfer ratio in the brain of preterm subjects: age-related changes during the first 2 years of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydis, Vassilios; Astrakas, Loukas; Zikou, Anastasia; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Pantou, Kostandina; Andronikou, Styliani [Medical School University of Ioannina, Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2006-01-01

    To study the progress of myelination in preterm-born subjects by measuring the MT ratio (MTR) from birth, up to 24 months of corrected age.One hundred twenty-five preterm subjects (64 males and 61 females of gestational age 33{+-}2.4 weeks with chronologic and corrected age of 9.3{+-}5.1 and 7.7{+-}5.1 months, respectively) with normal brain MR using classic sequences were further evaluated for MTR by using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence (TR=32/TE=8/flip angle=6 4 mm/2 mm overlapping sections) with and without magnetization transfer prepulse. The magnetization transfer ratio was calculated as: MTR=(SIo-SIm)/SIo x 100%, where SIm refers to signal intensity from an image acquired with a MT prepulse and SIo the signal intensity from the image acquired without a MT prepulse. MTR increased asymptotically in the genu (R{sup 2}=0.85) and splenium (R{sup 2}=0.85) of the corpus callosum, the white matter of the frontal lobe (R{sup 2}=0.91) and occipital lobe (R{sup 2}=0.82), thalamus (R{sup 2}=0.86), caudate nucleus (R{sup 2}=0.67) and putamen (R{sup 2}=0.71), reaching the 95% of the final value at the corrected age 18.7, 17.7, 15.6, 12.9, 10.4, 9.2 and 6.4 months, respectively. This study shows age-related changes of the brain MTR and provides data that may be useful to assess disturbances in the progress of myelination. (orig.)

  8. Metabolic consequences of incorrect insulin administration techniques in aging subjects with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Sandro; Agrusta, Mariano; Guarino, Giuseppina; Carbone, Lucia; Cavallaro, Vincenzo; Carucci, Iarba; Strollo, Felice

    2011-06-01

    Only few insulin-treated (IT) people with diabetes mellitus (DM) reach the target due to poor compliance and/or to sedentary lifestyle and/or to inadequate treatment regimen. The latter may be also brought about by often overlooked factors including insulin injection into altered skin areas, often brought about by incorrect habits, namely needle reutilization or poor compliance to the suggestion to continuously rotate skin injection areas. The aim of our study was to evaluate the rate of skin lesions within the sites commonly used for insulin injection in our IT DM patients and to verify whether a short-acting insulin analogue yielded different metabolic effects when injected in altered vs. normal skin areas. One hundred and eighty well-trained IT people with type 1 and type 2 DM (64 ± 15 years of age) consecutively referring to our unit underwent a standard clinical examination involving an accurate skin inspection protocol meant at looking for any alterations eventually affecting all possible injection sites, including bruising, multiple needle pricks and lipodystrophic nodules (LN). They were also tested for HPLC HbA1c determination and asked to fill in a standard questionnaire on injection habits. Furthermore, seven male, T1DM glulisine-glargine basal-bolus-treated patients in this group were randomly injected 10 IU glulisine into either normal skin (NS) or an LN by a nurse before a standard, 405 kcal breakfast, for blood glucose and free insulin determination at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120 and 150 min. More lesions were found in people over sixty (P 7.5% was found in patients with lesions (with an O.R. of 3.74) and further confirmed by data obtained from head-to-head comparison of insulin injection into an LN and NS. In fact, injection into an LN proved to impair and slow down insulin absorption, resulting in a higher absolute value and a larger variability of blood glucose levels than those observed by utilizing NS. This suggests us to pay more attention to

  9. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to the rubber hand illusion do not vary with age in the adult phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Priscila; Borrego, Adrián; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Llorens, Roberto; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa M

    2017-11-03

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20-30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20-35 years old, N = 41; 36-60 years old, N = 28; and 61-80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures. There were neither significant differences among groups in any response, nor significant covariability or correlation between age and other measures (but for skin temperature), which suggests that the RHI elicits similar responses across different age groups in the adult phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the nerve fiber layer of type 2 diabetic patients without glaucoma with normal subjects of the same age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandros Takis,1 Dimitrios Alonistiotis,1 Dimitrios Panagiotidis,1 Nikolaos Ioannou,1 Dimitris Papaconstantinou,2 Panagiotis Theodossiadis1 1Ophthalmological University Clinic of Athens, Attikon Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2Ophthalmological University Clinic of Athens, Geniko Kratiko Hospital, Athens, Greece Background: The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 was compared to normal subjects of similar age and sex, having first excluded any risk factors for glaucoma. The correlation between the RNFL thickness and the severity of diabetic retinopathy was investigated at its primary stages and with other ocular and diabetic parameters. Methods: A prospective, case series study was carried out. Twenty-seven diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy, 24 diabetic patients with mild retinopathy, and 25 normal, age-matched subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and imaging with scanning laser polarimetry for the evaluation of the RNFL. Multivariate analysis was applied in order to investigate the correlation between RNFL and diabetic parameters, such as age, duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin; and ocular parameters, such as cup to disc ratio, levels of normal intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness. Results: The mean inferior average of RNFL and the temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal standard deviation were statistically significantly lower in both diabetic groups, and the nerve fiber index was higher (P=0.04 compared to the normal group. There was no statistically significant difference between the diabetic groups. The factor analysis showed no significant correlation between the RNFL and the previously mentioned diabetic and ocular parameters. Conclusion: The existence of diabetes should be seriously considered in evaluating the results of scanning laser polarimetry. Multivariate analysis for RNFL was used for the first

  11. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy reduces the predicted coronary heart disease risk and the vascular age in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, M; Copăescu, C; Şerban, M; Ginghină, C

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with high prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and long term increased cardiovascular morbi-mortality. There are no data regarding the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on long-term CHD - risk. It is known that "a man is as old as his arteries" and this concept is illustrated by Framingham coronary risk score, which can predict vascular age. To assess the 10-year CHD risk in patients with obesity, preoperatively, and 6 and 12 months after LSG. 47 consecutive obese subjects (44.7% males, mean age 39.8 years) scheduled for LSG were prospectively studied before and 6 and 12 months after surgery. The 10 years CHD risk and corresponding vascular age were calculated using Framingham risk score. The body mass index (BMI) decreased from 44.6 ± 10.6 kg m2 preoperatively to 32.2 ± 6.9 kg m2 and to 29.4 ± 5.4 kg m2 at 6 and 12 months follow-up (both p 0.05). Mean excessive weight loss (EWL) was 67.3 ± 23.7% and 78.3 ± 23.4% at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. At 6 and 12 months after LSG, there was a marked improvment of lipid profile(decrease of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and increase of HDL-cholesterol) and a significant decrease in prevalence of diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension and smoking. The 10-year CHD risk reduced from 10.1% preoperatively to 3.5% and to 2.2% at 6 and 12 months after surgery (both p 0.05). Patients' mean vascular age was 65.6 years preoperatively and decreased to 45.8 years 6 month spostoperatively (p 0.05) and to 40.7 years one year after LSG (p 0.05 vs. 6 months postoperatively, p=NS vs.chronological age). In obese subjects, CHD risk is significantly reduced early, beginning with 6 months after LSG and is diminished with 80% one year postoperatively. Despite the fact that not all patients had achieved the ideal weight yet,mean vascular age is similar to their chronological age one year after surgery. Celsius.

  12. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  13. Association of copy number variations in complement factor H-Related genes among age-related macular degenerative subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshakimah Md Bakri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most widely recognised cause of irreversible vision loss and previous studies have suggested that the advancement of wet AMD is influenced by both modifiable and non-modifiable elements. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs and copy number of variations (CNVs have been associated with AMD in various populations, however the results are conflicting. Our aim is to determine the CNVs of Complement Factor H-Related genes among Malaysian subjects with wet AMD. 130 patients with wet AMD and 120 healthy controls were included in this research. DNA was extracted from all subjects and CNVs of CFH, CFHR1 and CFHR3 genes; determined using quantitative real-time PCR and were compared between the two groups. A consistent association was observed between CFH gene and wet AMD susceptibility (P < 0.05. The age-adjusted data suggests a possible increased risk of AMD disease (P < 0.05. No correlation was detected between CNVs and wet AMD for the remaining genes after we compared the frequencies of mean for that gene. An association was observed between CFH CNVs and wet AMD in the Malaysian population, however, strong evidence of a link with wet AMD was not found. Further investigative studies are needed using larger sample sizes to elucidate the role of CNVs in AMD pathogenesis.

  14. The Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS): Ratings of Dominance, Familiarity, Subjective Age of Acquisition and Sensory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, José A; Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Romero-Ferreiro, M Verónica; Martínez-García, Natalia; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Pozo, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents ratings by 540 Spanish native speakers for dominance, familiarity, subjective age of acquisition (AoA), and sensory experience (SER) for the 875 Spanish words included in the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary materials for this manuscript from https://figshare.com/s/8e7b445b729527262c88 These ratings may be of potential relevance to researches who are interested in characterizing the interplay between language and emotion. Additionally, with the aim of investigating how the affective features interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words, we performed correlational analyses between norms for familiarity, subjective AoA and SER, and scores for those affective variables which are currently included in the MADs. A distinct pattern of significant correlations with affective features was found for different lexicosemantic variables. These results show that familiarity, subjective AoA and SERs may have independent effects on the processing of emotional words. They also suggest that these psycholinguistic variables should be fully considered when formulating theoretical approaches to the processing of affective language.

  15. Exercise training with dietary counselling increases mitochondrial chaperone expression in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Jaana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stress and impairment of cellular defence systems. Our purpose was to investigate the interaction between glucose metabolism, antioxidative capacity and heat shock protein (HSP defence in different skeletal muscle phenotypes among middle-aged obese subjects during a long-term exercise and dietary intervention. As a sub-study of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS, 22 persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT taking part in the intervention volunteered to give samples from the vastus lateralis muscle. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups (IGTslow and IGTfast on the basis of their baseline myosin heavy chain profile. Glucose metabolism, oxidative stress and HSP expressions were measured before and after the 2-year intervention. Results Exercise training, combined with dietary counselling, increased the expression of mitochondrial chaperones HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75 in the vastus lateralis muscle in the IGTslow group and that of HSP60 in the IGTfast group. In cytoplasmic chaperones HSP72 or HSP90 no changes took place. In the IGTslow group, a significant positive correlation between the increased muscle content of HSP60 and the oxygen radical absorbing capacity values and, in the IGTfast group, between the improved VO2max value and the increased protein expression of GRP75 were found. Serum uric acid concentrations decreased in both sub-groups and serum protein carbonyl concentrations decreased in the IGTfast group. Conclusion The 2-year intervention up-regulated mitochondrial HSP expressions in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. These improvements, however, were not correlated directly with enhanced glucose tolerance.

  16. The Weighted Average Method 'WAM' for dental age estimation: a simpler method for children at the 10 year threshold: "it is vain to do with more when less will suffice" William of Ockham 1288-1358.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Lucas, Victoria S

    2014-08-01

    The mathematical principle of weighting averages to determine the most appropriate numerical outcome is well established in economic and social studies. It has seen little application in forensic dentistry. This study re-evaluated the data from a previous study of age assessment at the 10 year threshold. A semiautomatic process of weighting averages by n-td, x-tds, sd-tds, se-tds, 1/sd-tds, 1/se-tds was prepared in an Excel worksheet and the different weighted mean values reported. In addition the Fixed Effects and Random Effects models for Meta-Analysis were used and applied to the same data sets. In conclusion it has been shown that the most accurate age estimation method is to use the Random Effects Model for the mathematical procedures. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  18. Effects of Age, Sex, and Obesity on the Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Omarigliptin in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Carol; Tatosian, Daniel A; Glasgow, Xiaoli S; Iii, Isaias Noel Gendrano; Sisk, Christine McCrary; Kauh, Eunkyung A; Stoch, S Aubrey; Wagner, John A

    2016-09-01

    Omarigliptin is being developed as a potent, once-weekly, oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of age, sex, and obesity on the pharmacokinetics of omarigliptin in healthy subjects. A single oral dose of omarigliptin 10 mg (n = 6/panel) or placebo (n = 2/panel) was administered in the fasted state to elderly nonobese men and women, young obese (30 ≤ body mass index [BMI] ≤ 35 kg/m(2) ) men and women, and young nonobese women of nonchildbearing potential. Plasma was collected at selected postdose times for evaluation of omarigliptin concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with historical data from a previously-conducted single-dose study in young, healthy, nonobese men. There were no clinically significant differences in omarigliptin AUC0-∞ , the primary pharmacokinetic parameter for assessing efficacy and safety, based on age, sex, or BMI (pooled nonobese elderly versus pooled nonobese young, young nonobese female versus young nonobese male, and pooled young obese versus pooled young nonobese). There were no serious adverse events or hypoglycemic events attributable to omarigliptin administration. Demographic factors and BMI had no meaningful effect on omarigliptin pharmacokinetics, suggesting that dose adjustment based on age, sex, or obesity is not required. © 2016, The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Liver Stiffness Values Are Lower in Pediatric Subjects than in Adults and Increase with Age: A Multifrequency MR Elastography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchell, Emily; Jugé, Lauriane; Hatt, Alice; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine if healthy hepatic mechanical properties differ between pediatric and adult subjects at magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. Materials and Methods Liver shear moduli in 24 healthy pediatric participants (13 children aged 5-14 years [seven boys, six girls] and 11 adolescents aged 15-18 years [six boys, five girls]) and 10 healthy adults (aged 22-36 years [five men, five women]) were obtained with 3-T MR elastography at 28, 56, and 84 Hz. Relationships between shear moduli and age were assessed with Spearman correlations. Differences between age groups were determined with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons tests. Results Liver stiffness values (means ± standard deviations) were significantly lower in children and adolescents than in adults at 56 Hz (children, 2.2 kPa ± 0.3; adolescents, 2.2 kPa ± 0.2; adults, 2.6 kPa ± 0.3; analysis of variance, P = .009) and 84 Hz (children, 5.6 kPa ± 0.8; adolescents, 6.5 kPa ± 1.2; adults, 7.8 kPa ± 1.2; analysis of variance, P = .0003) but not at 28 Hz (children, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; adolescents, 1.3 kPa ± 0.3; adults, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; analysis of variance, P = .40). At 56 and 84 Hz, liver stiffness increased with age (Spearman correlation, r = 0.38 [P = .03] and r = 0.54 [P = .001], respectively). Stiffness varied less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults (analysis of variance, P = .0009). No significant differences were found in shear moduli at 28, 56, or 84 Hz or frequency dependence between children and adolescents (P = .38, P = .99, P = .14, and P = .30, respectively, according to Tukey tests). Conclusion Liver stiffness values are lower and vary less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults. Stiffness increases with age during normal development and approaches adult values during adolescence. Comparing pediatric liver stiffness to adult baseline values to detect pediatric liver mechanical abnormalities may not allow detection of mild

  20. Evaluation of skeletal maturity in North Indian subjects using an objective method based on cervical vertebral bone age and assessment of its reliability as compared to hand wrist radiographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the skeletal maturity objectively and assess the reliability and validity of this method in North Indian subjects. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects (8-16 years were taken and divided into two groups of 30 males and 30 females. For each subject, cervical vertebral bone age (VA was evaluated by the objective method described by Mito et al., and bone age (BA was estimated by Grave and Brown method of hand wrist radiograph. Correlations and average differences between various ages were determined. An analysis of variance and Tukey′s post-hoc tests were used to compare various ages at 5% significance level. Results: The correlations between cervical VAs and BAs were higher than other ages and also more in females than males. The analysis of female data showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 whereas analysis of male data showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 between various ages. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that this method of objectively evaluating skeletal maturation is reliable and can be applied to North Indian females only. The development of a new method to objectively evaluate cervical VA in males is needed.

  1. Divergent muscle sympathetic responses to dynamic leg exercise in heart failure and age-matched healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Murai, Hisayoshi; Morris, Beverley L; Marzolini, Susan; Oh, Paul; Floras, John S

    2015-02-01

    People with diminished ventricular contraction who develop heart failure have higher sympathetic nerve firing rates at rest compared with healthy individuals of a similar age and this is associated with less exercise capacity. During handgrip exercise, sympathetic nerve activity to muscle is higher in patients with heart failure but the response to leg exercise is unknown because its recording requires stillness. We measured sympathetic activity from one leg while the other leg cycled at a moderate level and observed a decrease in nerve firing rate in healthy subjects but an increase in subjects with heart failure. Because these nerves release noradrenaline, which can restrict muscle blood flow, this observation helps explain the limited exercise capacity of patients with heart failure. Lower nerve traffic during exercise was associated with greater peak oxygen uptake, suggesting that if exercise training attenuated sympathetic outflow functional capacity in heart failure would improve. The reflex fibular muscle sympathetic nerve (MSNA) response to dynamic handgrip exercise is elicited at a lower threshold in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The present aim was to test the hypothesis that the contralateral MSNA response to mild to moderate dynamic one-legged exercise is augmented in HFrEF relative to age- and sex-matched controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and MSNA were recorded in 16 patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction = 31 ± 2%; age 62 ± 3 years, mean ± SE) and 13 healthy control subjects (56 ± 2 years) before and during 2 min of upright one-legged unloaded cycling followed by 2 min at 50% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2,peak). Resting HR and blood pressure were similar between groups whereas MSNA burst frequency was higher (50.0 ± 2.0 vs. 42.3 ± 2.7 bursts min(-1), P = 0.03) and V̇O2,peak lower (18.0 ± 2.0 vs. 32.6 ± 2.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P Exercise increased HR (P group difference (P = 0.1). MSNA burst

  2. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of measles-rubella combined vaccine in school-entry-aged subjects with naturally acquired measles immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takuji; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nagata, Nobuo; Kamiya, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The reintroduction of measles-rubella combined (MR) vaccination to Japan raised concerns about adverse events as well as immunogenicity related to booster immunization in subjects with naturally acquired immunity to measles or rubella. The time course of reactogenicity and antibody responses in recipients with pre-existing immunity to measles through natural infection was observed. Eighteen children aged 80-104 months received MR booster vaccination; 16 of them had had previous rubella vaccination. There were virtually no clinical reactions related to booster vaccination, and a highly significant antibody response to rubella antigen, whereas the antibody rise to measles was statistically significant but poor. Vaccination of individuals already immune is not harmful. Booster immunization to rubella for Japanese children is vitally important. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. What is the subjective cost of cognitive effort? Load, trait, and aging effects revealed by economic preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Westbrook

    Full Text Available It has long been assumed that people treat cognitive effort as costly, but also that such effort costs may vary greatly across individuals. Individual differences in subjective effort could present a major and pervasive confound in behavioral and neuroscience assessments, by conflating cognitive ability with cognitive motivation. Self-report cognitive effort scales have been developed, but objective measures are lacking. In this study, we use the behavioral economic approach of revealed preferences to quantify subjective effort. Specifically, we adapted a well-established discounting paradigm to measure the extent to which cognitive effort causes participants to discount monetary rewards. The resulting metrics are sensitive to both within-individual factors, including objective load and reward amount, and between-individual factors, including age and trait cognitive engagement. We further validate cognitive effort discounting by benchmarking it against well-established measures of delay discounting. The results highlight the promise and utility of behavioral economic tools for assessing trait and state influences on cognitive motivation.

  4. The RAPID-II Neuropsychological Test battery for subjects aged 20 to 49 years: Norms and cognitive profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetruy, M; Mauny, F; Lavaux, M; Meyer, A; Sylvestre, G; Puyraveau, M; Berger, E; Magnin, E; Vandel, P; Galmiche, J; Chopard, G

    2017-06-30

    Cognitive evaluation of young subjects is now widely carried out for non-traumatic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, HIV, or sleep disorders. This evaluation requires normative data based on healthy adult samples. However, most clinicians use a set of tests that were normed in an isolated manner from different samples using different cutoff criteria. Thus, the score of an individual may be considered either normal or impaired according to the norms used. It is well established that healthy adults obtained low-test scores when a battery of tests is administered. Thus, the knowledge of low base rates is required so as to minimize false diagnosis of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was twofold (1) to provide normative data for RAPID-II battery in healthy adults, and (2) estimate the proportion of healthy adults having low scores across this battery. Norms for the 44 test scores of the RAPID-II test battery were developed using the overall sample of 335 individuals based on three categories of age (20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 40 to 49 years) and two educational levels: Baccalaureate or higher educational degree (high educational level), lower than baccalaureate (low educational level). The 5th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles were calculated from the six age and education subsamples and used to define norms. The frequency of low scores on the RAPID-II battery was calculated by simultaneously examining the performance of 33 primary scores. A low score was defined as less than or equal to the 5th percentile drawn from the six age and education normative subsamples. In addition, the percentages of low scores were also determined when all possible combinations of two-test scores across the RAPID-II were considered in the overall normative sample. Our data showed that 59.4% subjects of the normative sample obtained at least one or more low score. With more than 9 test scores, this percentage was equal to 0% in the normative sample. Among all combinations of two

  5. Increased reactive oxygen metabolites is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular endothelial damage in middle-aged Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiura T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomonori Sugiura1, Yasuaki Dohi1, Hiroyuki Takase2, Sumiyo Yamashita1, Satoru Tanaka1, Genjiro Kimura11Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Enshu Hospital, Hamamatsu, JapanBackground: Vascular endothelium, a provider of nitric oxide, is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in healthy vascular systems. Increased oxidative stress promotes vascular inflammation and is a common pathway involved in endothelial damage. The present study sought to investigate the usefulness of derivative reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM as an oxidative stress marker for detecting endothelial damage in the clinical setting in subjects with early-stage atherosclerosis.Methods: Study 1 investigated the relationship between serum d-ROM levels and cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects (n = 1992, 49 ± 8 years who participated in our health checkup program. Study 2 analyzed the association between d-ROM levels and endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation and that between d-ROM levels and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in middle-aged outpatients with mild-to-moderate cardiovascular risk (n = 43, 40 ± 5 years.Results: In study 1, the d-ROM level was independently correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and brain natriuretic peptide in univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In study 2, the d-ROM level was correlated positively with the hs-CRP level and inversely with the flow-mediated dilation value. Patients in the highest tertile of d-ROM had significantly lower flow-mediated dilation values compared with patients in the other tertiles. Moreover, after subdivision of patients into four groups according to d-ROM and hs-CRP levels, patients with high levels of both d-ROM and hs-CRP showed

  6. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  7. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes...

  8. Assessment of Accrued Damage and Remaining Useful Life in Leadfree Electronics Subjected to Multiple Thermal Environments of Thermal Aging and Thermal Cycling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method has been developed for prognostication of accrued prior damage in electronics subjected to overlapping sequential environments of thermal aging and thermal...

  9. Averaging Schwarzschild spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegai, S. Ph.; Drobov, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    We tried to average the Schwarzschild solution for the gravitational point source by analogy with the same problem in Newtonian gravity or electrostatics. We expected to get a similar result, consisting of two parts: the smoothed interior part being a sphere filled with some matter content and an empty exterior part described by the original solution. We considered several variants of generally covariant averaging schemes. The averaging of the connection in the spirit of Zalaletdinov's macroscopic gravity gave unsatisfactory results. With the transport operators proposed in the literature it did not give the expected Schwarzschild solution in the exterior part of the averaged spacetime. We were able to construct a transport operator that preserves the Newtonian analogy for the outward region but such an operator does not have a clear geometrical meaning. In contrast, using the curvature as the primary averaged object instead of the connection does give the desired result for the exterior part of the problem in a fine way. However for the interior part, this curvature averaging does not work because the Schwarzschild curvature components diverge as 1 /r3 near the center and therefore are not integrable.

  10. Visual field (Octopus 1-2-3 in normal subjects divided into homogeneous age-groups Perimetria computadorizada no Octopus 1-2-3: estudo de uma população normal por faixas etárias estratificadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Calixto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the values in decibels of retinal sensitivity within the central 26 degrees of the visual field of normal subjects divided into homogenous age groups using the Octopus 1-2-3; to compare the values of retinal sensitivity we have found with those considered normal in the statistical package obtained by a multicenter study performed in 1994 with Octopus 201. METHODS: 181 subjects divided into 6 homogeneous age groups (10 to 19 yr; 20 to 29 yr; 30 to 39 yr; 40 to 49 yr; 50 to 59 yr and 60 year-old or older were evaluated. Data on visual sensitivity and age, average sensitivity of central and paracentral regions and eccentricity were calculated. RESULTS: The average visual sensitivity of all groups was 26.77 ± 1.74 dB. Correlation between visual sensitivity and age evaluated by linear regression was 28.4 - 0.040 x (age for the whole sample and 28.7 - 0.050 x (age for subjects aged 20 or more. Sensitivity reduction by eccentricity was -0.30 dB/degree for the whole sample and for subjects aged 20 or more. CONCLUSIONS: Correlation between retinal sensitivity values and age based on the autoperimeter Octopus 201 (average sensitivity of 31.2 - 0.064 x age is different from that found in this study: average sensitivity of 28.4 - 0.040 x (age for the whole sample; 28.7 - 0.050 x (age for subjects aged 20 or more. Values obtained with the Octopus 1-2-3 autoperimeter cannot be compared with those by other Octopus models (101, 201 and 500 due to their distinct features.OBJETIVO: Determinar, utilizando o autoperímetro Octopus 1-2-3, os valores da sensibilidade retiniana em dB, nos 26 graus centrais do campo visual, em voluntários normais, distribuídos em grupos etários homogêneos. Comparar os valores da sensibilidade retiniana com aqueles considerados normais no pacote estatístico do programa do autoperímetro Octopus 1-2-3 obtidos por estudo multicêntrico realizado em 1994. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 181 voluntários, distribuídos em

  11. Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic age determination of upper Cretaceous Santonian, Campanian and Maastrichtian chondrichthyan teeth of the Atlantic and Eastern Gulf Coastal Plains: Implications for sea level cyclicity and macrofossil time-averaging in depositional sequence lag deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin Andrew

    1997-11-01

    Unconformities and fossil rich layers are common elements in the stratigraphic architecture of upper Cretaceous sediments exposed on both the Atlantic and Eastern Gulf Coastal Plains. Contacts between the Eutaw Formation and Tombigbee Sands Member in Alabama, the Blufftown Formation and Cusseta Sands in Georgia and the Wenonah- Mt. Laurel and Navesink Formations in New Jersey are marked by erosional surfaces with overlying blankets and lenses of macrofossil residuum. These contacts correspond to bounding unconformities and transgressive lags separating Santonian-Campanian, lower Campanian-upper Campanian and Campanian-Maastrichtian depositional sequences. Regression and subsequent transgression of sea level at the top of these depositional sequences resulted in hydrodynamic sorting of sediments and fossils that had previously accumulated in shelf and lower shoreface paleoenvironments. Remobilization of sediments by shoreface retreat reworked fossil hard-parts which became concentrated above erosional surfaces as sea level rose. Because of the abundance of chondrichthyan, pelecypod and ammonite fossils, these lags have great biostratigraphic significance and provide a basis for examining time averaging in macrofossil zonation. Chondrichthyan teeth are composed of extremely durable and highly insoluble, biogenic apatite. This tooth apatite accurately records the Sr87/Sr86 isotopic signature of seawater, from which the numerical age of the teeth can be calculated using published age/concentration data. Teeth (e.g. Squalicorax kaupi, Scapanorhynchus texanus) from Santonian-Campanian lag deposits at the contact of the Eutaw Formation and Tombigbee Sands Member in Alabama yield approximate ages of 85-81 Ma. Teeth from lower-upper Campanian lag deposits at the contact of the Blufftown Formation and Cusseta Sands in Georgia yield approximate ages of 83-75 Ma. Teeth from Campanian-Maastrichtian lag deposits at the contact of the Wenonah-Mt. Laurel and Navesink Formations in

  12. Subjective memory complaints, vascular risk factors and psychological distress in the middle-aged: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Tracey A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC are common but their significance is still unclear. It has been suggested they are a precursor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia and an early indicator of cognitive decline. Vascular risk factors have an important role in the development of dementia and possibly MCI. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis that vascular risk factors were associated with SMC, independent of psychological distress, in a middle-aged community-dwelling population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the 45 and Up Study was performed. This is a cohort study of people living in New South Wales (Australia, and we explored the sample of 45, 532 participants aged between 45 and 64 years. SMC were defined as 'fair' or 'poor' on a self-reported five-point Likert scale of memory function. Vascular risk factors of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking were identified by self-report. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. We tested the model generated from a randomly selected exploratory sample (n = 22, 766 with a confirmatory sample of equal size. Results 5, 479/45, 532 (12% of respondents reported SMC. Using multivariate logistic regression, only two vascular risk factors: smoking (OR 1.18; 95% CI = 1.03 - 1.35 and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 1.19; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.36 showed a small independent association with SMC. In contrast psychological distress was strongly associated with SMC. Those with the highest levels of psychological distress were 7.00 (95% CI = 5.41 - 9.07 times more likely to have SMC than the non-distressed. The confirmatory sample also demonstrated the strong association of SMC with psychological distress rather than vascular risk factors. Conclusions In a large sample of middle-aged people without any history of major affective illness or stroke, psychological distress was strongly, and vascular risk

  13. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  14. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmogne, Georgette D; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E; Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Dora M; Kuate, Callixte T; Doh, Roland F; Kengne, Anne M; Tagny, Claude T; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (peffect of age, HIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden.

  15. Orofacial features of subjects aged 18-30 years in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a universal term referred to herein to collectively denote a series of functional disorders of orofacial structures, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and the masticatory muscles in particular. Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, as well as the frequency of signs and symptoms of this type of disorder. Methods: The study involved a sample of 300 subjects, aged 18-30 years. The sample comprised the target student population attending the University of Pristina, Kosovska Mitrovica. A random sample, intended for sampling without replacement, was drawn from the target population. All subjects underwent the Helkimo clinical dysfunction index analysis. Results of the analysis were quantified and expressed numerically, based on severity, as the Helkimo anamnestic dysfunction index (Ai and the clinical dysfunction index (Di with specific values assigned thereto accordingly. Results: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population totaled 50.7% (Di> 0. In the majority of patients a mild form of TMP (67% was reported. Temporomandibular disorders were more common in women than in men, who appear to be three times as likely to develop the respective condition, demonstrating the ratio of 3:1. The most common TMD signs and symptoms implied mandibular kinetics disturbances (46% and TMJ sounds (45%. The prevalence of pain during mandibular movements amounted to 9%, the palpable TMJ sensitivity to 20% and the palpable sensitivity of masticatory muscles 18%. Headache and otalgia were represented with 13%, that is, 3% in the observed sample. Conclusion: Temporomandibular disorder analysis demonstrates high incidence in the population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. These findings indicate the need for an extensive prevention

  16. 'It is nothing more than a senior moment': the moderating role of subjective age in the effect of change in memory on self-rated memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Palgi, Yuval

    2017-11-10

    The association between memory performance and self-rated memory is yet to be understood. More specifically, little is known about the factors that lie at the base of self-evaluations of memory in relation to actual changes in memory. In this study, we suggest that subjective age modifies the effect of objective change in memory on self-rated memory. We used two waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 4624) to examine whether subjective age moderates the effect of experienced changes in memory between T1 and T2 on self-rated memory at T2. Our results suggest that subjective age is a significant moderator of the effect of change in memory on self-rated memory. The effect is weaker among those with younger subjective age, and stronger for those with older subjective age. While preserving a young subjective age is usually considered an adaptive strategy, it also has potential negative effects, masking changes in memory performance.

  17. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: Impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol and video gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Linda Wilms

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed of Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory of Visual Attention (TVA. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.

  18. Land cover transformation in two post-mining landscapes subjected to different ages of reclamation since dumping of spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Effah K; Boakye-Danquah, John; Asabere, Stephen B; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Wiegleb, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of natural land cover (LC) into modified LC has become inevitable due to growing human needs. Nevertheless, landscape transformational patterns during reclamation of mine damaged lands remain vague. Our hypothesis was that post-mining landscapes with different ages since dumping become more diverse in LC transformation over time. The aim was to study the impact of landscape reclamation on land cover changes (LCC) in two post-mining landscapes. Land cover maps of 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2000 and 2003 were produced from LANDSAT TM images of Schlabendorf Nord and Schlabendorf Süd and used to survey the changing landscape. Change detection extension was used to identify changes among land cover types (LCTs). Detrended correspondence analyses (DCA) ordination technique (CANOCO) aided study of similarity among LC distribution. Soil pH analysis was carried out to study effect of soil and climate conditions on LCC. The results show that visible patterns of increase and decrease in the LCTs occurred in both landscapes. Given two post-mining landscapes subjected to different ages of reclamation, clear differences in vegetation growth and LCC pattern would occur. At early stages of restoration, LCTs often have unstable conditions and experience more acute transformation depending on the level of land use intensity in space and time. LCCs were mostly due to progressive and reversed succession. Due to variation in post-mining landscape soil conditions, soil treatment during reclamation should be site specific. The comparative analysis of LCCs in Schlabendorf provides a framework for prioritizing land use planning options for sustainable management of post-mining landscapes in temperate ecosystems.

  19. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (pveneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  20. Electrically evoked and voluntary maximal isometric tension in relation to dynamic muscle performance in elderly male subjects, aged 69 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C T; White, M J; Young, K

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic performance and electrically evoked mechanical properties of elderly triceps surae muscle have been investigated in 9 men, aged 69 yr. Dynamic performance consisted of cycling on a force bicycle and a vertical jump off two feet from a force platform. The results showed that the time to peak tension (TPT) and half relaxation time (1/2 RT) were significantly greater (p less than 0.001) by 30 ms and 22 ms and the supramaximal twitch (Pt) and tetanic (20 Hz-P020) tensions and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were less by 45 N (-33%), 708 N (-49%), and 899 N (-43%) in the elderly compared with young male control subjects. On the force platform, the height jumped (Ht), maximal force exerted (P), take-off velocity (VT), net impulse (NI) and peak power output (W) were less by 18.6 cm, 173 N, 0.9 ms-1, 52 Ns and 1120 w respectively. Similar differences of power, force and velocity were observed on the force bicycle. The reduction of W in the elderly was associated with the contractile characteristics of the leg muscle. The loss of contractile speed and capacity to to generate force in old people was reflected in their inability to develop power during the performance of a maximal vertical jump and cycling.

  1. Loosely coupled level sets for retinal layers and drusen segmentation in subjects with dry age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Jelena; Wang, Ziyuan; de Jong, Henk; Vermeer, Koenraad A.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to produce high-resolution three-dimensional images of the retina, which permit the investigation of retinal irregularities. In dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a chronic eye disease that causes central vision loss, disruptions such as drusen and changes in retinal layer thicknesses occur which could be used as biomarkers for disease monitoring and diagnosis. Due to the topology disrupting pathology, existing segmentation methods often fail. Here, we present a solution for the segmentation of retinal layers in dry AMD subjects by extending our previously presented loosely coupled level sets framework which operates on attenuation coefficients. In eyes affected by AMD, Bruch's membrane becomes visible only below the drusen and our segmentation framework is adapted to delineate such a partially discernible interface. Furthermore, the initialization stage, which tentatively segments five interfaces, is modified to accommodate the appearance of drusen. This stage is based on Dijkstra's algorithm and combines prior knowledge on the shape of the interface, gradient and attenuation coefficient in the newly proposed cost function. This prior knowledge is incorporated by varying the weights for horizontal, diagonal and vertical edges. Finally, quantitative evaluation of the accuracy shows a good agreement between manual and automated segmentation.

  2. Variations of niacin content in saltwater fish and their relation with dietary RDA in Polish subjects grouped by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Michał; Lebiedzińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A rich and natural source of readily assimilated dietary protein together with invaluable vitamins and minerals are fish, particularly the saltwater species. The quality of any given foodstuff is determined by its nutritional value, which in turn depends on the food type and methods used for manufacture, processing and storage. Many fish products contain fewer water soluble vitamins than the source foodstuff as a result of using various technologies during food processing, such as smoking or deep freezing, where vitamins are often either degraded or leached out. In the case of niacin it is relatively easy to make good such losses by eating niacin-rich foods or by taking dietary supplements e.g. the essential amino acid L-tryptophan. To determine niacin content in sea fish that are commonly available on the Polish market and to assess whether this dietary source is sufficient to satisfy the RDA requirements for various age groups of selected subjects living in Poland. Niacin levels were measured firstly in 10 saltwater fish species together with butterfish and Norwegian salmon that formed a separate group. Altogether, 15 types of fish products were analysed in all. They consisted of smoked fish: whitefish, butterfish, sprat, trout, herring (kippers) and mackerel, and frozen fish: butterfish, Norwegian salmon, sole, grenadier and panga. Each product was measured as ten replicates, thus in total 150 analyses were performed. A microbiologically-based method was used for the niacin determination, with enzyme hydrolysis by 40 mg papain and diastase on a 2 g sample (according to the AOAC procedure) to release the free form from the bioavailable form that is bound to NAD and NADP. The most plentiful sources of niacin were found in smoked fish with the highest amounts in butterfish, after warm temperature smoking, and in mackerel; respectively 9.03 and 8.90 mg/100 g. Such 100 g portions of smoked fish are a good dietary source of niacin, in that for men and women above 19

  3. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  4. Short children with low birth weight born either small for gestational age or average for gestational age show similar growth response and changes in insulin-like growth factor-1 to growth hormone treatment during the first prepubertal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, M B; Martin, D D; Ehehalt, S; Schwarze, C P; Serra, F; Wollmann, H A; Schweizer, R

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an accepted treatment for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of this analysis was to compare the growth response to GH in children with low birth weight born SGA or appropriate for gestational age (AGA). This retrospective observational study is from one center. Of all the children with a birth weight growth hormone deficiency ([A] SGA, n = 26; [B] AGA, n = 24) and 138 were originally diagnosed SGA or AGA (reclassified: [C] SGA, n = 102; [D] AGA, n = 36). [Median; A, B, C, D]: at an age of 4.9, 5.2, 5.8, 5.8 years, a height of -2.9, -2.4, -2.8, -2.9 SDS and a GH dose of 27, 28, 41, 39 μg/kg/day, the children grew 0.9, 0.9, 0.8, 0.9 SDS in height, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at GH start was, respectively, -2.1, -2.2, -0.4, -0.9 SDS and rose to (delta IGF-1) 1.8, 2.0, 1.7, 1.5 SDS during the first year on GH. All differences were not significant. We show for the first time that short stature children with low birth weight born AGA experience the same increase in height and IGFs to GH treatment as those born SGA irrespective of actual GH secretory status. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Averaged RMHD equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiguchi, Katsuji [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    A new reduced set of resistive MHD equations is derived by averaging the full MHD equations on specified flux coordinates, which is consistent with 3D equilibria. It is confirmed that the total energy is conserved and the linearized equations for ideal modes are self-adjoint. (author)

  6. Your Average Nigga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vershawn Ashanti

    2004-01-01

    "Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…

  7. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  8. Simultaneous transfer of cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids to high-density lipoprotein in aging subjects with or without coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina H. M Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL to simultaneously receive nonesterified cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids changes with aging and the presence of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with biochemical analyses. SUBJECTS: Eleven elderly patients with coronary artery disease (74±5 years were compared with the following groups of non-coronary artery disease subjects (referred to as "healthy": 25 young (25±5 years, 25 middle-aged (42± years, and 25 elderly subjects (75±8 years. METHODS: Plasma samples were incubated with a nanoemulsion labeled with radioactive lipids; the transfer of the lipids from the nanoemulsion to the HDL was measured in chemically precipitated HDL. HDL size and paraoxonase-1 activity were also determined. RESULTS: The transfer of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids to high-density lipoprotein was significantly greater (p<0.001 in healthy elderly subjects than in the middle-aged and younger subjects. Non-esterified cholesterol and triglyceride transfer was not different among these three groups. The HDL size was significantly greater (p<0.001 in healthy elderly subjects than in the middle-aged and younger subjects. The paraoxonase-1 activity was similar among the groups. Compared with healthy elderly subjects, coronary artery disease elderly subjects had significantly less (p<0.05 transfer of non-esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters to the HDL and a significantly smaller (p<0.05 HDL size. CONCLUSION: Because lipid transfer is enhanced in healthy elderly subjects but not in those with coronary artery disease, increasing lipid transfer to HDL may be a protective mechanism against the disease.

  9. Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49–79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p = 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated

  10. Covariant approximation averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  11. Covariant approximation averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  12. Synchronous Boxcar Averager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    Digital electronic filtering system produces series of moving-average samples of fluctuating signal in manner resulting in removal of undesired periodic signal component of known frequency. Filter designed to pass steady or slowly varying components of fluctuating pressure, flow, pump speed, and pump torque in slurry-pumping system. Concept useful for monitoring or control in variety of applications including machinery, power supplies, and scientific instrumentation.

  13. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Arithmetic mean of objects in a space need not lie in the space. [Frechet; 1948] Finding mean of right-angled triangles. S = {(x,y,z) ∈ R+3 : x2 + y2 = z2}. = {. [ z x − ιy x + ιy z. ] : x,y,z > 0,z2 = x2 + y2}. Surface of right triangles : Arithmetic mean not on S. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  14. Averaged number of visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, N; Lunedei, E; Vaienti, S

    2007-09-01

    We introduce a new indicator for dynamical systems, namely the averaged number of visits, to estimate the frequency of visits in small regions when a map is iterated up to the inverse of the measure of this region. We compute this quantity analytically and numerically for various systems and we show that it depends on the ergodic properties of the systems and on their topological properties, such as the presence of periodic points.

  15. Progressive resistance training for community-dwelling women aged 90 or older; a single-subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idland, Gro; Sylliaas, Hilde; Mengshoel, Anne Marit; Pettersen, Renate; Bergland, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect and feasibility of a 12-week programme of progressive resistance exercise on a group of nonagenarian (≥90 years) community-dwelling women. An A-B single-subject experimental design was applied. Visual analyses were used for estimating the effect of the intervention. Outcome measurements were: Timed Up and Go (TUG), comfortable walking speed and 30-s chair stands. The programme comprised four exercises, following the principle of overload, aiming at improving strength in the main muscle groups. Feasibility of the progressive resistance intervention was assessed by recording the recruitment of participants, adherence to the intervention and adverse events. Twenty-seven women were invited; eight women aged 90 and above agreed to participate and six completed the study. They suffered from one to 10 chronic medical conditions. All improved their performance in the TUG test. Five of the six participants achieved a higher walking speed (11-59%) and four of them improved on the 30-s chair-stand test with five to 10 stands. No major adverse events were reported. Progressive resistance training was a safe and efficient method to enhance mobility and increase lower body strength in this heterogeneous group of nonagenarian community-dwelling women. Progressive resistance (PRT) training was found to be a safe and efficient method to enhance mobility and increase lower body strength in a group of community-dwelling women 90+. Participants with the poorest initial functional performance had great benefits, and the improvements appeared already after a few weeks of PRT. PRT might be useful in the rehabilitation field and could be implemented in facilities such as day care and senior centres frequented by very old persons with mobility limitations.

  16. Effects of whole body vibration plus diet on insulin-resistance in middle-aged obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, A; Sallì, M; Lombardo, M; D'Adamo, M; Guglielmi, V; Tirabasso, C; Giordani, L; Federici, M; Lauro, D; Foti, C; Sbraccia, P

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the early effects of whole body vibration (WBV) added to hypocaloric diet on insulin-resistance and other parameters associated with glucose regulation in sedentary obese individuals. We randomly assigned 34 patients to WBV plus hypocaloric diet (WBV group) or diet alone (CON group) for 8 weeks. Fasting and post-load glucose, insulin, lipids, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, leptin, adiponectin were assessed. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was derived from oral-glucose-tolerance test. Body composition was evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both groups lost approximately 5% of weight, with greater reduction of body fat in WBV than in CON (-7.1±1.2 Kg vs. -5.3±1.0 Kg, p=0.003). Percent variation of ISI was more pronounced in WBV than in CON group (+35±4% vs. + 22±5%, p=0.002), accompanied by slight improvement in post-load glucose (-1.07±0.02 vs. - 0.12±0.01 mmol/l, p=0.031) but without changes in fasting levels. Adiponectin significantly increased in WBV group compared with CON (p=0.021 for comparison) whereas no differences in leptin and inflammatory markers were observed. In middle-aged sedentary obese subjects, WBV added to hypocaloric diet for 8 weeks improved body composition, insulin-resistance, glucose regulation and adiponectin levels to a greater extent compared with diet alone. Efficacy and feasibility of this approach in the long term need to be ascertained. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Subjective Time Perceptions and Aging Well: A Review of Concepts and Empirical Research - A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrian, Martina; Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-01-01

    Human beings impose subjective, time-related interpretations on their existence, and the experience of time is a major aspect of lifespan development. In this mini-review, we understand subjective time as the way individuals subjectively perceive and evaluate the passing of their personal "objective" lifetime. A broad range of constructs and operationalizations has been developed in (gero-) psychology to capture subjective time, including future time perspective, personal goals, or autobiographical memories. In order to theoretically integrate this yet loosely connected body of literature, we propose a conceptual model of subjective time concepts according to 2 dimensions: temporal direction (past, present, future) and thematic field (duration/expansion, time-ordered life content, and time-related evaluations, attitudes, and mindsets). This conceptual model of subjective time perceptions builds the foundation for a review of the empirical literature regarding associations of subjective time with developmental outcomes (i.e., subjective well-being and physical health) in middle and late adulthood. Empirical findings establish subjective time concepts as a consistent predictor of well-being and health. Positive subjective time perceptions (i.e., an expanded view of the future, a focus on positive past and future life content, and favorable time-related evaluations) were associated with higher well-being and better physical health, while negative subjective time perceptions in general were linked to lower levels of health and well-being. Contrasting past- and future-oriented subjective time perceptions, it appears that past-oriented subjective time perceptions have been studied primarily in relation to subjective well-being, while future-oriented time perceptions play a key role both with regard to physical health and well-being. In conclusion, we argue that a stronger integration of subjective time constructs into developmental regulation models may deepen our

  18. Analysis of morphological characteristics and expression levels of extracellular matrix proteins in skin wounds to determine wound age in living subjects in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Judith; Lulf, Ronald; Korkmaz, H Ibrahim; Witte, Birgit I; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Begieneman, Mark P V; Krijnen, Paul A J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Niessen, Hans W M; Reijnders, Udo J L

    2015-01-01

    Wound age determination in living subjects is important in routine diagnostics in forensic medicine. Macroscopical description of a wound to determine wound age however is inadequate. The aim of this study was to assess whether it would be feasible to determine wound age via analysis of morphological characteristics and extracellular matrix proteins in skin biopsies of living subjects referred to a forensic outpatient clinic. Skin biopsies (n=101), representing the border area of the wound, were taken from skin injuries of known wound age (range: 4.5h-25 days) in living subjects. All biopsies were analyzed for 3 morphological features (ulceration, parakeratosis and hemorrhage) and 3 extracellular matrix markers (collagen III, collagen IV and α-SMA). For quantification, biopsies were subdivided in 4 different timeframes: 0.2-2 days, 2-4 days, 4-10 days and 10-25 days old wounds. Subsequently, a probability scoring system was developed. For hemorrhage, collagen III, collagen IV and α-SMA expression no relation with wound age was found. Ulceration was only found in wounds of 0.2-2, 2-4 and 4-10 days old, implying that the probability that a wound was more than 10 days old in case of ulceration is equal to 0%. Also parakeratosis was almost exclusively found in wounds of 0.2-2, 2-4 and 4-10 days old, except for one case with a wound age of 15 days old. The probability scoring system of all analyzed markers, as depicted above, however can be used to calculate individual wound age probabilities in biopsies of skin wounds of living subjects. We have developed a probability scoring system, analysing morphological characteristics and extracellular matrix proteins in superficial skin biopsies of wounds in living subjects that can be applied in forensic medicine for wound age determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety and immunogenicity of an investigational meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Indian subjects aged 2 to 75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Sanjay; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Gogtay, Nithya; Palkar, Sonali; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Thatte, Urmila; Vakil, Hoshang; Jonnalagedda, Rekha; Pedotti, Paola; Hoyle, Margaret; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani

    2015-09-01

    This phase 3, multi-center, open-label study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM, Menveo(®); Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics S.r.l., Siena, Italy) in healthy Indian subjects aged 2-75 years, to provide data for licensure in India. A total of 180 subjects were enrolled (60 subjects 2-10 years, 60 subjects 11-18 years, and 60 subjects 19-75 years) and received one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were collected throughout the 29-day study period. Percentages of subjects with post-vaccination hSBA ≥8 were 72%, 95%, 94%, and 90% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Geometric mean titers rose 7-fold to 42-fold against the four serogroups. Similar immune responses were observed for the age subgroups 2-10 years, 11-18 years, and 19-75 years. Seroresponse rates at 1 month following vaccination were 72%, 88%, 55%, and 71% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. The vaccine was well tolerated with no safety concerns. A single dose of MenACWY-CRM induced a robust immune response against all four meningococcal serogroups and was well tolerated in an Indian population 2-75 years of age. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. [The Influence of Subjective Health Status, Post-Traumatic Growth, and Social Support on Successful Aging in Middle-Aged Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Jang, Hyung Suk; Yang, Young Hee

    2016-10-01

    This study was done to investigate factors influencing successful aging in middle-aged women. A convenience sample of 103 middle-aged women was selected from the community. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis test, Pearson correlations, Spearman correlations and multiple regression analysis with the SPSS/WIN 22.0 program. Results of regression analysis showed that significant factors influencing successful aging were post-traumatic growth and social support. This regression model explained 48% of the variance in successful aging. Findings show that the concept 'post-traumatic growth' is an important factor influencing successful aging in middle-aged women. In addition, social support from friends/co-workers had greater influence on successful aging than social support from family. Thus, we need to consider the positive impact of post-traumatic growth and increase the chances of social participation in a successful aging program for middle-aged women.

  1. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... to a non-linear manifold and re-normalization or orthogonalization must be applied to obtain proper rotations. These latter steps have been viewed as ad hoc corrections for the errors introduced by assuming a vector space. The article shows that the two approximative methods can be derived from natural...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation....

  2. Older age is associated with peripheral blood expansion of naïve B cells in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Van Epps

    Full Text Available Older HIV infected subjects were previously found to have significant B cell expansion during initial antiretroviral therapy in a prospective age-differentiated cohort of older and younger (≥45 vs. ≤30 years HIV-infected subjects initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART through the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Here to further describe this expansion, using a subset of subjects from the same cohort, we characterized B cell phenotypes at baseline and after 192 weeks of ART in both older and younger HIV-infected groups and compared them to uninfected age-matched controls. We also examined whether phenotypes at baseline associated with response to tetanus and hepatitis A vaccine at 12 weeks. Forty six subjects were analyzed in the HIV infected group (21 older, 25 younger and 30 in the control group (15 per age group. We observed naïve B cells to normalize in younger subjects after 192 weeks of ART, while in older subjects naïve B cells increased to greater levels than those of controls (p = 0.045. Absolute resting memory (RM cell count was significantly lower in the older HIV infected group at baseline compared to controls and numbers normalized after 192 weeks of ART (p<0.001. Baseline RM cell count positively correlated with week 12 increase in antibody to tetanus vaccine among both younger and older HIV-infected subjects combined (p = 0.01, but not in controls. The age-associated naïve B cell expansion is a novel finding and we discuss several possible explanations for this observation. Relationship between RM cells at baseline and tetanus responses may lead to insights about the effects of HIV infection on B cell memory function and vaccine responses.

  3. Age assessment using the Greulich and Pyle method on a heterogeneous sample of 300 Italian healthy and pathologic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Lubelli, Sergio; Marrone, Maricla; Lozito, Piercarlo; Introna, Francesco

    2013-06-10

    The exponential growth of the illegal immigration phenomenon, the requests for asylum, and the increasing number of migrant settlements on Italian territory have strong repercussions on the legal system. One important aspect of this problem is age assessment. In the case of living individuals, identification may be focused on ascertaining their age, more directly if they can attest their age but are not registered (foreigners who claim to be minors or under 14 years of age). These have entered our country as illegal immigrants and have an interest in declaring a younger age (as a minor or under 14) rather than their true age because they can obtain the benefits specifically provided by Italian law for such categories. Since the most frequently used method in age assessment is the Greulich and Pyle Atlas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the consistency and accuracy of the method on a sample of Italian teenagers, in order to ascertain whether or not the Atlas is suitable for the purpose, especially in the critical threshold between 14 and 18 years of age. A total of 300 radiographs of the left wrist and hand of individuals between 10 and 20 years of age were obtained from the outpatient Pediatric Radiology Department of the Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital in Bari. The results showed that the Greulich and Pyle Atlas, used on the Italian population, provide a good match with the chronological age, showing no statistically significant differences. The Greulich and Pyle Atlas is usable on the Italian population since there were no significant differences in skeletal age determination with this method as compared to the chronological age; however, one must allow for a possible standard deviation equal to more or less 13 months. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  5. Preferred 11 different job rotation types in automotive company and their effects on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders: comparison between subjective and actual scores by workers' age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, In Sik; Jeong, Byung Yong; Jeong, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates workers' favoured rotation types by their age and compares means between subjective and actual scores on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The subjects of research were 422 assembly line units in Hyundai Motor Company. The survey of 422 units focused on the workers' preference for 11 different rotation types and subjective scores for each type's perceived benefits, both by the workers' age. Then, actual scores on production-related indices were traced over a five-year period. The results suggest that different rotation types lead to different results in productivity, product quality and MSDs. Workers tend to perceive job rotation as a helpful method to enhance satisfaction, productivity and product quality more so than the actual production data suggests. Job rotation was especially effective in preventing MSDs for workers aged under 45, while its effects were not clear for the workers aged 45 years or older. Practitioner's Summary: This research presents appropriate rotation type for different age groups. Taking workers' age into account, administrators can use the paper's outcomes to select and implement the suitable rotation type to attain specific goals such as enhancing productivity, improving product quality or reducing MSDs.

  6. Older age is associated with greater central aortic blood pressure following the exercise stress test in subjects with similar brachial systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masatake; Oshima, Kazutaka; Iwasaki, Yoichi; Kumai, Yuto; Avolio, Alberto; Yamashina, Akira; Takazawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Brachial systolic pressure (BSP) is often monitored during exercise by the stress test; however, central systolic pressure (CSP) is thought to be a more direct measure of cardiovascular events. Although some studies reported that exercise and aging may play roles in changes of both BSP and CSP, the relationship between BSP and CSP with age following the exercise stress test remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the relationship between BSP and CSP measured after exercise. Ninety-six subjects underwent the diagnostic treadmill exercise stress test, and we retrospectively divided them into the following 3 groups by age: the younger age group (43 ± 4 years), middle age group (58 ± 4 years), and older age group (70 ± 4 years). Subjects exercised according to the Bruce protocol, to achieve 85 % of their age-predicted maximum heart rate or until the appearance of exercise-associated symptoms. BSP, CSP, and pulse rate (PR) were measured using a HEM-9000AI (Omron Healthcare, Japan) at rest and after exercise. BSP, CSP, and PR at rest were not significantly different among the 3 groups (p = 0.92, 0.21, and 0.99, respectively). BSP and PR immediately after exercise were not significantly different among the groups (p = 0.70 and 0.38, respectively). However, CSP immediately after exercise was 144 ± 18 mmHg (younger age), 149 ± 17 mmHg (middle age), and 158 ± 19 mmHg (older age). CSP in the older age group was significantly higher than that in the younger age group (p age groups after exercise, CSP was higher in the older age group. Therefore, older subjects have a higher CSP after exercise, which is not readily assessed by conventional measurements of BSP.

  7. [Slowing down the rate of irreversible age-related atrophy of the thymus gland by atopic autotransplantation of its tissue, subjected to long-term cryoconservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A V; Arkhipova, L V; Smirnova, G N; Novoselova, E G; Shpurova, N A; Shishova, N V; Sukhikh, G T

    2010-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed enabling to slow down the rate of irreversible atrophy of the thymus gland. The atopic autotransplantation of its tissue subjected to prolonged cryoconservation enables one to inhibit the aging of the organism with respect to several biochemical and immunological indicators.

  8. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  9. Memory functions and focussed attention in middle-aged and elderly subjects are unaffected by a low, acute dose of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J A J; Hogervorst, E; Vuurman, E F P M; Jolles, J; Riedel, W J

    2003-01-01

    The putative beneficial effects of caffeine on cognitive performance may vary between ages. The acute cognitive effects of 100 g caffeine on memory functions and focussed attention were investigated in sixteen middle-aged (45-60 years) and fourteen elderly (60-75 years) healthy men and women according to a cross-over design. Caffeine did not affect short-term memory span or speed, long-term memory retrieval functions or focussed attention. It is proposed that in middle-aged and elderly subjects cognitive effects may occur predominantly at higher caffeine dosages.

  10. Physical and Cognitive Stimulation Using an Exergame in Subjects with Normal Aging, Mild and Moderate Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sadoun, Grégory; Sacco, Guillaume; Manera, Valeria; Bourgeois, Jérémy; König, Alexandra; Foulon, Pierre; Fosty, Baptiste; Bremond, François; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Robert, Philippe

    2016-06-30

    The use of Serious exerGames (SeG) as enriched environments (EE), which promotes cognitive simulation with physical activity in a positive emotional context, has been proposed to represent a powerful method to slow down the decline due to neurodegenerative diseases (ND), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, so far, no SeG targeting EE has been tested in ND subjects. This study aimed at evaluating the usability and short-term training effects of X-Torp, an action SeG designed for elderly ND subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. X-Torp is a SeG played using the Microsoft® Kinect™. 10 ND subjects and 8 healthy elderly controls (HEC) were enrolled in a 1-month program with three training sessions per week. Usability was evaluated through game time, game performance, the aerobic intensity level reached, perceived emotions, and perceived usability. All participants successfully completed the training program. ND subjects played less and had a lower game performance compared to HEC. During the sessions, ND subjects maintained a light intensity of aerobic activity, while HEC maintained a moderate intensity. Both groups experienced only positive emotions, and reported a 'moderate' to 'high' perceived competence, a 'moderate' game difficulty, and a 'high' interest in the game. Usability results suggest that X-Torp represents a usable EE for healthy subjects and persons with MCI and AD. However, in order to reach moderate or high intensity of aerobic activity, X-Torp control modes should be adapted to become more physically stimulating.

  11. Ambulatory cardiac arrhythmias in relation to mild hypokalaemia and prognosis in community dwelling middle-aged and elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Nick; Sadjadieh, Golnaz; Kumarathurai, Preman

    2016-01-01

    with frequency of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) especially in combination with diuretic treatment (r = -0.22, P = 0.015). Hypokalaemia was not associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. Subjects at lowest quintile of p-potassium (mean 3.42, range 2.7-3.6 mmol/L) were defined as hypokalaemic....... Cardiovascular mortality was higher in the hypokalaemic group (hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals: 2.62 (1.11-6.18) after relevant adjustments). Hypokalaemia in combination with excessive PVC worsened the prognosis synergistically; event rates: 83 per 1000 patient-year in subjects with both abnormalities...

  12. Subjective cognitive impairment and brain structural networks in Chinese gynaecological cancer survivors compared with age-matched controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yingchun; Cheng, Andy S K; Song, Ting; Sheng, Xiujie; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xiangyu; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2017-11-28

    Subjective cognitive impairment can be a significant and prevalent problem for gynaecological cancer survivors. The aims of this study were to assess subjective cognitive functioning in gynaecological cancer survivors after primary cancer treatment, and to investigate the impact of cancer treatment on brain structural networks and its association with subjective cognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-reported questionnaire by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) to assess subjective cognitive functioning, and applying DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) and graph theoretical analyses to investigate brain structural networks after primary cancer treatment. A total of 158 patients with gynaecological cancer (mean age, 45.86 years) and 130 age-matched non-cancer controls (mean age, 44.55 years) were assessed. Patients reported significantly greater subjective cognitive functioning on the FACT-Cog total score and two subscales of perceived cognitive impairment and perceived cognitive ability (all p values impairment (r = -0.388, p = 0.034). When compared with non-cancer controls, a considerable proportion of gynaecological cancer survivors may exhibit subjective cognitive impairment. This study provides the first evidence of brain structural network alteration in gynaecological cancer patients at post-treatment, and offers novel insights regarding the possible neurobiological mechanism of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in gynaecological cancer patients. As primary cancer treatment can result in a more random organisation of structural brain networks, this may reduce brain functional specificity and segregation, and have implications for cognitive impairment. Future prospective and longitudinal studies are needed to build upon the study findings in order to assess potentially relevant clinical and psychosocial variables and brain network measures, so as to more accurately understand the

  13. Variations of the histomorphological characteristics of human skin of different body regions in subjects of different age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakasheva-Mazhenkovska, L; Milenkova, L; Gjokik, G; Janevska, V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to create a reference model for the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of healthy human skin in different body regions and different life periods. For this purpose we have taken skin biopsy specimens from 15 different body regions: capillitium, forehead, cheeks, anterior neck, thorax, axilla, abdomen, back, gluteus, anterior arm, anterior forearm, palm, anterior leg, anterior lower leg and sole. The biopsies were histologically elaborated according to a standard paraffin technique, and the obtained histological slides were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed with the use of a computer system for image processing and analysis (Lucia M, Version 3, System for Image Processing and Analysis). The examinees were divided by age into five groups: from full-term infants up to the age of 1 year; from the age of 2 up to the age of 12 years; from the age of 13 up to the age of 22; from the age of 23 up to the age of 55; from the age of 56 up to the age of 73. In each exemplar were determined: the total skin thickness in each region at each age group, total thickness of the epidermis, total thickness of the corium, thickness of the papillary and reticular layers of the corium. In this period the thickening is about 4-4.5 times. The growth of the thickness comes as a result of the growth of the thickness of the reticular corium, values of which grow by 4-5 times. The height of the epidermis in newborns shows higher values than the second group (childhood). In the third and fourth group the values of the epidermis are from 1.5 to 2.5 times higher on those parts of the body which are uncovered and exposed to externalities. The essence of the changes that happen to the skin is structural final formation, which is turbulent and targeted in youth (in order to harmonize structural and functional abilities of the human organism) and in mature age to synchronize the function of the skin with the other systems of the organism.

  14. Ambulatory cardiac arrhythmias in relation to mild hypokalaemia and prognosis in community dwelling middle-aged and elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Nick; Sadjadieh, Golnaz; Kumarathurai, Preman

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Severe hypokalaemia can aggravate arrhythmia tendency and prognosis, but less is known about risk of mild hypokalaemia, which is a frequent finding. We examined the associations between mild hypokalaemia and ambulatory cardiac arrhythmias and their prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects...

  15. SUBJECTIVITY AND HYBRIDITY IN THE AGE OF INTERACTIVE INTERNET MEDIA: THE MUSICAL PERFORMANCES OF CHARICE PEMPENGCO AND ARNEL PINEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi-Anne Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines hybrid subjectivity in the performances by and in the reception of musical artists utilizing the technology of interactive Internet media. It focuses on the career trajectories of the popular Filipino music performers Charice Pempengco and Arnel Pineda, taking into account how their transnational presence and dissemination through internet media communities affect perceptions of locality, nationality and race.

  16. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P.; Burema, J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during

  17. General Lack of Correlations between Age and Signs of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects with Non-diabetic Fasting Glucose Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Harry G; Mrvichin, Nate; Clouatre, Dallas; Bagchi, Debasis; Preuss, Jeffrey M; Perricone, Nicholas V; Swaroop, Anand; Kaats, Gilbert R

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance and advancing age are well-recognized risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Recent reports indicate that fasting glucose levels in non-diabetic patients correlate appropriately with the development of certain elements in metabolic syndrome, which suggest a cause-effect relationship with insulin resistance. The present investigation assessed whether a significant association exists between chronological age and various elements of metabolic syndrome in this same group of subjects possessing non-diabetic fasting glucose levels. Baseline data were taken from 288 subjects (age 17-87 years) with fasting glucose levels ≤ 125 mg/dl. Correlations between chronological age and different metabolic parameters were assessed to determine any statistically significant relationships and compare these with previously demonstrated metabolic parameters. With the exception of systolic blood pressure, the following correlations between age and components of metabolic syndrome were not significant or even significant in the opposite direction compared to those found in the same population using fasting glucose as the independent variable: body weight, body fat, diastolic blood pressure, white blood cell count (WBC)/neutrophil count, and circulating levels of insulin, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Although systolic blood pressure still increased, it was to a lesser extent than might be expected. In the present investigation, a cross-sectional analysis was carried out over a wide age range of subjects. It is noteworthy that fasting glucose levels and the other major elements of metabolic syndrome did not change significantly with advancing age. These results demonstrate that decreasing insulin resistance and fasting glucose levels may be an important way to overcome the adverse effects and perturbations of advancing age

  18. A Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Safety Study of Gadoterate Meglumine in Pediatric Subjects Aged Younger Than 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Mario; Koob, Meriam; de Buttet, Sophie; Bourrinet, Philippe; Felices, Mathieu; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta

    2017-09-12

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of gadoterate meglumine in pediatric patients younger than 2 years; the secondary objectives were to document its efficacy and safety. This was a Phase IV open-label, prospective study conducted in 9 centers (4 countries). Forty-five patients younger than 2 years with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate and scheduled to undergo routine gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of any organ were included and received a single intravenous injection of gadoterate meglumine (0.1 mmol/kg). To perform the population pharmacokinetics analysis, 3 blood samples per subject were drawn during 3 time windows at time points allocated by randomization. Gadoterate meglumine concentrations were best fitted using a 2-compartmental model with linear elimination from central compartment. The median total clearance adjusted to body weight was estimated at 0.06 L/h per kg and increased with estimated glomerular filtration rate according to a power model. The median volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) adjusted to body weight was estimated at 0.047 L/kg. Estimated median terminal half-life (t1/2β) was 1.35 h, and the median systemic exposure (area under the curve) was 1591 μmol h/L. Efficacy was assessed by comparing precontrast +postcontrast images to precontrast images in a subset of 28 subjects who underwent an MRI examination of brain, spine, and associated tissues. A total of 28 lesions were identified and analyzed in 15 subjects with precontrast images versus 30 lesions in 16 subjects with precontrast + postcontrast images. Lesion visualization was improved with a mean (SD) increase in scores at subject level of 0.7 (1.0) for lesion border delineation, 0.9 (1.6) for internal morphology, and 3.1 (3.2) for contrast enhancement. Twenty-six adverse events occurred postinjection in 13 subjects (28.9%), including 3 serious reported in 1 subject (2.2%). One subject (2

  19. Subjective alcohol responses in a cross-sectional, field-based study of adolescents and young adults: Effects of age, drinking level, and dependence/consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Hayley; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Miranda, Robert; Spear, Linda P

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally different than adults in ways that may partially explain why alcohol misuse typically develops during this period. Ample animal-science evidence and nascent ecological evidence points toward developmentally limited differences in sensitivity to alcohol's stimulatory and sedative effects. Field-based research methods were used to test for such age-related differences in a sample of adolescents through young adults. Potential moderating influences of estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), as well as typical consumption and level of dependence/consequences were explored. Subjective alcohol responses were collected from 1,364 participants, aged 17 to 32 years, recruited outside of venues where drinking takes place in a small metropolitan bar district. Self-reports of stimulatory response to alcohol were age-related, such that younger participants reported increased subjective stimulation at the time of data collection relative to older participants. Age-related differences in stimulatory responses were more pronounced at lower eBACs and among younger participants who typically drank more heavily. Stimulatory responses generally diminished among older than younger participants, although individuals with greater dependence/consequences consistently reported greater stimulation from drinking. Contrastingly, age, typical consumption, and dependence/consequences were not related to sedation in this sample. This research provides cross-sectional evidence to support age-, consumption-, and dependence/consequences-related differences in stimulatory alcohol responses among adolescents and young adults assessed within a bar-area context. While cross-sectional, the results of this field-based study provide support for the theory that addiction liability is developmentally linked and associated, in part, with age-related differences in subjective alcohol responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  20. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea)). e-mail: growthkim@daum.net/growthkim@pusan.ac.kr)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6+-18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6+-19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  1. Age-related Ventricular Remodeling is an Independent Risk for Heart Failure Symptoms in Subjects With Preserved Systolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lieh Hung

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac structure, function, and various ventricular remodeling patterns were age-related. Such remodeling process is not only associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular morbidities but also more likely to develop HF symptoms, which are independent of clinical variables and LV mass.

  2. Safety and efficacy of two anti-acne/anti-aging treatments in subjects with photodamaged skin and mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H; Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Raab, Susana; Oresajo, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Although reliable prevalence data are not available, adult acne is thought to be somewhat common, and it is not unusual for patients to have acne as well as early signs of skin aging. A novel anti-acne/anti-aging formulation (Treatment A) has been developed for daily use by patients to address both signs of skin aging and facial acne vulgaris. The novel, non-prescription formulation includes several ingredients shown to target factors underlying the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris while also addressing multiple components in the pathophysiology of skin aging. A blinded, randomized, split-face study was conducted to evaluate and compare the tolerability and efficacy of the novel anti-acne/ anti-aging product in subjects with photodamaged skin and acne vulgaris relative to tretinoin cream 0.025% (Treatment B). All subjects also were given supportive skincare, consisting of a cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Each treatment was assessed for its effects on subjects' appearance, lesion count reductions, and tolerability. Treatment A produced statistically significantly greater improvements in skin tone evenness, skin tone clarity, and blemishes and blotchiness. There were also statistically greater reductions in total lesion count for acne patients on the side of the face treated with Treatment A compared to Treatment B; Treatment A was also associated with early (day 2) improvement in skin tone evenness and clarity, tactile skin smoothness, and blemishes and blotchiness. Both treatments demonstrated favorable tolerability. The novel topical anti-aging/anti-acne therapy (Treatment A) within a comprehensive skin care regimen of cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen may maximize efficacy and tolerability and contribute to our armamentarium for treating both photodamage and acne at the same time.

  3. Sex Effect on Average Bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Manuel; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Generic formulations are by far the most prescribed drugs. This scenario is highly beneficial for society because medication expenses are significantly reduced after expiration of the exclusivity period conceded to the branded name drug. Correspondingly, these formulations must be adequately evaluated to avoid drug inefficacy and toxicity in the overall patient population. Bioequivalence studies are the only in vivo evaluation that a generic drug must overcome to reach the market. These clinical trials have not been exempt from underrepresentation of female subjects and a lack of sex-based analysis. Frequently, conclusions obtained in men are extrapolated to women. Furthermore, the obtained results are not analyzed to determine sex differences. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect that male and female differences in gastrointestinal physiology can have on bioequivalence conclusions and to show why a sex-based analysis must be conducted in these studies to improve the evaluation of generic drugs. This discussion was based on observed sex differences in product bioavailability discrimination (sex-by-formulation interaction) and on residual variability through an analysis of average bioequivalence data previously reported by other researchers and data collected by our center. Bioequivalence studies of oral formulations, with a 2-period, 2-sequence, 2-treatment random crossover design performed in healthy subjects with at least 6 subjects of each sex, were included. In addition, the bioequivalence conclusion that would have been reached in each study if performed with only 1 sex was estimated. The data reveal that differences in both product bioavailability discrimination and residual variability occur with a significant incidence in bioequivalence studies. In either Cmax or AUC, a significant sex-by-formulation interaction was present in 1 of 3 reviewed studies, whereas differences in residual variability between sexes were significant for >50% of studies

  4. The video head impulse test (vHIT of semicircular canal function – age dependent normative values of VOR gain in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Andrew McGarvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. The video Head Impulse Test (vHIT is now widely used to test the function of each of the six semicircular canals individually by measuring the eye rotation response to an abrupt head rotation in the plane of the canal. The main measure of canal adequacy is the ratio of the eye movement response to the head movement stimulus i.e. the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. However there is a need for normative data about how VOR gain is affected by age and also by head velocity, to allow the response of any particular patient to be compared to response of healthy subjects in their age range. In this study we determined for all six semicircular canals, normative values of VOR gain, for each canal across a range of head velocities, for healthy subjects in each decade of life.Study Design. The VOR gain was measured for all canals across a range of head velocities for at least 10 healthy subjects in decade age bands: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Methods. The compensatory eye movement response to a small, unpredictable, abrupt head rotation (head impulse was measured by the ICS Impulse prototype system. The same operator delivered every impulse to every subject. Results. VOR gain decreased at high head velocities, but was largely unaffected by age into the 80-89 year age group. There were some small but systematic differences between the two directions of head rotation, which appear to be largely due to the fact that in this study only the right eye was measured. The results are considered in relation to recent evidence about the effect of age on VOR performance.Conclusion. These normative values allow the results of any particular patient to be compared to the values of healthy people in their age range and so allow, for example, detection of whether a patient has a bilateral vestibular loss. VOR gain, as measured directly by the eye movement response to head rotation, seems largely unaffected by

  5. Modulation of the phenolic composition and colour of red wines subjected to accelerated ageing by controlling process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Rodríguez-Tecedor, S; Pérez-Del-Notario, N; Arenzana-Rámila, I; Pizarro, C

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the main factors conditioning accelerated ageing processes (oxygen dose, chip dose, wood origin, toasting degree and maceration time) on the phenolic and chromatic profiles of red wines by using a multivariate strategy based on experimental design methodology. The results obtained revealed that the concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols could be modified through the application of particular experimental conditions. This fact was particularly remarkable since changes in phenolic profile were closely linked to changes observed in chromatic parameters. The main strength of this study lies in the possibility of using its conclusions as a basis to make wines with specific colour properties based on quality criteria. To our knowledge, the influence of such a large number of alternative ageing parameters on wine phenolic composition and chromatic attributes has not been studied previously using a comprehensive experimental design methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    , attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  7. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  8. Randomized trial on the effects of a combined physical/cognitive training in aged MCI subjects: the Train the Brain study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, L.; Picano, E.; Andreassi, M. G.; Angelucci, A.; Baldacci, F.; Baroncelli, L.; Begenisic, T.; Bellinvia, P. F.; Berardi, N.; Biagi, L.; Bonaccorsi, J.; Bonanni, E.; Bonuccelli, U.; Borghini, A.; Braschi, C.; Broccardi, M.; Bruno, R. M.; Caleo, M.; Carlesi, C.; Carnicelli, L.; Cartoni, G.; Cecchetti, L.; Cenni, M. C.; Ceravolo, R.; Chico, L.; Cintoli, S.; Cioni, G.; Coscia, M.; Costa, M.; D’Angelo, G.; D’Ascanio, P.; Nes, M. De; Turco, S. Del; Coscio, E. Di; Galante, M. Di; Lascio, N. di; Faita, F.; Falorni, I.; Faraguna, U.; Fenu, A.; Fortunato, L.; Franco, R.; Gargani, L.; Gargiulo, R.; Ghiadoni, L.; Giorgi, F. S.; Iannarella, R.; Iofrida, C.; Kusmic, C.; Limongi, F.; Maestri, M.; Maffei, M.; Maggi, S.; Mainardi, M.; Mammana, L.; Marabotti, A.; Mariotti, V.; Melissari, E.; Mercuri, A.; Micera, S.; Molinaro, S.; Narducci, R.; Navarra, T.; Noale, M.; Pagni, C.; Palumbo, S.; Pasquariello, R.; Pellegrini, S.; Pietrini, P.; Pizzorusso, T.; Poli, A.; Pratali, L.; Retico, A.; Ricciardi, E.; Rota, G.; Sale, A.; Sbrana, S.; Scabia, G.; Scali, M.; Scelfo, D.; Sicari, R.; Siciliano, G.; Stea, F.; Taddei, S.; Tognoni, G.; Tonacci, A.; Tosetti, M.; Turchi, S.; Volpi, L.

    2017-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment and dementia are an increasing societal burden. Epidemiological studies indicate that lifestyle factors, e.g. physical, cognitive and social activities, correlate with reduced dementia risk; moreover, positive effects on cognition of physical/cognitive training have been found in cognitively unimpaired elders. Less is known about effectiveness and action mechanisms of physical/cognitive training in elders already suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a population at high risk for dementia. We assessed in 113 MCI subjects aged 65–89 years, the efficacy of combined physical-cognitive training on cognitive decline, Gray Matter (GM) volume loss and Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in hippocampus and parahippocampal areas, and on brain-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) activity elicited by a cognitive task, measured by ADAS-Cog scale, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) and fMRI, respectively, before and after 7 months of training vs. usual life. Cognitive status significantly decreased in MCI-no training and significantly increased in MCI-training subjects; training increased parahippocampal CBF, but no effect on GM volume loss was evident; BOLD activity increase, indicative of neural efficiency decline, was found only in MCI-no training subjects. These results show that a non pharmacological, multicomponent intervention improves cognitive status and indicators of brain health in MCI subjects. PMID:28045051

  9. Non-dipping pattern in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is associated with metabolic abnormalities in a random sample of middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, Olavi; Vasunta, Riitta-Liisa; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-11-01

    A reduction in the blood pressure decline at night (pattern') is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to evaluate whether ABPM characteristics are associated with metabolic abnormalities in subjects without known hypertension or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This is a cross-sectional population-based study on middle-aged subjects (n=462). Two distinct definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used: National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results suggested that subjects characterized by non-dipping in 24 h ABPM were more obese (P=0.014). After adjustment for body mass index, age and sex, non-dippers had higher very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (P=0.003), total (P=0.029)-and VLDL-triglycerides (P=0.026) and oral glucose tolerance test 2 h blood glucose (P=0.027) compared with dippers. Non-dipping status was more common among subjects with MetS (Ppattern. The percentage decline in blood pressure from day to night decreased with the number of metabolic abnormalities (P=0.012). In conclusion, ABPM non-dipping status is an independent predictor of glucose intolerance. It is also associated with several other metabolic abnormalities. Whether non-dipping pattern is causally related to these metabolic aberrations remains to be explored in a future prospective follow-up of this cohort.

  10. Randomized trial on the effects of a combined physical/cognitive training in aged MCI subjects: the Train the Brain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Age-related cognitive impairment and dementia are an increasing societal burden. Epidemiological studies indicate that lifestyle factors, e.g. physical, cognitive and social activities, correlate with reduced dementia risk; moreover, positive effects on cognition of physical/cognitive training have been found in cognitively unimpaired elders. Less is known about effectiveness and action mechanisms of physical/cognitive training in elders already suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a population at high risk for dementia. We assessed in 113 MCI subjects aged 65-89 years, the efficacy of combined physical-cognitive training on cognitive decline, Gray Matter (GM) volume loss and Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in hippocampus and parahippocampal areas, and on brain-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) activity elicited by a cognitive task, measured by ADAS-Cog scale, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) and fMRI, respectively, before and after 7 months of training vs. usual life. Cognitive status significantly decreased in MCI-no training and significantly increased in MCI-training subjects; training increased parahippocampal CBF, but no effect on GM volume loss was evident; BOLD activity increase, indicative of neural efficiency decline, was found only in MCI-no training subjects. These results show that a non pharmacological, multicomponent intervention improves cognitive status and indicators of brain health in MCI subjects.

  11. Incidence of atrial fibrillation is associated with age and gender in subjects practicing physical exercise: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Santoro, Francesco; Correale, Michele; De Gennaro, Luisa; Conte, Giusy; Di Biase, Matteo

    2016-10-15

    The link between physical activity and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains controversial. We therefore sought to further assess by a meta-analysis whether increased levels of physical activity may increase the risk of AF. In October 2015, a PubMed research was conducted for studies that investigated this topic. We identified 11 relevant studies with a total of 81,787 participants. The pooled analysis did not show an increased risk of AF in subjects practicing physical activity (odds ratio (OR)=0.92, 95% C.I.=0.84-1.01, p=0.077, I(2)=90%). However, given the observed large heterogeneity among studies, a subgroup analysis was performed in order to identify possible variables influencing the risk of AF. Significantly higher risk of AF in subjects with reported physical activity was found in studies enrolling exclusively male participants (OR=7.49, 95% C.I.=3.12-19.01, pmeta-regression analysis between age and OR of AF (p=0.047). In conclusion, in our meta-analysis, there is a non-significant trend toward lower risk of AF in subjects practicing physical activity. The risk seems higher in male subjects. A reverse correlation between age and risk of AF seems to be evident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects are consistent with frontal cortico-subcortical and fronto-parietal neuropsychological models of brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Natalia; Łojek, Emilia; Kijanowska-Haładyna, Beata; Nestorowicz, Jakub; Harasim, Andrzej; Pluta, Agnieszka; Sobańska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Three neuropsychological theories have been developed according to a possible existence of a similar pattern of cognitive decline in elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. The respective neuropsychological theories attribute age-related deficits to: (a) dysfunction of the frontal lobes, (b) temporo-parietal dysfunction, or (c) decline of right-hemisphere functions. In the present study, we examined which of these theories best explains the cognitive patterns of normal elderly subjects older than 80 years of age (old elderly). Thirty normal old elderly subjects, 14 patients with subcortical vascular dementia, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease, 15 with damage of the right hemisphere of the brain, and 20 young elderly controls participated. A test battery covering the main cognitive domains was administered to all participants. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed five groups of individuals with different cognitive patterns across the whole sample. Old elderly subjects were assigned to four groups according to: (a) preserved overall cognitive performance, (b) processing speed decline, (c) attention decline, or (d) executive impairment. The results of the study are most congruent with models emphasizing frontal-lobe cortical-subcortical and fronto-parietal changes in old age. The results also indicate considerable heterogeneity in the cognitive patterns of normal old elderly adults.

  13. The Mediating Roles of Primary and Secondary Control in the Relationship between Body Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being Among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Ashli D; Konnert, Candace A; Speirs, Calandra E C

    2017-07-01

    This study examined primary and secondary control as mediators in the relationship between body satisfaction and subjective well-being (SWB) and explored age differences in the mediation model. Data from 362 women, aged 40-91 years, assessed (i) the relationships between body satisfaction, age, primary and secondary control strategies (body-specific social comparison, acceptance, and positive reappraisal), and three indices of SWB (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction), (ii) the mediation effects of primary and secondary control on the relationship between body satisfaction and SWB, and (iii) whether mediational relationships were moderated by age. Body satisfaction was unrelated to age but positively related to positive affect and life satisfaction and negatively related to negative affect. Body satisfaction was also related to primary and secondary control strategies. There were significant indirect (mediated) effects of body satisfaction on all outcome variables through acceptance and positive reappraisal. These mediators were significant at all age levels, but exerted their strongest influence among younger women. This study provides new information about the mechanisms that influence the relationship between body satisfaction and SWB among a broad age range of women who are experiencing physical changes that are inconsistent with Western beauty standards.

  14. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Silami,Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani,Rafaella; Alandia-Román,Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza,Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm...

  15. Effect of Layer and Film Thickness and Temperature on the Mechanical Property of Micro- and Nano-Layered PC/PMMA Films Subjected to Thermal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Mohti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilayered polymer films with biomimicking, layered structures have unique microstructures and many potential applications. However, a major limitation of polymer films is the deterioration of mechanical properties in working environments. To facilitate the design and development of multilayered polymer films, the impact of thermal aging on the mechanical behavior of micro- and nano-layered polymer films has been investigated experimentally. The composition of the polymer films that have been studied is 50 vol% polycarbonate (PC and 50 vol% poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. The current study focuses on the effect of film and layer thickness and temperature on the mechanical properties of the materials subjected to thermal aging. To study the effect of film and layer thickness, films with the same thickness, but various layer thicknesses, and films with the same layer thickness, but various film thicknesses, were thermally aged at 100 °C in a constant temperature oven for up to six weeks. The results show that as the layer thickness decreases to 31 nm, the film has a higher stiffness and strength, and the trend of the mechanical properties is relatively stable over aging. The ductility of all of the films decreases with aging time. To study the effect of temperature, the films with 4,096 layers (31 nm thick for each layer were aged at 100 °C, 115 °C and 125 °C for up to four weeks. While the 100 °C aging results in a slight increase of the stiffness and strength of the films, the higher aging temperature caused a decrease of the stiffness and strength of the films. The ductility decreases with the aging time for all of the temperatures. The films become more brittle for higher aging temperatures.

  16. Prevalence, distribution, and risk factor for colonic neoplasia in 1133 subjects aged 40-49 undergoing screening colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John C T; Lau, James Y W; Suen, Bing Y; Ng, Siew C; Wong, Martin C S; Tang, Raymond S Y; Wong, Sunny H; Wu, Justin C Y; Chan, Francis K L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is rising among neoplasia were determined. Among 1133 ethnic Chinese, colorectal neoplasia prevalence was 20.5%. In men, distal adenomas were associated with proximal colorectal neoplasia. Men, advancing age, a first degree relative (FDR) with CRC, and diabetes mellitus were independently associated with colorectal neoplasia. A colorectal neoplasia was three times more likely to be found in a 45- to 49-year-old man with FDR of CRC compared with a 40- to 44-year-old woman without a FDR of CRC. The numbers needed to screen one colorectal neoplasia, and one advanced neoplasm in the highest risk group of 45- to 49-year-old men with FDR with CRC were 2.8 (95% CI: 2.2-4.4) and 18.5 (95% CI: 8.9-39.2), respectively. Colorectal neoplasia prevalence in this 40- to 49-year-old Chinese cohort was higher than previous studies. Men, advancing age, FDR with CRC, and diabetes mellitus, can be used to risk stratify for neoplasia development. Men 45-49 years old with FDR with CRC represented the highest risk subgroup, with the lowest number needed to screen. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Association of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 2B Subunit (GRIN2B) polymorphism with earlier age at onset of withdrawal symptoms in Indian alcohol dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Pradip; Dahale, Ajit; Kishore, Brij; Chand, Prabhat; Benegal, Vivek; Jain, Sanjeev; Murthy, Pratima; Purushottam, Meera

    2017-01-01

    The associations of GRIN2B polymorphism (rs1806201) with alcohol withdrawal and related clinical parameters in alcohol dependent subjects were investigated. Cases were assessed using a semi-structured clinical pro forma for alcohol abuse and a questionnaire for family history of alcohol dependence and psychiatric disorders after obtaining informed consent. The study included alcohol dependent male cases (n = 220, age at onset of alcohol withdrawal symptoms = 32.4 ± 8.8 y) recruited at the Center for Addiction Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. The controls comprised of healthy unrelated males (n = 183) who were ethnically matched and selected randomly. The polymorphism rs1806201 was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The presence of T allele at this locus was significantly associated with lower age at onset of alcohol withdrawal symptoms (p = .005) among the cases. Mean age at onset of alcohol withdrawal symptoms in subjects who were T carriers was 31.4 ± 8.5 y (n = 160) and non-T carriers was 35.2 ± 9.0 y (n = 60). The SNP rs1806201 in GRIN2B may play an important role in genetic susceptibility to earlier age of withdrawal in alcohol dependent patients.

  18. Objective and subjective assessment of sleep in chronic low back pain patients compared with healthy age and gender matched controls: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heneghan Conor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While approximately 70% of chronic low back pain (CLBP sufferers complain of sleep disturbance, current literature is based on self report measures which can be prone to bias and no objective data of sleep quality, based exclusively on CLBP are available. In accordance with the recommendations of The American Sleep Academy, when measuring sleep, both subjective and objective assessments should be considered as the two are only modestly correlated, suggesting that each modality assesses different aspects of an individual's sleep experience. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to expand previous research into sleep disturbance in CLBP by comparing objective and subjective sleep quality in participants with CLBP and healthy age and gender matched controls, to identify correlates of poor sleep and to test logistics and gather information prior to a larger study. Methods 15 CLBP participants (mean age = 43.8 years (SD = 11.5, 53% female and 15 healthy controls (mean age = 41.5 years (SD = 10.6, 53% female consented. All participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary and the SF36v2. CLBP participants also completed the Oswestry Disability Index. Sleep patterns were assessed over three consecutive nights using actigraphy. Total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, sleep latency onset (SL and number of awakenings after sleep onset (WASO were derived. Statistical analysis was conducted using unrelated t-tests and Pearson's product moment correlation co-efficients. Results CLBP participants demonstrated significantly poorer overall sleep both objectively and subjectively. They demonstrated lower actigraphic SE (p = .002 and increased WASO (p = .027 but no significant differences were found in TST (p = .43 or SL (p = .97. Subjectively, they reported increased insomnia (p = Conclusion CLBP participants demonstrated poorer overall sleep, increased insomnia symptoms and

  19. Effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) against the common cold in school-aged subjects: a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Betty Howell; Miller, Shelley Porter

    2002-01-01

    Of the 62 million common colds requiring medical attention in the United States each year, more than 80% affect school-aged children. Controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) in reducing cold duration. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges in reducing the duration and severity of colds in school-aged subjects and to identify the benefits of prophylactic administration of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges in reducing the occurrence of colds. The medical charts of subjects enrolled at Utah's Heritage Center before and after the introduction of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (between January 1998 and August 2001) were reviewed to identify those who experienced cold signs or symptoms. Two or more prespecified signs or symptoms on the same day identified a cold and, along with patient or medical staff reports and use of cold medications, were used to determine cold start and resolution dates. Results from subjects who did or did not take study treatment were compared statistically to determine the prophylactic effects of lozenge use. Effects of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges on the need for antibiotic therapy were also analyzed. The review encompassed 496 records. Treatment with zinc gluconate glycine lozenges significantly decreased cold duration (7.5 versus 9.0 days for nonuse; P colds per year (0.0 versus 1.3; P colds (4.1% versus 36.2%; P cold duration and antibiotic use in school-aged subjects. Prophylactic administration also significantly decreased cold frequency.

  20. Perceptual learning in Williams syndrome: looking beyond averages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Gervan

    Full Text Available Williams Syndrome is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an uneven cognitive profile and surprisingly large neurobehavioral differences among individuals. Previous studies have already shown different forms of memory deficiencies and learning difficulties in WS. Here we studied the capacity of WS subjects to improve their performance in a basic visual task. We employed a contour integration paradigm that addresses occipital visual function, and analyzed the initial (i.e. baseline and after-learning performance of WS individuals. Instead of pooling the very inhomogeneous results of WS subjects together, we evaluated individual performance by expressing it in terms of the deviation from the average performance of the group of typically developing subjects of similar age. This approach helped us to reveal information about the possible origins of poor performance of WS subjects in contour integration. Although the majority of WS individuals showed both reduced baseline and reduced learning performance, individual analysis also revealed a dissociation between baseline and learning capacity in several WS subjects. In spite of impaired initial contour integration performance, some WS individuals presented learning capacity comparable to learning in the typically developing population, and vice versa, poor learning was also observed in subjects with high initial performance levels. These data indicate a dissociation between factors determining initial performance and perceptual learning.

  1. Normative values of spino-pelvic sagittal alignment, balance, age, and health-related quality of life in a cohort of healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Masashi; Hatsushikano, Shun; Shimoda, Haruka; Ono, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Kei

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the normative values of whole body sagittal alignment and balance of a healthy population in the standing position; and to clarify the relationship among the alignment, balance, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and age. Healthy Japanese adult volunteers [n = 126, mean age 39.4 years (20-69), M/F = 30/96] with no history of spinal disease were enrolled in a cross-sectional cohort study. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire was administered and subjects were scanned from the center of the acoustic meati (CAM) to the feet while standing on a force plate to determine the gravity line (GL), and the distance between CAM and GL (CAM-GL) was measured in the sagittal plane. Standard X-ray parameters were measured from the head to the lower extremities. ODI was compared among age groups stratified by decade. Correlations were investigated by simple linear regression analysis. Ideal lumbar lordosis was investigated using the least squares method. The present study yielded normative values for whole standing sagittal alignment including head and lower extremities in a cohort of 126 healthy adult volunteers, comparable to previous reports and thus a formula for ideal lumbar lordosis was deduced: LL = 32.9 + 0.60 × PI - 0.23 × age. There was a tendency of positive correlation between McGregor slope, thoracic kyphosis, PT, and age. SVA, T1 pelvic angle, sacrofemoral angle, knee flexion angle, and ankle flexion angle, but not CAM-GL, increased with age, suggesting that the spinopelvic alignment changes with age, but standing whole body alignment is compensated for to preserve a horizontal gaze. ODI tended to increase from the 40s in the domain of pain intensity, personal care, traveling, and total score. ODI weakly, but significantly positively correlated with age and PI-LL. Whole body standing alignment even in healthy subjects gradually deteriorates with age, but is compensated to preserve a horizontal gaze. HRQOL is also

  2. Age-Related Changes in Ocular Blood Velocity in Suspects with Glaucomatous Optic Disc Appearance. Comparison with Healthy Subjects and Glaucoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Asejczyk-Widlicka

    Full Text Available To evaluate retrobulbar blood flow characteristics of glaucoma suspects with glaucomatous optic disc appearance (GODA in comparison to healthy control group (CG and primary open angle glaucoma patients (POAG and assess the effect of age.145 patients from a single glaucoma clinic were enrolled and classified into two diagnostic groups (GODA and POAG. Third group of subjects consisted of 67 age matched individuals (CG. Retrobulbar blood velocity measurement in central retinal artery was performed using color Doppler imaging (CDI. CDI images were processed in custom software leading a range of parameter estimates from a continuous waveform signal. The effect of age on the estimated parameters was evaluated with the stepwise forward regression and ANCOVA in which age was used as a continuous factor. One-way ANOVA was used to test for the differences in the CDI parameters between the three considered groups. Correlation between restive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI was assessed with a bilinear fitting guaranteeing no discontinuities in RI intercept estimate. Fisher test was used to assess the applicability of a bilinear PI/RI relationship, while the statistics of the RI intercept estimate were evaluated using the bootstrap.ANCOVA showed significant interaction between age and group (p<0.05 for five out of nine considered CDI parameters. The RI intercept for CG and GODA groups was 0.602±0.047, and 0.574±0.044 respectively, while the RI intercept of 0.934±0.066 was found for the POAG.The observed similarity of CG and GODA group and dissimilarity between GODA and POAG groups in terms of PI/RI relationship is remarkable. Age may play some role in the different mechanisms occurring in blood velocity dynamics in GODA and POAG subjects but it is not a strongly determining factor.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of food and age on the pharmacokinetics of oral netupitant and palonosetron in healthy subjects: A randomized, open-label, crossover phase 1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagnile, Selma; Lanzarotti, Corinna; Gutacker, Michaela; Jakob-Rodamer, Verena; Peter Kammerer, Klaus; Timmer, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Antiemetic treatment compliance is important to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, a feared chemotherapy side effect. NEPA, a new oral fixed combination of netupitant, a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), and palonosetron, a second-generation 5-HT3 RA, targets dual antiemetic pathways with a single dose. This study investigated the effect of food intake and age on NEPA pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety. In this open-label, single-center, randomized, phase 1 study, 24 adults (18-45 years) received NEPA in a fed or fasted state during the first treatment period and in the alternative state in the next treatment period. Twelve elderly subjects (≥65 years) received NEPA in a fasted state. Blood samples were taken for netupitant and palonosetron PK analysis. In the fed condition, netupitant plasma exposure increased, whereas palonosetron PK parameters were not affected. Furthermore, elderly subjects showed increased netupitant and palonosetron exposure compared with adults. All adverse events were mild/moderate, with constipation and headache the most common. Although food intake and age altered NEPA PK, dose adjustments were not needed, as netupitant and palonosetron exposure increases did not lead to safety concerns in healthy subjects. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Evaluation of the usefulness of the fetal femur length with respect to gestational age to detect Down syndrome in Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H J; Won, H S; Ju, D H; Roh, H J; Lee, P R; Kim, A

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the usefulness of shortening of the fetal femur length (FL) to predict Down syndrome at different gestational ages in Korean subjects. This study involved 110 Korean Down syndrome fetuses and 602 randomly selected euploid controls. The expected FL for any biparietal diameter (BPD) was calculated based on the control group data. Subjects were divided into four groups according to gestational age periods: 14-18 weeks; 19-23 weeks; 24-28 weeks and 29-36 weeks. The value of measured/expected FL ratio to predict Down syndrome was analyzed for each group. The values of FL for any BPD in Down syndrome patients were significantly different from those in the control group (p Down syndrome (p Down syndrome of 0.907 (SD 0.075). At a fixed false positive rate of 5%, the sensitivities of FL were lower than 32.8% (95% CI 0.705-0.915) in three second trimester groups, and 71.1% (95% CI 0.924-0.997) in the third trimester group. Short FL is a poor marker of Down syndrome in the second trimester in Korean subject. It may be used as a screening marker only in the third trimester. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Predictors of subjective age in people aged 40-79 years: a five-year follow-up study. The impact of mastery, mental and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergland, Astrid; Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2014-07-01

    Assessing subjective age perception (SAP) and changes in SAP as well as exploring which variables of socio-demographic, health and personal mastery independently predicted SAP. The panel data are from two waves of the Norwegian Study on the Life Course, Ageing and Generations (NorLAG). Our sample consists of 2471 people aged 40-79 years at baseline who were surveyed in 2002/2003 (T1) and 2007/2008 (T2). Univariate and multiple regressions were performed; multivariate analyses assessing the relative importance of the independent variables (at T1) for the SAP at T2. Older chronological age, good physical health, good mental health, a high level of personal mastery and having lower education significantly predicted a youthful SAP. For the whole sample, older age and a high level of personal mastery were the most important predictors. For those aged 40-49 being a man, having lower education, good physical health and high personal mastery predicted a younger SAP, whereas in the group aged 50-59 years being married/cohabiting and having a high level of education were predictors of an older SAP. For those aged 60-69, high personal mastery was the only independent predictor of a younger SAP. For those aged 70-79 years, only health - good mental and physical health - independently predicted a younger SAP. Most respondents feel younger than their chronological age, the more the older they are. Self-rated physical and mental health and personal mastery are associated with SAP and vary in different age groups.

  6. Influence of adding nanoparticles on the hardness, tear strength, and permanent deformation of facial silicone subjected to accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, Adhara S; Andreotti, Agda M; Moreno, Amália; Sinhoreti, Mário A C; Dos Santos, Daniela M; Goiato, Marcelo C

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of adding nanoparticles to silicone protection has proven to prevent color degradation. However, reports of other physical property changes in facial silicone are scarce. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of adding nanoparticles on the hardness, tear strength, and permanent deformation of a facial silicone. Specimens were made for each test, with 140 for the hardness test, 140 for the permanent deformation test, but 280 for the rupture test. This higher number was due to the fact that the first 140 specimens were ruptured and unusable after the initial reading. ZnO, BaSO 4 , and TiO 2 nanoparticles at concentrations of 1% and 2% of silicone were used, as well as specimens without nanoparticles that consisted of only oil paint and of only silicone. Outcomes were measured before and after 1008 hours of accelerated aging. Data were analyzed by nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honest significant differences test (α=.05). Results showed that the presence of nanoparticles influenced the properties of the assessed groups. The nanoparticles decreased hardness values. The highest values of tear strength were observed for the groups with addition of BaSO 4 . The 1% ZnO group without oil paint showed the lowest values of permanent deformation. Based on the findings of this in vitro study, the use of ZnO nanoparticles is recommended, since they did not negatively affect the properties of the materials evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10-100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%-1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics.

  8. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the

  9. Alternatives to the Moving Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen

    2001-01-01

    There are many possible estimators that could be used with annual inventory data. The 5-year moving average has been selected as a default estimator to provide initial results for states having available annual inventory data. User objectives for these estimates are discussed. The characteristics of a moving average are outlined. It is shown that moving average...

  10. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  11. COL8A1 rs13095226 polymorphism shows no association with neovascular age-related macular degeneration or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Huang, Lvzhen; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Chunfang; Bai, Yujing; Li, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main cause of visual impairment and legal blindness in older individuals. COL8A1 rs13095226 variants have recently been implicated associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV) in American studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the COL8A1 rs13095226 Polymorphism and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in Chinese people. 900 Chinese subjects-300 cases with nAMD, 300 cases with PCV and 300 controls, were enrolled in a cross-sectional observational study. The diagnoses of nAMD and PCV were confirmed by Fundus photography, Fluorescence Fundus Angiography (FFA) and Indocyanine Green Angiography (ICGA). Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood leukocytes and genotypes of rs13095226 were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Differences in allele distribution between cases and controls were tested by chi-square tests, with age and gender adjusted by logistic regression analysis. The COL8A1 rs13095226 polymorphism was not statistically significantly different from the nAMD or PCV to the normal controls (P>0.05) in Chinese Population. The association remained insignificant after adjustment for age and gender differences (P>0.05). This case-control study indicated that the COL8A1 rs13095226 polymorphism is not associated with nAMD or PCV, which suggesting this gene maybe not a susceptibility gene locus for nAMD or PCV in Chinese subjects.

  12. Sensorimotor control of tracking movements at various speeds for stroke patients as well as age-matched and young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (Pcontrols controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging.

  13. Plasma long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and macular pigment in subjects with family history of age-related macular degeneration: the Limpia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Buaud, Benjamin; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Bron, Alain; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Savel, Hélène; Vaysse, Carole; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Delcourt, Cécile

    2017-12-01

    In numerous epidemiological studies, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Beyond their structural, functional and neuroprotective roles, omega-3 PUFAs may favour the retinal accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD). We examined the associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs in subjects with family history of AMD. The Limpia study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized clinical trial performed in 120 subjects. Subjects with at least one parent treated for neovascular AMD, aged 40-70, with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >20/25, free of late AMD and other major eye conditions and with no use of supplement containing lutein or zeaxanthin the preceding year were recruited in Bordeaux and Dijon, France. At baseline, MPOD within 1° of eccentricity was measured by modified Heidelberg retinal analyser (Heidelberg, Germany) and plasma omega-3 PUFAs by gas chromatography. Medical history and lifestyle data were collected from a standardized questionnaire. Associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs were assessed at the baseline examination, using mixed linear models adjusted for age, gender, centre, body mass index, smoking, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lutein+zeaxanthin. After multivariate adjustment, high MPOD was significantly associated with higher level of plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (β = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.055; p = 0.03). Plasma alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were not significantly associated with MPOD. In the Limpia study, high MPOD within 1° was significantly associated with higher plasma levels of omega-3 DPA. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sensorimotor control of tracking movements at various speeds for stroke patients as well as age-matched and young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Ao

    Full Text Available There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s. The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE, normalized integrated jerk (NIJ and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS, were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01, and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls aging-induced increase in reliance on feedback control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging.

  15. Age and sex corrected normal reference values of T1, T2 T2* and ECV in healthy subjects at 3T CMR.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Clotilde; Slimani, Alisson; Meester, Christophe De; Amzulescu, Mihaela Silvia; Pasquet, Agnes; Vancraeynest, David; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Gerber, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial T1, T2 and T2* imaging techniques become increasingly used in clinical practice. While normal values for T1, T2 and T2* times are well established for 1.5 Tesla (T) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), data for 3T remain scarce. Therefore we sought to determine normal reference values relative to gender and age and day to day reproducibility for native T1, T2, T2* mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) at 3T in healthy subjects.

  16. Urinary albumin excretion in a population based sample of 1011 middle aged non-diabetic subjects. The Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1993-01-01

    in the non-diabetic population. Among 1011 30-70-year-old subjects without diabetes mellitus or urinary tract infection, who were invited to participate in a population based epidemiological study, the albumin concentration was measured in an overnight urine sample. The measurement was performed by an ELISA...... constant with age, but males had higher UAER than females, 2.6 (0-13.5) micrograms min-1 vs 2.2 (0-8.3) micrograms min-1; p sample, was 3% (95% C.I. interval: 1...

  17. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes. A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child's distress and cooperative behavior. Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction. Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures.

  18. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  19. Accelerating Universe via Spatial Averaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Yasusada; TANIMOTO, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    We present a model of an inhomogeneous universe that leads to accelerated expansion after taking spatial averaging. The model universe is the Tolman-Bondi solution of the Einstein equation and contains both a region with positive spatial curvature and a region with negative spatial curvature. We find that after the region with positive spatial curvature begins to re-collapse, the deceleration parameter of the spatially averaged universe becomes negative and the averaged universe starts accele...

  20. A comparative evaluation of the reliability of three methods of assessing gingival biotype in dentate subjects in different age groups: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Patel, Jayanti R; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Patel, Ravi; Arora, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    In the modern competitive society, a pleasing appearance often dictates the difference between success and failure in both our personal and professional lives. Evaluation of gingival biotype is very important from the start of treatment plan to the final restorative placement to provide excellent esthetics. For the study, subjects were divided into 4 groups of different ages, from 20-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years. 30 subjects (15 men and 15 women) were selected in each group for the study. Examination of the thickness of Gingival Biotype was done in 3 different ways; - Direct visual, William's Graduated Probe and Using modified wax caliper. The McNemar test showed statistically significant differences in the way gingival biotype was identified when comparing visual assessment with assessment using direct measurement (P Biotype among the different age groups. Gingival biotype identification by visual assessment is statistically significantly different from assessment with direct measurement. Gingival biotype identification by assessment with a periodontal probe is not statistically significantly different from direct measurement.

  1. Estimation of salt intake assessed by urinary excretion of sodium over 24 h in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Cuadrado-Soto, E; Navia, B; López-Sobaler, A M; Ortega, R M

    2017-02-01

    High intake of salt is associated with early development of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity). In "developed" countries, individuals frequently exceed dietary recommendations for salt intake. Taking into account the limited data on sodium intake by 24-h excretion in urine in schoolchildren, we wished to determine baseline salt intake in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years. The present study was an observational study involving 205 schoolchildren (109 boys and 96 girls) selected from various Spanish provinces. Sodium intake was ascertained by measuring sodium excretion in urine over 24 h. Creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The correlation between fat-free mass determined by anthropometry and that determined via urinary excretion of creatinine was calculated (r = 0.651; p salt equivalent: 7.8 ± 3.1 g/day). Hence, 84.5 % of subjects aged ≤10 years had intakes of >4 g salt/day, and 66.7 % of those aged >10 years had intakes of >5 g salt/day. Urinary excretion of sodium was correlated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.1574 and r = 0.1400, respectively). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted by sex, showed that a high body mass index (odds ratio = 1.159; 95 % CI 1.041-1.290; p diet is a sound policy to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  2. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  3. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distressing side effects. Do anesthesia risks increase in older adults? One concern for older patients is that the aging brain is more ... related surgery risks that are more common in older people: ... problems with memory and paying attention. It may not start until a few days ...

  4. Are we using the appropriate reference samples to develop juvenile age estimation methods based on bone size? An exploration of growth differences between average children and those who become victims of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spake, Laure; Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2018-01-01

    The population on which forensic juvenile skeletal age estimation methods are applied has not been critically considered. Previous research suggests that child victims of homicide tend to be from socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts, and that these contexts impair linear growth. This study investigates whether juvenile skeletal remains examined by forensic anthropologists are short for age compared to their normal healthy peers. Cadaver lengths were obtained from records of autopsies of 1256 individuals, aged birth to eighteen years at death, conducted between 2000 and 2015 in Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. Growth status of the forensic population, represented by homicide victims, and general population, represented by accident victims, were compared using height for age Z-scores and independent sample t-tests. Cadaver lengths of the accident victims were compared to growth references using one sample t-tests to evaluate whether accident victims reflect the general population. Homicide victims are shorter for age than accident victims in samples from the U.S., but not in Australia and New Zealand. Accident victims are more representative of the general population in Australia and New Zealand. Different results in Australia and New Zealand as opposed to the U.S. may be linked to socioeconomic inequality. These results suggest that physical anthropologists should critically select reference samples when devising forensic juvenile skeletal age estimation methods. Children examined in forensic investigations may be short for age, and thus methods developed on normal healthy children may yield inaccurate results. A healthy reference population may not necessarily constitute an appropriate growth comparison for the forensic anthropology population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Idade subjetiva e suas relações com o envelhecimento bem-sucedido Edad subjetiva y sus relaciones con el envejecimiento exitoso Subjective age and its relationship with the successful aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samila Sathler Tavares Batistoni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo traz uma revisão teórica a respeito do conceito “idade subjetiva” a partir de evidências da literatura internacional sobre suas relações com indicadores de envelhecimento bem-sucedido. A partir de estudos derivados da perspectiva life span e life course em Psicologia e Sociologia, os estudos sobre idade subjetiva revelam associações significativas desta com medidas de bem-estar físico e subjetivo, o que pode ser considerado uma variável importante na pesquisa e um potencial indicador clínico.El artículo presenta una revisión teórica sobre el concepto "edad subjetiva" y pruebas de la literatura internacional sobre las relaciones con los indicadores del envejecimiento exitoso. De los estudios derivados de la perspectiva life span y life course en psicología y sociología, edad subjetiva mostró asociaciones significativas con las medidas de bienestar físico y subjetivo y puede considerarse una variable importante en la investigación clínica y como un potencial indicador clínico.The article presents a theoretical review on the concept "subjective age" and evidences from the international literature on its relationship with indicators of successful aging. From the studies derived from the life span and life course perspectives in psychology and sociology, subjective age showed significant associations with measures of physical well-being and subjective, which can be considered an important variable in clinical research and a potential clinical indicator.

  6. No antioxidant beneficial effect of zinc supplementation on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defenses in middle-aged and elderly subjects: the Zenith study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriollo-Sanchez, Maud; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Meunier, Nathalie; Venneria, Eugenia; O'Connor, Jacqueline M; Maiani, Giuseppe; Polito, Angela; Bord, Séverine; Ferry, Monique; Coudray, Charles; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether zinc supplementation affects antioxidant status in European middle-aged and elderly people. Multicentre prospective intervention study, randomized, double-blind, placebo-control. France (Clermont-Ferrand/Theix, and Grenoble), Italy (Rome), Northern Ireland (Coleraine). A total of 387 healthy middle-aged (55-70 yrs) and free-living older aged (70-85 yrs) subjects were randomly allocated to three groups: 0, 15 or 30 mg zinc gluconate/d in addition to usual dietary intake during 6 months. Oxidative stress status was evaluated by measurement of protein oxidation (plasma thiol groups), lipid peroxidation (plasma thio-barbituric acid reactants, TBARS), whole blood glutathione levels, erythrocyte copper/zinc superoxide dismutase activity and plasma antioxidant status (ferric reducing antioxidant power assay), at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Zinc supplementation did not alter oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defenses in elderly, after 3 or 6 months, except an increase in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity. In apparently healthy free living elderly people, a single zinc supplementation had no effects on oxidative stress status.

  7. Relationship between changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids and aging-related arterial stiffness in overweight subjects 50 years or older over a 3-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Han; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Minjoo; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Ayoung; Ji, Minjae; Song, Min; Lee, Jong Ho

    Although aging-related elastic arterial stiffness is an independent indicator of cardiovascular risk, the roles of polyunsaturated fatty acids in this condition remain uncertain. This prospective study examined the relationships of aging, persist overweight and plasma fatty acids with arterial stiffening over 3 years. We divided a cohort of 179 healthy, nonhypertensive subjects (aged ≥50 years) into 2 groups: a normal-weight group (18.5 kg/m(2) ≤ body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m(2), n = 103) and an overweight group (25 kg/m(2) ≤ BMI< 30 kg/m(2), n = 76). Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and plasma fatty acids were measured at baseline and after 3 years. After 3 years, the overweight group showed greater increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-Insulin resistance index and ba-PWV values (P = .009) than the normal-weight group. In addition, greater reductions in eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:3, n-3, EPA; P = .009) and the EPA/arachidonic acid (C20:4, n-6, AA) ratio (P = .001) were found in the overweight group. Multivariate analyses revealed that changes in (Δ) ba-PWV were significantly and positively associated with baseline BMI values and ΔAA/linoleic acid ratios (C18:2, n-6, LA) and negatively associated with ΔEPA/AA ratios. In a subanalysis using baseline BMI values, Δba-PWV correlated strongly and negatively with ΔEPA/AA ratios (r = -0.595, P < .001) and positively with ΔAA/LA ratios (r = 0.455, P < .001) in the overweight group. This study suggests that the persistence of overweight over 3 years in subjects ≥50 years old is associated with faster arterial stiffening than is observed in normal-weight subjects and that this stiffening is independently associated with increases in AA/LA and decreases in EPA/AA ratios. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary analysis and patterns of nutritional supplement use in normal and age-related macular disease affected subjects: a prospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eperjesi Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor diet is thought to be a risk factor for many diseases, including age-related macular disease (ARMD, which is the leading cause of blind registration in those aged over 60 years in the developed world. The aims of this study were 1 to evaluate the dietary food intake of three subject groups: participants under the age of 50 years without ARMD (U50, participants over the age of 50 years without ARMD (O50, and participants with ARMD (AMD, and 2 to obtain information on nutritional supplement usage. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study designed in a clinical practice setting. Seventy-four participants were divided into three groups: U50; 20 participants aged 50 years, from 52 to 77 (62.7 ± 6.8 years, and ARMD; 27 participants aged > 50 years with ARMD, from 55 to 79 (66.0 ± 5.8 years. Participants were issued with a three-day food diary, and were also asked to provide details of any daily nutritional supplements. The diaries were analysed using FoodBase 2000 software. Data were input by one investigator and statistically analysed using Microsoft Excel for Microsoft Windows XP software, employing unpaired t-tests. Results Group O50 consumed significantly more vitamin C (t = 3.049, p = 0.005 and significantly more fibre (t = 2.107, p = 0.041 than group U50. Group ARMD consumed significantly more protein (t = 3.487, p = 0.001 and zinc (t = 2.252, p = 0.029 than group O50. The ARMD group consumed the highest percentage of specific ocular health supplements and the U50 group consumed the most multivitamins. Conclusions We did not detect a deficiency of any specific nutrient in the diets of those with ARMD compared with age- and gender-matched controls. ARMD patients may be aware of research into use of nutritional supplementation to prevent progression of their condition.

  9. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .uk. Abstract. The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump ...

  10. From averaged to simultaneous controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Lohéac, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider a linear finite dimensional control system depending on unknown parameters. We aim to design controls, independent of the parameters, to control the system in some optimal sense. We discuss the notions of averaged control, according to which one aims to control only the average of the states with respect to the unknown parameters, and the notion of simultaneous control in which the goal is to control the system for all values of these parameters. We show ho...

  11. Mixture Model Averaging for Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yuhong; McNicholas, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    In mixture model-based clustering applications, it is common to fit several models from a family and report clustering results from only the `best' one. In such circumstances, selection of this best model is achieved using a model selection criterion, most often the Bayesian information criterion. Rather than throw away all but the best model, we average multiple models that are in some sense close to the best one, thereby producing a weighted average of clustering results. Two (weighted) ave...

  12. Convergence of multiple ergodic averages

    OpenAIRE

    Host, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    These notes are based on a course for a general audience given at the Centro de Modeliamento Matem\\'atico of the University of Chile, in December 2004. We study the mean convergence of multiple ergodic averages, that is, averages of a product of functions taken at different times. We also describe the relations between this area of ergodic theory and some classical and some recent results in additive number theory.

  13. Average inbreeding or equilibrium inbreeding?

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, P. W.

    1986-01-01

    The equilibrium inbreeding is always higher than the average inbreeding. For human populations with high inbreeding levels, the inbreeding equilibrium is more than 25% higher than the average inbreeding. Assuming no initial inbreeding in the population, the equilibrium inbreeding value is closely approached in 10 generations or less. A secondary effect of this higher inbreeding level is that the equilibrium frequency of recessive detrimental alleles is somewhat lower than expected using avera...

  14. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, is independently associated with lower subjective well-being among individuals over 95 years of age: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuyun; Wu, Di; Huang, Jiapin; Qian, Degui; Chen, Fei; Xu, Jun; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Sensory impairment affects an increasing number of elderly adults, with a negative psychological impact. Our objective was to examine the associations of visual and hearing impairment with subjective well-being (SWB), an important psychological concept defined by life satisfaction [LS], positive affect [PA], negative affect [NA], and affect balance [AB] among long-lived individuals (LLIs) over 95 years of age. Data on 442 LLIs from the Rugao longevity cohort, a population-based study in Rugao, China, were analyzed. Graded classifications of visual and hearing impairment (none, mild, moderate, and severe) were constructed from self-reported items. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed to test the associations. Approximately 66.1% and 87.3% of the subjects reported varying degrees of visual and hearing impairment. Following the degree of vision impairment, LS, PA, and AB decreased linearly, whereas NA increased linearly (all p for trendimpairment with LS, NA, and AB, while diminished, still existed. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, was independently associated with low SWB among LLIs, and functional ability may play a mediating role in the observed relationship. The findings indicate that rehabilitation targeted for those with reduced vision and functioning in long-lived populations may be important for promoting well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Scope and selection of structures subject to aging management review; Alcance y seleccion de estructuras sujetas a revision de gestion de envejecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, G.; Diaz, A.; Viais, J.; Carmona, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santander, L., E-mail: gonzalo.mendoza@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this work is to determine the structures included within the scope of license renewal based on the performance of the functions and select those intended for aging management review; one purpose is to show the methodology used to establish the structure and structural components that are subject to a review of aging management, within the framework of license renewal rule. This is through the application of different types of structures and structural components related and unrelated to safety located in the rooms of the reactor building where there are components of the reactor core isolation cooling system (Rcic), these structures are poured concrete, concrete block, structural steel, shielding walls, attached metal, pile foundations, etc.; other non- security related , such as: 1) inherent characteristics not related to security that protect the equipment related to the safety of the missiles, that is, walls, low walls, dikes, doors, etc., which also provide flood barriers to structures, systems and components related to safety, 2 ) whipping restrictions on non- security, shields mitigation jet, vent panels , etc. that are designed and installed to protect equipment related with the safety of the effects of a broken line of high energy. Only rooms where there are components of the Rcic 68 structures within the scope were identified. (Author)

  16. Neuropathological findings in entorhinal cortex of subjects aged 50 years or older and their correlation with dementia in a sample from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Rodrigues Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aims of this study were to survey neurodegenerative changes detected by abnormal protein deposits in the Entorhinal Cortex (EC of subjects aged 50 years or older and to correlate these findings with suspected dementia, as detected by the IQCODE (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly . Methods: Fourteen brains were submitted to the immunohistochemistry technique for different proteins (beta-amyloid, tau, -synuclein and phospho-TDP-43 and data obtained compared with IQCODE scores. Results: Fifty-seven percent of the individuals exhibited IQCODE results compatible with dementia, being classified into the demented group (DG: 87.5% of patients had neuropathological findings corresponding to Alzheimer's-like brain pathology (ALBP. Of the patients in the non-demented group (NDG, 16.7% met neuropathological criteria for ALBP. All individuals in the DG showed deposits of more than one kind of protein in the EC. The most common association was hyperphosphorylated tau and beta-amyloid protein (87.5%. Discussion: Most individuals with dementia had neuropathological findings of ALBP, as did one individual with no signs of dementia, characterizing a preclinical stage. The results of this study suggest that deposits of a single type of anomalous protein are normal findings in an aging brain, while more than one kind of protein or the combined presence of anomalous protein deposits indicate the presence of dementia.

  17. Age and sex corrected normal reference values of T1, T2 T2* and ECV in healthy subjects at 3T CMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Clotilde; Slimani, Alisson; de Meester, Christophe; Amzulescu, Mihaela; Pasquet, Agnès; Vancraeynest, David; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2017-09-21

    Myocardial T1, T2 and T2* imaging techniques become increasingly used in clinical practice. While normal values for T1, T2 and T2* times are well established for 1.5 Tesla (T) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), data for 3T remain scarce. Therefore we sought to determine normal reference values relative to gender and age and day to day reproducibility for native T1, T2, T2* mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) at 3T in healthy subjects. After careful exclusion of cardiovascular abnormality, 75 healthy subjects aged 20 to 90 years old (mean 56 ± 19 years, 47% women) underwent left-ventricular T1 (3-(3)-3-(3)-5 MOLLI)), T2 (8 echo- spin echo-imaging) and T2 * (8 echo gradient echo imaging) mapping at 3T CMR (Philips Ingenia 3T and computation of extracellular volume after administration of 0.2 mmol/kg Gadovist). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Day to day reproducibility was assessed in 10 other volunteers. Mean myocardial T1 at 3T was 1122 ± 57 ms, T2 52 ± 6 ms, T2* 24 ± 5 ms and ECV 26.6 ± 3.2%. T1 (1139 ± 37 vs 1109 ± 73 ms, p T1 (r = 0.40, p T1, 7% for T2, 11% for T2* and 11.5% for ECV). We provide normal myocardial T2, T2*,T1 and ECV reference values for 3T CMR which are significantly different from those reported at 1.5 Tesla CMR. Myocardial T1 and ECV values are gender and age dependent. Measurement had high inter and intra-observer reproducibility and good day-to-day reproducibility.

  18. Protocol for an experimental investigation of the roles of oxytocin and social support in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to stress across age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that individuals who are socially isolated or have few positive social connections seem to age at a faster rate and have more chronic diseases. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone hypothesized to coordinate both the causes and effects of positive social interactions, and may be involved in positive physiological adaptations such as buffering the deleterious effects of stress and promoting resilience. The proposed research will examine whether and how oxytocin influences responses to stress in humans and will consider effects in relation to those of social support. Methods/Design Experimental research will be used to determine whether exogenously administered oxytocin (intranasal influences psychological and physiological outcomes under conditions of stress across gender and age in adulthood. Hypotheses to be tested are: 1 Oxytocin ameliorates the deleterious neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective effects of stress; 2 Oxytocin and social support have similar and additive stress-buffering effects; 3 Oxytocin effects are stronger in women versus men; and 4 Oxytocin effects are similar across a range of adult ages. Hypotheses will be tested with a placebo-controlled, double-blind study using a sample of healthy men and women recruited from the community. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either oxytocin or placebo. They undergo a social stress manipulation with and without social support (randomly assigned, and outcome measures are obtained at multiple times during the procedure. Discussion Understanding the determinants of healthy aging is a major public health priority and identifying effective measures to prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases is an important goal. Experimental research on oxytocin, social relationships, and health in adulthood will contribute to the scientific knowledge base for maximizing active life and health expectancy. At

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of undernutrition among antiretroviral-therapy-naïve subjects aged under 5 years old in Makurdi, Nigeria: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigilaje, Emmanuel Ademola; Olutola, Ayodotun

    2015-01-01

    Undernutrition is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and it contributes significantly to its morbidity and mortality. However, as far as we are aware, few studies have described the risk factors of undernutrition among HIV-infected Nigerian children. The study reported here aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of undernutrition among HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve children aged under 5 years old in Makurdi, Nigeria. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, between June 2010 and June 2011. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine the risk factors of undernutrition. Data on 182 HIV-infected children (88 males and 94 females), aged between 6 weeks and 59 months were studied. The prevalence of undernutrition was 12.1%, 33.5%, and 54.4% for underweight, wasting, and stunting, respectively. In multivariate regression analyses, being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.292, 95% [confidence interval] CI 0.104-0.820, P=0.019), the child's caregiver being on ART (AOR 0.190, 95% CI 0.039-0.925, P=0.04), and the absence of tuberculosis in the child (AOR 0.034, 95% CI 0.003-0.357, P=0.005) were independently protective against underweight. Subjects who were exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life were protected from stunting (AOR 0.136, 95% CI 0.032-0.585, P=0.007). No factor impacted significantly on wasting in multivariate analyses. Undernutrition among HIV-infected, ART-naïve children aged under 5 years old may be reduced if programmatic interventions are guided toward early initiation of ART among eligible HIV-infected caregivers and the promotion of HIV/tuberculosis coinfection control efforts. Also, the importance of exclusive breastfeeding in reducing undernutrition cannot be overemphasized.

  20. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium.

  1. Polyhedral Painting with Group Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Frank A.; Tsao, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The technique of "group-averaging" produces colorings of a sphere that have the symmetries of various polyhedra. The concepts are accessible at the undergraduate level, without being well-known in typical courses on algebra or geometry. The material makes an excellent discovery project, especially for students with some background in…

  2. Fuzzy Weighted Average: Analytical Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the computation of analytical expressions for the extremal values of the α-cuts of the fuzzy weighted average, for triangular or trapeizoidal weights and attributes. Also, an algorithm for the computation of the inverses of these expressions is given, providing exact

  3. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  4. Predicting Cognitive, Functional, and Diagnostic Change over 4 Years Using Baseline Subjective Cognitive Complaints in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Melissa J; Sachdev, Perminder S; Kochan, Nicole A; Woolf, Claudia; Crawford, John D; Giskes, Katrina; Reppermund, Simone; Trollor, Julian N; Draper, Brian; Delbaere, Kim; Brodaty, Henry

    2015-09-01

    There is limited understanding of the usefulness of subjective cognitive complaint(s) (SCC) in predicting longitudinal outcome because most studies focus solely on memory (as opposed to nonmemory cognitive) complaints, do not collect data from both participants and informants, do not control for relevant covariates, and have limited outcome measures. Therefore the authors investigate the usefulness of participant and informant SCCs in predicting change in cognition, functional abilities, and diagnostic classification of mild cognitive impairment or dementia in a community-dwelling sample over 4 years. Nondemented participants (N = 620) in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study aged between 70 and 90 years completed 15 memory and 9 nonmemory SCC questions. An informant completed a baseline questionnaire that included 15 memory and 4 nonmemory SCC questions relating to the participant. Neuropsychological, functional, and diagnostic assessments were carried out at baseline and again at 4-year follow-up. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were carried out to determine the association between SCC indices and neuropsychological, functional, and diagnostic data while controlling for psychological measures. Once participant characteristics were controlled for, participant complaints were generally not predictive of cognitive or functional decline, although participant memory-specific complaints were predictive of diagnostic conversion. Informant-related memory questions were associated with global cognitive and functional decline and with diagnostic conversion over 4 years. Informant memory complaint questions were better than participant complaints in predicting cognitive and functional decline as well as diagnoses over 4 years. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Opportunistic detection of atrial fibrillation in subjects aged 65 years or older in primare care: a randomised clinical trial of efficacy. DOFA-AP study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérula-de-Torres LuisÁ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend using peripheral blood pulse measuring as a screening test for Atrial Fibrillation. However, there is no adequate evidence supporting the efficacy of such procedure in primary care clinical practice. This paper describes a study protocol designed to verify whether early opportunistic screening for Atrial Fibrillation by measuring blood pulse is more effective than regular practice in subjects aged 65 years attending primary care centers. Methods/design An cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Primary Care Centers of the Spanish National Health Service. A total of 269 physicians and nurses will be allocated to one of the two arms of the trial by stratified randomization with a 3:2 ratio (three practitioners will be assigned to the Control Group for every two practitioners assigned to the Experimental Group. As many as 12 870 patients aged 65 years or older and meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited (8 580 will be allocated to the Experimental Group and 4 290 to the Control Group. Randomization and allocation to trial groups will be carried out by a central computer system. The Experimental Group practitioners will conduct an opportunistic case finding for patients with Atrial Fibrillation, while the Control Group practitioners will follow the regular guidelines. The first step will be finding new Atrial Fibrillation cases. A descriptive inferential analysis will be performed (bivariate and multivariate by multilevel logistic regression analysis. Discussion If our hypothesis is confirmed, we expect Primary Care professionals to take a more proactive approach and adopt a new protocol when a patient meeting the established screening criteria is identified. Finally, we expect this measure to be incorporated into Clinical Practice Guidelines. Trial registration The study is registered as NCT01291953 (ClinicalTrials.gob

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of undernutrition among antiretroviral-therapy-naïve subjects aged under 5 years old in Makurdi, Nigeria: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anigilaje EA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje,1 Ayodotun Olutola2 1Department of Paediatrics, Benue State University, Makurdi, 2Center for Clinical Care and Clinical Research, Abuja, Nigeria Background: Undernutrition is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and it contributes significantly to its morbidity and mortality. However, as far as we are aware, few studies have described the risk factors of undernutrition among HIV-infected Nigerian children. The study reported here aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of undernutrition among HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve children aged under 5 years old in Makurdi, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, between June 2010 and June 2011. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine the risk factors of undernutrition. Results: Data on 182 HIV-infected children (88 males and 94 females, aged between 6 weeks and 59 months were studied. The prevalence of undernutrition was 12.1%, 33.5%, and 54.4% for underweight, wasting, and stunting, respectively. In multivariate regression analyses, being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.292, 95% [confidence interval] CI 0.104–0.820, P=0.019, the child's caregiver being on ART (AOR 0.190, 95% CI 0.039–0.925, P=0.04, and the absence of tuberculosis in the child (AOR 0.034, 95% CI 0.003–0.357, P=0.005 were independently protective against underweight. Subjects who were exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life were protected from stunting (AOR 0.136, 95% CI 0.032–0.585, P=0.007. No factor impacted significantly on wasting in multivariate analyses. Conclusion: Undernutrition among HIV-infected, ART-naïve children aged under 5 years old may be reduced if programmatic interventions are guided toward early initiation of ART among eligible HIV-infected caregivers and the promotion of HIV/tuberculosis coinfection control efforts. Also, the importance

  7. Self-Averaging Expectation Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Opper, Manfred; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    We investigate the problem of approximate inference using Expectation Propagation (EP) for large systems under some statistical assumptions. Our approach tries to overcome the numerical bottleneck of EP caused by the inversion of large matrices. Assuming that the measurement matrices...... are realizations of specific types of random matrix ensembles – called invariant ensembles – the EP cavity variances have an asymptotic self-averaging property. They can be pre-computed using specific generating functions which do not require matrix inversions. We demonstrate the performance of our approach...

  8. Association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with subjective oral health status and oral functions in Korean adults aged 35 years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Han-Na; Lee, Jung-Ha; Kim, Se-Yeon; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2017-06-23

    Oral health greatly affects well-being throughout the different stages of life from childhood to late adulthood. Loss of teeth due to poor oral health hinders mastication, leading to poor nutrition absorption, and affects pronunciation and aesthetics, leading to interpersonal difficulties. As social activities become limited, a sense of isolation and loneliness, stress, and depression grows while happiness decreases. This study aimed to examine the association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with oral health status and oral functions in a large nationwide sample of Korean adults aged 35 years or more. The sample comprised 15,716 adults, selected using a rolling survey sampling method and data were extracted from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2010-2012). Participants were interviewed about their self-evaluation of health including oral health status and mental health, such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Data from 11,347 adults were finally selected after excluding participants with missing answers. The dependent variables were stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. The independent variables were gender, age, household income, education, smoking, drinking, oral health perception, chewing, and speaking. Complex samples logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Participants met the criteria for stress (25.4%), depression (13.0%), and suicidal ideation (13.9%). Subjective oral health status was not significantly associated with stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. However, the presence of very uncomfortable chewing problems was significantly associated with stress (OR = 2.294, 95% CI = 1.41, 3.72), depression (OR = 3.232, 95% CI = 1.97, 5.31), and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.727, 95% CI = 1.58, 4.72). The presence of very uncomfortable speaking problems was significantly associated with stress (OR

  9. Usual gait speed assessment in middle-aged and elderly Brazilian subjects Velocidade usual da marcha em brasileiros de meia idade e idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo D. Novaes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usual gait speed of asymptomatic adult and elderly Brazilians with a 10-meter walk test and to compare the results with foreign reference values. METHODS: Seventy-nine asymptomatic volunteers >40 years old of both genders were assessed. After anamnesis, anthropometry and the application of a habitual physical activity questionnaire, the volunteers were submitted to a 10-meter walk test at usual speed by means of which gait speed, the number of steps and length of stride were calculated. RESULTS: Except for age, all study variables were significantly lower in women. Subjects >70 years old presented a significantly lower gait speed than subjects between 40 and 49 years old and between 50 and 59 in both men (1.09±0.18 m/s, 1.35±0.11 m/s and 1.34±0.22 m/s, respectively and women (1.02±0,10 m/s, 1.27±0.20 m/s and 1.27±0,15 m/s, respectively. Gait speed showed moderate correlations with age (r=-0.41, pOBJETIVOS: Avaliar a velocidade usual da marcha (VM por meio de teste de caminhada de 10 m (TC10m em adultos e idosos assintomáticos brasileiros e compará-la com os valores de referência estrangeiros. MÉTODOS: Setenta e nove voluntários assintomáticos com idade >40 anos, de ambos os gêneros, foram avaliados. Após anamnese, antropometria e questionário de atividade física habitual, os voluntários foram submetidos ao TC10m em velocidade usual. Por meio do tempo de teste, a VM, o número e comprimento dos passos e das passadas foram calculados. RESULTADOS: Com exceção da idade, todas as variáveis estudadas foram significativamente inferiores para as mulheres. Os indivíduos com idade >70 anos apresentaram VM significativamente inferior aos indivíduos entre 40 e 49 anos e entre 50 e 59 anos nos homens (1,09±0,18 m/s, 1,35±0,11 m/s e 1,34±0,22 m/s, respectivamente e nas mulheres (1,02±0,10 m/s, 1,27±0,20 m/s e 1,27±0,15 m/s, respectivamente. A VM apresentou correlações moderadas com a idade (r=-0,41, p

  10. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  11. [Analysis of relationships between perimenopausal symptoms and professional functioning and life satisfaction--Subjective perception of the dependence in women aged 40+].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Iwona; Rasińska, Renata; Głowacka, Maria Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse and present the opinions of women in perimenopause on subjectively perceived symptoms characteristic of the climacteric period, and connected with their professional functioning, as well as to evaluate the effects of selected variables on the incidence and severity of these symptoms and the women's life satisfaction. The study included 250 professionally active women in perimenopausal age (40-57 years). The study used the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to evaluate life satisfaction of women and the Kupperman Index (KI) as quantitative and qualitative self-assessment of climacteric symptoms. The authors also used a questionnaire of their own design that contains an index of defined symptoms of perimenopause, which warrants the use of Pareto-Lorenz analysis. The obtained results prove the presence of statistically significant correlations between the occurrence and severity of menopausal symptoms and the place of enployment (p=0.04912), gynecological care (p=0.00325), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (p=0.01523) and assessment of life satisfaction (p=0.0325). Among the symptoms particularly influencing effective professional functioning, women pointed out hot flashes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. There is a statistically significant correlation between the woman's place of employment, gynecological care, HRT, the evaluation of life satisfaction and the severity of perimenopausal symptoms. A set of symptoms whose presence and severity influence the sense of life satisfaction and evaluation of professional functioning was observed. Among the most frequently reported symptoms that exert an adverse effect on professional functioning of women are: hot flushes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Frequency and outcomes of painful physical symptoms in a naturalistic population with major depressive disorder: an analysis of pooled observational studies focusing on subjects aged 65 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnabic, A; Raskin, J; Alev, L; Serap Monkul, E; Lowry, A

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the frequency of painful physical symptoms (PPS) in elderly subjects (≥ 65 years) with major depressive disorder (MDD) in real-world clinical conditions and to establish whether PPS are associated with poor depression outcomes, including more severe depression and worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Observational studies of MDD that included assessment of PPS and elderly subjects were screened. Measures of PPS were based on the Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI) or Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Data from a variety of depressive symptom severity and HRQoL scales were used. Analysis cohorts were based on age [aged ≥ 65 years (elderly) or elderly subjects. Data from seven studies (representing 26 countries) were collated. Of the 11,477 subjects, 14% were aged ≥ 65 years and 71% were classified as having PPS (PPS+). PPS were more frequent in elderly subjects (74% vs. 70% of younger subjects) and were positively associated with being female and Hispanic, and negatively associated with being East Asian in the elderly. The presence of PPS was associated with more severe clinical symptomatology and comparatively poorer HRQoL in elderly subjects. PPS, although frequent in younger MDD patients, were slightly more frequent in elderly MDD patients and associated with comparatively poorer clinical and functional outcomes. As elderly patients report somatic symptoms more readily than emotional symptoms, physicians should consider depression in addition to physical causes when PPS are present. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Pulmonary function studies in Gujarati subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N M; Mavlankar, M G; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

    1992-01-01

    In this study a multiple regression equation for prediction of ventilatory pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) is developed in average healthy non-smoker male and female Gujarati subjects. The average adult female values showed a reduction varying from 21.0 to 29.0% compared to adult male subjects. There is a deviation of the present study values from other studies in Indian subjects and values from European studies are higher than the present values. This study demonstrated that the present regression equation is the most ideal and appropriate for prediction of pulmonary function values in Gujarati subjects either for assessing physical fitness in normal subjects or for determining the pattern of ventilatory impairment in respiratory disease patients. The pulmonary function values assessed by substituting the average age, height and weight of females in male regression equation revealed lower values in females ranging from 14.0 to 19.0% attributable only due to difference in sex.

  15. Time-course of vascular adaptations during 8 weeks of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes and middle-aged controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Green, D.J.; Nyakayiru, J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exercise training in healthy volunteers rapidly improves vascular function, preceding structural remodelling. No study examined the time-course of such adaptations in subjects with a priori endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: We examined brachial artery endothelial and smooth muscle function

  16. Age-Related and Degenerative Changes in the Osseous Anatomy, Alignment, and Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine: A Comparative Study of Radiographic Data From 1016 Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy and 1230 Asymptomatic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machino, Masaaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Keigo; Katayama, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Inoue, Taro; Ouchida, Jun; Tomita, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kato, Fumihiko

    2016-03-01

    A prospective comparative study. This study aimed to establish cervical spine morphometry, alignment, and range of motion (ROM) and to clarify the impact of these age-related and degenerative changes. There are no studies that have evaluated differences in the results of cervical spine radiographs between a large series of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients and healthy subjects. We enrolled 1016 consecutive CSM patients who underwent laminoplasty. CSM patients were also divided based on each decade of life between the fourth and ninth decades. We also enrolled a total of 1230 healthy volunteers as asymptomatic subjects in this study. There were at least 100 men and 100 women in each decade of life between the third and eighth decades. Cervical sagittal alignment on neutral and flexion-extension views was measured by the Cobb method at C2-7. ROM was assessed by measuring the difference in alignment between flexion and extension. Cervical lordosis in the neutral position increased gradually with age in both groups. CSM patients showed significantly smaller lordotic angles compared with those shown by asymptomatic subjects within each decade. The total ROM decreased with increasing age in both groups. The total ROM of females was larger than males. The ROM of CSM patients was significantly smaller than asymptomatic subjects. The flexion ROM did not change with aging in either group. There was no significant difference in the flexion ROM between males and females in the two groups. However, the extension ROM decreased gradually in both groups. The extension ROM of CSM patients was significantly smaller than asymptomatic subjects. Age-related and degenerative changes in the cervical spine, alignment, and ROM in each decade of life were established between CSM patients and asymptomatic subjects.

  17. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2010-10-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  18. Subjective Well-Being Experiences of Taiwanese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-nii

    2017-01-01

    This study described the subjective well-being (SWB) experiences of Taiwanese undergraduate students. Thirty senior students from three different styles of universities participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 20 to 25 years old with an average of 21.65. A phenomenological methodology with in-depth interviews was employed. Five themes…

  19. Effect of consumption of a carob pod inositol-enriched beverage on insulin sensitivity and inflammation in middle-aged prediabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Celia; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; López-Doménech, Sandra; Veses, Silvia; Víctor, Víctor M; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2016-10-12

    This study assessed the effects of an inositol-enriched beverage (IEB) on blood glucose levels and inflammation status in subjects with an impaired fasting glucose (IFG) state according to body mass index (BMI). This was a 12 week, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial employing forty-four IFG subjects (fasting glucose levels 100-125 mg dl(-1)) that were divided into two intervention groups: one receiving a IEB (n = 24) containing mainly pinitol (2.0 g twice a day), and the other a sweetened beverage based on sucrose (SB; n = 20). Anthropometric and biochemical measurements, postprandial and fasting nocturnal glycaemia (continuous glucose monitoring system), and inflammatory parameters (IL-6 and TNF-α) were analyzed at baseline and after intervention according to BMI (non-obese: BMI < 30 kg m(-2) or obese: BMI ≥ 30 kg m(-2)). Non-obese subjects who consumed IEB exhibited a significant decrease in insulin (-14.4%), HOMA-IR index (-15.1%) and percentage of glucose change after postprandial and fasting nocturnal periods (-10.0% and -10.3%, respectively) compared with the SB group (-2.35% and 10.2%, respectively) although they did not show any change in inflammatory cytokine levels. By contrast, obese subjects who consumed IEB showed a smaller variation in glucose levels after nocturnal fasting (-4.34%) and a marked decrease in IL-6 and TNF-α (p < 0.05). These findings support that consumption of IEB in prediabetic subjects produces a response that is dependent on BMI, with a clear improvement of insulin resistance and postprandial and nocturnal glycemia in non-obese subjects and a marked anti-inflammatory response in obese subjects.

  20. Measurement properties of painDETECT by average pain severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappelleri JC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Joseph C Cappelleri,1 E Jay Bienen,2 Vijaya Koduru,3 Alesia Sadosky4 1Pfizer, Groton, CT, 2Outcomes research consultant, New York, NY, 3Eliassen Group, New London, CT, USA; 4Pfizer, New York, NY, USA Background: Since the burden of neuropathic pain (NeP increases with pain severity, it is important to characterize and quantify pain severity when identifying NeP patients. This study evaluated whether painDETECT, a screening questionnaire to identify patients with NeP, can distinguish pain severity. Materials and methods: Subjects (n=614, 55.4% male, 71.8% white, mean age 55.5 years with confirmed NeP were identified during office visits to US community-based physicians. The Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form stratified subjects by mild (score 0–3, n=110, moderate (score 4–6, n=297, and severe (score 7–10, n=207 average pain. Scores on the nine-item painDETECT (seven pain-symptom items, one pain-course item, one pain-irradiation item range from -1 to 38 (worst NeP; the seven-item painDETECT scores (only pain symptoms range from 0 to 35. The ability of painDETECT to discriminate average pain-severity levels, based on the average pain item from the Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form (0–10 scale, was evaluated using analysis of variance or covariance models to obtain unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, ethnicity, time since NeP diagnosis, number of comorbidities mean painDETECT scores. Cumulative distribution functions on painDETECT scores by average pain severity were compared (Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Cronbach's alpha assessed internal consistency reliability. Results: Unadjusted mean scores were 15.2 for mild, 19.8 for moderate, and 24.0 for severe pain for the nine items, and 14.3, 18.6, and 22.7, respectively, for the seven items. Adjusted nine-item mean scores for mild, moderate, and severe pain were 17.3, 21.3, and 25.3, respectively; adjusted seven-item mean scores were 16.4, 20.1, and 24.0, respectively. All pair

  1. Obligatory and adaptive averaging in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Chad; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Visual memory can draw upon averaged perceptual representations, a dependence that could be both adaptive and obligatory. In support of this idea, we review a wide range of evidence, including findings from our own lab. This evidence shows that time- and space-averaged memory representations influence detection and recognition responses, and do so without instruction to compute or report an average. Some of the work reviewed exploits fine-grained measures of retrieval from visual short-term memory to closely track the influence of stored averages on recall and recognition of briefly presented visual textures. Results show that reliance on perceptual averages is greatest when memory resources are taxed or when subjects are uncertain about the fidelity of their memory representation. We relate these findings to models of how summary statistics impact visual short-term memory, and discuss a neural signature for contexts in which perceptual averaging exerts maximal influence.

  2. Site Averaged Neutron Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the neutron probe soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  3. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  4. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  5. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  6. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  7. The effect of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress and functional fitness in aged rats subjected to swimming: an aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldo, Simone A; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Amadio, Eliane Martins; Antônio, Ednei Luis; Silva, Flávio; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conjunction with aerobic training interferes with oxidative stress, thereby influencing the performance of old rats participating in swimming. Thirty Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) (24 aged and six young) were tested. The older animals were randomly divided into aged-control, aged-exercise, aged-LLLT, aged-LLLT/exercise, and young-control. Aerobic capacity (VO2max(0.75)) was analyzed before and after the training period. The exercise groups were trained for 6 weeks, and the LLLT was applied at 808 nm and 4 J energy. The rats were euthanized, and muscle tissue was collected to analyze the index of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. VO2 (0.75)max values in the aged-LLLT/exercise group were significantly higher from those in the baseline older group (p  0.05). Laser therapy in conjunction with aerobic training may reduce oxidative stress, as well as increase VO2 (0.75)max, indicating that an aerobic exercise such as swimming increases speed and improves performance in aged animals treated with LLLT.

  8. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  9. Urinary albumin excretion in a population based sample of 1011 middle aged non-diabetic subjects. The Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1993-01-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) especially in the range of 20-200 micrograms min-1, termed microalbuminuria, has been proposed as a risk marker and predictor for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subjects. Thus it would be of importance to describe the distribution of UAER...

  10. Effects of therapeutic lifestyle change diets high and low in dietary fish-derived fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in middle-aged and elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diets, low and high in dietary fish on apolipoprotein metabolism were examined. Subjects were provided with a Western diet for 6-weeks followed by 24-weeks of either of two TLC diets (10/group). Apolipoprotein kinetics were determined in the fed stat...

  11. [The influence of procaine electrophoresis and mesotherapy on the indices of body components and biochemical characteristics in the subjects above 30 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turova, E A; Konchugova, T V; Balaban, E I; Fadeeva, N I; Golovach, A V; Teniaeva, E A

    2013-01-01

    This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of a 2% procaine solution given with a view to improving metabolic parameters of aging, such as the body weight and composition along with the lipid profile in the patients varying in age from 30 years to 75 years. The study involved 95 patients treated with a 2% procaine solution that was administered by different methods (electrophoresis and mesotherapy) into several points of the collar region and upper back. The control group was comprised of the patients who received placebo by means of galvanization and mesotherapy. The results of the study indicate that the introduction of a 2% procaine solution in the treatment of metabolic disorders effectively improves selected metabolic characteristics of ageing and thereby helps to reduce the biological age in comparison with the control patients treated with placebo.

  12. Study on variations of composition of some bitumens subjected to ageing; Studio sulle variazioni delle composizioni di alcuni bitumi sottoposti a invecchiamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schromek, N.; Battera, M.; Sacher, F. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    An artificial ageing test for paving asphalts has been developed and applied to 80/100 penetration asphalts with the aim of understanding the different behaviour of traditional bitumens (residues of vacuum distillation) and bitumens derived from visbreaking process. After ageing, the composition of the bitumens have been examined using the HPLC and IR (infrared) techniques, applied on fractions of the bitumens, obtained by traditional chromatography. The study confirms the good stability of traditional bitumens and the poor stability of the visbreaking bitumens.

  13. Preservation of blood glucose homeostasis in slow-senescing somatotrophism-deficient mice subjected to intermittent fasting begun at middle or old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, Oge; Saleh, Jamal K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Kopchick, John J; Khardori, Romesh K; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Poor blood glucose homeostatic regulation is common, consequential, and costly for older and elderly populations, resulting in pleiotrophically adverse clinical outcomes. Somatotrophic signaling deficiency and dietary restriction have each been shown to delay the rate of senescence, resulting in salubrious phenotypes such as increased survivorship. Using two growth hormone (GH) signaling-related, slow-aging mouse mutants we tested, via longitudinal analyses, whether genetic perturbations that increase survivorship also improve blood glucose homeostatic regulation in senescing mammals. Furthermore, we institute a dietary restriction paradigm that also decelerates aging, an intermittent fasting (IF) feeding schedule, as either a short-term or a sustained intervention beginning at either middle or old age, and assess its effects on blood glucose control. We find that either of the two genetic alterations in GH signaling ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia; additionally, both longevity-inducing somatotrophic mutations improve insulin sensitivity into old age. Strikingly, we observe major and broad improvements in blood glucose homeostatic control by IF: IF improves ad libitum-fed hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, and reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis, in aging mutant and normal mice. These results on correction of aging-resultant blood glucose dysregulation have potentially important clinical and public health implications for our ever-graying global population, and are consistent with the Longevity Dividend concept.

  14. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  15. It's not just average faces that are attractive: computer-manipulated averageness makes birds, fish, and automobiles attractive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Jamin; Rhodes, Gillian

    2003-03-01

    Average faces are attractive. We sought to distinguish whether this preference is an adaptation for finding high-quality mates (the direct selection account) or whether it reflects more general information-processing mechanisms. In three experiments, we examined the attractiveness of birds, fish, and automobiles whose averageness had been manipulated using digital image manipulation techniques common in research on facial attractiveness. Both manipulated averageness and rated averageness were strongly associated with attractiveness in all three stimulus categories. In addition, for birds and fish, but not for automobiles, the correlation between subjective averageness and attractiveness remained significant when the effect of subjective familiarity was partialled out. The results suggest that at least two mechanisms contribute to the attractiveness of average exemplars. One is a general preference for familiar stimuli, which contributes to the appeal of averageness in all three categories. The other is a preference for averageness per se, which was found for birds and fish, but not for automobiles, and may reflect a preference for features signaling genetic quality in living organisms, including conspecifics.

  16. 20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 404.220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary... before 1979, reach age 62, become disabled or die to be eligible for us to compute your primary insurance...

  17. L-carnitine Effectively Induces hTERT Gene Expression of Human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Obtained from the Aged Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Fathi, Ezzatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are attractive candidates for cell therapy and regenerative medicine due to their multipotency and ready availability, but their application can be complicated by the factors such as age of the donors and senescence-associated growth arrest during culture conditions. The latter most likely reflects the fact that aging of hMSCs is associated with a rise in intracellular reactive oxygen species, loss of telomerase activity, decrease in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and finally eroded telomere ends. Over-expression of telomerase in hMSCs leads to telomere elongation and may help to maintain replicative life–span of these cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate of the effect of L-carnitine (LC) as an antioxidant on the telomerase gene expression and telomere length in aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs. Methods For this purpose, cells were isolated from healthy aged volunteers and their viabilities were assessed by MTT assay. Quantitative gene expression of hTERT and absolute telomere length measurement were also performed by real-time PCR in the absence and presence of different doses of LC (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mM). Results The results indicated that LC could significantly increase the hTERT gene expression and telomere length, especially in dose of 0.2 mM of LC and in 48 h treatment for the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs samples. Conclusion It seems that LC would be a good candidate to improve the lifespan of the aged adipose tissue-derived hMSCs due to over-expression of telomerase and lengthening of the telomeres. PMID:27426092

  18. Sample Selected Averaging Method for Analyzing the Event Related Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Akira; Ono, Youhei; Kimura, Tomoaki

    The event related potential (ERP) is often measured through the oddball task. On the oddball task, subjects are given “rare stimulus” and “frequent stimulus”. Measured ERPs were analyzed by the averaging technique. In the results, amplitude of the ERP P300 becomes large when the “rare stimulus” is given. However, measured ERPs are included samples without an original feature of ERP. Thus, it is necessary to reject unsuitable measured ERPs when using the averaging technique. In this paper, we propose the rejection method for unsuitable measured ERPs for the averaging technique. Moreover, we combine the proposed method and Woody's adaptive filter method.

  19. Functional performance and physical activity levels of subjects enrolled at an Open University of the Third Age at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities of the University of São Paulo (UnATI EACH-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Caldeira de Melo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional performance, according to the physical activity levels, of the students of UnATI EACH-USP. The study included 269 subjects, of both sexes, aged between 50 and 80 years-old. The most active group showed better functional performance in balance, mobility and lower limb strength tests compared with the sedentary group. On the other hand, perform physical activities in an irregular fashion was not associated to better functional performance in middleaged/older subjects.

  20. Lipid profile and carotid intima-media thickness in a prospective cohort of very preterm subjects at age 19 years : Effects of early growth and current body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finken, MJJ; Inderson, A; Van Montfoort, N; Keijzer-Veen, MG; Van Weert, AWM; Carfil, N; Frolich, M; Hille, ETM; Romijn, JA; Dekker, FW; Wit, JM

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is associated with prenatal and infancy growth. However, the relative importance of these time periods for the CVD risk is uncertain. To elucidate this, we tested in a very preterm cohort the effects of birth weight for gestational age and weight gain between birth

  1. Riding performance on a conventional bicycle and a pedelec in low speed exercises : objective and subjective evaluation of middle-aged and older persons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovácsová, M. Winter, J.C.F. de Schwab, A.L. Christoph, M. Twisk, D.A.M. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated cycling performance of middle-aged (30–45 years old; n = 30) versus older (65+ years; n = 31) participants during low-speed tasks for which stabilization skills are known to be important. Additionally, participants’ self-ratings of their cycling skills and performance were

  2. Cardioprotective effect of pioglitazone in diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to acute myocardial infarction involves suppression of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodeer, Dina M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Farag, Noha E; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin resistance increases risk of cardiovascular diseases. This work investigated the protective effect of pioglitazone on myocardial infarction (MI) in non-diabetic and diabetic rats, focusing on its role on advanced glycated endproducts (AGEs) and cardiac apoptotic machinery. Male rats were divided into 2 experiments: experiment I and II (non-diabetic and diabetic rats) were assigned as saline, MI (isoproterenol, 85 mg/kg, daily), and MI+pioglitazone (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). Injection of isoproterenol in diabetic rats produced greater ECG disturbances compared to non-diabetic rats. Treatment with pioglitazone (5 mg/kg) reduced the infarct size and improved some ECG findings. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) enhanced ECG findings, improved the histopathological picture and downregulated apoptosis in cardiac tissues. Whereas the higher dose of pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) did not improve most of the measured parameters but rather worsened some of them, such as proapoptotic markers. Importantly, a positive correlation was found between serum AGEs and cardiac AGE receptors (RAGEs) versus caspase 3 expression in the two experiments. Therefore, the current effect of pioglitazone was, at least in part, mediated through downregulation of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, these data suggest that pioglitazone, at optimized doses, may have utility in protection from acute MI.

  3. Effects of exogenous vitamins A, C, and E and NADH supplementation on proliferation, cytokines release, and cell redox status of lymphocytes from healthy aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama, Samia; Merzouk, Hafida; Medjdoub, Amel; Merzouk-Saidi, Amel; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological event that is associated with immune alterations. These alterations are related to increased cellular oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiency. Antioxidant supplementation could improve these age-related abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) on T cell proliferation, cytokine release, and cell redox status in the elderly compared with young adults. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured in vitro and stimulated with concanavalin A in the presence or absence of vitamins. Cell proliferation was determined by conducting MTT assays, and based on interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 secretions. Cell oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed by assaying reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein levels, and catalase activity. The present study demonstrated that T-lymphocyte proliferation was decreased with aging and was associated with cytokine secretion alterations, GSH depletion, and intracellular oxidative stress. In the elderly, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH significantly improved lymphocyte proliferation and mitigated cellular oxidative stress, whereas vitamin A did not affect cell proliferation or cell redox status. In conclusion, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH supplementation improved T-lymphocytes response in the elderly, and could contribute to the prevention of age-related immune alterations. Consumption of food items containing these vitamins is recommended, and further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effect of vitamin supplementation in vivo.

  4. Changes in medical treatment six months after risk stratification with HeartScore and coronary artery calcification scanning of healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT-scan as ...

  5. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    high average power TEA CO2 laser. 659. Carpaine. Five decades ... cal properties of transition metal complexes containing semiquinonate .... (5HI): Laser flash photolysis study. 547. Five-membered chelate ring. Thiosemicarbozene complexes of platinum metals. A story of variable coordination modes. 255. Fluorescence.

  6. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    in the following areas: lobar white matter, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, internal/external capsule, infratentorial areas. An analysis of covariance was performed after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 633 subjects, 47% had at least one lacune (31% at least one within basal...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter...

  7. Urinary albumin excretion in a population based sample of 1011 middle aged non-diabetic subjects. The Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1993-01-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) especially in the range of 20-200 micrograms min-1, termed microalbuminuria, has been proposed as a risk marker and predictor for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subjects. Thus it would be of importance to describe the distribution of UAER.......9-4.0). These findings suggest, that the level of UAER which might notify increased cardiovascular risk, is lower than in patients with diabetes mellitus, if it is considered to be of any clinical relevance....

  8. Consumption of onion juice modulates oxidative stress and attenuates the risk of bone disorders in middle-aged and post-menopausal healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yat-Yin; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Lee, Hui-Hsin; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2016-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic inflammatory condition that is characterized by the loss of bone mineral density (BMD). The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of onion juice intake on the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in corroboration with antioxidant effects in human (in vivo) as well as inhibitory effects on the differentiation of osteoclasts in the cell line (in vitro). For in vitro studies, the RAW 264.7 (osteoclast progenitor) cells were used to examine the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of onion. In the case of in vivo studies, twenty-four subjects were divided into two groups and advised to intake 100 mL of onion juice or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected at the initial, 2(nd), 6(th), 8(th) and 10(th) week. The result of in vitro studies indicated that onion extract would effectively inhibit the osteoclastogenesis and its differentiation. Significant changes in the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), free radicals, total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and various antioxidants were observed in onion administered subjects. The BMD of three postmenopausal women was also found to be mildly improved on supplementation with onion juice. Onion juice consumption showed a positive modulatory effect on the bone loss and BMD by improving antioxidant activities and thus can be recommended for treating various bone-related disorders, especially osteoporosis.

  9. Alzheimer disease pathology in subjects without dementia in 2 studies of aging: the Nun Study and the Adult Changes in Thought Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantaCruz, Karen S; Sonnen, Joshua A; Pezhouh, Maryam Kherad; Desrosiers, Mark F; Nelson, Peter T; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with antemortem preservation of cognition who show autopsy evidence of at least moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology suggest the possibility of brain reserve, that is, functional resistance to structural brain damage. This reserve would, however, only be relevant if the pathologic markers correlate well with dementia. Using data from the Nun Study (n = 498) and the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study (n = 323), we show that Braak staging correlates strongly with dementia status. Moreover, participants with severe(Braak stage V-VI) AD pathology who remained not demented represent only 12% (Nun Study) and 8% (ACT study) of nondemented subjects. Comparison of these subjects to those who were demented revealed that the former group was often significantly memory-impaired despite not being classified as demented. Most of these nondemented participants showed only stage V neurofibrillary pathology and frontal tangle counts that were slightly lower than a comparable (Braak stage V) dementia group. In summary, these data indicate that, in individuals with AD-type pathology who do not meet criteria for dementia, neocortical neurofibrillary tangles are somewhat reduced and incipient cognitive decline is present. Our data provide a foundation for helping to define additional factors that may impair, or be protective of, cognition in older adults.

  10. Extraction of oak volatiles and ellagitannins compounds and sensory profile of wine aged with French winewoods subjected to different toasting methods: behaviour during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-09-01

    In Merlot wines the evolution of volatile and non-volatile (ellagitannins) compounds extracted from winewoods while being macerated for 12 months was studied. Seven types of winewoods subjected to different toasting methods were used. Different rates of extraction, depending mainly on wood compounds origin (toasting or naturally present in wood) and on the watering process during toasting, were observed, which were reflected in sensory differences. Globally, volatile phenols together with aldehydes, phenols and lactones showed an increase with increasing maceration time. Ellagitannins were extracted faster during the first 3 months; after 6 months an important decrease was observed. Wines with winewoods subjected to watering during toasting were lower in ellagitannins concentrations and demonstrated the greatest decrease of these compounds during maceration. Astringency and bitterness intensified with increasing ellagitannins. Lactones induced positive sweetness sensations, whereas furanic and guaiacol compounds influenced bitterness and astringency. Spicy and vanilla descriptors were related to eugenol, vanillin and other odorous chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimizing the effects of multicollinearity in the polynomial regression of age relationships and sex differences in serum levels of pregnenolone sulfate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloun, Milan; Hill, Martin; Vceláková-Havlíková, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) is known as a steroid conjugate positively modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on neuronal membranes. These receptors are responsible for permeability of calcium channels and activation of neuronal function. Neuroactivating effect of PregS is also exerted via non-competitive negative modulation of GABA(A) receptors regulating the chloride influx. Recently, a penetrability of blood-brain barrier for PregS was found in rat, but some experiments in agreement with this finding were reported even earlier. It is known that circulating levels of PregS in human are relatively high depending primarily on age and adrenal activity. Concerning the neuromodulating effect of PregS, we recently evaluated age relationships of PregS in both sexes using polynomial regression models known to bring about the problems of multicollinearity, i.e., strong correlations among independent variables. Several criteria for the selection of suitable bias are demonstrated. Biased estimators based on the generalized principal component regression (GPCR) method avoiding multicollinearity problems are described. Significant differences were found between men and women in the course of the age dependence of PregS. In women, a significant maximum was found around the 30th year followed by a rapid decline, while the maximum in men was achieved almost 10 years earlier and changes were minor up to the 60th year. The investigation of gender differences and age dependencies in PregS could be of interest given its well-known neurostimulating effect, relatively high serum concentration, and the probable partial permeability of the blood-brain barrier for the steroid conjugate. GPCR in combination with the MEP (mean quadric error of prediction) criterion is extremely useful and appealing for constructing biased models. It can also be used for achieving such estimates with regard to keeping the model course corresponding to the data trend, especially in polynomial type

  12. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eGaleano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL, by cesarean section (C+, or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA. At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE or enriched environment (EE for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM. Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia.

  13. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco, Eduardo; Logica Tornatore, Tamara M. A.; Romero, Juan I.; Holubiec, Mariana I.; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Capani, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE) has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA). At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM). Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia. PMID:25601829

  14. [Comparative studies of the response of normolipemic and dyslipemic aged subjects to 2 forms of delayed-action nicotinic acid polyesters. Pentaerythrotol tetranicotinate and inositol hexanicotinate. Results of a controlled cross-over trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliotto, G R; Lamberti, G; Wagner, A; Cima, L; Genco, G

    1977-01-01

    A cross-over trial was run to compare the effects of two delayed-action nicotinic acid polyesters (pentaerythritol-tetranticotinate, PETN, and inositol-hexanicotinate, MIEN) in 59 aged normo- and dyslipaemic subjects. PETN tended to normalise the lipid picture in much the same way as nicotin acid, without a drastic effect on circulating lipids and lipoproteins. MIEN, on the other hand, had only a slight effect on total blood lipids, and appeared to be ineffective or negative with respect to the other lipid parameters. PETN proved capable of releasing active concentrations of nicotinic acid in vivo for a period of time that was sufficient to correct hyperlipaemia in age subjects. The side-effects were slight, infrequent and quickly reversible.

  15. The relationship between limit of Dysphagia and average volume per swallow in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; Gomes, Nathália Angelina Costa; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; de Souza, Elizabete Santos; Moura, Danielle Albuquerque Alves; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain the limit of dysphagia and the average volume per swallow in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) but without swallowing complaints and in normal subjects, and to investigate the relationship between them. We hypothesize there is a direct relationship between these two measurements. The study included 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was recorded over the suprahyoid muscle group. The limit of dysphagia was obtained by offering increasing volumes of water until piecemeal deglutition occurred. The average volume per swallow was calculated by dividing the time taken by the number of swallows used to drink 100 ml of water. The PD group showed a significantly lower dysphagia limit and lower average volume per swallow. There was a significantly moderate direct correlation and association between the two measurements. About half of the PD patients had an abnormally low dysphagia limit and average volume per swallow, although none had spontaneously related swallowing problems. Both measurements may be used as a quick objective screening test for the early identification of swallowing alterations that may lead to dysphagia in PD patients, but the determination of the average volume per swallow is much quicker and simpler.

  16. Sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes of 1,650 subjects in an Italian population: II. Contribution of sex, age, and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barale, R; Chelotti, L; Davini, T; Del Ry, S; Andreassi, M G; Ballardin, M; Bulleri, M; He, J; Baldacci, S; Di Pede, F; Gemignani, F; Landi, S

    1998-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) analysis was carried out on 1,650 healthy individuals living in Pisa and in two nearby small cities, Cascina and Navacchio (Ca-Na). The effect of smoking on SCEs was linearly correlated with the number of cigarettes per day, and an increase of 7.3% SCEs was detectable for as few cigarettes as 1-10/day. Ex-smokers showed intermediate mean values of SCEs (8.09 +/- 1.88) in comparison with never smokers (7.54 +/- 1.61) and current smokers (8.45 +/- 1.94). Mean values of SCEs of ex-smokers decreased linearly with time of smoking cessation, reaching the mean values of never smokers within 8 years. The extent of SCE decrease was inversely proportional to the number of cigarettes previously smoked. No interaction between smoking habits and coffee or alcohol drinking on SCEs was observed. A borderline (P = 0.053) increase in mean SCE values in coffee drinkers (more than 3 cups/day) was found. The age effect on SCEs was remarkable in Ca-Na, but not in Pisa donors. Job type was not associated with significant modification of mean values of SCEs. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the proportion of high frequency cells (HCF) outliers and coffee consumption. Age and sex appeared to be by far the most important variables associated with modifications in MN frequency, which increased by 0.04 per thousand and 0.02 per thousand per year in males and females, respectively. Children and young donors (age < or = 40 years) showed lower MN frequency regardless of sex, whereas sex appeared to determine a significantly higher increase of MN only in females older than 40 years. In contrast, in males the MN rate by age tended to level off after the age of 30-50. MN frequencies of Pisa blue- and white-collar workers were statistically significantly higher than in students (+0.71 and +0.55 per thousand, respectively). Smoking did not determine any increase of MN frequency. A total

  17. [Subjective theories on quality of life and health in old age : An explorative study with nursing home residents and their nursing personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kada, Olivia; Hedenik, Marina; Griesser, Anna; Mark, Anna-Theresa; Trost, Julia

    2017-01-25

    The terms "quality of life" and "health" are often used interchangeably even though there are indications to suggest that they are distinct constructs. Nevertheless, studies which would help to understand the difference between these constructs on the level of subjective theories of nursing home residents are lacking. Because nursing personnel can essentially contribute to the quality of life of residents, the comparison of subjective theories from residents and from nursing personnel can help to detect and understand potential discrepancies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 pairs of residents and their nursing personnel. Based on the approach of Fliege and Filipp (2000) one half of the respondents answered the questions using the term "quality of life" and the other half using the term "health". In addition, quality of life and health had to be rated on a visual analogue scale (VAS), whereby residents rated themselves and nurses rated the corresponding resident. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis in a team-based approach. Following a mixed methods approach the deductively developed main categories and the inductively developed subcategories were quantified and statistically analyzed together with the VAS ratings. Quality of life was more strongly associated with psychological, social and environmental aspects, whereas health more strongly evoked thoughts on physical functioning. This effect was stronger in nursing personnel, which can be explained by their role concept. In future scientific studies the terms should be used accurately, as they elicit different associations. The term "quality of life" seems to be more suitable to adequately reflect the adaptability of elderly people.

  18. Dietary magnesium and fiber intakes and inflammatory and metabolic indicators in middle-aged subjects from a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Simona; Durazzo, Marilena; Guidi, Sabrina; Carello, Monica; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Silli, Barbara; Rosato, Rosalba; Cassader, Maurizio; Gentile, Luigi; Pagano, Gianfranco

    2006-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and inflammation are linked to reduced magnesium and fiber intakes; these associations are attenuated by adjustment for each of these nutrients. We investigated the association among magnesium and fiber intakes, metabolic variables, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) values. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in a representative cohort of 1653 adults and in a subgroup with normal body mass index without dysmetabolisms (n = 205). A validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used; magnesium intake was computed by multiplying its content in each food by the frequency of food consumption. The prevalence of DM, MetS, and hs-CRP >/= 3 mg/L significantly decreased from the lowest to the highest tertile of magnesium and fiber intakes. Subjects within the lowest tertiles of magnesium and fiber intakes were 3-4 times as likely to have DM, MetS, and hs-CRP >/= 3 mg/L, after multiple adjustments. After the analysis was additionally controlled for fiber intake, associations with hs-CRP >/= 3 mg/L proved to be significant (odds ratio: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.25), whereas reduced magnesium intake and DM and MetS were no longer significant. The lowest tertile of fiber intake remained associated with DM, hs-CRP >/= 3 mg/L, and MetS after adjustments for multiple confounders and magnesium intake. In the lean, healthy subject subgroup, hs-CRP values were inversely associated with magnesium and fiber intakes in a multivariate model (P /= 3 mg/L in both the entire cohort and healthy persons.

  19. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  20. Cardiovascular and lung function in relation to outdoor and indoor exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo

    2014-01-01

    period, we measured microvascular function (MVF) and lung function and collected blood samples for biomarkers related to inflammation, in 78 middle-aged residents. Bacteria, endotoxin and fungi were analyzed in material from electrostatic dust fall collectors placed in the residences for 4 weeks. Data...... outdoor PNC and MVF was also statistically significant. The study suggests that PNC in the outdoor environment may be associated with decreased MVF, while PNC, mainly driven by candle burning, and bioaerosols in the indoor environment may have a negative effect on lung function and markers of systemic...

  1. High-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of the endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in a brachial artery: normative ranges in a group of low CV risk subjects of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryliskyte, Ligita; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Plantinga, Yvonne; Janaviciene, Silvija; Petrulioniene, Zaneta; Laucevicius, Aleksandras; Gintautas, Jonas

    2004-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in a brachial artery, as non-invasive technique, was used for the clinical evaluation of endothelial function (EF) in 115 subjects (ages 44.19+/-12.23 (26 to 83) free of coronary heart disease or its equivalents. Our aim was to study the normative ranges for FMD in subjects of different age groups with low cardiovascular risk factors. The mean FMD was 8.23+/-4.51% (0 to 20.9). Multivariate analysis revealed that there were only two independent predictors of FMD: resting vessel diameter (r = -0.45, pFMD = 25.5-0.17 x age-2.6 x resting vessel diameter. Our study demonstrates that FMD in low cardiovascular risk patients inversely correlates with age as well as brachial artery diameter. Normative ranges of FMD could be predicted for different age groups. In addition to conventional methods for the assessment of cardiovascular risk by using a population-based approach (score indexes such as SCORE, FRAMINGH, PROCAM), high-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in the brachial artery is now becoming an accepted method for the assessment of an individual patient's cardiovascular risk. Although preliminary guidelines have been published, this technique has interpretive limitations. In a study that was published earlier, the authors estimated diameter-related normal ranges of FMD. Several articles reported cut points between control and diseased groups. Data about the impact of age on FMD are also available in the literature. However, this is the first attempt to classify normal values into groups according to age and diameter.

  2. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ? 831. India. Folds in multilayered rocks of Proterozoic age,. Rajasthan, India. 299. Trace element geochemistry of Amba Dongar carbonatite complex, India: Evidence for frac- tional crystallization and silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. 519.

  3. The average size of ordered binary subgraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    To analyse the demands made on the garbage collector in a graph reduction system, the change in size of an average graph is studied when an arbitrary edge is removed. In ordered binary trees the average number of deleted nodes as a result of cutting a single edge is equal to the average size of a

  4. The Tolerability and Efficacy of a Three-product Anti-aging Treatment Regimen in Subjects with Moderate-to-severe Photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Bruce E; Lewis, Joseph; McHugh, Laura; Pellegrino, Arthur; Popescu, Lavinia

    2015-10-01

    Retinoids and alpha hydroxy acids differ in mechanism of action for treatment of photodamage, but concurrent use may produce a synergistic effect by combining retinoid-induced normalization of cellular differentiation with alpha hydroxy acid-induced exfoliation (in hydrophilic areas) and enhanced dermal and epidermal hydration. A recent bioengineered molecule, ethyl lactyl retinoate (alpha hydroxy acid retinoid conjugate), is the first to deliver alpha hydroxy acids and retinoids together in a hydrolysis-based time-released fashion. This could improve efficacy while minimizing irritation commonly associated with retinoid use. An eight-week clinical study was conducted to examine the efficacy and tolerability of this formulation; 25 women aged 54.1 ±8.9 years (mean ± SD) with moderate-to-severe photodamage (as determined by physician investigators using the Glogau Wrinkle Scale) employed a twice-daily regimen of cleanser (7.8% 1-lactic acid, 2% salicylic acid) and anti-aging serum (0.1% alpha hydroxy acids-retinoids, 6.5% 1-lactic acid) with concurrent use of sun protection factor 50+ sunscreen as needed. Longitudinal analysis of study data revealed statistically significant improvement in photodamage, dryness/flaking, dyschromia, and global appearance at eight weeks. All study products were well-tolerated throughout. Investigators concluded that the alpha hydroxy acid retinoid conjugate is a safe and effective topical therapy for moderate-to-severe photodamage, warranting further study, (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02422836, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02422836?term=NCT02422836).

  5. On the integrity of functional brain networks in schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and advanced age: Evidence from connectivity-based single-subject classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pläschke, Rachel N; Cieslik, Edna C; Müller, Veronika I; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Plachti, Anna; Varikuti, Deepthi P; Goosses, Mareike; Latz, Anne; Caspers, Svenja; Jockwitz, Christiane; Moebus, Susanne; Gruber, Oliver; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Reetz, Kathrin; Heller, Julia; Südmeyer, Martin; Mathys, Christian; Caspers, Julian; Grefkes, Christian; Kalenscher, Tobias; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2017-12-01

    Previous whole-brain functional connectivity studies achieved successful classifications of patients and healthy controls but only offered limited specificity as to affected brain systems. Here, we examined whether the connectivity patterns of functional systems affected in schizophrenia (SCZ), Parkinson's disease (PD), or normal aging equally translate into high classification accuracies for these conditions. We compared classification performance between pre-defined networks for each group and, for any given network, between groups. Separate support vector machine classifications of 86 SCZ patients, 80 PD patients, and 95 older adults relative to their matched healthy/young controls, respectively, were performed on functional connectivity in 12 task-based, meta-analytically defined networks using 25 replications of a nested 10-fold cross-validation scheme. Classification performance of the various networks clearly differed between conditions, as those networks that best classified one disease were usually non-informative for the other. For SCZ, but not PD, emotion-processing, empathy, and cognitive action control networks distinguished patients most accurately from controls. For PD, but not SCZ, networks subserving autobiographical or semantic memory, motor execution, and theory-of-mind cognition yielded the best classifications. In contrast, young-old classification was excellent based on all networks and outperformed both clinical classifications. Our pattern-classification approach captured associations between clinical and developmental conditions and functional network integrity with a higher level of specificity than did previous whole-brain analyses. Taken together, our results support resting-state connectivity as a marker of functional dysregulation in specific networks known to be affected by SCZ and PD, while suggesting that aging affects network integrity in a more global way. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5845-5858, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017

  6. [Prevalence of conductive hypoacusis in children aged 5-9 years old from rural area in Poland--prospective screening of healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, Monika; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Szyfter, Witold

    2002-01-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a process, which goes on by inner side of intact tympanic membrane. Oligosymptomatic and deceitful course is characteristics for this disease. Fluid filling middle ear structures causes long-lasting hypoacusis. Chronic consequences of the OME are morphologic changes within the middle ear, especially in the tense part of the tympanic membrane, causing strengthened conductive hypoacusis. The OME morbidity peak falls in 3-6 year of life, which is the period of the most intense development of the child and speech creation. Discreet symptoms, like fullness and feeling of fluid movement, not advanced hypoacusis, causes many problems in putting proper diagnosis. There should be aimed at quick detection of these symptoms, otherwise long persisting hypoacusis can have permanent negative influence on child's development. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of screening in population of children in their pre-elementary school and at the elementary school, focused on discreet pathology of the middle ear (OME) and low grade conductive hypoacusis. The study has a prospective character. Screening has covered a group of 927 children, aged 5-10. Examination concerned a population of healthy children, attending pre-elementary school and first classes of elementary school. Past otiatric history was the first step of diagnostic process, followed by full ENT examination and tympanometry. Special stress was laid on collecting medical history directed on the existence of discreet symptoms, like: low-grade hypoacusis manifested by some elements of child's behaviour (non responding on instructions, louder speaking, higher volume in TV-set), articulation disorders, difficulties in communication and problems at school. A group of 116 children actually presenting aural complaints lasting several weeks to several years were separated from the while examined group. Every 10th child from analyzed population submitted hypoacusis, 32 children had

  7. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vivian; Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  8. Estrone sulfate source of estrone and estradiol formation in isolated human hair roots: identification of a pathway linked to hair growth phase and subject to site-, gender-, and age-related modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Gabriele; Schweikert, Hans-Udo

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the metabolism of estrone sulfate into bioactive estrogens in the human hair root, including the effects of hair growth phase, anatomical site, gender, and age. Healthy male (n = 18) and female (n = 20) subjects were investigated. Growing (anagen) and resting (telogen) hair roots were collected from selected scalp and body sites. Estrone sulfate metabolism in the hair root yielded substantial levels of estrone and estradiol. Estrogen synthesis exceeded that associated with aromatization of androgens in a previous study. In subjects hair was lower in men than in women. Comparable levels of estrogen formation were observed in 1) male and female axillary and pubic hair and 2) male beard hair. These levels were higher than the estrogen levels detected in the in scalp hair of men hair from all body sites, the capacity to form estrone from estrone sulfate remained unaffected, whereas the ability to form estradiol decreased by 62% and 86% in men and women, respectively. Estrogen formation from estrone sulfate in sexually dimorphic hair is linked to the hair growth phase and is subject to gender- and age-related modulations. The magnitude of the in situ estrogen synthesis from estrone sulfate and the selective arrest of estradiol synthesis at the end of the hair cycle suggest that this pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of human hair growth.

  9. The state support of small and average entrepreneurship in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.О. Melnyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purposes, principles and the basic directions of a state policy in development of small and average business in Ukraine are defined. Conditions and restrictions in granting of the state support to subjects of small and average business are outlined. The modern infrastructure of business support by regions is considered. Different kinds of the state support of small and average business are characterized: financial, information, consulting, in sphere of innovations, science and industrial production, subjects who conduct export activity, in sphere of preparation, retraining and improvement of professional skill of administrative and business dealing stuff. Approaches to reforming the state control of small and average business are generalized, esp. in aspects of risk degree estimation of economic activities, quantity and frequency of checks, registration of certificates which are made by the results of planned state control actions, creation of the effective mechanism of the state control bodies coordination. The most perspective directions of the state support of small and average business in Ukraine in modern economic conditions are defined.

  10. Tendências genética e fenotípica para ganho de peso médio diário entre a desmama e o sobreano em uma população Angus x Nelore Genetic and phenotypic trends for average daily weight gain from weaning to 550 days of age in a Angus Nellore population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D'avila Balbé

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados os registros de ganho médio diário entre a desmama e o sobreano (GMDDS de 33.267 animais de uma população multirracial Angus - Nelore, filhos de 525 touros, criados em 37 rebanhos, em diversas regiões do Brasil, entre os anos de 1987 e 2001. O modelo animal usado incluiu os efeitos aleatórios genético aditivo direto e materno e residual e os efeitos fixos de grupo genético do pai, da mãe e do animal e do grupo de contemporâneos pós-desmama, além da covariável idade à desmama, não ajustada. O GMDDS médio observado para a população foi 384,22g. O ano de 1999 foi o que apresentou o maior GMDDS (484,04g, e o ano de 1992, o menor (299,42g. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade estimados foram: 0,30±0,11 (direta e 0,29±0,07 (materna. O VG médio foi de -0,827g. A tendência genética estimada para essa característica foi de -0,029g/ano (PDirect and maternal heritability coefficients were estimated and genetic and phenotypic trends were predicted for average weight gain from weaning to 550 days of age (AWG from 33,267 animals of a multi-breed Angus-Nellore population, sired by 525 bulls and raised in 37 herds in several regions of Brazil, from 1987 to 2001. MTDFREML was used for estimating the (covariance components utilized to estimate the genetic direct and maternal heritability coefficients and to predict the breeding values. The animal model included as fixed the genetic group of sire, dam and animal and the pos weaning year/station/herd contemporary group and the covariate weaning age, and as ramdom, the additive genetic, maternal and residual effects. The observed AWG was 384.22g, 1999 presented the highest (484.04g and 1992 the lowest value (299.42g. The direct heritability was 0.30±0.11, the maternal h² was 0.29±0.07 and the average genetic value was -0.827g. The estimated genetic trend for AWG was -0.029g (P<0.08 and the phenotypic trend was 5.68g (P<0.05. A phenotypic progress for average weight gain from

  11. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  12. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...... recruited from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and were without cardiovascular risk factors, chronic diseases, or medication and without cardiovascular events during 5 to 12 years before and 3 to 5 years after admission. The specificity, that is, the probability of displaying a negative test result...

  13. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  14. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density ...

  15. Evaluation of edge detectors using average risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    1992-01-01

    A new method for evaluation of edge detectors, based on the average risk of a decision, is discussed. The average risk is a performance measure well-known in Bayesian decision theory. Since edge detection can be regarded as a compound decision making process, the performance of an edge detector is

  16. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  17. Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.

    We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW

  18. Multipartite analysis of average-subsystem entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2017-11-01

    So-called average subsystem entropies are defined by first taking partial traces over some pure state to define density matrices, then calculating the subsystem entropies, and finally averaging over the pure states to define the average subsystem entropies. These quantities are standard tools in quantum information theory, most typically applied in bipartite systems. We shall first present some extensions to the usual bipartite analysis (including a calculation of the average tangle and a bound on the average concurrence), follow this with some useful results for tripartite systems, and finally extend the discussion to arbitrary multipartite systems. A particularly nice feature of tripartite and multipartite analyses is that this framework allows one to introduce an "environment" to which small subsystems can couple.

  19. Assessment of frame-averaging algorithms in OCT image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Tan, Ou; Pappuru, Rajeev R; Duan, Huilong; Huang, David

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate frame registration and averaging algorithms for optical coherence tomography. Twenty normal and 20 glaucomatous eyes were imaged. Objective differences were measured by comparing noise variance, spread of edge, and contrast-to-noise ratio. Subjective image quality was also evaluated. Two frame-averaging algorithms (FA400 and FA407) had better noise variance and contrast-to-noise ratio but worse spread of edge than did single frames (P algorithms provided better subjective assessments of structure boundaries than did single images (P algorithms, higher contrast-to-noise ratio and lower noise variance indicated better noise suppression, but spread of edge was most sensitive in comparing edge preservation between algorithms. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Impaired fasting glucose as an independent risk factor for hypertension among healthy middle-aged Japanese subjects with optimal blood pressure: the Yuport Medical Checkup Centre retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Masaaki; Inoue, Machiko; Inoue, Kazuo; Akimoto, Kimihiko

    2013-12-20

    This study aimed at investigating whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an independent risk factor for incident hypertension among middle-aged Japanese subjects with optimal blood pressure (OBP). This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2943 non-diabetic and non-hypertensive subjects aged 40-64 years, who participated in a voluntary health check-up program during the baseline (1998-2002) and follow-up periods (2002-2006). A multiple logistic regression model was utilized to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of incident hypertension among men and women with IFG and OBP. OBP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) <120 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <80 mmHg, with no known history of hypertension. In this study, hypertension was defined as SBP ≥140 mmHg and DBP ≥90 mmHg or by a self-reported clinical diagnosis of hypertension. After the mean follow-up period of 5.6 years, the incidence of hypertension in men and women was 5.7% (73/1270) and 3.8% (62/1673), respectively. The age-adjusted ORs for incident hypertension in men and women with IFG were 1.95 (95% CI, 1.21-3.15) and 3.54 (95% CI, 2.00-6.27), respectively. After adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and uric acid, the ORs for hypertension were 1.66 (95% CI; 1.02-2.70) for men and 2.62 (95% CI, 1.45-4.73) for women. The study results show that IFG may act as an independent risk factor for developing hypertension in individuals with OBP.

  2. Is parental age related to the risk of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); W. Schulte (Wim); T.A. Tanja (Teun); R. Haaxma (Rob); A.J. Lameris; R.J. Saan; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced maternal and paternal age were investigated as putative risk factors for AD in 198 clinically diagnosed Alzheimer patients and in 198 randomly selected healthy controls. No significant differences in average age of fathers and of mothers at birth of the subject were observed.

  3. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  4. Keratopathy, cataract, and dry eye in a survey of aniridia subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiple D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available David Shiple,1 Brenton Finklea,1 James D Lauderdale,2 Peter A Netland1 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Purpose: To determine the prevalence of keratopathy, cataract, and dry eye in a group of individuals with aniridia. Methods: We reviewed survey data from the Aniridia Foundation International (AFI registry, which included 99 subjects who self-reported on corneal disease, cataract, and dry eye disease. Results: The average age of respondents was 25.3±18.6 years, with a range of 0 to 67. Of 99 subjects, 46% stated they have corneal disease, 32% stated they did not, and 22% were unsure. The average age of diagnosis of keratopathy was 20.0±12.2 years. Keratolimbal allograft was reported in 20% and penetrating keratoplasty in 9%. Cataract was reported in 65%, with an average age of 9.4±14.0 years at time of diagnosis, and cataract surgery was reported in 32%. The average age of subjects at the time of cataract and corneal surgery was 28.4±13.7 and 33.5±11.4 years, respectively. Symptomatic dry eye was reported in 56% of subjects, with an average age at diagnosis of 23.8±13.3 years. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of corneal disease in aniridia, with diagnosis in late childhood or early adulthood in nearly one-half of subjects, often requiring corneal surgery. Cataract and dry eye are commonly associated with aniridia. Although aniridia subjects may have been aware of the diagnosis of cataract at an early age, they usually were treated for cataract and keratopathy as adults. Keywords: aniridic keratopathy, ocular surface disease, corneal disease, keratolimbal allograft

  5. Averaging of Legendrian submanifolds of contact manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, Marco

    2004-01-01

    We give a procedure to ``average'' canonically $C^1$-close Legendrian submanifolds of contact manifolds. As a corollary we obtain that, whenever a compact group action leaves a Legendrian submanifold almost invariant, there is an invariant Legendrian submanifold nearby.

  6. Average Annual Precipitation (PRISM model) 1961 - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  7. Monthly snow/ice averages (ISCCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11.5 percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. Data from NASA show that the land ice sheets in...

  8. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population...

  9. Site Averaged AMS Data: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the Portable Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) data acquired during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Data are in 30-minute time intervals...

  10. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  11. Average Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  12. Average Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  13. Average Vegetation Growth 1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1999 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  14. Average Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  15. Average Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  16. Average Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  17. Average Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  18. Average Vegetation Growth 2003 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2003 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  19. Average Vegetation Growth 2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2004 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  20. A practical guide to averaging functions

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakov, Gleb; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications ...

  1. Appeals Council Requests - Average Processing Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual data from 1989 through 2015 for the average processing time (elapsed time in days) for dispositions by the Appeals Council (AC) (both...

  2. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  3. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach...... for approximate Bayesian inference. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes. A comparison with averages obtained by Monte-Carlo sampling shows that our method achieves good accuracy....

  4. Microprocessor-based boxcar signal averager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, S. S.; Reddy, P. N.; Reddy, B. P. N.; Eswara Reddy, N. C.

    1987-10-01

    A boxcar signal averager using Intel 8085AH, an 8-bit microprocessor developed for processing free-induction decay (FID) signals from a pulsed nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectrometer, is described. The boxcar signal averager works either in single-point mode or in scan mode. In addition to the software developed, the constructional features, circuit details, and the operation of the boxcar are discussed in detail.

  5. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Balogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

  6. Decreased diabetes risk over 9 year after 18-month oral L-arginine treatment in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome (extension evaluation of L-arginine study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Lucilla D; Galluccio, Elena; Villa, Valentina; Fontana, Barbara; Spadoni, Serena; Piatti, Pier Marco

    2017-10-20

    This study aimed to determine whether L-arginine supplementation lasting for 18 months maintained long-lasting effects on diabetes incidence, insulin secretion and sensitivity, oxidative stress, and endothelial function during 108 months among subjects at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. One hundred and forty-four middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome were randomized in 2006 to an L-arginine supplementation (6.4 g orally/day) or placebo therapy lasting 18 months. This period was followed by a 90-month follow-up. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of diabetes during the 108 month study period. Secondary outcomes included changes in insulin secretion (proinsulin/c-peptide ratio), insulin sensitivity (IGI/HOMA-IR), oxidative stress (AOPPs), and vascular function. After the 18 month participation, subjects that were still free of diabetes and willing to continue their participation (104 subjects) were further followed until diabetes diagnosis, with a time span of about 9 years from baseline. Although results derived from the 18 month of the intervention study demonstrated no differences in the probability of becoming diabetics, at the end of the study, the cumulative incidence of diabetes was of 40.6% in the L-arginine group and of 57.4% in the placebo group. The adjusted HR for diabetes (L-arginine vs. placebo) was 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91; p L-arginine compared to placebo. These results may suggest that the administration of L-arginine could delay the development of T2DM for a long period. This effect could be mediated, in some extent, by L-arginine-induced reduction in oxidative stress.

  7. Average Spectral Properties of Type Ia Supernova Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Syed A.; Mould, Jeremy; Wang, Lifan

    2017-12-01

    We construct the average spectra of host galaxies of slower, faster, bluer, and redder Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the SDSS-II supernova survey. The average spectrum of slower declining (broader light curve width or higher stretch) SN Ia hosts shows stronger emission lines compared to the average spectrum of faster declining (narrower light curve width or lower stretch) SN Ia hosts. Using pPXF, we find that hosts of slower declining SNe Ia have metallicities that are, on average, 0.24 dex lower than average metallicities of faster declining SN Ia hosts. Similarly, redder SN Ia hosts have slightly higher metallicities than bluer SN Ia hosts. Lick index analysis of metallic lines and Balmer lines shows that faster declining SN Ia hosts have relatively higher metal content and have relatively older stellar populations compared with slower declining SN Ia hosts. We calculate average {{{H}}}α star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and the specific SFR (sSFR) of host galaxies in these subgroups of SNe Ia. We find that slower declining SN Ia hosts have significantly higher (> 5σ ) sSFR than faster declining SN Ia hosts. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that these two types of hosts originate from different parent distributions. Our results, when compared with the models of Childress et al., indicate that slower declining SNe Ia, being hosted in actively star-forming galaxies, are young (prompt) SNe Ia, originating from similar progenitor age groups.

  8. The concept of the average eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. van Gool

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For most quantitative studies one needs to calculate an average. In the case of refraction an average is readily computed as the arithmetic average of dioptric power matrices. Refraction, however, is only one aspect of the first-order optical  character  of  an  eye.  The  question  is: How does one determine an average that rep-resents the average optical character of a set of eyes  completely  to  first  order? The  exponen-tial-mean-log  transference  has  been  proposed recently  but  it  is  not  without  its  difficulties.  There  are  four  matrices,  naturally  related  to the  transference  and  called  the  characteristics or characteristic matrices, whose mathematical features suggest that they may provide alterna-tive  solutions  to  the  problem  of  the  average eye. Accordingly the purpose of this paper is to propose averages based on these characteristics, to  examine  their  nature  and  to  calculate  and compare them in the case of a particular sample of 30 eyes. The eyes may be stigmatic or astig-matic and component elements may be centred or  decentred.  None  turns  out  to  be  a  perfect average. One of the four averages (that based on one of the two mixed characteristics is proba-bly of little or no use in the context of eyes. The other three, particularly the point-characteristic average, seem to be potentially useful.

  9. [Lung cancer in the elderly subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrand, G; Biron, E; Boucot, I; Couderc, L J; Crestani, B; Dombret, M C; Guenard, H; Grivaux, M; Hervy, M P; Housset, B; Jougon, J; Orvoen-Frija, E; Piette, F; Pignon, T; Pinganaud, G; Puisieux, F; Quoix, E; Sauty, E; Vaylet, F; Wary, B; Weill-Engerer, S; Westeel, V; Wislez, M

    2007-06-01

    In France, the average age for the diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma is 64. It is 76 in the population of over 70. In fact, its incidence increases with age linked intrinsic risk of developing a cancer and with general ageing of the population. Diagnosis tools are the same for elderlies than for younger patients, and positive diagnosis mainly depends on fibreoptic bronchoscopy, complications of which being comparable to those observed in younger patients. The assessment of dissemination has been modified in recent years by the availability of PET scanning which is increasingly becoming the examination of choice for preventing unnecessary surgical intervention, a fortiori in elderly subjects. Cerebral imaging by tomodensitometry and nuclear magnetic resonance should systematically be obtained before proposing chirurgical treatment. An assessment of the general state of health of the elderly subject is an essential step before the therapeutic decision is made. This depends on the concept of geriatric evaluation: Geriatric Multidimensional Assessment, and the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment which concerns overall competence of the elderly. This is a global approach that allows precise definition and ranking of the patient's problems and their impact on daily life and social environment. Certain geriatric variables (IADL, BADL, MMSE, IMC etc) may be predictive of survival rates after chemotherapy or the incidence of complications following thoracic surgery. The main therapeutic principles for the management of bronchial carcinoma are applicable to the elderly subject; long term survival without relapse after surgical resection is independent of age. Whether the oncological strategy is curative or palliative, the elderly patient with bronchial carcinoma should receive supportive treatments. They should be integrated into a palliative programme if such is the case. In fact, age alone is not a factor that should detract from optimal oncological management. The

  10. Asynchronous Gossip for Averaging and Spectral Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Vivek S.; Makhijani, Rahul; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2014-08-01

    We consider two variants of the classical gossip algorithm. The first variant is a version of asynchronous stochastic approximation. We highlight a fundamental difficulty associated with the classical asynchronous gossip scheme, viz., that it may not converge to a desired average, and suggest an alternative scheme based on reinforcement learning that has guaranteed convergence to the desired average. We then discuss a potential application to a wireless network setting with simultaneous link activation constraints. The second variant is a gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of a nonnegative matrix. While the first variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for an average cost controlled Markov decision problem, the second variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for risk-sensitive control. We then discuss potential applications of the second variant to ranking schemes, reputation networks, and principal component analysis.

  11. Backus and Wyllie Averages for Seismic Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadrouh, Ayman N.; Carcione, José M.; Ba, Jing; Gei, Davide; Salim, Ahmed M.

    2017-09-01

    Backus and Wyllie equations are used to obtain average seismic velocities at zero and infinite frequencies, respectively. Here, these equations are generalized to obtain averages of the seismic quality factor (inversely proportional to attenuation). The results indicate that the Wyllie velocity is higher than the corresponding Backus quantity, as expected, since the ray velocity is a high-frequency limit. On the other hand, the Wyllie quality factor is higher than the Backus one, following the velocity trend, i.e., the higher the velocity (the stiffer the medium), the higher the attenuation. Since the quality factor can be related to properties such as porosity, permeability, and fluid viscosity, these averages can be useful for evaluating reservoir properties.

  12. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  13. Matrix averages relating to Ginibre ensembles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, Peter J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rains, Eric M [Department of Mathematics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: p.forrester@ms.unimelb.edu.au

    2009-09-25

    The theory of zonal polynomials is used to compute the average of a Schur polynomial of argument AX, where A is a fixed matrix and X is from the real Ginibre ensemble. This generalizes a recent result of Sommers and Khoruzhenko (2009 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 222002), and furthermore allows analogous results to be obtained for the complex and real quaternion Ginibre ensembles. As applications, the positive integer moments of the general variance Ginibre ensembles are computed in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions; these are written in terms of averages over matrices of the same size as the moment to give duality formulas, and the averages of the power sums of the eigenvalues are expressed as finite sums of zonal polynomials.

  14. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...... of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure...

  15. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  16. When Is the Local Average Treatment Close to the Average? Evidence from Fertility and Labor Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Avraham

    2009-01-01

    The local average treatment effect (LATE) may differ from the average treatment effect (ATE) when those influenced by the instrument are not representative of the overall population. Heterogeneity in treatment effects may imply that parameter estimates from 2SLS are uninformative regarding the average treatment effect, motivating a search for…

  17. Average-case analysis of numerical problems

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The average-case analysis of numerical problems is the counterpart of the more traditional worst-case approach. The analysis of average error and cost leads to new insight on numerical problems as well as to new algorithms. The book provides a survey of results that were mainly obtained during the last 10 years and also contains new results. The problems under consideration include approximation/optimal recovery and numerical integration of univariate and multivariate functions as well as zero-finding and global optimization. Background material, e.g. on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and random fields, is provided.

  18. An improved moving average technical trading rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailias, Fotis; Thomakos, Dimitrios D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a modified version of the widely used price and moving average cross-over trading strategies. The suggested approach (presented in its 'long only' version) is a combination of cross-over 'buy' signals and a dynamic threshold value which acts as a dynamic trailing stop. The trading behaviour and performance from this modified strategy are different from the standard approach with results showing that, on average, the proposed modification increases the cumulative return and the Sharpe ratio of the investor while exhibiting smaller maximum drawdown and smaller drawdown duration than the standard strategy.

  19. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t

  20. The modulated average structure of mullite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstock, Johannes; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82 (3))Si(1.18 (1))O(9.59 (5))) and by average structure refinements. 8 (5) to 20 (13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137 (2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021 (5) 0.1834 (2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009 (5) -0.1834 (2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real

  1. Spherical Averages on Regular and Semiregular Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Douma, Femke

    2008-01-01

    In 1966, P. Guenther proved the following result: Given a continuous function f on a compact surface M of constant curvature -1 and its periodic lift g to the universal covering, the hyperbolic plane, then the averages of the lift g over increasing spheres converge to the average of the function f over the surface M. In this article, we prove similar results for functions on the vertices and edges of regular and semiregular graphs, with special emphasis on the convergence rate. We also consid...

  2. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the

  3. An assessment of the interpupillary distance, the inner and outer intercanthal distances in the normal Indian population from early neonatal period upto over 70 years of age: a study of 3500 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim:\tThe normal range for anthropometric assessment of intercanthal, interpupillary and outer orbital dimensions is important and changes with age. This study was undertaken for setting a reference range for interpupillary distance, the inner and outer intercanthal distances in the normal Indian population, to observe the variation of these parameters with age, any differences in these parameters observed in male & female population and to find correlation with the refractive errors if any. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 3500 subjects of both sexes from birth till over 70 years of age, which presented to us in the outpatient department of M & J institute of Ophthalmology and Dr. Thakorbhai V Patel Eye Institute in the period ranging from August 2008 to January 2010. Results: A correlation with refractive errors has not been studied in previous literature. In our study, the range of IPDD in males was found to be 51.87-64.23mm & in females it was 51.16-62.23 mm, range of IPDN was 51.22 – 61.75 mm in males & 47.73-59.93 mm in females. The range of IICD was 18-36.09 mm in males & in females it was 19.38-34.89 mm. The range of OICD in males was 58- 92.8 mm & in females it was 56.63-88.56mm. Conclusion: We present the data for the neonatal children to the older age groups from the same population group. The standards based on local data reflect the potentially different patterns of craniofacial growth resulting from racial, ethnic & sexual differences. These could be relied upon in diagnosis of craniofacial syndromes and orbito-facial trauma or for planning reconstructive surgeries for the same.

  4. Aspectos da fala de indivíduos com fissura palatina e labial, corrigida em diferentes idades Aspects of speech of subjects with cleft palate corrected in different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Brito Novaes Palandi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar indivíduos com fissura labiopalatina que realizaram correção cirúrgica em diferentes idades e verificar quais os fatores intervenientes mais importantes nas alterações da fala. MÉTODOS: a amostra é composta por 29 indivíduos que nasceram com fissura labiopalatina e foram submetidos à correção cirúrgica em diferentes idades, sem outros comprometimentos associados (neurológicos, físicos, psicológicos, etc. Estes indivíduos foram avaliados sem se levar em consideração a etiologia e o tipo de malformação encontrado. Sendo que 13 do sexo masculino e 16 do sexo feminino possuem idades variando de seis a 13 anos de idade. Os indivíduos são do ambulatório de Distúrbios da Comunicação Humana de uma Universidade Pública Federal e do ambulatório de Cirurgia Plástica de um Hospital Público que ainda não entraram em terapia fonoaudiológica. A fala, desses indivíduos, foi avaliada pelo Teste de Fonologia (capítulo 1 do ABFW, Teste de Linguagem Infantil, e por meio da nomeação foi analisada a fala dos indivíduos. A nomeação foi feita com figuras simples que foram mostradas a eles. RESULTADOS: os resultados do presente estudo quanto ao sexo e o tipo de fissura da amostra não apresentaram resultados estatisticamente significantes. Entretanto, a época tardia em que ocorreu a cirurgia reparadora interferiu de forma negativa para emissão de fala desses pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: com base nos resultados obtidos da análise da fala de indivíduos com fissura labiopalatina, pode-se concluir que um fator interveniente importante para a sua fala é a idade em que é realizada a cirurgia corretiva.PURPOSE: to compare subjects with cleft palate who underwent surgical correction at different ages and determine which factors are most important in the speech alterations METHODS: the sample is composed of 29 subjects who were born with cleft palate and were submitted to surgical correction at different ages, without

  5. COMPARISON OF WISCONSIN CARD SORTING TEST RESULTS BETWEEN CZECH SUBJECTS DEPENDENT ON METHAMPHETAMINE VERSUS HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hosak, Ladislav; Preiss, Marek; Bazant, Jan; Tibenska, Andrea; Cermakova, Radka; Cermakova, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine is a neurotoxic agent. Its chronic abuse may result in cognitive impairment with negative consequences for patients´ treatment and rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to compare Wisconsin Card Sorting Test profiles of Czech subjects dependent on methamphetamine with healthy individuals. Subjects and methods: Forty-three hospitalized Czech Caucasian patients including twenty-seven men at the average age of 25.3±5.2 years dependent on methamphetamine...

  6. On flux terms in volume averaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, S.G.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This note examines the modeling of non-convective fluxes (e.g., stress, heat flux and others) as they appear in the general, unclosed form of the volume-averaged equations of multiphase flows. By appealing to the difference between slowly and rapidly varying quantities, it is shown that the natural

  7. Conceptual Analysis of System Average Water Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Averaging over time and area, the precipitation in an ecosystem (SAP - system average precipitation) depends on the average surface temperature and relative humidity (RH) in the system if uniform convection is assumed. RH depends on the evapotranspiration of the system (SAE - system average evapotranspiration). There is a non-linear relationship between SAP and SAE. Studying this relationship can lead mechanistic understanding of the ecosystem health status and trend under different setups. If SAP is higher than SAE, the system will have a water runoff which flows out through rivers. If SAP is lower than SAE, irrigation is needed to maintain the vegetation status. This presentation will give a conceptual analysis of the stability in this relationship under different assumed areas, water or forest coverages, elevations and latitudes. This analysis shows that desert is a stable system. Water circulation in basins is also stabilized at a specific SAP based on the basin profile. It further shows that deforestation will reduce SAP, and can flip the system to an irrigation required status. If no irrigation is provided, the system will automatically reduce to its stable point - desert, which is extremely difficult to turn around.

  8. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cosmological models, but using purely spatial averages. As remarked at the end of the previous subsection, all known non-singular models were 'cosmological' in the sense that they could not describe a finite star surrounded by a surface of vanishing pressure. However, it can certainly happen that (say) the energy density ...

  9. Cryo-Electron Tomography and Subtomogram Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W; Briggs, J A G

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) allows 3D volumes to be reconstructed from a set of 2D projection images of a tilted biological sample. It allows densities to be resolved in 3D that would otherwise overlap in 2D projection images. Cryo-ET can be applied to resolve structural features in complex native environments, such as within the cell. Analogous to single-particle reconstruction in cryo-electron microscopy, structures present in multiple copies within tomograms can be extracted, aligned, and averaged, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. This reconstruction approach, termed subtomogram averaging, can be used to determine protein structures in situ. It can also be applied to facilitate more conventional 2D image analysis approaches. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging. We describe the overall workflow, including tomographic data collection, preprocessing, tomogram reconstruction, subtomogram alignment and averaging, classification, and postprocessing. We consider theoretical issues and practical considerations for each step in the workflow, along with descriptions of recent methodological advances and remaining limitations. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a simple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generalization optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation...

  11. Reliability Estimates for Undergraduate Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate grade point average (GPA) is a commonly employed measure in educational research, serving as a criterion or as a predictor depending on the research question. Over the decades, researchers have used a variety of reliability coefficients to estimate the reliability of undergraduate GPA, which suggests that there has been no consensus…

  12. Full averaging of fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Skripnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the substantiation of the method of full averaging for fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions is studied. We extend the similar results for impulsive differential inclusions with Hukuhara derivative (Skripnik, 2007, for fuzzy impulsive differential equations (Plotnikov and Skripnik, 2009, and for fuzzy differential inclusions (Skripnik, 2009.

  13. Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single...

  14. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...

  15. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  16. Average Costs versus Net Present Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be verified that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

  17. The Agreement between the MMSE and IQCODE Tests in a Community-Based Sample of Subjects Aged 70 Years or Older Receiving In-Home Nursing: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kirkevold

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It was the aim of this study to compare the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE with the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE and to explore the characteristics of subjects with possible dementia with only one of the two tools. Methods: We used a random sample of patients aged 70+ receiving social service or in-home nursing. The patients were tested with the MMSE, and the next of kin was interviewed using the following: the IQCODE, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, personal ADL (PADL and the General Medical Health Rating (GMHR. Results: Subjects with dementia defined only according to the MMSE showed a pattern of scores on IADL, PADL, CSDD, NPI-10 and GMHR similar to the no-dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE. Those with dementia defined only according to the IQCODE showed a pattern of scores similar to the possible dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE.

  18. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This study was based on the subjective responses of the masons that are performing physical activity of blocklaying in the outdoor condition in outdoor condition in outdoor condition in Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were investigated on the average of seventeen. Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were ...

  19. ANTINOMY OF THE MODERN AVERAGE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Listvin

    2017-01-01

    of ways of their decision and options of the valid upgrade of the SPE system answering to the requirements of economy. The inefficiency of the concept of one-leveled SPE and its non-competitiveness against the background of development of an applied bachelor degree at the higher school is shown. It is offered to differentiate programs of basic level for training of skilled workers and the program of the increased level for training of specialists of an average link (technicians, technologists on the basis of basic level for forming of a single system of continuous professional training and effective functioning of regional systems of professional education. Such system will help to eliminate disproportions in a triad «a worker – a technician – an engineer», and will increase the quality of professional education. Furthermore, it is indicated the need of polyprofessional education wherein the integrated educational structures differing in degree of formation of split-level educational institutions on the basis of network interaction, convergence and integration are required. According to the author, in the regions it is necessary to develop two types of organizations and SPE organizations: territorial multi-profile colleges with flexible variable programs and the organizations realizing educational programs of applied qualifications in specific industries (metallurgical, chemical, construction, etc. according to the specifics of economy of territorial subjects.Practical significance. The results of the research can be useful to specialists of management of education, heads and pedagogical staff of SPE institutions, and also representatives of regional administrations and employers while organizing the multilevel network system of training of skilled workers and experts of middle ranking.

  20. Gaze-direction-based MEG averaging during audiovisual speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Hirvenkari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To take a step towards real-life-like experimental setups, we simultaneously recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG signals and subject’s gaze direction during audiovisual speech perception. The stimuli were utterances of /apa/ dubbed onto two side-by-side female faces articulating /apa/ (congruent and /aka/ (incongruent in synchrony, repeated once every 3 s. Subjects (N = 10 were free to decide which face they viewed, and responses were averaged to two categories according to the gaze direction. The right-hemisphere 100-ms response to the onset of the second vowel (N100m’ was a fifth smaller to incongruent than congruent stimuli. The results demonstrate the feasibility of realistic viewing conditions with gaze-based averaging of MEG signals.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  2. Average Light Intensity Inside a Photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herby Jean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For energy production, microalgae are one of the few alternatives with high potential. Similar to plants, algae require energy acquired from light sources to grow. This project uses calculus to determine the light intensity inside of a photobioreactor filled with algae. Under preset conditions along with estimated values, we applied Lambert-Beer's law to formulate an equation to calculate how much light intensity escapes a photobioreactor and determine the average light intensity that was present inside the reactor.

  3. The Average Velocity in a Queue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frette, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

  4. Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.

  5. AVERAGE SCORE OF THE UNIFIED STATE EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Nurieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Summing up the results of the Unified State Exam (USE is traditionally based on comparing the average scores for institutions or territories, without taking into account what the indicator of the quality of education really represents.The aim of the article is to clarify the content «average score» on the example of the Mathematics federal testing results.Methodology and research methods. The methodology of comprehensive analysis is used, including the methods of comparative and statistical data analysis published following the exam results. As well, the parallel analysis of data used in the researches of the National Research University «The Higher School of Economics» (HSE was conducted.Results and scientific novelty. It is found out that the average score in the Unified State Exam in mathematics largely depends on peculiarities of testing and assessment materials, a scoring system of leveling nature and results of training students for solving simple problems.Practical significance. The authors suppose that the study findings will contribute to the improvement of methods and technologies of carrying the Unified State Exam. 

  6. On Backus average for generally anisotropic layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, Len; Slawinski, Michael A; Stanoev, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, following the Backus (1962) approach, we examine expressions for elasticity parameters of a homogeneous generally anisotropic medium that is long-wave-equivalent to a stack of thin generally anisotropic layers. These expressions reduce to the results of Backus (1962) for the case of isotropic and transversely isotropic layers. In over half-a-century since the publications of Backus (1962) there have been numerous publications applying and extending that formulation. However, neither George Backus nor the authors of the present paper are aware of further examinations of mathematical underpinnings of the original formulation; hence, this paper. We prove that---within the long-wave approximation---if the thin layers obey stability conditions then so does the equivalent medium. We examine---within the Backus-average context---the approximation of the average of a product as the product of averages, and express it as a proposition in terms of an upper bound. In the presented examination we use the e...

  7. Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Lin, W.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z.; Chen, Z.; Keutgen, T.; Kowalski, S.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P. K.; Schmidt, K. J.; Wang, J.

    2013-05-01

    The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ɛav, is found to be significantly lower (20-30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ɛ0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=ɛav/ɛ0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

  8. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-08-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  9. Phase-averaged transport for quasiperiodic Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Bellissard, J; Schulz-Baldes, H

    2002-01-01

    For a class of discrete quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators defined by covariant re- presentations of the rotation algebra, a lower bound on phase-averaged transport in terms of the multifractal dimensions of the density of states is proven. This result is established under a Diophantine condition on the incommensuration parameter. The relevant class of operators is distinguished by invariance with respect to symmetry automorphisms of the rotation algebra. It includes the critical Harper (almost-Mathieu) operator. As a by-product, a new solution of the frame problem associated with Weyl-Heisenberg-Gabor lattices of coherent states is given.

  10. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    CERN Document Server

    Bénet, L; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.

  11. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...... linearity of the estimator is established under weak conditions. Indeed, we show that the bandwidth conditions employed are necessary in some cases. A bias-corrected version of the estimator is proposed and shown to be asymptotically linear under yet weaker bandwidth conditions. Consistency of an analog...... estimator of the asymptotic variance is also established. To establish the results, a novel result on uniform convergence rates for kernel estimators is obtained....

  12. Efeito da idade da vaca e da data juliana de nascimento sobre o ganho médio diário de bezerros de corte no período pré-desmame Effects of age of the dam and julian birth date on average daily gain of beef calves from birth to wean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Bocchi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da idade da vaca ao parto (IDV e da data juliana de nascimento (DJN sobre o ganho médio diário no período pré-desmame de bezerros de corte e determinaram-se os respectivos fatores de correção (FC, utilizando 463.971 e 39.220 dados das raças Nelore e Tabapuã, respectivamente. O modelo estatístico continha os efeitos de IDV, modelada por um polinômio segmentado quadrático-quadrático com um nó aos sete anos e de DJN do bezerro, modelada por um polinômio segmentado com três segmentos quadráticos e dois nós, aos 185 e 295 dias. Tanto a IDV como a DJN influenciaram significativamente o ganho médio diário dos bezerros no período pré-desmame. Para os dois efeitos foram encontradas diferenças entre as duas raças. Para a IDV, os melhores ganhos ocorreram aos seis anos para a raça Tabapuã e aos nove anos para a raça Nelore. Quanto ao efeito da DJN, os melhores ganhos ocorreram no inverno para ambas as raças. Os FC foram calculados por raça, sendo os da IDV calculados separadamente para machos e fêmeas e as do DJN por estação. A determinação de fatores de correção deverá possibilitar melhor precisão da seleção, reduzindo os efeitos não genéticos que concorrem para a variação dessa característica.The effects of age of dam (IDV and julian birth date (DJN on daily weight gain of beef calves from birth to wean were analyzed and correction factors were calculated. Data from 463,971 and 39,220 Nelore and Tabapuã animals were used in the analyses. The IDV, modeled by a polynomial segmented quadratic-quadratic with a knot at seven years and DJN modeled by a polynomial segmented with three quadratic segments and two knots at 185 and 295 days were included in the statistical model. The IDV and DJN had significant effects on daily weight gain of beef calves from birth to wean, and significant difference between breeds was observed for both effects. The best daily weight gain from birth to wean was

  13. Averaged null energy condition from causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan; Tajdini, Amirhossein

    2017-07-01

    Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey mi-crocausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, ∫ duT uu , must be non-negative. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to n-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form ∫ duX uuu··· u ≥ 0. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment on the relation to the recent derivation of the averaged null energy condition from relative entropy, and suggest a more general connection between causality and information-theoretic inequalities in QFT.

  14. An Approach to Average Modeling and Simulation of Switch-Mode Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of average modeling of PWM switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The paper discusses the derivation of PSPICE/ORCAD-compatible average models of the switch-mode power stages, their software implementation, and…

  15. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  16. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  17. Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study—a randomized controlled trial1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Raffaele, Angelo; Pistacchio, Luana; Righetti, Roberta; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence has indicated that flavanol consumption may have many health benefits in humans, including improved cognitive activities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of flavanol consumption on cognitive performance in cognitively intact elderly subjects. Design: This was a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study conducted in 90 elderly individuals without clinical evidence of cognitive dysfunction who were randomly assigned to consume daily for 8 wk a drink containing 993 mg [high flavanol (HF)], 520 mg [intermediate flavanol (IF)], or 48 mg [low flavanol (LF)] cocoa flavanols (CFs). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 8 wk by using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). Results: The changes in MMSE score in response to the 3 different treatments were not different. In contrast, there was a positive impact of the intervention on specific aspects of cognitive function. Mean changes (±SEs) in the time required to complete the TMT A and B after consumption of the HF (−8.6 ± 0.4 and −16.5 ± 0.8 s, respectively) and IF (−6.7 ± 0.5 and −14.2 ± 0.5 s, respectively) drinks significantly (P flavanols can support healthy cognitive function with age. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN68970511. PMID:25733639

  18. Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Raffaele, Angelo; Pistacchio, Luana; Righetti, Roberta; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that flavanol consumption may have many health benefits in humans, including improved cognitive activities. The aim was to evaluate the effect of flavanol consumption on cognitive performance in cognitively intact elderly subjects. This was a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study conducted in 90 elderly individuals without clinical evidence of cognitive dysfunction who were randomly assigned to consume daily for 8 wk a drink containing 993 mg [high flavanol (HF)], 520 mg [intermedia