WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjects answered questions

  1. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  2. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  3. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  4. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  5. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  6. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  7. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... persons in those fields. Do we need a license to sell our products to foreign customers? Answer: You would... open conference is not subject to the EAR. The conference you describe fits the definition of an open... work with him in his research laboratory inside China? Answer: Application abroad of personal knowledge...

  9. Catalogue of answers in radiology in accordance with subject catalogue 2, with 212 original questions and answers, including comments. 5. rev. enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleitz, C.D.; Freihorst, J.

    1983-01-01

    The physical and biological fundamentals of radiology and radiation protection are presented. Methods of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are outlined, and the fundamentals of radiotherapy are discussed. Original examination questions in radiology are presented together with the correct answers. (orig.) [de

  10. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  11. Radiation protection in questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.; Hoppe, G.

    1976-01-01

    An easily surveyable catalogue of questions is presented which is to make it easier for medical personnel to get acquainted with the basic knowledge according to the X-ray Ordinance and to acquire the expert knowledge in radiation protection. The catalogue is arranged according to different subjects. There are several alternative answers to every question. The right answer is given in the solution index (annex). (HP) [de

  12. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  13. Fuel reprocessing: Citizens' questions and experts' answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    In connection with the intention of DWK to erect a fuel reprocessing plant in the Oberpfalz, citizens have asked a great number of questions which are of interest to the general public. They have been collected, grouped into subject categories and answered by experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  15. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  16. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  17. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  18. IMPROVISATION OF SEEKER SATISFACTION IN YAHOO! COMMUNITY QUESTION ANSWERING PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Latha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One popular Community question answering (CQA site, Yahoo! Answers, had attracted 120 million users worldwide, and had 400 million answers to questions available. A typical characteristic of such sites is that they allow anyone to post or answer any questions on any subject. Question Answering Community has emerged as popular, and often effective, means of information seeking on the web. By posting questions, for other participants to answer, information seekers can obtain specific answers to their questions. However, CQA is not always effective: in some cases, a user may obtain a perfect answer within minutes, and in others it may require hours and sometimes days until a satisfactory answer is contributed. We investigate the problem of predicting information seeker satisfaction in yahoo collaborative question answering communities, where we attempt to predict whether a question author will be satisfied with the answers submitted by the community participants. Our experimental results, obtained from a large scale evaluation over thousands of real questions and user ratings, demonstrate the feasibility of modeling and predicting asker satisfaction. We complement our results with a thorough investigation of the interactions and information seeking patterns in question answering communities that correlate with information seeker satisfaction. We also explore automatic ranking, creating abstract from retrieved answers, and history updation, which aims to provide users with what they want or need without explicitly ask them for user satisfaction. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications, such as answer selection, user feedback analysis, and ranking.

  19. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  20. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupe, H.; Koelzer, W.

    Highly developed technologies, such as the nuclear power plant technology, have met with an increasing interest on the part of the general public during the last few years. As it is our duty to meet this demand for information and to supply the general public with objective and complete information on technical details, this series of brochures has been started. The present fourth and revised issue of 'Questions and answers on nuclear energy' explains the subjects in even greater detail and has been enlarged by an additional chapter on 'Waste disposal and waste management.' (orig.) [de

  1. Postsecondary Education Issues: Visible Questions. Invisible Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    With some justification, the inability to answer most of the important questions in higher education is due to the lack of necessary information. But careful examination of our many faceted questions suggests that more information may not be the only answer. The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) has found other…

  2. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... español Preguntas y respuestas sobre sexo Answering their kids' questions about sex is a responsibility that many parents dread. Otherwise ... avoided. Parents can help foster healthy feelings about sex if they answer kids' questions in an age-appropriate way. When do ...

  3. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  4. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  5. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  6. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if they have been exposed to unprotected sex but do not wish to become pregnant because ... A's Zika virus and complications » Zika digital timeline Video Zika virus - Questions and answers (Q&A) Related ...

  7. Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollack, Martha E

    1986-01-01

    The importance of plan inference in models of conversation has been widely noted in the computational-linguistics literature, and its incorporation in question-answering systems has enabled a range...

  8. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  9. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Question-answer sequences in survey interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, W.; Ongena, Y.P.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction analysis was used to analyze a total of 14,265 question-answer sequences of (Q-A Sequences) 80 questions that originated from two face-to-face and three telephone surveys. The analysis was directed towards the causes and effects of particular interactional problems. Our results showed

  11. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  12. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  13. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  14. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  15. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  16. Organizational Learning: Some Basic Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Mihelčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “organizational learning” raises a broad range of questions, specifically with regard to its contents. Following the thoughts of eminent philosophers, such as Aristotle and Confucius, the contribution of scientists in any research field to the corpus of human knowledge should also be based on the proper governing of the use of language. Therefore it is, first, of serious importance to be aware that organizational learning is just one dimension or element of the learning organization and not vice versa; second, a good comprehension of basic categories related to the organizational side of (formal social units’ functioning is an imperative part of organizational learning process. In writing this paper, the author started from his experiences acquired in his role as a lecturer on the subject “Theory of Organization”, in which the goal of lecturing was explained to students as gaining knowledge about cooperation and competition of people in the entities of rational production of goods. To generalize the presented questions and answers regarding the use of term “organization” in the field of management, certain similarities and comparisons were sought and found in other fields of science and, more generally, in life itself. After more detailed explanations of other relevant categories for the organizational learning process, the process itself is defined by its goals and steps where the overlapping of the learning process with the organizational change process and the process of increasing organizational capital is shown. Finally, it is also emphasized that the idea of improving internal relationships – as the substance of organization – between employees in a formal social unit through organizational learning could and should be exploited in external relationships between formal social units.

  17. Catalogue of answers in radiology in accordance with subject catalogue 2, with 251 original questions and answers, including comments and an appendix on clinical radiology. 6. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleitz, C.D.; Freihorst, J.

    1985-01-01

    The physical and biological fundamentals of radiology and radiation protection are presented. Methods of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are outlined, and the fundamentals of radiotherapy are discussed. Original examination questions in radiology are presented together with the correct answers. (HP) [de

  18. Nuclear power in Canada: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    To further public understanding of nuclear power generation, the Canadian Nuclear Association commissioned a special task force to coordinate contributions of experts in all parts of the nuclear industry. These contributions have been arranged in a question and answer format and are aimed at the average Canadian reader who is genuinely seeking factual information on nuclear power. Areas covered include electricity demand, comparison of nuclear generation with other forms of thermal electricity production, radiation sources and effects on man and his environment; features of different reactor types, thermal discharges and waste management. (O.T.)

  19. Questions/answers on onshore wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France over the last 15 years, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  20. Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnander, Björn

    2013-09-01

    It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Finding Question-Answer Pairs from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Gao; Wang, Long; Lin, Chin-Yew

    2008-01-01

    Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user generated content. In this paper we address the problem of extracting question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications...

  2. Oceanic hydrates: more questions than answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Methane hydrates create problems by blocking pipelines and casing; they are also accused of contributing to environmental problems (e.g. global warming). Methane hydrates are also found in permafrost areas and in oceanic sediments where the necessary temperature and pressure for stability occur. Claims for the widespread occurrence in thick oceanic deposits are unfounded: apparently indirect evidence from seismic reflectors, seismic hydrocarbon indicators, logs and free samples is unreliable. At one time, hydrate was seen as a static, biogenic, continuous, huge resource but that view is changing to one of a dynamic, overpressurised, discontinuous and unreliable resource. Only Japan and India are currently showing any serious interest in hydrates. Academic research has raised more questions than answers. It is suggested that more hard exploratory evidence rather than theoretical study is required

  3. Approaches to answering critical CER questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnier, Christine V; Chung, Jeanette W; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2015-01-01

    While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for research, many research questions cannot be ethically and practically answered using an RCT. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) techniques are often better suited than RCTs to address the effects of an intervention under routine care conditions, an outcome otherwise known as effectiveness. CER research techniques covered in this section include: effectiveness-oriented experimental studies such as pragmatic trials and cluster randomized trials, treatment response heterogeneity, observational and database studies including adjustment techniques such as sensitivity analysis and propensity score analysis, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. Each section describes the technique and covers the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  4. Interpretation of Genomic Data Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Using a question and answer format we describe important aspects of using genomic technologies in cancer research. The main challenges are not managing the mass of data, but rather the design, analysis and accurate reporting of studies that result in increased biological knowledge and medical utility. Many analysis issues address the use of expression microarrays but are also applicable to other whole genome assays. Microarray based clinical investigations have generated both unrealistic hyperbole and excessive skepticism. Genomic technologies are tremendously powerful and will play instrumental roles in elucidating the mechanisms of oncogenesis and in devlopingan era of predictive medicine in which treatments are tailored to individual tumors. Achieving these goals involves challenges in re-thinking many paradigms for the conduct of basic and clinical cancer research and for the organization of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:18582627

  5. Answer selection in a multi-stream open domain question answering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; McDonald, S.; Tait, J.

    2004-01-01

    Question answering systems aim to meet users' information needs by returning exact answers in response to a question. Traditional open domain question answering systems are built around a single pipeline architecture. In an attempt to exploit multiple resources as well as multiple answering

  6. Training IBM Watson using Automatically Generated Question-Answer Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Gyuwan; Yoo, Jaeyoon; Jung, Changwoo; Kim, Minseok; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-01-01

    IBM Watson is a cognitive computing system capable of question answering in natural languages. It is believed that IBM Watson can understand large corpora and answer relevant questions more effectively than any other question-answering system currently available. To unleash the full power of Watson, however, we need to train its instance with a large number of well-prepared question-answer pairs. Obviously, manually generating such pairs in a large quantity is prohibitively time consuming and...

  7. The Artful Dodger: Answering the Wrong Question the Right Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Norton, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    What happens when speakers try to "dodge" a question they would rather not answer by answering a different question? In 4 studies, we show that listeners can fail to detect dodges when speakers answer similar--but objectively incorrect--questions (the "artful dodge"), a detection failure that goes hand-in-hand with a failure to rate dodgers more…

  8. Explicit Knowledge-based Reasoning for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qi; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den; Dick, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method for visual question answering which is capable of reasoning about contents of an image on the basis of information extracted from a large-scale knowledge base. The method not only answers natural language questions using concepts not contained in the image, but can provide an explanation of the reasoning by which it developed its answer. The method is capable of answering far more complex questions than the predominant long short-term memory-based approach, and outperform...

  9. Production and evaluation of (multimodal) answers to medical questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Krahmer, E.; Maes, A.; Theune, Mariet; Bosma, W.E.; Maes, A.; Ainsworth, S.

    This paper describes two experiments carried out to investigate the production and evaluation of multimodal answer presentations in the context of a medical question answering system. In a production experiment participants had to produce answers to different types of questions. The results show

  10. Latent Space Embedding for Retrieval in Question-Answer Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Deepak; Garg, Dinesh; Shevade, Shirish

    2017-01-01

    Community-driven Question Answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers have become valuable sources of reusable information. CQA retrieval enables usage of historical CQA archives to solve new questions posed by users. This task has received much recent attention, with methods building upon literature from translation models, topic models, and deep learning. In this paper, we devise a CQA retrieval technique, LASER-QA, that embeds question-answer pairs within a unified latent space preservi...

  11. Cryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  12. Managerial Skills Teaching: Ten Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnrue, Mary Pat

    2002-01-01

    Presents considerations for design and delivery of management skills courses as sets of questions in three categories: (1) preteaching (understanding and teaching skills, teacher qualities); (2) class (skills learning, learning barriers, cultural elements, learning assessment); and application/evaluation (lifelong learning, course evaluation,…

  13. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associa...

  14. Infant foods: Debatable questions and real answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.

  15. Some questions and answers concerning fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The theme of the lecture is the place of the fast reactor in an evolving nuclear programme. The whole question of plutonium is first considered, ie its method of production and the ways in which it can be used in the fast reactor fuel cycle. Whether fast reactors are necessary is then discussed. Their safety is examined with particular attention to those design features which are most criticised ie high volumetric power density of the core, and the use of liquid sodium as coolant. Attention is then paid to environmental and safeguard aspects. (U.K.)

  16. Strategy-Selection in Question-Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-03

    34 form of "perceptual learning." They note that levels of processing (See Craik & Lockhart , 1972) affect recognition memory but not perceptual... Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11...practice, subjects seemed able to achieve higher levels of performance on both tasks. One possibility they consider is that the processes involved *. in the

  17. Telephone operator change: your questions answered

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    CERN will be changing mobile telephone operators on 24 June. As the community prepares for the summer switchover, everyone has questions. What brought on the change? Why are we losing our old phone numbers? What kind of improvements will we see? "Just as with every contract at CERN, we issue calls for tenders every few years to ensure we are still receiving the best possible service," explains Tony Cass, from the Communication Systems group within the IT department. "As we came to the end of our contract with Sunrise, we put out a call for tenders, which was won by Swisscom. Not only is their pricing more competitive, they will also be providing better service conditions." The scope of these new service conditions is multifaceted: there will be improvements to the redundancy and reliability of the network as well as modern 4G network coverage in the LHC tunnel. "People will also see their mobile phone bills decrease," says Tony. "This will esp...

  18. Ontologies and adaptivity in dialogue for question answering

    CERN Document Server

    Sonntag, D

    2010-01-01

    Question answering (QA) has become one of the fastest growing topics in computational linguistics and information access. To advance research in the area of dialogue-based question answering, we propose a combination of methods from different scientific fields (i.e., Information Retrieval, Dialogue Systems, Semantic Web, and Machine Learning). This book sheds light on adaptable dialogue-based question answering. We demonstrate the technical and computational feasibility of the proposed ideas, the introspective methods in particular, by beginning with an extensive introduction to the dialogical

  19. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC's standards for protection against radiation

  20. A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, Bas; Taddeo, Antonio; Van der Vegt, Wim; Van Bruggen, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Giesbers, B., Taddeo, A., van der Vegt, W., van Bruggen, J., Koper, R. (2007). A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper. Paper presented at the Cooper workshop, September 18, Crete, Greece.

  1. Learning Convolutional Text Representations for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhengyang; Ji, Shuiwang

    2017-01-01

    Visual question answering is a recently proposed artificial intelligence task that requires a deep understanding of both images and texts. In deep learning, images are typically modeled through convolutional neural networks, and texts are typically modeled through recurrent neural networks. While the requirement for modeling images is similar to traditional computer vision tasks, such as object recognition and image classification, visual question answering raises a different need for textual...

  2. A Noisy-Channel Approach to Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    question “When did Elvis Presley die?” To do this, we build a noisy channel model that makes explicit how answer sentence parse trees are mapped into...in Figure 1, the algorithm above generates the following training example: Q: When did Elvis Presley die ? SA: Presley died PP PP in A_DATE, and...engine as a potential candidate for finding the answer to the question “When did Elvis Presley die?” In this case, we don’t know what the answer is

  3. Illustrating answers: an evaluation of automatically retrieved illustrations of answers to medical questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, W.E.; Theune, Mariet; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Krahmer, E.; Maes, F.

    In this paper we discuss and evaluate a method for automatic text illustration, applied to answers to medical questions. Our method for selecting illustrations is based on the idea that similarities between the answers and picture-related text (the picture’s caption or the section/paragraph that

  4. Question-Answer Pairs in Sign Language of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Vink, L.

    2017-01-01

    Several sign languages of the world utilize a construction that consists of a question followed by an answer, both of which are produced by the same signer. For American Sign Language, this construction has been analyzed as a discourse-level rhetorical question construction (Hoza et al. 1997), as a

  5. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    , and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly......Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function...

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Landfill New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) -- Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 1998 document of questions and answers are provided as a guide for those subject to the new source performance standards (NSPS) or emission guidelines (EG), as well as those implementing the NSPS or EG.

  7. A Flexible Question-and-Answer Task for Measuring Speech Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Best

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report introduces a new speech task based on simple questions and answers. The task differs from a traditional sentence recall task in that it involves an element of comprehension and can be implemented in an ongoing fashion. It also contains two target items (the question and the answer that may be associated with different voices and locations to create dynamic listening scenarios. A set of 227 questions was created, covering six broad categories (days of the week, months of the year, numbers, colors, opposites, and sizes. All questions and their one-word answers were spoken by 11 female and 11 male talkers. In this study, listeners were presented with question-answer pairs and asked to indicate whether the answer was true or false. Responses were given as simple button or key presses, which are quick to make and easy to score. Two preliminary experiments are presented that illustrate different ways of implementing the basic task. In the first experiment, question-answer pairs were presented in speech-shaped noise, and performance was compared across subjects, question categories, and time, to examine the different sources of variability. In the second experiment, sequences of question-answer pairs were presented amidst competing conversations in an ongoing, spatially dynamic listening scenario. Overall, the question-and-answer task appears to be feasible and could be implemented flexibly in a number of different ways.

  8. Means of Question-Answer Interaction for Collaborative Development Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of successful developing of the software intensive system (SIS is adequate conceptual interactions of stakeholders at the early stages of designing. Nowadays the success of development is extremely low. It can be increased with using artificial intelligence (AI means including models of reasoning supported by the human-computer interaction in collaborative development activity. In this paper, a number of question-answer means for modeling reasoning are suggested. Such kind of means is defined and implemented in order to get effects of integrating the collective reasoning for their positive influence on the intellectual activity of designers. Question-answer means are arranged as a specialized processor opening the possibility to question-answer programming of the tasks on the conceptual stage of designing. Suggested and investigated means can be used for solving any complicated task.

  9. Mergers and acquisitions. Frequently asked questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S M; Smeltzer, C H; Thomas, C

    2000-03-01

    This article is structured in a question/answer format based on interviews with Dr. Carolyn Hope Smeltzer and Salima Manji Lin of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Chicago, and Chuck Thomas of Hinshaw & Culbertson, Rockford. The questions come from CEO's, healthcare executives, and nurse executives at hospitals that are contemplating mergers or that have both succeeded and failed to merge their institutions. The experts share their knowledge.

  10. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  11. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  12. INTELLIGENT QUESTION-ANSWERING SYSTEM “MIVAR VIRTUAL CONSULTANT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Evgen’evna Adamova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of designing question-answering system “Mivar Virtual Consultant” using specialized information-technology platform for understanding meaning of text in the natural Russian language. The system is capable of accumulating knowledge from texts in the natural Russian language and managing this knowledge. The methodology for training virtual consultant is described.

  13. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  14. Questions and Answers about RTI: A Guide to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Heather; Petruzzelli, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    As Response-to-Intervention (RTI) models continue to attract a great deal of attention, school and district leaders need to understand the structures needed, the personnel required, the challenges faced, and rewards realized from RTI. "Questions and Answers About RTI: A Guide to Success" is designed to guide a school or district through the…

  15. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Reliably Use the Internet to Answer Clinical Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Abbas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study objective was to determine the accuracy of answers to clinical questions by emergency medicine (EM residents conducting Internet searches by using Google. Emergency physicians commonly turn to outside resources to answer clinical questions that arise in the emergency department (ED. Internet access in the ED has supplanted textbooks for references because it is perceived as being more up to date. Although Google is the most widely used general Internet search engine, it is not medically oriented and merely provides links to other sources. Users must judge the reliability of the information obtained on the links. We frequently observed EM faculty and residents using Google rather than medicine-specific databases to seek answers to clinical questions. Methods: Two EM faculties developed a clinically oriented test for residents to take without the use of any outside aid. They were instructed to answer each question only if they were confident enough of their answer to implement it in a patient-care situation. Questions marked as unsure or answered incorrectly were used to construct a second test for each subject. On the second test, they were instructed to use Google as a resource to find links that contained answers. Results: Thirty-three residents participated. The means for the initial test were 32% correct, 28% incorrect, and 40% unsure. On the Google test, the mean for correct answers was 59%; 33% of answers were incorrect and 8% were unsure. Conclusion: EM residents’ ability to answer clinical questions correctly by using Web sites from Google searches was poor. More concerning was that unsure answers decreased, whereas incorrect answers increased. The Internet appears to have given the residents a false sense of security in their answers. Innovations, such as Internet access in the ED, should be studied carefully before being accepted as reliable tools for teaching clinical decision making. [West J Emerg Med. 2011

  16. Nuclear power and the environment: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present information and answers to questions about nuclear power and the environment, e.g., questions on its effects on public health, safety, and welfare. Information on the overall U.S. energy outlook, with emphasis on nuclear power generation, is provided. Although proponents of nuclear power, the authors have attempted to present factual information and to maintain objectivity. Included are answers to questions on these aspects of nuclear power: the energy situation and nuclear power; economics and reliability; alternative technologies; radioactivity; biological effects of radiation; transportation in the nuclear fuel cycle; fuel reprocessing and nuclear waste disposal; plutonium toxicity; nuclear plant security; thermal pollution; nuclear power plant siting--earthquakes; nuclear reactor safety; public risk and benefits; nuclear liability and insurance; breeder reactors; and thermonuclear fusion. (232 references)

  17. Dialogue in mathematics classrooms: Beyond question-and- answer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Brodie

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores different kinds of interaction observed in South African mathematics classrooms in order to unpack the notion of participation in mathematics learning. It argues that conventional question-and-answer methods do not promote the kind of interaction that the new South African curriculum calls for. It presents more appropriate kinds of interactions, where teachers maintain high task demands, respond to genuine learner questions and support conversations among learners. The paper argues that combinations of different kinds of interaction are  most likely to support learner participation and mathematical thinking in classrooms.

  18. THE VACCINATION AGAINST VARICELLA. THE ANSWERS TO THE PEDIATRISTS QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Tatochenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella is a disease which can be stopped by methods of specific prophylaxis. At the same time, there are no official recommendations on vaccinal prophylaxis of varicella in Russia nowadays. The article presents the answers to the most frequently asked questions of pediatrists concerning vaccination techniques, its effectiveness and safety, and vaccination in epidemic nidus. Special attention was given to the questions of vaccinal prophylaxis of varicella in immunocompromised patients.Key words: varicella, prophylaxis, vaccination.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:114-119

  19. How Pollination Ecology research can help answer important questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalheiro, Luisa G.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollination Ecology is a dynamic field of scientific research constantly adopting novel methods and making progress in understanding the interactions between plants and their pollinators. A recent paper listed the main scientific questions in this field focussing on the ecological and biological system itself. Here, we follow up on that paper and present some ideas on how to broaden our perspective and explore the role that pollination research can play in answering both ecological and societal questions relevant to a range of different stakeholders. We hope this paper may be useful to researchers aiming at improving both the scientific and societal impact of their research.

  20. Visual question answering using hierarchical dynamic memory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jiayu; Li, Shiren; Duan, Zhikui; Huang, Junwei

    2018-04-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) is one of the most popular research fields in machine learning which aims to let the computer learn to answer natural language questions with images. In this paper, we propose a new method called hierarchical dynamic memory networks (HDMN), which takes both question attention and visual attention into consideration impressed by Co-Attention method, which is the best (or among the best) algorithm for now. Additionally, we use bi-directional LSTMs, which have a better capability to remain more information from the question and image, to replace the old unit so that we can capture information from both past and future sentences to be used. Then we rebuild the hierarchical architecture for not only question attention but also visual attention. What's more, we accelerate the algorithm via a new technic called Batch Normalization which helps the network converge more quickly than other algorithms. The experimental result shows that our model improves the state of the art on the large COCO-QA dataset, compared with other methods.

  1. Internet delivered question and answer column for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijala, Riikka; Anttila, Minna; Koivunen, Marita; Pitkänen, Anneli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the use of an Internet delivered question and answer column among patients with schizophrenia. The column was developed for research purposes. The study sample consisted of patients (N = 100) admitted to acute inpatient psychiatric care in two hospital districts. Descriptive data were collected from the column to which a nurse replied within 3 days and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The column had four to five questions weekly. The most common age of users was 18-24 years, and the gender distribution was almost equal. Column use was heaviest among students (44%) and least among unemployed people (19%). Out of 85 questions or comments sent to the column, 25 (29%) were related to program training and the remaining 60 (71%) were related to medication (31%), illness and tests (25%), other questions or comments (9%), daily life and coping with it (4%), and places to receive treatment (2%). An Internet delivered question and answer column can be included in the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, it requires a new type of basic and additional education in the field of mental health care in order for nurses to be able to provide nursing via the Internet forum.

  2. The controversy over food irradiation ''open questions'' and reliable answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1950s and 60s, when ''going nuclear'' was the thing, research and development in the area of food irradiation was generously supported by governments, and was reported by the media with a very positive attitude. In the wake of the antinuclear movement that swept many countries in the 70s and 80s, food irradiation generally had a bad press and governmental support for R and D in this area was reduced more and more. In the meantime, the new technology has become a commerical reality in countries like Belgium, France and the Netherlands. In other countries, Germany for instance, the frightening claims of the opponents that irradiated foods are bad for health and nutritionally worthless - have been gradually replaced by the view: ''There are still too many open questions. A moratorium on food irradiation must be proclaimed until all the questions have been answered''. A situation where no more questions can be asked, will never be reached. However, reliable answers can be given to the important questions concerning nutritional and health quality of irradiated food, and environmental safety, technical efficacy, and economic feasibility of the process. The question that is stipp open, at least in some countries, is to what extent consumers, confused by conflicting claims of opponents and proponents and often misinformed about the difference between radiation and radioactivity, will buy foods labelled ''irradiated''. (orig.) [de

  3. Information Presentation in Decision and Risk Analysis: Answered, Partly Answered, and Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L Robin; Wang, Yitong

    2017-06-01

    For the last 30 years, researchers in risk analysis, decision analysis, and economics have consistently proven that decisionmakers employ different processes for evaluating and combining anticipated and actual losses, gains, delays, and surprises. Although rational models generally prescribe a consistent response, people's heuristic processes will sometimes lead them to be inconsistent in the way they respond to information presented in theoretically equivalent ways. We point out several promising future research directions by listing and detailing a series of answered, partly answered, and unanswered questions. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions ampersand answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This open-quotes Management of PCBs Questions and Answersclose quotes has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith's presentation, and (3) the question and answer session

  5. Energy and the greenhouse effect. Answers to 60 questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.; De Wolff, J.J.; Folkert, R.J.M.; Hoekstra, J.; Ruijgrok, W.; Stortelder, B.J.M.; Vosbeek, M.E.J.P.; Ruiter, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this report is to clarify the complex interaction between the greenhouse effect and the energy sector in the Netherlands, focusing on the future of the energy supply and how changes in policies with respect to energy consumption can influence climatic change. The relation between energy sector and greenhouse effect is dealt with on the basis of 60 questions on the greenhouse effect, emission of greenhouse gases and energy scenarios, and concise answers. Calculations of consequences of future scenarios for the climate are executed by means of the KEMA-developed integrated scenario model for climatic change DIALOOG. 27 refs

  6. Questions-answers - Ground-based wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  7. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NUFACT11 round table discussion questions and answers

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A

    2013-01-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model, it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ(13) makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses, it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and asso...

  9. Question answer relationship strategy increases reading comprehension among Kindergarten students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Question Answer Relationship (QAR strategy equips students with tools to successfully decode and comprehend what they read. An action research project over 18 days with twenty-three kindergarteners adapted exposure to QAR’s "In the Book" and "In my Head" categories with similar questions for each of two popular Aesop’s fables. The challenges and outcomes are presented with special emphasis on teacher-preparation, teacher-reflections, and a hands-on, day-by-day project-implementation. An oral pre-test, after reading The Tortoise and the Hare, served as a baseline assessment for student-comprehension levels. The QAR strategy was then explicitly taught, with opportunities to practice the comprehension skills in small and large groups with parental assistance. Students overwhelmingly scored higher on the post-test reading comprehension after the read-aloud of The Jay and the Peacock with some receiving perfect scores.

  10. Long-Term Follow-Up of Echolalia and Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R. M.; Faw, Gerald D.

    1990-01-01

    A long-term followup (from 26 to 57 months) of echolalia and correct question-answering was conducted with six mentally retarded adult subjects identified from three previously published studies. Echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6 percent of the followups. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed. (Author/DB)

  11. Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Wells

    1984-01-01

    Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

  12. Exoplanets and Other Modern Answers to Old Astronomical Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2002-04-01

    The Greeks were the first to ask, or at least to write about asking, questions like whether there are other planets like earth and whether the universe is finite or infinite. In all cases, they answered both yes and not (since there were lots of Greeks and not much data). A good deal later (but still in the period called history, unless you are very old), astronomers started asking whether the duration of the universe was finite or infinite, what the stars are made of and what keeps them shining, and whether there are other galaxies like ours. All of these now how answers at some confidence level. Close to 100 planets outside our solar system have been reported, starting in 1995, but selection effects mean that none are like earth. Data from many sources (supernovae, radioactive elements, microwave radiation, and all) combine to say that the universe has a finite past but probably an infinite future and an extent that, if not infinite, is anyhow very much larger than a breadbox. The stars run on nuclear fusion, and there are oodles of galaxies. The talk will explore how we have learned some of these things and try to look forward to current unsolved problems in astrophysics and cosmology.

  13. Retrievability - A too simple answer to a difficult question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odhnoff, C.

    2002-01-01

    Near to Stockholm in October, 1999, KASAM and IAEA held a joint seminar on Retrievability. There were some 40 participants from about ten countries. Consensus was not the objective, moreover, the discussions were conducted in a friendly spirit of respect and wish to understand different opinions. The retrievability option was incorporated into into broader concepts by a stepwise procedure designed to allow the possibility of steps being reversed, thereby reducing the dramatic difference between open and closed repositories. Each step would give you time to consider and best if the repository concept so far was up to expectations. Retrievability is not a simple answer, but it helps to make this question less complicated. (author)

  14. Long-term follow-up of echolalia and question answering.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxx, R M; Faw, G D

    1990-01-01

    A long-term follow-up of echolalia and correct question answering was conducted for 6 subjects from three previously published studies. The follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 57 months. In a training site follow-up, subjects were exposed to baseline/posttraining conditions in which the original trainer and/or a novel person(s) presented trained and untrained questions. Four subjects displayed echolalia below baseline levels, and another did so in some assessments. Overall, echolalia was lowe...

  15. THE EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION-STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP VS SELF-QUESTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Thohir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at examining and comparing the effectiveness of the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR and Self-Questioning (SQ strategies in improving the reading ability of the undergraduate students. This study was a quasi-experimental study in which two out of three classes of the third semester students at English department of Mataram University were selected randomly to receive either QAR strategy or SQ strategy instructions for ten weekly meetings. The findings of pre- and posttest with multiple-choice questions revealed that both comprehension strategies were effective in improving the undergraduate students‘ reading ability. The findings from the posttest with multiple-choice questions indicated the students who received SQ strategy instruction scored significantly higher than those students who received QAR strategy instruction. On the other hand, the students who received QAR strategy instruction scored slightly higher than those students who received SQ strategy instruction in the posttest with open-ended questions.

  16. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  17. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  18. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  19. NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions and Answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, A; Efthymiopoulos, I

    2013-01-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ 13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R and D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R and D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

  20. [Dental care in pregnancy. Ten questions and answers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcas, Raphael; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Zimmermann, Roland; Gnoinski, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    Dental care of pregnant patients is a demanding task. On one hand, clinicians are facing patients with an altered physiology that may cause a greater need for treatment. On the other hand, pregnancy in itself as well as the unborn child involves potential contraindications to dental interventions. It is therefore essential that dentists be knowledgeable of the ramifications pregnancy has on medical findings and therapy. Also, clinicians must be able to conduct their treatment based on well-grounded data to avoid any harm to the pregnant woman and her unborn child. This article focuses on facts specifically relevant to clinicians. Based on most current scientific data, we aim to answer the following ten questions: 1. What are the physiological changes during pregnancy? 2. What is the adequate lying position for a pregnant patient? 3. Is there a pregnancy-related gingivitis? 4. What is the association between periodontitis, pregnancy and preterm birth? 5. Are there oral manifestations of pregnancy-related therapies? 6. Are caries and erosions inevitable during pregnancy? 7. Should the intake of fluoride be advocated? 8. Is it permissible to x-ray pregnant patients? 9. Is orthodontics contraindicated during pregnancy and 10. Which medication should be administered with caution?

  1. Anaphora in question-answer sessions in university ELF contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Identity chains (Hasan 1984 ˗ strings of co-referential noun phrases ˗ constitute a lesser researched area in the field of ELF, as has the more general area of cohesion (but see Hüttner 2009, Christiansen 2011. Following on the work on anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, and on cohesion (e.g. Halliday and Hasan 1976, Halliday 2004, Christiansen (2009a/b, 2011 focuses on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. The interactive perspective of discourse (seen as the process of which text is the product: see Widdowson 1984: 100 is especially relevant to an ELF context of spontaneous spoken interaction. As Guido (2008 evidences, different inter-cultural concerns constitute a crucial dimension to the complex multi-code interaction. Consequently, the diverse ways in which speakers from different L1 backgrounds employ anaphors and construct identity chains are key elements in the co-construction of a dialogic text. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions set in multicultural contexts are analysed qualitatively. The different ways that participants construct identity chains (e.g. whether they use full forms of various kinds or anaphoric pro-forms are classified. The analysis focuses on both how individual anaphors are resolved and how relations between anaphors and antecedent triggers are encoded, and how identity chains are constructed and organized individually. The objective is to identify which kinds of noun phrase (various subtypes of full and pro-forms are used by diverse groups of EFL speakers both in relation to their own contributions and to those of other speakers (with a threefold distinction made between the same turn of the same speaker, a different turn of the same speaker, and a different turn by a different speaker.

  2. Towards automatic generation of multimodal answers to medical questions: a cognitive engineering approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, Charlotte; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons; Bosma, W.E.; van der Sluis, I; Theune, Mariet; Reiter, E.; Krahmer, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a production experiment carried out to determine which modalities people choose to answer different types of questions. In this experiment participants had to create (multimodal) presentations of answers to general medical questions. The collected answer presentations were coded

  3. Artificial Intelligence in Medical Practice: The Question to the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D Douglas; Brown, Eric W

    2018-02-01

    Computer science advances and ultra-fast computing speeds find artificial intelligence (AI) broadly benefitting modern society-forecasting weather, recognizing faces, detecting fraud, and deciphering genomics. AI's future role in medical practice remains an unanswered question. Machines (computers) learn to detect patterns not decipherable using biostatistics by processing massive datasets (big data) through layered mathematical models (algorithms). Correcting algorithm mistakes (training) adds to AI predictive model confidence. AI is being successfully applied for image analysis in radiology, pathology, and dermatology, with diagnostic speed exceeding, and accuracy paralleling, medical experts. While diagnostic confidence never reaches 100%, combining machines plus physicians reliably enhances system performance. Cognitive programs are impacting medical practice by applying natural language processing to read the rapidly expanding scientific literature and collate years of diverse electronic medical records. In this and other ways, AI may optimize the care trajectory of chronic disease patients, suggest precision therapies for complex illnesses, reduce medical errors, and improve subject enrollment into clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-04-28

    About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet-ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell's classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact on them. We present what kinds of questions people ask

  5. Two layers LSTM with attention for multi-choice question answering in exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin

    2018-03-01

    Question Answering in Exams is typical question answering task that aims to test how accurately the model could answer the questions in exams. In this paper, we use general deep learning model to solve the multi-choice question answering task. Our approach is to build distributed word embedding of question and answers instead of manually extracting features or linguistic tools, meanwhile, for improving the accuracy, the external corpus is introduced. The framework uses a two layers LSTM with attention which get a significant result. By contrast, we introduce the simple long short-term memory (QA-LSTM) model and QA-LSTM-CNN model and QA-LSTM with attention model as the reference. Experiment demonstrate superior performance of two layers LSTM with attention compared to other models in question answering task.

  6. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  7. Answering PICO Clinical Questions: a Semantic Graph-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Znaidi , Eya; Tamine , Lynda; Latiri , Chiraz

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we tackle the issue related to the retrieval of the best evidence that fits with a PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) question. We propose a new document ranking algorithm that relies on semantic based query expansion bounded by the local search context to better discard irrelevant documents. Experiments using a standard dataset including 423 PICO questions and more than 1,2 million of documents, show that our aproach is promising.

  8. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  9. Personality Measurement and Employment Decisions. Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes data concerning personality measurements as predictors of job performance, and offers responses to frequently raised questions about these measurements in the employment process. It is suggested that measures of personality are valid predictors of performance in all occupations, that they do not adversely impact minority group job…

  10. Elementary? Question Answering, IBM's Watson, and the Jeopardy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    One of the most readable accounts of early AI systems, including. NLP systems, may be .... tions of these questions to annotations of information segments in ..... Watson as a decision-aide rather than as a decision-maker will be a safe step ...

  11. Can online networks provide quality answers to questions about occupational safety and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-05-01

    To assess whether experts can provide high-quality answers to occupational safety and health (OSH) questions in online Question & Answer (Q&A) networks. The authors evaluated the quality of answers provided by qualified experts in two Dutch online networks: ArboAntwoord and the Helpdesk of the Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases. A random sample of 594 answers was independently evaluated by two raters using nine answer quality criteria. An additional criterion, the agreement of answers with the best available evidence, was explored by peer review of a sample of 42 answers. Reviewers performed an evidence search in Medline. The median answer quality score of ArboAntwoord (N=295) and the Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases Helpdesk (N=299) was 8 of 9 (IQR 2). The inter-rater reliability of the first nine quality criteria was high (κ 0.82-0.90, p<0.05). A question answered by two or more experts had a greater probability of a high-quality score than questions answered by one expert (OR 4.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 9.0). Answers most often scored insufficient on the use of evidence to underpin the answer (36% and 38% for the networks, respectively) and on conciseness (35% and 31%, respectively). Peer review demonstrated that 43%-72% of the answers in both online networks were in complete agreement with the best available evidence. OSH experts are able to provide quality answers in online OSH Q&A networks. Our answer quality appraisal instrument was feasible and provided information on how to improve answer quality.

  12. Can Workers Answer Their Questions about Occupational Safety and Health: Challenges and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their

  13. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1002] Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition) AGENCY... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Food...

  14. Multimodal follow-up questions to multimodal answers in a QA system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a dialogue manager (DM) for a multimodal interactive Question Answering (QA) system. Our QA system presents answers using text and pictures, and the user may pose follow-up questions using text or speech, while indicating screen elements with the mouse. We developed a corpus of

  15. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  16. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  17. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section 300-2.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300...

  18. Workplace Safety: you've answered the right questions!

    CERN Multimedia

    The Safety Unit (BE Department)

    2011-01-01

    The World Day for Safety and Health at Work was a great success. A big thank you to everyone who took part and took the time to ask themselves the "right questions".   A large number of questionnaires were completed and we were happy to note that many among you had taken the opportunity to give serious thought to your own health and safety on a daily basis. In a few days' time, information on the hazards most frequently identified over the course of that day – and the methods of coping with them – will be posted on the BE Safety Unit's website. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us. The 15 winners of the tombola are: 1st prize (a FNAC gift voucher) Jean-Benoit Fouillat 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th prizes (a bottle of champagne): Maud Scheubel Pierre Juteau Sebastien Ceuterickx Joao Simoes From 6th to 15th prize (a box of chocolates): Antonio Mongelluzzo Francesco Castronuovo Christophe Boucly Marta Csatari Jacky Tonoli Remy Noulib...

  19. Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accad, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance.

  20. Difficult Questions and Ambivalent Answers on Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Wiszmeg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative pilot study on the attitudes of some citizens in southern Sweden toward predictive genetic testing – and a quantitative nation wide opinion poll targeting the same issues, was initiated by the Cultural Scientific Research Team of BAGADILICO. The latter is an international biomedical research environment on neurological disease at Lund University. The data of the two studies crystallized through analysis into themes around which the informants’ personal negotiations of opinions and emotions in relation to the topic centred: Concept of Risk,‘Relations and Moral Multi-layers, Worry, Agency and Autonomy, Authority, and Rationality versus Emotion. The studies indicate that even groups of people that beforehand are non-engaged in the issue, harbour complex and ambivalent emotions and opinions toward questions like this. A certain kind of situation bound pragmatism that with difficulty could be shown by quantitative methods alone emerges. This confirms our belief that methodological consideration of combining quantitative and qualitative methods is crucial for gaining a more complex representation of attitudes, as well as for problematizing the idea of a unified public open to inquiry.

  1. Question of Consciousness: to Quantum Mechanics for the Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpenko Ivan A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the possible role of consciousness in quantum-mechanical description of physical reality. The widely spread interpretations of quantum phenomena are considered as indicating the apparent connection between conscious processes (such as observation and the properties of the microcosm. The reasons for discrepancies between the results of observations of the microcosm and macrocosm and the potential association of consciousness with these reasons are closely investigated. The mentioned connection is meant to be interpreted in the sense that the probable requirement for a complete understanding of quantum theory is the adequate description of consciousness within it and that the correct theory of consciousness should include quantum-mechanical theoretical apparatus. In this context, the question about the methods of scientific cognition is discussed, in particular, the problem of the place and the importance of intellectual intuition in science and philosophy of science. The author draws the conclusions about the current state of the “measuring” consciousness. problem in its relationship with

  2. Waves and rays in seismology answers to unasked questions

    CERN Document Server

    Slawinski, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The author dedicates this book to readers who are concerned with finding out the status of concepts, statements and hypotheses, and with clarifying and rearranging them in a logical order. It is thus not intended to teach tools and techniques of the trade, but to discuss the foundations on which seismology — and in a larger sense, the theory of wave propagation in solids — is built. A key question is: why and to what degree can a theory developed for an elastic continuum be used to investigate the propagation of waves in the Earth, which is neither a continuum nor fully elastic. But the scrutiny of the foundations goes much deeper: material symmetry, effective tensors, equivalent media; the influence (or, rather, the lack thereof) of gravitational and thermal effects and the rotation of the Earth, are discussed ab initio. The variational principles of Fermat and Hamilton and their consequences for the propagation of elastic waves, causality, Noether's theorem and its consequences on conservation of energy...

  3. Interactions and user-perceived helpfulness in diet information social questions & answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Peilin

    2016-12-01

    Online health information seeking using social questions and answers (Social Q&A) sites has been increasingly popular in recent years. It calls for better understanding of health information seeking behaviour and interactions between information seekers and information providers. The study investigates how diet information seekers interact with information providers on WebMD Answers, which is a Social Q&A site devoted to health-related topics, and examines the factors that constitute a 'helpful' answer from an information seeker's perspective. Bales' interaction process analysis was applied as the framework to analyse 568 diet-related Q&As from WebMD Answers to identify interaction patterns. Most diet information seekers post questions anonymously and without any detailed description. Individual experts or health organisations provide most answers. Overall, answers are positively received and had a high satisfaction rating. It was also found that information seeker-perceived helpfulness does not depend on who answered the question but to how an information seeker posted the question. This study indicates that answers at WebMD Answers are helpful for diet information seekers. It sheds new light on the interactions during the Q&A process, preferred site functions and important factors that contribute to perceived helpful answers. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  4. The 'Sentinel Node' Concept: More Questions Raised than Answers Provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag

    1998-01-01

    -guided detection of the sentinel node. At present, a multitude of studies are conducted in a variety of tumors and sites, aiming at further refinements of the technique or at clinical evaluation in comparison with established lympadenectomy. The results may well change many aspects of our operative strategy in the near future. However, assuming a technically optimized procedure, will this solve the underlying tumor biological and clinical problem with respect to the necessity and efficacy of a regional lymph node dissection in node-positive cases? This is not the case; moreover, there are additional questions raised and left unanswered so far. Without any doubt, the rate of unnecessary diagnostic lymph node dissections can be considerably reduced as soon as the sentinel node concept is sufficiently validated for general use outside clinical trials. This would be a clear step forward. It is undetermined, however, how far a cancer patient with a positive sentinel node-thus already proven lymphatic metastases-would still profit from a more or less extensive lymph node dissection. It might be sufficient to use the staging information obtained through the sentinel node's status alone to decide upon adjuvant therapies. A further aspect arises from the possibility for investigating this single and supposedly most representative lymph node in far more detail than it would be possible for the large number of nodes previously sampled in conventional lymphatic dissections. This more extensive work-up may include serial sectioning, immunological and molecular techniques to enhance the sensitivity for micrometastases detection. However, very little is known about the true prognostic significance of such conventionally occult micrometastases, and even less experience exists as to the value of adjuvant therapies in those cases. Thus, while the sentinel node procedure will probably enable a more precise though less invasive lymphatic staging of malignant disease, it raises a number of important

  5. Understanding the Factors Influencing User Experience of Social Question and Answer Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengli; Fang, Yuling; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The popularity of social question and answer sites has made it an important and convenient source for obtaining knowledge. This study quantifies how three different system characteristics (interface design, interaction and answer quality) affect users' perceptions (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment),…

  6. I Don't Know. The Effect of Question Polarity on No-opinion Answers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, N.; van de Pol, Jasper; Krouwel, A.P.M.; de Vreese, Claes; Holleman, Bregje

    2018-01-01

    A new type of political attitude survey that has gained popularity in Europe and in the United States is the voting advice application (VAA). VAAs provide users with a voting advice based on their answers to a set of attitude questions. In the calculation of this advice, no-opinion answers are

  7. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The incidence ...

  8. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the final rule). The...

  9. Science Matters Podcast: Questions and Answers with EPA's Dr. Peter Grevatt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listen to a podcast with Dr. Peter Grevatt, the director of EPA's Office of Children's Health Protection, as he answers questions about children's health, or read some of the highlights from the conversation here.

  10. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  11. Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered

  12. 100 commonly asked questions in math class answers that promote mathematical understanding, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Germain-Williams, Terri L (Lynn); Paris, Elaine S; Lehmann, Ingmar H (Horst)

    2013-01-01

    100 ways to get students hooked on math! That one question got you stumped? Or maybe you have the answer, but it's not all that compelling. Al Posamentier and his coauthors to the rescue with this handy reference containing fun answers to students'100 most frequently asked math questions. Even if you already have the answers, Al's explanations are certain to keep kids hooked. The big benefits? You'll discover high-interest ways to Teach to the Common Core's math content standards Promote inquiry and process in mathematical thinking Build procedural skills and conceptual understanding Encourage

  13. Reply & Supply: Efficient crowdsourcing when workers do more than answer questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Thomas C; Guseva, Elizaveta A; Bagrow, James P

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing works by distributing many small tasks to large numbers of workers, yet the true potential of crowdsourcing lies in workers doing more than performing simple tasks-they can apply their experience and creativity to provide new and unexpected information to the crowdsourcer. One such case is when workers not only answer a crowdsourcer's questions but also contribute new questions for subsequent crowd analysis, leading to a growing set of questions. This growth creates an inherent bias for early questions since a question introduced earlier by a worker can be answered by more subsequent workers than a question introduced later. Here we study how to perform efficient crowdsourcing with such growing question sets. By modeling question sets as networks of interrelated questions, we introduce algorithms to help curtail the growth bias by efficiently distributing workers between exploring new questions and addressing current questions. Experiments and simulations demonstrate that these algorithms can efficiently explore an unbounded set of questions without losing confidence in crowd answers.

  14. Net improvement of correct answers to therapy questions after pubmed searches: pre/post comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Keepanasseril, Arun; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2013-11-08

    Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers.

  15. Addressing challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony: questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2012-11-01

    Introduction of a new version of a psychological test brings with it challenges that can be accentuated by the adversarial nature of the legal process. In the case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), these challenges can be addressed by becoming familiar with the rationale for and the methods used in revising the inventory, the information contained in the test manuals, and the growing peer-reviewed literature on the test. Potential challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony are identified in this article and discussed in question and answer format. The questions guiding this discussion are based on the Daubert factors, established in 1993 by the US Supreme Court as criteria for gauging the scientific validity of proffered expert testimony. The answers to these questions apply more broadly to testimony in depositions, pre-trial hearings, and at trial. Consideration of the MMPI-2-RF in light of the Daubert factors indicates that the instrument has been subjected to extensive empirical testing and that a substantial peer-reviewed literature is available to guide and support its use. Information about the known and potential rate of error associated with MMPI-2-RF scores is available, and standard procedures for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the inventory are detailed in the test administration manual. Indicators of MMPI-2-RF acceptance can be cited, and criticisms of the MMPI-2-RF can be addressed with information available in the test documents and an extensive, modern, and actively growing peer-reviewed literature.

  16. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  17. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information.

  18. The Impact of Question Format, Context, and Content on Survey Answers in Early and Late Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diersch Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-reports in surveys are often influenced by the presented question format and question context. Much less is known about how these effects influence the answers of younger survey respondents. The present study investigated how variations in response format, answer scale frequency, and question order influence self-reports of two age groups: younger (11–13 years old and older (16–18 years old adolescents. In addition, the impact of the respondents’ level of familiarity with the question content was taken into account. Results indicated that younger adolescents are more strongly influenced by the presented question format and context than older adolescents. This, however, was dependent on the particular question content, implying that response effects are more pronounced when questions deal with issues that lie outside of the respondents’ field of experience. Implications of these findings in survey research with younger respondents are discussed.

  19. Why the changing American economy calls for twenty-first century learning: answers to educators' questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    While struggling with the current pressures of educational reform, some educators will ask whether their efforts make economic sense. Questioning the future makeup of the nation's workforce, many wonder how the educational system should be tempered to better prepare today's youth. This chapter answers educators' and parents' questions around the effect of fluctuations in the American economy on the future of education. The authors offer reassurance that good jobs will always be available, but warn that those jobs will require a new level of skills: expert thinking and complex communication. Schools need to go beyond their current curriculum and prepare students to use reading, math, and communication skills to build a deeper and more thoughtful understanding of subject matter. To explain the implications of the nation's changing economy on jobs, technology, and therefore education, the authors address a range of vital questions. Citing occupational distribution data, the chapter explores the supply and range of jobs in the future, as well as why changes in the U.S. job distribution have taken place. As much of the explanation for the shift in job distribution over the past several decades is due to the computerization of the workforce, the authors discuss how computers will affect the future composition of the workforce. The chapter also addresses the consequences of educational improvement on earnings distribution. The authors conclude that beyond workforce preparedness, students need to learn how to be contributing members of a democracy.

  20. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.; Ba-Rayyan, Faten A.

    2017-01-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  1. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  2. Selecting Information to Answer Questions: Strategic Individual Differences when Searching Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdan, Raquel; Gilabert, Ramiro; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' selection of information strategies in a task-oriented reading situation. 72 secondary school students read two texts and answered six questions per text, three of which were manipulated to induce a misleading matching between the wording of the question and distracting pieces of information in the…

  3. Using Conditional Random Fields to Extract Contexts and Answers of Questions from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Shilin; Cong, Gao; Lin, Chin-Yew

    2008-01-01

    Online forum discussions often contain vast amounts of questions that are the focuses of discussions. Extracting contexts and answers together with the questions will yield not only a coherent forum summary but also a valuable QA knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a general framework based...... on Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to detect the contexts and answers of questions from forum threads. We improve the basic framework by Skip-chain CRFs and 2D CRFs to better accommodate the features of forums for better performance. Experimental results show that our techniques are very promising....

  4. Nuclear medicine board review. Questions and answers for self-assessment. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F.; Zuckier, L.S.; Karam, M.; Cooper, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides thorough preparation for certification examinations by the American Board of Radiology (Nuclear Medicine section and Special Competency), the American Board of Nuclear Medicine, and the America Board of Nuclear Cardiology. More than 1,780 questions test the reader's knowledge of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radionuclides, single-photon applications, and positron emission tomography (PET). Features: - A convenient question and answer format, in which questions appear on the left and answers on the right, allowing the reader to rapidly quiz and review. - New chapters addressing the emergence of PET/CT. - Measurements provided in both American standard and SI metric units. Ideal for board exam preparation, this concise text is an up-to-date question and answer review for the most important topics in nuclear medicine. (orig.)

  5. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    OpenAIRE

    Fajrin Azwary; Fatma Indriani; Dodon T. Nugrahadi

    2016-01-01

    Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML). AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering...

  6. Questions answers renewable energies (02/08/99); Questions reponses energies renouvelables (02/08/99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document collected some questions about the use of renewable energies sources in the domain of the financial and technical assistance of the customer by EDF (photovoltaic cells or wind turbines for residential houses) and for electrification of independent sites which are not connected to EDF power grid. (A.L.B.)

  7. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers... Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers.'' The draft questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapter Residual Solvents that applies to both human...

  8. Question-Answer Activities in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Terms of Interest and Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Aydemir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Instructors generally convey their face to face habits to synchronous virtual classrooms, but these face to face strategies do not work in these environments. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question type and answer format used in synchronous class implementations on perceived interest and usefulness. To do this, questions were asked in different ways and answers were requested in different formats in synchronous virtual sessions. The participants consisted of 28 postgraduate students registered in an online criminal justice program at a university located in the North-East part of Turkey. Data was collected in the context of a Research Methods in Security Sciences course during 2012–2013 fall semester. Results showed effects of question type on learner interest, while answer format has an effect on usefulness of online activities. In conclusion, to increase interest in synchronous virtual classrooms by asking questions, instead of closed-ended questions, open-ended questions which everybody can answer should be preferred.

  9. Model answers for Yes/No questions from EFL students in public senior high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Dirgeyasa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the typical categories of answers to Yes/No questions most used by students at selected Public Senior High Schools in Medan, Indonesia. These schools were classified into top favorite, medium favorite and non-favorite schools. Through a stratified clustered random sampling technique, six schools were chosen consisting of two schools from each classification. A number of 40 students were chosen from three class X, three class XI and three class XII at each of the six chosen schools, making a total sample of 720 students with 360 sets of dialogue scripts. Data was collected through documentation-recording dialogues. The data was transcribed and analyzed by descriptive analysis. The results of the research showed that: 1 the categories of the students’ answers to the Yes/No questions were distributed variously in terms of the six models. However, the distribution of the answers was not proportionally equal amongst all the models, 2 the dominant distribution of the answers was the third model with the formula Yes/No+additional information such as confirming, supporting, etc., reaching 37% of the total answers, whilst the least common models were the sixth and fourth categories respectively, which had 1% and 3% of the answers respectively, and finally 3 there was no significant difference in the distribution of the students’ answers in terms of the class of school whether top favorite, medium favorite or non-favorite. In conclusion, the ways to answer Yes/No questions need to be developed amongst students by their teachers by teaching and learning using natural, real life-like situations and in contextual ways.

  10. A deep learning approach for predicting the quality of online health expert question-answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ze; Zhang, Zhan; Yang, Haiqin; Chen, Qing; Zuo, Decheng

    2017-07-01

    Recently, online health expert question-answering (HQA) services (systems) have attracted more and more health consumers to ask health-related questions everywhere at any time due to the convenience and effectiveness. However, the quality of answers in existing HQA systems varies in different situations. It is significant to provide effective tools to automatically determine the quality of the answers. Two main characteristics in HQA systems raise the difficulties of classification: (1) physicians' answers in an HQA system are usually written in short text, which yields the data sparsity issue; (2) HQA systems apply the quality control mechanism, which refrains the wisdom of crowd. The important information, such as the best answer and the number of users' votes, is missing. To tackle these issues, we prepare the first HQA research data set labeled by three medical experts in 90days and formulate the problem of predicting the quality of answers in the system as a classification task. We not only incorporate the standard textual feature of answers, but also introduce a set of unique non-textual features, i.e., the popular used surface linguistic features and the novel social features, from other modalities. A multimodal deep belief network (DBN)-based learning framework is then proposed to learn the high-level hidden semantic representations of answers from both textual features and non-textual features while the learned joint representation is fed into popular classifiers to determine the quality of answers. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of including the non-textual features and the proposed multimodal deep learning framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using the weighted keyword model to improve information retrieval for answering biomedical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Cao, Yong-Gang

    2009-03-01

    Physicians ask many complex questions during the patient encounter. Information retrieval systems that can provide immediate and relevant answers to these questions can be invaluable aids to the practice of evidence-based medicine. In this study, we first automatically identify topic keywords from ad hoc clinical questions with a Condition Random Field model that is trained over thousands of manually annotated clinical questions. We then report on a linear model that assigns query weights based on their automatically identified semantic roles: topic keywords, domain specific terms, and their synonyms. Our evaluation shows that this weighted keyword model improves information retrieval from the Text Retrieval Conference Genomics track data.

  12. A medical consultation service on Facebook: descriptive analysis of questions answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helve, Otto

    2014-09-04

    Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Facebook users over 18 years old. If the answer did not include a further referral to a health care service provider, the question was considered comprehensively answered. The site was funded by a pharmaceutical company, and it included an advertisement of a pharmaceutical product for children's fever and pain. During the study, 768 questions were submitted: an average of 69.8 (SD 31.7) per month. There were 245,533 independent Facebook users on the site, with an average of 727.0 (SD 2280.6) per day. Infections were the most common theme in questions (355/768, 46.2%). Questions were more likely to be comprehensively answered if they were related to infections (279/355, 78.6%) than questions related to non-infectious symptoms (265/423, 64.2%, P=.003). On this site aimed at parents of small children, personalized answers were an effective way of delivering information. The service is likely to have reduced the need for further contacts with a health care service provider in more than half of the cases. The site could serve as a model for publicly funded health information distribution.

  13. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  14. Assessing the quality of pharmacist answers to telephone drug information questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C T; Stevenson, J G; Poremba, A

    1990-04-01

    A quality assurance (QA) program is described in which frontline pharmacists were asked test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls. The program was instituted at a university hospital that began providing decentralized pharmaceutical services in 1985. Questions were developed on the basis of a pilot study conducted to determine the types and complexity of drug information questions received by frontline pharmacists at the hospital. Data on departmental clinical productivity were used to determine the number of questions that would be posed during each shift in the various service areas. The questions were posed during a 10-day period; the pharmacists were aware of the program, but the callers did not identify their affiliation with it. In response to 105 questions asked, 86 were judged to have been answered correctly, 13 answers were deemed incomplete, and 6 were judged incorrect. Pharmacists were more likely to respond incorrectly to complex questions and questions posed during the night shift. As a result of the audit, staff members with advanced clinical knowledge were asked to help less experienced pharmacists, the position of assistant director for drug information and staff development was created, and educational programs were instituted. The QA audit has been repeated twice. Posing test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls is effective in assessing the quality of drug information provided by pharmacists in patient-care areas.

  15. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  16. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

  17. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella...

  18. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established.... The agency is also seeking comments from industry on the Reportable Food Registry requirements, and... the implementation of the Reportable Food Registry on September 8, 2009, and informs industry about...

  19. Making Stone Soup: Evaluating a Recall-Oriented Multi-Stream Question Answering Stream for Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahn, D.D.; Jijkoun, V.; Müller, K.E.; de Rijke, M.; Schlobach, K.S.; Mishne, G.A.; Peters, C.; Clough, P.D.; Jones, G.J.F.; Gonzalo, J.; Kluck, M.; Magnini, B.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the participation of the University of Amsterdam in the Question Answering track at CLEF 2004.We took part in the monolingual Dutch task and, for the first time, also in the bilingual English to Dutch task. This year¿s system is a further elaboration and refinement of the multi-stream

  20. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  1. Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sukenik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

  2. Children's Ability to Answer Different Types of Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Young children answer many questions every day. The extent to which they do this in an adult-like way -- following Grice's Maxim of Quantity by providing the requested information, no more no less -- has been studied very little. In an experiment, we found that two-, three- and four-year-old children are quite skilled at answering…

  3. Developing Independence in a Capstone Course: Helping Students Ask and Answer Their Own Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mathematics capstone course designed to help students grow in mathematical independence. We describe how the course is structured to support this goal and the major assignments: a course wiki, a group expository project, and an individual problem to solve and extend. Students learn to ask and answer their own questions, helping them…

  4. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  5. Questions and Answers Explaining the New Tax Rules Applicable to Tax-Sheltered Annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David E.; Spuehler, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 and subsequent legislation have radically altered the rules needed to maintain favorable tax status of tax-sheltered annuity plans for college employees. Application of the new rules is complex. Critical questions facing institutions and organizations are answered, and potential liabilities facing educational employers…

  6. Is world trade law a barrier to saving our climate? Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi-Osterwalder, N.; Norpoth, J.

    2009-09-01

    The present 'Questions and Answers' provide an overview of the various climate-related measures and policies that fall under the scope of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and offers an initial assessment of their WTO-compatibility. Is the WTO blocking progress in the fight against climate change? This was the question at the origin of this legal analysis. With this paper and its simple question and answer format, we hope to dispel some myths and shed some light on the reality of world trade rules in their relation with climate-friendly measures. In the end, we hope to encourage policy-makers in Europe and around the world not to see the WTO as an insurmountable barrier and not to use it as an excuse against strong action on climate change.

  7. Using mixed methods to identify and answer clinically relevant research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, Catherine L; Gale, Nicola K

    2015-06-01

    The need for mixed methods research in answering health care questions is becoming increasingly recognized because of the complexity of factors that affect health outcomes. In this article, we argue for the value of using a qualitatively driven mixed method approach for identifying and answering clinically relevant research questions. This argument is illustrated by findings from a study on the self-management practices of cancer survivors and the exploration of one particular clinically relevant finding about higher uptake of self-management in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy treatment compared with those who have not. A cross-sectional study generated findings that formed the basis for the qualitative study, by informing the purposive sampling strategy and generating new qualitative research questions. Using a quantitative research component to supplement a qualitative study can enhance the generalizability and clinical relevance of the findings and produce detailed, contextualized, and rich answers to research questions that would be unachievable through quantitative or qualitative methods alone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Kant's answer to the question 'what is man?' and its implications for anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alix A

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines Kant's anthropological project and its relationship to his conception of 'man' in order to show that Kant's answer to the question 'what is man?' entails a decisive re-evaluation of traditional conceptions of human nature. I argue that Kant redirects the question 'what is man?' away from defining man in terms of what he is, and towards defining him in terms of what he does, in particular through the distinction between three levels of what I will call 'man's praxis': the levels of technicality, prudence, and morality. As soon as man is understood in terms of what he makes of himself rather than in terms of what he is, two crucial issues arise: what is the purpose of his making? And how can he reach this destination? My claim is that whilst the first question is answered by ethics and a doctrine of prudence, the second question is answered by anthropology. In this sense, anthropology plays the crucial role of identifying the worldly helps and hindrances to the realisation of man's purposes--and this is the reason why it should be understood as a 'pragmatic' discipline.

  9. Adding question answering to an e-tutor for programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kate; Moore, Simon

    Control over a closed domain of textual material removes many question answering issues, as does an ontology that is closely intertwined with its sources. This pragmatic, shallow approach to many challenging areas of research in adaptive hypermedia, question answering, intelligent tutoring and humancomputer interaction has been put into practice at Cambridge in the Computer Science undergraduate course to teach the hardware description language Veri/og. This language itself poses many challenges as it crosses the interdisciplinary boundary between hardware and software engineers, giving rise to severalhuman ontologies as well as theprogramming language itself We present further results from ourformal and informal surveys. We look at further work to increase the dialogue between studentand tutor and export our knowledge to the Semantic Web.

  10. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  11. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  12. General technical comments on climate change - comment 1: Answers to five questions posed at the conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firor, J.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to answer the following five questions: (1) what are the projections of global average temperature increase? (2) What are the prospects for projecting regional climate change? (3) Do the climate models produce outlooks for a group of climate variables closely related to sociatal impacts? (4) What is the feasibility and what are the costs of proposed geoengineering options for responding to climate change? (5) What climate variables co-vary with global average temperature

  13. EBM apps that help you search for answers to your clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windish, Donna

    2014-06-01

    In the age of smartphones and tablets, it has become common place to find apps that help you do or find almost anything. The quality and breadth of medical apps has improved greatly in recent years. You can now find medical apps that recreate textbooks, search for current articles, calculate likelihood ratios and find point-of-care answers to clinical questions. This article describes and reviews apps aimed at helping clinicians search for evidence to support the practice of EBM.

  14. PMP practice makes perfect over 1000 PMP practice questions and answers

    CERN Document Server

    Estrella, John A; Zahran, Sami

    2011-01-01

    A unique learning resource to prepare for the PMP certification exam Without sufficient practice and preparation for taking the Project Management Institute's (PMI's) PMP certification exam, you won't be able to actually put your skills into practice in the real world! To help you achieve your goal of passing the exam, this two-part prep book covers all elements of the brand-new Project Management Professional exam. A team of experts presents you with a solid overview of the exam as well as hundreds of questions, detailed answers, and explanations. In addition, each question is accompa

  15. If the Indicator Game is the Answer, Then What is the Question?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2017-01-01

    This contribution begins by arguing that indicators in themselves do not have effects, but that it is crucial to understand which questions in the wider culture and governance of academia their use speaks to. Drawing partly on the author’s own experience in university management but also as an STS...... scholar, five important questions are presented to which indicators provide a kind of answer: ranging from public accountability over public research investment to intellectual and existential uncertainty. It is argued that understanding the wider institutional and professional logics is crucial...

  16. Managing the Documentation Maze Answers to Questions You Didn't Even Know to Ask

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with a topic of critical importance for compliance with record-keeping regulations in pharmaceutical and medical device industries. It presents more than 750 questions and answers about documentation management, whether electronic or paper-based. It defines, through a Q&A approach, what document management actually is, and why it should be a core discipline in the industry. Questions and responses also address electronic system selection and validation, system security, user accountability, and audit trails, as well as standard operating procedures for supporting document syste

  17. The new history of psychology II: Some (different) answers to Watrin's four questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Adrian C

    2017-05-01

    This article is mainly a response to the article by João Paulo Watrin, "The Ambiguous 'New History of Psychology': Some New Questions to Brock (2017)" (Watrin, 2017), which was itself a reply to my article, "The New History of Psychology: Some (Different) Answers to Lovett's Five Questions" (Brock, 2017). Watrin (2017) suggested that previous writers have conflated the terms "critical history" and "new history." They are said to differ, in that although the former is merely a name for a loose collection of approaches to the history of psychology, the latter involves rhetoric about the historiographical commitments of critical history. He also disputed the validity of the distinction between "old" and "new" history. I suggest that he is wrong on all these points. Watrin then poses and answers four rhetorical questions on Whig history, textbooks, critical thinking, and ad hominem arguments, and I provide alternative answers to all of them. After suggesting that our different views can be attributed to different agendas, I conclude with some reflections on how professional historians and psychologists can work together. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  19. Industrial Control System Cyber Security: Questions And Answers Relevant To Nuclear Facilities, Safeguards And Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; Moskowitz, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  20. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin Azwary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering System in the chatbot using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language are able to communicate and deliver information. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Template Matching, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML Teknologi kecerdasan buatan saat ini dapat diolah dengan berbagai macam bentuk, seperti ChatBot, dan berbagai macam metode, salah satunya menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML menggunakan metode template matching yaitu dengan membandingkan pola-pola tertentu pada database. Proses perancangan template AIML diawali dengan menentukan informasi yang diperlukan, kemudian dibentuk menjadi pertanyaan, pertanyaan tersebut disesuaikan dengan bentuk pattern AIML. Hasil penelitian dapat diperoleh bahwa Question-Answering System dalam bentuk ChatBot menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language dapat berkomunikasi dan menyampaikan informasi. Kata kunci : Kecerdasan Buatan, Pencocokan Pola, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML

  1. "The new history of psychology: Some (different) answers to Lovett's five questions": Correction to Brock (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Reports an error in "The New History of Psychology: Some (Different) Answers to Lovett's Five Questions" by Adrian C. Brock ( History of Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Jun 27, 2016, np). In this article there was an error in the 11th paragraph of the Lovett's Five Questions for the New Historians section. The conference paper "The "new" history of science: Implications for philosophy of science" by Rachel Laudan (1992) was wrongly attributed to her husband, Larry Laudan. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-31594-001.) The professionalization of the history of psychology from the 1960s led to significant changes in the way that history was written. Several authors tried to summarize these changes in the 1980s, and Laurel Furumoto's (1989) G. Stanley Hall lecture, "The new history of psychology" is the best-known example of this genre. This journal published a critique of the new history by Benjamin R. Lovett (2006) with the title, "The new history of psychology: A review and critique," and it is still being cited as an authoritative source. The article consists of 3 parts. First, the author attempts to show that the new history is not as different from the old as its proponents claim. He then discusses some problems that he considers to be unique to the new history, and he presents them in the form of 5 questions for the new historians, which he then goes on to answer himself. Finally, he discusses the problematic relationship between critical history and psychology. This article is a reply to Lovett's article. The author argues that the new history is different from the old in every way that Lovett claims that it is not. It critically analyzes Lovett's answers to his own 5 questions and offers some alternative answers to these questions. It also suggests that many psychologist-historians are opposed to new history of psychology, especially in its critical versions, and

  2. Comparing Effect of 'Summarizing', 'Question-Answer Relationship', and 'Syntactic Structure Identification' on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hemmati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing the effects of 'question-answer relationship strategy', 'summarizing', and 'syntactic structure identification training'on the reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. The participants were sixty (34 women and 26 men intermediate students who answered an English reading comprehension test consisting of three reading passages as the pretest. During the treatment, the students in the first group were supposed to summarize the passages. The subjects in the second group familiarized with the syntactic structure identification strategy and the ones in the third group were taught the question-answer relationship strategy. At the end of the treatment, an English reading comprehension test similar to the pretest was administered to the groups as a posttest. The results suggested that there is statistically significant difference between the reading comprehension abilities of the three classes. Furthermore the use of QAR strategy led to better comprehension of reading texts with syntactic structure training and summarizing between which there was no significant difference.

  3. Comparing the use of an online expert health network against common information sources to answer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-02-02

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%-54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in the control group (rate difference

  4. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D. F.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Lenderink, Annet F.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A)

  5. Answers to questions about removing krypton from the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 reactor building. Public information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    This document presents answers to frequently asked questions about the probable effects of controlled releases of the krypton presently contained within the reactor building of Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Also answered are questions about alternative means for removing the krypton

  6. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section 300-2.21 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer...

  7. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the unrelated... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable...

  8. Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

  9. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2' NUREG-0683

  10. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  11. The art of data analysis how to answer almost any question using basic statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jarman, Kristin H

    2013-01-01

    A friendly and accessible approach to applying statistics in the real worldWith an emphasis on critical thinking, The Art of Data Analysis: How to Answer Almost Any Question Using Basic Statistics presents fun and unique examples, guides readers through the entire data collection and analysis process, and introduces basic statistical concepts along the way.Leaving proofs and complicated mathematics behind, the author portrays the more engaging side of statistics and emphasizes its role as a problem-solving tool.  In addition, light-hearted case studies

  12. Management of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease: frequently asked questions and answers (if any).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Vitti, P

    2016-10-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete areas. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, no treatment targeting pathogenic mechanisms of the disease is presently available. Therapies for Graves' hyperthyroidism are largely imperfect because they are bound to either a high rate of relapsing hyperthyroidism (antithyroid drugs) or lifelong hypothyroidism (radioiodine treatment or thyroidectomy). Aim of the present article is to offer a practical guidance to the reader by providing evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions in clinical practice.

  13. Can you play cricket on Mars? and other scientific questions answered

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Sir Patrick

    2011-01-01

    All those nagging questions you have about the universe are answered here, like 'Is there a dark side to the moon? What happens when a comet hits the sun? Do the Martian canals have any water in them? Is the moon hot inside? What would happen if the sun were to collide with a black hole? Mars has polar ice caps: could polar bears live on Mars? if I could go back to the time of the dinosaurs, would the sky look the same as it does today?' and many more.

  14. The physics and engineering aspects of radiology. Textbook with questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Heppe, A.; Meier, N.; Fiebich, M.

    1994-01-01

    The textbook formulates and answers the questions encountered in practice by students in the radiology professions, covering the physics and engineering aspects as well as quality control and the relevant requirements set by the X-ray Ordinance and the Quality Assurance Guide issued by the Bundesaerztekammer for diagnostic radiography and computed tomography. The text is accompanied by simplified illustrations that are easy to remember. The book is intended to serve as a textbook for readers preparing for their examination as a medical specialist, or for participants of obligatory courses in radiological protection, or radiographers. Readers will also find it useful as a refresher course. (orig.) [de

  15. Plasticity and Adult Neurogenesis in Amphibians and Reptiles: More Questions than Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Alice Schade

    2016-08-24

    Studies of the relationship between behavioral plasticity and new cells in the adult brain in amphibians and reptiles are sparse but demonstrate that environmental and hormonal variables do have an effect on the amount of cell proliferation and/or migration. The variables that are reviewed here are: enriched environment, social stimulation, spatial area use, season, photoperiod and temperature, and testosterone. Fewer data are available for amphibians than for reptiles, but for both groups many issues are still to be resolved. It is to be hoped that the questions raised here will generate more answers in future studies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. If reform of science education is the answer - what were the questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    questions remain open: What is the aim of modern natural science education? How can the teaching methods and curriculum structure best support all this? How are changes of teaching practices best initiated? How does the university teacher improve his or her own teaching? These questions were addressed......At most Danish universities dramatic changes of the natural science programmes are under way. These changes are carried out both in response to external forces, and to internal ones, such as the need to rethink curriculum and pedagogy. But while the answer - structural reforms - is clear, the major...... at the third May Conference of the Centre for Educational Development in University Science (Dansk Center for Naturvidenskabsdidaktik, DCN), 22 -23 May, 2003, in Korsør, Denmark. This publication contains presentations given at the conference by keynote speakers. Further, it includes extensive reports from...

  17. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  18. If the Indicator Game is the Answer, Then What is the Question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Irwin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This contribution begins by arguing that indicators in themselves do not have effects, but that it is crucial to understand which questions in the wider culture and governance of academia their use speaks to. Drawing partly on the author’s own experience in university management but also as an STS scholar, five important questions are presented to which indicators provide a kind of answer: ranging from public accountability over public research investment to intellectual and existential uncertainty. It is argued that understanding the wider institutional and professional logics is crucial if “better tunes” are to be developed in response to the indicator game: both to strengthen the standing and identity of the field and to support emerging scholars in this challenging context. The paper closes by inviting STSers––and particularly our professional institutions––to celebrate and, at the same time, take a stand for our diverse values, academic practices and notions of quality.

  19. A rapid evidence-based service by librarians provided information to answer primary care clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Rader, Tamara; Salzwedel, Doug; Worster, Danielle; Cogo, Elise; Rowan, Margo

    2010-03-01

    A librarian consultation service was offered to 88 primary care clinicians during office hours. This included a streamlined evidence-based process to answer questions in fewer than 20 min. This included a contact centre accessed through a Web-based platform and using hand-held devices and computers with Web access. Librarians were given technical training in evidence-based medicine, including how to summarise evidence. To describe the process and lessons learned from developing and operating a rapid response librarian consultation service for primary care clinicians. Evaluation included librarian interviews and a clinician exit satisfaction survey. Clinicians were positive about its impact on their clinical practice and decision making. The project revealed some important 'lessons learned' in the clinical use of hand-held devices, knowledge translation and training for clinicians and librarians. The Just-in-Time Librarian Consultation Service showed that it was possible to provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions in 15 min or less. The project overcame a number of barriers using innovative solutions. There are many opportunities to build on this experience for future joint projects of librarians and healthcare providers.

  20. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  1. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  2. Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

  3. The new history of psychology: Some (different) answers to Lovett's five questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Adrian C

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(2) of History of Psychology (see record 2016-53552-001). In this article there was an error in the 11th paragraph of the Lovett's Five Questions for the New Historians section. The conference paper "The "new" history of science: Implications for philosophy of science" by Rachel Laudan (1992) was wrongly attributed to her husband, Larry Laudan. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The professionalization of the history of psychology from the 1960s led to significant changes in the way that history was written. Several authors tried to summarize these changes in the 1980s, and Laurel Furumoto's (1989) G. Stanley Hall lecture, "The new history of psychology" is the best-known example of this genre. This journal published a critique of the new history by Benjamin R. Lovett (2006) with the title, "The new history of psychology: A review and critique," and it is still being cited as an authoritative source. The article consists of 3 parts. First, the author attempts to show that the new history is not as different from the old as its proponents claim. He then discusses some problems that he considers to be unique to the new history, and he presents them in the form of 5 questions for the new historians, which he then goes on to answer himself. Finally, he discusses the problematic relationship between critical history and psychology. This article is a reply to Lovett's article. The author argues that the new history is different from the old in every way that Lovett claims that it is not. It critically analyzes Lovett's answers to his own 5 questions and offers some alternative answers to these questions. It also suggests that many psychologist-historians are opposed to new history of psychology, especially in its critical versions, and that this explains why Lovett's article has been uncritically received. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Barriers and decisions when answering clinical questions at the point of care: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Sorensen, Kristi J; Wilkinson, John M; Berger, Richard A

    2013-11-25

    Answering clinical questions affects patient-care decisions and is important to continuous professional development. The process of point-of-care learning is incompletely understood. To understand what barriers and enabling factors influence physician point-of-care learning and what decisions physicians face during this process. Focus groups with grounded theory analysis. Focus group discussions were transcribed and then analyzed using a constant comparative approach to identify barriers, enabling factors, and key decisions related to physician information-seeking activities. Academic medical center and outlying community sites. Purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians, interviewed in 11 focus groups. Insufficient time was the main barrier to point-of-care learning. Other barriers included the patient comorbidities and contexts, the volume of available information, not knowing which resource to search, doubt that the search would yield an answer, difficulty remembering questions for later study, and inconvenient access to computers. Key decisions were whether to search (reasons to search included infrequently seen conditions, practice updates, complex questions, and patient education), when to search (before, during, or after the clinical encounter), where to search (with the patient present or in a separate room), what type of resource to use (colleague or computer), what specific resource to use (influenced first by efficiency and second by credibility), and when to stop. Participants noted that key features of efficiency (completeness, brevity, and searchability) are often in conflict. Physicians perceive that insufficient time is the greatest barrier to point-of-care learning, and efficiency is the most important determinant in selecting an information source. Designing knowledge resources and systems to target key decisions may improve learning and patient care.

  5. Automated Scoring of Short-Answer Open-Ended GRE® Subject Test Items. ETS GRE® Board Research Report No. 04-02. ETS RR-08-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don; Freedman, Marshall; Harrison, Marissa; Obetz, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development, administration, and scoring of open-ended variants of GRE® Subject Test items in biology and psychology. These questions were administered in a Web-based experiment to registered examinees of the respective Subject Tests. The questions required a short answer of 1-3 sentences, and responses were automatically…

  6. A cost-consequences analysis of a primary care librarian question and answering service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie McGowan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cost consequences analysis was completed from randomized controlled trial (RCT data for the Just-in-time (JIT librarian consultation service in primary care that ran from October 2005 to April 2006. The service was aimed at providing answers to clinical questions arising during the clinical encounter while the patient waits. Cost saving and cost avoidance were also analyzed. The data comes from eighty-eight primary care providers in the Ottawa area working in Family Health Networks (FHNs and Family Health Groups (FHGs. METHODS: We conducted a cost consequences analysis based on data from the JIT project. We also estimated the potential economic benefit of JIT librarian consultation service to the health care system. RESULTS: The results show that the cost per question for the JIT service was $38.20. The cost could be as low as $5.70 per question for a regular service. Nationally, if this service was implemented and if family physicians saw additional patients when the JIT service saved them time, up to 61,100 extra patients could be seen annually. A conservative estimate of the cost savings and cost avoidance per question for JIT was $11.55. CONCLUSIONS: The cost per question, if the librarian service was used at full capacity, is quite low. Financial savings to the health care system might exceed the cost of the service. Saving physician's time during their day could potentially lead to better access to family physicians by patients. Implementing a librarian consultation service can happen quickly as the time required to train professional librarians to do this service is short.

  7. Public meeting on radiation safety for industrial radiographerss: remarks, questions and answers at five NRC regional meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Over the past several years thenumber of radiation overexposures experienced in the radiography industry has been higher than for any other single group of NRC licensees. To inform radiography licensees of NRC's concern fo these recurring overexposure incidents, NRC staff representatives met with licensees in a series of five regional meetings. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on NRC regulations and operations. The main purposes of the meetings were to express NRC's concern for the high incidence of overexposures, and to open a line of communication between the NRC and radiography licensees in an effort to achieve the common goal of improved radiation safety. The remarks presented by the staff and subjects discussed at these meetings included: the purpose, scope, findings and goals of the NRC inspection program; ways and means of incorporating safety into radiography operations; and case histories of overexposure incidents, with highlights of the causes and possible preventions. At each of the regional meetings the staff received a request for a copy of the prepared remarks and a consolidation of the questions and answers that were discussed. This document includes that information, and a copy is being provided to each organizaion or firm attending the regional meetings. Requests for other copies should be made in accordance with the directions printed inside the front cover of this document

  8. Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

  9. Which climate for tomorrow - 15 questions and answers in order not end under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouzel, Jean; Nouaillas, Olivier; Bernet, Lison

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the climate issue by answering a set of 15 questions. Why are climate and meteorology not really the same? Has climate already changed in the past? What is the anthropocene? Is mankind responsible of global warming? What is the role of the IPCC? What are tomorrow's economic impacts? What will be the weather in France during the X XI century? Can we attribute natural disasters to climate change? How is the World presently struggling against climate change? How to do without fossil energies? Is geo-engineering a solution? Shall we have to change our way of life? Will economy recover? Are we going towards a sixth extinction? Will there be always more climate refugees? Finally, the authors discuss the perspectives drawn after the COP21, and propose 10 initiatives to struggle against climate change

  10. Using Text Message Surveys to Evaluate a Mobile Sexual Health Question-and-Answer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Jackson, Kennon; Brickman, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Text message programs for sexual health are becoming increasingly popular as practitioners aim to meet youth on media they use frequently. Two-way mobile health (mHealth) interventions allow for feedback solicitation from participants. This study explores the use of a text message survey to assess demographics and program feedback from users of an adolescent sexual health text message question-and-answer service. Development and feasibility of the short-message service survey are discussed. The text message survey achieved a 43.9% response rate, which is comparable to response rates of surveys conducted via other methods. When compared to respondents who used the service and completed an online in-school questionnaire, text survey respondents were more likely to be female and older. They also reported higher service satisfaction. Results have implications for text message service providers and researchers. This article examines a community application of a new intervention strategy and research methodology.

  11. Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed. (author)

  12. Patient perspectives on answering questions about sexual orientation and gender identity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Bockting, Walter; Dowding, Dawn W

    2017-07-01

    To examine patients' perceptions of being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Health disparities exist in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population, but further research is needed to better understand these disparities. To address this issue, experts recommend the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in health care. Nurses on the front line of patient care play a key role in the collection of these data. However, to enable nurses to conduct such assessments it is important to understand the perspective of the patients on being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in a healthcare setting. An integrative review was conducted using the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005, 52, 546). Six electronic databases were searched, and two reviewers independently reviewed papers for inclusion. Papers were included if they were empirical studies, peer-reviewed papers or reports, assessing patient perspectives on discussing sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Twenty-one relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. A majority of the studies indicated patients' willingness to respond to, and a perceived importance of, questions about sexual orientation and gender identity. However, fears of homophobia and negative consequences hindered willingness to disclose this information. This review indicates that in most cases patients are willing to answer routine questions about their sexual orientation in the healthcare setting and perceive them as important questions to ask. The findings of this review have implications for nurses looking to incorporate questions about sexual orientation into their routine patient assessment. The findings indicate that care providers need to be mindful of heteronormative assumptions and take steps to ensure they are knowledgeable about lesbian, gay

  13. Executive function impairment in community elderly subjects with questionable dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Linda C W; Lui, Victor W C; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, Sandra S M; Tam, Cindy W C

    2005-01-01

    The neurocognitive profile of community-dwelling Chinese subjects with 'questionable' dementia was studied. One hundred and fifty-four ambulatory Chinese subjects were recruited from local social centers for the elderly. Each subject was examined using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE), the Chinese version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), the Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT), digit and visual span tests, and the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. The neurocognitive profile of nondemented subjects (CDR 0) was compared with that of subjects with 'questionable' dementia (CDR 0.5). Subjects with 'questionable' dementia were older, and had lower educational levels and global cognitive assessment scores than the controls (CMMSE and ADAS-Cog; t tests, p < 0.001). In addition, they also had significantly lower scores in delayed recall, reverse span, verbal fluency tests and worse performance in complex motor tasks related to executive function (Mann-Whitney tests, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that ADAS-Cog, CVFT, and reverse visual span were significant predictors for the CDR of 'questionable' dementia. Aside from memory impairment, executive function deficits were also present in subjects with 'questionable' dementia. To identify groups cognitively at risk for dementia, concomitant assessments of memory and executive function are suggested.

  14. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, Valentin P; Schechter, A N

    2010-01-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  15. The Etiology Behind a Complicated Case With Arrested Root Formation: More Questions Than Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Havsed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case focuses on dental deviations in a girl now 14 years of age. It is questioned in the article if an accident caused by the girl’s fall into a cactus at the age 1 year and 2 months could possibly result in local dental disorders in the permanent dentition. The disorders were the short roots and small crowns. It is discussed in this paper if it is the pins from the cactus or the many medical and operative procedures for the removal of the pins that caused the disorders. Nine questions concerning etiology are raised and discussed and only partly answered. This case gives new information concerning the normal eruption and resorption processes. It demonstrates how the teeth without roots or with short roots can erupt normally and even earlier than the contralateral teeth. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a second premolar with short root is able to resorb the overlying primary molar. In this dentition with severely malformed teeth, the treatment plan scheduled for the girl still takes into account these normal developmental conditions.

  16. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutov, Valentin P [Institute for Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schechter, A N [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2010-07-08

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  17. Explaining topic prevalence in answers to open-ended survey questions about climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Fløttum, Kjersti

    2015-08-01

    Citizens’ opinions are crucial for action on climate change, but are, owing to the complexity of the issue, diverse and potentially unformed. We contribute to the understanding of public views on climate change and to knowledge needed by decision-makers by using a new approach to analyse answers to the open survey question `what comes to mind when you hear the words `climate change’?’. We apply automated text analysis, specifically structural topic modelling, which induces distinct topics based on the relative frequencies of the words used in 2,115 responses. From these data, originating from the new, nationally representative Norwegian Citizen Panel, four distinct topics emerge: Weather/Ice, Future/Impact, Money/Consumption and Attribution. We find that Norwegians emphasize societal aspects of climate change more than do respondents in previous US and UK studies. Furthermore, variables that explain variation in closed questions, such as gender and education, yield different and surprising results when employed to explain variation in what respondents emphasize. Finally, the sharp distinction between scepticism and acceptance of conventional climate science, often seen in previous studies, blurs in many textual responses as scepticism frequently turns into ambivalence.

  18. Solar energy is for now. [Question/answer session with Dr. Barry Commoner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commoner, B

    1977-01-01

    Dr. Commoner, in a question/answer format, presents his views on the energy crisis, the part played by OPEC, the part played by the wastage of energy to the problem. He discusses the vulnerability of our economy to the destruction of energy supplies. In discussing alternative energy sources, Commoner says that ''there are only two possible sources of renewable energy. One is solar. . .and the other is nuclear with the breeder.'' But he does feel that the choice for nuclear ''would be a disastrous mistake, partly for obvious environmental reasons and questions of nuclear proliferation but, even more important, for economic considerations. . .'' Solar energy is economical and all the technology exists, he adds. ''Right now, throughout the central band of the USA, it is economic to replace 50 to 60 percent of your conventional heating by building solar collectors,'' he continues. He further discusses other alternative energy sources in the interview and concludes with his views on how seriously energy problems in the U.S. affect the rest of the world. (MCW)

  19. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyango Avelin A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  20. Area Source Boiler National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This October 2016 question and answer (Q&A) document is in response to a number of questions the EPA has received from delegated state and local agencies and the regulated community regarding the NESHAP for Area source boilers. Document updates 4/2014 PDF.

  1. Using PICO Methodology to Answer Questions About Smoking in COPD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Buljubasich, Daniel; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Acuña Izcaray, Agustín; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zabert, Gustavo; Guerreros Benavides, Alfredo; Paez Espinel, Nelson; Noé, Valeri; Sánchez-Angarita, Efraín; Núñez-Sánchez, Ingrid; Sansores, Raúl H; Casas, Alejandro; Palomar Lever, Andrés; Alfageme Michavila, Inmaculada

    2017-11-01

    The ALAT and SEPAR Treatment and Control of Smoking Groups have collaborated in the preparation of this document which attempts to answer, by way of PICO methodology, different questions on health interventions for helping COPD patients to stop smoking. The main recommendations are: (i)moderate-quality evidence and strong recommendation for performing spirometry in COPD patients and in smokers with a high risk of developing the disease, as a motivational tool (particularly for showing evidence of lung age), a diagnostic tool, and for active case-finding; (ii)high-quality evidence and strong recommendation for using intensive dedicated behavioral counselling and drug treatment for helping COPD patients to stop smoking; (iii)high-quality evidence and strong recommendation for initiating interventions for helping COPD patients to stop smoking during hospitalization with improvement when the intervention is prolonged after discharge, and (iv)high-quality evidence and strong recommendation for funding treatment of smoking in COPD patients, in view of the impact on health and health economics. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

  3. General physicians: born or made? The use of a tracking database to answer medical workforce questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, P; McHardy, K; Janssen, A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the study was to use a tracking database to investigate the perceived influence of various factors on career choices of New Zealand medical graduates and to examine specifically whether experiences at medical school may have an effect on a decision to become a general physician. Questionnaires were distributed to medical students in the current University of Auckland programme at entry and exit points. The surveys have been completed by two entry cohorts and an exit one since 2006. The response rates were 70 and 88% in the entry and exit groups, respectively. More than 75% of exiting students reported an interest in pursuing a career in general internal medicine. In 42%, this is a 'strong interest' in general medicine compared with 23% in the entry cohort (P Auckland medical students. Only 11% of study respondents reported that student loan burden has a significant influence on career decisions. Quality experiences on attachments seem essential for undergraduates to promote interest in general medicine. There is potential for curriculum design and clinical experiences to be formulated to promote the 'making' of these doctors. Tracking databases will assist in answering some of these questions.

  4. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  5. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  6. France's answers to question and comments received from other contracting parties on its 1. report for the JC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management is supplementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety. It was approved by France on February 22, 2000 and it entered into force on June 18, 2001. France has received 211 questions, coming from 19 Contracting Parties, on its first report and has provided written answers to each one. These answers were gathered in a single document, which lists them along the articles of the Convention. France has presented these answers on November 5, 2003, at the review meeting of the contracting Parties of the Convention and has decided to make them available to the public, however without mention of the countries that had asked them. The 211 questions received on the first report for the Joint Convention are listed along the sections suggested by the guidelines for the answers to the articles of the convention, sorted by the related page number of the French report and, within each section, grouped by issues raised. The written answers to each question have been coordinated by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), but have been provided either by the regulators or by the operators (or even both) depending on the related issue. In the case where various questions are related to a same issue but are referred to different articles of the Conventions, they have been referred to the most relevant article in order to have the same issue dealt with in a single location in the present answers report. The answer to each question is provided immediately under the related question

  7. [Analysis of the question-answer activity of a hospital pharmacy. Example of the handling of drug interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueroux, E; Lalande, L; Meddour, N; Papailhau, C; Bernard, E; Charroin, C; Perichou, J; Charpiat, B; Locher, F; Garcia, S

    2015-05-01

    The medical care of patients generates questions among healthcare professionals. Some will necessitate an advanced research. The hospital pharmacist is at the interface between prescribers, caregivers and the medicines and is requested to answer these requests. Studies conducted in other countries showed that this question-answer activity represents a significant amount of time in daily work. In France, this topic was poorly explored. The objective of our work was to study the volume and the type of questions, the clinical situations, the time required, the medicines implicated and the sources of information used. A prospective study was conducted in the pharmacy of a university hospital. All the requests answered by the pharmaceutical team, which needed a specific research, analysis and writing of an answer were collected. A hundred and one questions were analyzed, originating from doctors or medicals interns. Almost half concerned drug interactions, and among them, almost a fourth were not mentioned in the Summary of Product Characteristics of the medicines involved. A pharmaceutical advice was provided in 91.5% of the cases. Time dedicated to the research varied between less than 30 minutes and more than 8 hours. This study illustrates the question-answer activity of a hospital pharmacy, which is currently not taken into account as an indicator of pharmaceutical activity. A large part concerns analysis and management of drug interactions and requires a significant amount of pharmaceutical time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Searching for answers to clinical questions using google versus evidence-based summary resources: a randomized controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarang; Noveck, Helaine; Galt, James; Hogshire, Lauren; Willett, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerry

    2014-06-01

    To compare the speed and accuracy of answering clinical questions using Google versus summary resources. In 2011 and 2012, 48 internal medicine interns from two classes at Rutgers University Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, who had been trained to use three evidence-based summary resources, performed four-minute computer searches to answer 10 clinical questions. Half were randomized to initiate searches for answers to questions 1 to 5 using Google; the other half initiated searches using a summary resource. They then crossed over and used the other resource for questions 6 to 10. They documented the time spent searching and the resource where the answer was found. Time to correct response and percentage of correct responses were compared between groups using t test and general estimating equations. Of 480 questions administered, interns found answers for 393 (82%). Interns initiating searches in Google used a wider variety of resources than those starting with summary resources. No significant difference was found in mean time to correct response (138.5 seconds for Google versus 136.1 seconds for summary resource; P = .72). Mean correct response rate was 58.4% for Google versus 61.5% for summary resource (mean difference -3.1%; 95% CI -10.3% to 4.2%; P = .40). The authors found no significant differences in speed or accuracy between searches initiated using Google versus summary resources. Although summary resources are considered to provide the highest quality of evidence, improvements to allow for better speed and accuracy are needed.

  9. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  10. Answering Contextually Demanding Questions: Pragmatic Errors Produced by Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Leinonen, Eeva; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ryder, Nuala; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined irrelevant/incorrect answers produced by children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism (7-9-year-olds and 10-12-year-olds) and normally developing children (7-9-year-olds). The errors produced were divided into three types: in Type 1, the child answered the original question incorrectly, in Type 2, the child gave a…

  11. Collaborative Chat Reference Service Effectiveness Varies by Question Type for Public Library Patrons. A review of: Kwon, Nahyun. ʺPublic Library Patronsʹ Use of Collaborative Chat Reference Service: The Effectiveness of Question Answering by Question Type.ʺ Library & Information Science Research 29.1 (Mar. 2007: 70‐91.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the effectiveness of a collaborative chat reference service in answering different types of question. Specifically, the study compares the degree of answer completion and the level of user satisfaction for simple factual questions vs. more in‐depth subject‐based reference questions, and for ‘local’ (pertaining to a particular library and non‐local questions.Design – Content analysis of 415 transcripts of reference transactions, which were also compared to corresponding user satisfaction survey results.Setting – An online collaborative reference service offered by a large public library system (33 branch and regional locations. This service is part of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System: a virtual reference consortium of U.S. libraries (public, academic, special, and corporate that provides 24/7 service.Subjects – Reference librarians from around the U.S. (49 different libraries, and users logging into the service via the public library system’s portal (primarily patrons of the 49 libraries. Method – Content analysis was used to evaluate virtual reference transcripts recorded between January and June, 2004. Reliability was enhanced through triangulation, with researchers comparing the content analysis of each transcript against the results of a voluntary exit survey. Of 1,387 transactions that occurred during the period of study, 420 users completed the survey and these formed the basis of the study, apart from 5 transactions that were omitted because the questions were incomprehensible. Questions were examined and assigned to five categories: “simple, factual questions; subject‐based research questions; resource access questions; circulation‐related questions; and local library information inquiries” (80‐81. Answers were classed as either “completely answered, partially answered or unanswered, referred, and problematic endings” (82. Lastly, user satisfaction was surveyed on three

  12. Perspectives from the Avian Phylogenomics Project: Questions that Can Be Answered with Sequencing All Genomes of a Vertebrate Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Erich D

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of advances in genome technology, with concomitant reductions in cost, makes it feasible that one day in our lifetime we will have available extant genomes of entire classes of species, including vertebrates. I recently helped cocoordinate the large-scale Avian Phylogenomics Project, which collected and sequenced genomes of 48 bird species representing most currently classified orders to address a range of questions in phylogenomics and comparative genomics. The consortium was able to answer questions not previously possible with just a few genomes. This success spurred on the creation of a project to sequence the genomes of at least one individual of all extant ∼10,500 bird species. The initiation of this project has led us to consider what questions now impossible to answer could be answered with all genomes, and could drive new questions now unimaginable. These include the generation of a highly resolved family tree of extant species, genome-wide association studies across species to identify genetic substrates of many complex traits, redefinition of species and the species concept, reconstruction of the genomes of common ancestors, and generation of new computational tools to address these questions. Here I present visions for the future by posing and answering questions regarding what scientists could potentially do with available genomes of an entire vertebrate class.

  13. Enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease: some answers but more questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alfadhel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel1, Sandra Sirrs21Division of Biochemical Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, BC Children’s and Women’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Adult Metabolic Diseases Clinic, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Fabry disease (FD is a multisystem, X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by enzyme deficiency of α-galactosidase A. Affected patients have symptoms including acroparesthesias, angiokeratomas, and hypohidrosis. More serious manifestations include debilitating pain and gastrointestinal symptoms, proteinuria and gradual deterioration of renal function leading to end-stage renal disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and stroke. Heterozygous females may have symptoms as severe as males with the classic phenotype. Before 2001, treatment of patients with FD was supportive. The successful development of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has been a great advancement in the treatment of patients with FD and can stabilize renal function and cardiac size, as well as improve pain and quality of life of patients with FD. In this review, we have provided a critical appraisal of the literature on the effects of ERT for FD. This analysis shows that data available on the treatment of FD are often derived from studies which are not controlled, rely on surrogate markers, and are of insufficient power to detect differences on hard clinical endpoints. Further studies of higher quality are needed to answer the questions that remain concerning the efficacy of ERT for FD.Keywords: Fabry disease, agalsidase α, agalsidase β, Replagal, Fabrazyme, critical appraisal, evidence-based medicine

  14. A short review of primary aldosteronism in a question and answer fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrugia Frederick-Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to present up to date information concerning the diagnosis and treatment of primary aldosteronism (PA. PA is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. It has been reported up to 24% of selective referred hypertensive patients. Methods. We did a search in Pub-Med and Google Scholar using the terms: PA, hyperaldosteronism, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia, diagnosis of PA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, adrenalectomy, and surgery. We also did cross-referencing search with the above terms. We had divided our study into five sections: Introduction, Diagnosis, Genetics, Treatment, and Conclusions. We present our results in a question and answer fashion in order to make reading more interesting. Results. PA should be searched in all high-risk populations. The gold standard for diagnosis PA is the plasma aldosterone/plasma renin ratio (ARR. If this test is positive, then we proceed with one of the four confirmatory tests. If positive, then we proceed with a localizing technique like adrenal vein sampling (AVS and CT scan. If the lesion is unilateral, after proper preoperative preparation, we proceed, in adrenalectomy. If the lesion is bilateral or the patient refuses or is not fit for surgery, we treat them with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, usually spironolactone. Conclusions. Primary aldosteronism is the most common and a treatable case of secondary hypertension. Only patients with unilateral adrenal diseases are eligible for surgery, while patients with bilateral and non-surgically correctable PA are usually treated by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA. Thus, the distinction between unilateral and bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is crucial.

  15. Topology of Innovation Spaces in the Knowledge Networks Emerging through Questions-And-Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelković, Miroslav; Tadić, Bosiljka; Mitrović Dankulov, Marija; Rajković, Milan; Melnik, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    The communication processes of knowledge creation represent a particular class of human dynamics where the expertise of individuals plays a substantial role, thus offering a unique possibility to study the structure of knowledge networks from online data. Here, we use the empirical evidence from questions-and-answers in mathematics to analyse the emergence of the network of knowledge contents (or tags) as the individual experts use them in the process. After removing extra edges from the network-associated graph, we apply the methods of algebraic topology of graphs to examine the structure of higher-order combinatorial spaces in networks for four consecutive time intervals. We find that the ranking distributions of the suitably scaled topological dimensions of nodes fall into a unique curve for all time intervals and filtering levels, suggesting a robust architecture of knowledge networks. Moreover, these networks preserve the logical structure of knowledge within emergent communities of nodes, labeled according to a standard mathematical classification scheme. Further, we investigate the appearance of new contents over time and their innovative combinations, which expand the knowledge network. In each network, we identify an innovation channel as a subgraph of triangles and larger simplices to which new tags attach. Our results show that the increasing topological complexity of the innovation channels contributes to network’s architecture over different time periods, and is consistent with temporal correlations of the occurrence of new tags. The methodology applies to a wide class of data with the suitable temporal resolution and clearly identified knowledge-content units. PMID:27171149

  16. A short review of primary aldosteronism in a question and answer fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Frederick-Anthony; Zavras, Nicolaos; Martikos, Georgios; Tzanetis, Panagiotis; Charalampopoulos, Anestis; Misiakos, Evangelos P; Sotiropoulos, Dimitrios; Koliakos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present up to date information concerning the diagnosis and treatment of primary aldosteronism (PA). PA is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. It has been reported up to 24% of selective referred hypertensive patients. We did a search in Pub-Med and Google Scholar using the terms: PA, hyperaldosteronism, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia, diagnosis of PA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, adrenalectomy, and surgery. We also did cross-referencing search with the above terms. We had divided our study into five sections: Introduction, Diagnosis, Genetics, Treatment, and Conclusions. We present our results in a question and answer fashion in order to make reading more interesting. PA should be searched in all high-risk populations. The gold standard for diagnosis PA is the plasma aldosterone/plasma renin ratio (ARR). If this test is positive, then we proceed with one of the four confirmatory tests. If positive, then we proceed with a localizing technique like adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and CT scan. If the lesion is unilateral, after proper preoperative preparation, we proceed, in adrenalectomy. If the lesion is bilateral or the patient refuses or is not fit for surgery, we treat them with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, usually spironolactone. Primary aldosteronism is the most common and a treatable case of secondary hypertension. Only patients with unilateral adrenal diseases are eligible for surgery, while patients with bilateral and non-surgically correctable PA are usually treated by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). Thus, the distinction between unilateral and bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is crucial.

  17. Taylor dispersion in premixed combustion: Questions from turbulent combustion answered for laminar flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Joel; Pearce, Philip; Al-Malki, Faisal

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of Taylor dispersion in premixed combustion and use it to clarify fundamental issues related to flame propagation in a flow field. In particular, simple analytical formulas are derived for variable density laminar flames with arbitrary Lewis number Le providing clear answers to important questions arising in turbulent combustion, when these questions are posed for the case of one-scale laminar parallel flows. Exploiting, in the context of a laminar Poiseuille flow model, a thick flame distinguished asymptotic limit for which the flow amplitude is large with the Reynolds number Re fixed, three main contributions are made. First, a link is established between Taylor dispersion [G. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 219, 186 (1953), 10.1098/rspa.1953.0139] and Damköhler's second hypothesis [G. Damköhler, Ber. Bunsen. Phys. Chem. 46, 601 (1940)] by describing analytically the enhancement of the effective propagation speed UT due to small flow scales. More precisely, it is shown that Damköhler's hypothesis is only partially correct for one-scale parallel laminar flows. Specifically, while the increase in UT due to the flow is shown to be directly associated with the increase in the effective diffusivity as suggested by Damköhler, our results imply that UT˜Re (for Re≫1 ) rather than UT˜√{Re} , as implied by Damköhler's hypothesis. Second, it is demonstrated analytically and confirmed numerically that, when UT is plotted versus the flow amplitude for fixed values of Re, the curve levels off to a constant value depending on Re. We may refer to this effect as the laminar bending effect as it mimics a similar bending effect known in turbulent combustion. Third, somewhat surprising implications associated with the dependence of UT and of the effective Lewis number Leeff on the flow are reported. For example, Leeff is found to vary from Le to Le-1 as Re varies from small to large values. Also, UT is found to be a monotonically increasing function

  18. Answering without answering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas; Jønch-Clausen, Heidi; Pontoppidan, Christina

    2017-01-01

    In the context of political press conferences, the authors explore a particular category of subtle evasions they term shifting. When shifting, the interviewee seemingly accepts to answer the journalist’s question. However, in providing the answer, the interviewee refocuses the question replacing...

  19. Music Questions in Social Q&A: An Analysis of Yahoo! Answers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Borlund, Pia

    2017-01-01

    the longest and roughly twice as long as (dis)approval and factual questions. The user experience associated with the questions was most often pragmatic (24%) or senso-emotional (12%). Pragmatic questions were typically about the user’s own performance of music, while senso-emotional questions were about...

  20. The Impact of Political Context on the Questions Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the questions education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…

  1. "I don't get it." Response difficulties in answering political attitude questions in Voting Advice Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314011951; Holleman, B.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183083547

    2017-01-01

    Study 1 is a think-aloud study among 60 VAA users. The SPSS datafile lists the questions and the verbalizations coresponding to comprehension problems and their categorization. Study 2 is an analysis of all answers provided by over 350,000 respondents during the Municipal Elections of 2014. These

  2. An Online Network Tool for Quality Information to Answer Questions about Occupational Safety and Health: Usability and Applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, M.D.F.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Lenderink, A.F.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online

  3. "Remember to Hand out Medals": Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…

  4. Chinese Medical Question Answer Matching Using End-to-End Character-Level Multi-Scale CNNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the problem of Chinese medical question answer matching, which is arguably more challenging than open-domain question answer matching in English due to the combination of its domain-restricted nature and the language-specific features of Chinese. We present an end-to-end character-level multi-scale convolutional neural framework in which character embeddings instead of word embeddings are used to avoid Chinese word segmentation in text preprocessing, and multi-scale convolutional neural networks (CNNs are then introduced to extract contextual information from either question or answer sentences over different scales. The proposed framework can be trained with minimal human supervision and does not require any handcrafted features, rule-based patterns, or external resources. To validate our framework, we create a new text corpus, named cMedQA, by harvesting questions and answers from an online Chinese health and wellness community. The experimental results on the cMedQA dataset show that our framework significantly outperforms several strong baselines, and achieves an improvement of top-1 accuracy by up to 19%.

  5. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  6. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information

  7. Global questions, local answers: soil management and sustainable intensification in diverse socioeconomic contexts of Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCune, N.; Ruiz Gonzalez, Y.; Alcantara, E.A.; Fernandez Martinez, O.; Onelio Fundaro, C.; Castillo Arzola, N.; Cairo Cairo, P.; Haese, D' M.; Neve, De S.; Guevara Hernandez, F.

    2011-01-01

    In the complex context of global food and agricultural systems, research in agriculture must respond to multidisciplinary questions of economic development, ecological sustainability and food justice. With the objective of responding to several of the most important questions facing agriculture

  8. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of three PubMed search filters in finding randomized controlled trials to answer clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Irani, Shirin; Mortaz-Hedjri, Soroush; Shakiba, Behnam

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three search methods in the retrieval of relevant clinical trials from PubMed to answer specific clinical questions. Included studies of a sample of 100 Cochrane reviews which recorded in PubMed were considered as the reference standard. The search queries were formulated based on the systematic review titles. Precision, recall and number of retrieved records for limiting the results to clinical trial publication type, and using sensitive and specific clinical queries filters were compared. The number of keywords, presence of specific names of intervention and syndrome in the search keywords were used in a model to predict the recalls and precisions. The Clinical queries-sensitive search strategy retrieved the largest number of records (33) and had the highest recall (41.6%) and lowest precision (4.8%). The presence of specific intervention name was the only significant predictor of all recalls and precisions (P = 0.016). The recall and precision of combination of simple clinical search queries and methodological search filters to find clinical trials in various subjects were considerably low. The limit field strategy yielded in higher precision and fewer retrieved records and approximately similar recall, compared with the clinical queries-sensitive strategy. Presence of specific intervention name in the search keywords increased both recall and precision. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Randomized controlled trials in evidence-based mental health care: getting the right answer to the right question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essock, Susan M; Drake, Robert E; Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of clinical research is to answer this question: Would a new treatment, when added to the existing range of treatment options available in practice, help patients? Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)--in particular, double-blind RCTs--have important methodological advantages over observational studies for addressing this question. These advantages, however, come at a price. RCTs compare treatments using a particular allocation rule for assigning patients to treatments (random assignment) that does not mimic real-world practice. "Favorable" results from an RCT indicating that a new treatment is superior to existing treatments are neither necessary nor sufficient for establishing a "yes" answer to the question posed above. Modeled on an experimental design, RCTs are expensive in time and money and must compare simple differences in treatments. Findings have a high internal validity but may not address the needs of the field, particularly where treatment is complex and rapidly evolving. Design of clinical research needs to take account of the way treatments are allocated in actual practice and include flexible designs to answer important questions most effectively.

  11. [To the question of elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation, the answer lies in the question].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, P

    2018-04-12

    The goal of induction of labor is to achieve vaginal delivery when the benefits of expeditious delivery outweigh the risks of continuing the pregnancy. In order to correctly understand the problematic of the elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation (WG), two questions must be raised. (i) What is the perinatal mortality evolution according the gestational age at delivery? All the most recent and methodologically well-conducted studies are convergent: they show that the fetal mortality risk exceeds the perinatal/infant (during the first year of life) mortality risk from 39 WG. The benefit/risk balance related to the expectant management is therefore reversed from 39 WG in favor of the elective induction of labor when the considered issue is the perinatal mortality. (ii) What are the associated risks with elective induction of labor? While some observational studies suggested that the elective induction of labor after 37 WG was associated with an increased risk of cesarean sections, these studies presented a major methodological bias: an error in the control group selection. Indeed, the control group consisted of women in spontaneous labor, whereas the appropriate comparison group must be an expectant management group. Several large cohort studies using a rigorous methodology have shown that elective induction of labor at 39 WG reduces the cesarean section risk compared to an expectant management. Three systematic reviews with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing induction of labor with expectant management were published: two showed that the cesarean section risk was lowered with the induction of labor compared to an expectant management and the third that the cesarean section rates were similar. Finally, the most recent randomized controlled trial, published in 2016, showed no significant difference between the 2 arms in the cesarean section rate. In all, the most recent literature data, free from comparative bias, show that elective

  12. Comparison the Effect of Teaching by Group Guided Discovery Learning, Questions & Answers and Lecturing Methods on the Level of Learning and Information Durability of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardanparvar H.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The requirements for revising the traditional education methods and utilization of new and active student-oriented learning methods have come into the scope of the educational systems long ago. Therefore, the new methods are being popular in different sciences including medical sciences. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching through three methods (group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture methods on the learning level and information durability in the nursing students. Instrument & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 62 forth-semester nursing students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, who were passing the infectious course for the first time at the first semester of the academic year 2015-16, were studied. The subjects were selected via census method and randomly divided into three groups including group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture groups. The test was conducted before, immediately after, and one month after the conduction of the training program using a researcher-made questionnaire. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, ANOVA with repeated observations, and LSD post-hoc test. Findings: The mean score of the test conducted immediately after the training program in the lecture group was significantly lesser than guided discovery and question and answer groups (p<0.001. In addition, the mean score of the test conducted one month after the training program in guided discovery group was significantly higher than both question and answer (p=0.004 and lecture (p=0.001 groups. Conclusion: Active educational methods lead to a higher level of the students’ participation in the educational issues and provided a background to enhance learning and for better information durability. 

  13. Have the Most Relevant and Answerable Research Questions Facing Librarians Changed Between 2001 and 2006?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lewis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ To examine the similarities and differences between research questions asked by librarians in 2001 to those posed in 2006, and to explore to what extent the published research supports the questions being asked.Methods ‐ Questions collected in 2001 by members of the Evidence‐Based Librarianship Implementation Committee (EBLIC of the MLA Research Section were compared with questions collected in 2006 at a cross‐sectoral seminar introducing evidence based library and information practice to Australian librarians. Questions from each list were categorized using the domains of librarianship proposed by Crumley and Koufogiannakis in 2001, and examined with reference to a content analysis of the library and information studies (LIS research published in 2001 by Koufogiannakis, Slater, and Crumley in 2004.Results ‐ In 2001 and 2006 the most commonly asked questions were in the domain of management (29%, 33%, followed by education (24%, 18.5%. In 2001 questions in the marketing/promotion category ranked lowest (1%, however representation was much greater in 2006 (18.5% ranking an equal second with education. Questions in the lowest ranked domain in 2006 (collections, 6% had been more common in 2001 where collections ranked third, representing 19% of the questions. Koufogiannakis, Slater, and Crumley’s content analysis of LIS research published in 2001 revealed that the most popular domain for research was information access and retrieval (38% followed by collections (24%. Only 1% of published LIS research (seven articles was in the domain of marketing/promotion. In contrast, 36 articles originally assigned to one of the six established domains could more appropriately have been included in a proposed new domain of professional issues.Conclusion ‐ The disparity between questions being asked by practitioners and the evidence being generated by researchers suggests that the research‐practice gap is still an issue. A content

  14. Who Justifies Questionable Reporting Practices? Answers from a Representative Survey of Journalists in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baugut

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a secondary analysis of representative survey data of journalists in Germany (n= 1536, this paper draws attention to two variables that are important when it comes to explain whether journalists accept questionable reporting practices, such as paying people to obtain information or using confidential government documents without permission. First, perceived role achievement is important, as journalists who do not feel able to achieve an active role tend to accept questionable reporting practices more often. Second, however, this relationship is only true for journalists having a moderate tendency to the political left. Findings are explained by means of the theory of cognitive dissonance.

  15. Teaching Writing: Some Perennial Questions and Some Possible Answers. Occasional Paper No. 85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan; Dunn, Saundra

    Based on the premise that writing research will be useful to educators only to the extent that it offers them conceptual tools to use in framing and solving their own problems, this paper reviews studies that address educators' perennial concerns about writing instruction. Among the questions addressed in the paper are those concerning (1) the…

  16. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a…

  17. Questions about Answers: Probing Teachers' Awareness and Planned Remediation of Learners' Misconceptions about Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an exploratory multi-case study on how science teachers understand and envisage addressing learners' misconceptions about electric circuits. Four teachers from schools in and around a large South African city participated in the study. An open-ended questionnaire was designed in a novel way, questioning teachers about wrong…

  18. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  19. A Decision Tree for Psychology Majors: Supplying Questions as Well as Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Retta E.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the development of a psychology careers decision tree to help faculty advise students plan their program. States that students using the decision tree may benefit by learning more about their career options and by acquiring better question-asking skills. (GEA)

  20. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  1. Answering the Hottest Question in Army Education: What Is Army University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kem, John S.; LeBoeuf, Eugene J.; Martin, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The most common question heard by senior members of Army University is always, "What is Army University?" The newest education institution in the U.S. Army was created to unify the training and educational institutions of the Army, making the large learning organization more effective and efficient for its soldiers, bringing together 37…

  2. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease : answering basic questions regarding cell behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, Koen Elzert Adriaan van der

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has raised enthusiasm as a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases. However, questions remain about the in vivo behavior of the cells after transplantation and the mechanism of action with which the cells could potentially alleviate disease symptoms. The objective of the

  3. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Asked Questions can be found on FRA's Web site at http://www.fra.dot.gov/Pages/11.shtml . DATES: Written... electronic site at http://www.regulations.gov . Commenters should follow the instructions below for mailed and hand-delivered comments. (1) Web Site: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for...

  4. Answering unresolved questions about the relationship between cognitive ability and prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret T

    2016-01-01

    Previous research finds that lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice. We test two unresolved questions about this association using a heterogeneous set of target groups and data from a representative sample of the United States (N = 5,914). First, we test “who are the targets of

  5. Sensitivity and predictive value of 15 PubMed search strategies to answer clinical questions rated against full systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Merglen, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Combescure, Christophe; Garin, Nicolas; Perrier, Arnaud; Perneger, Thomas V

    2012-06-12

    Clinicians perform searches in PubMed daily, but retrieving relevant studies is challenging due to the rapid expansion of medical knowledge. Little is known about the performance of search strategies when they are applied to answer specific clinical questions. To compare the performance of 15 PubMed search strategies in retrieving relevant clinical trials on therapeutic interventions. We used Cochrane systematic reviews to identify relevant trials for 30 clinical questions. Search terms were extracted from the abstract using a predefined procedure based on the population, interventions, comparison, outcomes (PICO) framework and combined into queries. We tested 15 search strategies that varied in their query (PIC or PICO), use of PubMed's Clinical Queries therapeutic filters (broad or narrow), search limits, and PubMed links to related articles. We assessed sensitivity (recall) and positive predictive value (precision) of each strategy on the first 2 PubMed pages (40 articles) and on the complete search output. The performance of the search strategies varied widely according to the clinical question. Unfiltered searches and those using the broad filter of Clinical Queries produced large outputs and retrieved few relevant articles within the first 2 pages, resulting in a median sensitivity of only 10%-25%. In contrast, all searches using the narrow filter performed significantly better, with a median sensitivity of about 50% (all P PubMed pages. These results can help clinicians apply effective strategies to answer their questions at the point of care.

  6. OAI, Google scholar and wikepedia are the answers, but what is the question?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Some of the questions raised are: 1. what types of presenting knowledge matter these days - and why? 2. for what type of communities (learning communities, communities focused on innovation) do they matter? What can be learned from the way science works within the rich spectrum of disciplines with respect to providing information: is the scientific method more debate-related or more focused on reproduction of experiments and how could OAI (dataproviders / services) play a role in these different approaches? 3. What is to be expected from different online collaborative – supposedly free - services and what general remarks can be made about their interoperability and functionality? 4. What are the quality assuring mechanisms in different communities and how can we translate these principles to further research or mere fruitful information exchange? I believe these are questions that should be raised to see also more clearly the impact of OAI. Within the Dutch context we have some experience with OAI via the D...

  7. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Brain: Significant Answers and Significant Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2011-01-01

    Summary Adult neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from adult neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions in mammals. The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in addressing questions related to almost every aspect of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. Here we review major advances in our understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. We highlight emerging principles that have significant implications for stem cell biology, developmental neurobiology, neural plasticity, and disease mechanisms. We also discuss remaining questions related to adult neural stem cells and their niches, underlying regulatory mechanisms and potential functions of newborn neurons in the adult brain. Building upon the recent progress and aided by new technologies, the adult neurogenesis field is poised to leap forward in the next decade. PMID:21609825

  8. Situational judgement tests and personality measurement : some answers and more questions

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Timothy A.; Hofmans, Joeri; Wille, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Work psychologists have devoted considerable attention to studying how personality traits can best be conceptualized and assessed in 'high-stakes' contexts such as selection or hiring decisions. Lievens argued that two selection methods, Situational Judgement Tests and Assessment Centre exercises, by standardizing and contextualizing personality measurement, offer many advantages to personality psychology. In hopes of clarifying this argument, we ask two fundamental questions: (1) W...

  9. Answers to questions posed by the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A general presentation of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program was given on July 26, 1976, to the Michigan Environmental Review Board and the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force. Following the presentation, Dr. William G. Taylor, Chairman of the Task Force, provided ERDA with a listing of questions which pertained to the NWTS program and ERDA/OWI's interest in northeast Michigan. This document contains copies of the information which was provided to Dr. Taylor in response to his inquiry

  10. Cancer in pregnancy: Motherisk on-line question and answer forum

    OpenAIRE

    Grupp, Sandy; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION It seems to me that cancer is occurring or being diagnosed more frequently among young women who are or might become pregnant. In the past year, I have seen several such women in my practice and I have had difficulty finding appropriate information in order to counsel them. Is there somewhere I can go for information about cancer during pregnancy so that I can better educate and inform these patients?

  11. Interspecific competition in plants: how well do current methods answer fundamental questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J; Wayne, P; Bazzaz, F A

    2001-02-01

    Accurately quantifying and interpreting the processes and outcomes of competition among plants is essential for evaluating theories of plant community organization and evolution. We argue that many current experimental approaches to quantifying competitive interactions introduce size bias, which may significantly impact the quantitative and qualitative conclusions drawn from studies. Size bias generally arises when estimates of competitive ability are erroneously influenced by the initial size of competing individuals. We employ a series of quantitative thought experiments to demonstrate the potential for size bias in analysis of four traditional experimental designs (pairwise, replacement series, additive series, and response surfaces) either when only final measurements are available or when both initial and final measurements are collected. We distinguish three questions relevant to describing competitive interactions: Which species dominates? Which species gains? and How do species affect each other? The choice of experimental design and measurements greatly influences the scope of inference permitted. Conditions under which the latter two questions can give biased information are tabulated. We outline a new approach to characterizing competition that avoids size bias and that improves the concordance between research question and experimental design. The implications of the choice of size metrics used to quantify both the initial state and the responses of elements in interspecific mixtures are discussed. The relevance of size bias in competition studies with organisms other than plants is also discussed.

  12. Emotions as individual and social phenomena: Seeking new answers to old questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruszewski Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents state of art in the area of emotion studies. It is stressed that emotions are multicomponent processes including neural, expression, subjective and social elements. We have tried to show that synchronization and coordination of these elements from elementary through intermediate to the most complex level may be understood in terms of emergent processes. Manifestations of emergence may be observed both in social aspects of emotions, as well as subjective and expression ones. Although the idea of emergent processes was not explicitly used by contributors of this volume, the traces of it are present in their papers.

  13. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or on behalf of an employee is excluded from the definition of “wages” if at the time such benefit is... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and answer...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee is excluded from the definition of “wages” if at the time such benefit is provided it is... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition...

  15. 26 CFR 1.505(c)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the... Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under paragraphs... taxation need not submit the notification required by section 505(c). [T.D. 8073, 51 FR 4330, Feb. 4, 1986...

  16. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  17. Commentary: Plastic ocean and the cancer connection: 7 questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benno Meyer-Rochow, V; Valérie Gross, J; Steffany, Frank; Zeuss, Dominique; Erren, Thomas C

    2015-10-01

    A plethora of recent scientific reports testifies to challenges the world is facing from an ever-increasing marine plastic pollution. Toxicological concerns have been put forward, but possible links between the now ubiquitous synthetic polymers and human as well as wildlife cancers remain to be investigated. Hence, this commentary which addresses seven questions. Given numerous uncertainties on the factual impacts of plastics, we should embark on empirical studies into the validity of biologically plausible links between plastic residues and cancers and concomitantly consider ways to reduce plastics in the world within and around us. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Good questions require good answers. Critics on current climate research contradicted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellinga, P.; Van Dorland, R.; Kabat, P.

    2008-01-01

    In some of the previous issues of this magazine (Spil 2007, issue 4 and 5-6, and Spil 2008, issue 1) the authors Labohm, Roersch and Thoenes started a frontal attack of the greenhouse theory and the researchers who report on the state of science in the framework of the IPCC. The author of this article addresses two main questions arising from the above-mentioned authors: (1) Does the use of fossil fuels affect global climate?; and (2) Is the warming of the last 30 years related to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? [mk] [nl

  19. Answers to questions posed by the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-30

    A general presentation of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program was given on July 26, 1976, to the Michigan Environmental Review Board and the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force. Following the presentation, Dr. William G. Taylor, Chairman of the Task Force, provided ERDA with a listing of questions which pertained to the NWTS program and ERDA/OWI's interest in northeast Michigan. This document contains copies of the information which was provided to Dr. Taylor in response to his inquiry.

  20. Answering the ultimate question "what is the proximal cause of aging?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2012-12-01

    Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging?

  1. "Will my work affect my pregnancy?" Resources for anticipating and answering patients' questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajewski, Barbara; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Lawson, Christina C; Johnson, Candice Y

    2016-05-01

    Authoritative information on occupational reproductive hazards is scarce and complex because exposure levels vary, multiple exposures may be present, and the reproductive toxicity of many agents remains unknown. For these reasons, women's health providers may find it challenging to effectively address workplace reproductive health issues with their patients who are pregnant, breast-feeding, or considering pregnancy. Reproductive epidemiologists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health answered >200 public requests for occupational reproductive health information during 2009 through 2013. The most frequent occupations represented were health care (41%) and laboratory work (18%). The most common requests for exposure information concerned solvents (14%), anesthetic gases (10%), formaldehyde (7%), infectious agents in laboratories (7%) or health care settings (7%), and physical agents (14%), including ionizing radiation (6%). Information for developing workplace policies or guidelines was sought by 12% of the requestors. Occupational exposure effects on breast-feeding were an increasing concern among working women. Based on information developed in response to these requestors, information is provided for discussing workplace exposures with patients, assessing potential workplace reproductive hazards, and helping patients determine the best options for safe work in pregnancy. Appendices provide resources to address specific occupational exposures, employee groups, personal protective equipment, breast-feeding, and workplace regulations regarding work and pregnancy. These tools can help identify those most at risk of occupational reproductive hazards and improve workers' reproductive health. The information can also be used to inform research priorities and assist the development of workplace reproductive health policies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Genetic effects of ionizing radiation – some questions with no answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, Irma B.

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of questions about genetic effects of ionizing radiation, the main one is does ionizing radiation induce mutations in humans? There is no direct evidence that exposure of parents to radiation leads to excess heritable disease in offspring. What is the difference between human and other species in which radiation induced mutations are easily registered? During evolution germ cell selection ex vivo has been changed to a selection in vivo and we cannot observe such selection of radiation damaged cells in human. Low radiation doses – are they harmful or beneficial? The “hormesis” phenomenon as well as radioadaptive response proves positive effects of low radiation dose. Can analysis of chromosomal aberration rate in lymphocytes be used for dosimetry? Many uncontrolled factors may be responsible for significant mistakes of this method. Why did evolution preserve the bystander effect? This paper is discussion one and its goal is to pay attention on some effects of ionizing radiation. - Highlights: ► There are a lot of questions about genetic effects of ionizing radiation. ► Does ionizing radiation induce mutations in human? ► During evolution germ cell selection ex vivo has been changed to a selection in vivo. ► Radioadaptive response proves positive effects of low radiation doses. ► Many uncontrolled factors may be responsible for significant biodosimetry mistakes.

  3. Adapting to climate change in the Mediterranean: Some questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bille, R.

    2008-01-01

    Circe (Climate change and impact research: the Mediterranean environment (www.circeproject. eu), an EC -funded 4-year research project, aims at developing for the first time a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts in the Mediterranean area. CIRCE's rational does not take climate impacts as direct consequences of climate changes: the causal relationship is much more complex since a given climate change leads to very contrasted impacts according to existing policies as well as to socio-economic and political responses. This paper freely draws on some findings from CIRCE 's first stakeholders meeting, organised by IDDRI in October 2007. A high level, focused dialogue among a small group of selected participants, this meeting was articulated around two key questions: 1 - Business models, sector-wide transitions and socio-economic irreversibilities: is there room for manoeuvre? 2 - Succeeding where we failed: can the climate challenge be turned into an opportunity? These questions were examined with regard to three sectors (agriculture, energy and tourism) and two themes (ecosystems protection and urban and regional planning). Important cross-cutting issues for the Mediterranean such as water management, regional security, international migrations, etc., were dealt with in the discussions along the two days. (author)

  4. Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why. PMID:19528025

  5. Can simply answering research questions change behaviour? Systematic review and meta analyses of brief alcohol intervention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials.Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (-0.17 to 27.6 grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9 in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day.Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report.

  6. Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstead, Maxwell James Désormeau; Badcock, Paul Benjamin; Friston, Karl John

    2018-03-01

    The free-energy principle (FEP) is a formal model of neuronal processes that is widely recognised in neuroscience as a unifying theory of the brain and biobehaviour. More recently, however, it has been extended beyond the brain to explain the dynamics of living systems, and their unique capacity to avoid decay. The aim of this review is to synthesise these advances with a meta-theoretical ontology of biological systems called variational neuroethology, which integrates the FEP with Tinbergen's four research questions to explain biological systems across spatial and temporal scales. We exemplify this framework by applying it to Homo sapiens, before translating variational neuroethology into a systematic research heuristic that supplies the biological, cognitive, and social sciences with a computationally tractable guide to discovery.

  7. Multiple relationships: does the new ethics code answer the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, J L

    1994-11-01

    The new "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" (American Psychological Association, 1992) presented expanded attempts to clarify the ethical issues regarding multiple relationships and to provide useful guidance for psychologists. This article proposes that the new code fails to address adequately two basic questions necessary to provide psychologists with clear guidance: (a) What are multiple relationships? and (b) When do multiple relationships constitute unethical conduct? The article offers a definition of multiple relationships and identifies several dynamics operating within a professional relationship that are likely to be adversely affected by the imposition of a secondary relationship. Unethical multiple relationships are defined. Finally, the article suggests additions to the new code that would enhance its utility for psychologists.

  8. Answering the ultimate question “What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging? PMID:23425777

  9. ALAT-2014 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Clinical Practice Guidelines: questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, María; López Varela, María Victorina; Acuña, Agustín; Schiavi, Eduardo; Rey, María Alejandra; Jardim, José; Casas, Alejandro; Tokumoto, Antonio; Torres Duque, Carlos A; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; García, Gabriel; Stirbulov, Roberto; Camelier, Aquiles; Bergna, Miguel; Cohen, Mark; Guzmán, Santiago; Sánchez, Efraín

    2015-08-01

    ALAT-2014 COPD Clinical Practice Guidelines used clinical questions in PICO format to compile evidence related to risk factors, COPD screening, disease prognosis, treatment and exacerbations. Evidence reveals the existence of risk factors for COPD other than tobacco, as well as gender differences in disease presentation. It shows the benefit of screening in an at-risk population, and the predictive value use of multidimensional prognostic indexes. In stable COPD, similar benefits in dyspnea, pulmonary function and quality of life are achieved with LAMA or LABA long-acting bronchodilators, whereas LAMA is more effective in preventing exacerbations. Dual bronchodilator therapy has more benefits than monotherapy. LAMA and combination LABA/IC are similarly effective, but there is an increased risk of pneumonia with LABA/IC. Data on the efficacy and safety of triple therapy are scarce. Evidence supports influenza vaccination in all patients and anti-pneumococcal vaccination in patients <65years of age and/or with severe airflow limitation. Antibiotic prophylaxis may decrease exacerbation frequency in patients at risk. The use of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are justified in exacerbations requiring hospitalization and in some patients managed in an outpatient setting. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Floating Forests: Validation of a Citizen Science Effort to Answer Global Ecological Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, I.; Byrnes, J.; Cavanaugh, K. C.; Haupt, A. J.; Trouille, L.; Bell, T. W.; Rassweiler, A.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Assis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers undertaking long term, large-scale ecological analyses face significant challenges for data collection and processing. Crowdsourcing via citizen science can provide an efficient method for analyzing large data sets. However, many scientists have raised questions about the quality of data collected by citizen scientists. Here we use Floating-Forests (http://floatingforests.org), a citizen science platform for creating a global time series of giant kelp abundance, to show that ensemble classifications of satellite data can ensure data quality. Citizen scientists view satellite images of coastlines and classify kelp forests by tracing all visible patches of kelp. Each image is classified by fifteen citizen scientists before being retired. To validate citizen science results, all fifteen classifications are converted to a raster and overlaid on a calibration dataset generated from previous studies. Results show that ensemble classifications from citizen scientists are consistently accurate when compared to calibration data. Given that all source images were acquired by Landsat satellites, we expect this consistency to hold across all regions. At present, we have over 6000 web-based citizen scientists' classifications of almost 2.5 million images of kelp forests in California and Tasmania. These results are not only useful for remote sensing of kelp forests, but also for a wide array of applications that combine citizen science with remote sensing.

  11. Answers to questions at public meetings regarding implementation of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 on operators' licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This document presents questions and answers based on the transcripts of four public meetings (and from written questions submitted after the meetings) conducted from April 9 to April 20, 1987 by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The meetings discussed implementation of the Commission's final rule governing Operators' Licenses and Conforming Amendments (10 CFR Parts 55 and 50). The rule became effective May 26, 1987 and is intended to clarify the regulations for issuing licenses to operators and senior operators; revise the requirements and scope of written examinations and operating tests for operators and senior operators, require a simulation facility; clarify procedures for administering requalification examinations; and describe the form and content for operator license applications

  12. Answering Gauguin's Questions in Particle Physics: Where are we coming from? What are we? Where are we going?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, the so-called Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions. What is the origin of the matter in the Universe? How does its mass originate? What is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe? Are there additional dimensions of space? The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, where high-energy experiments have now started, will take physics into a new realm of energy and time, and will address these physics analogues of Gauguin's questions. The answers will set the stage for possible future experiments beyond the scope of the LHC.

  13. A passage retrieval method based on probabilistic information retrieval model and UMLS concepts in biomedical question answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouti, Mourad; Ouatik El Alaoui, Said

    2017-04-01

    Passage retrieval, the identification of top-ranked passages that may contain the answer for a given biomedical question, is a crucial component for any biomedical question answering (QA) system. Passage retrieval in open-domain QA is a longstanding challenge widely studied over the last decades. However, it still requires further efforts in biomedical QA. In this paper, we present a new biomedical passage retrieval method based on Stanford CoreNLP sentence/passage length, probabilistic information retrieval (IR) model and UMLS concepts. In the proposed method, we first use our document retrieval system based on PubMed search engine and UMLS similarity to retrieve relevant documents to a given biomedical question. We then take the abstracts from the retrieved documents and use Stanford CoreNLP for sentence splitter to make a set of sentences, i.e., candidate passages. Using stemmed words and UMLS concepts as features for the BM25 model, we finally compute the similarity scores between the biomedical question and each of the candidate passages and keep the N top-ranked ones. Experimental evaluations performed on large standard datasets, provided by the BioASQ challenge, show that the proposed method achieves good performances compared with the current state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods by an average of 6.84% in terms of mean average precision (MAP). We have proposed an efficient passage retrieval method which can be used to retrieve relevant passages in biomedical QA systems with high mean average precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Examining the Effects of Two Computer Programming Learning Strategies: Self-Explanation versus Reading Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study described here explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on learning the computer programming language JavaScript. Students’ test performance and perceptions of effectiveness toward the two strategies were examined. An online interactive tutorial instruction implementing worked-examples and multimedia learning principles was developed for this study. Participants were 147 high school students (ages 14 to 18 of a computer introductory course in six periods which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 78; n = 69 of three periods each. The two groups alternated learning strategies to learn five lessons. Students’ prerequisite knowledge of XHTML and motivation to learn computer programming languages were measured before starting the tutorial. Students largely expressed their preference toward self-explanation over reading questions and answers. They thought self-explanation incurred much more work yet was more effective. However, the two learning strategies did not have differential effects on students’ test performance. The seeming discrepancy arising from students’ preferred strategy and their test performance was discussed in the areas of familiar versus new strategy, difficulty of learning materials and testing method, and experimental duration.

  15. Value Creation Reporting: Answering the Question ‘Value to Whom’ according to the International Integrated Reporting Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Gokten

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Value Creation Reporting: Answering the Question ‘Value to Whom’ according to the International Integrated Reporting Framework The principal function of integrated reporting is the reporting of value and this phenomenon seems the most philosophical part of the International Framework. This paper discusses what the value concept refers to in the Framework: Value to investors, value to society or value to present and future generations? In this sense, we try to answer this question by highlighting the dynamics of capital formations according to interrelations between capitals and demonstrating the value creation process in the short, medium, and longer term. We show that (1 „profit” is the result of short term value creation, which indicates the „value to value chain stakeholders”, (2 „expected fair value of equity” represents the „value to investors” and (3 „longer term value” represents the „value to society” according to the International Framework. Additionally, we touch on the inadequacies of the current Framework and suggest future research opportunities within the scope of value creation reporting. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide a detailed framework on the dynamics of capitals usage and it attempts to show the intersection of accounting and finance in terms of value creation reporting.

  16. A hermeneutical reflection on the resurrection of Jesus Christ in question and answer 45 of the Heidelberg Catechism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobus Labuschagne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to elaborate hermeneutically on the different historical contexts, related the one to the other and to the centre point of the resurrection of Jesus Christ, in question and answer 45 of the Heidelberg Catechism. The aim is not only to find the true meaning that the Heidelberg Catechism intends to convey in the mentioned question and answer, but also to explain the underlying hermeneutical thinking as well as to bring to the surface and explain alternative assumptions that ordinary church-going Christians experience as the unusual outcome of an unknown and different kind of approach. Different hermeneutical processes lead to different outcomes of understanding − sometimes worlds apart. Vanuit die sentrale punt van die opstanding van Jesus Christus in vraag en antwoord 45 van die Heidelbergse Kategismus, wil hierdie artikel in ’n hermeneutiese besinning oor die verskillende verbandhoudende historiese kontekste uitbrei. Die doel is nie slegs om die ware betekenis te vind van wat die Heidelbergse Kategismus in genoemde vraag en antwoord poog om weer te gee nie, maar ook om die onderliggende hermeneutiese denke te verduidelik en alternatiewe aannames, wat gewone Christen-kerkgangers as ’n vreemde en verskillende benaderings ervaar, na die oppervlakte te bring en te verduidelik. Verskillende hermeneutiese prosesse lei tot verskillende uitkomste van verstaan – soms wêrelde van mekaar verwyderd.

  17. An artificially intelligent chat agent that answers adolescents' questions related to sex, drugs, and alcohol: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Portugal, Sarah Dias; Fisser, Erwin M; Grolleman, Jorne J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if and how an artificially intelligent chat agent (chatbot) that answers questions about sex, drugs, and alcohol is used and evaluated by adolescents, especially in comparison with information lines and search engines. A sample of 929 adolescents (64% girls, mean age = 15), varying in urbanization level and educational level, participated in this study. Use of the chatbot was objectively tracked through server registrations (e.g., frequency and duration of conversations with the chatbot, the number and topics of queries), and a web-based questionnaire was used to evaluate the chatbot (e.g., the perception of anonymity, conciseness, ease of use, fun, quality and quantity of information, and speed) and to compare it with information lines and search engines. The chatbot reached high school attendees in general and not only adolescents with previous experience related to sex, drugs, or alcohol; this is promising from an informed decision-making point of view. Frequency (M = 11) and duration of conversations (3:57 minutes) was high and the chatbot was evaluated positively, especially in comparison with information lines and search engines. The use of chatbots within the field of health promotion has a large potential to reach a varied group of adolescents and to provide them with answers to their questions related to sex, drugs, and alcohol. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How much flower-rich habitat is enough for wild pollinators? Answering a key policy question with incomplete knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Lynn V; Baude, Mathilde; Roberts, Stuart P M; Phillips, James; Green, Mike; Carvell, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, an opportunity arose in England to develop an agri-environment package for wild pollinators, as part of the new Countryside Stewardship scheme launched in 2015. It can be understood as a 'policy window', a rare and time-limited opportunity to change policy, supported by a narrative about pollinator decline and widely supported mitigating actions. An agri-environment package is a bundle of management options that together supply sufficient resources to support a target group of species. This paper documents information that was available at the time to develop such a package for wild pollinators. Four questions needed answering: (1) Which pollinator species should be targeted? (2) Which resources limit these species in farmland? (3) Which management options provide these resources? (4) What area of each option is needed to support populations of the target species? Focussing on wild bees, we provide tentative answers that were used to inform development of the package. There is strong evidence that floral resources can limit wild bee populations, and several sources of evidence identify a set of agri-environment options that provide flowers and other resources for pollinators. The final question could only be answered for floral resources, with a wide range of uncertainty. We show that the areas of some floral resource options in the basic Wild Pollinator and Farmland Wildlife Package (2% flower-rich habitat and 1 km flowering hedgerow), are sufficient to supply a set of six common pollinator species with enough pollen to feed their larvae at lowest estimates, using minimum values for estimated parameters where a range was available. We identify key sources of uncertainty, and stress the importance of keeping the Package flexible, so it can be revised as new evidence emerges about how to achieve the policy aim of supporting pollinators on farmland.

  19. Frictional melting dynamics in the upper conduit: A chemical answer to a complex physical question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton De Angelis, S.; Lavallee, Y.; Kendrick, J. E.; Hornby, A.; von Aulock, F. W.; Clesham, S.; Hirose, T.; Perugini, D.

    2013-12-01

    During volcanic eruptions the generation of frictional heat along the walls of the shallow conduit leads to melting of the rocks along the slip interface. Frictional melting has previously been described as a process out of thermodynamic equilibrium, but upon slip and mingling of the melt batches, homogeneity can be achieved, and may have an h important rheological control on the dynamics of slip. To test melt homogenization in the frictional melt zones of volcanic conduits we performed constant-rate slip experiments under controlled stress conditions using a high-velocity rotary shear apparatus. Volcanic dome samples from three different volcanoes (Volcán De Colima, Soufrière Hills Volcano and Santiaguito Volcano) were investigated. Each sample was subjected to a stress of 1 MPa and slip rate of 1 m/s. For each sample set 5 experiments were conducted: 1) experiment stopped at the onset of melting; 2) experiment stopped on the formation of a full melt layer; 3) experiment stopped after 5m of slip at steady state conditions; 4) experiment stopped after 10m of slip at steady state conditions; 5) experiment stopped after 15m of slip at steady state conditions. We analyzed the resulting proto-melt zones using micron sized X-ray spectroscopy in the high-brightness synchrotron beamline I18 (at Diamond Light Source UK). Particular focus was given to the concentration variance analysis of Rare Earth Elements as their mobilities can be used to precisely quantify the degree and timescale of homogenisation involved during frictional melting. This study refines our understanding of the chemical process of melting and mixing which carry important consequences for the rheological control on the physical dynamics of slip.

  20. A text of two titles: Kant's 'A renewed attempt to answer the question: "is the human race continually improving"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammito, John H

    2008-12-01

    The essay, 'A renewed attempt to answer the question: "Is the human race continually improving?"' appeared as Part II of Kant's 1798 publication, The conflict of the faculties, where it was subordinated under a second title: 'The conflict of the philosophy faculty with the faculty of law'. How did this new situation (and title) affects the meaning of the essay? My argument considers first, the conflict of the faculty of philosophy with the faculty of law; second, the earlier philosophy of history Kant had developed; and, finally, the revision of this position in 'A renewed attempt'. The situation of his argument in the contest between the philosophical and the legal faculties points to other veins of argumentation in Kant's political theory, particularly his appeal to a principle of publicity, but they hardly achieve the theoretical clarity or the systematic centrality they should command. They are displaced in the quest for prediction of the future history of mankind. The question of human progress exceeds the frame of the coordination of the university, and the main question must remain: what was new in Kant's approach to the question of human progress, and was it in fact an enhancement of his philosophy of history? In those terms, 'A renewed attempt' must be regarded a distinct failure. Its innovations prove problematic. Its retreats and equivocations, moreover, threaten to undermine the grander vision of Kant's philosophical history and his political theory, entangling them in an unacceptably theological recourse.

  1. Perbedaan Keterampilan Metakognitif dan Motivasi Siswa Putra dan Putri Kelas X SMAN Di Kota Malang Melalui Strategi Pembelajaran Reading Questioning and Answering (RQA Dipadu Think Pair Share (TPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindun Syarifah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Student diversity issue in school is one of the subjects in educational research. The quite apparent problem of student diversity in the school is gender differences. Male and female are different in some ways. Several studies have revealed the influence of gender differences on a wide range of students' abilities. Mahanal (2011 revealed that there was an effect of gender differences on metacognition skills and critical thinking abilities of high school students in Malang city. This research is aimed to determine the metacognition skills and motivation differences of male and female student on the biology subject through the implementation of Reading Questioning and Answering (RQA combined with Think Pair Share (TPS learning strategies. This research used quasy-experiment of pre test- post test nonequivalent group design. The research populations were all of

  2. Answer This Simple Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. Elspeth S.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author discusses her journey from her first year of the PhD program at USC, and the work she is doing now for a company that builds infrastructure in Afghanistan. She explores the ways in which studies for her 1985 PhD in Rhetoric, Linguistics and Literature did and did not prepare her for the work she does now. Her memoir…

  3. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the atmosphere. Manufactured perchlorate is used as an industrial chemical and can be found in rocket propellant, explosives, ... of the FAQs from May 2017. More in Chemical ... Foods Toxic Elements in Foods & Foodware Page Last Updated: 12/ ...

  4. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... given to adolescents and adults, usually as a single dose; the exception is pregnant women who should receive Tdap during each pregnancy. • Td: ... catch-up vaccinations. All adults should receive a single dose of Tdap as soon as ... women should receive Tdap during each preg- nancy. Adolescents ...

  5. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus vaccine that was licensed in 1968. The mumps vaccine first became available in 1967, fol- lowed by ... vaccine. • people vaccinated before 1979 with either killed mumps vaccine or mumps vaccine of unknown type who are ...

  6. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rise. In 2011, an estimated 31% of pneumococcal bacteria were resistant to one or more antibiotics. How common drug resis- tance is depends on ... conjugate vaccine includes purified capsular polysaccharides from the bacteria that ... able to produce an immune response in infants and antibody booster ...

  7. Questions and Answers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    [问4] (1) It produces metals, precious stones, coal, grain, meat and wines, and has the biggest iron mines in the world. (2) Materials such as paper, glass or metal are collected, sorted, treated and used again.从句(1)来看,metal是个可数名词,而从句(2)来看,它是个不可数名词。它到底是个什么样的名词呢?(广东广州杨月娇)

  8. Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for Travelers Flu Activity & Surveillance CDC's WHO Collaborating Center Situation Update: Summary of Weekly FluView Overview ... illness in young children as well as a leading cause of death from respiratory illness in those ...

  9. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F (62.8 °C) as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  10. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  11. Benzene: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This information booklet is intended to inform residents near natural gas dehydration facilities about benzene and its levels in the atmosphere. It was issued following the federal government's decision to place benzene on its Priority Substances List and to require industry to establish means for reducing benzene emissions from natural gas dehydrators and to inform residents about benzene emissions from glycol dehydration facilities. Accordingly, the booklet explains what benzene is (a colourless flammable liquid component of hydrocarbons) how it gets into the air (during gasoline refining, vehicle refueling and the production of steel and petrochemicals), the associated health hazards (a recognized carcinogen, causing an increased incidence of leukemia in concentrations of 100 parts per million), defines a glycol dehydrator (a facility built at or near some natural gas fields for the removal of water from the natural gas to prevent corrosion and freezing of pipelines), and enumerates the steps that are being taken to reduce benzene levels in the air (benzene levels in gasoline have been reduced, along with benzene emissions from petrochemical plants, refineries, steel plants and glycol dehydrators by 54 per cent to date; this will rise to 90 per cent by 2005). In addition to these actions, industry plans call for all existing glycol dehydrators within 750 metres of any permanent residence to be limited to benzene emissions of no more than three tonnes per year before 2001; new glycol dehydrators after that date will be expected to have benzene emissions reduced to the lowest level that can be practically achieved

  12. Questions & Answers about Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strong enough to improve the condition of the skin. Therefore, they usually are combined with stronger remedies. Light Therapy Natural ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and controlled delivery of ...

  13. Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtz Timothy A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In addition this paper aims to provide a step-by-step guide for chiropractors and osteopaths on how to ask and answer a clinical question using the literature. Methods A literature review using the MEDLINE search engine using the keywords "obesity", "low back pain", "body mass index" "BMI" and "osteoarthritis" from years 1990 to 2004 was utilised. The method employed is similar to that utilised by evidence-based practice advocates. Results The available data at this time is controversial with no clear-cut evidence connecting low back pain with obesity. Conclusion There is a lack of a clear dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI and low back pain. Further, studies on the relationship between obesity and related lumbar osteoarthritis, knee pain, and disc herniation are also problematic.There is little doubt that future studies with controlled variables are needed to determine the existence of an unambiguous link, if any.

  14. “Remember to Hand Out Medals”: Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Ponti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can work as a mechanism to assess the value of those responses when traditional markers of expertise are not always clearly defined and identifiable. Employing a mixed-method approach, the analysis examined (a the content of the answers that were awarded medals and their perceived immediate value and (b the nature of the networked relationships resulting from participants’ interactions. The findings suggest that the peer rating system makes visible what the participants find immediately valuable and allocates a form of recognition that extends the “legitimation code”, which refers to the credentials that make someone competent and worthy of recognition.

  15. Answering the question, "what is a clinical nurse leader?": transition experience of four direct-entry master's students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Emily; Chapman, Kimberly; Doyle, Marcy; Wright, Danielle K; Shippee-Rice, Raelene V; Kasik, Dot Radius

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the experience of students learning the clinical nurse leader (CNL) role can be useful for faculty, preceptors, staff nurses, and interdisciplinary team members who guide them. This article analyzes the experience of four direct-entry master's students in the first cohort to complete the CNL curriculum and to sit for the pilot CNL certification examination. Using action research methodology, the students worked with the clinical immersion practicum faculty and a writing consultant to develop the study purpose, collect and analyze data, and prepare a manuscript. The main theme that emerged was, answering the question, "what is a CNL?" Subthemes supporting the main theme involved coming to the edge, trusting the process, rounding the corner, and valuing becoming. The analysis confirmed the value the CNL offers as a new vision to nursing education and practice. The students offered suggestions for the CNL curriculum and practicum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The physics and engineering aspects of radiology.. Textbook with questions and answers. 2. enl. and rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Heppe, A.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have chosen the form of questions and answers derived from practice in order to present and explain the fundamental physics and engineering aspects of radiology. The second, completely revised edition of the textbook has been updated so as to include recent legislation and the guidelines for specialized medical education and training for specialists in diagnostic radiology. One new chapters added deals with the diagnostic method of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the chapters on computed tomography (CT), digital radiography and ultrasonography have been enlarged to include recent developments. The text is accompanied by illustrations that are easy to remember, showing the typical aspects and information, and the chapter containing and discussing diagnostic images has likewise been enlarged by representative CT and MRI images. The book is intended for readers preparing for their examination as specialists, for participants of courses in radiological protection, radiological medical technicians or medical students, and may also serve as a refresher course. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  18. High Precision Positioning at Field Camp: Using GNSS as the primary data source to answer geologic questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, B. T.; Lauer, I. H.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.

    2017-12-01

    Thanks to the availability and accessibility of GPS/GNSS enabled consumer grade positioning devices, GNSS are nearly ubiquitous in both geologic field research and education. Though the devices offer sufficient precision to geotag images, digital field book entries or measurements, positions themselves are not precise enough to accomplish independent geodetic analysis. As a consequence, most students learn about GNSS at a tool that aids other forms of geologic data acquisition rather serving as the primary source itself. To resolve this, we developed and tested a three-unit teaching module within the GETSI - SERC curriculum framework that reinforces high precision positioning as a primary source of geologic data. Units focus on three core topics: GNSS Fundamentals, Kinematic GNSS and Static GNSS Methods. Module goals enable students to (a) design and conduct a GNSS survey to answer a geologic question, (b) justify why their GNSS technique is appropriate to their question and (c) to articulate how answering their question benefits society. Skill building is via quantitative and qualitative analysis, concept sketches, and both field and office based data acquisition and interrogation. Exercises are site-independent and include example datasets for those unable to travel. In the summer of 2017, we tested the module with 20 undergraduate students over two days at the ISU field geology course. Located in the Lost River Range of Idaho, positioned among active normal faults, we not only explored the use of static GNSS data for active tectonics but visited a station in person. For a summative assessment, we focused on kinematic GNSS, using RTK rovers to reoccupy leveling monuments spanning the active Lost River fault that ruptured in 1983 (M 7.0). The data collected by our class quantified aseismic deformation occurring in the 30+ years since that event. Displacements were significantly larger than the instrumental uncertainty, confirming that RTK was an appropriate tool

  19. Answers to questions posed during daily patient care are more likely to be answered by UpToDate than PubMed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources,

  20. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  1. A complicated answer to a simple question: Are believers and members of minority religions, churches and religious communities in postdayton BiH discriminated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagradić Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work treats the real social position of minority religions, denominations, religious communities and churches in postdayton Bosnia and Herzegovina. In other words, the author researches real social, political, legislative, mass-media-communicational, economic status and a status of so called small religious communities and churches in other spheres of existence like education, culture, public health etc., and seeks to answer to, from rhetorical point of view, simple question: are minority religions, denominations, religious communities and churches, as defined and treated by the Law on Freedom of Religion and Legal Position of Churches and Religious Communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, discriminated or not. In the focus of the author's analyses are equally institutional sphere or so called minority religious communities as such, but also and individuals, believers and followers of those institutionalized and formalized religious-denominational- ecclesial subjects having been named religious communities and churches. The results of the author's empirical-theoretical researches can be condensed into nuanced and complex answer whose content leads to conclusion that minority religions, churches and their members in several spheres of life are, after all, in inferior position, in spite of declarative equality of all religions, denominations, religious communities and churches. The author supports such conclusion with numerous and plausible arguments.

  2. Student certainty answering misconception question: study of Three-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test in Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansah; Masykuri, M.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    Students’ concept comprehension in three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test related to student confidence level. The confidence level related to certainty and student’s self-efficacy. The purpose of this research was to find out students’ certainty in misconception test. This research was quantitative-qualitative research method counting students’ confidence level. The research participants were 484 students that were studying acid-base and equilibrium solubility subject. Data was collected using three-tier multiple-choice (3TMC) with thirty questions and students’ questionnaire. The findings showed that #6 item gives the highest misconception percentage and high student confidence about the counting of ultra-dilute solution’s pH. Other findings were that 1) the student tendency chosen the misconception answer is to increase over item number, 2) student certainty decreased in terms of answering the 3TMC, and 3) student self-efficacy and achievement were related each other in the research. The findings suggest some implications and limitations for further research.

  3. Potassium iodide (KI) to block the thyroid from exposure to I-131: current questions and answers to be discussed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita [Hospital of the University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, German WHO-REMPAN Collaboration Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for

  4. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S.; Porter, S.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell's open-quotes doublethinkclose quotes should be generalized to open-quotes polythinkclose quotes to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics

  5. The case for multimodal analysis of atypical interaction: questions, answers and gaze in play involving a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Conversation analysis (CA) continues to accrue interest within clinical linguistics as a methodology that can enable elucidation of structural and sequential orderliness in interactions involving participants who produce ostensibly disordered communication behaviours. However, it can be challenging to apply CA to re-examine clinical phenomena that have initially been defined in terms of linguistics, as a logical starting point for analysis may be to focus primarily on the organisation of language ("talk") in such interactions. In this article, we argue that CA's methodological power can only be fully exploited in this research context when a multimodal analytic orientation is adopted, where due consideration is given to participants' co-ordinated use of multiple semiotic resources including, but not limited to, talk (e.g., gaze, embodied action, object use and so forth). To evidence this argument, a two-layered analysis of unusual question-answer sequences in a play episode involving a child with autism is presented. It is thereby demonstrated that only when the scope of enquiry is broadened to include gaze and other embodied action can an account be generated of orderliness within these sequences. This finding has important implications for CA's application as a research methodology within clinical linguistics.

  6. Snappy answers to stupid questions: an evidence-based framework for responding to peer-review feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Hoffman, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Authors are inundated with feedback from peer reviewers. Although this feedback is usually helpful, it can also be incomprehensible, rude or plain silly. Inspired by Al Jaffe’s classic comic from Mad Magazine, we sought to develop an evidenced-based framework for providing “snappy answers to stupid questions,” in the hope of aiding emerging academics in responding appropriately to feedback from peer review. Methods We solicited, categorized and analyzed examples of silly feedback from peer reviewers using the grounded theory qualitative research paradigm from 50 key informants. The informants represented 15 different professions, 33 institutions and 11 countries (i.e., Australia, Barbados, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA). Results We developed a Scale of Silliness (SOS) and a Scale of Belligerence (SOB) to facilitate the assessment of inadequate peer-review feedback and guide users in preparing suitable responses to it. The SOB score is tempered by users’ current mood, as captured by the Mood Reflective Index (MRI), and dictates the Appropriate Degree of Response (ADR) for the particular situation. Conclusion Designed using the highest quality of (most easily accessible anecdotal) evidence available, this framework may fill a significant gap in the research literature by helping emerging academics respond to silly feedback from peer reviewers. Although use of the framework to its full extent may have negative consequences (e.g., loss of promotion), its therapeutic value cannot be understated. PMID:19969574

  7. Holiday review. Snappy answers to stupid questions: an evidence-based framework for responding to peer-review feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Hoffman, Steven J

    2009-12-08

    Authors are inundated with feedback from peer reviewers. Although this feedback is usually helpful, it can also be incomprehensible, rude or plain silly. Inspired by Al Jaffe's classic comic from Mad Magazine, we sought to develop an evidenced-based framework for providing "snappy answers to stupid questions," in the hope of aiding emerging academics in responding appropriately to feedback from peer review. We solicited, categorized and analyzed examples of silly feedback from peer reviewers using the grounded theory qualitative research paradigm from 50 key informants. The informants represented 15 different professions, 33 institutions and 11 countries (i.e., Australia, Barbados, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA). We developed a Scale of Silliness (SOS) and a Scale of Belligerence (SOB) to facilitate the assessment of inadequate peer-review feedback and guide users in preparing suitable responses to it. The SOB score is tempered by users' current mood, as captured by the Mood Reflective Index (MRI), and dictates the Appropriate Degree of Response (ADR) for the particular situation. Designed using the highest quality of (most easily accessible anecdotal) evidence available, this framework may fill a significant gap in the research literature by helping emerging academics respond to silly feedback from peer reviewers. Although use of the framework to its full extent may have negative consequences (e.g., loss of promotion), its therapeutic value cannot be understated.

  8. France's answers to question and comments received from other contracting parties on its 1. report for the JC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management is supplementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety. It was approved by France on February 22, 2000 and it entered into force on June 18, 2001. France has received 211 questions, coming from 19 Contracting Parties, on its first report and has provided written answers to each one. These answers were gathered in a single document, which lists them along the articles of the Convention. France has presented these answers on November 5, 2003, at the review meeting of the contracting Parties of the Convention and has decided to make them available to the public, however without mention of the countries that had asked them. The 211 questions received on the first report for the Joint Convention are listed along the sections suggested by the guidelines for the answers to the articles of the convention, sorted by the related page number of the French report and, within each section, grouped by issues raised. The written answers to each question have been coordinated by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), but have been provided either by the regulators or by the operators (or even both) depending on the related issue. In the case where various questions are related to a same issue but are referred to different articles of the Conventions, they have been referred to the most relevant article in order to have the same issue dealt with in a single location in the present answers report. The answer to each question is provided immediately under the related question.

  9. Subject-Auxillary Inversion Errors and Wh Question Acquisition: What Children Do Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Pine, Julian M.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed correct wh-question production and subject-auxiliary inversion errors in one child's wh-question data. Argues that two current movement rule accounts cannot explain patterning of early wh-questions. Data can be explained by the child's knowledge of particular lexically-specific wh-word+auxiliary combinations, and inversion and universion…

  10. Intersubjectivity in a digital genre: the Spanish indefinite pronoun uno (“one”) and person deixis in Yahoo Questions&Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Rasson, Marie; De Cock, Barbara; 14th International Pragmatics Conference

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study various mechanisms to create intersubjectivity in a digital genre, namely Yahoo Questions and Answers (YQA). More concretely, we focus on the Spanish indefinite strategy uno (“one”) and its interaction with deictic person pronouns. YQA aims to provide assistance to users, who can ask other users questions on topics of all types. The other users respond by giving advice - often by referring to their personal experience - or their opinion on a given issue (Placencia, 201...

  11. New to Teaching: WebQuests as a Tool to Support Children in Carrying out Research Using Secondary Sources to Answer Their Scientific Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James; Pope, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The "working scientifically" strand of the new primary science curriculum for England has re-emphasised the importance of children having opportunities to carry out different types of enquiries to answer their scientific questions. To promote this as an ongoing aim of primary science education, it is equally important for trainee primary…

  12. Electronic assessment of clinical reasoning in clerkships: A mixed-methods comparison of long-menu key-feature problems with context-rich single best answer questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwendiek, S.; Reichert, F.; Duncker, C.; Leng, B.A. De; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.; Bosse, H.M.; Haag, M.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Tonshoff, B.; Dolmans, D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which item format would best suit the assessment of clinical reasoning: context-rich single best answer questions (crSBAs) or key-feature problems (KFPs). This study compared KFPs and crSBAs with respect to students' acceptance, their educational impact, and

  13. 26 CFR 1.162-10T - Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of 1984; certain limits on amounts deductible... and Corporations § 1.162-10T Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits... amendment of section 404(b) by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 affect the deduction of employee benefits under...

  14. Does the think-aloud protocol reflect thinking? Exploring functional neuroimaging differences with thinking (answering multiple choice questions) versus thinking aloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Artino, A.R.; Beckman, T.J.; Graner, J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Holmboe, E.; Schuwirth, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whether the think-aloud protocol is a valid measure of thinking remains uncertain. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate potential functional neuroanatomic differences between thinking (answering multiple-choice questions in real time) versus

  15. 26 CFR 1.1(i)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary). In General... parent's taxable income. Thus, the allocable parental tax is not computed with reference to unearned... same ratio to the total allocable parental tax as the child's net unearned income bears to the total...

  16. 26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section 54.4977-1T... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions and answers... business in existence on January 1, 1984, as employees of one of those lines of business for purposes of...

  17. The sun as hot water source. Answers to questions on the solar water heater; Le soleil source d'eau chaude. Les reponses a vos questions sur le chauffe-eau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide answers to the main questions concerning a water heating system for domestic use. It aims to help the people who want to buy a solar water heater, to better estimate the advantages and the limits, in providing information on the operating and the use. (A.L.B.)

  18. Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Alquen Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1 develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2 evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3 explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness.

  19. Remarks presented (questions/answers discussed) at public regional meetings to discuss regulations (10 CFR Part 21) for reporting of defects and noncompliance, July 12--26, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    In enacting the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, Congress included Section 206 which requires the reporting of defects and noncompliances directly to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This congressional action required that the NRC promulgate rules and regulations, as necessary, to assure appropriate implementation of Section 206. In response to this mandate, the NRC drafted a new regulation. Following a period of public comment and revision, the regulation identified as 10 CFR Part 21, Reporting Defects and Noncompliance, was published in a Federal Register Notice on June 6, 1977. To assist NRC licensees and other firms and organizations covered by the new Part 21 regulation, public regional meetings were conducted by staff representatives to explain the rule. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on the meaning and application of the rule. Staff remarks contained in the original publication of this document were also provided to those in attendance. At each meeting the staff received a request for the questions and answers discussed by the staff to be made available for use as guidance by the nuclear industry covered by the rule. It was announced that a consolidation of the staff position question/answer guidance would be made available to each organization or firm attending these meetings and for others where a request is made in accordance with the directions printed insidethe front cover of the document. The staff will be guided in its implementation and enforcement of Part 21 by the positions set forth in the document. The revision of NUREG-0302 includes the following three parts relating to 10 CFR Part 21: (1) remarks presented by staff representatives; (2) Federal Register Notice material; and (3) a consolidation of questions and answers from the public regional meetings

  20. The answer is questions: accelerated-nursing students report practice questions are fundamental to first-time NCLEX-RN success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blozen, Barbara B

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of anecdotal reports on demographic characteristics and academic success of accelerated-nursing students; yet few empirical studies have examined accelerated-nursing students NCLEX-RN success. Applying Knowles' adult learning theory as a guiding framework, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, from the accelerated-nursing students' perspective, the factors reported as contributing to their success on the NCLEX-RN. The research questions aimed to elicit participants' descriptions of their experiences and factors contributing to their success via individual interviews. The most significant finding the participants identified as the factor that contributed to their success was the practicing of NCLEX-RN questions. The findings of this study have several implications for educational policy and practice for universities and schools of nursing as the information gained from this study applies to recruitment and retention as well as curriculum and educational strategies in an accelerated-nursing program.

  1. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) the expenditure was prepaid for tax avoidance purposes and not for a business purpose, or (iii) the... rate of interest on substantial underpayments attributable to certain tax motivated transactions... underpayments attributable to certain tax motivated transactions (temporary). The following questions and...

  2. ADAPT.DCU at TREC LiveQA: A Sentence Retrieval based Approach to Live Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    task organizers and available on request http://webscope. sandbox.yahoo.com/catalog.php? datatype =l 2 http://webscope.sandbox.yahoo.com/catalog.php... datatype =l 3 http://lucene.apache.org/ 4In our initial experiments, we also used the body of a question for query formulation but it produced worse

  3. The use of SMIRP for the rapid design and implementation of pedagogical constructs: Case study of a question-answer-reference framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Boecker,

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of SMIRP, a web-based collaborative tool, for an application in an undergraduate and a graduate class is described. SMIRP was used to rapidly construct a collaborative space where students could work on their assignment, request assistance and view their grades. The pedagogical construct was based on a question-answer-reference model where students were required to answer a series of questions based only on the material present in references they selected from the open literature. The answers and grades of all students were visible to all students in real time, although pseudonyms were used to respect student privacy. Email alerts were provided to the teacher, teaching assistants and in the second class also to the students and a librarian. Based on the analysis of log files, overall student performance in the class was found to correlate positively with curiosity and negatively with procrastination. Student expectations of turnaround times for grades and general queries were also analyzed and compared to actual performance. At the end of both classes a questionnaire module was created and an analysis of student satisfaction and preferences is reported. The successful implementation of SMIRP in these two classes supports the contention that this collaborative tool is flexible enough for the rapid design and implementation of relatively complex pedagogical constructs, with the possibility of obtaining detailed metrics.

  4. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  5. Finding the Patient's Voice Using Big Data: Analysis of Users' Health-Related Concerns in the ChaCha Question-and-Answer Service (2009-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Chad; Knopf, Amelia; Groves, Doyle; Carpenter, Janet S; Furrey, Christopher; Krishnan, Anand; Miller, Wendy R; Otte, Julie L; Palakal, Mathew; Wiehe, Sarah; Wilson, Jeffrey

    2016-03-09

    The development of effective health care and public health interventions requires a comprehensive understanding of the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. Big datasets from social media and question-and-answer services provide insight into the public's health concerns and priorities without the financial, temporal, and spatial encumbrances of more traditional community-engagement methods and may prove a useful starting point for public-engagement health research (infodemiology). The objective of our study was to describe user characteristics and health-related queries of the ChaCha question-and-answer platform, and discuss how these data may be used to better understand the perceptions, concerns, and stated needs of health care consumers and the public at large. We conducted a retrospective automated textual analysis of anonymous user-generated queries submitted to ChaCha between January 2009 and November 2012. A total of 2.004 billion queries were read, of which 3.50% (70,083,796/2,004,243,249) were missing 1 or more data fields, leaving 1.934 billion complete lines of data for these analyses. Males and females submitted roughly equal numbers of health queries, but content differed by sex. Questions from females predominantly focused on pregnancy, menstruation, and vaginal health. Questions from males predominantly focused on body image, drug use, and sexuality. Adolescents aged 12-19 years submitted more queries than any other age group. Their queries were largely centered on sexual and reproductive health, and pregnancy in particular. The private nature of the ChaCha service provided a perfect environment for maximum frankness among users, especially among adolescents posing sensitive health questions. Adolescents' sexual health queries reveal knowledge gaps with serious, lifelong consequences. The nature of questions to the service provides opportunities for rapid understanding of health concerns and may

  6. Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alquen, Daniela; De Boeck, Kris; Bradley, Judy; Vávrová, Věra; Dembski, Birgit; Wagner, Thomas O F; Pfalz, Annette; Hebestreit, Helge

    2012-02-06

    The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p value 0.105 ± 0.024, p change over time. The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness. © 2012 d’Alquen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Catalytic or thermal incineration. Answer to an age-old question. Katalytische oder thermische Nachverbrennung. Antwort auf eine jahrelange Frage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockel, D

    1990-04-01

    In the last ten years, design engineers and process engineers have been dealing with the same question every time they planned to install an incineration unit in the field of chemical industry, petrochemical industry, food processing industry as well as in a number of other branches: Which is the most economic process technology In most cases, thermal incineration was favoured. In the meantime, however, specific further developments in catalytic systems as well as intense and diversified long time studies lead to a technological and economic 'Patt-situation' within a so-called 'user-technological mixed area'. From the viewpoint of a supplier of both systems, the decision in favour of a certain type can be made on the basis of recent developments especially in this overlapping field. Which type and for what reasons will be explained in the following. (orig.).

  8. If Ethics in Psychiatry is the Answer - What was the Question? Exploring Social Space and the Role of Clinical Chaplaincy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kohlen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, ethics has been expanding in health care and chaplains comprise one of the key groups that provide ethics consultation services in the German arena of psychiatry. Like all professional actors in the practical arena, chaplains perform their role. Performance happens in relation to others who occupy positions that allow more or less exercise of power. This architecture of relational positioning and territory constitutes the social space. The question is, whether ethics in psychiatry can overcome the determination of positioning within the social space, and if yes: what is the scope of ethics? This article investigates into the role of chaplaincy as ethical agents (in Germany on the basis of theoretical and empirical studies over the last 10 years. The meaning of social space in the field of psychiatry is explored by taking Pierre Bourdieu’s work into account. For illustration, a case study is given.

  9. Civic, Legal and Social Education in French Secondary School: Questions About a New Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Tutiaux-Guillon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In summer 1999, a new compulsory subject was introduced in French upper secondary school: civic, legal and social education (éducation civique, juridique et sociale or ECJS. This teaching has been introduced as an answer to problems resulting from social and cultural changes in secondary education, from growing indifference to politics and from debates about citizenship. The curriculum in ECJS, through contents based on concepts and social and political controversies, and through pedagogy based on debates, upsets traditional secondary teaching. What is taught and what is learnt differ a lot form one classroom to another. The thesis presented in this paper asserts that this subject shows such an heterogeneity not only because it is new, but also because the three actors in the project, the institution, the teachers and the students, refer ECJS to legitimacies and to contents that do not coincide. The institution refers largely to politics and citizenship, the teachers to school difficulties and school knowledge, the students to their personal experience and common sense. This interpretation calls for discussion.En août 1999, un nouvel enseignement obligatoire a été introduit dans les lycées français: l'éducation civique, juridique et sociale ou ECJS. Cet enseignement apparaît comme une réponse à divers problèmes: ceux résultant des changements culturels et sociaux lies à la massification de l'enseignement secondaire, ceux relevant d'une indifférence croissante au politique, et des débats concernant la citoyenneté. Le programme d'ECJS, tant dans ses contenus fondés sur des concepts et des questions socialement et politiquement controversées, que dans ses méthodes pédagogiques centrées sur le débat, perturbe le fonctionnement usuel de l'enseignement secondaire. Ce qui est enseigné et appris diffère notablement d'une classe à l'autre. Dans cet article, j'attribue cette hétérogénéité non à la nouveauté d'un tel

  10. A framework for integrating and synthesizing data to ask and answer science questions in the Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published a science strategy that resulted in an organizational pivot toward more focused attention on societal challenges and our ability to predict changes and study mitigation and resilience. The strategy described a number of global dynamics including climate and resource-related critical zone (CZ) impacts and emphasized the need for data integration as a significant underpinning for all of the science questions raised in the report. Organizational changes that came about as a result of the science strategy sparked a new entity called Core Science Systems, which has set as its mission the creation of a Modular Science Framework designed to seamlessly organize and integrate all data, information, and knowledge from the CZ. A part of this grand challenge is directly within the purview of the USGS mission and our science programs, while the data integration framework itself is part of a much larger global scientific cyberinfrastructure. This talk describes current research and development in pursuit of the USGS Modular Science Framework and how the work is being conducted in the context of the broader earth system sciences. Communities of practice under the banner of the Earth Science Information Partners are fostering working relationships vital to cohesion and interoperability between contributing institutions. The National Science Foundation's EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century initiatives are providing some of the necessary building blocks through foundational informatics and data science research. The U.S. Group on Earth Observations is providing leadership and coordination across agencies who operate earth observation systems. The White House Big Data Initiative is providing long term research and development vision to set the stage for sustainable, long term infrastructure across government data agencies. The end result will be a major building block of CZ science.

  11. Using automated environmental management information systems to enable compliance: Ten questions to answer before selecting a software system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    As technology invades the arena of environmental information management, hundreds of software packages have become available in the marketplace. How does the already overwhelmed environmental manager or IT professional decide what's right for the organization? Is there a software package that meets the needs of the organization, and is there a successful way to implement the system? Does this require abandoning existing systems with which users are comfortable? Can the system really save time and/or money? This paper discusses three topics: What drives the need for a system; Ten questions to aid in selecting a system that is right for your organization; and enabling technology and software systems available today, and the future application of technology to environmental data management. Motivating factors for EMIS include regulatory, business and IT drivers. Because of the ever-increasing regulatory burden, the need to demonstrate compliance often is the strongest driver. But they cannot ignore business and IT drivers from the discussion, especially with issues such as Enterprise Resource Planning and The Year 2000 impacting many systems projects. Before selecting a system, the organization should address, at a minimum, the following ten issues: (1) Organization objectives; (2) Organization readiness; (3) High-level processes to be automated; (4) Integration and interfaces; (5) User community and needs; (6) Technical requirements; (7) Degree of customization; (8) Project timing; (9) Implementation resource needs; and (10) System justification. Today, there are hundreds of EH and S software packages available too help automate daily business processes. Only a few are multimedia packages, and all require significant implementation efforts. The EMIS market is still evolving, and software vendors continue to enhance product features and usability.

  12. Do cortical gamma oscillations promote or suppress perception? An under-asked question with an over-assumed answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eSedley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronised discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations’ role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e. a ‘positive’ role. While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e. ‘negative’ role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were. For instance, if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they would become selectively activated in response to the stimulus they acted to inhibit.In this review, we consider two classes of gamma oscillations: broadband and narrowband, which have very different properties (and likely roles. We first discuss studies on gamma oscillations that are non-discriminatory, with respect to the role of gamma oscillations, followed by studies that specifically support specifically a positive or negative role. These include work on perception in healthy individuals, and in the pathological contexts of phantom perception and epilepsy. Reference is based as much as possible on magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG studies, but we also consider evidence from invasive recordings in humans and other animals. Attempts are made to reconcile findings within a common framework. We conclude with a summary of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered, and suggest how future studies might address

  13. Fostering the exchange of real world data across different countries to answer primary care research questions: an UNLOCK study from the IPCRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Liza; Williams, Siân; van der Molen, Thys; Thomas, Mike; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Chavannes, Niels H

    2018-03-08

    There is growing awareness amongst healthcare planners, providers and researchers of the need to make better use of routinely collected health data by translating it into actionable information that improves efficiency of healthcare and patient outcomes. There is also increased acceptance of the importance of real world research that recruits patients representative of primary care populations and evaluates interventions realistically delivered by primary care professionals. The UNLOCK Group is an international collaboration of primary care researchers and practitioners from 15 countries. It has coordinated and shared datasets of diagnostic and prognostic variables for COPD and asthma to answer research questions meaningful to professionals working in primary care over a 6-year period. Over this time the UNLOCK Group has undertaken several studies using data from unselected primary care populations from diverse contexts to evaluate the burden of disease, multiple morbidities, treatment and follow-up. However, practical and structural constraints have hampered the UNLOCK Group's ability to translate research ideas into studies. This study explored the constraints, challenges and successes experienced by the UNLOCK Group and its participants' learning as researchers and primary care practitioners collaborating to answer primary care research questions. The study identified lessons for future studies and collaborations that require data sharing across borders. It also explored specific challenges to fostering the exchange of primary care data in comparison to other datasets such as public health, prescribing or hospital data and mechanisms that may be used to overcome these.

  14. To be or not to be? That is the question, and we’re getting closer to an answer

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    One subject dominated discussions at the CERN Council meetings this week: anticipation of news about the on-going search for the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. The LHC has continued to perform impressively in 2012, raising expectations that sufficient data may have been accumulated for a discovery. Before going on, let me say very clearly that on that point, we’ll have to be patient for a little bit longer.   Higgs candidate event, courtesy of CMS. Nevertheless, with less than two weeks to go until the start of the ICHEP conference, news from the experiments is eagerly anticipated. Refinements of the analysis of the 2011 data, released over the course of recent months, show that the hints reported in December persist. The latest progress, including results from the 2012 data, will be presented at CERN on Wednesday 4 July with a live two-way video link to the scientists gathering in Melbourne for ICHEP. If and when a new particle is discovered, ATLAS and CMS will ne...

  15. More Questions than Answers: Continued Critical Reanalysis of Fredrickson et al.'s Studies of Genomics and Well-Being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J L Brown

    Full Text Available We critically re-examine Fredrickson et al.'s renewed claims concerning the differential relationship between hedonic and eudaimonic forms of well-being and gene expression, namely that people who experience a preponderance of eudaimonic well-being have gene expression profiles that are associated with more favorable health outcomes. By means of an extensive reanalysis of their data, we identify several discrepancies between what these authors claimed and what their data support; we further show that their different analysis models produce mutually contradictory results. We then show how Fredrickson et al.'s most recent article on this topic not only fails to adequately address our previously published concerns about their earlier related work, but also introduces significant further problems, including inconsistency in their hypotheses. Additionally, we demonstrate that regardless of which statistical model is used to analyze their data, Fredrickson et al.'s method can be highly sensitive to the inclusion (or exclusion of data from a single subject. We reiterate our previous conclusions, namely that there is no evidence that Fredrickson et al. have established a reliable empirical distinction between their two delineated forms of well-being, nor that eudaimonic well-being provides any overall health benefits over hedonic well-being.

  16. PENGARUH STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN READING QUESTIONING AND ANSWERING (RQA DIPADU THINK PAIR SHARE (TPS TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN METAKOGNITIF SISWA LAKI-LAKI DAN PEREMPUAN SMAN DI KOTA MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindun Syarifah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at investigating: 1 the effect of Reading Questioning and Answering (RQA, Think Pair Share (TPS, and RQA combined with TPS learning on the students’ metacognitive skills and characters, 2 the effect of gender on students’ metacognitive skills, and 3 the effect of interaction between learning strategy and gender on students' metacognitive skills. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan ialah quasi eksperimen dengan Pretest-Postest Nonequivalent Control Group Design .The research design used was pretest posttest nonequivalent control group design. Populasi penelitian ialah seluruh siswa kelas X SMAN Malang.The population of this research was all students of grade X State Senior High School (SSHS Malang. Sampel penelitian adalah siswa kelas X-1 SMAN 8 Malang, kelas X-6 dan X-7 SMAN 5 Malang sebagai kelas eksperimen dan siswa kelas X-3 SMAN 8 Malang sebagai kelas kontrol.The samples of this research were students of class X-1 SSHS 8 Malang, classes X-6 and X-7 SSHS 5 Malang as the experimental groups and class X-3 SSHS 8 Malang as the control group. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hal-hal berikut: 1 Strategi pembelajaran Reading Questioning and Answering (RQA dipadu Think Pair Share (TPS berpotensi dalam memberdayakan keterampilan metakognitif siswa sebesar 17,72% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional dan tidak berbeda secara signifikan dengan strategi pembelajaran RQA dan TPS.Research results showed that RQA combined with TPS learning had the potential to empower students’ metacognitive skills 17.72% higher than that of conventional learning but it was not significantly different from RQA and TPS learning. 2 Pembelajaran Think Pair Share (TPS berpotensi dalam memberdayakan karakter siswa sebesar 8,52% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional, 4,16% lebih tinggi dari strategi pembelajaran RQA dipadu TPS namun tidak berbeda signifikan dari strategi pembelajaran RQA.3 Kelompok

  17. Questions, pictures, answers: introducing pictures in question-answering systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bosma, W.E.; Hofs, D.H.W.; Nijholt, Antinus; Krahmer, E.J.; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Marsi, E.C.; Ruiz Miyarez, L.; Munoz Alvarado, A.; Alvarez Moreno, C.

    We present the Dutch IMIX research programme on multimodal interaction, speech and language technology. We discuss our contributions to this programme in the form of two research projects, IMOGEN and VIDIAM, and the technical integration of the various modules developed by IMIX subprojects to build

  18. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of opinion. Speakers

  19. Examinations in radiology with commented answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmaack, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    This book is meant to be a help in the preparation for the examination in the subject of radiology. Original questions from the examinations of the past years and questions put by the author cover all subjects of the catalogue. All questions are answered, with additional comments in order to ensure the understanding of the subject, thus creating best preconditions for a successful examination. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Internet firewalls: questions and answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keith

    1996-03-01

    As organizations consider connecting to the Internet, the issue of internetwork security becomes more important. There are many tools and components that can be used to secure a network, one of which is a firewall. Modern firewalls offer highly flexible private network security by controlling and monitoring all communications passing into or out of the private network. Specifically designed for security, firewalls become the private network's single point of attack from Internet intruders. Application gateways (or proxies) that have been written to be secure against even the most persistent attacks ensure that only authorized users and services access the private network. One-time passwords prevent intruders from `sniffing' and replaying the usernames and passwords of authorized users to gain access to the private network. Comprehensive logging permits constant and uniform system monitoring. `Address spoofing' attacks are prevented. The private network may use registered or unregistered IP addresses behind the firewall. Firewall-to-firewall encryption establishes a `virtual private network' across the Internet, preventing intruders from eavesdropping on private communications, eliminating the need for costly dedicated lines.

  1. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upper arm ( 1 ). Chondrosarcoma , which begins in cartilaginous tissue. Cartilage pads the ends of bones and lines the joints. Chondrosarcoma occurs most often in the pelvis (located between the hip ... in soft tissue (muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels , or other ...

  2. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Home Science News Meetings and Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us ... episode may also experience depression, anxiety, sleep problems, social withdrawal, lack of motivation and difficulty functioning overall. Q: What causes psychosis? ...

  3. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health & Fitness Jobs & Making Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts Looking for Business Guidance? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  4. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids enter another person’s bloodstream. • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections can cause chronic liver problems. Infection with hepa- ... there is no vaccine to protect people from hepatitis C virus infection. • There are medications that are approved by the ...

  5. Mifeprex (Mifepristone) Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious infection. Strong consideration should be given to obtaining a complete blood count in these patients. Significant ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  6. Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

  7. Questions and Answers about Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke. High blood pressure increases your risk of stroke four to six times. Heart disease, especially a condition ... leading cause of serious, long-term adult disability. Four million Americans are living with the effects of stroke. The length of time to recover from a ...

  8. Questions and Answers about TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. Introduction Testing and Treatment TB Disease Glossary Introduction Introduction What is TB? Why is TB still ... chest x-ray is made by exposing a film to x-rays that pass through the chest. ...

  9. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard drinks you're being served in a restaurant or bar that uses large glasses and generous ... drinking habits. For more information, see A Family History of Alcoholism: Are You at Risk? Pace yourself: ...

  10. NIMH Answers Questions about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... else? Q: What if someone seems suicidal on social media? Q: What if I want to write a story about suicide? Q: Where can I go for more information on suicide prevention? Reprints Menu Q: How common is suicide in children and teens? Q: What are some of the ...

  11. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States currently has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in history. Years of testing are required by law to ensure the safety of vaccines before they are made available for use in ...

  12. Binary answers to imprecise questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yager, R R

    1982-01-01

    In constructing intelligent machines one must at times include the capability to perform precise actions in the face of imprecise information. Using fuzzy subset theory the author shows how to build algorithms to meet this task. 13 references.

  13. Residents and Medical Students Correctly Answer Clinical Questions More Often with Google and UpToDate than With PubMed or Ovid MEDLINE. A Review of: Thiele, R. H., Poiro, N. C., Scalzo, D. C., & Nemergut, E. C. (2010. Speed, accuracy, and confidence in Google, Ovid, PubMed, and UpToDate: Results of a randomised trial. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 86(1018, 459-465. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2010.098053

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Arndt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine which search tool (Google, UpToDate, PubMed or Ovid-MEDLINE produces more accurate answers for residents, medical students, and attending physicians searching on clinical questions in anesthesiology and critical care. Searcher confidence in the answers and speed with which answers were found were also examined.Design – Randomized study without a control group.Setting – Large university medical center.SubjectsSubjects included 15 fourth year medical students (third and fourth year, 35 residents, and 4 attending physicians volunteered and completed the study. One additional attending withdrew halfway through the study. The authors were unsuccessful in recruiting an equal number of subjects from each group.Methods – A set of eight anesthesia and critical care questions was developed, based on their commonality and importance in clinical practice and their answerability. Four search tools were employed: Google, UpToDate, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE. In part I, subjects were given a random set of four of the questions to answer with the search tool(s of their choice, but could use only one search tool per question. In part II, several weeks later, the same subjects were randomly assigned a search tool with which to answer all 8 questions. The authors state that “for data analysis, PubMed was arbitrarily chosen to be the “reference standard.”” Statistical analysis was used to identify significant differences between PubMed and the other search tools.Main Results – Part I: Subjects choosing a search tool were more likely to find a correct answer with Google or UpToDate. There were no statistically significant differences in confidence with answers between any of the search tools and PubMed.Part II: Though subjects were assigned a search tool, some questions were repeated from part I. For repeated questions, Ovid users (compared to PubMed users were significantly less likely to find the correct answer for

  14. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of

  15. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to

  16. Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater engagement with relevant sociopolitical thought in fields typically outside the purview of science education. Drawing from thinkers Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard, Judith Butler, and Louis Althusser this paper attempts to extend some key ideas coming from Ken Tobin, Larry Bencze, and Lyn Carter and advocates science educators taking up notions of ideology, discourse, and subjectivity to engage globalization and neoliberalism. Subjectivity (and its constitution in science education) is considered alongside two relevant textbook examples and also in terms of its importance in formulating political and culturally relevant questions in science education.

  17. Varied Search Protocols Lead to Clinically Relevant Results. A review of: Patel, Manesh R., Connie M. Schardt, Linda L. Sanders, and Sheri A. Keitz. “Randomized Trial for Answers to Clinical Questions: Evaluating a Pre‐Appraised Versus a MEDLINE Search Protocol.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94.4 (2006: 382‐6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. Brown

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the success rate of electronic resources for answering clinical questions by comparing speed, validity, and applicability of two different protocols for searching the medical literature.Design – Randomized trial with results judged by blinded panel.Setting – Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, United States ofAmerica.Subjects – Thirty‐two 2nd and 3rd year internal medicine residents on an eight week general medicine rotation at the Duke University Medical Center.Methods – Two search protocols were developed:Protocol A: Participants searched MEDLINE first, and then searched pre‐appraised resources if needed.Protocol B: Participants searched pre‐appraised resources first, which included UpToDate, ACP JournalClub, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and DARE. The residents then searched MEDLINE if an answer could not be found in the 66 initial group of pre‐appraised resources. Residents were randomised by computer-assisted block order into four blocks of eight residents each. Two blocks were assigned to Protocol A, and two to Protocol B. Each day, residents developed at least one clinical question related to caring for patients. The questions were transcribed onto pocket-sized cards, with the answer sought later using the assigned protocol. If answers weren’t found using either protocol, searches were permitted in other available resources. When an article that answered a question was found, the resident recorded basic information about the question and the answer as well as the time required to find the answer (less than five minutes; between five and ten minutes; or more than ten minutes. Residents were to select answers that were “methodologically sound and clinically important” (384. Ten faculty members formally trained in evidence‐based medicine (EBM reviewed a subset of therapy‐related questions and answers. The reviewers, who were blinded to the search protocols

  18. Answers to the questions about food irradiation. Concerning results of animal experiments in the specified integrated research. Data carrying a problem in human health were obtained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Experts of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/ World Health Organization (WHO) committee obtained their conclusion in 1980 that food irradiated with <10 kGy of radiation is safe for human health, which is now globally approved. However, in Japan, there have been still opposite opinions based on the doubt in the title on the safety of irradiated food. In this paper, the author answers those questions as he was a member to arrange the Research in the title for food irradiation. Described are data presentation and explanation about results of toxicity studies of diets added with irradiated materials of: weight reductions in rat ovary by irradiated potato (ip) in chronic studies, and in mouse testicle and ovary of F3 generation from the ancestor mice kept on diet with irradiated onion (io); bone malformation in mice by io; and reduction of body weight gain in female rats by ip and increase of mortality of male rats by ip. These are analyzed on the aspects of radiation dose-response, sustained tendency of results throughout the living period or generation, and apparent abnormality by other factors; and normal variation due to individual difference is pointed out to contribute to these findings. The safety test of irradiated food has been conducted valid not only in animal experiments but also other tests like genotoxicity and analysis of radiation-degraded products. (R.T.)

  19. Relationship between VacA Toxin and Host Cell Autophagy in Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Human Stomach: A Few Answers, Many Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Ricci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of about half the global population and represents the greatest risk factor for gastric malignancy. The relevance of H. pylori for gastric cancer development is equivalent to that of tobacco smoking for lung cancer. VacA toxin seems to play a pivotal role in the overall strategy of H. pylori towards achieving persistent gastric colonization. This strategy appears to involve the modulation of host cell autophagy. After an overview of autophagy and its role in infection and carcinogenesis, I critically review current knowledge about the action of VacA on host cell autophagy during H. pylori infection of the human stomach. Although VacA is a key player in modulation of H. pylori-induced autophagy, a few discrepancies in the data are also evident and many questions remain to be answered. We are thus still far from a definitive understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which VacA affects autophagy and the consequences of this toxin action on the overall pathogenic activity of H. pylori.

  20. Corrosion at the head-neck interface of current designs of modular femoral components: essential questions and answers relating to corrosion in modular head-neck junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K; Panagiotidou, A P; Khan, M; Blunn, G; Haddad, F S

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing global awareness of adverse reactions to metal debris and elevated serum metal ion concentrations following the use of second generation metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. The high incidence of these complications can be largely attributed to corrosion at the head-neck interface. Severe corrosion of the taper is identified most commonly in association with larger diameter femoral heads. However, there is emerging evidence of varying levels of corrosion observed in retrieved components with smaller diameter femoral heads. This same mechanism of galvanic and mechanically-assisted crevice corrosion has been observed in metal-on-polyethylene and ceramic components, suggesting an inherent biomechanical problem with current designs of the head-neck interface. We provide a review of the fundamental questions and answers clinicians and researchers must understand regarding corrosion of the taper, and its relevance to current orthopaedic practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:579-84. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Novelty Detection via Answer Updating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xiaoyan; Croft, W. B

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, we explore the use of question-answering techniques for novelty detection. New information is defined as new/previously unseen answers to questions representing a user's information need...

  2. Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Third review meeting. Questions asked to France and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, referred to as the 'Joint Convention', is the result of international discussions that followed the adoption of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in 1994. France signed the Joint Convention at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held on 29 September 1997, the very first day the Joint Convention was opened for signature. She approved it on 22 February 2000 and filed the corresponding instruments with the IAEA on 27 April 2000. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001. For many years, France has been taking an active part in the pursuit of international actions to reinforce nuclear safety and considers the Joint Convention to be a key step in that direction. The fields covered by the Joint Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. For his third report, France presented a document reflecting the viewpoints of the various stakeholders (regulatory authorities and operators). Thus, for each of the chapters in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its point of view, a three-stage structure was adopted: first of all a description by the regulatory authority of the regulations, followed by a presentation by the operators of the steps taken to meet the regulations and finally, an analysis by the regulatory authority of the steps taken by the operators. This third report was distributed in October 2008 to all Contracting Parties who asked 213 questions on the French report. France answered each of them in the present document

  3. How do we determine the impact of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking cessation or reduction? Review and recommendations for answering the research question with scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Feirman, Shari P; Niaura, Raymond S; Pearson, Jennifer L; Glasser, Allison M; Collins, Lauren K; Abrams, David B

    2018-03-01

    To propose a hierarchy of methodological criteria to consider when determining whether a study provides sufficient information to answer the question of whether e-cigarettes can facilitate cigarette smoking cessation or reduction. A PubMed search to 1 February 2017 was conducted of all studies related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation or reduction. Australia, Europe, Iran, Korea, New Zealand and the United States. 91 articles. Coders organized studies according to six proposed methodological criteria: (1) examines outcome of interest (cigarette abstinence or reduction), (2) assesses e-cigarette use for cessation as exposure of interest, (3) employs appropriate control/comparison groups, (4) ensures that measurement of exposure precedes the outcome, (5) evaluates dose and duration of the exposure and (6) evaluates the type and quality of the e-cigarette used. Twenty-four papers did not examine the outcomes of interest. Forty did not assess the specific reason for e-cigarette use as an exposure of interest. Twenty papers did not employ prospective study designs with appropriate comparison groups. The few observational studies meeting some of the criteria (duration, type, use for cessation) triangulated with findings from three randomized trials to suggest that e-cigarettes can help adult smokers quit or reduce cigarette smoking. Only a small proportion of studies seeking to address the effect of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation or reduction meet a set of proposed quality standards. Those that do are consistent with randomized controlled trial evidence in suggesting that e-cigarettes can help with smoking cessation or reduction. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Descriptive Statistics: Reporting the Answers to the 5 Basic Questions of Who, What, Why, When, Where, and a Sixth, So What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Thomas R

    2017-11-01

    of the association between the exposure and the outcome (eg, the risk ratio or odds ratio) in the population likely resides. There are many possible ways to graphically display or illustrate different types of data. While there is often latitude as to the choice of format, ultimately, the simplest and most comprehensible format is preferred. Common examples include a histogram, bar chart, line chart or line graph, pie chart, scatterplot, and box-and-whisker plot. Valid and reliable descriptive statistics can answer basic yet important questions about a research data set, namely: "Who, What, Why, When, Where, How, How Much?"

  5. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2009 are published

  6. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2014 are published.

  7. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2011 are published.

  8. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2011 are published.

  9. Answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    In this publication detail answers to questions on National report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management of April 2011 are published.

  10. Concept mapping improves academic performance in problem solving questions in biochemistry subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Tariq, Saba; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Sobia; Gazzaz, Zohair J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of concept mapping (CM) on the academic performance of medical students' in problem-solving as well as in declarative knowledge questions and their perception regarding CM. The present analytical and questionnaire-based study was carried out at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi, Pakistan. In this analytical study, students were assessed with problem-solving questions (A-type MCQs), and declarative knowledge questions (short essay questions), and 50% of the questions were from the topics learned by CM. Students also filled a 10-item, 3-point Likert scale questionnaire about their perception regarding the effectiveness of the CM approach, and two open-ended questions were also asked. There was a significant difference in the marks obtained in those problem-solving questions, which were learned by CM as compared to those topics which were taught by the traditional lectures (pacademic performance in problem solving but not in declarative knowledge questions. Students' perception about the effectiveness of CM was overwhelmingly positive.

  11. Answers to questions on National Report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. October 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    Slovakia is pleased to present to the State Parties of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management the Answers to questions received on the National Report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the Joint Convention (April 2003). Slovakia is ready to provide additional explanations to these Answers during the 1 st Review Meeting. In the Annexes the 254/1994 Coll. LL. Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic of 25 August 1994 on State Fund of Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Nuclear Wastes is included

  12. Answers to questions on National Report of the Slovak Republic. Compiled according to the terms of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. April 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    Slovakia is pleased to present to the State Parties of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management the Answers to questions received on the National Report of the Slovak Republic compiled according to the terms of the Joint Convention (2005). Slovakia is ready to provide additional explanations to these Answers during the 2 nd Review Meeting. In the Annexes the 541/2004 Coll. LL. Act of 9 September 2004 on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy (Atomic Act) and on Alternations and Amendments to Some Acts

  13. [Public Health as an Applied, Multidisciplinary Subject: Is Research-Based Learning the Answer to Challenges in Learning and Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, A; Schilling, I; Voss, M

    2017-03-01

    Public health education aims at enabling students to deal with complex health-related challenges using appropriate methods based on sound theoretical understanding. Virtually all health-related problems in science and practice require the involvement of different disciplines. However, the necessary interdisciplinarity is only partly reflected in the curricula of public health courses. Also theories, methods, health topics, and their application are often taught side-by-side and not together. For students, it can become an insurmountable challenge to integrate the different disciplines ("horizontal integration") and theories, methods, health topics, and their application ("vertical integration"). This situation is specific for education in public health but is representative for other interdisciplinary fields as well. Several approaches are available to achieve the horizontal integration of different disciplines and vertical integration of theories, methods, health topics, and their application. A curriculum that is structured by topics, rather than disciplines might be more successful in integrating different disciplines. Vertical integration can be achieved by research-based learning. Research-based learning places a student-led research project at the centre of teaching. Students choose a topic and a research question, raise their own questions for theories and methods and will hopefully cross the seeming chasm between science and practice. Challenges of research-based learning are enhanced demands on students, teachers and curriculum design. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Answering medical questions at the point of care: a cross-sectional study comparing rapid decisions based on PubMed and Epistemonikos searches with evidence-based recommendations developed with the GRADE approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izcovich, Ariel; Criniti, Juan Martín; Popoff, Federico; Ragusa, Martín Alberto; Gigler, Cristel; Gonzalez Malla, Carlos; Clavijo, Manuela; Manzotti, Matias; Diaz, Martín; Catalano, Hugo Norberto; Neumann, Ignacio; Guyatt, Gordon

    2017-08-07

    Using the best current evidence to inform clinical decisions remains a challenge for clinicians. Given the scarcity of trustworthy clinical practice guidelines providing recommendations to answer clinicians' daily questions, clinical decision support systems (ie, assistance in question identification and answering) emerge as an attractive alternative. The trustworthiness of the recommendations achieved by such systems is unknown. To evaluate the trustworthiness of a question identification and answering system that delivers timely recommendations. Cross-sectional study. We compared the responses to 100 clinical questions related to inpatient management provided by two rapid response methods with 'Gold Standard' recommendations. One of the rapid methods was based on PubMed and the other on Epistemonikos database. We defined our 'Gold Standard' as trustworthy published evidence-based recommendations or, when unavailable, recommendations developed locally by a panel of six clinicians following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations provided by the rapid strategies were classified as potentially misleading or reasonable. We also determined if the potentially misleading recommendations could have been avoided with the appropriate implementation of searching and evidence summary tools. We were able to answer all of the 100 questions with both rapid methods. Of the 200 recommendations obtained, 6.5% (95% CI 3% to 9.9%) were classified as potentially misleading and 93.5% (95% CI 90% to 96.9%) as reasonable. 6 of the 13 potentially misleading recommendations could have been avoided by the appropriate usage of the Epistemonikos matrix tool or by constructing summary of findings tables. No significant differences were observed between the evaluated rapid response methods. A question answering service based on the GRADE approach proved feasible to implement and provided appropriate guidance for most identified

  15. Does economic growth erode social capital and subjective well-being? Old question, new method

    OpenAIRE

    Mikucka, Malgorzata; Sarracino, Francesco; 3rd International Annual Conference of the LCSR: “Cultural and Economic changes under cross-national perspective”

    2013-01-01

    The work of Easterlin questioned the relationship between economic growth and life satisfaction. Subsequent research on “Easterlin paradox” provided conflicting evidence, which suggests that the paradox holds in some conditions but not in others. However, these conditions were only rarely investigated by the literature, in part because the debate has been limited by use of country-level aggregated data. Our paper fills this gap by investigating the relationship between economic growth and lif...

  16. How do economic growth and social capital shape subjective well-being? Old question, new method

    OpenAIRE

    Mikucka, Malgorzata; Sarracino, Francesco; The 4th LCSR International Workshop “Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Values and Modernization”

    2014-01-01

    The work of Easterlin questioned the relationship between economic growth and life satisfaction. Subsequent research on “Easterlin paradox” provided conflicting evidence, which suggests that the paradox holds in some conditions but not in others. However, these conditions were only rarely investigated by the literature, in part because the debate has been limited by use of country-level aggregated data. Our paper fills this gap by investigating the relationship between economic growth and lif...

  17. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  18. Quantitative Analysis of the Usage of a Pedagogical Tool Combining Questions Listed as Learning Objectives and Answers Provided as Online Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Laneuville

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the learning of basic concepts in molecular biology of an undergraduate science class, a pedagogical tool was developed, consisting of learning objectives listed at the end of each lecture and answers to those objectives made available as videos online. The aim of this study was to determine if the pedagogical tool was used by students as instructed, and to explore students’ perception of its usefulness. A combination of quantitative survey data and measures of online viewing was used to evaluate the usage of the pedagogical practice. A total of 77 short videos linked to 11 lectures were made available to 71 students, and 64 completed the survey. Using online tracking tools, a total of 7046 views were recorded. Survey data indicated that most students (73.4% accessed all videos, and the majority (98.4% found the videos to be useful in assisting their learning. Interestingly, approximately half of the students (53.1% always or most of the time used the pedagogical tool as recommended, and consistently answered the learning objectives before watching the videos. While the proposed pedagogical tool was used by the majority of students outside the classroom, only half used it as recommended limiting the impact on students’ involvement in the learning of the material presented in class.

  19. Five Hundred Questions Kids Ask about Sex and Some of the Answers: Sex Education for Parents, Teachers and Young People Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Frances

    This book is based on the premise that sexual expression is a way for people to show affection and love for one another. The book is divided into six chapters that cover topics related to sexuality and growing up. The sections in each chapter contain questions that preteens and teenagers typically ask and provide clear, unambiguous, and…

  20. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction—(1) Scope. This section prescribes temporary question and... the person to whom the payment is to be made properly uses the completed contract method of accounting... amount is owed to a related person under whose method of accounting such amount is not includible in...

  1. E-assessment for learning? Exploring the potential of computer-marked assessment and computer-generated feedback, from short-answer questions to assessment analytics.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Sally

    2014-01-01

    This submission draws on research from twelve publications, all addressing some aspect of the broad research question: “Can interactive computer-marked assessment improve the effectiveness of assessment for learning?” \\ud \\ud The work starts from a consideration of the conditions under which assessment of any sort is predicted to best support learning, and reviews the broader literature of assessment and feedback before considering the potential of computer-based assessment, focusing on relat...

  2. Relationship between Future Time Orientation and Item Nonresponse on Subjective Probability Questions: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Liu, Mingnan; Hu, Mengyao

    2017-06-01

    Time orientation is an unconscious yet fundamental cognitive process that provides a framework for organizing personal experiences in temporal categories of past, present and future, reflecting the relative emphasis given to these categories. Culture lies central to individuals' time orientation, leading to cultural variations in time orientation. For example, people from future-oriented cultures tend to emphasize the future and store information relevant for the future more than those from present- or past-oriented cultures. For survey questions that ask respondents to report expected probabilities of future events, this may translate into culture-specific question difficulties, manifested through systematically varying "I don't know" item nonresponse rates. This study drew on the time orientation theory and examined culture-specific nonresponse patterns on subjective probability questions using methodologically comparable population-based surveys from multiple countries. The results supported our hypothesis. Item nonresponse rates on these questions varied significantly in the way that future-orientation at the group as well as individual level was associated with lower nonresponse rates. This pattern did not apply to non-probability questions. Our study also suggested potential nonresponse bias. Examining culture-specific constructs, such as time orientation, as a framework for measurement mechanisms may contribute to improving cross-cultural research.

  3. Versão eletrônica de questionário e o controle de erros de resposta Electronic version of a questionnaire and control of answer errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadao Omote

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo relata a análise de erros cometidos em questionário impresso e a aplicabilidade de uma versão eletrônica do mesmo questionário para o controle desses erros. Sessenta estudantes de pós-graduação em Educação responderam à versão eletrônica programada em Visual Basice outros 52 responderam à versão impressa. No questionário impresso, foram cometidos 95 erros, dos quais 28 não invalidam as respostas. Os demais erros podem levar à exclusão dos participantes que os cometeram, se todos os itens forem analisados rigorosamente de acordo com as instruções. Os erros cometidos na versão impressa podem ser controlados na versão eletrônica mediante adequada programação. Nenhuma dificuldade para responder a versão eletrônica foi identificada. As vantagens apontadas pelos respondentes e a possibilidade de controle total dos erros de resposta, aliadas à eliminação de erro de tabulação mediante a inserção automática das respostas em banco de dados, recomendam o uso de versão eletrônica de questionário.The article reports the analysis of errors made in a printed questionnaire and the possibility of using an electronic version of the same questionnaire aiming to control those errors. Sixty Education graduate students answered an electronic version, programmed in Visual Basic, and another 52 answered a printed version. In the printed questionnaire, 95 errors were made of which 28 errors may be ignored. The other errors may cause the exclusion of respondents that made them, if all items were analyzed strictly in agreement with the instructions. The errors made in the printed version may be controlled in an electronic version by means of appropriate programming. No difficulty in answering the electronic version was reported. The advantages pointed out by the respondents and the possibility of total control of answer errors, allied with the elimination of tabulation errors by means of automatic database insertion of the

  4. Hierarchical Markov blankets and adaptive active inference. Comment on "Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation" by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Ramstead MJD, Badcock PB, Friston KJ. Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation. Phys Life Rev 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2017.09.001 [this issue] motivate a multiscale characterisation of living systems in terms of hierarchically structured Markov blankets - a view of living systems as comprised of Markov blankets of Markov blankets [1-4]. It is effectively a treatment of what life is and how it is realised, cast in terms of how Markov blankets of living systems self-organise via active inference - a corollary of the free energy principle [5-7].

  5. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2)…

  6. A bio-energy plant in your neighborhood. Answers to your questions; Een bio-energiecentrale bij u in de buurt. Antwoorden op uw vragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    This brochure is intended for municipalities and initiators and discusses the following subjects: What is a bio-energy plant?; How large is a bio-energy plant?; What do you see?; Renewable energy: clean and always available; Bio-energy: what is it? [mk]. [Dutch] De brochure is bedoeld voor gemeenten en initiatiefnemers en behandelt de volgende onderwerpen: Wat is een bio-energiecentrale?; Hoe groot is een bio-energiecentrale?; Wat neem je waar?; Duurzame energie: schoon en altijd aanwezig; Bio-energie: wat is dat?.

  7. Double sampling with multiple imputation to answer large sample meta-research questions: Introduction and illustration by evaluating adherence to two simple CONSORT guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice L. Capers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Meta-research can involve manual retrieval and evaluation of research, which is resource intensive. Creation of high throughput methods (e.g., search heuristics, crowdsourcing has improved feasibility of large meta-research questions, but possibly at the cost of accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of double sampling combined with multiple imputation (DS+MI to address meta-research questions, using as an example adherence of PubMed entries to two simple Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT guidelines for titles and abstracts. METHODS: For the DS large sample, we retrieved all PubMed entries satisfying the filters: RCT; human; abstract available; and English language (n=322,107. For the DS subsample, we randomly sampled 500 entries from the large sample. The large sample was evaluated with a lower rigor, higher throughput (RLOTHI method using search heuristics, while the subsample was evaluated using a higher rigor, lower throughput (RHITLO human rating method. Multiple imputation of the missing-completely-at-random RHITLO data for the large sample was informed by: RHITLO data from the subsample; RLOTHI data from the large sample; whether a study was an RCT; and country and year of publication. RESULTS: The RHITLO and RLOTHI methods in the subsample largely agreed (phi coefficients: title=1.00, abstract=0.92. Compliance with abstract and title criteria has increased over time, with non-US countries improving more rapidly. DS+MI logistic regression estimates were more precise than subsample estimates (e.g., 95% CI for change in title and abstract compliance by Year: subsample RHITLO 1.050-1.174 vs. DS+MI 1.082-1.151. As evidence of improved accuracy, DS+MI coefficient estimates were closer to RHITLO than the large sample RLOTHI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypothesis that DS+MI would result in improved precision and accuracy. This method is flexible and may provide a practical way to examine large corpora of

  8. Good questions require good answers. Critics on current climate research contradicted; Goede vragen vereisen goede antwoorden. Kritiek op gangbaar klimaatonderzoek weersproken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinga, P. [Milieuwetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Dorland, R. [KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands); Kabat, P. [Aardsystemen en Klimaatstudies, Wageningen Universiteit, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    In some of the previous issues of this magazine (Spil 2007, issue 4 and 5-6, and Spil 2008, issue 1) the authors Labohm, Roersch and Thoenes started a frontal attack of the greenhouse theory and the researchers who report on the state of science in the framework of the IPCC. The author of this article addresses two main questions arising from the above-mentioned authors: (1) Does the use of fossil fuels affect global climate?; and (2) Is the warming of the last 30 years related to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? [mk]. [Dutch] In enkele vorige afleveringen van dit tijdschrift (Spil 2007, nummers 4 en 5-6, en Spil 2008, nummer 1) hebben de auteurs Labohm, Roersch en Thoenes een frontale aanval ingezet op de broeikastheorie en de onderzoekers die in IPCC-verband verslag doen van de stand van de wetenschap. De auteur van dit artikel gaat in op twee door voornoemde auteurs gestelde hoofdvragen: (1) Heeft het gebruik van fossiele brandstoffen invloed op het wereldklimaat?; en (2) Houdt de opwarming van de laatste dertig jaar verband met de gestegen concentraties van broeikasgassen in de atmosfeer?.

  9. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    Tricare Latin America and Canada Area covering Central and South America, the Caribbean Basin, Canada, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. • Tricare...program is designed to fill long-term prescriptions to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, asthma, or diabetes ; it does not include medications

  10. Questions and Answers about Carotid Endarterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these procedures are carried out in a stepwise fashion: from a doctor's evaluation of signs and symptoms to ultrasound, MRA, and arteriography for increasingly difficult cases. History and physical exam. A doctor will ask about ...

  11. National Lung Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the maximum time since quitting. CISNET models identified consensus strategies that were efficient, preventing the greatest number ... these abnormalities are not lung cancer; they are false-positives. However, these abnormalities − scars from smoking, areas ...

  12. Frequently Asked Questions and Answers on Smallpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with smallpox is still infectious until the last scabs fall off. How fast does smallpox spread? The ... Variola virus research Variola virus repository inspections Synthetic Biology Technology for smallpox Post-eradication of smallpox You ...

  13. WDM Questions and Answers-Eng

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rsamir

    volumes of untreated sewage are being produced and dumped, making their way ... accounting for approximately 85% of the total water consumption. ... supports wider participation in decision-making and saves freshwater for other uses.

  14. Weak interaction: past answers, present questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1977-02-01

    A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references

  15. Effective ads: new technology answers old questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Couwenberg (Linda)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMarketing experts commonly refer to ads as either “emotional” or “rational” in their appeal to consumers. This dichotomy of “thinking versus feeling” is most evident when it comes to discussions around what makes an ad effective. Some studies suggest that an ad that pulls on the

  16. A Question and Answer Guide to Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol; Roy, Jean-René

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. The sky viewed from Earth; 2. The Earth and Moon system; 3. The Solar System; 4. Stars and stellar systems; 5. Galaxies and the Universe; 6. Life in the Universe; 7. Amateur astronomy; 8. Telescopes and instruments; Unit conversion and basic physical and astronomical measurements; References; Bibliography; Index.

  17. Finding new answers to old questions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Last month, the NA63 collaboration presented its annual update at the 107th meeting of the SPS and PS experiments committee (SPSC). Among the many results presented were new insights into arenas of experimental quantum electrodynamics – including some that will have theorists heading back to the blackboard.   NA63 Collaboration members at work on the positron-production experiment. Image: NA63. Based at CERN’s SPS North Area, the NA63 experiment uses high-energy beams for crystalline studies of various electromagnetic processes. “This year has been very productive for us, both in terms of data gathering and data analysis,” says Ulrik Uggerhoj, NA63 collaboration spokesperson. “We’ve released results based on previous runs, assembled and tested an entirely new experimental set-up, and have also gathered enough data to keep us occupied during the 2013 shutdown.” In September, the collaboration announced a new result that con...

  18. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    under this authority entered active duty on March 1, 1998. This low-intensity conflict with Iraq changed to a high -intensity conflict on March 20...for involuntary mobilization of Guard/Reserve units will remain a one year mobilized to five year demobilized ratio . However, today’s global demands...accrues or receives, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind every payday: basic pay, basic allowance for housing, basic allowance for subsistence, and

  19. Zika Virus: Common Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Irogue I; Rabe, Ingrid B; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2017-04-15

    Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms; hospitalizations and deaths are rare. When symptoms are present, maculopapular rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis are most common. Zika virus testing is recommended for persons with possible exposure (those who have traveled to or live in an area with active transmission, or persons who had sex without a condom with a person with possible exposure) if they have symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease. Testing is also recommended for pregnant women with possible exposure, regardless of whether symptoms are present. Treatment is supportive, and no vaccine is currently available. The primary methods of prevention include avoiding bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes and reducing the risk of sexual transmission. Pregnant women should not travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission, and men and women who are planning to conceive in the near future should consider avoiding nonessential travel to these areas. Condoms can reduce the risk of sexual transmission.

  20. Effective ads: new technology answers old questions

    OpenAIRE

    Couwenberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMarketing experts commonly refer to ads as either “emotional” or “rational” in their appeal to consumers. This dichotomy of “thinking versus feeling” is most evident when it comes to discussions around what makes an ad effective. Some studies suggest that an ad that pulls on the heart strings will pack the most punch; others suggest a blend of logic and emotion. However, new research reveals which areas of the brain are stimulated by different ad appeals – and the brain activi...

  1. Working within the Law: Copyright Questions Answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses copyright issues: what can be copyrighted, rights of copyright holders, avoiding copyright infringement, using copyrighted works, and addresses for more information concerning copyright laws. (CT)

  2. Zika: Questions That Need Answers | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... In Brazil, the emergence of Zika was followed by an increase in cases of congenital microcephaly (abnormally small heads in newborns) as well as other neurological disorders. This moved the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare the Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International ...

  3. Climate warming: answering some basic questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancovici, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs, drawings, figures and tables, this long publication offers a detailed overview of the physical aspects of climatic change (definition of the greenhouse effect, explanation and assessment of warming, relationship and differences between greenhouse effect and ozone depletion, between climate change and greenhouse effect induced by human activity, and between meteorology and climate) and states some generalities on greenhouse effect gases. The author then discusses prospective issues on climatic change (notion of average temperature, role and liability of climate models, evolutions of temperatures and precipitations in different places, influence of greenhouse gas reduction), the various risks associated with climatic change (changes of sea currents, impact on ecosystems, diseases, ozone depletion, geographical differences, threat from methane hydrate). After a presentation of the carbon cycle, the next chapters are discussing the scientific discourses, the assessment of greenhouse effect in our everyday life, the impact of possible collective and individual actions, the relationship between greenhouse effect and economy, and strategic choices in France on airports and on nuclear energy

  4. WDM Question and Answers | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-04

    Jan 4, 2011 ... Why is there growing concern about water issues in the MENA region? ... tend to leak, taps tend to drip and little is done to prevent water pollution. ... water demand management (WDM) and water supply management (WSM)?.

  5. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that there are special healing qualities to vitamin E, aloe vera, or cocoa butter. In fact, there is no consistent evidence that these will truly improve the long-term appearance of ... is due to the vitamin E they are applying. Although we do not recommend ...

  6. Answering the Questions of Beginning Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Research reports that despite new or beginning teachers being well received by the education profession, their first year experience is often traumatic and difficult nature. This is not a new phenomenon and is a problem shared by many new teachers nationwide and in the western world. Consequently, the retention rate for new teachers is decreasing at an alarming rate and is currently reported that 33% of beginning teachers in New South Wales do not expect to be teaching in public schools withi...

  7. Questions and Answers About Shoulder Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injury. Injection of a cortisone medicine into your shoulder joint. Surgery to repair the tear if you don’t ... TENS). Injection of a corticosteroid drug if your shoulder is not better. Surgery if the shoulder does not improve with other ...

  8. Pediatric imaging. Rapid fire questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattromani, F.; Lampe, R.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Airway, head, neck; allergy, immunology rheumatology; pediatric cardiac imaging; child abuse; chromosomal abnormalities; conscious sedation; contrast agents and radiation protection; pediatric gastrointestinal imaging; genetic disorders in infants and children; pediatric genitourinary imaging; pediatric hematology, oncology imaging; pediatric intenrventional radiology; metabolic and vitamin disorders; muscoskeletal disorders (osteoradiology); neonatology imaging; pediatric neuroimaging; imaging of the respiratory tract in infants and children; vascular anomalies

  9. Pediatric imaging. Rapid fire questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quattromani, F.; Lampe, R. (eds.) [Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Lubbock, TX (United States); Handal, G.A. [Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Airway, head, neck; allergy, immunology rheumatology; pediatric cardiac imaging; child abuse; chromosomal abnormalities; conscious sedation; contrast agents and radiation protection; pediatric gastrointestinal imaging; genetic disorders in infants and children; pediatric genitourinary imaging; pediatric hematology, oncology imaging; pediatric intenrventional radiology; metabolic and vitamin disorders; muscoskeletal disorders (osteoradiology); neonatology imaging; pediatric neuroimaging; imaging of the respiratory tract in infants and children; vascular anomalies.

  10. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    conditions. Qualifying conditions include: • Diagnosis in an infant or toddler of a neuromuscular developmental condition or other condition expected to...TRICARE and Medicare Payments to Providers and the Sustainable Growth Rate ......... 19 Medicare and TRICARE for Life...training, medical research and development , health information technology, facility planning, public health, medical logistics, acquisition, budget, and

  11. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Don J

    2009-01-01

    .... Known as Tricare, this system of military and private health care offers benefits to active duty personnel and other beneficiaries, including dependents of active duty personnel, military retirees...

  12. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best Jr, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    ... carry out their military missions, and to be prepared to deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides, where space is available, health care services in Department of Defense (DOD...

  13. Lipstick and Lead: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... L'Oréal L'Oréal USA Endless 820 Chocolate Obsession FF216 0.66 254 Victoria’s Secret Limited Brands ... C Estée Lauder Cremesheen d Creme In Your Coffee A89 0.27 346 Lancôme L'Oréal USA ...

  14. Batteries and accumulators: everything you always wanted to know. Batteries, accumulators and the environment - questions and answers; Batterien und Akkus - Das wollten Sie wissen.. Fragen und Antworten zu Batterien, Akkus und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuthold, S.; Minkos, A. (comps.)

    2006-07-15

    Batteries and accumulators are part of our everyday life. This brochure answers problems related to their use and disposal, chargers and charging. Starter batteries for motor vehicles are left out of account, as are special batteries e.g. for electric fences or lights on building sites. The brochure also explains the legal fundamentals for disposal of batteries and provides information on environmental problems relating to production and disposal. Frequently asked questions are answered on the final pages. [German] Batterien und Akkus begleiten unseren Alltag. Solange sie die noetige mobile Versorgung ermoeglichen, sind sie gern gesehen. Versagen sie ihren Dienst, beginnen die Probleme: Wohin mit der leeren Batterie, dem nicht mehr funktionsfaehigen Akku (Keinesfalls in den Hausmuell.)? Welches ist das richtige Ladegeraet und das richtige Ladeverfahren fuer den Akku? Zu diesen und anderen Fragen rund um Geraetebatterien und -akkus gibt diese Broschuere Auskunft. Nicht betrachtet werden hier allerdings Starterbatterien (z.B. fuer Autos und Motorraeder) und bestimmte Spezialbatterien (z.B. fuer Weidezaeune oder Baustellenlampen), die einen Sonderfall darstellen. Die Broschuere erlaeutert auch die gesetzlichen Grundlagen fuer die Entsorgung unbrauchbarer Batterien und Akkus und gibt Informationen zur Umweltbelastung durch Herstellung und Entsorgung. Am Ende der Broschuere werden haeufig gestellte Fragen und deren Antworten zusammengestellt.

  15. "If you have the flu symptoms, your asymptomatic spouse may better answer the willingness-to-pay question". Evidence from a double-bounded dichotomous choice model with heterogeneous anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzinger, Michaël; Carrat, Fabrice; Luchini, Stéphane

    2009-07-01

    The small sample size of contingent valuation (CV) surveys conducted in patients may have limited the use of the single-bounded (SB) dichotomous choice format which is recommended in environmental economics. In this paper, we explore two ways to increase the statistical efficiency of the SB format: (1) by the inclusion of proxies in addition to patients; (2) by the addition of a follow-up dichotomous question, i.e. the double-bounded (DB) dichotomous choice format. We found that patients (n=223) and spouses (n=64) answering on behalf of the patient had on average a similar willingness-to-pay for earlier alleviation of flu symptoms. However, a patient was significantly more likely to anchor his/her answer on the first bid as compared to a spouse. Finally, our original DB model with shift effect and heterogeneous anchoring reconciled the discrepancies found in willingness-to-pay statistics between SB and DB models in keeping with increased statistical efficiency.

  16. Ontologies of life: From thermodynamics to teleonomics. Comment on "Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation" by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.

    2018-03-01

    In a far-reaching essay, Ramstead and colleagues [1] offer an answer to Schrodinger's question "What is life?" [2] framed in terms of a thermodynamic/information-theoretic free energy principle. In short, "all biological systems instantiate a hierarchical generative model of the world that implicitly minimizes its internal entropy by minimizing free energy" [1]. This model generates dynamic stability-that is, a recurrent set of states that constitute a dynamic attractor. This aspect of their answer has much in common with earlier thermodynamic approaches, like that of Prigogine [3], and with the metabolic self-organization central to Maturana and Varela's notion of autopoiesis [4]. It contrasts with explanations of life that emphasize the mechanics of self-replication [5] or autocatalysis [6,7]. In this approach, there is something gained and something lost. Gained is an explanation and corresponding formalism of great generality. Lost (or at least obscured) is a way to understand the "teleonomics" [8], goal-directedness, purposiveness, or agency of living systems-arguably, precisely what makes us ascribe the quality of "being alive" to an organism. Free energy minimization may be a necessary condition for life, but it is not sufficient to characterize its goals, which vary widely and, at least at the level of individual organisms or populations, clearly can run counter to this principle for long stretches of time.

  17. Increasing the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions: protocol and intervention design of the MacPLUS FS Factorial Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Iserman, Emma; Hobson, Nicholas; Cohen, Natasha; Cohen, Adam; Roshanov, Pavel S; Perez, Miguel; Cotoi, Chris; Parrish, Rick; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Iorio, Alfonso; Haynes, R Brian

    2014-09-20

    Finding current best evidence for clinical decisions remains challenging. With 3,000 new studies published every day, no single evidence-based resource provides all answers or is sufficiently updated. McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service--Federated Search (MacPLUS FS) addresses this issue by looking in multiple high quality resources simultaneously and displaying results in a one-page pyramid with the most clinically useful at the top. Yet, additional logistical and educational barriers need to be addressed to enhance point-of-care evidence retrieval. This trial seeks to test three innovative interventions, among clinicians registered to MacPLUS FS, to increase the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions. In a user-centered approach, we designed three interventions embedded in MacPLUS FS: (A) a web-based Clinical Question Recorder; (B) an Evidence Retrieval Coach composed of eight short educational videos; (C) an Audit, Feedback and Gamification approach to evidence retrieval, based on the allocation of 'badges' and 'reputation scores.' We will conduct a randomized factorial controlled trial among all the 904 eligible medical doctors currently registered to MacPLUS FS at the hospitals affiliated with McMaster University, Canada. Postgraduate trainees (n=429) and clinical faculty/staff (n=475) will be randomized to each of the three following interventions in a factorial design (AxBxC). Utilization will be continuously recorded through clinicians’ accounts that track logins and usage, down to the level of individual keystrokes. The primary outcome is the rate of searches per month per user during the six months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes, measured through the validated Impact Assessment Method questionnaire, include: utility of answers found (meeting clinicians’ information needs), use (application in practice), and perceived usefulness on patient outcomes. Built on effective models for the point

  18. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data, and filling data gaps for determining whether shale gas development activities contaminate surface water or groundwater in the Susquehanna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzo, Elin A.; Hagen, Erik R.; Wilson, John T.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, Allegra A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, new technologies for oil and gas development or alternative energy sources may present new risks for water resources both above and below ground. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers and whether those data are currently available. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Susquehanna River Basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  19. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data and filling data gaps for determining the effectiveness of agricultural management practices for reducing tributary nutrient loads to Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentanzo, Elin A.; Choquette, Anne F.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Hagan, Erik R; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, informed conservation and use of the nation’s finite fresh water resources in the context of increasingly intensive land development is a priority for today’s policy decisionmakers. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Lake Erie drainage basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  20. Beyond blanket terms: Challenges for the explanatory value of variational (neuro-)ethology. Comment on "Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation" by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruineberg, Jelle; Hesp, Casper

    2018-03-01

    Ramstead et al. [9] integrate the free-energy principle (FEP) [5] and evolutionary systems theory (EST) [1] in order to develop a "meta-theoretical ontology of life", called 'variational neuro-ethology' (VNE). In drawing upon such abstract notions and integrating them even further, they prove themselves to be the ultimate "hedgehogs" [2]: aiming for the ultimate integration of the life sciences and social sciences under one unifying principle. We endorse this pursuit of theoretical integration, especially when derived from first principles. The fundamental nature of their work is exemplified by the book the authors take as their starting point: Schrödinger's What is Life?[10]. Given the variety and levels of complexity involved in defining "life", providing an answer to this question is challenging. We first briefly comment on VNE as a label and then highlight some possible problems for the kinds of explanations that would follow from VNE. We address the interrelated charges of (1) merely providing Bayesian and evolutionary "just-so" stories [4,6], and (2) limited interpretative clarity when casting "life" as a series of nested Markov blankets. As a pre-emptive response to these critical remarks, we sketch a few ways forward that we find promising.

  1. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  2. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  3. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  4. Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. France's answers to questions and comments received from other Contracting Parties on its second report for the JC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, referred to as the 'Joint Convention', is the result of international discussions that followed the adoption of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, in 1994. France signed the Joint Convention at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held on 29 September 1997, the very first day the Joint Convention was opened for signature. She approved it on 22 February 2000 and filed the corresponding instruments with the IAEA on 27 April 2000. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001. For many years, France has been taking an active part in the pursuit of international actions to reinforce nuclear safety and considers the Joint Convention to be a key step in that direction. The fields covered by the Joint Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. For his second report, France presented a document reflecting the viewpoints of the various stakeholders (regulatory authorities and operators). Thus, for each of the chapters in which the regulatory authority is not the only party to express its point of view, a three-stage structure was adopted: first of all a description by the regulatory authority of the regulations, followed by a presentation by the operators of the steps taken to meet the regulations and finally, an analysis by the regulatory authority of the steps taken by the operators. France received questions and comments from the other contracting parties of the joint convention and answered them in the present document

  5. Mobile Information Access with Spoken Query Answering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    window focused over the part which most likely contains an answer to the query. The two systems are integrated into a full spoken query answering system. The prototype can answer queries and questions within the chosen football (soccer) test domain, but the system has the flexibility for being ported...

  6. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  7. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  8. The handy astronomy answer book

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, PhD, Charles

    2013-01-01

    From planetary movements and the exploration of our solar system to black holes and dark matter, this comprehensive reference simplifies all aspects of astronomy with an approachable question-and-answer format. With chapters broken into various astronomical studies—including the universe, galaxies, planets, and space exploration—this fully updated resource is an ideal companion for students, teachers, and amateur astronomers, answering more than 1,000 questions, such as Is the universe infinite? What would happen to you if you fell onto a black hole? What are the basic concepts of Einstein's special theory of relativity? and Who was the first person in space?.

  9. Model answers in pure mathematics for a-level students

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, GA; Schofield, C W

    1967-01-01

    Model Answers in Pure Mathematics for A-Level Students provides a set of solutions that indicate what is required and expected in an Advanced Level examination in Pure Mathematics. This book serves as a guide to the length of answer required, layout of the solution, and methods of selecting the best approach to any particular type of math problem. This compilation intends to supplement, not replace, the normal textbook and provides a varied selection of questions for practice in addition to the worked solutions. The subjects covered in this text include algebra, trigonometry, coordinate geomet

  10. Delayed, but not immediate, feedback after multiple-choice questions increases performance on a subsequent short-answer, but not multiple-choice, exam: evidence for the dual-process theory of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Neha; Glass, Arnold Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments, two performed in the laboratory and one embedded in a college psychology lecture course, investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed feedback following a multiple-choice exam on subsequent short answer and multiple-choice exams. Performance on the subsequent multiple-choice exam was not affected by the timing of the feedback on the prior exam; however, performance on the subsequent short answer exam was better following delayed than following immediate feedback. This was true regardless of the order in which immediate versus delayed feedback was given. Furthermore, delayed feedback only had a greater effect than immediate feedback on subsequent short answer performance following correct, confident responses on the prior exam. These results indicate that delayed feedback cues a student's prior response and increases subsequent recollection of that response. The practical implication is that delayed feedback is better than immediate feedback during academic testing.

  11. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  12. Cultural Markov blankets? Mind the other minds gap!. Comment on "Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation" by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veissière, Samuel

    2018-03-01

    ' nodes for hierarchical information processing. Ramstead et al. take up this model to describe the perceptive 'veil' through which human sensory states are coupled to affordances of the broader environment. Building on the recently formulated cultural affordances paradigm, the authors extend their model to a meta-theory of the human niche, in which "cultural ensembles minimise free energy by enculturing their members so that they share common sets of precision-weighting priors". Ramstead et al. propose to enrich the cultural affordances account by bringing in the hierarchical mechanistic mind (HMM) model, which assumes the free-energy principle as a general mechanism underpinning cognitive function on evolutionary, developmental, and real-time scales. They concede, however, that ways of further integrating the HMM with cultural affordances remain an open question. As a cognitive anthropologist and co-author of the first Cultural Affordances article [2], I am happy to provide the outline of an answer. For humans, affordances are mediated through recursive loops between natural features of the environment and human conventions. A chair, for example, affords sitting for bipedal agents. This is 'natural' enough. But for humans, chairs afford sitting and not-sitting in myriad context and status-specific ways. A throne affords not-sitting for all but the monarch. In the absence of the monarch, it may afford transgressive sitting for the most daring. How do these conventional affordances come to hold with such precision? In the original model, we defined culture as collectively patterned and mutually reinforced behaviour mediated by largely implicit expectations about what one expects others to also expect - and to expect of one by extension. Environmental cues may act as triggers of affordances, but joint meta-expectations do all the mediating work. Meaning and affordances in the environment of the Homo Sapiens niche, are mostly (if not exclusively) picked up through the 'veil

  13. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  14. Getting an Answer Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-07-01

    really is.) Or we could ask students to make careful observations as an experiment is being carried out and then decide whether the proposed interpretation was correct. (If the only effect of burning a candle in a beaker inverted in a water bath is to use up the oxygen, then the water should rise slowly and steadily into the beaker as long as the candle burns; it does not.) Getting the right answer is not nearly as important as getting an answer right- exploring and experimenting to eliminate alternative hypotheses and finding the best-supported explanation. Diffusion and the fraction of oxygen in air can be studied with simple, inexpensive equipment, and it is easy for students to experiment with them. If we use them appropriately, these two subjects have great potential for enhancing students' skills in critical thinking and experimental design. Many other phenomena reported in these pages provide similar opportunities. Let's apply our ingenuity and effort to making the most of them. Literature Cited 1. Parsons, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 898. 2. Birk, J. P.; Lawson, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 914. 3. Mason, E. A.; Kronstadt, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 740. Kirk, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 745. 4. Davis, L. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 824. 5. Westbrook, S.; Marek, E. A. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 1991, 28, 649-660 6. Birk, J. P.; McGrath, L.; Gunter, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 804.

  15. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  16. What Is the Correct Answer about The Dress’ Colors? Investigating the Relation between Optimism, Previous Experience, and Answerability

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Dress photograph, first displayed on the internet in 2015, revealed stunning individual differences in color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate if lay-persons believed that the question about The Dress colors was answerable. Past research has found that optimism is related to judgments of how answerable knowledge questions with controversial answers are (Karlsson et al., 2016). Furthermore, familiarity with a question can create a feeling of knowing the answer (Reder and...

  17. On the placement of practice questions during study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Nunes, Ludmila D; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

    2016-03-01

    Retrieval practice improves retention of information on later tests. A question remains: When should retrieval occur during learning-interspersed throughout study or at the end of each study period? In a lab experiment, an online experiment, and a classroom study, we aimed to determine the ideal placement (interspersed vs. at-the-end) of retrieval practice questions. In the lab experiment, 64 subjects viewed slides about APA style and answered short-answer practice questions about the content or restudied the slides (restudy condition). The practice questions either appeared 1 every 1-2 slides (interspersed condition), or all at the end of the presentation (at-the-end condition). One week later, subjects returned and answered the same questions on a final test. In the online experiment, 175 subjects completed the same procedure. In the classroom study, 62 undergraduate students took quizzes as part of class lectures. Short-answer practice questions appeared either throughout the lectures (interspersed condition) or at the end of the lectures (at-the-end condition). Nineteen days after the last quiz, students were given a surprise final test. Results from the 3 experiments converge in demonstrating an advantage for interspersing practice questions on the initial tests, but an absence of this advantage on the final test. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Everyone's answering: using technology to increase classroom participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filer, Debra

    2010-01-01

    A study was designed to assess the impact of a wireless technology known as an audience response system (ARS), commonly known clickers, on learning and student engagement in a nursing classroom. Students in the control group responded verbally to questions posed during lectures, while students in the intervention groups responded anonymously using the ARS. Although no significant improvement in postlecture quizzes was noted, students in ARS-enhanced lectures reported significantly higher satisfaction scores. The use of ARS promoted a sense of comfort, encouraged participation, and motivated students to answer questions and interact with the subject matter.

  19. One Answer to "What Is Calculus?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilgalis, Thomas W.

    1979-01-01

    A number of questions are posed that can be answered with the aid of calculus. These include best value problems, best shape problems, problems involving integration, and growth and decay problems. (MP)

  20. DEFINITION OF TYPOS IN ANSWER OF STUDENT IN KNOWN CORRECT ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Biryukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes method of typo detection in the answers for the questions with open answers. In such questions we know one or several correct answers defining relatively small dictionary of correct words contrasting the usual case of looking for typos in arbitrary text. This fact allows using more complex analysis methods and finding more possible typos, such as extra or missing separators. A typo correction module for the Correct Writing question type (for Moodle LMS was developed using proposed methods. 

  1. NPP Grafenrheinfeld. No thank you. Questions and answers concerning the oldest operating crack susceptible reactor in the federal republic; AKW Grafenrheinfeld. Nein danke. Fragen und Antworten zum aeltesten noch laufenden und rissanfaelligsten Reaktor der Republik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darge, Tobias

    2014-03-15

    The brochure discusses questions on the NPP Grafenrheinfeld. concerning the following issues: reactor type, operating company, nuclear fuel, licensing, radioactive waste management, susceptibility to damage, stress test results, critical arguments concerning the reactor pressure vessel steel and the containment, cracks in the primary circuit, safety in case of an aircraft crash, possibility of a severe accident, consequences of a severe accident, medical emergency plan, public information for an emergency case, shutdown at the end of 2015, necessity of a new power plant for energy security?.

  2. Ask Marilyn in the Mathematics Classroom: Probability Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1986, Marilyn Vos Savant, who is listed in the "Guinness Book of World Records Hall of Fame" for the highest IQ, has had a weekly column that is published in "Parade Magazine." In this column, she answers readers' questions on a wide variety of subjects including mathematics and particularly probability. Many of the mathematically oriented…

  3. Are tent halls subject to property tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Macudziński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented publication is a response to currently asked questions and interpretative doubts of taxpayers and tax authorities, namely whether tent halls are subject to property tax. General issues connected with an entity and a subject of taxation of this tax are presented herein. The answer to the question asked is then provided through the qualification of constructions works and the allocation of tent halls in the proper category of the works, with the use of the current law.

  4. Tag questions Tag questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brazil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects of linguistic organisation, aspects which in some recent work have been held to need distinctive kinds of descriptive category to handle. Traditional treatments have found it necessary to recognise different syntactic types (e.g. 'same polarity' and 'reversed polarity' tags and ifferent intonational treatments ("falling'and 'rising' tag; while the way the communicative significance of the various permutations is described normally requires reference to the expectations they signal regarding the immediately following behaviour of the other party (in the common phrase, 'What kind of answer they expect'. This last consideration places the matter squarely in the arena of recent work on the analysis of interactive discourse. The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects

  5. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  6. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  7. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  8. Upgrading Gestalt psychology with variational neuroethology: The case of perceptual pleasures. Comment on "Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation" by M.J. Desormeau Ramstead et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Cruys, Sander

    2018-03-01

    Ramstead et al. provide a promising, encompassing framework for biology and psychology, based on the free energy principle (FEP) and Tinbergen's four questions [16]. Because their exposition remains at a fairly high level of abstraction, here we attempt to illustrate the potential of the framework through a concrete, classic case in psychology, namely that of our preference or liking of perceptual inputs. Two dominant but different views can be found in the literature. One harks back to the great Gestalt psychologists of the last century and stresses the salient and positive qualities of the 'goodness of form' or Prägnanz, i.e., orderly, balanced and coherent configuration [20,21]. Inputs that allow the formation of those "good Gestalts" would be most attractive. Later on, other authors added a role for learning (mere exposure) and argued that we prefer very familiar, regular or prototypical stimuli (e.g., [2]). However, these stimuli are quickly considered boring [3] and more importantly, highly attractive stimuli rarely conform to the principle (cf. art), partly discrediting the view.

  9. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  10. Mathematics year 5 answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena; Poggo, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Features the complete set of answers to the exercises in Mathematics Year 5, to save you time marking work and enable you to identify areas requiring further attention. The book includes diagrams and workings where necessary, to ensure pupils understand how to present their answers. Also available from Galore Park www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics Year 5. - Mathematics Year 6. - 11+ Maths Practice Exercises. - 11+ Maths Revision Guide. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 8-10. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 9-11. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Age 8-10. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Ag

  11. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...... are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human...

  12. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  13. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  14. Impact of Answer-Switching Behavior on Multiple-Choice Test Scores in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan BAŞTÜRK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The multiple- choice format is one of the most popular selected-response item formats used in educational testing. Researchers have shown that Multiple-choice type test is a useful vehicle for student assessment in core university subjects that usually have large student numbers. Even though the educators, test experts and different test recourses maintain the idea that the first answer should be retained, many researchers argued that this argument is not dependent with empirical findings. The main question of this study is to examine how the answer switching behavior affects the multiple-choice test score. Additionally, gender differences and relationship between number of answer switching behavior and item parameters (item difficulty and item discrimination were investigated. The participants in this study consisted of 207 upper-level College of Education students from mid-sized universities. A Midterm exam consisted of 20 multiple-choice questions was used. According to the result of this study, answer switching behavior statistically increase test scores. On the other hand, there is no significant gender difference in answer-switching behavior. Additionally, there is a significant negative relationship between answer switching behavior and item difficulties.

  15. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  16. National Asphalt Pavement Association Questions and Answers on PSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Difficult Questions and Ambivalent Answers on Genetic Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Wiszmeg; Susanne Lundin; Eva Torkelson; Niclas Hagen; Cecilia Lundberg

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative pilot study on the attitudes of some citizens in southern Sweden toward predictive genetic testing – and a quantitative nation wide opinion poll targeting the same issues, was initiated by the Cultural Scientific Research Team of BAGADILICO. The latter is an international biomedical research environment on neurological disease at Lund University. The data of the two studies crystallized through analysis into themes around which the informants’ personal negotiations of opinions a...

  18. Simple Answers to Complex Questions about Mucolytics for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of N-acetylcysteine in pediatric practice and examines various clinical effects of acetylcysteine, including in acute respiratory infections in children, and peculiarities of its application. The causes for the phenomenon of «lung bogging» in the course of treatment with mucoactive means are analyzed separately and the measures for its prevention are proposed. The article contains the results of multicenter studies and data of systematic reviews that show high therapeutic efficacy and safety of acetylcysteine in treating both acute and chronic infections of the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The drug can modify the rheological properties of the tracheobronchial secretion reducing its viscosity and accelerating the discharge processes from the bronchial tract, which results in a more rapid recovery of the patient.

  19. 'With woman' philosophy: examining the evidence, answering the questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Hodnett, Ellen

    2007-06-01

    'With woman', 'woman centred' and 'in partnership with women' are new terms associated with midwifery care in Australia, and the underlying philosophy has emerged both as an antidote to the medicalisation of pregnancy and in a bid to reacquaint women with their natural capacity to give birth successfully and without intervention. A reorientation of midwifery services in the 1990s, a shift towards midwifery-led care (MLC) and the subsequent introduction of direct entry midwifery programs all contributed to this new direction. Central concepts are a focus on the childbearing woman and a valuing of women's experiences. While this philosophical re-alignment has been applauded by many midwives in terms of maternal empowerment and improved autonomy for midwives, there are nonetheless some concerns that, with its emphasis on normality, midwifery-led care is in danger of becoming an exclusionary model. Particular concerns include meeting the needs of a growing cohort of women, those with 'high risk' pregnancies, and the educational adequacy of direct entry midwifery programs. To date, there has been no thorough evaluation of this emerging midwifery philosophy in Australia. In order to open the debate, this paper aims to initiate a discussion of 'with woman' midwifery care as it applies to Australian practice.

  20. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  1. The Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee River - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Sturgeons and paddlefishes are modern descendants of an ancient group of freshwater fishes, the Chondrostei (a group of bony fishes with mostly cartilaginous skeletons). Sturgeons evolved during the Age of the Dinosaurs, and have prospered in the large rivers and lakes of North America, Europe and Asia for 200 million years. Together with alligators and crocodiles, they survived the mass extinction at the end of the Mesozoic Era, when the dinosaurs and many other groups of animals disappeared forever. They originated prior to the creation of the Atlantic Ocean, when the Northern Hemisphere supercontinent Pangea broke into North America and Eurasia. Most sturgeons are highly specialized to feed in the sediment on small invertebrate prey, a radical evolutionary departure from most of their fish-eating ancestors.

  2. Answers to Teachers' Questions about the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workosky, Cindy; Willard, Ted

    2015-01-01

    K-12 teachers of science have been digging into the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (NGSS Lead States 2013) to begin creating plans and processes for translating them for classroom instruction. As teachers learn about the NGSS, they have asked about the general structure of the standards document and how to read…

  3. Answers to science questions from the "stop faking it!" guy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular Science 101 columns, from NSTA member journal Science and Children, proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling Stop Faking It! series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to the expanding universe, and atomic clocks to curveballs all with his trademark wit and irreverence. The 33 short columns, plus a new introduction, provide an introductory science course of sorts, covering topics in life science, Earth and space science, physical science, technology, and more perfect for K-8 teachers, homeschoolers, or parents who just want to boost their science know-how. Easily understood prose and lively illustrations by cartoonist Brian Diskin make this volume an engaging and, more important, readable course you can pass with flying colors.

  4. 50 questions and 50 answers about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The textbook composed of 10 chapters which are limited energy resource and increasing energy use, mini knowledge of nuclear energy, current state of nuclear, state of nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle, necessity and economic feasibility of nuclear power generation, safety of nuclear power generation, the occurrence of radioactive waste and disposal, management of radioactive waste, explanation of false insistence related radioactive waste and daily life and radiation.

  5. Contracting Maintenance Services: An Easy Question, but a Difficult Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Philip E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues involved in outsourcing school maintenance and custodial services. There are many advantages to this approach, but it has definite drawbacks. In many instances, a combination of contract and employee services works well. (SLD)

  6. Coping with Financial Crises: Latin American Answers to European Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.Cavallo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Europe faces challenges reminiscent of Latin American financial crises, namely unsustainable sovereign spreads, banking system distress, sudden stops in capital flows and growth rate collapse. The failure of recent liquidity support to normalize the situation suggests the need to refocus the policy debate on fundamentals: structural reform for growth and, where needed, restructuring to resolve banking crises and the debt overhang.  Latin America’s experience yields relevant policy lessons for Europe on all these fronts, tempered only by the slight exception that sharp real devaluation, which was key to spearheading recovery in Latin America, is unfeasible in the eurozone. Struggling eurozone countries are caught between a rock and a hard place, as the currency union imposes strict policy constraints while the reintroduction of national currencies under conditions of crisis would be catastrophic. Nevertheless, contemporary Europe stands a better chance of recovery because, in contrast with the Latin America experience, the European Union possesses greater avenues for international cooperation. With respect to financial support, a resourceful European Central Bank able to avoid chaotic adjustment by brute force is a decisive advantage of Europe relative to Latin America, which only had access to the weaker and less reliable IMF. Arguably, the limited nature of external support strongly contributed to the depth of Latin America’s great collapses. European cooperation can explore and exhaust alternatives to a euro exit to the benefit of all union members and, if dissolution becomes unavoidable, ensure amicable support to ease the transition. The path to success remains uncharted, however, and implementation of the necessary regional mechanisms will require innovation and political will. If the available means of cooperation are not used effectively, crisis countries in Europe may fare worse than those in Latin America.

  7. Can Scientific Research Answer the "What" Question of Mathematics Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2005-01-01

    This paper problematizes the issue of how decisions about the content of mathematics education can be made. After starting with two examples where research in mathematics education resulted in different choices on the content of primary school teaching, I explore where and how, in the scientific enterprise within the domain of education, issues of…

  8. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E

    1999-01-01

    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing. Images p931-a PMID:10585899

  9. Questions on Happiness : Classical topics, modern answers, blind spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1991-01-01

    htmlabstractABSTRACT
    Happiness is a longstanding theme in Western thought. It came under scrutiny in the following three periods: (1) Antique Greek philosophy; (2) Post-Enlightenment West-European moral philosophy, Utilitarianism in particular; and (3) Current Quality-of-Life research in the

  10. Answering Questions from Oceanography Texts: Learner, Task and Text Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-15

    course and the seventh (HS) was the teaching assistant for the course. Students completed a background questionnaire dealing with academic information...language skills and study habits. Table 1 provides a summary of the most pertinent information from this questionnaire. The teaching assistant and three...20. Celce-Murcia, M., & Larson-Freeman, D. (1983). The orammar book: An ESL/ EFL teacher’s nour. Rowley, MA: Newberry House. Chafe, W. L (1985

  11. Technology is the answer, but what was the question?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Whatever we do and wherever we are, we are surrounded by a multiplicity of technologies and the last decades showed an exponential application of ´new technologies´. Who for instance would want to miss our smartphones? It is a bizarre discrepancy: a slum dweller in India does not have access...... and profit of more and more features like for medical checks or even life saving devices. On the other hand and without suffering from paranoia, the potentials for permanent control of our location, of who we are communicating with, what we write and talk, of our shopping behaviour or of other lifestyle...... habits, need to be mentioned as well as the fact that our direct social contacts decreased in the decade of the smartphone. So are these only minor ´side effects´ which might be controllable, but as a whole advanced technologies are great and improve our life?...

  12. Answering questions about library impact on student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Rodriguez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available image by wordshore on Flickr This essay reports on a project which evaluated the Understanding Library Impacts (ULI protocol, a suite of instruments for detecting and communicating library impact on student learning. The project was a dissertation study conducted with undergraduates enrolled in upper-level and capstone history classes at six U.S. colleges and universities in [...

  13. Questions and Answers for Transplant Candidates about Kidney Allocation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke as cause of death • Height • History of high blood pressure • Weight • History of diabetes • Ethnicity • Whether the donor died due to loss of heart function or loss of brain function • Exposure to the hepatitis C virus • Serum creatinine (a measure of kidney function) How are transplant ...

  14. Immigration in a Changing Economy: California's Experience - Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    .... This three-year study, the first to take a 30-year perspective, profiles the changing character of recent immigrants and considers their contribution to the economy, their effects on other workers...

  15. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia: Questions and Answers for School Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, M. Joan

    1984-01-01

    School personnel can have a vital role in the early detection and treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia by understanding certain signs and symptoms. This article provides specific information about early detection, approaches to use when confronting the student, and methods to facilitate treatment. (Author/DF)

  16. Plane answers to complex questions the theory of linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    This book was written to rigorously illustrate the practical application of the projective approach to linear models. To some, this may seem contradictory. I contend that it is possible to be both rigorous and illustrative and that it is possible to use the projective approach in practical applications. Therefore, unlike many other books on linear models, the use of projections and sub­ spaces does not stop after the general theory. They are used wherever I could figure out how to do it. Solving normal equations and using calculus (outside of maximum likelihood theory) are anathema to me. This is because I do not believe that they contribute to the understanding of linear models. I have similar feelings about the use of side conditions. Such topics are mentioned when appropriate and thenceforward avoided like the plague. On the other side of the coin, I just as strenuously reject teaching linear models with a coordinate free approach. Although Joe Eaton assures me that the issues in complicated problems freq...

  17. Canine and feline obesity: frequently asked questions and their answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becvarova, Iveta

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of obesity is simple and warrants intervention because of the association between obesity and increased morbidity. Pet owner commitment, a proper feeding plan, and regular monitoring are the keys to a successful weight loss program. Treatment of obesity involves caloric restriction and/or diet change. Therapeutic weight loss diets differ in fiber, moisture, and digestible carbohydrate contents, and the diet choice should be tailored to the individual patient. Appropriate feeding management is equally important. To protect against the recurrence of obesity, owners should be educated on how to monitor body condition score and adjust the feeding program to maintain proper body condition.

  18. Superior lung capacity in swimmers: Some questions, more answers!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lazovic-Popovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity has a positive effect on the function of the whole human body system. The influence of physical activity on the development of the respiratory system is still a matter for debate. Swimming is considered the sport with the most profound effect on the lungs. Aim: The first aim was to determine pulmonary function and to correlate it with anthropometric features of sportsmen, represented by land- and the water-based elite athletes comparing with their sedentary counterparts; the second aim was to examine whether the training factors (frequency and amount influence pulmonary function in swimmers, when controlled for anthropometric features. Methods: Thirty-eight elite male swimmers were matched for age and sex with two hundred and seventy-one elite football players and one hundred controls who were not involved in any routine exercise. Lung volumes were recorded by Pulmonary Function test and analyzed statistically. Results and conclusion: Swimmers had statistically higher values of VC, FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC when compared to both the football players and the controls, as the latter two showed no in-between differences. There was significant positive correlation between age, body weight and body height and each of the above named pulmonary parameters, when presented separately for swimmers, football players and the control group. When controlled for the anthropometric features, larger lung volumes in swimmers were not influenced by training period, age at the beginning of training and weekly extent of personal training. Further comprehensive longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these observations. Keywords: Elite athletes, Intensive training, Football, Spirometry, Swimming

  19. Good question, nice answer, but why without happiness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Ott (Jan Cornelis)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn their book "How much is enough?" Robert and Edward Skidelsky observe that philosophers and societies have always been critical about greed and insatiability. The pursuit of money and possessions was always subordinated to higher ideals, which were associated with views on ‘the

  20. Answers to Your Questions about Transgender Individuals and Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organization devoted to the treatment of transgender people, publishes The Standards of Care , which offers recommendations for ... Jill Davidson, PhD, NCSP; J. Rhodes Perry, Associate Director of Policy & Programs, Parents, Families, and Friends of ...