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Sample records for subjects age range

  1. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  2. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine kinetics in aging subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Carneiro, L.; Scornavachi, J.C.; Cima, M.E.; Mollerach, F.E.; Almeida, C.A.; Casas, O.I. de; Diez, F.

    1980-06-01

    Age modifications on serum levels of thyrotropin hormone (TSH) thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3), as well the kinetics of T4 and T3 were studied. T4 serum values were found to be in the normal range. T3 rates showed a significant decrease as TSH showed a slight increase, which was only significantin patients over 70 year-old. Metabolic T4 turnover allowed to observe a slower T4 disappearance rate with dialy degradation values of 35,4 μg/day/m 2 +-14,1 (S.D.)as compared with those of the control subjects (49,0+-14,6): Distribution space was in the normal range. On the contrary, for T3 a sharp decrease in distribution space (31,1% body weight+-3,5; controls 58,8%+-7,6), a slight lengthening in disappearance rate and a marked shortening of the clearance (17,32 l/d+-6,20; controls 33,72+-8.55), of T3 extrathyroid pool (14,5 μg+-1,8; controls 45,7+-4.7) and of the daily degradation rate (4,3 μg/d/m 2 +-1,7; controls: 15,3+-2,6) were observed. These results conveys to considere a diminished thyroid hormones production and of an also diminished peripheric conversion of T4 to T3. It should be delucidated if there is a real inadequate thyroid hormones suply to the tissues or if there is only an adaptation, to lower demands due to a diminished functional mass [es

  3. Personality, self-rated health, and subjective age in a life-span sample: the moderating role of chronological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Demulier, Virginie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The present study tested whether chronological age moderates the association between subjective age and self-rated health and personality in a community-dwelling life-span sample (N = 1,016; age range: 18-91 years). Self-rated health, extraversion, and openness to experience were associated with a younger subjective age at older ages. Conscientious individuals felt more mature early in life. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not related to subjective age at older ages. These findings suggest that with aging self-rated health and personality traits are increasingly important for subjective age. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Older people and 'active ageing': Subjective aspects of ageing actively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Paul; McFarquhar, Tara; Bowling, Ann

    2011-04-01

    Following a critical overview of the active ageing concept, a thematic decomposition of 42 transcribed interviews with British people aged 72 years and over indicates that active ageing is understood in relation to physical, cognitive, psychological and social factors, but that these co-exist in complex combinations. The notion of activity in active ageing is grasped in relation to an active/passive distinction which emphasizes the enhancement or diminishment of concrete powers of activity. A 'challenge and response' framework is suggested for future research on active ageing.

  5. Variation in Subjective Aging by Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne; Barbee, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The past few decades have seen increased scholarly attention to gay and lesbian individuals' aging experiences; however, few studies examine differences in subjective aging by sexual minority status. We identify four perspectives on the association between sexual minority status and subjective aging-double jeopardy, crisis competence, gender interactive, and limited salience perspectives. We examine each perspective's predictions using data from the first wave of Midlife in the United States (1995-1996; MIDUS). Ordinary least square regression models reveal strongest support for the limited salience perspective, suggesting that sexual minority status has weaker effects on subjective aging than do other social factors, such as age, health, and gender. However, some results provide support for the gender interactive perspective, positing that the effect of sexual minority status on subjective aging varies by gender. Our study provides an organizational framework of theoretical perspectives that can guide further examinations of variation in aging experiences by sexual minority status.

  6. Middle-Range Theory: Coping and Adaptation with Active Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Barajas, Martha Elba; Salazar-González, Bertha Cecilia; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther Carlota

    2017-10-01

    Various disciplines focus on a multiplicity of aspects of aging: lifestyles, personal biological factors, psychological conditions, health conditions, physical environment, and social and economic factors. The aforementioned are all related to the determinants of active aging. The aim is to describe the development of a middle-range theory based on coping and adaptation with active aging. Concepts and relationships derived from Roy's model of adaptation are included. The proposed concepts are hope, health habits, coping with aging, social relations, and active aging.

  7. Subjective age and personality development: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Personality theory and research typically focus on chronological age as a key indicator of personality development. This study examines whether the subjective experience of age is an alternative marker of the biomedical and psychosocial factors that contribute to individual differences in personality development. The present study uses data from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal survey (N = 3,617) to examine how subjective age is associated with stability and change in personality and the dynamic associations between subjective age and personality traits over a 10-year period. Regression analyses indicated that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with increases in Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness; correlated changes were also found. The rank-order stability of Extraversion and Openness and overall profile consistency were higher among those with a younger subjective age at baseline and were also associated with the rate of subjective aging over time. The present study reveals that beyond chronological age, the age an individual feels is related to changes in characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Subjective Age Bias: A Motivational and Information Processing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Ursina

    2009-01-01

    There is broad empirical evidence, but still a lack of theoretical explanations, for the phenomenon that most older people feel considerably younger than their real age. In this article, a measurement model of subjective age was assessed, and two independent theoretical approaches are proposed: (1) a motivational approach assuming that the age…

  9. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  10. Subjective Technology Adaptivity Predicts Technology Use in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Stefan T; Lang, Frieder R; Beyer, Anja

    2017-01-01

    To date, not much is known about the psychological and motivational factors underlying technology use in late life. What are the interindividual determinants that lead older adults to invest in using technological innovations despite the age-related physiological changes that impose challenges on behavioral plasticity in everyday life? This research explores interindividual differences in subjective technology adaptivity - a general technology-related motivational resource that accounts for technology use in late life. More specifically, we investigate the influence of this factor relative to demographic characteristics, personality traits, and functional limitations in a longitudinal sample of community-dwelling older adults. We report results from a paper-and-pencil survey with 136 older adults between 59 and 92 years of age (mean = 71.4, SD = 7.4). Of those participants, 77 participated in a 2-year follow-up. We assessed self-reports of technology use, subjective technology adaptivity, functional limitations, and the personality traits openness to new experiences and neuroticism. Higher levels of subjective technology adaptivity were associated with technology use at the first measurement as well as increased use over the course of 2 years. Subjective technology adaptivity is a significant predictor of technology use in old age. Our findings contribute to improving the understanding of interindividual differences when using technological innovation in late life. Moreover, our findings have implications in the context of user involvement and may contribute to the successful development of innovative technology for older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Age, subjective stress, and depression after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael J; Sucharew, Heidi J; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Woo, Daniel; Flaherty, Matthew L; Khatri, Pooja; Ferioli, Simona; Adeoye, Opeolu; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Kissela, Brett M

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of stroke among younger adults in the United States is increasing. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of depressive symptoms after stroke among different age groups or the extent to which subjective stress at the time of stroke interacts with age to contribute to post-stroke depression. The present study examined whether there exists an age gradient in survivors' level of depressive symptoms and explored the extent to which financial, family, and health-related stress may also impact on depression. Bivariate analyses (N = 322) indicated significant differences in depression and stress by age group, as well as differences in age and stress by 3-month depression status. Linear regression analyses indicated that survivors between the ages of 25-54 and 55-64 years old had, on average, significantly higher depressive symptom scores. Those with financial, family, and health-related stress at the time of stroke, irrespective of age, also had significantly higher scores.

  12. Correlations between tests of aging in Hiroshima subjects: an attempt to define physiologic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hashizume, Asaji; Jablon, Seymour

    1964-12-01

    Nine physiologic functions which change with age were measured in 437 subjects during their regular visits to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission clinic in Hiroshima, Japan. This pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of collecting such data in a population sample physiologic age score. Tests conducted consisted of: skin elasticity, systolic blood pressure, vital capacity, hand grip strength, light extinction time, vibrometer, visual activity, audiometry, and serum cholesterol. The study demonstrated that adequate sample data could be obtained, and that statistical treatment could construct a physiologic age for individual subjects. However, the tests were of limited value below age 40, and the validation of the concept of physiologic age requires eventual correlation with mortality. Since the ABCC program includes a highly accurate mortality survey, it is hoped that data on physiologic aging can be collected and eventually related to mortality. 11 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornavoi, Denise Cremonezzi; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes; Panzeri, Heitor; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the color change of composite resins used in dentistry. Three composite resins were evaluated: Two microhybrids and one hybrid of higher viscosity, with different amounts and sizes of filler particles, shades C2 and B2. A total of 54 specimens were obtained (18 for each composite resin), made of a Teflon matrix (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height). The color measurements were obtained with a Spectrophotometer, (PCB 6807 BYK Gardner) before and after AAA. Data were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α >0.05), ANOVA and Tukey test (α 3). Considering the variable ∆E, it was observed that the color tone C2 was already statistically different for the microhybrid composite resin prior to AAA (P aging the composite resin hybrid of higher viscosity B2 showed the highest color variation rate and microhybrid with zirconium/silica C2 showed the lowest. All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2) and after (B2). It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  14. Influence of age on left ventricular performance during exercise in normal Japanese subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Aoki, Toshikazu; Makino, Katsutoshi; Yamamuro, Masashi; Nakai, Kyudayu; Nakamura, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of age on left ventricular performance, multistage supine ergometer exercise radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed in 92 normal subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 24 to 86 years and were free of cardiopulmonary disease and diabetes. Age-related changes in exercise duration, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), cardiac output (CO) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dv/dt, systolic and diastolic time indexes of dv/dt, and peak systolic pressure/left ventricular end-systolic volume (PSP/LVESV) were analyzed at rest and during the peak exercise stage. Age-related decrease in LVEDV and peak diastolic dv/dt were significant at rest. The time indexes of ECG R to peak systolic dv/dt and time of end-systole to peak diastolic dv/dt also were prolonged with age. Both maximum heart rate and exercise duration were shown to decline with age. No age-related difference was observed in LVESV, LVEF or PSP/LVESV either at rest or during exercise. However, the change of LVEF and LVESV during exercise was less in subjects aged 60 or more. These results indicate decreased left ventricular function during exercise in elderly subjects. (author)

  15. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  16. Scope and selection of structures subject to aging management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, G.; Diaz, A.; Viais, J.; Carmona, M.; Santander, L.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the structures included within the scope of license renewal based on the performance of the functions and select those intended for aging management review; one purpose is to show the methodology used to establish the structure and structural components that are subject to a review of aging management, within the framework of license renewal rule. This is through the application of different types of structures and structural components related and unrelated to safety located in the rooms of the reactor building where there are components of the reactor core isolation cooling system (Rcic), these structures are poured concrete, concrete block, structural steel, shielding walls, attached metal, pile foundations, etc.; other non- security related , such as: 1) inherent characteristics not related to security that protect the equipment related to the safety of the missiles, that is, walls, low walls, dikes, doors, etc., which also provide flood barriers to structures, systems and components related to safety, 2 ) whipping restrictions on non- security, shields mitigation jet, vent panels , etc. that are designed and installed to protect equipment related with the safety of the effects of a broken line of high energy. Only rooms where there are components of the Rcic 68 structures within the scope were identified. (Author)

  17. Valuation of Normal Range of Ankle Systolic Blood Pressure in Subjects with Normal Arm Systolic Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Cao, Kai-wu; Xu, Jin-song; Li, Ju-xiang; Hong, Kui; Cheng, Xiao-shu; Su, Hai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a normal range for ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP). A total of 948 subjects who had normal brachial SBP (90-139 mmHg) at investigation were enrolled. Supine BP of four limbs was simultaneously measured using four automatic BP measurement devices. The ankle-arm difference (An-a) on SBP of both sides was calculated. Two methods were used for establishing normal range of ankle SBP: the 99% method was decided on the 99% reference range of actual ankle BP, and the An-a method was the sum of An-a and the low or up limits of normal arm SBP (90-139 mmHg). Whether in the right or left side, the ankle SBP was significantly higher than the arm SBP (right: 137.1 ± 16.9 vs 119.7 ± 11.4 mmHg, P<0.05). Based on the 99% method, the normal range of ankle SBP was 94~181 mmHg for the total population, 84~166 mmHg for the young (18-44 y), 107~176 mmHg for the middle-aged(45-59 y) and 113~179 mmHg for the elderly (≥ 60 y) group. As the An-a on SBP was 13 mmHg in the young group and 20 mmHg in both middle-aged and elderly groups, the normal range of ankle SBP on the An-a method was 103-153 mmHg for young and 110-160 mmHg for middle-elderly subjects. A primary reference for normal ankle SBP was suggested as 100-165 mmHg in the young and 110-170 mmHg in the middle-elderly subjects.

  18. Towards high dynamic range extensions of HEVC: subjective evaluation of potential coding technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Řeřábek, Martin; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the details and results of the subjective evaluations conducted at EPFL to evaluate the responses to the Call for Evidence (CfE) for High Dynamic Range (HDR) and Wide Color Gamut (WCG) Video Coding issued by Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). The CfE on HDR/WCG Video Coding aims to explore whether the coding efficiency and/or the functionality of the current version of HEVC standard can be signi_cantly improved for HDR and WCG content. In total, nine submissions, five for Category 1 and four for Category 3a, were compared to the HEVC Main 10 Profile based Anchor. More particularly, five HDR video contents, compressed at four bit rates by each proponent responding to the CfE, were used in the subjective evaluations. Further, the side-by-side presentation methodology was used for the subjective experiment to discriminate small differences between the Anchor and proponents. Subjective results shows that the proposals provide evidence that the coding efficiency can be improved in a statistically noticeable way over MPEG CfE Anchors in terms of perceived quality within the investigated content. The paper further benchmarks the selected objective metrics based on their correlations with the subjective ratings. It is shown that PSNR-DE1000, HDRVDP- 2, and PSNR-Lx can reliably detect visible differences between the proposed encoding solutions and current HEVC standard.

  19. Response of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters subjected to X-rays in diagnostic energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, Y; Hashim, S; Karim, M K A; Ang, W C; Salehhon, N; Bakar, K A

    2017-01-01

    The use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for dosimetry applications has recently increased considerably due to availability of commercial OSL dosimeters (nanoDots) for clinical use. The OSL dosimeter has a great potential to be used in clinical dosimetry because of its prevailing advantages in both handling and application. However, utilising nanoDot OSLDs for dose measurement in diagnostic radiology can only be guaranteed when the performance and characteristics of the dosimeters are apposite. In the present work, we examined the response of commercially available nanoDot OSLD (Al 2 O 3 :C) subjected to X-rays in general radiography. The nanoDots response with respect to reproducibility, dose linearity and signal depletion were analysed using microStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL). Irradiations were performed free-in-air using 70, 80 and 120 kV tube voltages and tube currents ranging from 10 – 100 mAs. The results showed that the nanoDots exhibit good linearity and reproducibility when subjected to diagnostic X-rays, with coefficient of variations (CV) ranging between 2.3% to 3.5% representing a good reproducibility. The results also indicated average of 1% signal reduction per readout. Hence, the nanoDots showed a promising potential for dose measurement in general X-ray procedure. (paper)

  20. Reflex control of heart rate in normal subjects in relation to age: a data base for cardiac vagal neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, W.; van Brederode, J. F.; de Rijk, L. G.; Borst, C.; Dunning, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the heart rate changes induced by forced breathing and by standing up in 133 healthy subjects in the age range 10-65 years in order to establish a data base for studies on parasympathetic heart rate control in autonomic neuropathy. Test results declined with age. Log-transformation was

  1. Aging of Holocaust Survivors: Discrepancies Between Subjective and General Health in the greater Tel Aviv Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Aging has been associated with perceived lowering of health, especially in post-traumatic individuals. The effects may be more complex or even different for Holocaust survivors as they age due to their inherited resilience and life perspective. A cross-sectional study was conducted of Holocaust survivors and a matched comparison group recruited from the general Israeli population. All participants underwent a personal interview and completed the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale and a survey of subjective Likert-scale questions about perceived health. The study comprised 214 older adults: 107 Holocaust survivors and 107 comparison participants; 101 women and 113 men. The mean age for the participants was 80.7 ± 4.7 years (range 68-93). Holocaust survivors did not differ from comparison subjects in general health measures (mean 51.50 ± 3.06 vs. 52.27 ± 3.24, respectively). However, the Holocaust survivors' subjective health was significantly lower, F (2,211) = 4.18, P Holocaust survivors to achieve successful aging.

  2. Inventing the Educational Subject in the "Information Age"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question of how we can situate the educational subject in what Luciano Floridi has defined as an "informational ontology" (Floridi in "The philosophy of information." Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011a). It will suggest that Jacques Derrida and Bernard Stiegler offer paths toward rethinking the…

  3. Effects of age and health on the euthyroid reference ranges for serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, J.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Age-related trends in serum free thyroxine (FT 4 ) and free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ) concentrations were measured in 7248 euthyroid subjects (age-range 3 months to 106 years). 5700 were patients referred to hospitals for investigation of suspected thyroid dysfunction, but who were diagnosed euthyroid. 1548 were healthy blood donors (age-range 18-63 years) with no indication of thyroid dysfunction. FT 4 concentrations were little affected by the age, the sex or the state of health of the subjects in either group. Serum FT 3 concentrations were significantly affected by both age and health factors. The upper limit of the euthyroid reference range for young subjects up to 15 years was about 20% higher (10.4 pmol/l) than for adult subjects older than 25 years (8.8 pmol/l). The change in the upper limits typical of young subjects to that typical of adults occurred steadily over the decade 15-25 years. After this age, little further change occurred, especially in healthy subjects. Additionally, the lower limit of the euthyroid range for FT 3 was extended by the inclusion in the reference group of patients referred to hospitals. Compared with the lower limit of the FT 3 range for healthy subjects (5 pmol/l), the corresponding limit for referred subjects (young or adult) was 3.5-3.8 pmol/l. Broadening of the FT 3 reference range was probably brought about by a significant number of patients in the hospital-referred group with the 'low-T 3 syndrome' of mild non-thyroidal illness. Accordingly, FT 3 was inferior to FT 4 in the discrimination of hypothyroidism, as FT 4 was unaffected by this phenomenon. Effects of age and non-thyroidal illness on serum FT 3 concentrations require great care when selecting subjects for a laboratory euthyroid reference range typical of the routine workload. Constraints on the choice of subjects for FT 4 reference ranges are less stringent. (orig.) [de

  4. Strength analysis of aged polymer composites subjected to tensile loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valesyan, S.

    2018-04-01

    It follows from the obtained data that the change of durability of the getinacks in stretching significantly depends on the pressing pressure value both at the age of 1 year and at the age of 4 years. According to the data, in the case of samples of the first series, the ageing has not practically affected the durability of getinacks in stretching. In the case of samples of other series, the increase of age from 1 year to 4 years results in an increase of the getinacks durability, in particular, the increase is about 9% for the third series. Comparing the values of failure tensile stresses given in the handbook of electrotechnics materials [1] with the data obtained by experimental investigation of aged glass textolite (GFRP composite-laminate) with the woven fiber orientation 0° and 90°, one can see a corresponding increase by approximately 25% and 35%. The test results are approximated and compared with the experimental data. The corresponding figures are plotted on the basis of these data.

  5. Long-range correlations of serial FEV1 measurements in emphysematous patients and normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1998-01-01

    are autocorrelated. The purpose of this study was to describe the correlation structure in time series of FEV1 measurements. Nineteen patients with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype PiZ) and moderate to severe emphysema and two subjects with normal lungs were followed for several years with daily self......In obstructive lung disease the annual change in lung function is usually estimated from serial measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Frequent measurements in each patient may not improve this estimate because data are not statistically independent; i.e., the measurements...... measurements show long-range correlations. The practical implication is that FEV1 need not be measured more often than once every 3 mo in studies of the long-term trends in lung function....

  6. Adjustment to Aging, Subjective Age and Age Representation: Assessing a Nationally-Diverse Population of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This research sought to analyse older adults’ conceptualization of adjustment to aging (AtA, subjective age (SA and age representation (AR, adding a cross-national comparative perspective to aging well. Method: Questionnaires were completed, assessing participants’ background information. Semi-structured interviews were performed, addressing three core areas: SA, AtA and AR. Complete information on 231 older adults aged between 74-102 years (M = 83.1; SD = 6.692 from four different nationalities, was available. Data was subjected to content analysis. Results: Seven categories were identified to contribute to AtA: ‘accomplishment, personal fulfilment and future projects’, ‘occupation, profession, autonomy and leisure’, ‘health status, physical and intellectual functioning’, ‘valorisation of time and age’, ‘family, social and interpersonal attachment’, ‘stability, quality and financial situation’, and ‘sense of limit and existential issues’. Five categories were identified for SA: ‘with congruence’, ‘without concern’, ‘with apprehension’, ‘young-at-heart’ and ‘good enough’. For AR, eight emergent categories were found: ‘future investment’, ‘reconciliation with life’, ‘present challenge’, ‘regret about the past’, ‘dynamic life’, ‘with contentment’, ‘as an opportunity’ and ‘with dissatisfaction’. Conclusion: This research contributes for a better understanding of what defines AtA, SA and AR in older adults. Moreover, interventions and communication approaches in clinical practice and program development in health care context should focus on shared perceptions of aging well.

  7. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective. PMID:26694439

  8. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-12-17

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  9. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wittmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  10. Emotional Intelligence Mediates the Relationship between Age and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Fang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Individuals' Subjective Well-being (SWB) increases as they grow older. Past literature suggests that emotional intelligence may increase with age and lead to higher levels of SWB in older adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to test whether emotional intelligence would mediate the relationship between age and SWB. A total of 360 Chinese adults (age range: 20 to 79 years old) participated in this study. They filled out questionnaires that assessed their age, life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale), affective well-being (The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and emotional intelligence (The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). Using Structural Equation Modeling, the mediation model was supported, χ(2) (75) = 194.21, p Emotional intelligence partially mediated the relationship between age and life satisfaction, and fully mediated the relationship between age and affective well-being. The findings suggest that older adults may use their increased emotional intelligence to enhance their SWB. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Effects of growth and aging on the reference values of pulmonary nitric oxide dynamics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högman, M; Thornadtsson, A; Liv, P; Hua-Huy, T; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Tufvesson, E; Dressel, H; Janson, C; Koskela, K; Oksa, P; Sauni, R; Uitti, J; Moilanen, E; Lehtimäki, L

    2017-09-13

    The lung just like all other organs is affected by age. The lung matures by the age of 20 and age-related changes start around middle age, at 40-50 years. Exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO) has been shown to be age, height and gender dependent. We hypothesize that the nitric oxide (NO) parameters alveolar NO (C A NO), airway flux (J aw NO), airway diffusing capacity (D aw NO) and airway wall content (C aw NO) will also demonstrate this dependence. Data from healthy subjects were gathered by the current authors from their earlier publications in which healthy individuals were included as control subjects. Healthy subjects (n = 433) ranged in age from 7 to 78 years. Age-stratified reference values of the NO parameters were significantly different. Gender differences were only observed in the 20-49 age group. The results from the multiple regression models in subjects older than 20 years revealed that age, height and gender interaction together explained 6% of variation in F E NO at 50 ml s -1 (F E NO 50 ), 4% in J aw NO, 16% in C aw NO, 8% in D aw NO and 12% in C A NO. In conclusion, in this study we have generated reference values for NO parameters from an extended NO analysis of healthy subjects. This is important in order to be able to use these parameters in clinical practice.

  12. Feeling sad makes us feel older: Effects of a sad-mood induction on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-08-01

    A mood-induction paradigm was implemented in a sample of 144 adults covering midlife and old age (40-80 years) to investigate associations between mood and subjective age. Sad or neutral mood was induced by texts and music pieces. Subjective age was operationalized as felt age relative to chronological age. Participants receiving the sad-mood induction reported changes toward older felt ages from pre- to postinduction. Participants receiving the neutral-mood induction reported comparable levels of subjective age at pre- and postinduction. Effects were comparable across middle- and older aged participants. Results suggest that sad affective states might dampen subjective age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Comparison of range of motion and function of subjects with reverse anatomy Bayley-Walker shoulder replacement with those of normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Milad; Lovell, Cara; Johnson, Garth R

    2011-12-01

    Patients with rotator cuff tear and degenerative shoulder joint disease commonly experience severe pain and reduced performance during activities of daily living. A popular way to treat these patients is by means of reverse anatomy shoulder prosthesis. Studying the kinematics of subjects with reverse anatomy implant would be useful in order to gain knowledge about functionality of different designs. It is hypothesized that the kinematics of these subjects, in the absence of rotator cuff muscles, differs from that of normal subjects. In this study the upper limb kinematics of 12 subjects with a Bayley-Walker reverse anatomy shoulder prosthesis while performing tasks common in everyday activities and those that represent the range of motion was analyzed and compared to that of 12 normal subjects. Each patient also completed an Oxford Shoulder Score. Substantial reduction in the Bayley-Walker subjects' ranges of motion was observed compared to normal subjects. The mean abduction angle decreased from 109° (±20) for normal subjects to 64° (±25). A similar trend was observed during flexion and axial rotation tasks. Furthermore, the normal group showed less variable ranges of motion performing the standard tasks, whereas for the prosthetic group this varied greatly, which is likely to be dependent on muscle strength. Although the decreased range of motion was prominent, subjects were able to complete most of the tasks by compensating with their elbow and trunk. The most challenging task for Bayley-Walker subjects was lifting an object to head height. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Computer-assisted analysis of cervical vertebral bone age using cephalometric radiographs in Brazilian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Maria de Paula; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter Neto, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a computerized program for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs, and to apply the new method to Brazilian subjects. The samples were taken from the patient files of Oral Radiological Clinics from the North, Northeast, Midwest and South regions of the country. A total of 717 subjects aged 7.0 to 15.9 years who had lateral cephalometric radiographs and hand-wrist radiographs were selected. A cervical vertebral computerized analysis was created in the Radiocef Studio 2 computer software for digital cephalometric analysis, and cervical vertebral bone age was calculated using the formulas developed by Caldas et al.17 (2007). Hand-wrist bone age was evaluated by the TW3 method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, hand-wrist bone age and chronological age (P cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age in all regions studied. When analyzing bone age, it was possible to observe a statistically significant difference between cervical vertebral bone age and hand-wrist bone age for female and male subjects in the North and Northeast regions, as well as for male subjects in the Midwest region. No significant difference was observed between bone age and chronological age in all regions except for male subjects in the North and female subjects in the Northeast. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate skeletal maturation in an objective manner using cephalometric radiographs.

  15. Plasma clearance of noradrenaline does not change with age in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects. Pla....... Plasma clearance of noradrenaline was identical in the two groups. The increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration, with age, probably reflects an increased sympathetic nervous activity.......Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects...

  16. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  17. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other

  18. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen T; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando; Small, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI), which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways) of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years), 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years), and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years) adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other dementias later in life remains to be determined.

  19. Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Nolan, John M; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Beatty, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between macular pigment (MP) and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 121 subjects with early AMD enrolled as part of the Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trial (CREST; ISRCTN13894787) were assessed using a range of psychophysical measures of visual function, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), letter contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic CS, mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), photostress recovery time (PRT), reading performance and subjective visual function, using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). MP was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Letter CS, mesopic and photopic CS, photopic GD and mean reading speed were each significantly (p0.05, for all). MP relates positively to many measures of visual function in unsupplemented subjects with early AMD. The CREST trial will investigate whether enrichment of MP influences visual function among those afflicted with this condition. ISRCTN13894787. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  1. Impact Response Comparison Between Parametric Human Models and Postmortem Human Subjects with a Wide Range of Obesity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Libo; Wang, Yulong; Hwang, Eunjoo; Reed, Matthew P; Forman, Jason; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-10-01

    Field data analyses have shown that obesity significantly increases the occupant injury risks in motor vehicle crashes, but the injury assessment tools for people with obesity are largely lacking. The objectives of this study were to use a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate parametric finite element models with a wide range of obesity levels and to evaluate their biofidelity against impact tests using postmortem human subjects (PMHS). Frontal crash tests using three PMHS seated in a vehicle rear seat compartment with body mass index (BMI) from 24 to 40 kg/m 2 were selected. To develop the human models matching the PMHS geometry, statistical models of external body shape, rib cage, pelvis, and femur were applied to predict the target geometry using age, sex, stature, and BMI. A mesh morphing method based on radial basis functions was used to rapidly morph a baseline human model into the target geometry. The model-predicted body excursions and injury measures were compared to the PMHS tests. Comparisons of occupant kinematics and injury measures between the tests and simulations showed reasonable correlations across the wide range of BMI levels. The parametric human models have the capability to account for the obesity effects on the occupant impact responses and injury risks. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Longitudinal research on subjective aging, health, and longevity : Current evidence and new directions for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Wurm, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we carry out a narrative review of the longitudinal impact of subjective aging on health and survival. We have a specifi c focus on the different pathways which can explain the relation of subjective aging to health and survival. We focus on the three most common conceptualizations

  3. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  4. Stress and Subjective Age: Those With Greater Financial Stress Look Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Lee-Attardo, Angela; Lachman, Margie E

    2017-12-01

    Subjective indicators of age add to our understanding of the aging process beyond the role of chronological age. We examined whether financial stress contributes to subjective age as rated by others and the self. The participants ( N = 228), aged 26-75, were from a Boston area satellite of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal study. Participants reported how old they felt and how old they thought they looked, and observers assessed the participants' age based on photographs (other-look age), at two occasions, an average of 10 years apart. Financial stress was measured at Time 1. Controlling for income, general stress, health, and attractiveness, participants who reported higher levels of financial stress were perceived as older than their actual age to a greater extent and showed larger increases in other-look age over time. We consider the results on accelerated aging of appearance with regard to their implications for interpersonal interactions and in relation to health.

  5. Assessment Of Noise-induced Sleep Fragility In Two Age Ranges By Means Of Polysomnographic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, M. G.; Parrino, L.; Spaggiari, M. C.; Buccino, G. P.; Fioriti, G.; Depoortere, H.

    1993-04-01

    The microstructure of sleep, which translates the short-lived fluctuations of the arousal level, is a commonly neglected feature in polysomnographic studies. Specifically arranged microstructural EEG events may provide important information on the dynamic characteristics of the sleep process. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) and non-CAP are complementary modalities in which arousal-related "phasic" EEG phenomena are organized in non-REM sleep, and they correspond to opposite conditions of unstable and stable sleep depth, respectively. Thus, arousal instability can be measured by the CAP rate, the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total non-REM sleep time. The CAP rate, an age-related physiological variable that increases in several pathological conditions, is highly sensitive to acoustic perturbation. In the present study, two groups of healthy subjects without complaints about sleep, belonging to different age ranges (six young adults, three males and three females, between 20 and 30 years, and six middle-aged individuals, three males and three females, between 40 and 55 years) slept, after adaptation to the sleep laboratory, in a random sequence for two non-consecutive nights either under silent baseline (27·3 dB(A) Lcq) or noise-disturbed (continuous 55 dB(A) white noise) conditions. Age-related and noise-related effects on traditional sleep parameters and on the CAP rate were statistically evaluated by a split-plot test. Compared to young adults, the middle-aged individuals showed a significant reduction of total sleep time, stage 2 and REM sleep and significantly higher values of nocturnal awakenings and the CAP rate. The noisy nights were characterized by similar alterations. The disruptive effects of acoustic perturbation were greater on the more fragile sleep architecture of the older group. The increased fragility of sleep associated with aging probably reflects the decreased capacity of the sleeping brain to maintain steady states of vigilance. Total

  6. Subjective consequences of permanent pacemaker therapy in patients under the age of retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Petersen, J; Nielsen, B L

    1989-01-01

    During a 5-year period, 81 patients ages 20 to 60 years old had implantation of a permanent cardiac pacemaker at the University Hospital, Odense. At follow-up, during 1985, the 73 survivors received a semi-structured questionnaire regarding subjective consequences of pacemaker therapy, and 72...... people (98.6%) agreed to participate. The mean pacing period (range) was 33.8 (11-72) months. Surgical intervention was required in 14 patients (19.4%) during follow-up. Regarding all symptoms 67 patients (93.1%) perceived benefit from the pacemaker. The effectiveness of cardiac pacing was most...... or a sensation of "impulses"/palpitations. To the majority (49 patients or 68.1%) pacemaker treatment did not influence quality of sexual activity. Six patients (8.3%) perceived an improvement, whereas a corresponding number felt deterioration in sexual activity following pacemaker implantation. Pacemaker...

  7. Age identity and subjective well-being: A comparison of the United States and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, G.J.; Barrett, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. This article investigates the theoretical and empirical relationship between age identity and subjective well-being (SWB) in a cross-national context. Feeling younger than one's actual age is considered a self-enhancing illusion that contributes to SWB even beyond factors predicting age

  8. Personality in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) Males: Subjective Ratings and Recorded Behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, M.; Lhota, S.; Weiss, A.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Adamová, T.; Pluháček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2008), s. 379-389 ISSN 0735-7036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : trait rating * questionnaires * behavioral indices Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2008

  9. Computer-assisted analysis of cervical vertebral bone age using cephalometric radiographs in Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Paula Caldas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to develop a computerized program for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs, and to apply the new method to Brazilian subjects. The samples were taken from the patient files of Oral Radiological Clinics from the North, Northeast, Midwest and South regions of the country. A total of 717 subjects aged 7.0 to 15.9 years who had lateral cephalometric radiographs and hand-wrist radiographs were selected. A cervical vertebral computerized analysis was created in the Radiocef Studio 2 computer software for digital cephalometric analysis, and cervical vertebral bone age was calculated using the formulas developed by Caldas et al.17 (2007. Hand-wrist bone age was evaluated by the TW3 method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, hand-wrist bone age and chronological age (P < 0.05. No significant difference was found between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age in all regions studied. When analyzing bone age, it was possible to observe a statistically significant difference between cervical vertebral bone age and hand-wrist bone age for female and male subjects in the North and Northeast regions, as well as for male subjects in the Midwest region. No significant difference was observed between bone age and chronological age in all regions except for male subjects in the North and female subjects in the Northeast. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate skeletal maturation in an objective manner using cephalometric radiographs.

  10. The Combined Effects of Daily Stressors and Major Life Events on Daily Subjective Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingtier, Jennifer A; Neupert, Shevaun D; Kotter-Grühn, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Stressors may be a contributing factor in determining how old an individual feels, looks, or would like to be. Currently, little research has been devoted to understanding the relationship between stressors and subjective age in older adults. We focus on the combined impact of major life-event stressors and daily stressors on multiple indicators of subjective age: felt age, ideal age, and look age. Furthermore, we examine the process by which daily stressors relate to subjective ages by testing whether positive affect, control, and negative affect mediate this relationship. Using a daily-diary design, the current study measured older adults' (60-96 years old) stressors, subjective ages, personal control, and affect. Felt, ideal, and look ages each demonstrated a unique pattern of interactions between daily stressors and major life-event stressors. Furthermore, our findings suggest that on the daily level, the relationship between stressors and felt age is mediated by negative affect but not by control and positive affect. Findings indicate the need to consider the broader contextual picture of stressors, as well as their differential impact on multiple indicators of subjective age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Rb/Sr ages of metamorphites of the Herbert Mountains, Shackleton Range, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Pilot, J.; Schlichting, M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of Rb/Sr-age determinations from six mica schists, sampled in the upper part of the Shackleton metamorphic complex (Herbert Mountains, Shackleton Range, Antarctica) are reported. A three point isochrone gives an age of 470 +- 36 mio. yrs., a two point isochrone an age of 1414 +- 185 mio yrs. The first age marks a thermo-magmatic activation of early paleozoic age, the second one is interpretated as the age of regional metamorphism from the upper parts of the Shackleton metamorphic complex. The results are discussed under consideration of former age determinations. (author)

  12. Age-specific reference ranges of serum prostate-specific antigen in Iranian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that PSA levels are correlated with age. It was also revealed that the PSA age-specific reference range obtained in this study is different from other races and is specific to Iranian men. Therefore, age-specific reference ranges of PSA obtained in the present study can increase PSA test sensitivity and specificity by reducing unnecessary diagnostic procedures and early detection of prostate cancer in Iranian men.

  13. [Age-related changes of sensory peripheral nerve system in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitenkov, V B; Ekusheva, E V; Komancev, V N; Skripchenko, N V; Grigoryev, S G; Klimkin, A V; Aksenova, A I

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to present and evaluate age-related changes of peripheral nerves of limbs on a huge population of healthy subjects of different ages. In 2009-2016 subjects aged from 1months to 90 years were studied by nerve conduction velocity studies (NCV). Data of those confirmed healthy was included in our study. In total there were 372 healthy subjects. NCV for nn. Medianus et Ulnaris was registered, with NCV and amplitude of compound sensory action potential (CSAP) being analyzed. There were significant differences on both these parameters between different age groups. Since the childhood the improvement of conduction (which was reflected in rising of CSAP amplitudes and NCV quickening) was registered; from 40-50 years steady decline of both these parameters were observed in both nerves. Conduction studies of peripheral nerves may be implemented in gerontology for early detection of neurophysiology patterns reflecting physiological aging. Also our results may be implemented for accelerated aging detection.

  14. Clinical significance of changes of serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in subjects of different age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lihua; Zhang Jin; Han Cuihua; Ouyang Qiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum BGP levels in different age-groups. Methods: Serum BGP levels were determined with RIA in 306 subjects of different age-groups. Results: The serum BGP levels were highest in subjects of the pre-adolescent group (age5-15, n=60, vs other groups, all P 50, n=80, P<0.001). Levels in the middle age group were the lowest and were significantly lower than those in the old age group (P<0.001). No sex related differences were observed in the pre-adolescent and middle age groups, but in the youth group, serum BGP levels were significantly higher in the males than those in the females (P<0.05). However, in the old age group, the reverse was true i.e. values being significantly higher in the females (vs males, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum BGP levels varied greatly among the different age groups. (authors)

  15. End-range mobilization techniques in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder joint: a multiple-subject case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.M.; Obermann, W.R.; Burger, B.J.; Kok, G.J.; Rozing, P.M.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of end-range mobilization techniques in the management of patients with adhesive capsulitis. CASE DESCRIPTION: Four men and 3 women (mean age=50.2 years, SD=6.0, range=41-65) with adhesive capsulitis of the glenohumeral

  16. Emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of chronological age and subjective distance-to-death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    In light of mixed evidence regarding the associations between age, emotional complexity, and psychological distress, this study examined emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of age and subjective distance-to-death. A sample of 188 participants (age range = 29-100) rated their subjective distance-to-death and psychological distress, and reported their emotions across 14 days. Emotional complexity was unrelated to age, but negatively related to feeling closer to death. Moreover, emotional complexity was negatively related to psychological distress among those feeling closer to death. Results suggest that when death is perceived to be nearer, emotional complexity is hampered, yet becomes relevant in buffering psychological distress.

  17. The impact of differences between subjective and objective social class on life satisfaction among the Korean population in early old age: Analysis of Korean longitudinal study on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have established the relationship between the effects of socioeconomic status or subjective social strata on life satisfaction. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between social class and life satisfaction in terms of a disparity between subjective and objective social status. To investigate the relationship between differences in subjective and objective social class and life satisfaction. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging with 8252 participants aged 45 or older was used. Life satisfaction was measured by the question, "How satisfied are you with your quality of life?" The main independent variable was differences in objective (income and education) and subjective social class, which was classified according to nine categories (ranging from high-high to low-low). This association was investigated by linear mixed model due to two waves data nested within individuals. Lower social class (income, education, subjective social class) was associated with dissatisfaction. The impact of objective and subjective social class on life satisfaction varied according to the level of differences in objective and subjective social class. Namely, an individual's life satisfaction declined as objective social classes decreased at the same level of subjective social class (i.e., HH, MH, LH). In both dimensions of objective social class (education and income), an individual's life satisfaction declined as subjective social class decreased by one level (i.e., HH, HM, HL). Our findings indicated that social supports is needed to improve the life satisfaction among the population aged 45 or more with low social class. The government should place increased focus on policies that encourage not only the life satisfaction of the Korean elderly with low objective social class, but also subjective social class. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ageing influence for the evaluation of DXA precision in female subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qiang; Yu Wei; Qin Mingwei; Shang Wei; Tian Junping; Han Shaomei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether aging factor influence the precision of DXA measurement at the lumbar spine in females. Methods: A total of 90 female subjects were recruited and divided into three age groups, i.e. 45-55 years, 56-65 years and 66-75 years. There were 30 female subjects for each age group. Each subject was scanned twice at the same day. Mean BMD values from L2 to L4 were collected and grouped by calculating the root mean square (RMS). Precision errors were expressed as root mean square (RMS). P 2 , (0.992±0.010) g/cm 2 , (0.910±0.010) g/cm 2 , respectively. Mean BMD values from L2 to L4 decreased with increasing age group. Root mean square was lower in the 45 -55 age group, and was same between 56-65 and 66-75 age group. There were significant difference of BMD standard deviation between both there groups (F=5.213, P<0.05) any age group (q value I vs II 0.035; II vs III 0.500; I vs III 0.035, P<0.05). Conclusion: Age could influence the precision of DXA measurement at the site of lumbar spine in females. Therefore, caution should be paid to the age of female subjects recruited for the evaluation of precision for DXA measurement in the clinical trials. (authors)

  19. Differential range use between age classes of southern African Bearded Vultures Gypaetus barbatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Krüger

    Full Text Available Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern Africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. Data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. Because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range of the entire population, which was estimated to be 51 767 km(2. Although juvenile, immature and sub-adult birds used different parts of the overall range, their combined foraging range was 65% (33 636 km(2 of the overall range. Average adult home ranges (286 km(2 were only around 1% the size of the average foraging ranges of non-adults (10 540 -25 985 km(2, with those of breeding adults being even smaller (95 km(2. Home ranges of breeding adults did not vary in size between seasons but adults utilized their home range more intensively whilst breeding, moving greater distances during the incubation and chick hatching period. Range size and use increased as non-adults aged. Immatures and sub-adults had larger range sizes during winter, but range use of non-adults did not vary seasonally. Range size and use did not differ between the sexes in any of the age classes. Information on home range size and use enables specific areas within the species' range to be targeted for management planning, education and conservation action.

  20. Adult age-differences in subjective impression of emotional faces are reflected in emotion-related attention and memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eSvard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although younger and older adults appear to attend to and remember emotional faces differently, less is known about age-related differences in the subjective emotional impression (arousal, potency, and valence of emotional faces and how these differences, in turn, are reflected in age differences in various emotional tasks. In the current study, we used the same facial emotional stimuli (angry and happy faces in four tasks: emotional rating, attention, categorical perception, and visual short-term memory (VSTM. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of age on the subjective emotional impression of angry and happy faces and to examine whether any age differences were mirrored in measures of emotional behavior (attention, categorical perception, and memory.In addition, regression analyses were used to further study impression-behavior associations. Forty younger adults (range 20-30 years and thirty-nine older adults (range 65-75 years participated in the experiment. The emotional rating task showed that older adults perceived less arousal, potency, and valence than younger adults and that the difference was more pronounced for angry than happy faces. Similarly, the results of the attention and memory tasks demonstrated interaction effects between emotion and age, and age differences on these measures were larger for angry than for happy faces. Regression analyses confirmed that in both age groups, higher potency ratings predicted both visual search and visual short-term memory efficiency. Future studies should consider the possibility that age differences in the subjective emotional impression of facial emotional stimuli may explain age differences in attention to and memory of such stimuli.

  1. Determination of Age-Dependent Reference Ranges for Coagulation Tests Performed Using Destiny Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Fatma Demet; Serdar, Muhittin; Merve Ari, Elif; Onur Oztan, Mustafa; Hikmet Kozcu, Sureyya; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Zeytinli, Merve; Yasar Ellidag, Hamit

    2016-06-01

    In order to apply the right treatment for hemostatic disorders in pediatric patients, laboratory data should be interpreted with age-appropriate reference ranges. The purpose of this study was to determining age-dependent reference range values for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen tests, and D-dimer tests. A total of 320 volunteers were included in the study with the following ages: 1 month - 1 year (n = 52), 2 - 5 years (n = 50), 6 - 10 years (n = 48), 11 - 17 years (n = 38), and 18 - 65 years (n = 132). Each volunteer completed a survey to exclude hemostatic system disorder. Using a nonparametric method, the lower and upper limits, including 95% distribution and 90% confidence intervals, were calculated. No statistically significant differences were found between PT and aPTT values in the groups consisting of children. Thus, the reference ranges were separated into child and adult age groups. PT and aPTT values were significantly higher in the children than in the adults. Fibrinogen values in the 6 - 10 age group and the adult age group were significantly higher than in the other groups. D-dimer levels were significantly lower in those aged 2 - 17; thus, a separate reference range was established. These results support other findings related to developmental hemostasis, confirming that adult and pediatric age groups should be evaluated using different reference ranges.

  2. Age Identity in Context: Stress and the Subjective Side of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2010-01-01

    The passage of time is fundamentally experienced through people's interaction with their social worlds. Life-course scholars acknowledge the multiple aspects of time-based experience but have given little attention to age identity in a dynamic context. Drawing from a stress-process model, we expected that turbulence within people's family…

  3. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  4. Subjective Organization in Free Recall as a Function of Adult Age and Type of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David Fries

    This study focused on adult age differences in the organizational processes of memory as measured by performance (number of words recalled) and subject imposed organization (SO) of information. Thirty males in each of three age groups (16-19, 30-39, 45-54) underwent 16 inspection trials and 16 recall trails on an experimental list of 22 unrelated…

  5. Which social needs are important for subjective well-being? What happens to them with aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steverink, N; Lindenberg, S

    In this study the authors investigated how satisfaction levels of affection, behavioral confirmation, and status, as three human social needs, relate to age, physical loss, and subjective well-being. Results (N = 883, aged 65 to 98 years) revealed that (a) affection was relatively high and status

  6. [Forensic age estimation in juveniles and young adults: Reducing the range of scatter in age diagnosis by combining different methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sven; Schramm, Danilo; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schulz, Ronald; Wittschieber, Daniel; Olze, Andreas; Vieth, Volker; Ramsthaler, H Frank; Pfischel, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Geserick, Gunther; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011. To measure the range of scatter, linear regression analysis was used to calculate the standard error of estimate for each of the above methods individually and in combination. It was found that combining the above methods led to a reduction in the range of scatter. Due to various limitations of the study, the statistical parameters determined cannot, however, be used for age estimation practice.

  7. Context Influences on the Subjective Experience of Aging: The Impact of Culture and Domains of Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erica L; Hess, Thomas M; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene; Voss, Peggy

    2017-08-01

    Attitudes about aging influence how people feel about their aging and affect psychological and health outcomes in later life. Given cross-cultural variability in such attitudes, the subjective experience of aging (e.g., subjective age [SA]) may also vary, potentially accounting for culture-specific patterns of aging-related outcomes. Our study explored cultural variation in SA and its determinants. American (N = 569), Chinese (N = 492), and German (N = 827) adults aged 30-95 years completed a questionnaire that included instruments measuring basic demographic information, SA, beliefs about thresholds of old age, control over life changes, and age dependency of changes in eight different life domains (i.e., family, work). Analyses revealed consistency across cultures in the domain-specificity of SA, but differences in the amount of shared variance across domains (e.g., Chinese adults exhibited greater homogeneity across domains than did Americans and Germans). Cultural differences were also observed in levels of SA in some domains, which were attenuated by domain-specific beliefs (e.g., control). Interestingly, beliefs about aging accounted for more cultural variation in SA than did sociodemographic factors (e.g., education). Our results demonstrate that subjective perceptions of aging and everyday functioning may be best understood from a perspective focused on context (i.e., culture, life domain). Given its important relation to functioning, examination of cross-cultural differences in the subjective experience of aging may highlight factors that determine variations in aging-related outcomes that then could serve as targets of culture-specific interventions promoting well-being in later life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Channel heads in mountain catchments subject to human impact - The Skrzyczne range in Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrońska-Wałach, Dominika; Żelazny, Mirosław; Małek, Stanisław; Krakowian, Katarzyna; Dąbek, Natalia

    2018-05-01

    Channel heads in mountain catchments are increasingly influenced by human activity. The disturbance of mountain headwater areas in moderate latitudes by the clearing of trees and the associated logging, road building and hydrotechnical constructions contribute to changes in the water cycle and consequently may induce a change in channel head development. Here we examine channel heads in the Beskid Śląski Mts., one of the areas most affected by ecological disaster in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. An ecological disaster associated with the decline of spruce trees in the 1980s and 1990s caused a substantial decrease (of about 50%) in the land area occupied by spruce forest in the Beskid Śląski Mts. As a result, headwater areas were subject to multidirectional changes in the environment. The purpose of this paper is to determine the detailed characteristics of channel heads currently developing in the analyzed headwater areas, as well as to identify independent factors that affect the evolution of channel heads. Geomorphological mapping was conducted in 2012 in the vicinity of springs in the study area. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between mean values calculated for groups identified based on: i) geomorphologic processes (hollows with rock veneer - h, spring niches - sn, gullies - g), ii) location vs. transformation of channel heads (forested areas vs., deforested areas with road constructions). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the structure and general patterns associated with relationships between the parameters of a channel head and its contribution area, as well as to identify and interpret new (orthogonal) spaces defined using distinct factors. As far as we know, this kind of approach has been never applied before. A total of 80 channel heads surrounding 104 springs were surveyed close to the main ridge in the study area. A total of 14 morphometric parameters were taken into account in this study

  9. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Ageing Indices in Relation to Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna H I, Shruthi; Moodithaya, Shailaja; Sharma, Raghava

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is a natural phenomenon that has tremendous amount of control over normal physiological functions. Diabetes mellitus and ageing share common symptoms like stiffness and loss of functioning of tissues due to cross-liked proteins and free radicals. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) is often used as a stable cumulative index of glycemic control and has shown that even in non-diabetic adults, there is a steady increase in HbA1c levels with age. Aim of the study is to evaluate the strength of association of HbA1c with metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices in subjects between the age group of 40 to 60 yrs. A total of 220 subjects, with (n=110) and without (n=110) diabetes were assessed for the metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices. BMI, waist hip ratio, fat percentage, Fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were assessed as metabolic ageing indices. The cardiovascular ageing indices measured were resting heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate variability. Ageing indices were compared between subjects with and without diabetes using independent' t' test and showed that the T2DM group exhibit significant accelerated ageing as compared to that of the controls. Pearson's and partial correlation coefficient was used to assess the association of HbA1c with the ageing indices without and with controlling for chronological age, indicated that, strength of association of levels of HBA1c with cardiovascular and other metabolic indices of ageing is statistically significant. The study concludes that the tightness of glycemic control has a significant impact on the biological ageing process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D Z; van den Broek, W J; Lamers, C B; Corstens, F H; Hoefnagels, W H

    1996-08-01

    To study free- and protein-bound cobalamin absorption and the correlation with atrophic gastritis in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. A cross-sectional study. Fifty-two healthy subjects, aged 26 to 87 years, apparently free from conditions known to influence the cobalamin status. Middle-aged subjects were defined as those younger than 65 years of age (median age 57 years) and older subjects as those 65 years and older (median age 75 years). Protein-bound cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of scrambled egg yolk, labeled in vivo with 57 Co-cobalamin by injecting a hen with 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. The percentage of 57 Co-cobalamin bound to protein was 65%. Free cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of crystalline 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. Plasma cobalamin, folate and fasting plasma gastrin, and pepsinogen A and C concentrations were determined. The median urinary excretion of egg yolk 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 12.3% (25th and 75th percentiles 10.5%-14.5%) compared with 11.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 9.8%-13.6%) in older subjects (P = .283). The median urinary excretion after administration of free 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 25.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 20.6%-30.7%) compared with 27.9% (25th and 75th percentiles 21.4%-34.5%) in older subjects (P = .694). Neither egg yolk nor free 57 Co-cobalamin excretion correlated with age. A ratio of pepsinogen A to pepsinogen C less than 1.6, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 13 subjects. Within the atrophic gastritis group, 11 subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and two subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration less than 17 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. All subjects had normal fasting plasma gastrin concentrations. Free

  11. Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Subjects Born with Thalidomide Embryopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Nicotra

    Full Text Available Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital malformation that emerged as one extreme of a range of defects resulting from in utero exposure to thalidomide. Individuals with thalidomide embryopathy (TE have reported developing symptoms suggestive of peripheral nervous system dysfunction in the mal-developed limbs in later life.Case control study comparing TE subjects with upper limb anomalies and neuropathic symptoms with healthy controls using standard neurophysiological testing. Other causes of a peripheral neuropathy were excluded prior to assessment.Clinical examination of 17 subjects with TE (aged 50.4±1.3 [mean±standard deviation] years, 10 females and 17 controls (37.9±9.0 years; 8 females demonstrated features of upper limb compressive neuropathy in three-quarters of subjects. Additionally there were examination findings suggestive of mild sensory neuropathy in the lower limbs (n = 1, L5 radiculopathic sensory impairment (n = 1 and cervical myelopathy (n = 1. In TE there were electrophysiological changes consistent with a median large fibre neuropathic abnormality (mean compound muscle action potential difference -6.3 mV ([-9.3, -3.3], p = 0.0002 ([95% CI], p-value and reduced sympathetic skin response amplitudes (-0.8 mV ([-1.5, -0.2], p = 0.0089 in the affected upper limbs. In the lower limbs there was evidence of sural nerve dysfunction (sensory nerve action potential -5.8 μV ([-10.7, -0.8], p = 0.0232 and impaired warm perception thresholds (+3.0°C ([0.6, 5.4], p = 0.0169.We found a range of clinical features relevant to individuals with TE beyond upper limb compressive neuropathies supporting the need for a detailed neurological examination to exclude other treatable pathologies. The electrophysiological evidence of large and small fibre axonal nerve dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs may be a result of the original insult and merits further investigation.

  12. How avoidant attachment influences subjective well-being: an investigation about the age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H

    2014-01-01

    Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.

  13. Age differences in visual search for compound patterns: long- versus short-range grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burack, J A; Enns, J T; Iarocci, G; Randolph, B

    2000-11-01

    Visual search for compound patterns was examined in observers aged 6, 8, 10, and 22 years. The main question was whether age-related improvement in search rate (response time slope over number of items) was different for patterns defined by short- versus long-range spatial relations. Perceptual access to each type of relation was varied by using elements of same contrast (easy to access) or mixed contrast (hard to access). The results showed large improvements with age in search rate for long-range targets; search rate for short-range targets was fairly constant across age. This pattern held regardless of whether perceptual access to a target was easy or hard, supporting the hypothesis that different processes are involved in perceptual grouping at these two levels. The results also point to important links between ontogenic and microgenic change in perception (H. Werner, 1948, 1957).

  14. Subjective physical and cognitive age among community-dwelling older people aged 75 years and older: differences with chronological age and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihira, Hikaru; Furuna, Taketo; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Makino, Keitaro; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between self-reported subjective physical and cognitive age, and actual physical and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older people aged 75 years and older. The sample comprised 275 older adults aged 75-91 years. Two questions were asked regarding subjective age: 'How old do you feel physically?' and 'How old do you feel cognitively?' To assess physical functions, we measured handgrip strength, knee extension strength, standing balance and walking speed. Tests of attention, executive function, processing speed and memory were performed to assess actual cognitive function. Subjective physical and cognitive age was associated with performance on all of the physical and cognitive tests, respectively (p older adults who reported themselves as feeling older than their chronological age had a slower walking speed and lower scores for word-list memory recall than those who did not report themselves as feeling older than their actual age. These findings suggest that promoting a fast walking speed and good memory function may help to maintain a younger subjective physical and cognitive age in older adults aged 75 years and older.

  15. Exploring procedures for the rapid assessment of optically stimulated luminescence range-finder ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Helen M.; Durcan, Julie A.; Duller, Geoff A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments is a lengthy, labour-intensive, and time-consuming procedure. However, in some situations a rough approximation of the OSL age is all that is necessary e.g. for a pilot field campaign, to plan a sampling strategy, or to determine the resolution required for a dating campaign. Thus, it would be useful to establish an approximate OSL age without the lengthy and involved processes normally used. This paper explores how the standard procedures involved in OSL age determinations can be simplified to yield range-finder ages. Three areas are examined, namely, laboratory preparation, D e estimation, and dose-rate determination. The consequences of circumventing some of the preparation and measurement steps of conventional OSL dating are examined for a variety of sediments, by comparing the OSL range-finder ages to those obtained using full quartz OSL preparation and measurement procedures.

  16. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours - Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees' well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  17. Normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in a population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Yilmaz, R B; Oktay, I; Ilhan, D; Fişekçioğlu, E; Özdemir, Fulya

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in Turkey. One thousand and sixteen patients from seven different demographic regions of Turkey (Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Central Anatolia Region) (mean age ± SD: 12.80 ± 3.57 years) were randomly selected and divided into six age groups (7-8,9-10,11-12,13-14,15-16, and 17-18 year-olds) and categorized according to the dental health component (DHC) of the index for orthodontic treatment need (IOTN). Additionally, the patients were asked to indicate the photograph that was most similar to their own dentition from the 10-point scale of the aesthetic component of IOTN. The DHC of IOTN was not significantly different between the six age groups (P > 0.05). However, no/slight need (aesthetic component 1-4) for orthodontic treatment according to AC of IOTN was significantly higher in 13-14,15-16, and 17-18 age groups than 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 age groups (P age groups (P > 0.05). The normative need distribution was homogeneous within all the age groups according to DHC. However, the subjective need for orthodontic treatment was higher in the younger age groups.

  18. Age- and size-related reference ranges: a case study of spirometry through childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J; Stanojevic, S; Stocks, J; Coates, A L; Hankinson, J L; Wade, A M

    2009-02-28

    Age-related reference ranges are useful for assessing growth in children. The LMS method is a popular technique for constructing growth charts that model the age-changing distribution of the measurement in terms of the median, coefficient of variation and skewness. Here the methodology is extended to references that depend on body size as well as age, by exploiting the flexibility of the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) technique. GAMLSS offers general linear predictors for each moment parameter and a choice of error distributions, which can handle kurtosis as well as skewness. A key question with such references is the nature of the age-size adjustment, additive or multiplicative, which is explored by comparing the identity link and log link for the median predictor.There are several measurements whose reference ranges depend on both body size and age. As an example, models are developed here for the first four moments of the lung function variables forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC in terms of height and age, in a data set of 3598 children and adults aged 4 to 80 years. The results show a strong multiplicative association between spirometry, height and age, with a large and nonlinear age effect across the age range. Variability also depends nonlinearly on age and to a lesser extent on height. FEV(1) and FVC are close to normally distributed, while FEV(1)/FVC is appreciably skew to the left. GAMLSS is a powerful technique for the construction of such references, which should be useful in clinical medicine. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects over 90 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyun; Dong, Birong; Hao, Qiu Kui; Ding, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    Eating habits may have a key influence on cognitive function, however, the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive impairment in the elderly Chinese population has not been explored. The present study investigated the association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects >90 years of age. This study comprised data from subjects included in the 2005 Project of Longevity and Ageing in Dujiangyan, China. Subjects were divided into two groups: cognitive impairment group and normal group. Sociodemographic and dietary habit data were collected and cognitive function was assessed in all subjects using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 763 subjects (249 men, 514 women) were included. There was no statistically significant difference in eating habits between the two groups. Education level in the cognitive impairment group was significantly lower than in the normal group. Significant between-group differences were detected in factors relating to subjects' professions. Eating habits were not related to cognitive impairment in elderly Chinese people >90 years of age.

  20. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko

    1997-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  1. Phase 2, Dose-Ranging Study of Relebactam with Imipenem-Cilastatin in Subjects with Complicated Intra-abdominal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucasti, Christopher; Vasile, Liviu; Sandesc, Dorel; Venskutonis, Donatas; McLeroth, Patrick; Lala, Mallika; Rizk, Matthew L; Brown, Michelle L; Losada, Maria C; Pedley, Alison; Kartsonis, Nicholas A; Paschke, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    Relebactam (REL [MK-7655]) is a novel class A/C β-lactamase inhibitor intended for use with imipenem for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. REL restores imipenem activity against some resistant strains of Klebsiella and Pseudomonas In this multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial (NCT01506271), subjects who were ≥18 years of age with complicated intra-abdominal infection were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 250 mg REL, 125 mg REL, or placebo, each given intravenously (i.v.) with 500 mg imipenem-cilastatin (IMI) every 6 h (q6h) for 4 to 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of microbiologically evaluable (ME) subjects with a favorable clinical response at discontinuation of i.v. therapy (DCIV). A total of 351 subjects were randomized, 347 (99%) were treated, and 255 (73%) were ME at DCIV (55% male; mean age, 49 years). The most common diagnoses were complicated appendicitis (53%) and complicated cholecystitis (17%). Thirty-six subjects (13%) had imipenem-resistant Gram-negative infections at baseline. Both REL doses plus IMI were generally well tolerated and demonstrated safety profiles similar to that of IMI alone. Clinical response rates at DCIV were similar in subjects who received 250 mg REL plus IMI (96.3%) or 125 mg REL plus IMI (98.8%), and both were noninferior to IMI alone (95.2%; one-sided P imipenem exposure at the proposed dose of 500 mg IMI with 250 mg REL q6h provides coverage of >90% of carbapenem-resistant bacterial strains. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. [Diastolic dysfunction in the elderly subjects. Disease or a physiological manifestation of ageing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meluzín, J; Podroužková, H; Gregorová, Z; Panovský, R

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this summary paper is to discuss the current knowledge of the impact of age on diastolic function of the left ventricle. Data from the literature: Reports published till this time have convincingly demonstrated a significant relationship of age to diastolic function of the left ventricle. Ageing is a physiological process accompanied by structural changes in both myocardium and arterial bed resulting in worsening of parameters characterizing the left ventricular diastolic function. This "physiological" diastolic dysfunction in the elderly subjects can be explained by the deterioration of passive left ventricular filling properties and by worsening of left ventricular relaxation. The detailed analysis of published reports shows problems in distiguishing this "physiological" diastolic dysfunction resulting from physiological tissue ageing from "pathological" diastolic dysfunction reflecting a disease of cardiovascular system. To interprete correctly values of parameters quantifying diastolic function of the left ventricle, one should take into account the age of subjects under the examination. Further studies are necessary to distinguish exactly "physiological" deterioration of diastolic function associated with ageing from really "pathological" diastolic dysfunction in the elderly subjects.

  3. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  4. Changes in soleus H-reflex during walking in middle-aged, healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of aging on stretch reflex modulation during walking, soleus H-reflexes obtained in 15 middle-aged (mean age 56.4±6.9 years) and 15 young (mean age 23.7±3.9 years) subjects were compared. METHODS: The H-reflex amplitude, muscle activity (EMG) of the soleus...... and tibialis anterior muscles, and EMG/H-reflex gain were measured during 4-km/h treadmill walking. RESULTS: The normalized H-reflex amplitude was lower in the swing phase for the middle-aged group, and there was no difference in muscle activity. EMG/H-reflex gain did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: H......-reflex amplitude during walking was affected by aging, and changes during the swing phase could be seen in the middle-aged subjects. Subdividing the 2 age groups into groups of facilitated or suppressed swing-phase H-reflex revealed that the H-reflex amplitude modulation pattern in the group with facilitated swing...

  5. The age and subjective well-being paradox revisited:A multidimensional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hansen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study re-examines the much-discussed paradox that although aging is associated with declines in many life domains, overall subjective well-being does not appear to decline sharply with age. We use data from two waves of the Norwegian NorLAG study (age 40-85, n=3,750 and examine age differences in change in well-being outcomes (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, and depression and factors that may account for age variations in such change. Outcomes show stability well into older age, but negative changes in advanced age, cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Life satisfaction and negative affect are adversely related to older age longitudinally, whereas positive affect and depression are adversely related to older age in the cross-section. Results are similar for men and women. Loss of health and partner are the main causes of declining well-being in older age. Findings suggest qualifications to the “well-being paradox”, e.g.: only some dimensions of SWB remain stable, while others decline; across dimensions SWB change is more negative in old-old than in young-old age.

  6. Age-related changes in brain perfusion of normal subjects detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Karger, H.; Chisin, R.; Bonne, O.; Gorfine, M.; Lerer, B.

    1998-01-01

    Previous functional imaging data generally show impairment in global cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age. Conflicting data, however, concerning age-related changes in regional CBF (rCBF) have been reported. We examined the relative rCBF in a sample of healthy subjects of various ages, to define and localize any age-related CBF reduction. Twenty-seven healthy subjects (17 male, 10 female; mean age 49 ± 15, range 26-71, median 47 years) were studied by 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. The younger age group consisted of subjects below, the older group above 47 years of age, respectively. Analysis was performed by applying three preformed templates, each containing delineated regions of interest (ROIs), to three transaxial brain slices at approximately 4, 6, and 7 cm above the orbitomeatal line (OML). The average number of counts for each ROI was normalized to mean uptake of the cerebellum and of the whole brain slice. Globally, 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake ratio normalized to cerebellum was significantly decreased in older subjects, affecting both hemispheres. A slight left-to-right asymmetry was observed in HMPAO uptake of the whole study group. It did not, however, change with age. Regionally, both cortical and subcortical structures of older subjects were involved: uptake ratio to cerebellum was significantly lower (after correction for multiple testing) in the left basal ganglia and in the left superior temporal, right frontal and bilateral occipital cortices at 4 cm above the OML. At 6 cm above the OML, reduced uptake ratios were identified in the left frontal and bilateral parietal areas. At 7 cm, reduced uptake was detected in the right frontal and left occipital cortices. Most of these differences were reduced when uptake was normalized to whole slice, whereas an increase in uptake ratios was observed in the cingulate cortex of the elderly. An inverse correlation between age and HMPAO uptake ratios normalized to cerebellum was observed in a number of brain regions. These

  7. [State of accommodation depending on age of emmetropic and hypermetropic subjects engaged in diamond sorting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feĭgin, A A; Korniushina, T A

    1995-01-01

    Accommodation was studied in 449 diamond sorters aged 17 to 51 engaged in this work for 1 to 34 years with emmetropic and hypermetropic refraction. Questionnaires helped detect subjects who had no complaints of vision (group A) and those with asthenopia complaints (group B). In both groups, in emmetropic and hypermetropic subjects, the furthest point of clear vision was converging the eye by 1.96 +/- 0.04 diopters on an average, that is, there was pseudomyopia. In hypermetropic subjects with occupational ophthalmopathy the nearest point is withdrawn starting from the age of 31-35 till it merges with the furthest point in subjects over 45, that is, the accommodation volume becomes nearly nuel. The results of this study contradict the assumption existing in ophthalmology about an earlier onset of presbyopia in hypermetropia than in other types of refraction. Early correction of near vision is connected with superimposition of accommodation deterioration in ametropia. It is recommended to carry out rehabilitative measure as soon as the first asthenopia signs manifest; these measures should be aimed at weakening of refraction by the site of the furthest clear vision point. In subjects aged 31-35 with occupational ophthalmopathy refraction by the nearest clear vision point should be enhanced if possible.

  8. The influence of subjective aging on health and longevity: A meta-analysis of longitudinal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Miche, M.; Brothers, A.F.; Barrett, A.E.; Diehl, M.; Montepare, J.M.; Wahl, H.-W.; Wurm, S.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating on the effects of subjective aging—that is, how individuals perceive their own aging process—on health and survival in later life. The goal of this article is to synthesize findings of existing longitudinal studies through a meta-analysis. A systematic search in PsycInfo,

  9. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  10. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  11. Age-related cutoffs for cervical movement behaviour to distinguish chronic idiopathic neck pain patients from unimpaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Wilke, Jan; Rickert, Marcus; Banzer, Winfried

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims to develop age-dependent cutoff values in a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional diagnostic test study. One hundred and twenty (120) asymptomatic subjects (n = 100, 36♀, 18 75 years, for normative values; n = 20, 23-75 years, 15♀, for selectivity analyses) and 20 patients suffering from idiopathic neck pain (selectivity analyses, 22-71 years, 15♀) were included. Subjects performed five repetitive maximal cervical flexion/extension movements in an upright sitting position. Cervical kinematic characteristics (maximal range of motion (ROM), coefficient of variation (CV) and mean conjunct movements in rotation and flexion (CM)) were calculated from raw 3D ultrasonic data. Regression analyses were conducted to reveal associations between kinematic characteristics and age and gender and thus to determine normative values for healthy subjects. Age explains 53 % of the variance in ROM (decrease 10.2° per decade), 13 % in CV (increase 0.003 per decade) and 9 % in CM (increase 0.57° per decade). Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted for differences between individual values of the kinematic characteristics and normative values to optimise cutoff values for distinguishing patients from unimpaired subjects (20 patients and 20 healthy). Cutoff values distinguished asymptomatic subjects' and chronic nonspecific neck patient's movement characteristics with sufficient quality (sensitivity 70-80 %, specificity 65-70 %). By including such classifications, the present findings expand actual research stating an age-related decrease in kinematic behaviour only using categorising span widths across decades. Future study is warranted to reveal our results' potential applicability for intervention onset decision making for idiopathic neck pain patients.

  12. Reducing the age range of tsunami deposits by 14C dating of rip-up clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Takashi; Goto, Kazuhisa; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke; Sawada, Chikako; Takada, Keita

    2018-02-01

    Erosion by tsunami waves represents an important issue when determining the age of a tsunami deposit, because the age is usually estimated using dating of sediments above and below the deposit. Dating of material within the tsunami deposit, if suitable material is obtainable, can be used to further constrain its age. Eroded sediments are sometimes incorporated within the tsunami deposits as rip-up clasts, which might therefore be used as minimum age dating material. However, the single calibrated 14C age often shows a wide age range because of fluctuations in the calibration curve. Therefore, it remains uncertain whether rip-up clast measurements are useful to constrain the depositional age of tsunami deposits, or not. In this study, we carried out high-resolution 14C dating of tsunami deposits, including rip-up clasts of peat, in Rikuzentakata, northeastern Japan, where numerous rip-up clasts were observed within a tsunami deposit. Sediments above and below the tsunami deposit and a 5 cm large rip-up clast were dated sequentially. Comparison of these dating results with the calibration curve revealed that the clast was inverted. Its age was better constrained based on the stratigraphic order, and we infer that the clast corresponds to approximately 100 years of sedimentation. The oldest age of the clast was consistent with the age of the peat immediately below the tsunami deposit, suggesting that surface sediments probably formed the rip-up clast at the time of the tsunami. Thus, the dating of the rip-up clast was useful to further constrain the depositional age of the tsunami deposit, as we narrowed the tsunami deposit age range by approximately 100 years. Results show that ignoring tsunami-related erosion might lead to overestimation of the tsunami deposit age. For this reason, an appropriate dating site, which is less affected by minor tsunami-related erosion with regards to the paleo-topography, should be explored. We therefore propose a more effective

  13. Accelerated increase and decrease in subjective age as a function of changes in loneliness and objective social indicators over a four-year period: results from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Palgi, Yuval; Avidor, Sharon; Bodner, Ehud

    2016-07-01

    The study examined the role of changes in loneliness and objective social indicators in the formation of changes in subjective age over a four-year period. The Health and Retirement Study is a US nationally representative study of older adults over 50 and their spouse of any age. We restricted the sample to individuals, 65 years of age and older (n = 2591). An accelerated increase in subjective age was defined as an increase in subjective age over the two waves greater than five years. An accelerated decrease in subjective age was defined as a difference that was lower than three years. These were examined against a change in subjective age in the range of three to five years (i.e., change consistent with the passage of time). For 23.4% of the sample, changes in subjective age were consistent with the passage of time. A total of 38.3% had an accelerated decrease in subjective age, whereas 38.3% had an accelerated increase. A decrease in loneliness over the two waves resulted in an accelerated decrease in subjective age, whereas an increase in depressive symptoms resulted in an accelerated increase in subjective age. Changes in objective social indicators, physical difficulties or medical comorbidity did not predict changes in subjective age. This is one of very few studies that examined changes in subjective age over time. Changes in subjective age represent an important construct that corresponding to other changes in subjective experiences.

  14. Dynamic range in BOLD modulation: lifespan aging trajectories and association with performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Boylan, Maria A; Rieck, Jenny R; Foster, Chris M; Rodrigue, Karen M

    2017-12-01

    Alteration of dynamic range of modulation to cognitive difficulty has been proposed as a salient predictor of cognitive aging. Here, we examine in 171 adults (aged 20-94 years) the effects of age on dynamic modulation of blood oxygenation-level dependent activation to difficulty in parametrically increasing working memory (WM) load (0-, 2-, 3-, and 4-back conditions). First, we examined parametric increases and decreases in activation to increasing WM load (positive modulation effect and negative modulation effect). Second, we examined the effect of age on modulation to difficulty (WM load) to identify regions that differed with age as difficulty increased (age-related positive and negative modulation effects). Weakened modulation to difficulty with age was found in both the positive modulation (middle frontal, superior/inferior parietal) and negative modulation effect (deactivated) regions (insula, cingulate, medial superior frontal, fusiform, and parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus, and lateral occipital cortex). Age-related alterations to positive modulation emerged later in the lifespan than negative modulation. Furthermore, these effects were significantly coupled in that greater upmodulation was associated with lesser downmodulation. Importantly, greater fronto-parietal upmodulation to difficulty and greater downmodulation of deactivated regions were associated with better task accuracy and upmodulation with better WM span measured outside the scanner. These findings suggest that greater dynamic range of modulation of activation to cognitive challenge is in service of current task performance, as well as generalizing to cognitive ability beyond the scanner task, lending support to its utility as a marker of successful cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Subjective insomnia is associated with low sleep efficiency and fatigue in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, A; Terauchi, M; Akiyoshi, M; Owa, Y; Kato, K; Kubota, T

    2016-08-01

    Many middle-aged women are affected by sleep disturbance. We investigated how subjective insomnia is associated with objective sleep parameters and other background characteristics. This cross-sectional study used baseline data obtained from 95 women aged 40-59 years who participated in another study assessing the effects of a dietary supplement. Participants wore an actigraph unit for 3 days to collect information concerning physical activities and objective sleep parameters and were then evaluated for body composition, cardiovascular parameters, and menopausal symptoms including insomnia and fatigue, and lifestyle factors. Stratifying Athens Insomnia Scale scores as low (0-5 points, control group) and high (≥ 6 points, subjective insomnia group), we sought to identify the parameters that are independently associated with subjective insomnia. Women with subjective insomnia (n = 30) had lower sleep efficiency than did the controls. They were also older; had more live births, lower height, higher body mass index, lower ankle brachial index, and more severe menopausal symptoms including fatigue; took more naps; smoked more cigarettes; and more of them were full-time workers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that low sleep efficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 1.44 per 1% decrease in sleep efficiency; 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.05) and fatigue assessed with Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.57 per 1-point increase in BFI score; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.13) were independent contributors to subjective insomnia. Low sleep efficiency and feeling of fatigue were found to be independently associated with subjective insomnia in middle-aged women.

  16. Latent constructs of adjustment to aging and subjective age in Portugal and Romania: a comparative multiple correspondence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the determinants of adjustment to aging (AtA and subjective age (SA identified by older adults and to investigate the differences of latent constructs that can work as major determinants in AtA and SA in an older Portuguese and Romanian population. Method: Measures were completed, including demographics and interviews. Complete data were available for 38 older adults aged between 74-90 years (M=80.6; SD = 5.4, from Portugal and Romenia. Data was subjected to content analysis. Representation of the associations and latent constructs were analyzed by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA. Results: The most prevalent response of the interviewed participants for determinants to AtA was ‘health status, physical and intellectual functioning’ (18.1%. ‘With apprehension’ and ‘good enough’ (both 27.0% were identified as the most frequent SA responses. Findings showed a model for each nationality. AtA and SA for Portuguese elderly were explained by a three-factor model: ‘regardful’, ‘engaged’ and ‘conciliated’. A three-dimension model formed by ‘perseverant’, ‘congruent’ and ‘enjoyers’ was indicated as a best-fit solution for Romanian elderly. Conclusion: AtA and SA are strongly explained by increased likelihood of specific constructs in its definition. AtA is related to SA in older adults in both countries, although in different degree.

  17. Assessment of health status by molecular measures in adults ranging from middle-aged to old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, M. E. C.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Goldeck, D.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to measures already used in clinical practice, molecular measures have been proposed to assess health status, but these have not yet been introduced into clinical practice. We aimed to test the association of functional capacity measures used in current practice and molecular measures...... with age and health status. The cohort consisted of 178 middle-aged to old participants of the Leiden Longevity Study (range 42-82years). We tested associations between functional capacity measures (physical tests: grip strength, 4-meter walk, chair stand test; cognitive tests: Stroop test, digit symbol...... substitution test and 15-picture learning test) with age and with cardiovascular or metabolic disease as a measure of the health status. These associations with age and health status were also tested for molecular measures (C reactive protein (CRP), numbers of senescent p16INK4a positive cells in the epidermis...

  18. Baroreflex Sensitivity in Relation to Clinical Characteristics in Subject Aged 40 to 80 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Latif, Tabassam

    2014-01-01

    women) with a mean age of 59 ± 11 years (range 41-79 years) were included. Baroreceptor activity was quantified through the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) and as a spontaneous function. BRS was tested against age, gender, smoking status, body size and predicted risk of coronary heart disease based...... breathing and VM. We could not demonstrate any correlation between BRS, smoking status, and body size when adjusting for age and gender, whereas spontaneous BRS was reduced with increasing Framingham risk score. Principal component analysis revealed three component explaining 69% of the total variance...

  19. Ultrasonic nonlinearity of AISI316 austenitic steel subjected to long-term isothermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Won Sik; Kim, Chung Seok [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study presents the ultrasonic nonlinearity of AISI316 austenitic stainless steels subjected to longterm isothermal aging. These steels are attractive materials for use in industrial mechanical structures because of their strength at high-temperatures and their chemical stability. The test materials were subjected to accelerated heat-treatment in an electrical furnace for a predetermined aging duration. The variations in the ultrasonic nonlinearity and microstructural damage were carefully evaluated through observation of the microstructure. The ultrasonic nonlinearity stiffly dropped after aging for up to 1000 h and, then, monotonously decreased. The polygonal shape of the initial grain structures changed to circular, especially as the annealing twins in the grains dissolved and disappeared. The delta ferrite on the grain boundaries could not be observed at 1000 h of aging, and these continuously transformed into their sigma phases. Consequently, in the intial aging period, the rapid decrease in the ultrasonic nonlinearity was caused by voids, dislocations, and twin annihilation. The continuous monotonic decrease in the ultrasonic nonlinearity after the first drop resulted from the generation of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates and σ phases.

  20. Long-range correlations and fractal dynamics in C. elegans: Changes with aging and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Winter, Peter B.; Ferreira, Leonardo N.; Brielmann, Renée M.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2017-08-01

    Reduced motor control is one of the most frequent features associated with aging and disease. Nonlinear and fractal analyses have proved to be useful in investigating human physiological alterations with age and disease. Similar findings have not been established for any of the model organisms typically studied by biologists, though. If the physiology of a simpler model organism displays the same characteristics, this fact would open a new research window on the control mechanisms that organisms use to regulate physiological processes during aging and stress. Here, we use a recently introduced animal-tracking technology to simultaneously follow tens of Caenorhabdits elegans for several hours and use tools from fractal physiology to quantitatively evaluate the effects of aging and temperature stress on nematode motility. Similar to human physiological signals, scaling analysis reveals long-range correlations in numerous motility variables, fractal properties in behavioral shifts, and fluctuation dynamics over a wide range of timescales. These properties change as a result of a superposition of age and stress-related adaptive mechanisms that regulate motility.

  1. Thin-section spiral CT evaluation of morphologic effects of aging lung in asymptomatic adult subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kuncheng; Liu Jian; Yang Yanhui; Yao Xinyu; Yin Jianguo; Wang Shiwen; He Zuoxiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging signs of aging lung in asymptomatic adult subjects by using thin-section spiral CT, and analyze the correlation between the signs and the age of examined cases, as well as probe their clinical application value. Methods: One hundred and six healthy adult subjects were divided into 3 groups: 30 to 44 years (n=31), 45 to 59 years (n=30), and over 60 years (n=45), and all the subjects underwent thin-section spiral CT scans in the upper lung field, the middle lung field and the lower lung field. The evaluation indices included the lung interstitium changes, emphysematous changes, mosaic perfusion, dependent density difference, and pleural thickenning. According to the relative score standard, the above-mentioned indices were totally calculated and converted into the score value. The data were statistically processed with SPSS for Windows. Results: Among the three groups, there were remarkable differences in the indices including the lung interstitium changes, emphysematous changes, and mosaic perfusion, respectively (χ 2 =8.10, 9.73, 15.54, P 2 =3.66, 3.24, P> 0.05). The score values had a significant positive correlation with the age (r=0.709, P<0.01). Conclusion: The signs including the lung interstitium changes, emphysematous changes, mosaic perfusion, the dependent density difference, and pleural thickenning can be found in asymptomatic subjects, and they become prominent as the age increases. HRCT is one of the most important methods for evaluating the early signs of the senile lung. (authors)

  2. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGEISM AND SUBJECTIVE AGE OF OLDER PEOPLE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz HESS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigmata on older people in society remains a big problem in the whole of Europe. It can lead to a lower self-esteem and is even as sociated with higher suicide rates. This study questioned whether the identification with one’s own age group is associated with an individual’s perceived stigma on the group of 70+, which has been unexamined so far for European citizens. Method: Data were derived from the European Social Survey (ESS. The sample consisted of 7878 persons aged 70+ stratified by three age groups. Group 1 = 70 – 75, Group 2= 76 – 80 and Group 3= >80. Independent T-test and Multiple regression analyses were used to examine influence of perceived stigmata in society on identification with one’s own age group, controlled for the covariates gender, household’s income, education, subjective general health, limitations in activities of daily life, marital status, having children living at home and having children not living at home. Results: A significant association was found for Group 1 (70 – 75 and Group 2 (76 – 80. Participants of these age groups, who reported a higher perception of stigmata for older people (70+, identified themselves less with their age group. No significant effect was found for Group 3 (people 80+. Conclusion: The results suggest that people older than 80 are less affected by stigmata of society on old age than younger groups (aged 70 - 80. Future research is necessary to examine the mechanisms which lead to a lower identification with their age of people aged 70 to 80.

  3. Evaluation of dental age and associated developmental anomalies in subjects with impacted mandibular canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shikha; Shetty, K Sadashiva; Jain, Shweta; Jain, Sachin; Prakash, A T; Agrawal, Mamta

    2015-07-01

    To assess the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the rate of dental development and the occurrence of selected developmental anomalies related to shape, number, structure, and position of teeth between subjects with impacted mandibular canines and those with normally erupted canines. Pretreatment records of 42 subjects diagnosed with mandibular canines impaction (impaction group: IG) were compared with those of 84 subjects serving as a control reference sample (control group: CG). Independent t-tests were used to compare mean dental ages between the groups. Intergroup differences in distribution of subjects based on the rate of dental development and occurrence of selected dental anomalies were assessed using χ(2) tests. Odds of late, normal, and early developers and various categories of developmental anomalies between the IG and the CG were evaluated in terms of odds ratios. Mean dental age for the IG was lower than that for the CG in general. Specifically, this was true for girls (P dental development and occurrence of positional anomalies also reached statistical significance (P anomalies compared with controls (odds ratios 3.00 and 2.82, respectively; P dental development compared with the female orthodontic patients. Increased frequency of positional developmental anomalies was also remarkable in the IG.

  4. The ageing kinetics of CF3 cast stainless steel in the temperature range 3000C to 400OC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhurst, K.N.; Pumphrey, P.H.

    1988-11-01

    The primary coolant pump casings for Sizewell 'B' are made from castings of ASME SA351 CF3 steel which, although predominantly austenitic, is required to contain a small proportion of ferrite. Previous studies have shown that such steels are susceptible to hardening of the ferrite, and associated losses in toughness, as a result of thermal ageing for long times at the service temperature (∼ 300 0 C). For this reason, toughness tests are to be carried out on representative castings made by the Sizewell 'B' pump casing manufacturer. The purpose of these tests is to demonstrate adequate end-of-life fracture resistance, using material which has been given an accelerated ageing treatment. The identification and validation of a suitable ageing treatment is the subject of this Report. Ageing kinetics have been measured for ageing temperatures in the range 300 to 400 0 C, from the results of Charpy impact tests on material from the castings procured for the main fracture programme. Castings with ferrite levels of 15, 25 and 35% have been studied. The losses in impact toughness have been related to the kinetics of ferrite strengthening using microhardness measurements, and to microstructural changes using Field Ion Atom Probe analysis. (author)

  5. Combat exposure, social relationships, and subjective well-being among middle-aged and older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mai See; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    This study described the association of subjective well-being with combat exposure and social relationships among middle-aged and older Veteran men in the USA. The stress-buffering hypothesis, which predicts social relationships may moderate the association between combat exposure and subjective well-being, was also examined. Data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2961) were used to estimate logistic regression models, focusing on three measures of subjective well-being: depression, life satisfaction, and self-reported health. In the fully adjusted models, there were no statistically significant relationships between combat exposure and the three indicators of subjective well-being. However, compared to Veterans who had lower scores on the social relationship index, Veterans who had higher scores were less likely to be depressed and less likely to report poor or fair health. Veterans who had higher scores on the social relationships index reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those Veterans who had lower scores. There was no evidence for a social relationships buffering effect. The results of this study demonstrated that combat exposure did not have a long-term relationship with subjective well-being. Longitudinal research designs with more comprehensive indicators of combat exposure may help researchers better understand some of the underlying complexity of this relationship. Complementary research with samples of women Veterans, as well as samples of Hispanic, and non-Black, non-White Veterans, is also needed.

  6. Radiometric age determination on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. Remarkable age difference across a fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    K-Ar and zircon fission-track dating was carried out on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. The samples analyzed were collected on both sides of one of the major faults in the Hida Range: the Kurobe-Takase fracture zone. Ages obtained west of the fault are ∼60 Ma, while those obtained to the east of the fault are less than ∼5 Ma. These results indicate a remarkable age difference across the fault. The Okukurobe granite, located west of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 60-55 Ma, and the Kanazawa granodiorite, located east of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 5-1 Ma. The Okukurobe granite has remained cooler than ∼240degC since ∼55 Ma. Thus, it was found that the granitic rocks across the fault have experienced a remarkable different cooling history. (author)

  7. Agreement processing and attraction errors in aging: evidence from subject-verb agreement in German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Jana; Hauer, Franziska; Felser, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    Effects of aging on lexical processing are well attested, but the picture is less clear for grammatical processing. Where age differences emerge, these are usually ascribed to working-memory (WM) decline. Previous studies on the influence of WM on agreement computation have yielded inconclusive results, and work on aging and subject-verb agreement processing is lacking. In two experiments (Experiment 1: timed grammaticality judgment, Experiment 2: self-paced reading + WM test), we investigated older (OA) and younger (YA) adults' susceptibility to agreement attraction errors. We found longer reading latencies and judgment reaction times (RTs) for OAs. Further, OAs, particularly those with low WM scores, were more accepting of sentences with attraction errors than YAs. OAs showed longer reading latencies for ungrammatical sentences, again modulated by WM, than YAs. Our results indicate that OAs have greater difficulty blocking intervening nouns from interfering with the computation of agreement dependencies. WM can modulate this effect.

  8. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  9. Establishing blood gas ranges in healthy bovine neonates differentiated by age, sex, and breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillane, Patrick; Krump, Lea; Kennedy, Aideen; Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P

    2018-04-01

    Calf mortality and morbidity commonly occurs within the first month of life postpartum. Standard health ranges are invaluable aids in diagnostic veterinary medicine to confirm normal or the degree and nature of abnormal parameters in (sub)clinically ill animals. Extensive research has indicated significant differences between the physiologies of neonate and adult cattle, particularly for blood parameters such as pH, base excess, anion gap, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ). The objective of this research was to determine the influence of age, sex, and breed type, in addition to environmental factors, on the normal blood gas profiles of neonatal calves, and thus develop a scientifically validated reference range accounting for any significant factors. The study was conducted on healthy neonatal calves (n = 288), and completed over a 2-yr period. Individual calf blood gas analysis was conducted for parameters of pH, base excess, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Cl - , glucose, total hemoglobin, HCO 3 - , pCO 2 , anion gap, strong ion difference, and hematocrit levels. Regression procedures examined the combined effect of year, farm, age, breed type, sex, and hours postfeeding on each variable. Significant effects were observed for age, sex, and breed type on several of the blood gas variables. Furthermore, year, farm, and hours postfeeding appeared to have less of an influence on neonatal bovine blood gas profiles. Consequently, specific ranges based on the neonate's age, sex, and breed type will allow for more detailed and accurate diagnosis of health and ill health in neonatal calves. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  10. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Shaon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians. Methods Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999–2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042 aged 15–39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Χ2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR for correlation of age and risk factors. Results In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8% and 18 (1.4%, overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8 in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (≥ 130 mg/dl in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol ( Conclusion Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30–39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals.

  11. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables.

  12. Context influences on the relationship between views of aging and subjective age: The moderating role of culture and domain of functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; O'Brien, Erica L; Voss, Peggy; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene H; Popham, Lauren E

    2017-08-01

    Subjective age has been shown to reliably predict a variety of psychological and physical health outcomes, yet our understanding of its determinants is still quite limited. Using data from the Aging as Future project, the authors examined the degree to which views of aging influence subjective age and how this influence varies across cultures and domains of everyday functioning. Using data from 1,877 adults aged from 30 to 95 years of age collected in China, Germany, and the United States, they assessed how general attitudes about aging and perceptions of oneself as an older adult influenced subjective age estimates in 8 different domains of functioning. More positive attitudes about aging were associated with older subjective ages, whereas more positive views of self in old age were associated with younger subjective age. It is hypothesized that these effects are reflective of social-comparison processes and self-protective mechanisms. These influences varied considerably over contexts, with views of aging having a greater impact in domains associated with stronger negative stereotypes of aging (e.g., health) compared to those with more positive ones (e.g., family). Culture also moderated the impact of aging views in terms of the strength of prediction, direction of effect, and age of greatest influence, presumably due to cultural differences in the salience and strength of aging-related belief systems across contexts. The results illustrate the contextual sensitivity of subjective age and highlight the role played by an individual's views of old age-both in general and regarding oneself-in determining their own experience of aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to the rubber hand illusion do not vary with age in the adult phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Priscila; Borrego, Adrián; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Llorens, Roberto; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa M

    2018-02-01

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20-30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20-35 years old, N = 41; 36-60 years old, N = 28; and 61-80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures. There were neither significant differences among groups in any response, nor significant covariability or correlation between age and other measures (but for skin temperature), which suggests that the RHI elicits similar responses across different age groups in the adult phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Cone photopigment in older subjects: decreased optical density in early age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Ann E.; Burns, Stephen A.; Weiter, John J.

    2002-01-01

    We measured changes to cone photoreceptors in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. The data of 53 patients were compared with normative data for color matching measurements of long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the central macula. A four-parameter model quantified cone photopigment optical density and kinetics. Cone photopigment optical density was on average less for the patients than for normal subjects and was uncorrelated with visual acuity. More light was needed to reduce the photopigment density by 50% in the steady state for patients. These results imply that cone photopigment optical density is reduced by factors other than slowed kinetics.

  16. Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Early Age of Obesity in Obese Italian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Sentinelli

    2012-01-01

    Aims of our study are to investigate: (1 the association of FTO gene SNPs rs9939609 and rs9930506 with body mass index (BMI and obesity-related parameters in a large cohort (n=752 of Italian obese subjects; (2 the association between the two FTO SNPs and age of onset of obesity. Our results demonstrate a strong association between FTO SNPs rs9939609 (P<0.043 and rs9930506 (P<0.029 with BMI in the Italian population. FTO rs9930506 was significantly associated with higher BMI in a G allele dose-dependent manner (BMI+1.4 kg/m2 per G allele. We also observed that the association with BMI of the two FTO variants varied with age, with the carriers of the risk alleles developing an increase in body weight earlier in life. In conclusion, our study further demonstrates a role of the genetic variability in FTO on BMI in a large Italian population.

  17. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition in middle-aged asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Dorado, Laura; Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalía; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Bargalló, Núria; Cáceres, Cynthia; Torán, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antonio; Mataró, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of traditional vascular risk factors to cognitive impairment and dementia is well known. However, in order to obtain possible targets for prevention of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), it may be important to identify other early and noninvasive markers in asymptomatic middle-aged adults. The calculation of middle cerebral artery-pulsatility index (MCA-PI) is an ultrasonologic, noninvasive, validated and easily reproducible technique to assess increased distal resistance to blood flow. This study aims to assess the relationship between MCA-PI, microstructural white matter (WM) integrity and cognition in a middle-aged asymptomatic population. Ninety-five participants from the Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (AsIA) neuropsychology study were included. Subjects were 50-65 years old, free from dementia and without history of vascular disease. Transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess MCA-PI as a measure of vascular resistance. WM integrity was evaluated by fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements of diffusion tensor images (DTI) acquired on a 3T-MRI. The neuropsychological battery was specifically selected to be sensitive to VCI, and included tests that were grouped into six cognitive domains: executive functioning, attention, verbal fluency, memory, visuospatial skills and psychomotor speed. A multivariate linear regression model adjusted for age, gender, years of education, diabetes and hypertension was performed. MCA-PI was significantly associated with WM disintegration in different tracts (fornix, corticospinal and anterior thalamic), all p gender, years of education, and vascular risk factors (all p cognitive domains, except for visuospatial skills. Our data suggest that MCA-PI may be related to WM disintegration and early vascular cognitive impairment in middle-aged subjects. Although further prospective studies are needed to provide evidence for its validity in longitudinal studies, our

  19. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    to almost 100% from the age of 10 years. The repeatability of 3 approved measurements was 1.6 ppb (95% CI, 1.49-1.64 ppb). CONCLUSION: FE NO in healthy children is below 15 to 25 ppb depending on age and self-reported atopy. Measurement of FE NO by NIOX is simple and safe and has a good repeatability...... NO was measured in healthy subjects of 4 to 17 years according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (single breath online, exhalation flow 50 mL/s) with a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden) in 3 European and 2 US centers. Each child performed 3...... NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...

  20. Subjective social status and mortality: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane P; de Oliveira, Cesar; Tsakos, Georgios; Marmot, Michael G

    2018-05-19

    Self-perceptions of own social position are potentially a key aspect of socioeconomic inequalities in health, but their association with mortality remains poorly understood. We examined whether subjective social status (SSS), a measure of the self-perceived element of social position, was associated with mortality and its role in the associations between objective socioeconomic position (SEP) measures and mortality. We used Cox regression to model the associations between SSS, objective SEP measures and mortality in a sample of 9972 people aged ≥ 50 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing over a 10-year follow-up (2002-2013). Our findings indicate that SSS was associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer and other mortality. A unit decrease in the 10-point continuous SSS measure increased by 24 and 8% the mortality risk of people aged 50-64 and ≥ 65 years, respectively, after adjustment for age, sex and marital status. The respective estimates for cardiovascular mortality were 36 and 11%. Adjustment for all covariates fully explained the association between SSS and cancer mortality, and partially the remaining associations. In people aged 50-64 years, SSS mediated to a varying extent the associations between objective SEP measures and all-cause mortality. In people aged ≥ 65 years, SSS mediated to a lesser extent these associations, and to some extent was associated with mortality independent of objective SEP measures. Nevertheless, in both age groups, wealth partially explained the association between SSS and mortality. In conclusion, SSS is a strong predictor of mortality at older ages, but its role in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality appears to be complex.

  1. The Bourne Tragedy:
    Lost Subjects of the Bioconvergent Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Epstein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Bourne trilogy to explore several characteristics of what we term the bioconvergent age. First, we consider the imagined and actual interfaces of bioconvergence—of body, gadgetry, and electronic communications. We explore the ways in which the bioconvergent tendencies represented in and by Bourne reflect and cultivate a cultural unconscious deeply seduced by and imbricated in surveillant governmentality. Second, we consider the ways in which the trilogy achieves its effects through the deployment of both hyperrealism and verisimilitude. In this context, we explore the filmic interpellation of audiences into a fantasy of omnipotence and omni-science, on the one hand, and the underlying phantasy of a zero-sum world that uncouples morality from affect, on the other. Thus, we consider the ways in which Bourne articulates two interlinked phenomena—a distinctively American romance with the sociopathic/heroic subject and a paranoid, dystopic world that is and seems seductively real. Our third theme is the Bourne journey through an obsessional spiral of paranoia, action, and reaction. Here we explore the trilogy as a social description of the expulsive and retentive tendencies of the bioconvergent age, where the demand for instantaneity drives out all other considerations (morality, reason, connection and where the lost subject, in his interminable quest for himself, remains lost.

  2. Alteration of retinal layers in healthy subjects over 60 years of age until nonagenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lebriz Altay,1 Cheryl Jahn,1 Mücella Arikan Yorgun,1 Albert Caramoy,1 Tina Schick,1 Carel B Hoyng,2 Anneke I den Hollander,2 Sascha Fauser1 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: To assess alterations of retinal layers in healthy subjects over 60 years old. Methods: Retinal layers of 160 healthy subjects (aged 60–100 years without any retinal pathology were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Mean thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCLIPL, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer/outer nuclear layer, photoreceptor complex (PR and retinal thickness (RT were measured in a 3.45 mm grid. Correlations between age and layers were estimated and linear regression equations were calculated. Different age-groups (60–69, 70–79, 80–89 years and nonagenarians, each group with 40 participants were compared. Results: Significant age-thickness correlations were observed for GCLIPL (P<0.001, r=-0.394, PR (P<0.001, r=-0.370 and RT (P<0.001, r=-0.290. A comparison between age groups 60–69 years and nonagenarians showed no significant thickness alteration of retinal nerve fiber layer (21.80±2.18 µm vs 22.82±2.97 µm, P=0.163, inner nuclear layer (37.23±3.02 µm vs 36.01±3.24 µm, P=0.07 and outer plexiform layer/outer nuclear layer (104.95±6.56 µm vs 104.23±7.59 µm, P=0.567, while GCLIPL (83.35±7.35 µm vs 74.38±9.09 µm, PR (83.03±3.31 µm vs 79.34±2.09 µm and RT (330.64±12.63 µm vs 316.83±18.35 µm showed a significant decrease (P<0.001 for all. Conclusion: Our study provides normative data of alterations of retinal layers for persons aged 60 years to nonagenarians and indicates a continuous decrease of RT, PR, and GCLIPL. This data may be useful for clinical trials investigating macular diseases in older patients

  3. Age effects on cortical thickness in young Down's syndrome subjects: a cross-sectional gender study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Andrea; Moraschi, Marta; Cornia, Riccardo; Stella, Giacomo; Bozzao, Alessandro; Gagliardo, Olga; Chiacchiararelli, Laura; Iani, Cristina; Albertini, Giorgio; Pierallini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in the characteristic pattern of age-related cortical thinning in men and women with Down's syndrome (DS) by means of MRI and automatic cortical thickness measurements and a cross-sectional design, in a large cohort of young subjects. Eighty-four subjects with DS, 30 females (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 22.8 ± 5.9) and 54 males (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 21.5 ± 6.5), were examined using a 1.5-T scanner. MRI-based quantification of cortical thickness was performed using FreeSurfer software package. For all subjects participating in the study, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between age and mean cortical thickness values has been evaluated. A significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in female DS subjects, predominantly in frontal and parietal lobes, bilaterally. In male DS subjects, a significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in the right fronto-temporal lobes and cingulate regions. Whole brain mean cortical thickness values were significantly negative correlated with age only in female DS subjects. Females with Down's syndrome showed a strong correlation between cortical thickness and age, already in early age. We suggest that the cognitive impairment due to hormonal deficit in the postmenopausal period could be emphasized by the early structural decline of gray matter in female DS subjects. (orig.)

  4. Age effects on cortical thickness in young Down's syndrome subjects: a cross-sectional gender study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Andrea; Moraschi, Marta [San Raffaele Foundation Rome, Rehabilitation Facility Ceglie Messapica, Rome (Italy); Cornia, Riccardo; Stella, Giacomo [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Education and Human Sciences, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Bozzao, Alessandro; Gagliardo, Olga [University Sapienza, NESMOS, Department of Neuroradiology, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Chiacchiararelli, Laura [University Sapienza, Department of Medical Physics, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Iani, Cristina [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Communication and Economy, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Albertini, Giorgio [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Paediatrics, Rome (Italy); Pierallini, Alberto [IRCSS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in the characteristic pattern of age-related cortical thinning in men and women with Down's syndrome (DS) by means of MRI and automatic cortical thickness measurements and a cross-sectional design, in a large cohort of young subjects. Eighty-four subjects with DS, 30 females (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 22.8 ± 5.9) and 54 males (11-35 years, mean age ± SD = 21.5 ± 6.5), were examined using a 1.5-T scanner. MRI-based quantification of cortical thickness was performed using FreeSurfer software package. For all subjects participating in the study, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between age and mean cortical thickness values has been evaluated. A significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in female DS subjects, predominantly in frontal and parietal lobes, bilaterally. In male DS subjects, a significant negative correlation between cortical thickness and age was found in the right fronto-temporal lobes and cingulate regions. Whole brain mean cortical thickness values were significantly negative correlated with age only in female DS subjects. Females with Down's syndrome showed a strong correlation between cortical thickness and age, already in early age. We suggest that the cognitive impairment due to hormonal deficit in the postmenopausal period could be emphasized by the early structural decline of gray matter in female DS subjects. (orig.)

  5. Identifying optimal cleaning cycles for heat exchangers subject to fouling and ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogiatzis, Thomas; Ishiyama, Edward M.; Paterson, William R.; Vassiliadis, Vassilios S.; Wilson, D. Ian

    2012-01-01

    Fouling of heat exchangers causes reduced heat transfer and other penalties. Regular cleaning represents one widely used fouling mitigation strategy, where the schedule of cleaning actions can be optimised to minimise the cost of fouling. This paper investigates, for the first time, the situation where there are two cleaning methods available so that the mode of cleaning has to be selected as well as the cleaning interval. Ageing is assumed to convert the initial deposit, labelled 'gel', into a harder and more conductive form, labelled 'coke', which cannot be removed by one of the cleaning methods. The second method can remove both the gel layer and the coke layer, but costs more and requires the unit to be off-line longer for cleaning. Experimental data demonstrating the effects of ageing are presented. The industrial application is the comparison of cleaning-in-place methods with off-line mechanical cleaning. A process model is constructed for an isolated counter-current heat exchanger subject to fouling, where ageing is described by a simple two-layer model. Solutions generated by an NLP-based approach prove to be superior to a simpler heuristic. A series of case studies demonstrate that combinations of chemical and mechanical cleaning can be superior to mechanical cleaning alone for certain combinations of parameters.

  6. Age-Related Variations in Intestinal Microflora of Free-Range and Caged Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Qiuju; Liu, Shengjun; Sun, Rui; Zhou, Yaqiang; Li, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens' intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens' gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form. Samples of whole small intestines and cecal digesta were collected from young hens (8-weeks) and mature laying hens (30-weeks). Based on analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA gene amplicons, the microflora of all intestinal contents were affected by both feeding patterns and age of hens. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the main components. Additionally, uncultured environmental samples were found too. There were large differences between young hens and adult laying hens, the latter had more Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and bacterial community is more abundant in 30-weeks laying hens of all six phyla than 8-weeks young hens of only two phyla. In addition, the differences were also observed between free range and caged hens. Free range hens had richer Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Most of strains found were detected more abundant in small intestines than in cecum. Also the selected Lactic acid bacteria from hens gut were applied in feed and they had beneficial effects on growth performance and jejunal villus growth of young broilers. This study suggested that feeding patterns have an importance effect on the microflora composition of hens, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  7. Effect of ispronicline, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in subjects with age associated memory impairment (AAMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Geoffrey C; Inglis, Fraser; Kuchibhatla, Ramana; Sharma, Tonmoy; Tomlinson, Mark; Wamsley, James

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive decline seen in the normal elderly is associated with selective loss of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Nicotine given either by inhalation or transdermally helps cognition, but unacceptable side effects limit its utility. The present study assessed the safety, tolerability and effect on cognition of ispronicline, a highly selective partial agonist at the 4beta2 nAChR, in elderly subjects (n =76) with age associated memory impairment (AAMI). This double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study explored ascending oral doses of ispronicline in the range 50-150 mg given as a single morning dose for a period of 3 weeks. Pharmacokinetics (PK) were assessed, as well as cognitive function measured by means of the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized test battery. Ispronicline had a favourable safety profile and was well tolerated at doses below 150 mg. No effect of clinical importance was seen on biochemistry, haematology, urine analysis, vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) or Holter monitoring. The most frequent drug induced adverse event was light-headedness (dizziness). A beneficial effect was seen on cognition across the dose range. This was most marked at 50 mg on factors measuring attention and episodic memory. PK analysis indicated a plasma Cmax range of 5-25/35 ng/ml ispronicline was associated with the most beneficial effect. These early results demonstrate ispronicline was well tolerated and did not display the side effects typical of nicotine. Ispronicline also had a beneficial effect on cognition in subjects with AAMI. This was seen most strongly in a Cmax range that had been predicted from pre-clinical animal studies.

  8. Endogenous sex hormones and memory performance in middle-aged Greek women with subjective memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeni, Eleni; Apostolakis, Michail; Christidi, Foteini; Rizos, Demetrios; Kaparos, George; Panoulis, Konstantinos; Augoulea, Areti; Alexandrou, Andreas; Karopoulou, Evangelia; Zalonis, Ioannis; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2018-02-01

    The changing hormonal milieu during the menopausal transition may contribute to the development of memory disorders. We aimed to assess the association of sex hormones with memory function in a sample of Greek middle-aged women. This pilot study included 44 women with subjective memory complaints. Memory performance was evaluated using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the Brief Visuospatial Memory test (BVMT), and the verbal digits backwards test (VSPAN), to assess verbal, visuospatial, and working memory performance, respectively. Menopausal symptoms were assessed using the Green Climacteric Scale. VSPAN backwards scores were positively associated with log-transformed free androgen index (logFAI), in models adjusted for age, education, log-transformed free estrogen index (logFEI), hypertension, and the intensity of menopausal symptoms. BVMT total scores were predicted by logFAI (b-coefficient = 0.424, p value = 0.002), education, and combined climacteric symptomatology, in a model adjusted for age, logFEI, and hypertension. Women with circulating estradiol above the median value of 10 pg/mL had better total HTLV total scores compared to women with estradiol values below the median (HTLV total scores, estradiol ≤ 10 pg/mL vs. > 10 pg/mL: 24.2 ± 3.6 vs. 30.0 ± 7.9, p value = 0.007 unadjusted). This association was affected by education and remained independent of menopausal symptoms and testosterone levels, education, and hypertension (model R 2 = 22.3%; b-coefficient = 0.318, p value = 0.024). Endogenous total estradiol is associated with verbal episodic memory, while logFAI is associated with working memory performance and visuospatial episodic memory in this sample of postmenopausal women. These associations were not influenced by age, education, or menopausal symptoms. Larger studies are necessary to evaluate the significance of our findings.

  9. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual...... perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of visual short-term memory based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates are presented at total sample level as well as at gender level. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory...... speed of Visual Short-term Memory (VTSM) but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular....

  10. Cross-cultural aging in cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethtel, Olivia; Chen, Yiwei

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined age and cultural differences in cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being. A sample of 188 American and Chinese young and older adults completed surveys measuring self-life satisfaction, perceived family's life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Across cultures, older adults reported lower negative affect than did young adults. Americans reported higher self-life satisfaction, perceived family's life satisfaction, and positive affect than did Chinese. In addition, perceived family's life satisfaction was more related to self-life satisfaction for Chinese than for Americans. Findings are discussed in light of socioemotional selectivity theory and theories on culture and self-construal. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Subjective Age and Health Perceptions of Older Persons: Maintaining the Youthful Bias in Sickness and in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Sara; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Self-reports of 250 persons over age 50 confirmed increasing bias toward reporting more youthful age as one ages. Optimistic perceptions of health were maintained in older subjects. Results from two subsets of sample (n=48) indicated that youthful and optimistic bias occurred both in older persons with poorer/failing health and in persons in…

  12. Renal thorium and uranium excretion in non-exposed subjects: influence of age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Roth, P.; Wendler, I.; Schramel, P.

    1998-01-01

    The excretion of 238 U and 232 Th was investigated by ICP-MS in a group of 30 males (mean age 41 ± 18 years, range 7 to 73 years) and 33 females (43 ± 21 years, 11 to 84 years). For the thorium excretion, the geometric mean is 34 μBq/day (SD 1.90) for the whole group, 40 μBq/day (SD 2.01) for the males and 30 μBq/day (SD 1.78) for the females. The difference between the males and females is statistically insignificant. A certain increase in the excretion was observed with increasing age but the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship is statistically insignificant. For uranium, the geometric means (SD) for the whole group, the male subgroup, and the female subgroup, in μBq/day, are 237 (2.50), 287 (2.09), and 200 (2.81). The difference between the two subgroups is statistically insignificant. The excretion increases slightly with age; the correlation coefficient of the linear relationship is statistically significant. The day-to-day fluctuations in the excretion of both Th and U are considerable. (P.A.)

  13. The impact of physical activity on endothelial function in middle-aged and elderly subjects: the Ikaria study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Zaromitidou, Marina; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Marinos, Georgios; Mazaris, Savvas; Kampaksis, Manolis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training and physical activity (PA) have substantial vascular and cardiac health benefits. Ikaria Island has been recognised as having one of the highest longevity rates worldwide and a high percentage of healthy ageing. We examined the relationship between endothelial function and levels of habitual PA to evaluate the factors related to healthy ageing in this population. The study was conducted on a subgroup population of the IKARIA study consisting of 185 middle-aged (40-65 years) and 142 elderly subjects (66-91 years). Endothelial function was evaluated by ultrasound measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). PA was evaluated using the shortened version of the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Subjects in the low PA group (physically inactive and the rest as active. In the overall study population FMD was inversely associated with age (r=-0.24, pphysically active had higher FMD compared with the physically inactive. Physically active subjects in the middle-aged group showed higher FMD compared with the physically active elderly (p=0.008). However, there was no difference in FMD values between middle-aged inactive subjects and the elderly physically active (p=NS). The present study revealed that increased PA was associated with improved endothelial function in middle-aged subjects and that PA in elderly subjects can ameliorate the devastating effects of ageing on arterial wall properties.

  14. Feeling old today? Daily health, stressors, and affect explain day-to-day variability in subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Neupert, Shevaun D; Stephan, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age is an important correlate of health, well-being, and longevity. So far, little is known about short-term variability in subjective age and the circumstances under which individuals feel younger/older in daily life. This study examined whether (a) older adults' felt age fluctuates on a day-to-day basis, (b) daily changes in health, stressors, and affect explain fluctuations in felt age, and (c) the daily associations between felt age and health, stressors, or affect are time-ordered. Using an eight-day daily diary approach, N = 43 adults (60-96 years, M = 74.65, SD = 8.19) filled out daily questionnaires assessing subjective age, health, daily stressors, and affect. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Subjective age, health, daily stressors, affect. Intra-individual variability in felt age was not explained by time but by short-term variability in other variables. Specifically, on days when participants experienced more than average health problems, stress, or negative affect they felt older than on days with average health, stress, or negative affect. No time-ordered effects were found. Bad health, many stressors, and negative affective experiences constitute circumstances under which older adults feel older than they typically do. Thus, daily measures of subjective age could be markers of health and well-being.

  15. Cervical flexion-rotation test and physiological range of motion - A comparative study of patients with myogenic temporomandibular disorder versus healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Tzvika; Dvir, Zeevi; Reiter, Shoshana; Winocur, Ephraim

    2017-02-01

    Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) refer to several common clinical disorders which involve the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the adjacent structures. Although neck signs and symptoms are found with higher prevalence in TMD patients compared to the overall population, whether limitation of cervical mobility is an additional positive finding in this cohort is still an open question. To compare the physiological cervical range of motion (CROM) and the extent of rotation during cervical flexion (flexion-rotation test, FRT) in people with TMD (muscular origin) and healthy control subjects. The range of motion of the neck and FRT was measured in 20 women with myogenic TMD and 20 age matched healthy controls. Women with myogenic TMD had significantly lower FRT scores compared to their matched healthy women. No difference was found between groups in CROM in any of the planes of movement. The FRT was positive (less than 32°) in 90% of the TMD participants versus 5% in the healthy control but the findings were not correlated with TMD severity. The results point out a potential involvement of the upper cervical joints (c1-c2) in women with myogenic TMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-01-01

    The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years) and old age (75-90 years). However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory ...

  17. Reference equations for handgrip strength: Normative values in young adult and middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Jordão; Grams, Samantha Torres; da Silva, Edy Floriano; de Medeiros, Luana Adriano; de Brito, Christina May Moran; Yamaguti, Wellington Pereira

    2018-06-01

    Handgrip strength (HS) has been widely used as a functionality parameter of the upper limbs (UL) and general health. The measurement of HS by dynamometry is a low cost, non-invasive method of simple applicability, widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation and in critical care units. However, there are no reports in the literature of reference equations for the Brazilian population involving young and middle-aged adults. The aim of this study was to establish reference equations to predict normal HS for young and middle-aged adults through demographic and anthropometric data. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 80 healthy subjects (40 men and 40 women), aged 20-60 years. Inclusion criteria were: 1) BMI between 18.5 and 30 kg/m 2 ; 2) presence of dominant hand; 3) no cardiac, pulmonary, metabolic, or neurologic diseases; 4) lack of musculoskeletal disorders; 5) no history of fractures or trauma of the UL. Anthropometric measurements of the UL were obtained by a tape (hand length and width, forearm circumference and length). The dominance of hands was defined by the Dutch Handedness Questionnaire. HS measures were obtained by a manual hydraulic dynamometer, according to the recommendations of the American Association of Hand Therapists. Data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows, version 17.0, and treated with descriptive and inferential analysis. Normality was evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Pearson or Spearman coefficients and multiple regression analysis were also used. HS was significantly higher for men compared to women, and also higher for the dominant hand (HSD) compared to the non-dominant hand (HSND) (p  0.05). No correlation was found between HS and age. A weak correlation was found between HS and BMI. A moderate correlation of HS was observed with weight and height. Finally, moderate and high correlations were found between HS and anthropometric variables of UL. The best reference equations with R 2 , adjusted to 0.71 and 0.70, were

  18. Beyond chronological age. Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Lange, A.H. de; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  19. Beyond chronological age : Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  20. Evaluation of CANDU NPP containment structure subjected to aging and internal pressure increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Kwon, Oh-Sung, E-mail: os.kwon@utoronto.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Bentz, Evan [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Tcherner, Julia [Candu Energy Inc. a member of SNC-Lavalin Group, Mississauga L5K 1B1 (Canada)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The aging effects on the performance of a nuclear containment structure is evaluated. • A numerical model of the structure is subjected to increasing internal pressure. • No through-thickness cracks are predicted under the design level internal pressure. • The structure is predicted to be ductile up to large internal pressure levels. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term performance of a typical CANDU® containment structure. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model was built to realistically evaluate the performance of the structure under service load as well as a hypothetical beyond-design level internal pressure. Consideration is given to the time-dependent effects, such as shrinkage, creep, and relaxation of prestressing tendons, over a 60-year timeframe. In addition, the sensitivity of the response of the containment structure against support condition, internal temperature profile and temporary construction openings was also investigated. The accuracy of the numerical model was validated against structural measurements made during a routine leak rate test. The analysis results show that the containment structure would develop a ductile mechanism if the internal pressure significantly exceeded the design pressure. The pressure-deformation relationship of the structure is sensitive to the considered time-dependent parameters.

  1. The continued use of sunscreen prevents the development of actinic keratosis in aged Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimoto, Kayo; Furukawa, Fukumi; Uede, Mikiko; Mizuno, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yuki

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the trigger for actinic keratosis (AK) mainly depends on UV exposure. We evaluated the effects of long-term use of sunscreen on the histopathological and dermoscopic changes of AK in aged patients. Eighteen months use of sunscreen produced no change in the number of actinic keratoses or the advancement of histological grade. Although a significant decrease was not observed in the number of positive cells of p53, Ki-67 and COX-2 of the subjects who used sunscreen for 18 months, the downward tendencies of these proteins were observed. The continued use of sunscreen decreased the number of CD31-positive vessels significantly using the Chalkley method, and a significant improvement in scaling and vessel dots was found by dermoscopic study. Moreover, a relationship was found in the amount of sunscreen use and the number of actinic keratoses. Considering these results, it was thought that application of sunscreen reduces the risk of advancement of AK to higher grade AK and squamous cell carcinoma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Validation of a novel automatic sleep spindle detector with high performance during sleep in middle aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Christensen, Julie A. E.; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Many of the automatic sleep spindle detectors currently used to analyze sleep EEG are either validated on young subjects or not validated thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a fast and reliable sleep spindle detector with high performance in middle aged subjects....... An automatic sleep spindle detector using a bandpass filtering approach and a time varying threshold was developed. The validation was done on sleep epochs from EEG recordings with manually scored sleep spindles from 13 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.9 ± 9.7 years. The sleep spindle detector reached...

  3. Subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderate the association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval

    2016-09-01

    Little research has addressed the association between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the second half of life. This study examined whether subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderate this association. 339 community-dwelling older adults (age range 50-90; M = 65.44, SD = 9.77) were sampled through random dialing to Jewish residents in the south of Israel. Participants completed a phone-questionnaire on PTS symptoms, level of PTG, subjective age, and perceived distance-to-death. Higher levels of PTS symptoms were both linearly and curvilinearly related to higher PTG. Additionally, subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderated this association in a linear way, so that the association was strongest in participants who reported younger subjective age and further distance-to-death. The findings emphasize the moderating effect of two time perspectives, one that focuses on time since birth and another that concerns the time that remains before death. These two perspectives affect the association between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth within older individuals.

  4. Brief Report : Influence of gender and age on parent reported subjective well-being in children with and without autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, Sander; Ma, Yujie; Koot, Hans M.; Wierda, Marlies; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with reduced Subjective well-being (SWB). To examine the influence of gender and age on well-being we collected parent reported SWB in children with or without ASD (total n = 1030), aged 8–14 years. Parents reported lower SWB for children with ASD

  5. Factors affecting perception thresholds of vertical whole-body vibration in recumbent subjects: Gender and age of subjects, and vibration duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Maeda, S.; Iwane, Y.; Iwata, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Some factors that may affect human perception thresholds of the vertical whole-body vibrations were investigated in two laboratory experiments with recumbent subjects. In the first experiment, the effects of gender and age of subjects on perception were investigated with three groups of 12 subjects, i.e., young males, young females and old males. For continuous sinusoidal vibrations at 2, 4, 8, 16, 31.5 and 63 Hz, there were no significant differences in the perception thresholds between male and female subjects, while the thresholds of young subjects tended to be significantly lower than the thresholds of old subjects. In the second experiment, the effect of vibration duration was investigated by using sinusoidal vibrations, at the same frequencies as above, modulated by the Hanning windows with different lengths (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 s) for 12 subjects. It was found that the peak acceleration at the threshold tended to decrease with increasing duration of vibration. The perception thresholds were also evaluated by the running root-mean-square (rms) acceleration and the fourth power acceleration method defined in the current standards. The differences in the threshold of the transient vibrations for different durations were less with the fourth power acceleration method. Additionally, the effect of the integration time on the threshold was investigated for the running rms acceleration and the fourth power acceleration. It was found that the integration time that yielded less differences in the threshold of vibrations for different durations depended on the frequency of vibration.

  6. Prognostics of damage accural in SSL luminaires and drivers subjected to HTSL accelerated aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Sakalaukus, Peter [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-07-16

    This paper will show an investigation of off-the-shelf luminaires with the focus on the LED electronic drivers, specifically the aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs), that have been aged using high temperature shelf life (HTSL) testing of 135°C in order to prognosticate the remaining useful life of the luminaires. Luminaires have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects being stored at high temperatures for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understanding and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products. In this work, the four AECs of three different types inside each LED electronic driver were studied. The change in capacitance and the change in equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the AECs were measured and considered to be a leading indication of failure of the LED system. These indicators were used to make remaining useful life predictions to develop an algorithm to predict the end of life of the AECs. The luminous flux of a pristine downlight module was also monitored using each LED electronic driver that was subjected to HTSL through the progression of the testing to determine a correlation between the light output of the lamp and the failing components of the LED electronic driver. Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) is a useful tool for assessment of the remaining life of electrical components and is demonstrated for AECs in this work.

  7. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species.

  8. Comparative study of joint range of motion in children between 7 and 12 years of age from different gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I.L. Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare active and passive joint range of motion in children in relation to gender and age. This study involved 103 children (43 boys and 60 girls categorized into two groups: G1 (7 to 9 years old and G2 (10 to 12 years old. The flexitest protocol, active and passive, and the SAPO® were used to evaluate joint range of motion. A paired t test was applied to compare active and passive joint range of motion and an independent t test (p < .05 was used to compare active and passive range of motion between gender and age. Results showed that the passive joint ranges of motion of the lower limbs are higher than active motion (p < .001. Girls presented greater passive ankle flexion than boys did (p = .002. Children between 7 and 12 years of age presented similar standards of joint range of motion of low limb. Significant differences were found between passive and active angular range of motion in the hip, knee and ankle. There were no differences between boys and girls in the joint range of motion as well as among age groups.

  9. What about time? : Examining chronological and subjective age and their relation to work motivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans,; De Lange,; Van der Heijden,; Kooij, T.A.M.; Jansen,; Dikkers,

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aging workforce is becoming an increasingly important topic in today’s labor market. However, most scientific research and organizational policies focus on chronological age as the main determinant of successful aging. Based on life span developmental theories – primarily socioemotional

  10. What about time? Examining chronological and subjective age and their relation to work motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Lange, A.H. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE - The aging workforce is becoming an increasingly important topic in today’s labor market. However, most scientific research and organizational policies focus on chronological age as the main determinant of successful aging. Based on life span developmental theories – primarily

  11. What about Time? Examining Chronological and Subjective Age and their Relation to Work Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; de Lange, A.H.; Van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; Kooij, T.A.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aging workforce is becoming an increasingly important topic in today’s labor market. However, most scientific research and organizational policies focus on chronological age as the main determinant of successful aging. Based on life span developmental theories – primarily socioemotional

  12. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....

  13. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and dose requirements of factor VIII over the age range 3-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Sven; Folkesson, Anna; Jönsson, Siv

    2009-01-01

    in the sparse clinical data. Model-predicted doses (based on age and body weight) to maintain a recommended 0.01 U/mL trough level of FVIII with administration on alternate days started at around 60 U/kg in the small children, decreasing to 10 U/kg or less in middle age. However, "true" dose requirements......, as estimated from individual PK parameter data, showed a much greater variation. CONCLUSION: Appropriate dosing of FVIII for prophylactic treatment cannot be calculated only from body weight and/or age. However, plausible starting doses for most patients would be 1,000 U every other day. FVIII levels should...... can be calculated according to patient characteristics, and (3) to present dosing recommendations for initiating prophylactic treatment. METHODS: A population PK model was developed using data from four PK studies on patients aged 7-74 years. The model was tested on sparse FVIII data from 42...

  15. Comparison of Physical Therapy with Energy Healing for Improving Range of Motion in Subjects with Restricted Shoulder Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Linda Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two forms of energy healing, Reconnective Healing (RH and Reiki, which involve light or no touch, were tested for efficacy against physical therapy (PT for increasing limited range of motion (ROM of arm elevation in the scapular plane. Participants were assigned to one of 5 groups: PT, Reiki, RH, Sham Healing, or no treatment. Except for no treatment, participants were blinded as to grouping. Range of Motion, self-reported pain, and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed before and after a 10-minute session. On average, for PT, Reiki, RH, Sham Healing, and no treatment, respectively, ROM increased by 12°, 20°, 26°, 0.6°, and 3° and pain score decreased by 11.5%, 10.1%, 23.9%, 15.4%, and 0%. Physical therapy, Reiki, and RH were more effective than Sham Healing for increasing ROM (PT: , ; Reiki: , ; RH: , . It is possible that this improvement was not mediated by myofascial release because the subjects’ HRV did not change, suggesting no significant increase in vagal activity. Sham treatment significantly reduced pain compared to no treatment (, and was just as effective as PT, Reiki, and RH. It is the authors’ opinion that the accompanying pain relief is a placebo effect.

  16. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K. Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees. PMID:29379452

  17. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  18. Age-related normal ranges for the Haller index in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daunt, Stephen W.; Cohen, Justine H.; Miller, Stephen F.

    2004-01-01

    The Haller index is an accepted CT method for evaluating thoracic dimensions in patients with pectus excavatum. The purpose of this study is to establish age- and gender-related norms for the Haller index in childhood. We retrospectively reviewed 574 consecutive chest CT examinations (M=285, F=289) performed at our institution from August 2001 through March 2002. Seventeen patients with a history of chest-wall deformity, trauma, or syndrome were excluded, for a total sample size of 557 patients. The Haller index was calculated for each patient, using electronic calipers. The sample population was then separated by gender and placed into 2-year age groupings. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons were performed to determine significance at a=0.05. The least-square mean Haller index values for each age group and gender were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. In both males and females, the 0- to 2-year age group showed a significantly smaller mean Haller index than older children. In addition, females had significantly greater Haller index values than males in the 0- to 6- and 12- to 18-year age groups. The Haller index, a quantitative measurement of chest-wall configuration, demonstrates significant age- and gender-related variability. This should be considered when evaluating the patient with suspected chest-wall deformity. (orig.)

  19. The ability of an electrocardiogram to predict fatal and non-fatal cardiac events in asymptomatic middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, Henri K; Tikkanen, Jani T; Kenttä, Tuomas V; Junttila, M Juhani; Aro, Aapo L; Anttonen, Olli; Kerola, Tuomas; Rissanen, Harri A; Knekt, Paul; Reunanen, Antti; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2016-11-01

    The long-term prognostic value of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) for predicting cardiac events in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects is not well defined. A total of 9511 middle-aged subjects (mean age 43 ± 8.2 years, 52% males) without a known cardiac disease and with a follow-up 40 years were included in the study. Fatal and non-fatal cardiac events were collected from the national registries. The predictive value of ECG was separately analyzed for 10 and 30 years. Major ECG abnormalities were classified according to the Minnesota code. Subjects with major ECG abnormalities (N = 1131) had an increased risk of cardiac death after 10-years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.1-2.5, p = 0.009) and 30-years of follow-up (HR 1.3, 95% CI, 1.1-1.5, p electrocardiogram are shown to have prognostic significance for cardiac events in elderly subjects without known cardiac disease. Our results suggest that ECG abnormalities increase the risk of fatal cardiac events also in middle-aged healthy subjects.

  20. Evaluation of mental foramen location in the 10–70 years age range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-18

    Aug 18, 2015 ... is useful in cases of surgery, root canal treatment, apical ... by radiologists even in a panoramic radiograph. Even if identified ... or skeletal anomalies and between 10 and 70 years old were included in this study. Subjects with missing or incorrect images and individuals with cystic tumors in the MF region.

  1. Reference hearing thresholds in an extended frequency range as a function of age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jilek, Milan; Šuta, Daniel; Syka, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 4 (2014), s. 1821-1830 ISSN 0001-4966 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1342; GA ČR GAP304/10/1872 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : hearing * audiometry * earphones Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.503, year: 2014

  2. Age-Associated Decline in Dendritic Cell Function and the Impact of Mediterranean Diet Intervention in Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Clements

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAging is accompanied by increased susceptibility to infection and age-associated chronic diseases. It is also associated with reduced vaccine responses, which is often attributed to immunosenescence and the functional decline of the immune system. Immunosenescence is characterized by a chronic, low-grade, inflammatory state termed inflammaging. Habitants of Mediterranean (MED regions maintain good health into old age; often attributed to MED diets.HypothesisAdoption of a MED-diet by elderly subjects, in Norfolk (UK, may improve immune responses of these individuals and in particular, dendritic cell (DC function.Experimental approachA total of 120 elderly subjects (65–79 years old recruited onto the Nu-AGE study, a multicenter European dietary study specifically addressing the needs of the elderly, across five countries, and were randomized to the control or MED-diet groups, for one year. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-intervention for DC analysis and were compared with each other, and to samples obtained from 45 young (18–40 years old subjects. MED-diet compliance was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography-with tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urine samples. Immune cell and DC subset numbers and concentrations of secreted proteins were determined by flow cytometric analysis.ResultsAs expected, reduced myeloid DC numbers were observed in blood samples from elderly subjects compared with young. The elevated secretion of the adipokine, resistin, after ex vivo stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly subjects, was significantly reduced after MED-diet intervention.ConclusionThis study provides further evidence of numerical and functional effects of aging on DCs. The MED-diet showed potential to impact on the aging immune cells investigated and could provide an economical approach to address problems associated with our aging population.

  3. Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel subjected to long-term annealing in the spinodal decomposition temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.H.; Kwok, C.T.; Chan, W.K.; Zeng, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long-term DLEPR data on duplex stainless steel. ► Spinodal decomposition remains unabated even after 15,000 h of annealing. ► Effect of long-term annealing on healing has been investigated. - Abstract: The effect of thermal annealing up to 15,000 h between 300 °C and 500 °C on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel (DSS) 7MoPLUS has been investigated by using the DLEPR test. Spinodal decomposition in 7MoPLUS is unabated even after annealing for 15,000 h and no healing has been observed. The possible healing mechanisms in this temperature range (back diffusion of Cr atoms from the Cr-rich ferrite (α Cr ) and diffusion of Cr atoms from the austenite) and its absence in the present steel have been discussed.

  4. Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel subjected to long-term annealing in the spinodal decomposition temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.H., E-mail: KHLO@umac.mo [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China); Kwok, C.T.; Chan, W.K.; Zeng, D. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term DLEPR data on duplex stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spinodal decomposition remains unabated even after 15,000 h of annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of long-term annealing on healing has been investigated. - Abstract: The effect of thermal annealing up to 15,000 h between 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel (DSS) 7MoPLUS has been investigated by using the DLEPR test. Spinodal decomposition in 7MoPLUS is unabated even after annealing for 15,000 h and no healing has been observed. The possible healing mechanisms in this temperature range (back diffusion of Cr atoms from the Cr-rich ferrite ({alpha}{sub Cr}) and diffusion of Cr atoms from the austenite) and its absence in the present steel have been discussed.

  5. [Influence of Sex and Age on Contrast Sensitivity Subject to the Applied Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, Sabine; Bergmann, Lisa; Blaschke, Saskia; Böckelmann, Irina

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to detect gender and age differences in both photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity with different methods in relation to German driver's license regulations (Fahrerlaubnisverordnung; FeV). We examined 134 healthy volunteers (53 men, 81 women) with an age between 18 and 76 years, that had been divided into two groups (AG I Mars charts under standardized illumination were applied for photopic contrast sensitivity. We could not find any gender differences. When evaluating age, there were no differences between the two groups for the Mars charts nor in the Rodatest. In all other tests, the younger volunteers achieved significantly better results. For contrast vision, there exists age-adapted cut-off-values. Concerning the driving safety of traffic participants, sufficient photopic and mesopic contrast vision should be focused on, independent of age. Therefore, there is a need to reconsider the age-adapted cut-off-values. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  7. Night shift work at specific age ranges and chronic disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Cody; Devore, Elizabeth E; Wang, Weike; Pierre-Paul, Jeffrey; Wegrzyn, Lani R; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association of night shift work history and age when night shift work was performed with cancer and cardiovascular disease risk factors among 54 724 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II. Methods We calculated age-adjusted and socioeconomic status-adjusted means and percentages for cancer and cardiovascular risk factors in 2009 across categories of night shift work history. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for key risk factors among 54 724 participants (72% ever shift workers). We further examined these associations by age (20–25, 26–35, 36– 45 and 46+ years) at which shift work was performed. Results Ever night shift workers had increased odds of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2; OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.43); higher caffeine intake (≥131 mg/day; OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.22) and total calorie intake (≥1715 kcal/day; OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.13); current smoking (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.42); and shorter sleep durations (≤7 h of sleep/day; OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.24) compared to never night shift workers. These estimates varied depending on age at which night work was performed, with a suggestion that night shift work before age 25 was associated with fewer risk factors compared to night shift work at older ages. Conclusions Our results indicate that night shift work may contribute to an adverse chronic disease risk profile, and that risk factors may vary depending on the age at which night shift work was performed. PMID:25261528

  8. Subjective and objective perceptions of specular gloss and surface roughness of esthetic resin composites before and after artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci-Pfister, Nadine; Göhring, Till N

    2009-04-01

    To correlate measurements of specular gloss and surface roughness of resin composite materials with subjective perception of luster before and after artificial aging. Polished specimens of eight composites were compared with human enamel (HE): microfilled SR Adoro (SR); microhybrid Artemis (AR), Enamel HFO (EHFO), Miris (MI), Tetric Ceram (TC), Venus (VE); and nanohybrid CeramX (CX) and nanofilled Filtek Supreme (FS). Before, during and after artificial aging (6000 thermal changes between 5 degrees C and 50 degrees C in an artificial oral environment, 240 hours storage in a container with ethanol, 300 minutes of toothbrushing), specular gloss and surface roughness were measured. Initial and endpoint gloss results were correlated with subjective luster rankings of 10 individuals. Artificial aging resulted in minor (EHFO, CX, FS), moderate (SR, MI, TC, VE) to high (AR) increases in surface roughness. Specular gloss decreased linearly for SR and FS, but decreased after an initial increase for all other materials. Subjectively, AR and FS were rated more and TC, VE and CX less lustrous than HE at baseline. After aging, luster of EHFO and FS was ranked higher and AR, TC, and VE lower than HE. Surface roughness was consistent with subjective perceptions (correlation coefficient: initial r = 0.913; endpoint r = 0.944, P artificial aging (initial r = 0.616, P = 0.1084; endpoint r = 0.834, P = 0.0072).

  9. Anxiety Sensitivity and Age: Roles in Understanding Subjective Social Status among Low Income Adult Latinos in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Manning, Kara; Lemaire, Chad; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Lia J; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa

    2018-06-01

    One social determinant of health construct that is reliably related to health disparities among the Latino population is subjective social status, reflecting subjective ratings of social standing. Yet, little research has explored factors that may undergird variability in subjective social status among this population or in general. Accordingly, the present investigation examined one possible etiological model wherein age moderates the relation between individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) and subjective social status among a Latino primary care sample. Participants included Spanish-speaking Latino adults (n = 394; 86.5% female; average age = 39.0 years). Results demonstrated an interaction between the anxiety sensitivity and age for subjective social status among the Latino sample. Inspection of the form of the significant interaction indicated that the association between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was evident among older, but not younger, persons. The current findings suggest that decreasing anxiety sensitivity, especially among older Latinos, may be one possible viable therapeutic approach to change subjective social status in order to help offset health disparities among this group.

  10. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, Andr? J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 yea...

  11. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years and old age (75-90 years. However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory of socio-emotional selectivity (Socioemotional Selectivity Theory L.L. Carstensen, who makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the specificity and mechanisms of selection in social interaction in elderly and old age. Central mechanisms of socio-emotional selection in the later ages are the awareness of time and limited future time perspective, which enhances the awareness of mortality.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannahgrass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses I: Productivity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass growth, performance and quality are affected by abiotic stress factors and are of primary concern for persons managing turfgrass areas under seasonal tropical climates. Under these conditions, common Savannahgrass (SG may have a performance advantage over imported hybrid turfgrasses. A greenhouse study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the performance of tropical turfgrasses exposed to water and compaction related stresses across a range of soils, with or without the addition of a surface sand layer. Turfgrass productivity and quality was monitored over a four-month growth period. Clipping yield (CY was lower at the higher compaction effort for all turfgrasses, but across all stresses, drought (D and waterlogging (WL resulted in lower CY. Values were significantly lower under D. SG had the highest clipping yield across all soils. The chlorophyll index (CI was lower for all turfgrasses under water-induced stress compared to compaction stresses. SG had a significantly higher CI across all stress treatments. Correlation analysis showed a positive (r² = 0.420 and significant (p < 0.05 relationship between CY and CI. Similar to CI, stress type influenced turfgrass visual quality (VQ, with D stress, resulting in the lowest VQ rating among turfgrasses. Bermudagrass (BG had the lowest VQ across all stress treatments, whilst, comparatively, Zoysiagrass (ZG had significantly higher VQ under high compaction (HC, low compaction (LC and WL stress. Overall, SG showed a higher level of tolerance to applied stresses and warrants greater attention as a potential turfgrass under tropical conditions.

  13. Age and Sex Effects on Plasma Metabolite Association Networks in Healthy Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignoli, Alessia; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio; Saccenti, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In the era of precision medicine, the analysis of simple information like sex and age can increase the potential to better diagnose and treat conditions that occur more frequently in one of the two sexes, present sex-specific symptoms and outcomes, or are characteristic of a specific age group. We

  14. [Nutritional Status of Japanese Women of Childbearing Age and the Ideal Weight Range for Pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kyoko; Kodama, Hiroko; Kido, Michiko

    2018-01-01

    According to the recent 2015 Nutrition Survey, the prevalence of being underweight (Body Mass Index, BMI pregnancy. For optimal weight gain during pregnancy, existing guidelines recommend different ranges of weight gain based on prepregnancy BMI. Owing to the absence of official GWG recommendations in Asian countries, including China and Taiwan, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines are generally followed. However, Asian women are smaller and experience lower weight gains; therefore, excessive weight gain may lead to harmful events including macrosomia, preterm birth, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and short- and long-term postpartum weight retention. Thus, an accurate GWG range should be determined for Asian women. We introduce one epidemiological study in which the optimal weight gain range was investigated by analyzing receiver-operating characteristic curves together with potential research ideas in this field with the aim of encouraging young researchers to solve this public health problem affecting mothers and children.

  15. Interrelations between orthostatic postural deviations and subjects' age, sex, malocclusion, and specific signs and symptoms of functional pathologies of the temporomandibular system: a preliminary correlation and regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Wagner Cesar; Hsing, Wu Tu

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the relationships between postural deviations and the temporomandibular system (TS) functional health are controversial and inconclusive. This study stems from the hypothesis that such inconclusiveness is due to authors considering functional pathologies of the TS (FPTS) as a whole, without taking into account subjects' specific FPTS signs and symptoms. Based on the author and collaborators' previous studies, the present study analyzed data on body posture from a sample of 50 subjects with (30) and without (20) FPTS. Correlation analyses were applied, taking as independent variables age, sex, Helkimo anamnestic, occlusal, and dysfunction indices, as well as FPTS specific signs and symptoms. Postural assessments of the head, cervical spine, shoulders, lumbar spine, and hips were the dependent variables. Linear regression equations were built that proved to partially predict the presence and magnitude of body posture deviations by drawing on subjects' characteristics and specific FPTS symptoms. Determination coefficients for these equations ranged from 0.082 to 0.199 in the univariate, and from 0.121 to 0.502 in the multivariate regression analyses. Results show that factors intrinsic to the subjects or the TS may potentially interfere in results of studies that analyze relationships between FPTS and body posture. Furthermore, a trend to specificity was found, e.g. the degree of cervical lordosis was found to correlate to age and FPTS degree of severity, suggesting that some TS pathological features, or malocclusion, age or sex, may be more strongly correlated than others with specific posture patterns.

  16. Night shift work at specific age ranges and chronic disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Cody; Devore, Elizabeth E; Wang, Weike; Pierre-Paul, Jeffrey; Wegrzyn, Lani R; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of night shift work history and age when night shift work was performed with cancer and cardiovascular disease risk factors among 54 724 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II. We calculated age-adjusted and socioeconomic status-adjusted means and percentages for cancer and cardiovascular risk factors in 2009 across categories of night shift work history. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for key risk factors among 54 724 participants (72% ever shift workers). We further examined these associations by age (20-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46+ years) at which shift work was performed. Ever night shift workers had increased odds of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2); OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.43); higher caffeine intake (≥131 mg/day; OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.22) and total calorie intake (≥1715 kcal/day; OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.13); current smoking (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.42); and shorter sleep durations (≤7 h of sleep/day; OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.24) compared to never night shift workers. These estimates varied depending on age at which night work was performed, with a suggestion that night shift work before age 25 was associated with fewer risk factors compared to night shift work at older ages. Our results indicate that night shift work may contribute to an adverse chronic disease risk profile, and that risk factors may vary depending on the age at which night shift work was performed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Isotopes and ages in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Ronald W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2003-01-01

    Strontium, oxygen and lead isotopic and rubidium-strontium geochronologic studies have been completed on Cretaceous and Jurassic (?) granitic rock samples from the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith in southern California. Many of these samples were collected systematically and studied chemically by A. K. Baird and colleagues (Baird and others, 1979). The distribution of these granitic rocks is shown in the Santa Ana, Perris, and San Jacinto Blocks, bounded by the Malibu Coast-Cucamonga, Banning, and San Andreas fault zones, and the Pacific Ocean on the map of the Peninsular Ranges batholith and surrounding area, southern California. The granitic rock names are by Baird and Miesch (1984) who used a modal mineral classification that Bateman and others (1963) used for granitic rocks in the Sierra Nevada batholith. In this classification, granitic rocks have at least 10% quartz. Boundaries between rock types are in terms of the ratio of alkali-feldspar to total feldspar: quartz diorite, 0-10%; granodiorite, 10-35%; quartz monzonite 35-65%; granite >65%. Gabbros have 0-10% quartz. Data for samples investigated are giv in three tables: samples, longitude, latitude, specific gravity and rock type (Table 1); rubidium and strontium data for granitic rocks of the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California (Table 2); U, Th, Pb concentrations, Pb and Sr initial isotopic compositions, and δ18O permil values for granitic rocks of the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith (table 3).

  18. Free-ranging dogs show age related plasticity in their ability to follow human pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Debottam; N, Nikhil Dev; Gupta, Shreya; Sau, Shubhra; Sarkar, Rohan; Biswas, Arpita; Banerjee, Arunita; Babu, Daisy; Mehta, Diksha; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    Differences in pet dogs' and captive wolves' ability to follow human communicative intents have led to the proposition of several hypotheses regarding the possession and development of social cognitive skills in dogs. It is possible that the social cognitive abilities of pet dogs are induced by indirect conditioning through living with humans, and studying free-ranging dogs can provide deeper insights into differentiating between innate abilities and conditioning in dogs. Free-ranging dogs are mostly scavengers, indirectly depending on humans for their sustenance. Humans can act both as food providers and as threats to these dogs, and thus understanding human gestures can be a survival need for the free-ranging dogs. We tested the responsiveness of such dogs in urban areas toward simple human pointing cues using dynamic proximal points. Our experiment showed that pups readily follow proximal pointing and exhibit weaker avoidance to humans, but stop doing so at the later stages of development. While juveniles showed frequent and prolonged gaze alternations, only adults adjusted their behaviour based on the reliability of the human experimenter after being rewarded. Thus free-ranging dogs show a tendency to respond to human pointing gestures, with a certain level of behavioural plasticity that allows learning from ontogenic experience.

  19. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  20. Impact of age and gender interaction on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alexandra; Ayoubi, Fida; Deveaux, Christel; Charbit, Beny; Delmau, Catherine; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Jaillon, Patrice; Uzan, Georges; Simon, Tabassome

    2010-02-01

    To assess the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPC) in cycling women compared with men and menopausal women. Controlled clinical study. Healthy, nonsmoking volunteers. Twelve women, aged 18-40 years, with regular menstrual cycles, 12 menopausal women, and two groups of 12 age-matched men were recruited. Women did not receive any hormone therapy. Collection of 20 mL of peripheral blood. The number of CEPC, defined as (Lin-/7AAD-/CD34+/CD133+/KDR+) cells per 10(6) mononuclear cells (MNC), was measured by flow cytometry. The number of CEPC was significantly higher in cycling women than in age-matched men and menopausal women (26.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10 per 10(6) MNC, respectively). The number of CEPC was similar in menopausal women, age-matched, and young men. The number of CEPC is influenced by an age-gender interaction. This phenomenon may explain in part the better vascular repair and relative cardiovascular protection in younger women as compared with age-matched men. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical chemical evaluation of sugarcane spirit with Anatto subjected to gamma irradiation for aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Vanessa C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Pires, Juliana A.; Scanholato, Mariana; Santos, Mariana R.; Bortoleto, Gisele G.

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane spirit beverage has economic and cultural importance in Brazil, and is produced by distilling the fermented sugarcane juice. The aging process, generally done in oak barrels, consists of chemical reactions which occur slowly and continuously, leading to richer and more complex flavours. Annatto, a native fruit from tropical America is used in the production of natural dyes, in the replacement for artificial colorants, especially by the food industry. Also, the beverage industry uses it to make products resembling the natural aged ones. Nowadays, modern methods use irradiation to accelerate the aging process. There are many reasons to use it in sugarcane spirit production: sterilizing the wort, changing sensory characteristics of sugarcane liquor and aging speedup. For this study, samples of sugarcane spirit were obtained at FATEC Piracicaba and annatto was added at a ratio of 3%, when using annatto seeds, and 0.25%, when using annatto extract. The samples, except the controls, were directly irradiated in polyethylene containers with doses of 200 Gy and 300 Gy at a rate of 0.406 Gy/h. The evaluation parameters were soluble solids, pH, acidity and ashes content. For statistical purposes, the Tukey test was used with a 5% significance level. From the obtained results, the gamma radiation ages the sugarcane spirit and parameters as soluble solids and acidity can be used for aging determination. Annatto addition is allowed in the process. (author)

  2. Long-term loss of radium in 63 subjects first exposed at ages 6 to 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.T.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The absorbed dose to bone following the deposition of radium in the skeleton is principally determined by its long-term rate of clearance. In mice, rats, and dogs injected with alkaline-earth radionuclides at various ages between puberty and young adulthood, a negative correlation was observed between the age at injection and the skeletal uptake of the radionuclide and, at short times after injection, a positive correlation was observed between the age at injection and the fraction of the contemporary body content of the radionuclide excreted per unit of time, whereas at long times after injection the fractional clearance rate was found to be largely independent of the age at injection. Age-dependent models of radium retention proposed for man conform to the metabolic observations in animals in their assumption that at long times after intake the fraction of the contemporary body content of radium excreted per unit of time is independent of the age at intake. In this paper, we investigate whether this assumption is supported by the data on the long-term retention of radium in radium-exposed persons

  3. Consideration on A.C. electric motor subjected to thermal and radiation accelerated ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doina, Segarceanu; Geambau, C.

    2001-01-01

    In the containment building of a nuclear reactor there are many types of equipment, such as motors, valve and transducers. Electric motors used in nuclear power stations operate under specific environmental conditions. These conditions are determinate by temperature, humidity, pressure, radiation and they may be normal conditions in service, or may be accident conditions occur during the postulated LOCA event. The testing of electric motors capability to meet and exceed the required performances under specific operating environmental conditions all along its operating life implies the performing of a sequence of tests in which the environmental conditions are simulated in a accelerated manner followed by accident simulation tests. Simulating the ageing position of the test sequence is more difficult because of the problem of extrapolating the results of short term accelerated laboratory experiments to the long term exposure (up to 30 years) that actually occur in a nuclear plant. Thermally induced ageing is the most frequently used ageing stress and also the most easily. The insulated system of a motor ageing under the influence of temperature and high - energy radiation can suffer important changes in its electro-insulating properties. Thus, by way of accelerated ageing motors are brought under conditions equivalent to those at the end of their service life, in a relatively short time. Accelerated ageing enables a shorting of electric motor performance evaluation time. (author)

  4. Effects of age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of human nucleus pulposus cells on selecting age range for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J S; Lee, S M; Jeong, S W; Sung, Y G; Lee, J H; Kim, K W

    2016-07-01

    Autologous disc cell implantation, growth factors and gene therapy appear to be promising therapies for disc regeneration. Unfortunately, the replicative lifespan and growth kinetics of human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells related to host age are unclear. We investigated the potential relations among age, replicative lifespan and growth rate of NP cells, and determined the age range that is suitable for cell-based biological therapies for degenerative disc diseases. We used NP tissues classified by decade into five age groups: 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s and 70s. The mean cumulative population doubling level (PDL) and population doubling rate (PDR) of NP cells were assessed by decade. We also investigated correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR decreased significantly in patients in their 60s. The mean cumulative PDL and PDR in the younger groups (30s, 40s and 50s) were significantly higher than those in the older groups (60s and 70s). There also were significant negative correlations between cumulative PDL and age, and between PDR and age. We found that the replicative lifespan and growth rate of human NP cells decreased with age. The replicative potential of NP cells decreased significantly in patients 60 years old and older. Young individuals less than 60 years old may be suitable candidates for NP cell-based biological therapies for treating degenerative disc diseases.

  5. Inaccuracy of age assessment from images of postpubescent subjects in cases of alleged child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L

    2013-03-01

    Despite frequent medical expert testimony authoritatively stating that images of individuals who are postpubescent indicate age less than 18 and therefore, child pornography, developmental experts have noted that a scientific basis for such estimation is lacking. In fact, recent studies have demonstrated a high degree of inaccuracy in such estimates, and that the stage of breast development often used as indicative of age under 18 years is present in a substantial percentage of adult women. Ten images of adult women from legitimate pornographic sites promoting youthful images were shown to 16 pediatric endocrinologists expert in evaluating maturation, who determined whether or not the individuals represented were under 18 years of age. They also provided information about what features were most important in their evaluations. Sixty-nine percent of the 160 estimates were that the images represented females under 18 years of age. There was wide variability in the designation of importance of the various features of maturation in reaching conclusions, with breast development and facial appearance considered most important. This study confirms that medical testimony, even by experts in adolescent development, can deem images of adult women selected for their youthful appearance to be under age 18 two thirds of the time. Thus, important as prosecuting users of child pornographic material may be, justice requires the avoidance of testimony that is not scientifically based.

  6. The impact of age-class and social context on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging male giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, T E; Bennett, N C; Burroughs, R; Ganswindt, A

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary sources of perceived stress is the social environment of an animal and the interactions with conspecifics. An essential component of the response to a stressor is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, which results amongst others in a temporal increase in circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Giraffes occur in a highly flexible fission-fusion social system and group compositions can change on a daily basis, with bulls establishing an age-related dominance hierarchy and showing a roaming strategy in the search for fertile females. The aim of this study was to non-invasively monitor the influence of different group compositions (mixed sex groups vs. all-male groups) on GC concentrations in free ranging giraffe bulls of different age classes. We collected fecal samples from free-ranging giraffe bulls for 12months in a South African Private Game Reserve to examine age- and social context-related patterns of fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations. We found that fGCM levels in giraffe bulls are age-class dependent, as well asassociated with changes in the social environment. Independently of the social setting, bulls of the youngest age class exhibited the highest fGCM levels compared to bulls of the other two older age-classes, with differences most pronounced when the bulls are associated in all-male groups. In contrast, an almost reversed picture appears when looking at the fGCM levels of sexually active individuals in mixed sex groups, where highest levels were found for the bulls in the oldest age-class, and the lowest for the bulls in the youngest age-class. The study stresses the importance to taking factors such asage-related status and social settings into account, when interpreting fGCM levels in free ranging giraffes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range - A German Representative Community Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred E Beutel

    Full Text Available Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1 and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14-29 years. Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years, men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating.

  8. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range - A German Representative Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Klein, Eva M; Aufenanger, Stefan; Brähler, Elmar; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W; Quiring, Oliver; Reinecke, Leonard; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Stark, Birgit; Wölfling, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men) between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1) and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14-29 years). Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years), men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment) are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating.

  9. Procrastination, Distress and Life Satisfaction across the Age Range – A German Representative Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the lack of population-based data the purpose of this representative study was to assess procrastination and its associations with distress and life satisfaction across the life span. A representative German community sample (1,350 women; 1,177 men) between the ages of 14 and 95 years was examined by the short form of the General Procrastination Scale (GPS-K; 1) and standardized scales of perceived stress, depression, anxiety, fatigue and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, procrastination was highest in the youngest cohort (14–29 years). Only in the youngest and most procrastinating cohort (aged 14 to 29 years), men procrastinated more than women. As we had further hypothesized, procrastination was consistently associated with higher stress, more depression, anxiety, fatigue and reduced satisfaction across life domains, especially regarding work and income. Associations were also found with lack of a partnership and unemployment. Findings are discussed with regard to potential developmental and cohort effects. While procrastination appears to be a pervasive indicator for maladjustment, longitudinal analyses in high-risk samples (e.g. late adolescence, unemployment) are needed to identify means and mechanisms of procrastinating. PMID:26871572

  10. Determination of bone age in adolescents and in subjects in the third decade of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willich, E.

    1986-05-01

    The determination of bone age of hand and wrist focussing primarily on bone centre development is limited to childhood and during this period has diagnostic significance as well as therapeutic consequences. At puberty the fusion of epiphyseal growth plates is more important: it reflects the termination of growth and the biological stage of development. An extension of knowledge can be obtained by correlating age beyond 18 years into the third decade of life. This allows sex determination and reflects maturation processes trough the appearance and fusion of the apophyses of the iliac crest and the ischial bone. The indications are mainly forensic and for an individual's identification.

  11. Determination of bone age in adolescents and in subjects in the third decade of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, E.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of bone age of hand and wrist focussing primarily on bone centre development is limited to childhood and during this period has diagnostic significance as well as therapeutic consequences. At puberty the fusion of epiphyseal growth plates is more important: it reflects the termination of growth and the biological stage of development. An extension of knowledge can be obtained by correlating age beyond 18 years into the third decade of life. This allows sex determination and reflects maturation processes trough the appearance and fusion of the apophyses of the iliac crest and the ischial bone. The indications are mainly forensic and for an individual's identification. (orig.)

  12. Aging in HIV-Infected Subjects: A New Scenario and a New View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Negredo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV-infected people aged 50 years or older is increasing rapidly; the proportion will increase from 28% to 73% in 2030. In addition, HIV-infected individuals may be more vulnerable to age-related condition. There is growing evidence that the prevalence of comorbidities and other age-related conditions (geriatric syndromes, functional or neurocognitive/mental problems, polypharmacy, and social difficulties is higher in the HIV-infected population than in their uninfected counterparts. However, despite the potential impact of this situation on health care, little information exists about the optimal clinical management of older HIV-infected people. Here we examine the age-related conditions in older HIV-infected persons and address clinical management according to author expertise and published literature. Our aim is to advance the debate about the most appropriate management of this population, including less well-studied aspects, such as frequency of screening for psychological/mental and social and functional capabilities.

  13. Survival of Salmonella on cuts of beef carcasses subjected to dry aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Sørensen, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    and Newport. For five selected strains, the observations were verified in a pilot plant cooling facility mimicking industrial cooling. No significant differences in reduction were found between the two cooling methods. Conclusions: A significant reduction in Salmonella can be obtained by dry aging of beef...

  14. Physical-chemical evaluation of wines subjected to gamma irradiation for aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Perina, Vanessa C.S.; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Franco, Camilo F.O.; Pires, Juliana A.; Scanholato, Mariana; Bortoleto, Gisele G.; Germek, Hermas A.

    2011-01-01

    Wine is a beverage made from the fermentation of sugars contained in grapes or grape juice, using yeast. Wines can be classified according to the amount of sugar they contain: dry, soft or sweet. Depending on the need for aging, they may be classified as young or aged. Modern methods of aging use gamma irradiation. There are several reasons for this type of procedure in wines, among them are: sterilization of the wort, changes in sensory characteristics of the wine, and accelerated aging. In this study, samples of soft red wine were obtained in the city of Sao Pedro in the local market, all bottles being of the same batch. The samples and the control were directly irradiated with gamma irradiation in polyethylene bags with doses of 1 KGy and 3 KGy, at a rate of 0.396 kGy/h. The evaluation parameters were tartaric acid, brix, pH, alcohol content and color. For statistical purposes, the Tukey test at 5% significance level was used. From the results obtained, it may be concluded that only the 3 KGy dose showed a statistically significant difference for the parameters shown, indicating that from this dose of radiation upwards there is a significant influence on the evaluation parameters. (author)

  15. Balance Screening of Vestibular Function in Subjects Aged 4 Years and Older: A Living Laboratory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Bermúdez Rey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the various individual factors that contribute to balance and the relation to fall risk, we performed the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support, with 1,174 participants between 4 and 83 years of age. This research was conducted in the Living Laboratory® at the Museum of Science, Boston. We specifically focus on balance test condition 4, in which individuals stand on memory foam with eyes closed, and must rely on their vestibular system; therefore, performance in this balance test condition provides a proxy for vestibular function. We looked for balance variations associated with sex, race/ethnicity, health factors, and age. We found that balance test performance was stable between 10 and 39 years of age, with a slight increase in the failure rate for participants 4–9 years of age, suggesting a period of balance development in younger children. For participants 40 years and older, the balance test failure rate increased progressively with age. Diabetes and obesity are the two main health factors we found associated with poor balance, with test condition 4 failure rates of 57 and 19%, respectively. An increase in the odds of having fallen in the last year was associated with a decrease in the time to failure; once individuals dropped below a time to failure of 10 s, there was a significant 5.5-fold increase in the odds of having fallen in the last 12 months. These data alert us to screen for poor vestibular function in individuals 40 years and older or suffering from diabetes, in order to undertake the necessary diagnostic and rehabilitation measures, with a focus on reducing the morbidity and mortality of falls.

  16. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between healthy aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer′s patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer′s disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of Alzheimer′s, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer′s or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments. Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in differentiating between Alzheimer′s, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and healthy aging. To prove fMRI′s ability, resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects were compared using Independent Component Analysis (ICA algorithm. Forty age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer′s subjects were examined. Results: The results showed that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer′s group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network. Conclusions: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer′s Disease (AD, MCI and healthy aging.

  17. The Mediating Roles of Primary and Secondary Control in the Relationship between Body Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being Among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Ashli D; Konnert, Candace A; Speirs, Calandra E C

    2017-07-01

    This study examined primary and secondary control as mediators in the relationship between body satisfaction and subjective well-being (SWB) and explored age differences in the mediation model. Data from 362 women, aged 40-91 years, assessed (i) the relationships between body satisfaction, age, primary and secondary control strategies (body-specific social comparison, acceptance, and positive reappraisal), and three indices of SWB (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction), (ii) the mediation effects of primary and secondary control on the relationship between body satisfaction and SWB, and (iii) whether mediational relationships were moderated by age. Body satisfaction was unrelated to age but positively related to positive affect and life satisfaction and negatively related to negative affect. Body satisfaction was also related to primary and secondary control strategies. There were significant indirect (mediated) effects of body satisfaction on all outcome variables through acceptance and positive reappraisal. These mediators were significant at all age levels, but exerted their strongest influence among younger women. This study provides new information about the mechanisms that influence the relationship between body satisfaction and SWB among a broad age range of women who are experiencing physical changes that are inconsistent with Western beauty standards. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Arc-continent collision of the Coastal Range in Taiwan: Geochronological constraints from U-Pb ages of zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wei; Zhang, Xun-Hua; Huang, Long

    2018-04-01

    The oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc and the southeastern margin of the Eurasian continent caused the uplift of Taiwan. The Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan is the northern section of the Luzon arc in the collision zone and thus records important information about the arc-continent collision. In this paper, we determine and analyze the U-Pb ages of magmatic zircons from the volcanic arc and clastic zircons from the fore-arc basin in the Coastal Range. For the volcanic arc in the Coastal Range, the eruption ages range from 16.8-5 Ma. Given that the initial subduction of the South China Sea oceanic crust (17 Ma) occurred before the Luzon arc formed, we conclude that the volcanic activity of the Coastal Range began at 16.8 ± 1.3 Ma; it was most active from 14 to 8 Ma and continued until approximately 5 Ma. The U-Pb chronology also indicates that the initial stage of arc-continent collision of the Coastal Range started at approximately 5 Ma, when the northern section of the Luzon arc moved away from the magmatic chamber because of the kinematics of the Philippine Sea Plate.

  19. The Effect of Ageing on the Relationship between Subjective and Objective Recollection after Differential Encoding Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    The provision of environmental support is known to have differential effects on recognition memory in younger and older adults. Age-related differences within recognition memory were explored by investigating recollection and familiarity, and looking at their relationship with associative recognition memory. Additionally, environmental support, manipulated by different encoding conditions, was investigated by looking at its effect on this relationship, by comparing recognition memory for item...

  20. The Effects of Counterforce Brace Size on the Wrist Range of Motility, Pain, Grip & Wrist Extension Sterngth in Normal Subjects and Patients with Tennis Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Jameh-Bozorgi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Counter force brace is one of the most usefull treatments for lateral opicondylitis (Tennis elbow because it decreases grip pain and increases the power of grip, power of wrist extension and Wrist Range of Motility. The purpose of this quasi experimental (repeated measurementsstudy was to determine the effect of 3 counterforce brace sizes on the wrist R.O.M, grip and wrist extension strength and pain intensity in two groups of healthy subjects and patients with tennis elbow. Materials & Methods: 18 normal subjects & 18 patients with tennis elbow were selected simple conveniently and were tested with no brace and 3 size of counterforce (1,2 and 3 inches. The R.O.M , strength and pain intensity were measured by jamar goniometry and Nicholas MMT dynamometry & VAS, respectively. Results: 1 With all sizes there was a significant decrease of R.O.M on normal subjects but no significant difference in patients. 2 There was a significant decrease of grip strength with 1-inch brace in normal subjects but a significant increase of grip strength with 2 and 3-inch brace in patiens. 3 All sizes of brace caused significant decrease of extension strength in normal subjects but increase in patients. 4All size caused significant decrease of pain intensity that was more considerable in the case of 2 and 3 inch size. Conclusion: The results shows that the counterforce brace may be considered as an effective treatment for increasing strength and decreasing pain in patients with tennis elbow.

  1. Selected biomarkers of age-related diseases in older subjects with different nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Blazicek, P; Valachovicova, M; Spustova, V; Mislanova, C; Paukova, V

    2011-01-01

    The nutritionists introduce on the base of epidemiological and clinical studies that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Aging belongs to the main risks of cardiovascular disease. Markers of age-related diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, diabetes) were assessed in two nutritional groups of older apparently healthy non-obese non-smoking women aged 60-70 years, 45 vegetarians (lacto-ovo-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians) and 38 non-vegetarians (control group on a traditional mixed diet, general population). Vegetarian values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance are significantly reduced. Non-vegetarian average values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein are risk. Vegetarians have a better antioxidative status (significantly increased vitamin C, lipid-standardized vitamine E and beta-carotene plasma concentrations). Favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers in older vegetarian women document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of this disease as well as the vegetarian diet can be an additional factor in therapy. Vegetarians suffer from mild hyperhomocysteinemia; it is due to the lower vitamin B12 concentration. Vitamin B12 supplements are inevitable for the hyperhomocysteinemia prevention (Tab. 2, Ref. 26).

  2. Ambulatory cardiac arrhythmias in relation to mild hypokalaemia and prognosis in community dwelling middle-aged and elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Nick; Sadjadieh, Golnaz; Kumarathurai, Preman

    2016-01-01

    with frequency of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) especially in combination with diuretic treatment (r = -0.22, P = 0.015). Hypokalaemia was not associated with supraventricular arrhythmias. Subjects at lowest quintile of p-potassium (mean 3.42, range 2.7-3.6 mmol/L) were defined as hypokalaemic......, 10 and 15 per 1000 patient-year in those with one abnormality, and 3 per 1000 patient-year in subjects with no abnormality. One variable combining hypokalaemia with excessive supraventricular arrhythmias gave similar results in univariate analysis, but not after multivariate adjustments. CONCLUSION...

  3. Effect of production system (barn and free range) and slaughter age on some production traits of guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 200 guinea fowl was reared in either barn or free-range systems and slaughtered at 14, 16, or 18 wk of age in order to determine the effects of production system on live weight, feed consumption, and some carcass and slaughter traits. Production system had a significant effect on live weight until 14 wk of age. Live weights were similar between free-range and indoor production systems at 16 (1,150 g vs. 1,152 g) and 18 (1,196 g vs. 1,203 g) wk of age. Guinea fowl reared in a free-range system consumed more feed (7,693 g vs. 6,983 g), and guinea fowl reared in a barn had better feed conversion ratio (5.80 vs. 6.43) (P free-range system had significantly less abdominal fat (P < 0.05). © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Bond strength of primer/cement systems to zirconia subjected to artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Jian, Yu-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Ke

    2016-11-01

    Creating reliable and durable adhesion to the nonactive zirconia surface is difficult and has limited zirconia use. The introduction of functional monomers such as 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) appears to have enhanced bond strength to zirconia. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term bond strength of several MDP-containing primer/cement systems to zirconia. Zirconia blocks were divided into 6 groups (n=24) according to the 3 primers/cements to be bonded, as follows: Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate (SU/RU; consisting of MDP-containing primer/MDP-free cement); Clearfil ceramic primer/Panavia F (CCP/PAN; consisting ofMDP-containing/MDP-containing); and Z-Prime Plus/Duo-Link (ZP/DUO; consisting ofMDP-containing/MDP-free), which were compared with 3 nonprimed groups, RU, PAN, and DUO. After bonding, each group was further divided into 3 subgroups (n=8) according to the level of aging: 24-hour storage in water at 37°C (24H); 30-day storage at 37°C (30D); and 30-day storage at 37°C followed by 3000 thermal cycles (30D/TC). After aging, a shear bond strength test and failure mode analysis were performed. The data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA (α=.05). After aging, nearly all primer/cement groups presented significantly higher bond strength than the related nonprimed groups for each level of aging (P<.05), except for CCP/PAN versus PAN with 24H (P=.741). SU/RU had the highest bond strength among the groups for all treatments (P<.05), except for CCP/PAN versus SU/RU with 30D/TC (P=.171). Among the nonprimed groups, only RU went through 30D/TC without premature debonding. With 24H and 30D, the failure modes in SU/RU and CCP/PAN were purely mixed, whereas those in the other groups were mainly adhesive, except for RU. The superiority of the initial bond strength in SU/RU may result from some functional components other than MDP. The presence of MDP in the cement did not appear to have a positive effect on long-term bond

  5. Study of Mini-Mental State Exam evolution in community-dwelling subjects aged over 60 years without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watfa, G; Husson, N; Buatois, S; Laurain, M C; Miget, P; Benetos, A

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used and has been proposed for cognitive decline screening in the framework of a systematic geriatric evaluation in health centers. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to identify the potential determinants of MMSE score and its evolution over a 4-year period in a population aged over sixty years with good general health without dementia and consulting for a health check-up. Longitudinal study. The preventive medical center (CMP) in Nancy. 687 subjects over 60 years of age (mean age 65.6 ± 5.07 years) were included from the Senior health examination study. All subjects underwent 2 visits over a period of 4 years. MMSE measurement and a self-administered questionnaire of emotional and psychological state were evaluated at baseline and at the follow-up visit. The major components of total variance of baseline MMSE were represented by education level, practice of regular physical activity, nervousness and despair. Multivariate analysis identified 3 variables at baseline visit that independently predicted annual changes in MMSE: MMSE score, education level and "Difficulty in social relations" (r= -0.222, 0.154 and -0.255 respectively). Education level and several psychological factors may influence MMSE score and its evolution over time in community-dwelling subjects aged over 60 years without dementia. In these subjects, a low MMSE score does not predict cognitive decline over a period of 4 years. Therefore, the reliability of MMSE in this type of population is questionable.

  6. Stability of sputter deposited cuprous oxide (Cu2O) subjected to ageing conditions for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Espinosa, E.; Rimmaudo, I.; Riech, I.; Mis-Fernández, R.; Peña, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    Among various metal oxide p-type semiconductors, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) stands out as a nontoxic and abundant material, which also makes it a suitable candidate as a low-cost absorber for photovoltaic applications. However, the chemical stability of the absorber layer is critical for the solar cell lifetime, in particular, for Cu-based materials, concerning to its oxidation state changes. In this paper, we addressed the Cu2O stability depositing films of 170 nm by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering and subsequently ageing them in conditions similar to the typical accelerated life test for the solar module, in a period of time from one to five weeks. The stability of the optical, electrical, and structural properties of the Cu2O thin films was investigated using UV-VIS-near infrared transmittance, 4-probes electrical resistance characterization, high precision profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Finally, we demonstrated that the aging tests affected only the surface of the films, while the bulk remained unaltered, making Cu2O a promising candidate for production of stable devices, including solar cells.

  7. Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects: implications for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D B; Jeffery, I B; Cusack, S; O'Connor, E M; O'Toole, P W

    2015-01-01

    With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The microbiota composition and function, acting in concert with direct and indirect effects of habitual diet, is of great importance in remaining healthy and active. This is not a new concept, but until now the scale of the potential microbiota contribution was not appreciated. There are an estimated ten times more bacteria in an individual than human cells. The bacterial population is relatively stable in adults, but the age-related changes that occur later in life can have a negative impact on host health. This loss of the adult-associated microbiota correlates with measures of markers of inflammation, frailty, co-morbidity and nutritional status. This effect may be greater than that of diet or in some cases genetics alone. Collectively, the recent studies show the importance of the microbiota and associated metabolites in healthy aging and the importance of diet in its modulation. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Analysis of an age structured model for tick populations subject to seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Lou, Yijun; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    We investigate an age-structured hyperbolic equation model by allowing the birth and death functions to be density dependent and periodic in time with the consideration of seasonal effects. By studying the integral form solution of this general hyperbolic equation obtained through the method of integration along characteristics, we give a detailed proof of the uniqueness and existence of the solution in light of the contraction mapping theorem. With additional biologically natural assumptions, using the tick population growth as a motivating example, we derive an age-structured model with time-dependent periodic maturation delays, which is quite different from the existing population models with time-independent maturation delays. For this periodic differential system with seasonal delays, the basic reproduction number R0 is defined as the spectral radius of the next generation operator. Then, we show the tick population tends to die out when R0 1. When there is no intra-specific competition among immature individuals due to the sufficient availability of immature tick hosts, the global stability of the positive periodic state for the whole model system of four delay differential equations can be obtained with the observation that a scalar subsystem for the adult stage size can be decoupled. The challenge for the proof of such a global stability result can be overcome by introducing a new phase space, based on which, a periodic solution semiflow can be defined which is eventually strongly monotone and strictly subhomogeneous.

  9. Reliability assessment of aging structures subjected to gradual and shock deteriorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cao; Zhang, Hao; Li, Quanwang

    2017-01-01

    Civil structures and infrastructure facilities are susceptible to deterioration posed by the effects of natural hazards and aggressive environmental conditions. These factors may increase the risk of service interruption of infrastructures, and should be taken into account when assessing the structural reliability during an infrastructure's service life. Modeling the resistance deterioration process reasonably is the basis for structural reliability analysis. In this paper, a novel model is developed for describing the deterioration of aging structures. The deterioration is a combination of two stochastic processes: the gradual deterioration posed by environmental effects and the shock deterioration caused by severe load attacks. The dependency of the deterioration magnitude on the load intensity is considered. The Gaussian copula function is employed to help construct the joint distribution of correlated random variables. Semi-analytical methods are developed to assess the structural failure time and the number of significant load events (shocks) to failure. Illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model in structural reliability analysis. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the role of deterioration-load correlation in structural reliability. - Highlights: • A new resistance deterioration model for aging structures is proposed. • Time-dependent reliability analysis methods incorporating the proposed deterioration model are developed. • Parametric studies are performed to investigate the role of deterioration-load correlation in structural reliability.

  10. Major depressive disorder mediates accelerated aging in rats subjected to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoxian; Chen, Yangyang; Ma, Lingyan; Shen, Qichen; Huang, Liangfeng; Zhao, Binggong; Wu, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2017-06-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has a complex etiology and is characterized by a change in mood and psychophysiological state. MDD has been shown to mediate accelerated biological aging in patients, although the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm to induce anhedonia, one of the main symptoms of MDD. CMS induced depression-like symptoms in rats, including reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swim test. Moreover, stressed rats travelled a shorter total distance, had fewer grid line crossings, and spent less time in the outer zone in the open field test than controls. CMS altered the levels of 5-hydroxytryptophan, dopamine, and corticosterone in the serum and hippocampus (P<0.05); these rats also exhibited impaired liver function, decreased telomerase activity, and telomere shortening, which was associated with increased oxidative damage along with decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities. Mitochondria in CMS-treated rats showed ultrastructural damage as well as reduced DNA content and integrity. These findings provide physiological and cellular evidence that the MDD can mediate accelerated aging in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Weight, (BP) and Biochemical Parameters in Middle Aged Hypertensive Subjects: An Observational Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Salahuddin; Ah, Sayed Ashfak; Sr, Syed; Km, Badaam

    2014-03-01

    Ramadan fasting is a religious obligation which is practised by Muslim population all over the world. However, there is scarcity of scientific literature regarding its effects on health determinants in cardiovascular disturbances like hypertension. The present study was done to assess the (BP), body weight and serum cholesterol changes over the period of Ramadan fasting in patients with hypertension. Materails And Methods:This prospective observational trial was done on 15 hypertensive subjects who were in the age group of 35 to 65 years, who were determined to complete Ramadan fast. All subjects were on antihypertensive therapy. Outcome measures of (BP), body weight and serum cholesterol were assessed in all the subjects before and after Ramadan month. Mean age of subjects was 44.6 ± 5.62 years. Systolic BP decreased from 148 ± 19.6 to 132.5 ± 17.9 mm of Hg. The decrease of 15.5 units (95% CI: 7.5 to 24.4) was statistically significant (p = 0.0009). Diastolic BP decreased from 90.4 ± 7.8 to 81.1 ± 6.3 mm of Hg. The decrease of 9.3 units (95% CI: 5.7 to 13) was statistically significant (p Ramadan fasting duration. However there was no change found in serum cholesterol levels.

  12. Phase I clinical studies of the advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-breaker TRC4186: safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Kumar P; Shiwalkar, Ajay; Kotecha, Jignesh; Thakkar, Purav; Srivastava, Ambrish; Chauthaiwale, Vijay; Sharma, Sanjay K; Cross, Maurice R; Dutt, Chaitanya

    2009-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications through a variety of mechanisms including endothelial dysfunction and structural abnormalities in the vasculature and myocardium. Reducing the AGEs burden and their ensuing pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative and pro-coagulant effect with associated dysfunctional proteins in various target tissues may retard the progression of and even reverse diabetic macro- and microvascular complications. Pyridinium, 3-[[2-(methylsulfonyl) hydrazino] carbonyl]-1-[2-oxo-2-2-thienyl) ethyl]-chloride (TRC4186) has demonstrated AGE-breaking activities in in vitro experiments and improvement in the endothelial and myocardial function in animal models of diabetes mellitus with reduction of AGEs accumulation in tissues over time. The safety of TRC4186 has been established in in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. Thus, this drug is being developed for the treatment of complications associated with diabetes. This investigation set out to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of TRC4186 in healthy human subjects after single and multiple ascending doses, fixed doses in elderly male and female subjects, and with food and different formulations of the compound. Four studies were conducted during phase I clinical development of TRC4186. These were: (i) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-ascending study in healthy male subjects with doses of TRC4186 ranging from 250 to 2500 mg administered as an oral solution (total six doses); (ii) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, dose-ascending study in healthy male subjects with three doses of TRC4186 ranging from 500 to 2000 mg twice daily for 6 days with a final single dose on day 7; (iii) a randomized, open-label, three-way crossover study to assess the effect of food (fasted vs fed) and formulation (solution vs tablet) with TRC4186 500 mg; (iv) a randomized, double

  13. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Harshitha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined effectiveness & effects of kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening in subjects with patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of patellofemoral osteoarthritis fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 in each group. Taping along with quadriceps strengthening program is compared to the quadriceps strengthening program alone. Pain were measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, knee ROM were measured by Goniometer, Functional status were measured by Western Ontario McMaster Universities index (WOMAC, score. Measurements were taken pre & post intervention. Results: The results indicated that kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening exercises showed there was statistically significant improvement in pain (<0.05, knee ROM (<0.05 and functional activities (<0.05 after 6 weeks compared to quadriceps strengthening alone. Conclusion: Subjects with kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening showed significant improvement in reducing pain, in improving ROM & functional activities at the end of 6th week treatment when compared to subjects with patellofemoral osteoarthritis underwent quadriceps strengthening exercises alone.

  14. Physical aging and structural recovery in a colloidal glass subjected to volume-fraction jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoguang; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2016-04-01

    Three important kinetic phenomena have been cataloged by Kovacs in the investigation of molecular glasses during structural recovery or physical aging. These are responses to temperature-jump histories referred to as intrinsic isotherms, asymmetry of approach, and memory effect. Here we use a thermosensitive polystyrene-poly (N -isopropylacrylamide)-poly (acrylic acid) core-shell particle-based dispersion as a colloidal model and by working at a constant number concentration of particles we use temperature changes to create volume-fraction changes. This imposes conditions similar to those defined by Kovacs on the colloidal system. We use creep experiments to probe the physical aging and structural recovery behavior of colloidal glasses in the Kovacs-type histories and compare the results with those seen in molecular glasses. We find that there are similarities in aging dynamics between molecular glasses and colloidal glasses, but differences also persist. For the intrinsic isotherms, the times teq needed for relaxing or evolving into the equilibrium (or stationary) state are relatively insensitive to the volume fraction and the values of teq are longer than the α -relaxation time τα at the same volume fraction. On the other hand, both of these times grow at least exponentially with decreasing temperature in molecular glasses. For the asymmetry of approach, similar nonlinear behavior is observed for both colloidal and molecular glasses. However, the equilibration time teq is the same for both volume-fraction up-jump and down-jump experiments, different from the finding in molecular glasses that it takes longer for the structure to evolve into equilibrium for the temperature up-jump condition than for the temperature down-jump condition. For the two-step volume-fraction jumps, a memory response is observed that is different from observations of structural recovery in two-step temperature histories in molecular glasses. The concentration dependence of the dynamics

  15. Radiocarbon ages of insects and plants frozen in the No. 31 Glacier, Suntar-Khayata Range, eastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, F., E-mail: nakazawa@nipr.ac.jp [National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Transdisciplinary Research Integration Center, Hulic Kamiyacho Bldg. 2F, 4-3-13 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Uchida, M.; Kondo, M. [Center for Environmental Measurement and Analysis, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0053 (Japan); Kadota, T. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan); Shirakawa, T. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Enomoto, H. [National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Department of Polar Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Fedorov, A.N. [Melnikov Permafrost Institute, SB RAN, Yakutsk 6770110 (Russian Federation); North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk 677010 (Russian Federation); Fujisawa, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Konstantinov, P.Y. [Melnikov Permafrost Institute, SB RAN, Yakutsk 6770110 (Russian Federation); Kusaka, R. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Miyairi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Ohata, T.; Yabuki, H. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the age of glacier ice in the No. 31 Glacier in the Suntar-Khayata Range of eastern Siberia by performing dating of insects thought to be long-legged fly species (Dolichopodidae) as well as plants (species unknown) fragments preserved in the ice. Ice samples containing organisms were collected at depths of 0.4–1.1 m at five points from the middle to lowest parts of the glacier in 2013. The age of an insect collected at the lowest point on the glacier was estimated as 2038 ± 32 yr B.P. Insects collected at higher points had a modern or near-modern radiocarbon age. The age of plant fragments collected at the uppermost and middle points was 1531 ± 44 and 1288 ± 26 yr B.P., respectively, and that of a mixture of plant and insect fragments collected at the lowest point was 9772 ± 42 yr B.P. When comparing specimens collected at the same point, the plant fragments were found to be older than the insects. In 2012–2014 observations, some living insects were found on the glacier, and thus the age of the insects appears to correspond to the age of the ice. On the other hand, the plant fragments might have already aged since detachment from the source plants. This study found an approximately 2000-year gap in the age of the ice between the lowest and higher points. Annual mass balance observations from 2012 to 2014 showed that in recent years, the glacier sometimes had no accumulation area. Therefore, the wide gap in the age of ice may be due to a difference in past melting processes between the lowest and higher points on the glacier.

  16. Ageing of reinforced concrete pipes subjected to seawater in nuclear plants: optimization of maintenance operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, L.; Capra, B.; Lasne, M.; Benefice, P.; Comby, R.

    2007-01-01

    Seaside nuclear power plants have to face the ageing of nuclear reactor cooling piping systems. In order to minimize the duration of the production unit shutdown, maintenance operations have to be planned well in advance. In a context where owners of infrastructures tend to extend the life span of their goods while having to keep the safety level maximum, it is more and more important to develop high level expertise and know-how in management of infrastructures life cycle. A patented monitoring technique based on optic fiber sensors, has been designed. This preventive maintenance enables the owner to determine criteria for network replacement based on degradation impacts. A methodology to evaluate and optimize operation budgets, depending on predictions of future functional deterioration and available maintenance solutions, has been developed and applied. (authors)

  17. Early Age Carbonation Heat and Products of Tricalcium Silicate Paste Subject to Carbon Dioxide Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the carbonation reaction heat and products of tricalcium silicate (C3S paste exposed to carbon dioxide (CO2 for rapid curing. Reaction heat was measured using a retrofitted micro-calorimeter. The highest heat flow of a C3S paste subject to carbonation curing was 200 times higher than that by hydration, and the cumulative heat released by carbonation was three times higher. The compressive strength of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 27.5 MPa and 62.9 MPa, respectively. The 24-h carbonation strength had exceeded the hydration strength at 28 days. The CO2 uptake of a C3S paste carbonated for 2 h and 24 h was 17% and 26%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer (TEM-EDS, and 29Si magic angle spinning–nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si MAS-NMR results showed that the products of a carbonated C3S paste were amorphous silica (SiO2 and calcite crystal. There was no trace of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H or other polymorphs of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 detected.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Andréa Cândido; de Castro, Denise Tornavoi; Schiavon, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Leandro Jardel; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma and Filtek Z100. composite resins. The composites were characterized by Fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analyses (Differential Scanning Calorimetry - DSC and Thermogravimetry - TG). The microstructure of the materials was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Surface hardness and compressive strength data of the resins were recorded and the mean values were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The results showed significant differences among the commercial brands for surface hardness (F=86.74, p<0.0001) and compressive strength (F=40.31, p<0.0001), but AAA did not affect the properties (surface hardness: F=0.39, p=0.53; compressive strength: F=2.82, p=0.09) of any of the composite resins. FTIR, DSC and TG analyses showed that resin polymerization was complete, and there were no differences between the spectra and thermal curve profiles of the materials obtained before and after AAA. TG confirmed the absence of volatile compounds and evidenced good thermal stability up to 200 °C, and similar amounts of residues were found in all resins evaluated before and after AAA. The AAA treatment did not significantly affect resin surface. Therefore, regardless of the resin brand, AAA did not influence the microstructure or the mechanical properties.

  19. Thermal ageing and short-range ordering of Alloy 690 between 350 and 550 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouginot, Roman, E-mail: roman.mouginot@aalto.fi [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Sarikka, Teemu [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Heikkilä, Mikko [University of Helsinki, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, A.I.Virtasen Aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Ivanchenko, Mykola; Ehrnstén, Ulla [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland LTD, Kemistintie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-Daero, 989-111, Yuseong, Daejeon, 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Hänninen, Hannu [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2017-03-15

    Thermal ageing of Alloy 690 triggers an intergranular (IG) carbide precipitation and is known to promote an ordering reaction causing lattice contraction. It may affect the long-term primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) resistance of pressurized water reactor (PWR) components. Four conditions of Alloy 690 (solution annealed, cold-rolled and/or heat-treated) were aged between 350 and 550 °C for 10 000 h and characterized. Although no direct observation of ordering was made, variations in hardness and lattice parameter were attributed to the formation of short-range ordering (SRO) in all conditions with a peak level at 420 °C, consistent with the literature. Prior heat treatment induced ordering before thermal ageing. At higher temperatures, stress relaxation, recrystallization and α-Cr precipitation were observed in the cold-worked samples, while a disordering reaction was inferred in all samples based on a decrease in hardness. IG precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides increased with increasing ageing temperature in all conditions, as well as diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). - Highlights: • SRO was suggested in Alloy 690 with 9.18 wt% Fe after thermal ageing at 350, 420 and 475 °C. • Prior thermal treatment promoted SRO before ageing. • Cold work led to recrystallization and precipitation of α-Cr upon ageing at 550 °C. • Thermal ageing promoted IG precipitation of Cr-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and DIGM.

  20. The association between objective income and subjective financial need and depressive symptoms in South Koreans aged 60 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woorim; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Ju, Yeong Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the gap between objective income and subjective financial need on depressive symptoms in individuals aged 60 and older. Data from the 2011 and 2013 Korean Retirement and Income Study were used. A total of 4891 individuals aged 60 and older were included at baseline. The Generalized Estimating Equation model was used to examine the association between the gap in objective income and subjective financial need and the presence of depressive symptoms, which were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Compared to individuals in the middle objective income-middle subjective financial need group, individuals in the low-low category (odds ratio (OR): 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.61) and the low-middle category (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.09-1.45) showed a statistically significant higher likelihood of having depressive symptoms. In contrast, participants in the middle-low (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.54-0.99), high-low (OR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.34-0.73), high-middle (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.63-0.87), and high-high categories (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.55-0.99) were less likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. Additionally, the lower likelihood of depressive symptoms found in middle- and high-income groups with lower levels of subjective financial need was strong among individuals with chronic disease. Differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms generally exist between individuals of the same income category depending on perceived income adequacy. Therefore, it is important to consider discrepancies in objective income and subjective financial need when assessing risk factors for depressive symptoms in older populations. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between Healthy Aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Back ground: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of dementia, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer's or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments.

    Methods: Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fMRI imaging in differentiating between Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Healthy Aging. To prove fMRI's ability, we compared resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects using Independent Component Algorithm (ICA. We examined 40 age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer's subjects.

    Results: The results show that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer's group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network.

    Conclusion: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD, MCI and Healthy Aging.


    Keywords: fMRI, Default Mode Network, Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Resting-State

  2. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  3. Effect of gender, age and anthropometric variables on plantar fascia thickness at different locations in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier [Department of Podiatry, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: javier.pascual@uem.es; Alarcon Garcia, Juan Maria [Ultrasound Unit, Hospital Nuestra Senora de America, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: The study was aimed to investigate plantar fascia thickness at different locations in healthy asymptomatic subjects and its relationship to the following variables: weight, height, sex and age. Material and methods: The study evaluates 96 feet of healthy asymptomatic volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured at four different locations: 1 cm proximal to the insertion of the plantar fascia, at the insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus and separate out 1 cm + 2 cm distal to the insertion. A 10 MHz linear-array transducer was used. Results: There were statistically significant differences in plantar fascia thickness at the four different locations (p < 0.001) although no differences in PF thickness were found between the two distal from insertion locations (1 and 2 cm). Multiple regression analysis showed sex as independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion. At origin and 1 cm distal to insertion weight was an independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness. Conclusions: There are differences of thickness at different locations of plantar fascia measured by ultrasonography. Thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion is influenced by sex and thickness at origin and at 1 cm distal to the insertion has a direct relationship with body weight. This could be attributed to the overloading effect that weight has on plantar fascia in healthy symptomatic subjects at these two locations. Height and age did not seem to influence as independent variables in plantar fascia thickness among non-painful subjects.

  4. Effect of gender, age and anthropometric variables on plantar fascia thickness at different locations in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier; Alarcón García, Juan María

    2007-06-01

    The study was aimed to investigate plantar fascia thickness at different locations in healthy asymptomatic subjects and its relationship to the following variables: weight, height, sex and age. The study evaluates 96 feet of healthy asymptomatic volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured at four different locations: 1cm proximal to the insertion of the plantar fascia, at the insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus and separate out 1 cm + 2 cm distal to the insertion. A 10 MHz linear-array transducer was used. There were statistically significant differences in plantar fascia thickness at the four different locations (pplantar fascia thickness at 1cm proximal to the insertion. At origin and 1cm distal to insertion weight was an independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness. There are differences of thickness at different locations of plantar fascia measured by ultrasonography. Thickness at 1cm proximal to the insertion is influenced by sex and thickness at origin and at 1cm distal to the insertion has a direct relationship with body weight. This could be attributed to the overloading effect that weight has on plantar fascia in healthy symptomatic subjects at these two locations. Height and age did not seem to influence as independent variables in plantar fascia thickness among non-painful subjects.

  5. Effect of gender, age and anthropometric variables on plantar fascia thickness at different locations in asymptomatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier; Alarcon Garcia, Juan Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The study was aimed to investigate plantar fascia thickness at different locations in healthy asymptomatic subjects and its relationship to the following variables: weight, height, sex and age. Material and methods: The study evaluates 96 feet of healthy asymptomatic volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured at four different locations: 1 cm proximal to the insertion of the plantar fascia, at the insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus and separate out 1 cm + 2 cm distal to the insertion. A 10 MHz linear-array transducer was used. Results: There were statistically significant differences in plantar fascia thickness at the four different locations (p < 0.001) although no differences in PF thickness were found between the two distal from insertion locations (1 and 2 cm). Multiple regression analysis showed sex as independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion. At origin and 1 cm distal to insertion weight was an independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness. Conclusions: There are differences of thickness at different locations of plantar fascia measured by ultrasonography. Thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion is influenced by sex and thickness at origin and at 1 cm distal to the insertion has a direct relationship with body weight. This could be attributed to the overloading effect that weight has on plantar fascia in healthy symptomatic subjects at these two locations. Height and age did not seem to influence as independent variables in plantar fascia thickness among non-painful subjects

  6. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  7. Magnetization transfer ratio in the brain of preterm subjects: age-related changes during the first 2 years of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydis, Vassilios; Astrakas, Loukas; Zikou, Anastasia; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Pantou, Kostandina; Andronikou, Styliani [Medical School University of Ioannina, Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2006-01-01

    To study the progress of myelination in preterm-born subjects by measuring the MT ratio (MTR) from birth, up to 24 months of corrected age.One hundred twenty-five preterm subjects (64 males and 61 females of gestational age 33{+-}2.4 weeks with chronologic and corrected age of 9.3{+-}5.1 and 7.7{+-}5.1 months, respectively) with normal brain MR using classic sequences were further evaluated for MTR by using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence (TR=32/TE=8/flip angle=6 4 mm/2 mm overlapping sections) with and without magnetization transfer prepulse. The magnetization transfer ratio was calculated as: MTR=(SIo-SIm)/SIo x 100%, where SIm refers to signal intensity from an image acquired with a MT prepulse and SIo the signal intensity from the image acquired without a MT prepulse. MTR increased asymptotically in the genu (R{sup 2}=0.85) and splenium (R{sup 2}=0.85) of the corpus callosum, the white matter of the frontal lobe (R{sup 2}=0.91) and occipital lobe (R{sup 2}=0.82), thalamus (R{sup 2}=0.86), caudate nucleus (R{sup 2}=0.67) and putamen (R{sup 2}=0.71), reaching the 95% of the final value at the corrected age 18.7, 17.7, 15.6, 12.9, 10.4, 9.2 and 6.4 months, respectively. This study shows age-related changes of the brain MTR and provides data that may be useful to assess disturbances in the progress of myelination. (orig.)

  8. White matter organization in cervical spinal cord relates differently to age and control of grip force in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Påvel G; Feydy, Antoine; Maier, Marc A

    2010-03-17

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to elucidate relations between CNS structure and function. We hypothesized that the degree of spinal white matter organization relates to the accuracy of control of grip force. Healthy subjects of different age were studied using DTI and visuomotor tracking of precision grip force. The latter is a prime component of manual dexterity. A regional analysis of spinal white matter [fractional anisotropy (FA)] across multiple cervical levels (C2-C3, C4-C5, and C6-C7) and in different regions of interest (left and right lateral or medial spinal cord) was performed. FA was highest at the C2-C3 level, higher on the right than the left side, and higher in the lateral than in the medial spinal cord (p level in the lateral spinal cord, in which the corticospinal tract innervates spinal circuitry controlling hand and digit muscles. FA of the medial spinal cord correlated consistently with age across all cervical levels, whereas FA of the lateral spinal cord did not. The results suggest (1) a functionally relevant specialization of lateral spinal cord white matter and (2) an increased sensitivity to age-related decline in medial spinal cord white matter in healthy subjects.

  9. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows lower intramyocellular lipid accumulation in middle-aged subjects predisposed to familial longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, C A; van Opstal, A M; Kan, H E; Maier, A B; Westendorp, R G J; Slagboom, P E; Webb, A G; Mooijaart, S P; van Heemst, D

    2012-02-01

    Families predisposed to longevity show enhanced glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity compared with controls, independent of body composition and physical activity. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Here, we assessed whether subjects enriched for familial longevity have lower IMCL levels. We determined IMCL levels in 48 subjects from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising 24 offspring of nonagenarian siblings and 24 partners thereof as control subjects. IMCL levels were assessed noninvasively using short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the tibialis anterior muscle with a 7 Tesla human MR scanner. IMCL levels were calculated relative to the total creatine (tCr) CH3 signal. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). After correction for age, sex, BMI, and physical activity, offspring of long-lived nonagenarian siblings tended to show lower IMCL levels compared with controls (IMCL/tCr: 3.1 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.5, respectively, P = 0.051). In a pairwise comparison, this difference reached statistical significance (P = 0.038). We conclude that offspring of nonagenarian siblings predisposed to longevity show lower IMCL levels compared with environmentally matched control subjects. Future research should focus on assessing what mechanisms may explain the lower IMCL levels in familial longevity.

  10. Responses of sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls were measured for the purpose of estimating the responsibility of the sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure. In preliminary experiment, it was confirmed that cold air exposure of the whole body was more suitable than one-hand immersion in cold water. In the main experiment, 195 subjects were examined. Sixty-five subjects had vibration syndrome with vibration-induced white finger (VWF + group) and 65 subjects had vibration syndrome without VWF (VWF- group) and 65 controls had no symptoms (control group). In the three groups, plasma norepinephrine levels increased during cold air exposure of whole body at 7 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees C. Blood pressure increased and skin temperature decreased during cold exposure. Percent increase of norepinephrine in the VWF+ group was the highest while that in VWF- group followed and that in the control group was the lowest. This whole-body response of the sympathetic nervous system to cold conditions reflected the VWF which are characteristic symptoms of vibration syndrome. Excluding the effects of shivering and a cold feeling under cold conditions, it was confirmed that the sympathetic nervous system in vibration syndrome is activated more than in the controls. These results suggest that vibration exposure to hand and arm affects the sympathetic nervous system.

  11. Age and seasonal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in free-ranging East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank F.; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J.; Backus, Sean; Born, Erik W.; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analysed in adipose tissue from 92 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled during 1999-2001. Mean ΣPBDE concentrations were 70 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (range: 22-192 ng/g lw) and showed no relationship with age or sex. Of the 32 analysed PBDE congeners; BDE47, BDE153, BDE99 and BDE100 dominated, and comprised 99.6% of the ΣPBDE concentration. The ΣPBDE concentration had a highly significant correlation with ΣPCB, ΣCHL, dieldrin, HCB and ΣHCH concentrations. We found a seasonal pattern of median ΣPBDE concentration with 1.2 to 1.8 times higher concentrations in March to July than the rest of the year. The seasonal variation also provides a clue to the seasonal exposure, bio-availability, toxic exposure and degradation. We suggest that future geographical PBDE data comparisons may not need corrections for sex or age, but such data sets should be corrected for seasonal variability, using the presented correctional trigonometric regression. - Mean ΣPBDE concentrations of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were 69.5 ng/g lw (range: 21.7-192 ng/g lw) and showed a seasonal pattern with no relationship with age and sex

  12. Age of North Island giant moa (Dinornis novaezealandiae) bones found on the forest floor in the Ruahine Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.R.; Wilmshurst, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    During the nineteenth century, multiple discoveries of moa bones lying on the ground surface in exposed situations generated debate about the recentness of moa extinction. Subsequently, clearance of land for agricultural purposes has probably resulted in the destruction of many surface moa bones and such finds are now rare. The recent discovery of a pair of tibiotarsi from a North Island giant moa (Dinornis novaezealandiae) lying on the forest floor at Aorangi Awarua, Ruahine Range, has allowed the age of two surface moa bones to be tested. Both tibiotarsi were AMS radiocarbon dated and returned ages of 681±28 and 721±29 14C years BP. The 2σ calibrated ranges are statistically the same age and suggest that the bones are from one bird that died sometime between AD 1286 and 1390. Although the bones post-date human settlement of New Zealand, they are not anomalously recent. The results show that, given favourable environmental conditions, moa bones can persist in exposed situations for long periods, and do not necessarily reflect survival of moa into relatively recent times. (author)

  13. Age and gender differences in the impact of labour-market transitions on subjective health in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Stefanie; Tisch, Anita; Tophoven, Silke

    2018-02-01

    Applying a gender- and age group-sensitive approach, we investigated the effect of labour-market transitions (job loss and re-employment) on subjective physical and mental health. A combination of the difference-in-differences approach and propensity score matching controls for selectivity and initial health differences. This allowed us to analyse the causal effect of job loss and re-employment on subjective health. We made use of data from the German Panel Study Labour Market and Social Security and combined survey information with administrative records of the Federal Employment Agency for employed and unemployed men and women 31-60 years of age ( n = 2213). We controlled for labour-market experiences before the time period under study and for labour-market transitions between the interviews. Subjective health was assessed using the SF-12 health questionnaire, enabling us to differentiate between subjective mental and physical health functioning. We found that physical health was affected mainly in older persons between 45 and 60 years old. Controlling for covariates using propensity score matching, mental health was affected only when living-wage jobs (i.e. jobs that provide sufficient income to achieve a defined minimum standard of living above the social benefit level) are gained or lost. Younger women showed a significant improvement in mental health after re-employment. In contrast, job loss affected only older individuals' mental health, with a particularly negative effect observed for men. Our results not only showed that women and men are affected differently by job loss and re-employment, but also that age is an important factor. Older men were affected most severely by job loss, whereas re-employment was found to improve mental health only in women aged 31-44 years. It is therefore important to address the health problems of different socio-demographic groups separately, and to apply active labour-market policies with regard to unemployed men and

  14. Decrease in the cortical intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with aging in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imon, Yukari; Murata, Yoshio; Kajima, Toshio; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamaguchi, Shinya

    1997-01-01

    We reported previously that Low T 2 intensity areas (LIAs) are more common in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases than in those with no such diseases, and that the occurrence of LIAs increases with aging. To determine a relationship between the intensity changes and aging, we investigated the intensity of the cerebral cortex in 26 normal Japanese individuals. Measurements of brain MRIs were performed with a Signa Advantage apparatus at 1.5 tesla. T 2 -weighted images were obtained using the spin-echo pulse sequences. On our laboratory console, we measured signal intensities in the regions of interest in the prefrontal, motor, sensory, parietal, temporal, or occipital cortex, and in the frontal white matter. To remove the effect of the system gain settings on signal intensity, that of cerebrospinal fluid was used as reference according to the method of Pujol et al. The average intensity in the temporal and prefrontal cortices was the highest, followed in order by the parietal, sensory, motor, and occipital cortices. The intensity in the temporal and parietal cortices decreased significantly with aging, and that in the motor and sensory cortices had a tendency to decrease with aging. The intensity in the motor and sensory cortices of the elderly subjects and that in the occipital cortex throughout all ages were lower than that in the prefrontal white matter, which would result in the appearance of LIAs. The average intensity of each cerebral cortex was inversely related to the non-heme iron content previously reported. It is likely that the difference in intensity among the cortices reflects variations of the non-heme iron content, and that the change in intensity with aging could be due to the increase in such cortical senile changes as that of microglia, astroglia, and senile plaques, which contain iron or iron-related proteins. The temporal cortex is most susceptible to senile changes. (K.H.)

  15. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Abudabos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g. Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0 were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7 and 14 (W14, and egg weight losses on days 7 (WL7 and 14 (WL14, and total loss (WL0-14 were calculated. Hatchling weight (CW was measured. The proportion of CW relative to egg weight loss (WL on days0, 7 and 14 days of incubation (CW:WL0; CW:WL7 and CW:WL14, respectively, and break out analyses, fertility (F,total hatchability (HC and hatchability of fertile eggs (HF were also calculated. IEW decreased (p<0.05 with hen age. Stored egg weight (SEW were decreased as hen age increased (p<0.05. WL7, WL14 and WL0-14 showed significant differences (p<0.001 and increased up to first six-week of egg collection time. Hen age affected CW:WL before incubation, and on days 7 and 14 of incubation. Fertility (F was affected (p<0.05 in unpredicted way of increasing and decreasing by hen age. Egg weight class affected SEW, W7and W14 (p<0.001. Class D eggs were the highest weight. Class C eggs had highest HC. In summary, hatching eggs of Hassawi hens were affected by hen age and egg weight in randomly increase and decrease .

  16. R102G polymorphism of the complement component 3 gene in Malaysian subjects with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afiqah Mohamad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic and environmental factors are known to be risk factors in development of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD. Genetic factors such as polymorphisms in the complement component pathway genes might play a role in pathogenesis of nAMD and has been studied in various populations excluding Malaysia. Aim of the study: To determine the association of the R102G polymorphism of the complement component (C3 gene in nAMD subjects. Patients and methods: A total of 301 Malaysian subjects (149 case and 152 controls were recruited and genotyped for the R102G (rs2230199 variant of the C3 gene. Genotyping was conducted using the PCR-RFLP method and association analysis was conducted using appropriate statistical tests. Results: From our findings, no significant association was observed in the allele distribution of C3 R102G between nAMD and controls (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.77–2.62, P = 0.268. A further analysis that compared three genetic models (dominant, recessive and co-dominant also recorded no significant difference (P > 0.05. These findings could be due to the low frequency of the GG variant in the case (4.7% and control (1.3% groups, compared to the normal variant CC, which is present in 91.3% of case and 92.8% of control alleles. Conclusion: The present study showed no evidence of association between C3 R102G polymorphism and nAMD in Malaysian subjects. Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration, Complement component 3, C3 gene, R102G gene polymorphism

  17. Prevalence of middle cerebral artery stenosis in asymptomatic subjects of more than 40 years age group: a transcranial Doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Sujay; Reddy, Yugandhar; Rao, Sampath; Alladi, Suvarna; Kaul, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery (MCA) disease is the most common vascular lesion in stroke. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is a non-invasive bedside screening method for assessing cerebral blood flow. To investigate the prevalence of MCA stenosis in asymptomatic but high-risk individuals for stroke. Prospective study between December 2011 and December 2013. Vascular risk factors considered included: hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol consumption, coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), hypercholesterolemia and obesity. TCD was performed with portable machine through the temporal windows by use of a standardized protocol. Of the 427 subjects, 374 were analyzed; males 264 (70.6%) and females 110 (29.4%). Mean age was 54.2 ± 7.6 years. The frequency of the risk factors was: HTN 287 (76.7%), diabetes 220 (58.8%), CAD 120 (32.1%), hypercholesterolemia 181 (48.4%), smoking 147 (39.3%), alcohol 99 (26.5%), obesity 198 (52.9%) and PVD 8 (2.1%). Of the 374 subjects, 27 (7.2%) had intracranial arterial stenosis and the rest had normal intracranial arteries. On univariate analysis, subjects with higher age, HTN, CAD, smoking and hypercholesterolemia had higher risk of having intracranial arterial stenosis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed HTN and CAD are independent risk factors for intracranial arterial stenosis. Overall prevalence of intracranial arterial stenosis is 7.2% in high-risk population sample from Hyderabad in South India. HTN and CAD are independent risk factors for the development of intracranial arterial stenosis.

  18. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Agrebi

    Full Text Available Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD, the root of aorta (Ao and left atrial (LA, while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS, the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling

  19. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78±0.41 for youth players aka “schools”, “elite juniors” 15.99±0.81 and “elite adults” 24.46±2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation’s parameters between “schools” and “juniors” players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between “juniors” and “adults” players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between “schools” and “juniors” and, in total work only, between “juniors” and “seniors”. The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17±1.83 sec to 31.23±2.34 sec respectively from “seniors” to “schools”. The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation

  20. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  1. The coeliac iceberg in Italy. A multicentre antigliadin antibodies screening for coeliac disease in school-age subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catassi, C; Fabiani, E; Rätsch, I M; Coppa, G V; Giorgi, P L; Pierdomenico, R; Alessandrini, S; Iwanejko, G; Domenici, R; Mei, E; Miano, A; Marani, M; Bottaro, G; Spina, M; Dotti, M; Montanelli, A; Barbato, M; Viola, F; Lazzari, R; Vallini, M; Guariso, G; Plebani, M; Cataldo, F; Traverso, G; Ventura, A

    1996-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that coeliac disease (CD) is one of the commonest, life-long disorders in Italy. The aims of this multicentre work were: (a) to establish the prevalence of CD on a nationwide basis; and (b) to characterize the CD clinical spectrum in Italy. Fifteen centres screened 17,201 students aged 6-15 years (68.6% of the eligible population) by the combined determination of serum IgG- and IgA-antigliadin antibody (AGA) test; 1289 (7.5%) were IgG and/or IgA-AGA positive and were recalled for the second-level investigation; 111 of them met the criteria for the intestinal biopsy: IgA-AGA positivity and/or AEA positivity or IgG-AGA positivity plus serum IgA deficiency. Intestinal biopsy was performed on 98 of the 111 subjects. CD was diagnosed in 82 subjects (75 biopsy proven, 7 not biopsied but with associated AGA and AEA positivity). Most of the screening-detected coeliac patients showed low-grade intensity illness often associated with decreased psychophysical well-being. There were two AEA negative cases with associated CD and IgA deficiency. The prevalence of undiagnosed CD was 4.77 x 1000 (95% CI 3.79-5.91), 1 in 210 subjects. The overall prevalence of CD, including known CD cases, was 5.44 x 1000 (95% CI 4.57-6.44), 1 in 184 subjects. The ratio of known to undiagnosed CD cases was 1 in 7. These findings confirm that, in Italy, CD is one of the most common chronic disorders showing a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum. Most CD cases remain undiagnosed unless actively searched.

  2. Triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels are differentially associated with metabolic profile and adiposity-related cardiovascular risk markers in euthyroid middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roef, Greet L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Van Daele, Caroline M; Taes, Youri E; De Buyzere, Marc L; Gillebert, Thierry C; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2014-02-01

    We have previously shown that in healthy young men, a less favorable body composition is associated with higher free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels within the euthyroid range. Besides, a higher free-triiodothyronine-to-free-thyroxin (fT3-to-fT4) ratio has been related to a less favorable metabolic phenotype and more placental growth in pregnant women. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether serum thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormone levels, and the fT3-to-fT4 ratio are associated with metabolic and adiposity-related cardiovascular risk markers in a healthy population of middle-aged euthyroid men and women. Thyroid parameters were measured in 2524 generally healthy subjects from the Asklepios Study (35-55 years, mean age 46 years). Analyses were restricted to 2315 subjects (1138 women and 1177 men), not using thyroid medication, not having anti-TPO levels above clinical cutoff values or TSH levels outside the reference range (0.27-4.2 mU/L). Twenty-seven percent of the women and 47.5% of the men were overweight, while 13% of women and 17% of men were obese. Twenty percent of the subjects were active smokers. Serum thyroid function parameters were determined by electrochemiluminescence. fT3 and the fT3-to-fT4 ratio were positively related to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and components of metabolic syndrome, that is, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, and negatively with HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas fT4 was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference, and triglycerides (p<0.001). TSH related positively with total cholesterol levels (p<0.01), triglycerides, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001). The fT3-to-fT4 ratio was further positively associated with the adiposity-related inflammation markers interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and to pulse wave velocity. All associations were adjusted for sex, age, height, and smoking, and most associations

  3. Blood Chemistry Reference Values for Free-Ranging Asiatic Black Bears ( Ursus thibetanus) by Season, Age, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Jin; Jeong, Dong-Hyuk; Lim, Yoon-Kyu

    2018-04-19

    Physiological characteristics, such as blood chemistry values, are valuable for evaluating the health of the animals. To our knowledge, these values have never been reported for the free-ranging Asiatic black bear ( Ursus thibetanus; ABB). Thus, 28 blood chemistry values from 50 free-ranging ABBs captured in Jirisan National Park, Republic of Korea, from 2005 to 2016 were evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish blood chemistry reference values for the free-ranging ABBs during both the hibernating and nonhibernating seasons. During hibernation, mean values of creatinine (CRE), total cholesterol, total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglycerides, and Mg were significantly higher than those during nonhibernation; however, mean values of blood urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen to creatinine (U/C) ratio, inorganic phosphorous (IP), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly lower. Age differences (young vs. adult) were found in IP, LDH, TP, and ALB values during hibernation and in the U/C ratio, Ca, IP, ALP, creatine kinase myocardial band, CRE, total bilirubin, and uric acid values during nonhibernation. However, there were no sex differences (male vs. female).

  4. Free triiodothyronine levels are positively associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoli; Zheng, Xiao; Guan, Liying; Jiang, Zhi; Lin, Haiyan; Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Yikun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Chunxiao; Guan, Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between thyroid function and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among euthyroid subjects have produced conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function and the presence of NAFLD in a large-sample middle-aged euthyroid subjects. A total of 2576 euthyroid subjects who underwent health check-up were included. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasonography. Conventional risk factors for NAFLD were assessed as well as serum levels of TSH, FT3 and FT4. Levels of FT3 were significantly higher in NAFLD group (5.12 ± 0.58 versus 4.84 ± 0.58 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.000) than non-NAFLD group, while levels of TSH and FT4 were comparable between NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups (TSH: 2.13 ± 0.90 versus 2.20 ± 0.93 mIU/L, adjusted p = 0.190; FT4: 16.41 ± 2.04 versus 16.18 ± 2.06 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.146, respectively). Levels of FT3 were positively correlated with components of metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high level of FT3 was an independent predictor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 1.253, p = 0.040). The relationship between FT4 and NAFLD in women was different according to menopausal status, with negative association in pre-menopausal women (OR: 0.777, 95% CI: 0.617-0.979, p = 0.032) and null association in post-menopausal women (OR: 1.037, 95% CI: 0.841-1.277, p = 0.736). Our findings suggested that high levels of FT3 were significantly associated with NAFLD among middle-aged euthyroid subjects independently of known metabolic risk factors. A negative correlation of serum FT4 level with NAFLD was only observed in pre-menopausal women.

  5. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  6. Measurement of vortex velocities over a wide range of vortex age, downstream distance and free stream velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorke, J. B.; Moffett, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain vortex velocity signatures over a wide parameter range encompassing the data conditions of several previous researchers while maintaining a common instrumentation and test facility. The generating wing panel was configured with both a revolved airfoil tip shape and a square tip shape and had a semispan aspect of 4.05/1.0 with a 121.9 cm span. Free stream velocity was varied from 6.1 m/sec to 76.2 m/sec and the vortex core velocities were measured at locations 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 chordlengths downstream of the wing trailing edge, yielding vortex ages up to 2.0 seconds. Wing pitch angles of 6, 8, 9 and 12 deg were investigated. Detailed surface pressure distributions and wing force measurements were obtained for each wing tip configuration. Correlation with vortex velocity data taken in previous experiments is good. During the rollup process, vortex core parameters appear to be dependent primarily on vortex age. Trending in the plateau and decay regions is more complex and the machanisms appear to be more unstable.

  7. Knowing the dense plasma focus - The coming of age (of the PF) with broad-ranging scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.

    2017-03-01

    The dense plasma focus is blessed not only with copious multi-radiations ranging from electron and ion beams, x-rays both soft and hard, fusion neutrons D-D and D-T but also with the property of enhanced compression from radiative collapse leading to HED (high energy density) states. The Lee code has been used in extensive systematic numerical experiments tied to reality through fitting with measured current waveforms and verified through comparison of measured and computed yields and measurements of multi-radiation. The studies have led to establishment of scaling laws with respect to storage energy, discharge current and pinch currents for fusion neutrons, characteristic soft x-rays, all-line radiation and ion beams. These are summarized here together with a first-time presentation of a scaling law of radiatively enhanced compression as a function of atomic number of operational gas. This paper emphasizes that such a broad range of scaling laws signals the coming of age of the DPF and presents a reference platform for planning the many potential applications such as in advanced SXR lithography, materials synthesizing and testing, medical isotopes, imaging and energy and high energy density (HED).

  8. Structure and Properties of Ti-19.7Nb-5.8Ta Shape Memory Alloy Subjected to Thermomechanical Processing Including Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinskiy, S.; Brailovski, Vladimir; Prokoshkin, S.; Pushin, V.; Inaekyan, K.; Sheremetyev, V.; Petrzhik, M.; Filonov, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the ternary Ti-19.7Nb-5.8Ta (at.%) alloy for biomedical applications was studied. The ingot was manufactured by vacuum arc melting with a consumable electrode and then subjected to hot forging. Specimens were cut from the ingot and processed by cold rolling with e = 0.37 of logarithmic thickness reduction and post-deformation annealing (PDA) between 400 and 750 °C (1 h). Selected samples were subjected to aging at 300 °C (10 min to 3 h). The influence of the thermomechanical processing on the alloy's structure, phase composition, and mechanical and functional properties was studied. It was shown that thermomechanical processing leads to the formation of a nanosubgrained structure (polygonized with subgrains below 100 nm) in the 500-600 °C PDA range, which transforms to a recrystallized structure of β-phase when PDA temperature increases. Simultaneously, the phase composition and the β → α″ transformation kinetics vary. It was found that after conventional cold rolling and PDA, Ti-Nb-Ta alloy manifests superelastic and shape memory behaviors. During aging at 300 °C (1 h), an important quantity of randomly scattered equiaxed ω-precipitates forms, which results in improved superelastic cyclic properties. On the other hand, aging at 300 °C (3 h) changes the ω-precipitates' particle morphology from equiaxed to elongated and leads to their coarsening, which negatively affects the superelastic and shape memory functional properties of Ti-Nb-Ta alloy.

  9. Determinants of premature mortality in a city population: An eight-year observational study concerning subjects aged 18–64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Maniecka-Bryła

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature deaths constitute 31.1% of all deaths in Łódź. Analysis of the causes of premature deaths may be helpful in the evaluation of health risk factors. Moreover, findings of this study may enhance prophylactic measures. Material and Methods: In 2001, 1857 randomly selected citizens, aged 18-64, were included in the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI Programme. In 2009, a follow-up study was conducted and information on the subjects of the study was collected concerning their health status and if they continued to live in Łódź. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for evaluation of hazard coefficients. We adjusted our calculations for age and sex. The analysis revealed statistically significant associations between the number of premature deaths of the citizens of Łódź and the following variables: a negative self-evaluation of health - HR = 3.096 (95% CI: 1.729-5.543, poor financial situation - HR = 2.811 (95% CI: 1.183‑6.672, occurring in the year preceding the study: coronary pain - HR = 2.754 (95% CI: 1.167-6.494, depression - HR = 2.001 (95% CI: 1.222-3.277 and insomnia - HR = 1.660 (95% CI: 1.029-2.678. Our research study also found a negative influence of smoking on the health status - HR = 2.782 (95% CI: 1.581-4.891. Moreover, we conducted survival analyses according to sex and age with Kaplan-Meier curves. Conclusions: The risk factors leading to premature deaths were found to be highly significant but possible to reduce by modifying lifestyle-related health behaviours. The confirmed determinants of premature mortality indicate a need to spread and intensify prophylactic activities in Poland, which is a post-communist country, in particular, in the field of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Assessment of Accrued Damage and Remaining Useful Life in Leadfree Electronics Subjected to Multiple Thermal Environments of Thermal Aging and Thermal Cycling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method has been developed for prognostication of accrued prior damage in electronics subjected to overlapping sequential environments of thermal aging and thermal...

  11. Orofacial features of subjects aged 18-30 years in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a universal term referred to herein to collectively denote a series of functional disorders of orofacial structures, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and the masticatory muscles in particular. Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, as well as the frequency of signs and symptoms of this type of disorder. Methods: The study involved a sample of 300 subjects, aged 18-30 years. The sample comprised the target student population attending the University of Pristina, Kosovska Mitrovica. A random sample, intended for sampling without replacement, was drawn from the target population. All subjects underwent the Helkimo clinical dysfunction index analysis. Results of the analysis were quantified and expressed numerically, based on severity, as the Helkimo anamnestic dysfunction index (Ai and the clinical dysfunction index (Di with specific values assigned thereto accordingly. Results: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population totaled 50.7% (Di> 0. In the majority of patients a mild form of TMP (67% was reported. Temporomandibular disorders were more common in women than in men, who appear to be three times as likely to develop the respective condition, demonstrating the ratio of 3:1. The most common TMD signs and symptoms implied mandibular kinetics disturbances (46% and TMJ sounds (45%. The prevalence of pain during mandibular movements amounted to 9%, the palpable TMJ sensitivity to 20% and the palpable sensitivity of masticatory muscles 18%. Headache and otalgia were represented with 13%, that is, 3% in the observed sample. Conclusion: Temporomandibular disorder analysis demonstrates high incidence in the population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. These findings indicate the need for an extensive prevention

  12. Effects of various mouthpieces on respiratory physiology during steady-state exercise in college-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Dena P

    2015-01-01

    Protective mouthpieces have been used in a variety of sports to decrease the risk of orofacial injury. There are limited data to suggest that mouthpiece use during exercise may also provide an ergogenic effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3 different mouthpiece designs-boil-and-bite (BB) mouthpiece, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) custom mandibular mouthpiece, and polypropylene (Poly) custom mandibular mouthpiece-on respiratory physiology parameters and compare them with results of a no-mouthpiece (NM) condition. Sixteen college-aged, recreationally fit subjects ran for 10 minutes in 4 separate trials; mouthpiece conditions were randomly assigned to each trial for all subjects. Respiratory and cardiorespiratory measures, including oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide exhalation, ventilation, heart rate, tidal volume, and respiratory rate (RR), were assessed throughout testing. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that RR was significantly lower (P = 0.04) in the BB mouthpiece condition (27.92 breaths per minute [BPM]) than in the NM condition (30.63 BPM). In paired t tests between conditions, the RR demonstrated in the BB condition (27.92 BPM) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than that of each other condition (NM, 30.63 BPM; EVA, 29.92 BPM; and Poly, 29.92 BPM). The outcomes of the present study demonstrate that the use of the BB mouthpiece decreased RR during exercise. The differences cited between conditions may be attributed to the design of the mouthpiece and its mandibular placement as well as the activity of the genioglossus muscle. However, future studies should assess these parameters to determine the plausibility of these theories.

  13. Evaluation of PSA-age volume score in predicting prostate cancer in Chinese populationArticle Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Guang-Liang; Yu, Yang; Tong, Shi-Jun; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Mao, Shan-Hua; Na, Rong; Ding, Qiang

    2018-02-06

    This study was performed to evaluate prostate-specific antigen-age volume (PSA-AV) scores in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) in a Chinese biopsy population. A total of 2355 men who underwent initial prostate biopsy from January 2006 to November 2015 in Huashan Hospital were recruited in the current study. The PSA-AV scores were calculated and assessed together with PSA and PSA density (PSAD) retrospectively. Among 2133 patients included in the analysis, 947 (44.4%) were diagnosed with PCa. The mean age, PSA, and positive rates of digital rectal examination result and transrectal ultrasound result were statistically higher in men diagnosed with PCa (all P PSA-AV were 0.864 and 0.851, respectively, in predicting PCa in the entire population, both performed better than PSA (AUC = 0.805; P PSA-AV was more obvious in subgroup with PSA ranging from 2.0 ng ml-1 to 20.0 ng ml-1. A PSA-AV score of 400 had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.7% and 40.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the PSA-AV score performed equally with PSAD and was better than PSA in predicting PCa. This indicated that PSA-AV score could be a useful tool for predicting PCa in Chinese population.

  14. Age and geochemistry of Neoproterozoic granitoids in the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif, NE China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jin-Peng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Guo, Peng

    2017-10-01

    This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical data for Neoproterozoic granitoids in the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif (SZRM) of NE China. This dataset provides insights into the Neoproterozoic tectonic setting of the SZRM and the links between this magmatism and the evolution of the Rodinia supercontinent. The zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Neoproterozoic magmatism within the SZRM can be subdivided into two stages: (1) a ∼917-911 Ma suite of syenogranites and monzogranites, and (2) an ∼841 Ma suite of granodiorites. The 917-911 Ma granitoids contain high concentrations of SiO2 (67.89-71.18 wt.%), K2O (4.24-6.91 wt.%), and Al2O3 (14.89-16.14 wt.%), and low concentrations of TFe2O3 (1.63-3.70 wt.%) and MgO (0.53-0.88 wt.%). They are enriched in the light rare earth elements (LREE) and the large ion lithophile elements (LILE), are depleted in the heavy REE (HREE) and the high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and have slightly positive Eu anomalies, indicating that they are geochemically similar to high-K adakitic rocks. They have zircon εHf (t) values and TDM2 ages from -4.4 to +1.5 and 1915 Ma to 1592 Ma, respectively, suggesting that they were derived from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of ancient thickened lower crustal material. In comparison, the 841 Ma granodiorites contain relatively low concentrations of Al2O3 (14.50-14.58 wt.%) and K2O (3.27-3.29 wt.%), relatively high concentrations of TFe2O3 (3.78-3.81 wt.%) and the HREE, have negative Eu anomalies, and have zircon εHf (t) values and TDM2 ages from -4.7 to +1.0 and 1875 to 1559 Ma, respectively. These granodiorites formed from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of ancient crustal material. The ∼917-911 Ma magmatism within the SZRM is inferred to have formed in an orogenic setting, whereas the ∼841 Ma magmatism formed in an anorogenic setting related to either a post-orogenic tectonic event or the onset of Neoproterozoic

  15. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: Impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol and video gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Linda Wilms

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed of Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory of Visual Attention (TVA. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.

  16. X-linked retinoschisis: RS1 mutation severity and age affect the ERG phenotype in a cohort of 68 affected male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kristen; Cukras, Catherine; Turriff, Amy; Sergeev, Yuri; Vitale, Susan; Bush, Ronald A; Sieving, Paul A

    2011-11-29

    To assess the effect of age and RS1 mutation on the phenotype of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) subjects using the clinical electroretinogram (ERG) in a cross-sectional analysis. Sixty-eight XLRS males 4.5 to 55 years of age underwent genotyping, and the retinoschisis (RS1) mutations were classified as less severe (27 subjects) or more severe (41 subjects) based on the putative impact on the protein. ERG parameters of retinal function were analyzed by putative mutation severity with age as a continuous variable. The a-wave amplitude remained greater than the lower limit of normal (mean, -2 SD) for 72% of XLRS males and correlated with neither age nor mutation class. However, b-wave and b/a-ratio amplitudes were significantly lower in the more severe than in the less severe mutation groups and in older than in younger subjects. Subjects up to 10 years of age with more severe RS1 mutations had significantly greater b-wave amplitudes and faster a-wave trough implicit times than older subjects in this group. RS1 mutation putative severity and age both had significant effects on retinal function in XLRS only in the severe mutation group, as judged by ERG analysis of the b-wave amplitude and the b/a-ratio, whereas the a-wave amplitude remained normal in most. A new observation was that increasing age (limited to those aged 55 and younger) caused a significant delay in XLRS b-wave onset (i.e., a-wave implicit time), even for those who retained considerable b-wave amplitudes. The delayed b-wave onset suggested that dysfunction of the photoreceptor synapse or of bipolar cells increases with age of XLRS subjects.

  17. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  18. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  19. Disease Prevention in the Age of Convergence - the Need for a Wider, Long Ranging and Collaborative Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Prescott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is time to bring our imagination, creativity and passion to the fore in solving the global challenges of our age. Our global health crisis and the pandemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs is clearly rooted in complex modern societal and environmental changes, many of which have effects on developing immune and metabolic responses. It is intimately related to wider environmental challenges. And it is unsurprising that many NCDs share similar risk factors and that many are associated with a rising predisposition for inflammation. Allergy is one of the earliest signs of environmental impact on these biological pathways, and may also offer an early barometer to assess the effects of early interventions. There is dawning awareness of how changing microbial diversity, nutritional patterns, sedentary indoor behaviours and modern pollutants adversely affect early metabolic and immune development, but still much to understand the complexity of these interactions. Even when we do harness the science and technology, these will not provide solutions unless we also address the wider social, cultural and economic determinants of health - addressing the interconnections between human health and the health of our environment. Now more than ever, we need a wider vision and a greater sense of collective responsibility. We need long-range approaches that aim for life long benefits of a ‘healthier start to life’, and stronger cross-sectoral collaborations to prevent disease. We need to give both our hearts and our minds to solving these global issues.

  20. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  1. Loosely coupled level sets for retinal layers and drusen segmentation in subjects with dry age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Jelena; Wang, Ziyuan; de Jong, Henk; Vermeer, Koenraad A.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to produce high-resolution three-dimensional images of the retina, which permit the investigation of retinal irregularities. In dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a chronic eye disease that causes central vision loss, disruptions such as drusen and changes in retinal layer thicknesses occur which could be used as biomarkers for disease monitoring and diagnosis. Due to the topology disrupting pathology, existing segmentation methods often fail. Here, we present a solution for the segmentation of retinal layers in dry AMD subjects by extending our previously presented loosely coupled level sets framework which operates on attenuation coefficients. In eyes affected by AMD, Bruch's membrane becomes visible only below the drusen and our segmentation framework is adapted to delineate such a partially discernible interface. Furthermore, the initialization stage, which tentatively segments five interfaces, is modified to accommodate the appearance of drusen. This stage is based on Dijkstra's algorithm and combines prior knowledge on the shape of the interface, gradient and attenuation coefficient in the newly proposed cost function. This prior knowledge is incorporated by varying the weights for horizontal, diagonal and vertical edges. Finally, quantitative evaluation of the accuracy shows a good agreement between manual and automated segmentation.

  2. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  3. Establishment of sandwich ELISA for soluble alpha-Klotho measurement: Age-dependent change of soluble alpha-Klotho levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuji; Imura, Akihiro; Urakawa, Itaru; Shimada, Takashi; Murakami, Junko; Aono, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Hisashi; Yamashita, Takeyoshi; Nakatani, Kimihiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Namba, Noriyuki; Kitaoka, Taichi; Ozono, Keiichi; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Hataya, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Shoji; Imel, Erik A; Econs, Michael J; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi

    2010-07-30

    Alpha-Klotho (alphaKl) regulates mineral metabolism such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in circulation. Defects in mice result in clinical features resembling disorders found in human aging. Although the importance of transmembrane-type alphaKl has been demonstrated, less is known regarding the physiological importance of soluble-type alphaKl (salphaKl) in circulation. The aims of this study were: (1) to establish a sandwich ELISA system enabling detection of circulating serum salphaKl, and (2) to determine reference values for salphaKl serum levels and relationship to indices of renal function, mineral metabolism, age and sex in healthy subjects. We successively developed an ELISA to measure serum salphaKl in healthy volunteers (n=142, males 66) of ages (61.1+/-18.5year). The levels (mean+/-SD) in these healthy control adults were as follows: total calcium (Ca; 9.46+/-0.41mg/dL), Pi (3.63+/-0.51mg/dL), blood urea nitrogen (BUN; 15.7+/-4.3mg/dL), creatinine (Cre; 0.69+/-0.14mg/dL), 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D; 54.8+/-17.7pg/mL), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH; 49.2+/-20.6pg/mL), calcitonin (26.0+/-12.3pg/mL) and intact fibroblast growth factor (FGF23; 43.8+/-17.6pg/mL). Serum levels of salphaKl ranged from 239 to 1266pg/mL (mean+/-SD; 562+/-146pg/mL) in normal adults. Although salphaKl levels were not modified by gender or indices of mineral metabolism, salphaKl levels were inversely related to Cre and age. However, salphaKl levels in normal children (n=39, males 23, mean+/-SD; 7.1+/-4.8years) were significantly higher (mean+/-SD; 952+/-282pg/mL) than those in adults (mean+/-SD; 562+/-146, Plevel was notably lower than those of age-matched controls. We established a detection system to measure human serum salphaKl for the first time. Age, Ca and Pi seem to influence serum salphaKl levels in a normal population. This detection system should be an excellent tool for investigating salphaKl functions in mineral metabolism. Copyright

  4. MRI Volumetry of Hippocampus and Amygdala in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suphaphong, S.; Tritanon, O.; Laothamatas, J.; Sungkarat, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can affect memory and daily living. Non- invasive diagnostic tools such as MRI can be useful to discriminate the patients from normal group.This study aims to compare the relative volumes of hippocampus and amygdala, to suggest the relative normal volumes, and to evaluate MRI automatic volumetry as a diagnostic tool. The MRI images of 130 subjects were retrospectively studied (Turbo field echo (TFE), acquired with a 3-Tesla Philips scanner). The image data were processed with Free Surfer (automatic segmentation and volumetry). The resultant volumes were corrected for brain size differences with intracranial volumes (ICV), and then analysed with SPSS (v. 17.0). There are differences of hippocampus and amygdala relative volumes between normal, MCI, and AD subjects at p < 0.001. The volume reductions of hippocampus in MCI and AD groups compared to normal group are about 8 % and 28 %, while those of amygdala are about 10 % and 34 %, respectively. The relative volumes of hippocampus (compared to ICV) in normal aging are 0.002617 ± 0.000278 (right) and 0.002553 ± 0.000257 (left), while those of amygdala are 0.001231 ± 0.000165 (right) and 0.001096 ± 0.000144 (left). There are no differences of relative volumes affected by gender in normal, MCI, and AD. There is a highly significant difference of relative volume affected by brain side in normal group (p < 0.001) but not in MCI (p = 0.119 and 0.077) and AD (p = 0.713 and 0.250), for hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. These results demonstrate that there are volume losses of hippocampus and amygdala in both diseases. Automatically measured hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as a measure indicating MCI and AD. The abnormal disturbance of volume affected by brain side may indicate the progression of both diseases. The hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as one of diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis of MCI or AD. The volume

  5. Height, socioeconomic and subjective well-being factors among U.S. women, ages 49-79.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wyshak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. METHODS/FINDINGS: Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49-79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p= 0.0333. Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance 'once a week or more often' were taller than those who reported 'none' and 'once to 3 times a month'. Means in inches are respectively for: White women-63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs-yes vs. no-63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given 'a little' strength and comfort from religion' compared to 'none' and 'a great deal', 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health-excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor-63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. CONCLUSIONS: Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities -frequent attendance clubs

  6. Height, socioeconomic and subjective well-being factors among U.S. women, ages 49-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49-79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p= 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance 'once a week or more often' were taller than those who reported 'none' and 'once to 3 times a month'. Means in inches are respectively for: White women-63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs-yes vs. no-63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given 'a little' strength and comfort from religion' compared to 'none' and 'a great deal', 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health-excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor-63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities -frequent attendance clubs/lodges/groups", and with 'a little' vs. 'none' or 'great deal

  7. Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49–79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p = 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated

  8. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: A cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5 year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb 10 g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb > 10 g/dL. The Pb levels 10 μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200 μg/L, whereas 47% had > 200 μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r = -0.514 and r = -0.685) and Fe contents (r = -0.522, r = -0.762, p < 0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  9. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: A cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com, E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5 year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb < 10 g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb < 8 g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb > 10 g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb > 10 g/dL. The Pb levels < 100 {mu}g/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had > 10 {mu}g/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200 {mu}g/L, whereas 47% had > 200 {mu}g/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r = -0.514 and r = -0.685) and Fe contents (r = -0.522, r = -0.762, p < 0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  10. Ages, geochemistry and tectonic implications of the Cambrian igneous rocks in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yongjiang; Li, Yanrong; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Liu, Binqiang; Zhou, Jianping; Zhao, Yingli

    2017-08-01

    The Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone, located in the Great Xing'an Range, NE China, in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), represents the boundary between the Erguna and Xing'an micro-continental blocks. The exact location of the Xinlin-Xiguitu suture zone has been debated, especially, the location of the northern extension of the suture zone. In this study, based on a detailed field, geochemical, geochronological and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope study, we focus our work on the Cambrian igneous rocks in the Erguna-Xing'an block. The Xinglong granitoids, mainly include ∼520 Ma diorite, ∼470 Ma monzogranite and ∼480 Ma pyroxene diorite. The granitoids show medium to high-K calc-alkaline series characteristics with post-collision granite affinity. The circa 500 Ma granitoids have low εHf (t) values (-16.6 to +2.2) and ancient two-stage model (TDM2) ages between 1317 Ma and 2528 Ma. These results indicate the primary magmas of the Xinglong granitoids were probably derived from the partial melting of a dominantly Paleo-Mesoproterozoic ;old; crustal source with possible different degrees of addition of juvenile materials, and formed in a post-collision tectonic setting after the amalgamation of the Erguna and Xing'an blocks. Compared with the Xinglong granitoids, the Duobaoshan igneous rocks are consisted of the approximately coeval rhyolitic tuffs (491 ± 5 Ma) and ultramafic intrusions (497 ± 5 Ma) within the Duobaoshan Formation. They are generally enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), consistent with the geochemistry of igneous rocks from island arcs or active continental margins. The ultramafic rocks have high positive εHf (t) values (+1.3 to +15) and εNd (t) (+1.86 to +2.28), and relatively young two-stage model (TDM2) ages and low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70628-0.70853), indicating the partial melting of a depleted mantle source from a subducted slab in

  11. Interrelationships between Working Memory, Processing Speed, and Language Development in the Age Range 2-4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored associations between working memory and language in children aged 2-4 years. Method: Seventy-seven children aged 24-30 months were assessed on tests measuring language, visual cognition, verbal working memory (VWM), phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and processing speed. A standardized test of receptive and…

  12. Accuracy of the estimation of dental age in comparison with chronological age in a Spanish sample of 2641 living subjects using the Demirjian and Nolla methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, María; Ata-Ali, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation is an important procedure in forensic medicine and is carried out for a number of reasons. For living persons, age estimation is performed in order to assess whether a child has attained the age of criminal responsibility, in scenarios involving rape, kidnapping or marriage, in premature births, adoption procedures, illegal immigration, pediatric endocrine diseases and orthodontic malocclusion, as well as in circumstances in which the birth certificate is not available or the records are suspect. According to data from the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees), the number of people seeking refugee status continued to increase in the last years, driven by the wars in Syria and Iraq, as well as by conflict and instability in Afghanistan, Eritrea and elsewhere. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of estimating dental age versus chronological age using the Nolla and Demirjian methods in a Spanish population. A final sample of 2641 panoramic X-rays corresponding to Spanish patients (1322 males and 1319 females) between 7-21 years of age was analyzed. Dental age was assessed using the Nolla and Demirjian methods, establishing comparisons with mean chronological age based on the Student t-test for paired samples, followed by the generation of a linear regression model. Both methods showed slight discrepancy between dental and chronological age. On examining the reproducibility of the Nolla and Demirjian methods, technical errors of 0.84% and 0.62%, respectively, were observed. On average, the Nolla method was found to estimate an age 0.213years younger than the chronological age, while the Demirjian method estimated an age 0.853years older than the chronological age. Linear combination of the mean Nolla and Demirjian estimates increased the predictive capacity to 99.2%. In conclusion the Nolla and Demirjian methods were found to be accurate in estimating chronological age from dental age in a Spanish population. The error

  13. Coming of Age of Human Biology: A Study of the Birth and Growth of a Subject in the School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, M.

    1983-01-01

    Human biology is a school subject whose utilitarian/pedagogical traditions enjoy support at the School Certificate level but whose academic tradition is under threat at the General Certificate of Education level. An interpretation of the issues involved are discussed in terms of the subject's historical background. (JN)

  14. Skeletal retention of 239Pu and 226Ra in beagles injected at ages ranging from 2 days to 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Jee, W.S.S.; Smith, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The age at exposure significantly affects the retention and distribution of 226 Ra and 239 Pu, both of which deposit in the skeleton, although in different patterns. Beagles aged 2 days (neonates), 90 days (juveniles), 18 months (young adults) or 5 years (old), received a single injection of one of these nuclides at a dosage level at which no significant acute effects have been observed. Nuclide concentrations in plasma and the skeleton were determined and retention equations were calculated. Initial deposition and retention of the two nuclides were age-dependent, but differences between the growing and young adult beagles were much greater than between the young adult and old beagles

  15. Age group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Baotic, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Animal vocal signals are increasingly used to monitor wildlife populations and to obtain estimates of species occurrence and abundance. In the future, acoustic monitoring should function not only to detect animals, but also to extract detailed information about populations by discriminating sexes, age groups, social or kin groups, and potentially individuals. Here we show that it is possible to estimate age groups of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) based on acoustic parameters extracte...

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of an investigational meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Indian subjects aged 2 to 75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Sanjay; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Gogtay, Nithya; Palkar, Sonali; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Thatte, Urmila; Vakil, Hoshang; Jonnalagedda, Rekha; Pedotti, Paola; Hoyle, Margaret; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani

    2015-09-01

    This phase 3, multi-center, open-label study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM, Menveo(®); Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics S.r.l., Siena, Italy) in healthy Indian subjects aged 2-75 years, to provide data for licensure in India. A total of 180 subjects were enrolled (60 subjects 2-10 years, 60 subjects 11-18 years, and 60 subjects 19-75 years) and received one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were collected throughout the 29-day study period. Percentages of subjects with post-vaccination hSBA ≥8 were 72%, 95%, 94%, and 90% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Geometric mean titers rose 7-fold to 42-fold against the four serogroups. Similar immune responses were observed for the age subgroups 2-10 years, 11-18 years, and 19-75 years. Seroresponse rates at 1 month following vaccination were 72%, 88%, 55%, and 71% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. The vaccine was well tolerated with no safety concerns. A single dose of MenACWY-CRM induced a robust immune response against all four meningococcal serogroups and was well tolerated in an Indian population 2-75 years of age. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-Specific Normal Reference Range for Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Healthy Chinese Han Women: A nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofang; Ding, Ting; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhang, Cuilian; Ma, Wenmin; Zhong, Ying; Qu, Wenyu; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Yi; Li, Zhiying; Huang, Kecheng; Deng, Song; Ma, Lanfang; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Jingjing; Yang, Shuhong; Huang, Jia; Wu, Meng; Fang, Li; Lu, Yunping; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-08-01

    The increasing use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in clinic has raised concerns regarding the reliable reference range for this test. However, the reference range for AMH in normal Chinese female population has not been established. Furthermore, relationship between AMH and other clinical markers such as body mass index (BMI) and antral follicle counts (AFCs) and other sex-related hormones have not been examined in normal population-based women. We aimed to determine the age-specific reference range for serum AMH in healthy Chinese women throughout reproductive age to menopause and to estimate relationship between AMH and other clinical markers in healthy women. In this multicenter and nationwide study, advertisements were used to recruit 2055 women, aged 20 to 55 years, from 6 different regions in China; 1590 (77.37%) women met the inclusion criteria for the reference range population. We measured the baseline serum AMH levels using new Beckman Coulter Gen II assay. Serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), and AFCs were also determined in the follicular phase. The AMH-Age nomogram and AMH levels of different age-groups and the relationship between AMH and other clinical markers. Serum AMH concentrations declined progressively with age. A quadratic model defined as log (AMH) = (-1.970 + 0.296 × Age - 0.006 × Age(2)) fitted best the decline of AMH with age. The median AMH levels were 6.23, 5.65, 4.55, 3.74, 2.78, and 1.09 ng/mL for the 20 ≤ age women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Girard, Nadine; Mundler, Olivier; Guedj, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  19. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  20. Preferred 11 different job rotation types in automotive company and their effects on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders: comparison between subjective and actual scores by workers' age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, In Sik; Jeong, Byung Yong; Jeong, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates workers' favoured rotation types by their age and compares means between subjective and actual scores on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The subjects of research were 422 assembly line units in Hyundai Motor Company. The survey of 422 units focused on the workers' preference for 11 different rotation types and subjective scores for each type's perceived benefits, both by the workers' age. Then, actual scores on production-related indices were traced over a five-year period. The results suggest that different rotation types lead to different results in productivity, product quality and MSDs. Workers tend to perceive job rotation as a helpful method to enhance satisfaction, productivity and product quality more so than the actual production data suggests. Job rotation was especially effective in preventing MSDs for workers aged under 45, while its effects were not clear for the workers aged 45 years or older. Practitioner's Summary: This research presents appropriate rotation type for different age groups. Taking workers' age into account, administrators can use the paper's outcomes to select and implement the suitable rotation type to attain specific goals such as enhancing productivity, improving product quality or reducing MSDs.

  1. Reference data on reaction time and aging using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board: A cross-sectional study of 354 subjects from 20 to 99 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; Rahbek, Martin T; Eikhof, Karin D; Hansen, Mette D; Søndergaard, Malene; Ryg, Jesper; Andersen, Stig; Jørgensen, Martin G

    2017-01-01

    Falls among older adults is one of the major public health challenges facing the rapidly changing demography. The valid assessment of reaction time (RT) and other well-documented risk factors for falls are mainly restricted to specialized clinics due to the equipment needed. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board has the potential to be a multi-modal test and intervention instrument for these risk factors, however, reference data are lacking. To provide RT reference data and to characterize the age-related changes in RT measured by the Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Healthy participants were recruited at various locations and their RT in hands and feet were tested by six assessors using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Reference data were analysed and presented in age-groups, while the age-related change in RT was tested and characterized with linear regression models. 354 participants between 20 and 99 years of age were tested. For both hands and feet, mean RT and its variation increased with age. There was a statistically significant non-linear increase in RT with age. The averaged difference between male and female was significant, with males being faster than females for both hands and feet. The averaged difference between dominant and non-dominant side was non-significant. This study reported reference data with percentiles for a new promising method for reliably testing RT. The RT data were consistent with previously known effects of age and gender on RT.

  2. Reference data on reaction time and aging using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board: A cross-sectional study of 354 subjects from 20 to 99 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W Blomkvist

    Full Text Available Falls among older adults is one of the major public health challenges facing the rapidly changing demography. The valid assessment of reaction time (RT and other well-documented risk factors for falls are mainly restricted to specialized clinics due to the equipment needed. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board has the potential to be a multi-modal test and intervention instrument for these risk factors, however, reference data are lacking.To provide RT reference data and to characterize the age-related changes in RT measured by the Nintendo Wii Balance Board.Healthy participants were recruited at various locations and their RT in hands and feet were tested by six assessors using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Reference data were analysed and presented in age-groups, while the age-related change in RT was tested and characterized with linear regression models.354 participants between 20 and 99 years of age were tested. For both hands and feet, mean RT and its variation increased with age. There was a statistically significant non-linear increase in RT with age. The averaged difference between male and female was significant, with males being faster than females for both hands and feet. The averaged difference between dominant and non-dominant side was non-significant.This study reported reference data with percentiles for a new promising method for reliably testing RT. The RT data were consistent with previously known effects of age and gender on RT.

  3. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Age Range of 20-39 Years Old Individuals in Lome

    OpenAIRE

    Kolou, Malewe; Katawa, Gnatoulma; Salou, Mounerou; Gozo-Akakpo, Komlan Selom; Dossim, Sika; Kwarteng, Alexander; Prince-David, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Tog...

  4. RNAA for arsenic, cadmium, copper, and molybdenum in CNS tissues from subjects with age-related neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, L.; Ni, B.F.; Ding, X.X.; Ehmann, W.D.; Kasarskis, E.J.; Markesbery, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Reactor thermal neutron irradiation of biological matrices induces high levels of intense gamma-ray or bremsstrahlung radiation from 82 Br, 42 K, 24 Na, and 32 P, that interfere with the determination of As, Cd, Cu and Mo by INAA. Central nervous system (CNS) tissue samples from subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and controls were analyzed using a simple RNAA procedure involving a rapid two-step solvent extraction procedure to determine these four elements. Significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in concentrations of Cd and Mo were observed for brain of AD subjects compared to controls, but significant imbalances were not observed for ALS subjects. Concentration data for these elements in selected international reference standards are also presented. (author) 40 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: In an increasingly aged population, sleep disturbances and neurodegenerative disorders have become a major public health concern. Poor sleep quality and cognitive changes are complex health problems in aging populations that are likely to be associated with increased frailty, morbidity...... quality and daytime sleepiness are associated with cognition in middle-aged males. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 189 healthy males born in 1953 were considered as participants for the study. Based on previous cognitive assessments, the participants were selected for the study as cognitively improved (N = 97...

  6. The association between APOE genotype and memory dysfunction in subjects with mild cognitive impairment is related to age and Alzheimer pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Visser, P.J.; Aalten, P.; Bekers, O.; Sleegers, K.; van Broeckhoven, C.L.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F. R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Memory problems are a main feature of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and may be related to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. We investigated whether the effect of the APOE genotype on memory in subjects with MCI was dependent on age and underlying Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology.

  7. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  8. Memory functions and focussed attention in middle-aged and elderly subjects are unaffected by a low, acute dose of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J A J; Hogervorst, E; Vuurman, E F P M; Jolles, J; Riedel, W J

    2003-01-01

    The putative beneficial effects of caffeine on cognitive performance may vary between ages. The acute cognitive effects of 100 g caffeine on memory functions and focussed attention were investigated in sixteen middle-aged (45-60 years) and fourteen elderly (60-75 years) healthy men and women according to a cross-over design. Caffeine did not affect short-term memory span or speed, long-term memory retrieval functions or focussed attention. It is proposed that in middle-aged and elderly subjects cognitive effects may occur predominantly at higher caffeine dosages.

  9. Manual therapy for the management of pain and limited range of motion in subjects with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixtre, L B; Moreira, R F C; Franchini, G H; Alburquerque-Sendín, F; Oliveira, A B

    2015-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about the effectiveness of manual therapy (MT) on subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of this systematic review is to synthetise evidence regarding the isolated effect of MT in improving maximum mouth opening (MMO) and pain in subjects with signs and symptoms of TMD. MEDLINE(®) , Cochrane, Web of Science, SciELO and EMBASE(™) electronic databases were consulted, searching for randomised controlled trials applying MT for TMD compared to other intervention, no intervention or placebo. Two authors independently extracted data, PEDro scale was used to assess risk of bias, and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was applied to synthetise overall quality of the body of evidence. Treatment effect size was calculated for pain, MMO and pressure pain threshold (PPT). Eight trials were included, seven of high methodological quality. Myofascial release and massage techniques applied on the masticatory muscles are more effective than control (low to moderate evidence) but as effective as toxin botulinum injections (moderate evidence). Upper cervical spine thrust manipulation or mobilisation techniques are more effective than control (low to high evidence), while thoracic manipulations are not. There is moderate-to-high evidence that MT techniques protocols are effective. The methodological heterogeneity across trials protocols frequently contributed to decrease quality of evidence. In conclusion, there is widely varying evidence that MT improves pain, MMO and PPT in subjects with TMD signs and symptoms, depending on the technique. Further studies should consider using standardised evaluations and better study designs to strengthen clinical relevance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Safety Study of Gadoterate Meglumine in Pediatric Subjects Aged Younger Than 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Mario; Koob, Meriam; de Buttet, Sophie; Bourrinet, Philippe; Felices, Mathieu; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta

    2018-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of gadoterate meglumine in pediatric patients younger than 2 years; the secondary objectives were to document its efficacy and safety. This was a Phase IV open-label, prospective study conducted in 9 centers (4 countries). Forty-five patients younger than 2 years with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate and scheduled to undergo routine gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of any organ were included and received a single intravenous injection of gadoterate meglumine (0.1 mmol/kg). To perform the population pharmacokinetics analysis, 3 blood samples per subject were drawn during 3 time windows at time points allocated by randomization. Gadoterate meglumine concentrations were best fitted using a 2-compartmental model with linear elimination from central compartment. The median total clearance adjusted to body weight was estimated at 0.06 L/h per kg and increased with estimated glomerular filtration rate according to a power model. The median volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) adjusted to body weight was estimated at 0.047 L/kg. Estimated median terminal half-life (t1/2β) was 1.35 h, and the median systemic exposure (area under the curve) was 1591 μmol h/L. Efficacy was assessed by comparing precontrast +postcontrast images to precontrast images in a subset of 28 subjects who underwent an MRI examination of brain, spine, and associated tissues. A total of 28 lesions were identified and analyzed in 15 subjects with precontrast images versus 30 lesions in 16 subjects with precontrast + postcontrast images. Lesion visualization was improved with a mean (SD) increase in scores at subject level of 0.7 (1.0) for lesion border delineation, 0.9 (1.6) for internal morphology, and 3.1 (3.2) for contrast enhancement. Twenty-six adverse events occurred postinjection in 13 subjects (28.9%), including 3 serious reported in 1 subject (2.2%). One subject (2

  11. Rb-Sr ages of Precambrian sediments from the Ovruch mountain range, northwestern Ukraine (U.S.S.R.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhov, I.M.; Varshavskaya, E.S.; Kutyavin, E.P.; Clauer, N.; Drannik, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    A mineralogical and Rb-Sr geochronological study of Precambrian sediments and metasediments from the Ovruch mountain range (northwestern Ukraine) shows two distinct events: a slight metamorphism of the Belokorovichi Formation 1575 +- 30 Ma ago which precedes the deposition of the Zbranki Formation at 1389 +- 71 Ma (lambda 87 Rb = 1.42 x 10 -11 y -1 ). (Auth.)

  12. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Harshitha; K. Senthil kumar; K. Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined ...

  13. SUBJECTIVITY AND HYBRIDITY IN THE AGE OF INTERACTIVE INTERNET MEDIA: THE MUSICAL PERFORMANCES OF CHARICE PEMPENGCO AND ARNEL PINEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi-Anne Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines hybrid subjectivity in the performances by and in the reception of musical artists utilizing the technology of interactive Internet media. It focuses on the career trajectories of the popular Filipino music performers Charice Pempengco and Arnel Pineda, taking into account how their transnational presence and dissemination through internet media communities affect perceptions of locality, nationality and race.

  14. An assessment of the interpupillary distance, the inner and outer intercanthal distances in the normal Indian population from early neonatal period upto over 70 years of age: a study of 3500 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim:\tThe normal range for anthropometric assessment of intercanthal, interpupillary and outer orbital dimensions is important and changes with age. This study was undertaken for setting a reference range for interpupillary distance, the inner and outer intercanthal distances in the normal Indian population, to observe the variation of these parameters with age, any differences in these parameters observed in male & female population and to find correlation with the refractive errors if any. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 3500 subjects of both sexes from birth till over 70 years of age, which presented to us in the outpatient department of M & J institute of Ophthalmology and Dr. Thakorbhai V Patel Eye Institute in the period ranging from August 2008 to January 2010. Results: A correlation with refractive errors has not been studied in previous literature. In our study, the range of IPDD in males was found to be 51.87-64.23mm & in females it was 51.16-62.23 mm, range of IPDN was 51.22 – 61.75 mm in males & 47.73-59.93 mm in females. The range of IICD was 18-36.09 mm in males & in females it was 19.38-34.89 mm. The range of OICD in males was 58- 92.8 mm & in females it was 56.63-88.56mm. Conclusion: We present the data for the neonatal children to the older age groups from the same population group. The standards based on local data reflect the potentially different patterns of craniofacial growth resulting from racial, ethnic & sexual differences. These could be relied upon in diagnosis of craniofacial syndromes and orbito-facial trauma or for planning reconstructive surgeries for the same.

  15. Association of triiodothyronine levels with future development of metabolic syndrome in euthyroid middle-aged subjects: a 6-year retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Bae, Ji Cheol; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Jae Hwan, Jee; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2017-04-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have reported that thyroid hormone levels are associated with cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) even in euthyroid subjects. However, the prognostic role of serum thyroid hormone levels in the risk of incident MetS has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the associations of baseline serum thyroid hormone levels with the development of MetS in healthy subjects. This 6-year, cross-sectional, longitudinal and follow-up study was conducted in 12 037 euthyroid middle-aged subjects without MetS subjected to comprehensive health examinations. Subjects were grouped according to total triiodothyronine (T3) quartiles. The hazard ratio (HR) for the development of MetS according to T3 quartiles was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model. During the 6-year period, 3544 incident cases of MetS (29%) were identified. The proportion of subjects with incident MetS increased across the T3 quartiles ( P for trend <0.001). The HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the development of MetS were significantly higher in the highest T3 quartile compared with the lowest T3 quartile even after adjusting for confounding variables including gender, age and smoking (HR: 1.238, 95% CI: 1.128-1.358, P  < 0.001). In euthyroid middle-aged subjects, serum T3 levels are associated with increased risk for future development of MetS. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Subjective cognitive impairment and brain structural networks in Chinese gynaecological cancer survivors compared with age-matched controls: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yingchun; Cheng, Andy S K; Song, Ting; Sheng, Xiujie; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xiangyu; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2017-11-28

    Subjective cognitive impairment can be a significant and prevalent problem for gynaecological cancer survivors. The aims of this study were to assess subjective cognitive functioning in gynaecological cancer survivors after primary cancer treatment, and to investigate the impact of cancer treatment on brain structural networks and its association with subjective cognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-reported questionnaire by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog) to assess subjective cognitive functioning, and applying DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) and graph theoretical analyses to investigate brain structural networks after primary cancer treatment. A total of 158 patients with gynaecological cancer (mean age, 45.86 years) and 130 age-matched non-cancer controls (mean age, 44.55 years) were assessed. Patients reported significantly greater subjective cognitive functioning on the FACT-Cog total score and two subscales of perceived cognitive impairment and perceived cognitive ability (all p values impairment (r = -0.388, p = 0.034). When compared with non-cancer controls, a considerable proportion of gynaecological cancer survivors may exhibit subjective cognitive impairment. This study provides the first evidence of brain structural network alteration in gynaecological cancer patients at post-treatment, and offers novel insights regarding the possible neurobiological mechanism of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in gynaecological cancer patients. As primary cancer treatment can result in a more random organisation of structural brain networks, this may reduce brain functional specificity and segregation, and have implications for cognitive impairment. Future prospective and longitudinal studies are needed to build upon the study findings in order to assess potentially relevant clinical and psychosocial variables and brain network measures, so as to more accurately understand the

  17. Centenarians' offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible.

  18. The Biology of Aging: Citizen Scientists and Their Pets as a Bridge Between Research on Model Organisms and Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberlein, M

    2016-03-01

    A fundamental goal of research into the basic mechanisms of aging is to develop translational strategies that improve human health by delaying the onset and progression of age-related pathology. Several interventions have been discovered that increase life span in invertebrate organisms, some of which have similar effects in mice. These include dietary restriction and inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin by treatment with rapamycin. Key challenges moving forward will be to assess the extent to which these and other interventions improve healthy longevity and increase life span in mice and to develop practical strategies for extending this work to the clinic. Companion animals may provide an optimal intermediate between laboratory models and humans. By improving healthy longevity in companion animals, important insights will be gained regarding human aging while improving the quality of life for people and their pets. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Seasonal variation in diel behaviour and habitat use by age 1+ steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Coast and Cascade Range streams in Oregon, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Jon B. Grunbaum; Dirk W. Lang

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal diel behaviour of age 1+ steelhead from Coast and Cascade Range streams in Oregon was examined in the field and in laboratory streams. During the summer, fish from both areas were active during the day in natural streams: they held position in the water column in moderate velocities and depths. At night, fish were in slower water, closer to the bottom...

  20. Effects of Hen Age and Egg Weight Class on the Hatchability of Free Range Indigenous Chicken Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Abudabos, AM; Aljumaah, RS; Algawaan, AS; Al-Sornokh, H; Al-Atiyat, RM

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In total, 806 eggs of free-range Hassawi indigenous chickens were collected from local farm in Saudi Arabia. Eggs were weekly collected for 11 weeks. Initial egg weight (IEW) was recorded, and eggs were graded into four classes (A: 35-40 g, B: 40-45 g, C: 45-50 g, and D: 50-55 g). Eggs were stored for seven days at 75-80% relative humidity and 14-16 C, after which egg weight losses (WL0) were calculated. During incubation, eggs were weighed on days 7 (W7) and 14 (W14), and egg weight...

  1. Loosely coupled level sets for retinal layers and drusen segmentation in subjects with dry age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novosel, J.; Wang, Ziyuan; De Jong, Henk; Vermeer, K.A.; van Vliet, L.J.; Styner, Martin A.; Angelini, Elsa D.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to produce high-resolution three-dimensional images of the retina, which permit the investigation of retinal irregularities. In dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a chronic eye disease that causes central vision loss, disruptions such as drusen and

  2. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6±18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6±19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  3. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea)). e-mail: growthkim@daum.net/growthkim@pusan.ac.kr)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6+-18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6+-19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  4. Dietary quality and its structural relationships among equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health in Japanese middle-aged urban dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Sayuri; Fujii, Nobuya; Furuhata, Tadashi; Sakurai, Naoko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Hoshi, Tanji

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary quality in middle-age and the prime age of a person's work career might be determined by positive emotional well-being based on socioeconomic status (SES), causation among determinants of dietary quality still remains unclear. Our purpose was to elucidate the structural relationships among five-year prior dietary quality, equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health by sex and age group separately. In 2003, 10,000 middle-aged urban dwellers aged 40-64 years, who lived in ward A in the Tokyo metropolitan area, were randomly selected and a questionnaire survey was conducted by mail. In 2008, we made a follow-up survey for dwellers, and were able to gather their survival status. A total of 2507, middle-aged men (n = 1112) and women (n = 1395), were examined at baseline. We created three latent variables for a structural equation modeling (SEM), five-year subjective health reported in 2003 and in 2008, dietary quality of principle food groups diversity and eating behavior in 2003, and emotional well-being constructed by enjoyment & ikigai (meaning of life) and by close people in 2003. Equivalent income in 2003 was calculated as SES indicator. In the SEM analysis of both men and women, there was an indirect effect of the equivalent income on dietary quality and on five-year subjective health, via emotional well-being explained by ikigai and having comforting people close to the individuals, significantly. There tended to be a larger direct effect of emotional well-being on the dietary quality in men than in women, and also a larger effect accompanying with aging. In women, there was a large direct effect of equivalent income on dietary quality than in men. When examined comprehensively, there appeared to be a larger effect of five-year prior equivalent income on subjective health during five-year in men than in women. This study suggests that it is necessary to support the improvement of dietary quality in middle

  5. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Meyer, Jordana M; Putman, Sarah B; Schulte, Bruce A; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission-fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  6. Cervical range of motion, cervical and shoulder strength in senior versus age-grade Rugby Union International front-row forwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark; Moore, Isabel S; Moran, Patrick; Mathema, Prabhat; Ranson, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    To provide normative values for cervical range of motion (CROM), isometric cervical and shoulder strength for; International Senior professional, and International Age-grade Rugby Union front-row forwards. Cross-sectional population study. All international level front-row players within a Rugby Union Tier 1 Nation. Nineteen Senior and 21 Age-grade front-row forwards underwent CROM, cervical and shoulder strength testing. CROM was measured using the CROM device and the Gatherer System was used to measure multi-directional isometric cervical and shoulder strength. The Age-grade players had significantly lower; cervical strength (26-57% deficits), cervical flexion to extension strength ratios (0.5 vs. 0.6), and shoulder strength (2-36% deficits) than the Senior players. However, there were no differences between front-row positions within each age group. Additionally, there were no differences between age groups or front-row positions in the CROM measurements. Senior Rugby Union front-row forwards have greater cervical and shoulder strength than Age-grade players, with the biggest differences being in cervical strength, highlighting the need for age specific normative values. Importantly, Age-grade players should be evaluated to ensure they have developed sufficient cervical strength prior to entering professional level Rugby Union. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aerosol transport from Chiang Mai, Thailand to Mt. Lulin, Taiwan - Implication of aerosol aging during long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Engling, Guenter; Chang, Shih-Yu; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chang, You-Jia; Hong, Guo-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosol from Indochina may cause a potential effect on climate change in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Western Pacific. Up to now, the understanding of BB aerosol composition modification during long-range transport (LRT) is still very limited due to the lack of observational data. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at the Suthep/Doi Ang Khang (DAK) mountain sites in Chiang Mai, Thailand and the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (Mt. Lulin) in central Taiwan from March to April 2010 and from February to April 2013, respectively. During the study period, an upwind and downwind relationship between the Suthep/DAK and Lulin sites (2400 km apart) was validated by backward trajectories. Comprehensive aerosol properties were resolved for PM2.5 water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous content, water-soluble/insoluble organic carbon (WSOC/WIOC), dicarboxylic acids and their salts (DCAS), and anhydrosugars. A Modification Factor (MF) is proposed by employing non-sea-salt potassium ion (nss-K+) or fractionalized elemental carbon evolved at 580 °C after pyrolized OC correction (EC1-OP) as a BB aerosol tracer to evaluate the mass fraction changes of aerosol components from source to receptor regions during LRT. The MF values of nss-SO42-, NH4+, NO3-, OC1 (fractionalized organic carbon evolved from room temperature to 140 °C), OP (pyrolized OC fraction), DCAS, and WSOC were above unity, which indicated that these aerosol components were enhanced during LRT as compared with those in the near-source region. In contrast, the MF values of anhydrosugars ranged from 0.1 to 0.3, indicating anhydrosugars have degraded during LRT.

  8. Outcomes of stable and unstable patterns of subjective cognitive decline – results from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Roehr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective cognitive decline (SCD, i.e., the self-perceived feeling of worsening cognitive function, may be the first notable syndrome of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. However, not all individuals with SCD progress. Stability of SCD, i.e., repeated reports of SCD, could contribute to identify individuals at risk, as stable SCD may more likely reflect the continuous neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer’s and other dementias. Methods Cox regression analyses were used to assess the association between stability of SCD and progression to MCI and dementia in data derived from the population-based Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA75+. Results Of 453 cognitively unimpaired individuals with a mean age of 80.5 years (SD = 4.2, 139 (30.7 % reported SCD at baseline. Over the study period (M = 4.8 years, SD = 2.2, 84 (18.5 % individuals had stable SCD, 195 (43.1 % unstable SCD and 174 (38.4 % never reported SCD. Stable SCD was associated with increased risk of progression to MCI and dementia (unadjusted HR = 1.8, 95 % CI = 1.2–2.6; p < .01, whereas unstable SCD yielded a decreased progression risk (unadjusted HR = 0.5, 95 % CI = 0.4–0.7; p < .001 compared to no SCD. When adjusted for baseline cognitive functioning, progression risk in individuals with stable SCD was significantly increased in comparison to individuals with unstable SCD, but not compared to individuals without SCD. Conclusions Our results, though preliminary, suggest that stable SCD, i.e., repeated reports of SCD, may yield an increased risk of progression to MCI and dementia compared to unstable SCD. Baseline cognitive scores, though within a normal range, seem to be a driver of progression in stable SCD. Future research is warranted to investigate whether stability could hold as a SCD research feature.

  9. Age and gender differences in mechanically induced intraoral temporal summation and conditioned pain modulation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junad; Korczeniewska, Olga; Benoliel, Rafael; Kalladka, Mythili; Eliav, Eli; Nasri-Heir, Cibelle

    2018-04-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate intraoral temporal summation (TS) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and compare the outcome with TS and CPM induced in the forearm. In addition, we aimed to study the effect of age and gender on intraoral and forearm TS and CPM. Mechanical stimulation was induced with # 5.46 von Frey filament applying 26 grams of force. A single stimulus, followed by a train of 30 successive stimuli, was applied intraorally and to the dominant forearm. CPM was assessed with the TS test as the painful stimulus and with immersion of the nondominant hand in a hot water bath as the conditioning stimulus. Gender was significantly associated with TS but not with CPM measures. Females had significantly lower mean TS measured in the face and in the dominant forearm compared with males. Age was significantly associated with CPM, but not with TS measures. In both sites examined, older patients had significantly lower mean CPM compared with younger patients. Mechanical TM elicited in the oral cavity can be used as test stimulus for CPM testing. Intraoral modulation, both TS and CPM, has an extent similar to that of the standard cutaneous extremity. TS was lower in females, and CPM was reduced with age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Precipitation of β′ phase and hardening in dental-casting Ag–20Pd–12Au–14.5Cu alloys subjected to aging treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghwan; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hieda, Junko; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken; Fukui, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    The age-hardening behavior of the dental-casting Ag–20Pd–12Au–14.5Cu alloy subjected to aging treatment at around 673 K is well known, and this hardening has been widely employed in various applications. To date, the age-hardening of this alloy has been explained to attribute to the precipitation of a β phase, which is a B2-type ordered CuPd phase or PdCu x Zn 1−x phase. In this study, results obtained from microstructural observations using a transmission electron microscopy and a scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that a fine L1 0 -type ordered β′ phase precipitated in the matrix and a coarse-structure region (consisting of Ag- and Cu-rich regions) appeared after aging treatment at 673 K and contributed to increase in hardness. The microstructure of the coarse β phase, which existed before aging treatment, did not change by aging treatment. Thus, it is concluded that the fine β′ phase precipitated by aging treatment contributed more to increase in hardness than the coarse-structure region and coarse β phase. - Highlights: • Hardness of Ag–20Pd–12Au–14.5Cu alloy increased significantly by aging treatment. • A fine β′ phase and a coarse structure region appeared after aging treatment. • The microstructure of a coarse β phase did not change by aging treatment. • It is considered that the fine β′ phase contributed most to age-hardening

  11. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Students at the Seven-Fourteen Age Range, Londrina, PR, Brazil, in 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonametti Ana Maria

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seropositivity for Chagas disease was evaluated in 834 children aged between 7 and 14 from the Municipal Teaching System in the district of Londrina, State of Paraná. A seroprevalence rate of 0.1% was found through the use of an indirect immunofluorescent test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This low rate of seroprevalence provides evidence that the vectorial transmission of Chagas disease has been eliminated in Londrina. The main reason for the elimination of vectorial transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, as evaluated by serological tests, may be a remarkable change in the economic structure of the northern region of Paraná in the 1960's. At that time coffee production was almost completely replaced by soy beans, wheat and grazing in the rural areas. This change deeply affected the rural ecology and caused an exodus of the population from rural to urban areas as well as a decrease in the total number of the population of that region. The measures introduced for controlling the disease through the Program of Chagas Disease Control established by the Fundação Nacional de Saúde of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, certainly, had a positive impact on the reduction of American trypanosomiasis prevalence in the area under study. However, it does not seem that this was the most relevant factor responsible for the elimination of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in Londrina.

  12. REFERENCE RANGES AND AGE-RELATED AND DIVING EXERCISE EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGY AND SERUM CHEMISTRY OF FEMALE STELLER SEA LIONS ( EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinsky, Carling D; Haulena, Martin; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S

    2018-03-01

    Decreased health may have lowered the birth and survival rates of Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands over the past 30 yr. Reference ranges for clinical hematology and serum chemistry parameters needed to assess the health of wild sea lion populations are limited. Here, blood parameters were serially measured in 12 captive female Steller sea lions ranging in age from 3 wk to 16 yr to establish baseline values and investigate age-related changes. Whether diving activity affects hematology parameters in animals swimming in the ocean compared with animals in a traditional aquarium setting was also examined. Almost all blood parameters measured exhibited significant changes with age. Many of the age-related changes reflected developmental life history changes, including a change in diet during weaning, an improvement of diving capacity, and the maturity of the immune system. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were also higher in the ocean diving group compared with the aquarium group, likely reflecting responses to increased exercise regimes. These data provide ranges of hematology and serum chemistry values needed to evaluate and compare the health and nutritional status of captive and wild Steller sea lions.

  13. Characterization of Rod Function Phenotypes Across a Range of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severities and Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Oliver J; Cukras, Catherine A; Jeffrey, Brett G

    2018-05-01

    To examine spatial changes in rod-mediated function in relationship to local structural changes across the central retina in eyes with a spectrum of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) disease severity. Participants were categorized into five AMD severity groups based on fundus features. Scotopic thresholds were measured at 14 loci spanning ±18° along the vertical meridian from one eye of each of 42 participants (mean = 71.7 ± 9.9 years). Following a 30% bleach, dark adaptation was measured at eight loci (±12°). Rod intercept time (RIT) was defined from the time to detect a -3.1 log cd/m2 stimulus. RITslope was defined from the linear fit of RIT with decreasing retinal eccentricity. The presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), ellipsoid (EZ) band disruption, and drusen at the test loci was evaluated using optical coherence tomography. Scotopic thresholds indicated greater rod function loss in the macula, which correlated with increasing AMD group severity. RITslope, which captures the spatial change in the rate of dark adaptation, increased with AMD severity (P < 0.0001). Three rod function phenotypes emerged: RF1, normal rod function; RF2, normal scotopic thresholds but slowed dark adaptation; and RF3, elevated scotopic thresholds with slowed dark adaptation. Dark adaptation was slowed at all loci with SDD or EZ band disruption, and at 32% of loci with no local structural changes. Three rod function phenotypes were defined from combined measurement of scotopic threshold and dark adaptation. Spatial changes in dark adaptation across the macula were captured with RITslope, which may be a useful outcome measure for functional studies of AMD.

  14. Age related changes in T cell mediated immune response and effector memory to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campoccia Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major pathogen causing respiratory disease in young infants and it is an important cause of serious illness in the elderly since the infection provides limited immune protection against reinfection. In order to explain this phenomenon, we investigated whether healthy adults of different age (20-40; 41-60 and > 60 years, have differences in central and effector memory, RSV-specific CD8+ T cell memory immune response and regulatory T cell expression status. In the peripheral blood of these donors, we were unable to detect any age related difference in term of central (CD45RA-CCR7+ and effector (CD45RA-CCR7- memory T cell frequency. On the contrary, we found a significant increase in immunosuppressive regulatory (CD4+25+FoxP3+ T cells (Treg in the elderly. An immunocytofluorimetric RSV pentamer analysis performed on these donors' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, in vitro sensitized against RSV antigen, revealed a marked decline in long-lasting RSV specific CD8+ memory T cell precursors expressing interleukin 7 receptor α (IL-7Rα, in the elderly. This effect was paralleled by a progressive switch from a Th1 (IFN-γ and TNF-α to a Th2 (IL-10 functional phenotype. On the contrary, an increase in Treg was observed with aging. The finding of Treg over-expression status, a prominent Th2 response and an inefficient RSV-specific effector memory CD8+ T cell expansion in older donors could explain the poor protection against RSV reinfection and the increased risk to develop an RSV-related severe illness in this population. Our finding also lays the basis for new therapeutic perspectives that could limit or prevent severe RSV infection in elderly.

  15. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wyshak

    Full Text Available The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM. New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists

  16. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmogne, Georgette D; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E; Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Dora M; Kuate, Callixte T; Doh, Roland F; Kengne, Anne M; Tagny, Claude T; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (pHIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden.

  17. Noninvasive detection of coronary artery wall thickening with age in healthy subjects using high resolution MRI with beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Firmin, David N

    2011-10-01

    To demonstrate coronary artery wall thickening with age in a small healthy cohort using a highly efficient, reliable, and reproducible high-resolution MR technique. A 3D cross-sectional MR vessel wall images (0.7 × 0.7 × 3 mm resolution) with retrospective beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction (B2B-RMC) were obtained in the proximal right coronary artery of 21 healthy subjects (age, 22-62 years) with no known cardiovascular disease. Lumen and outer wall (lumen + vessel wall) areas were measured in one central slice from each subject and average wall thickness and wall area/outer wall area ratio (W/OW) calculated. Imaging was successful in 18 (86%) subjects with average respiratory efficiency 99.3 ± 1.7%. Coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW significantly correlate with subject age, increasing by 0.088 mm and 0.031 per decade respectively (R = 0.53, P = 0.024 and R = 0.48, P = 0.046). No relationship was found between lumen area and vessel wall thickness (P = NS), but outer wall area increased significantly with vessel wall thickness at 19 mm(2) per mm (P = 0.046). This is consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Despite the small size of our healthy cohort, using high-resolution MR imaging and B2B-RMC, we have demonstrated increasing coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW with age. The results obtained are consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI 2 , n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 , n = 37), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  19. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  20. Bond-Slip Behavior of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bar in Concrete Subjected to Simulated Marine Environment: Effects of BFRP Bar Size, Corrosion Age, and Concrete Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Yongmin Yang; Zhaoheng Li; Tongsheng Zhang; Jiangxiong Wei; Qijun Yu

    2017-01-01

    Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) bars have bright potential application in concrete structures subjected to marine environment due to their superior corrosion resistance. Available literatures mainly focused on the mechanical properties of BFRP concrete structures, while the bond-slip behavior of BFRP bars, which is a key factor influencing the safety and service life of ocean concrete structures, has not been clarified yet. In this paper, effects of BFRP bars size, corrosion age, and c...

  1. U-Pb ages in zircon of the Grao Mogol diamond-bearing conglomerate (Espinhaco supergroup): implications for the diamond origin in the Espinhaco range in Minas Gerais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Mario Luiz de Sa Carneiro; Silva, Marcio Celio Rodrigues da; Babinski, Marly; Scholz, Rixcardo

    2013-01-01

    The Espinhaco Range in the Grao Mogol region, center-north of Minas Gerais state, is composed by fine grained quartzites with large cross stratifications (Resplandescente Formation), which are covered with erosional unconformity by monomictic conglomerates, and medium to coarse grained quartzites (Grao Mogol Formation), both units belonging to the Espinhaco Supergroup, of Proterozoic age. At the locality known as 'Pedra Rica' (signify Rich Rock, an old diamond digging), rocks of these formations were sampled and separated detrital zircons to acquire U-Pb by Laser Ablation Inductively LA-ICPMS) ages. The analyzed grains are rounded to slightly rounded and show oscillatory zoning. The obtained results indicate a maximum depositional age of 1,595±20 Ma for the Resplandescente Formation, and 1,052±50 Ma for the Grao Mogol Formation. The comparison between the obtained data and the available ages for the Diamantina region and proximities, in the same diamond province, indicates a strong evidence for the existence of at least two primary mineralizing events in the basin, in the age range of 1.35 to 1.05 Ga. (author)

  2. Subjective well-being amongst community-dwelling elders: what determines satisfaction with life? Findings from the Dublin Healthy Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Mhaoláin, Aine M; Gallagher, Damien; O Connell, Henry; Chin, A V; Bruce, Irene; Hamilton, Fiona; Teehee, Erin; Coen, Robert; Coakley, Davis; Cunningham, Conal; Walsh, J B; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-02-01

    Life satisfaction is a subjective expression of well-being and successful aging. Subjective well-being is a major determinant of health outcomes in older people. The aim of this study was to determine which factors predicted well-being in older people living in the community as measured by their satisfaction with life. The relationship between life satisfaction, as measured by the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-A) and physical, cognitive and demographic variables was examined in 466 older people living in the community using a stepwise regression model. Depression, loneliness, neuroticism, extraversion, recent participation in physical activity, age and self-reported exhaustion, were the independent predictors of life satisfaction in our elderly cohort. Subjective well-being, as measured by the Life Satisfaction Scale, is predicted by depression, loneliness, personality traits, recent participation in physical activity and self-reported exhaustion. The mental and emotional status of older individuals, as well as their engagement in physical activity, are as important as physical functionality when it comes to life satisfaction as a measure of well-being and successful aging. These areas represent key targets for intervention.

  3. Objective Indicators of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time and Associations with Subjective Well-Being in Adults Aged 70 and Over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Withall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the associations of the volume and intensity of physical activity and the volume of sedentary time with subjective well-being in a diverse group of 228 older adults in the UK (111 female, mean age 78.2 years (SD 5.8. Physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviour were assessed by accelerometry deriving mean steps per day, mean moderate/vigorous PA minutes per hour (MVPA min·h−1 and minutes of sedentary time per hour (ST min·h−1. Lower limb function was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery. Subjective well-being was assessed using the SF-12 health status scale, the Ageing Well Profile and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Linear regressions were used to investigate associations between the independent variables which included physical activity (steps and MVPA, sedentary time, participant characteristics (gender, age, BMI, education, number of medical conditions, and lower limb function and dependent variables which included mental and physical well-being. Steps, MVPA and lower limb function were independently and moderately positively associated with perceived physical well-being but relationships with mental well-being variables were weak. No significant associations between sedentary behaviours and well-being were observed. The association between objectively evaluated physical activity and function and subjective evaluations of physical well-being suggest that improving perceptions of physical health and function may provide an important target for physical activity programmes. This in turn may drive further activity participation.

  4. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  5. Sensory perception and pleasantness of food flavour in elderly subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de C.; Polet, P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the perceived intensity and pleasantness of different food flavors. A group of 32 young subjects (mean age: 22, range 20-25) and 23 elderly subjects (mean age: 76, range 72-82) judged the intensity and the pleasantness of five series of food flavors, each with

  6. Range of variation of genu valgum and association with anthropometric characteristics and physical activity: comparison between children aged 3-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspiris, Angelos; Zaphiropoulou, Chrisi; Vasiliadis, Elias

    2013-07-01

    The lower limbs of children aged 3-9 years present varying knock-knee deformities that have a direct impact on the diversification of the load-bearing axis of the valgus limb and on the modification of gait kinematics. The purpose of our study was to establish the reference values of knee alignment in a Greek population and whether this is linked to a change in the physical activity of children depending on the severity of the genu valgum. Using a clinical method, we measured both the tibiofemoral (TF) angle and the intermalleolar (IM) distance of the lower extremities of normal children. Subsequently, forms of the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) for young children and the Baecke questionnaire on habitual physical activity, modified especially for children, were completed by the parents. We examined both the development of the TF angle and the IM distance in relation to age and the degree of restriction of physical activity in relation to the severity of the genu valgum. We analysed 316 unaffected lower extremities in children aged 3-9 years. The average value of the TF angle starts around 7° at the age of 3 years and gradually decreases to 4° at the age of 7-8 years. The average value of the IM distance ranges over 3.5 cm at the age of 3 years and progressively decreases to 2 cm at the age of 7-8 years. Physical activity appears to be influenced by sex and the severity of the genu valgum. We provide age-specific values for limb alignment and joint orientation of the lower extremity in children aged 3-9 years. A statistical correlation between all indexes (sport, leisure time and total) of the Baecke and the NPAQs and measurements of genu valgum was noted depending on the severity of the valgus deformity.

  7. Thermo-physical stability of fatty acid eutectic mixtures subjected to accelerated aging for thermal energy storage (TES) application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, Hadi; Metselaar, Hendrik S.C.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Silakhori, Mahyar

    2014-01-01

    The thermo-physical stability of fatty acids eutectic mixtures subjected to accelerated number of melting/solidification processes has been identified using thermal cycling test in this study. Myristic acid/palmitic acid (MA/PA) (70/30, wt.%) and myristic acid/palmitic acid/sodium stearate (MA/PA/SS) (70/30/5, wt.%) were selected as eutectic phase change materials (PCMs) to evaluate their stability of phase transition temperature, latent heat of fusion, chemical structure, and volume changes after 200, 500, 1000, and 1500 thermal cycles. The thermal properties of each eutectic PCMs measured by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) indicated the phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion values of MA/PA/SS has a smallest changes after 1500 thermal cycles than MA/PA eutectic mixture. MA/PA/SS also has a better chemical structure stability and smaller volume change which is 1.2%, compared to MA/PA with a volume change of 1.6% after 1500 cycles. Therefore, it is concluded that the MA/PA/SS eutectic mixture is suitable for use as a phase change material in thermal energy storage (TES) such as solar water heating and solar space heating applications. - Highlights: •The prepared MA/PA and MA/PA/SS were used as eutectic phase change materials (PCM). •Thermo-physical reliability of eutectic PCMs evaluated using a thermal cycling test. •MA/PA/SS has a great thermo-physical stability than MA/PA after 1500 thermal cycles

  8. [Social determinants of subjective health in school children aged 11-15 years in Poland in the light of European data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a particularly significant period due to the risk of psycho-social disorders, life-style formation and making many important decisions about the future. THE AIM of the study is to provide an overall assessment of the impact of various elements of the environment on the risk of disorders of subjective health of schoolchildren aged 11-15 yrs, and to compare of the Polish data with European Union statistics. The data source is the last series of international studies on health related behaviour of schoolchildren (HBSC), conducted during the school year 2005/06. In general, the object of analysis comprises data related to 142 478 schoolchildren from a combined sample from 25 countries, on average aged 13.6 yrs (SD = 1.65), including 5489 Polish schoolchildren. The main outcome variable was the occurrence of at least one of three subjective health disorders: poor self-rated health, dissatisfaction with life and the intensity of recurrent subjective symptoms. The analysis included the impact of gender, age (in three age groups), country of residence (Poland vs. the other 24 countries) and the five components of the growing up environment: economic and social status of the family, communication with parents, functioning at school, peer support, problems in the area of domicile. Logistic regression models were estimated with a step-block procedure of variable selection, which provided relative risk indices (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The studies have shown that the strongest predictor of subjective health disorders consists of problems with functioning at school (OR = 3.14), disrupted communication with parents (OR = 2.15) and absence of peer support (OR = 1.87). However, after these factors were taken into account, the weak impact of the material status of the family (OR = 1.65) and area of residence (OR-= 1.94) continued to be noted. Young people in Poland report subjective health problems more often than their average European counterparts

  9. [Motor skills and safety of patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury : Comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudovici-Krug, Dana; Benkenstein, Monique; Derlien, Steffen; Best, Norman

    2018-06-01

    Do patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury show differences in motor skills and safety in comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects? Prospective controlled cross-sectional study. Inclusion of 17 patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury (mean 1.5 years postsurgery) and 23 healthy, active subjects of comparable age (fitness studio). Measurement instruments: motor test procedures and questionnaires. Comparison of patients and control subjects by routine daily motor function: patients  0.05), fear of falling: patients > controls (p = 0.003) and physical activity: patients motor deficits in activities of daily life between the patients and controls, only tendencies; however, the patients showed definite limitations with an increased fear of falling and a reduced physical activity compared with the healthy control group. The resulting differences should be positively influenced by appropriate enhancement of training or participation in sports courses. The aim is to achieve a similar quality of life by a perception of safety and trust in one's own motor skills.

  10. A retrospective, pooled data analysis of the safety of pegaptanib sodium in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration in subjects with or without diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombi Theresa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the safety of pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg intravitreal injection in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in subjects with or without diabetes mellitus. Methods A pooled, retrospective, analysis was conducted of data from 9 sponsor-administered, randomized, open-label trials. Subjects who received pegaptanib by randomization or change in dose assignment, crossover design, or protocol amendment, were included. Reports of endophthalmitis, increased intraocular pressure, retinal injury, intraocular hemorrhage, traumatic cataract, hypersensitivity reactions, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other arterial thromboembolic events defined by the Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration were identified by Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities preferred terms. Adverse events were summarized from the first injection to 42 days after the last injection. The incidence of adverse events was stratified by the presence/absence of diabetes. Results Of 1,586 subjects enrolled, 165 (10.4% had a history of diabetes mellitus and 1,421 (89.6% did not. The 2 populations were similar at baseline. Based on the comparison of prespecified ocular, hypersensitivity, and Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration event terms, the safety review did not identify any notable differences between the 2 populations. Conclusions This retrospective analysis found no increased safety risk resulting from treatment with pegaptanib 0.3 mg in individuals with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and concomitant diabetes mellitus.

  11. African Journals Online: Humanities (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 55 ... The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a ... as well as research from other disciplines working on ideas of relevance to the ..... It publishes New Research from every aspect of the Humanities and the ...

  12. African Journals Online: Humanities (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is a forum for sharing research, resources, aesthetic expressions, lived realities and activisms that privilege and promote gender issues in development as well as ... articles, biographies, book reviews, research reports, poetry or songs, community events, national resources inventories and project designs are encouraged.

  13. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (Pcontrols controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging. PMID:26030289

  14. Reliability of Schmeling's stages of ossification of medial clavicular epiphyses and its validity to assess 18 years of age in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; De Angelis, D; Merelli, V; Giuliodori, A; Cingolani, M; Cattaneo, C; Ferrante, L

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, due to the global increase in migration movements, forensic age estimation of living young adults has become an important focus of interest. Minors often have no identification documents providing their correct birth dates. Establishing the age of majority is therefore fundamental in order to determine whether juvenile penal systems or penal systems in force for adults are to be applied. Radiological examination of the clavicles is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics. In this retrospective study, a sample of chest radiographs of 274 subjects, aged between 12 and 25 years, was studied according to Schmeling's method in order to examine the ossification of both medial clavicular epiphyses. All stage classifications were evaluated by five examiners. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was analysed by Cohen's K statistic. Intra-examiner agreement was insufficient for two of the experts. Inter-examiner agreement, among the other three operators, was moderate (K = 0.509). Study of reliability highlighted difficulties in interpretation, the need to select qualified personnel and choice of the best radiographic image in order to reduce any anatomic overlaps. Although ossification of the medial clavicular epiphyses is recommended to assess whether an individual has already reached the age of majority or not, these results suggested that it is very difficult to clearly identify the five stages of ossification by using conventional chest radiography.

  15. Sensorimotor control of tracking movements at various speeds for stroke patients as well as age-matched and young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Ao

    Full Text Available There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s. The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE, normalized integrated jerk (NIJ and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS, were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01, and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls aging-induced increase in reliance on feedback control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging.

  16. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  17. Viscoplastic behavior of zirconium alloys in the temperatures range 20 deg C - 400 deg C: characterization and modeling of strain ageing phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, St.

    2006-10-01

    The anomalous strain rate sensitivity of zirconium alloys over the temperatures range 20-600 C has been widely reported in the literature. This unconventional behavior is related to the existence of strain ageing phenomenon which results from the combined action of thermally activated diffusion of foreign atoms to and along dislocation cores and the long range of dislocations interactions. The important role of interstitial and substitutional atoms in zirconium alloys, responsible for strain ageing and the lack of information about the domain where strain ageing is active have not been yet adequately characterized because of the multiplicity of alloying elements and chemical impurities. The aim of this work is to characterize experimentally the range of temperatures and strain rates where strain ageing is active on the macroscopic and mesoscopic scales. We propose also a predictive approach of the strain ageing effects, using the macroscopic strain ageing model suggested by McCormick (McCormick, 1988; Zhang et al., 2000). Specific zirconium alloys were elaborated starting from a crystal bar of zirconium with 2.2 wt% hafnium and very low oxygen content (80 wt ppm), called ZrHf. Another substitutional atom was added to the solid solution under the form of 1 wt% niobium. Some zirconium alloys were doped with oxygen, others were not. All of them were characterized by various mechanical tests (standard tensile tests, tensile tests with strain rate changes, relaxation tests with unloading). The experimental results were compared with those for the standard oxygen doped zirconium alloy (1300 wt ppm) studied by Pujol (Pujol, 1994) and called Zr702. The following experimental evidences of the age-hardening phenomena were collected and then modeled: 1) low and/or negative strain rate sensitivity around 200-300 C, 2) creep arrest at 200 C, 3) relaxation arrest at 200 C and 300 C, 4) plastic strain heterogeneities observed in laser extensometry on the millimeter scale

  18. Viscoplastic behavior of zirconium alloys in the temperatures range 20 deg C - 400 deg C: characterization and modeling of strain ageing phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, St

    2006-10-15

    The anomalous strain rate sensitivity of zirconium alloys over the temperatures range 20-600 C has been widely reported in the literature. This unconventional behavior is related to the existence of strain ageing phenomenon which results from the combined action of thermally activated diffusion of foreign atoms to and along dislocation cores and the long range of dislocations interactions. The important role of interstitial and substitutional atoms in zirconium alloys, responsible for strain ageing and the lack of information about the domain where strain ageing is active have not been yet adequately characterized because of the multiplicity of alloying elements and chemical impurities. The aim of this work is to characterize experimentally the range of temperatures and strain rates where strain ageing is active on the macroscopic and mesoscopic scales. We propose also a predictive approach of the strain ageing effects, using the macroscopic strain ageing model suggested by McCormick (McCormick, 1988; Zhang et al., 2000). Specific zirconium alloys were elaborated starting from a crystal bar of zirconium with 2.2 wt% hafnium and very low oxygen content (80 wt ppm), called ZrHf. Another substitutional atom was added to the solid solution under the form of 1 wt% niobium. Some zirconium alloys were doped with oxygen, others were not. All of them were characterized by various mechanical tests (standard tensile tests, tensile tests with strain rate changes, relaxation tests with unloading). The experimental results were compared with those for the standard oxygen doped zirconium alloy (1300 wt ppm) studied by Pujol (Pujol, 1994) and called Zr702. The following experimental evidences of the age-hardening phenomena were collected and then modeled: 1) low and/or negative strain rate sensitivity around 200-300 C, 2) creep arrest at 200 C, 3) relaxation arrest at 200 C and 300 C, 4) plastic strain heterogeneities observed in laser extensometry on the millimeter scale

  19. Cenozoic exhumation and tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range, northern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the heavy mineral compositions, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and seismic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Wu, C.; Wang, J.; Zhou, T.; Zhang, C.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Qaidam Basin is the largest intermountain basin within the Tibetan Plateau. The Cenozoic sedimentary flling characteristics of the basin was significantly influenced by the surrounding tectonic belt, such as the Altyn Tagh Range to the north-west and Qimen Tagh Range to the south. The tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range and the structural relationship between the Qaidam Basin and Qimen Tagh Range remain controversial. To address these issues, we analyzed thousands of heavy mineral data, 720 detrital zircon ages and seismic data of the Qaidam Basin. Based on the regional geological framework and our kinematic analyses, the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range can be divided into two stages. From the Early Eocene to the Middle Miocene, the Devonian (400-360 Ma) and Permian to Triassic (300-200 Ma) zircons which were sourced from the Qimen Tagh Range and the heavy mineral assemblage of zircon-leucoxene-garnet-sphene on the north flank of the Qimen Tagh Range indicated that the Qimen Tagh Range has been exhumed before the Eocene and acted as the primary provenance of the Qaidam Basin. The Kunbei fault system (i.e. the Kunbei, Arlar and Hongliuquan faults) in the southwest of the Qaidam Basin, which can be seen as a natural study window of the Qimen Tagh Range, was characterized by left-lateral strike-slip faults and weak south-dipping thrust faults based on the seismic sections. This strike-slip motion was generated by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau caused by the onset of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Since the Middle Miocene, the primary mineral assemblages along the northern flank of the Qimen Tagh Range changed from the zircon-leucoxene-garnet-sphene assemblage to the epidote-hornblende-garnet-leucoxene assemblage. Simultaneously, the Kunbei fault system underwent intense south-dipping thrusting, and a nearly 2.2-km uplift can be observed in the hanging wall of the Arlar fault. We attributed these variations to the rapid uplift event of

  20. Plasma long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and macular pigment in subjects with family history of age-related macular degeneration: the Limpia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Buaud, Benjamin; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Bron, Alain; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Savel, Hélène; Vaysse, Carole; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Delcourt, Cécile

    2017-12-01

    In numerous epidemiological studies, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Beyond their structural, functional and neuroprotective roles, omega-3 PUFAs may favour the retinal accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD). We examined the associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs in subjects with family history of AMD. The Limpia study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized clinical trial performed in 120 subjects. Subjects with at least one parent treated for neovascular AMD, aged 40-70, with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >20/25, free of late AMD and other major eye conditions and with no use of supplement containing lutein or zeaxanthin the preceding year were recruited in Bordeaux and Dijon, France. At baseline, MPOD within 1° of eccentricity was measured by modified Heidelberg retinal analyser (Heidelberg, Germany) and plasma omega-3 PUFAs by gas chromatography. Medical history and lifestyle data were collected from a standardized questionnaire. Associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs were assessed at the baseline examination, using mixed linear models adjusted for age, gender, centre, body mass index, smoking, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lutein+zeaxanthin. After multivariate adjustment, high MPOD was significantly associated with higher level of plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (β = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.055; p = 0.03). Plasma alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were not significantly associated with MPOD. In the Limpia study, high MPOD within 1° was significantly associated with higher plasma levels of omega-3 DPA. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes. A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child's distress and cooperative behavior. Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction. Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures.

  2. Changes in medical treatment six months after risk stratification with HeartScore and coronary artery calcification scanning of healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT-scan as ......Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT......-up questionnaires addressing current medication were mailed to the participants. Results: A completed questionnaire was returned by 1075 (93%) subjects. At follow up, the overall use of prophylactic medication was significantly increased. Of those with CAC (n = 462) or high HeartScore (n = 233), 21 and 19...

  3. Clinical study on relationship of visualization of the cerebral arteries in MR angiography to age, sex, laterality or lacunar infarction in neurologically normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiya, Yoriko

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between the visualization of cerebral peripheral arteries in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and aging, sex, laterality or lacunar infarctions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two hundred forty-four neurologically normal subjects (119 males and 125 females, aged 7 to 82 yrs.) were evaluated with MRA and MRI. A three-dimensional Fourier transformation (3DFT-TOF) pulse sequence with slab thickness of 115 mm was used to obtain axial, sagittal and coronal projection images. The imaging parameters were 30/11/1 (TR/TE/excitations) using a 20 degree flip angle and the voxel size was 0.9 x 1.1 x 0.9 mm. A total of 6 arteries including bilateral anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs), middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) for every subject were each graded into 8 scores by the degree of visualization of the arteries. Asymptomatic lacunar infarctions were analyzed in subjects of fifties or more. They were scored as 0-2 based on their size and the scores were summed. An age-related decline of visualization of the cerebral arteries was observed in ACA (r=-0.603, p<0.001), MCA (r=-0.452, p<0.001) and PCA (r=-0.537, p<0.001). Females during the fifth decade had a higher score of visualization of the arteries than males (p<0.01). No substantial relationship was observed between visualization of the arteries and sex in other decades, laterality or lacunar infarctions. The MRA using a 3DFT-TOF pulse sequence with slab thickness of 115 mm disclosed an age-related decline of visualization of the cerebral arteries and a sex-dependent difference of the visualization in the fifth decade probably due to the decline of the blood flow velocity with aging and a difference in it between females and males in the fifth decade, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  4. Clinical study on relationship of visualization of the cerebral arteries in MR angiography to age, sex, laterality or lacunar infarction in neurologically normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiya, Yoriko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between the visualization of cerebral peripheral arteries in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and aging, sex, laterality or lacunar infarctions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two hundred forty-four neurologically normal subjects (119 males and 125 females, aged 7 to 82 yrs.) were evaluated with MRA and MRI. A three-dimensional Fourier transformation (3DFT-TOF) pulse sequence with slab thickness of 115 mm was used to obtain axial, sagittal and coronal projection images. The imaging parameters were 30/11/1 (TR/TE/excitations) using a 20 degree flip angle and the voxel size was 0.9 x 1.1 x 0.9 mm. A total of 6 arteries including bilateral anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs), middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) for every subject were each graded into 8 scores by the degree of visualization of the arteries. Asymptomatic lacunar infarctions were analyzed in subjects of fifties or more. They were scored as 0-2 based on their size and the scores were summed. An age-related decline of visualization of the cerebral arteries was observed in ACA (r=-0.603, p<0.001), MCA (r=-0.452, p<0.001) and PCA (r=-0.537, p<0.001). Females during the fifth decade had a higher score of visualization of the arteries than males (p<0.01). No substantial relationship was observed between visualization of the arteries and sex in other decades, laterality or lacunar infarctions. The MRA using a 3DFT-TOF pulse sequence with slab thickness of 115 mm disclosed an age-related decline of visualization of the cerebral arteries and a sex-dependent difference of the visualization in the fifth decade probably due to the decline of the blood flow velocity with aging and a difference in it between females and males in the fifth decade, respectively. (J.P.N.).

  5. A new measure for assessing executive function across a wide age range: children and adults find happy-sad more difficult than day-night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Monsour, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments examined 4- to 11-year-olds' and adults' performance (N = 350) on two variants of a Stroop-like card task: the day-night task (say 'day' when shown a moon and 'night' when shown a sun) and a new happy-sad task (say 'happy' for a sad face and 'sad' for a happy face). Experiment 1 featured colored cartoon drawings. In Experiment 2, the happy-sad task featured photographs, and pictures for both measures were gray scale. All age groups made more errors and took longer to respond to the happy-sad versus the day-night versions. Unlike the day-night task, the happy-sad task did not suffer from ceiling effects, even in adults. The happy-sad task provides a methodological advance for measuring executive function across a wide age range.

  6. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  7. Timing of mid-crustal ductile extension in the northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada: Evidence from U/Pb zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Blackburn, T.; Johnston, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (Mccs) within the western U.S. record a history of Cenozoic ductile and brittle extensional deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism, and exhumation within the footwall of high-angle Basin and Range normal faults. Documenting these histories within Mccs have been topics of research for over 40 years, yet there remains disagreement about: 1) whether the detachment fault formed and moved at low angles or initiated at high angles and rotated to a low angle; 2) whether brittle and ductile extensional deformation were linked in space and time; and 3) the temporal relationship of both modes of extension to the development of the detachment fault. The northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex (NSR), Nevada has been central to this debate. To address these issues, we report new U/Pb dates from zircon in deformed and undeformed rhyolite dikes emplaced into ductilely thinned and horizontally stretched lower plate rocks that provide tight bounds on the timing of ductile extension at between 38.2 ± 0.3 Ma and 22.50 ± 0.36 Ma. The maximum age constraint is from the Northern dike swarm (NDS), which was emplaced in the northwest part of the range pre- to syn-tectonic with ductile extension. The minimum age constraint is from the Silver Creek dike swarm (SDS) that was emplaced in the southern part of the range post ductile extensional deformation. Our field observations, petrography, and U/Pb zircon ages on the dikes combined with published data on the geology and kinematics of extension, moderate and low temperature thermochronology on lower plate rocks, and age and faulting histories of Cenozoic sedimentary basins adjacent to the NSR are interpreted as recording an episode of localized upper crustal brittle extension during the Eocene that drove upward ductile extensional flow of hot middle crustal rocks from beneath the NSR detachment soon after, or simultaneous with, emplacement of the NDS. Exhumation of the lower plate continued in a rolling

  8. Re-recognition of Age-dependent Reference Range for the Serum Creatinine Level in Teenagers - A Case of Slowly Progressive Tubulointerstitial Nephritis which Occurred in an Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Kojiro; Shibata, Eriko; Matsuura, Motokazu; Kishi, Seiji; Inagaki, Taizo; Minato, Masanori; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ueda, Sayo; Obata, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Kenji; Tamaki, Masanori; Kishi, Fumi; Murakami, Taichi; Abe, Hideharu; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Urushihara, Maki; Kagami, Shoji; Doi, Toshio

    2017-08-15

    For the first time, a 15-year-old boy was found to have a slight degree of proteinuria and microscopic hematuria during annual school urinalysis screening. His kidney function had already severely deteriorated. A kidney biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration. His medical records showed his serum creatinine level to be 0.98 mg/dL two years ago, which was abnormally high considering his age. Although the etiology of slowly progressive TIN was unclear, glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy improved his kidney function. This case report suggests that all doctors should recognize the reference range for the serum creatinine level in teenagers.

  9. ENHANCING VACCINAL PREVENTION OF THE HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRAL (HPV INFECTION: PROTECTING PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGE AND SEX FROM A RANGE OF HPV-ASSOCIATED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Galitskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HPV is the most widespread sexually transmitted infection. HPV affects men and women regardless of age and leads to the development of various anogenital area diseases. International studies proved a wide clinical range of the tetravalent HPV vaccine protection and allowed recommending it for the prevention of not only cervical cancer, but also of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer and anogenital condylomae in patients of both sexes. 42 countries have already introduced national HPV-vaccination programs in compliance with WHO recommendations. Anogenital area cancer morbidity reduction in these countries is expected in 10-15 years. However, a reduction or even complete disappearance of anogenital condylomae among the population has already been noted in a range of countries because the incubation period of this disease is short; this is the first marker of vaccination efficacy in a population.

  10. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Young

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ≥2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC value for VFA to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively. The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be

  11. Age dependence of dielectric properties of bovine brain and ocular tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify possible age-dependent dielectric properties of brain and eye tissues in the frequency range of 400 MHz to 18 GHz, measurements on bovine grey and white matter as well as on cornea, lens (cortical) and the vitreous body were performed using a commercially available open-ended coaxial probe and a computer-controlled vector network analyser. Freshly excised tissues of 52 animals of two age groups (42 adult animals, i.e. 16-24 month old and 10 young animals, i.e. 4-6 month old calves) were examined within 8 min (brain tissue) and 15 min (eye tissue), respectively, of the animals' death. Tissue temperatures for the measurements were 32 ± 1 0 C and 25 ± 1 0 C for brain and eye tissues, respectively. Statistical analysis of the measured data revealed significant differences in the dielectric properties of white matter and cortical lens tissue between the adult and the young group. In the case of white matter the mean values of conductivity and permittivity of young tissue were 15%-22% and 12%-15%, respectively, higher compared to the adult tissue in the considered frequency range. Similarly, young cortical lens tissue was 25%-76% higher in conductivity and 27%-39% higher in permittivity than adult cortical lens tissue

  12. Comparison of the nerve fiber layer of type 2 diabetic patients without glaucoma with normal subjects of the same age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandros Takis,1 Dimitrios Alonistiotis,1 Dimitrios Panagiotidis,1 Nikolaos Ioannou,1 Dimitris Papaconstantinou,2 Panagiotis Theodossiadis1 1Ophthalmological University Clinic of Athens, Attikon Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2Ophthalmological University Clinic of Athens, Geniko Kratiko Hospital, Athens, Greece Background: The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 was compared to normal subjects of similar age and sex, having first excluded any risk factors for glaucoma. The correlation between the RNFL thickness and the severity of diabetic retinopathy was investigated at its primary stages and with other ocular and diabetic parameters. Methods: A prospective, case series study was carried out. Twenty-seven diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy, 24 diabetic patients with mild retinopathy, and 25 normal, age-matched subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and imaging with scanning laser polarimetry for the evaluation of the RNFL. Multivariate analysis was applied in order to investigate the correlation between RNFL and diabetic parameters, such as age, duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin; and ocular parameters, such as cup to disc ratio, levels of normal intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness. Results: The mean inferior average of RNFL and the temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal standard deviation were statistically significantly lower in both diabetic groups, and the nerve fiber index was higher (P=0.04 compared to the normal group. There was no statistically significant difference between the diabetic groups. The factor analysis showed no significant correlation between the RNFL and the previously mentioned diabetic and ocular parameters. Conclusion: The existence of diabetes should be seriously considered in evaluating the results of scanning laser polarimetry. Multivariate analysis for RNFL was used for the first

  13. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  14. Comparison of time-resolved autofluorescence in the eye-ground of healthy subjects and patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Schweitzer, Frank; Hammer, Martin; Schenke, Stefan; Richter, Sandra

    2005-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause for blindness for person older than 65 years in western countries. Besides the subjective pain, it is also an economic problem in the ageing population. As the pathomechanism is unknown, no curative treatment is possible. International research for discovering of early age-related alterations at the fundus is directed on in vivo measurements of autofluorescence. One way is the measurement of fluorescence spectra. Unfortunately, any selective excitation of fluorophores is excluded by the absorption edge of the ocular media at 400 nm. Furthermore, the shape of fluorescence spectra is influenced by the spectral absorption of layers in front of the emitting fluorophore. Weakly emitting fluorophores are covered by intensive emitting substances. The most serious limitation in fluorescence measurements of the living human fundus is the maximal permissible exposure. For that reason, fluorescence spectra of the fundus can not be detected with a high spatial resolution. The detection of dynamic fluorescence provides substance-specific lifetimes Ti, amplitudes Ai, and information about the relative contribution Qi of components in fluorescence images. As these parameters are calculated for each image point, diagrams of Ti vs. Tj, Ai vs. Aj, and Qi vs. Qj can be drawn, in which specific clusters appear for healthy subjects or AMD - patients. The projection of lifetime - clusters onto corresponding axis represents histogram of the considered lifetime. The slope in the correlation between Ai and Aj can also be used as a discriminating mark. Considering image lines as intersection through characteristic anatomical structures (optic disc, macula) profiles of Ti, Ai, or Qi show changes of these parameters (e.g. depigmentation) as function of location, which might be specific for AMD.

  15. Changes in leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviour at retirement: a prospective study in middle-aged French subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercberg Serge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal studies on physical activity patterns around retirement age are scarce and provide divergent findings. Little is known about changes in sedentary behaviour in this context. Our aim was to investigate relationships between retirement and 3-year changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA patterns and sedentary behaviour in middle-aged French adults. Methods Past-year LTPA and sedentary behaviour (watching television were assessed in 1998 and 2001 using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire on participants in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation with Antioxidants and Minerals study. A total of 698 men and 691 women aged 45-64 were included in this analysis. Comparisons were made between subjects who had retired between 1998 and 2001 and those who continued to work, using the Chi-square test, Student t-test, Wilcoxon rank test or covariance analysis where appropriate. Results 20.1% of men and 15.6% of women retired during follow-up. The baseline LTPA level was similar between subjects who retired during follow-up and those who continued to work. Mean LTPA increased by about 2 h/week in men and women who had retired, whereas no change was observed in employed persons. The positive change in LTPA following retirement was mainly related to an increase in activities of moderate intensity, such as walking. Retirement did not modify the ranking of the most frequently performed LTPAs, but the number of participants and the duration increased through retirement. In men, the increase in time spent watching TV was more than twice as high in retirees as in workers (+40.5 vs. +15.0 min/day, P Conclusions Retirement was associated with both an increase in LTPAs and in time spent watching TV, suggesting that retirement is an important period not only for promoting physical activity, but also for limiting sedentary behaviour.

  16. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet quality and six-year risk of overweight and obesity among mid-age Australian women who were initially in the healthy weight range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda J; Sibbritt, David; Collins, Clare E

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed The present study investigated the association between diet quality, measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), and 6-year risk of becoming overweight or obese in mid-age women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Methods Women (n=1107) aged 47.6-55.8 years who were a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI) between ≤18.5 and healthy weight range and those who became overweight or obese at follow-up was 35.3±8.1 and 34.3±8.8, respectively. There was no relationship between baseline ARFS and risk of becoming overweight or obese over 6 years. Women who were smokers were more likely to become overweight or obese (odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.09; P=0.008). Conclusions Poor diet quality was common among mid-age women of a healthy weight in the ALSWH. Higher diet quality was not associated with the risk of overweight or obesity after 6 years, yet smoking status was. So what? Better diet quality alone will not achieve maintenance of a healthy weight, but should be encouraged to improve other health outcomes.

  18. Rate of transformation and normal range about cardiac size and cardiothoracic ratio according to patient position and age at chest radiography of Korean adult man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Purpose of this study is present the normal range of cardiac size and cardiothoracic ratio according to patient position(chest PA and AP) and age of Korean adult male on digital chest X - ray, And to propose a mutually compatible conversion rate. 1,024 males were eligible for this study, among 1,300 normal chest patients who underwent chest PA and low-dose CT examinations on the same day at the 'S' Hospital Health Examination Center in Seoul From January to December 2014. CS and CTR were measured by Danzer (1919). The mean difference between CS and CTR was statistically significant (p<0.01) in Chest PA (CS 135.48 mm, CTR 43.99%) and Chest AP image (CS 155.96 mm, CTR 51.75%). There was no statistically significant difference between left and right heart in chest PA and AP images(p>0.05). CS showed statistically significant difference between Chest PA (p>0. 05) and Chest AP (p<0.05). The thorax size and CTR were statistically significant (p<0.01) in both age and chest PA and AP. Result of this study, On Chest AP image CS was magnified 15%, CTR was magnified 17% compare with Chest PA image. CS and CTR were about 10% difference by changing posture at all ages.

  19. A cross-sectional study on trans-fatty acids and risk markers of CHD among middle-aged men representing a broad range of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit M.; Nielsen, Marie M.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.

    2011-01-01

    Intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA), especially industrially produced TFA (I-TFA), has been associated with the risk of CHD through influence on serum lipid levels. Other causal pathways remain less investigated. In the present cross-sectional study of middle-aged men representing a broad range...... of BMI, the association between intake of TFA, I-TFA and ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and obesity-associated risk markers of CHD was assessed. The study comprised 393 Danish men (median age 49 years) with a median BMI of 28·4 kg/m2. Intake of TFA was estimated based on 7 d dietary records, whereas outcomes...... pressure and insulin homeostasis. Among middle-aged men with a generally low intake of TFA, neither I-TFA nor R-TFA was significantly related to obesity-associated risk markers of CHD. The decreased average intake of I-TFA in Denmark since 1995 is suggested to effectively prevent occurrence of the adverse...

  20. Effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep fragmentation in young and middle-aged subjects as a function of type of train and sound level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Mahnaz; Grenèche, Jérôme; Bonnefond, Anne; Rohmer, Odile; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Tassi, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Due to undisputable effects of noise on sleep structure, especially in terms of sleep fragmentation, the expected development of railway transportation in the next few years might represent a potential risk factor for people living alongside the rail tracks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different types of train (freight, automotive, passenger) on arousal from sleep and to determine any differential impact as a function of sound level and age. Twenty young (16 women, 4 men; 25.8 years+/-2.6) and 18 middle-aged (15 women, 3 men; 52.2 years+/-2.5) healthy subjects participated in three whole-night polysomnographic recordings including one control night (35 dBA), and two noisy nights with equivalent noise levels of 40 or 50 dB(A), respectively. Arousal responsiveness increased with sound level. It was the highest in S2 and the lowest in REM sleep. Micro-arousals (3-10 s) occurred at a rate of 25-30%, irrespective of the type of train. Awakenings (>10 s) were produced more frequently by freight train than by automotive and passenger trains. Normal age-related changes in sleep were observed, but they were not aggravated by railway noise, thus questioning whether older persons are less sensitive to noise during sleep. These evidences led to the conclusion that microscopic detection of sleep fragmentation may provide advantageous information on sleep disturbances caused by environmental noises.

  1. Idade subjetiva e suas relações com o envelhecimento bem-sucedido Edad subjetiva y sus relaciones con el envejecimiento exitoso Subjective age and its relationship with the successful aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samila Sathler Tavares Batistoni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo traz uma revisão teórica a respeito do conceito “idade subjetiva” a partir de evidências da literatura internacional sobre suas relações com indicadores de envelhecimento bem-sucedido. A partir de estudos derivados da perspectiva life span e life course em Psicologia e Sociologia, os estudos sobre idade subjetiva revelam associações significativas desta com medidas de bem-estar físico e subjetivo, o que pode ser considerado uma variável importante na pesquisa e um potencial indicador clínico.El artículo presenta una revisión teórica sobre el concepto "edad subjetiva" y pruebas de la literatura internacional sobre las relaciones con los indicadores del envejecimiento exitoso. De los estudios derivados de la perspectiva life span y life course en psicología y sociología, edad subjetiva mostró asociaciones significativas con las medidas de bienestar físico y subjetivo y puede considerarse una variable importante en la investigación clínica y como un potencial indicador clínico.The article presents a theoretical review on the concept "subjective age" and evidences from the international literature on its relationship with indicators of successful aging. From the studies derived from the life span and life course perspectives in psychology and sociology, subjective age showed significant associations with measures of physical well-being and subjective, which can be considered an important variable in clinical research and a potential clinical indicator.

  2. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, is independently associated with lower subjective well-being among individuals over 95 years of age: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuyun; Wu, Di; Huang, Jiapin; Qian, Degui; Chen, Fei; Xu, Jun; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Sensory impairment affects an increasing number of elderly adults, with a negative psychological impact. Our objective was to examine the associations of visual and hearing impairment with subjective well-being (SWB), an important psychological concept defined by life satisfaction [LS], positive affect [PA], negative affect [NA], and affect balance [AB] among long-lived individuals (LLIs) over 95 years of age. Data on 442 LLIs from the Rugao longevity cohort, a population-based study in Rugao, China, were analyzed. Graded classifications of visual and hearing impairment (none, mild, moderate, and severe) were constructed from self-reported items. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed to test the associations. Approximately 66.1% and 87.3% of the subjects reported varying degrees of visual and hearing impairment. Following the degree of vision impairment, LS, PA, and AB decreased linearly, whereas NA increased linearly (all p for trendimpairment with LS, NA, and AB, while diminished, still existed. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, was independently associated with low SWB among LLIs, and functional ability may play a mediating role in the observed relationship. The findings indicate that rehabilitation targeted for those with reduced vision and functioning in long-lived populations may be important for promoting well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leu7Pro polymorphism of PreproNPY associated with an increased risk for type II diabetes in middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, O; Kesäniemi, Y A

    2007-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a central in energy homeostasis and potentially in the development of obesity-related comorbidities, like type II diabetes. As the PreproNPY Leu7Pro polymorphism probably changes the intracellular processing of the synthesized preproNPY peptide, we assessed the hypothesis that PreproNPY Leu7Pro polymorphism is a risk factor for type II diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension. Blood pressure recordings and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in the hypertensive (n=515) and control cohorts (n=525) of our well-defined Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis (OPERA) study. The prevalence of type II diabetes was 9% (n=93). The genotypes, insulin and glucose metabolism indexes and plasma ghrelin of the subjects were determined. Pro7 allele frequencies were 5.9, 5.3 and 11.3% in the total cohort, in subjects without and with type II diabetes, respectively. The PreproNPY Pro7 carrier status was a significant risk factor for type II diabetes, and the effect remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference and study group (odds ratio=3.02, confidence interval: 1.67-5.44 and Pghrelin levels compared to non-carriers. The PreproNPY Pro7 allele is associated with an increased risk for type II diabetes. The risk seems to be associated with a higher insulin resistance among Pro7 carriers whereas low ghrelin concentrations in Pro7 carriers are possibly a consequence of high insulin levels.

  4. The burden of cancer in 25-29 year olds in New Zealand: a case for a wider adolescent and young adult age range?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Kirsten R; Utley, Victoria; Watson, Heidi; Sullivan, Michael J; Spearing, Ruth

    2018-01-19

    New Zealand currently defines the adolescent and young adult (AYA) group for cancer services as young people 12-24 years of age, while other countries favour a designation of 15-29 years. This study was undertaken to compare cancer incidence and survival among 25-29 year olds to New Zealand's younger AYA population and to assess survival for our 15-29 year population against international benchmarks. Diagnostic and demographic information for cancer registrations between 2000 and 2009 for 25-29 year olds was obtained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry. Incidence rates (IR) and five-year relative survival estimates were calculated according to AYA diagnostic group/sub-group, sex and prioritised ethnicity. 1,541 new primary malignant cancers were diagnosed (IR: 588 per million). Five-year relative survival was 85%, but was significantly lower for Māori and Pacific peoples (both 77%) compared to non-Māori/non-Pacific peoples (88%). In the overall 15-29 year AYA cohort, disease-specific outcomes for bone tumours (46%) and breast cancer (64%) were inferior to international standards. New Zealand 25 to 29 year olds are at twice the risk of developing cancer as those 15-24 years. Given that the survival disparities identified were remarkably consistent with those for younger AYA, consideration should be given widening New Zealand's AYA age range.

  5. Neuropathological findings in entorhinal cortex of subjects aged 50 years or older and their correlation with dementia in a sample from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Rodrigues Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aims of this study were to survey neurodegenerative changes detected by abnormal protein deposits in the Entorhinal Cortex (EC of subjects aged 50 years or older and to correlate these findings with suspected dementia, as detected by the IQCODE (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly . Methods: Fourteen brains were submitted to the immunohistochemistry technique for different proteins (beta-amyloid, tau, -synuclein and phospho-TDP-43 and data obtained compared with IQCODE scores. Results: Fifty-seven percent of the individuals exhibited IQCODE results compatible with dementia, being classified into the demented group (DG: 87.5% of patients had neuropathological findings corresponding to Alzheimer's-like brain pathology (ALBP. Of the patients in the non-demented group (NDG, 16.7% met neuropathological criteria for ALBP. All individuals in the DG showed deposits of more than one kind of protein in the EC. The most common association was hyperphosphorylated tau and beta-amyloid protein (87.5%. Discussion: Most individuals with dementia had neuropathological findings of ALBP, as did one individual with no signs of dementia, characterizing a preclinical stage. The results of this study suggest that deposits of a single type of anomalous protein are normal findings in an aging brain, while more than one kind of protein or the combined presence of anomalous protein deposits indicate the presence of dementia.

  6. Scope and selection of structures subject to aging management review; Alcance y seleccion de estructuras sujetas a revision de gestion de envejecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, G.; Diaz, A.; Viais, J.; Carmona, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santander, L., E-mail: gonzalo.mendoza@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this work is to determine the structures included within the scope of license renewal based on the performance of the functions and select those intended for aging management review; one purpose is to show the methodology used to establish the structure and structural components that are subject to a review of aging management, within the framework of license renewal rule. This is through the application of different types of structures and structural components related and unrelated to safety located in the rooms of the reactor building where there are components of the reactor core isolation cooling system (Rcic), these structures are poured concrete, concrete block, structural steel, shielding walls, attached metal, pile foundations, etc.; other non- security related , such as: 1) inherent characteristics not related to security that protect the equipment related to the safety of the missiles, that is, walls, low walls, dikes, doors, etc., which also provide flood barriers to structures, systems and components related to safety, 2 ) whipping restrictions on non- security, shields mitigation jet, vent panels , etc. that are designed and installed to protect equipment related with the safety of the effects of a broken line of high energy. Only rooms where there are components of the Rcic 68 structures within the scope were identified. (Author)

  7. Bond-Slip Behavior of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bar in Concrete Subjected to Simulated Marine Environment: Effects of BFRP Bar Size, Corrosion Age, and Concrete Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP bars have bright potential application in concrete structures subjected to marine environment due to their superior corrosion resistance. Available literatures mainly focused on the mechanical properties of BFRP concrete structures, while the bond-slip behavior of BFRP bars, which is a key factor influencing the safety and service life of ocean concrete structures, has not been clarified yet. In this paper, effects of BFRP bars size, corrosion age, and concrete strength on the bond-slip behavior of BFRP bars in concrete cured in artificial seawater were investigated, and then an improved Bertero, Popov, and Eligehausen (BPE model was employed to describe the bond-slip behavior of BFRP bars in concrete. The results indicated that the maximum bond stress and corresponding slip decreased gradually with the increase of corrosion age and size of BFRP bars, and ultimate slip also decreased sharply. The ascending segment of bond-slip curve tends to be more rigid and the descending segment tends to be softer after corrosion. A horizontal end in bond-slip curve indicates that the friction between BFRP bars and concrete decreased sharply.

  8. The Pisa pre-main sequence tracks and isochrones. A database covering a wide range of Z, Y, mass, and age values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognelli, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2011-09-01

    Context. In recent years new observations of pre-main sequence stars (pre-MS) with Z ≤ Z⊙ have been made available. To take full advantage of the continuously growing amount of data of pre-MS stars in different environments, we need to develop updated pre-MS models for a wide range of metallicity to assign reliable ages and masses to the observed stars. Aims: We present updated evolutionary pre-MS models and isochrones for a fine grid of mass, age, metallicity, and helium values. Methods: We use a standard and well-tested stellar evolutionary code (i.e. FRANEC), that adopts outer boundary conditions from detailed and realistic atmosphere models. In this code, we incorporate additional improvements to the physical inputs related to the equation of state and the low temperature radiative opacities essential to computing low-mass stellar models. Results: We make available via internet a large database of pre-MS tracks and isochrones for a wide range of chemical compositions (Z = 0.0002-0.03), masses (M = 0.2-7.0 M⊙), and ages (1-100 Myr) for a solar-calibrated mixing length parameter α (i.e. 1.68). For each chemical composition, additional models were computed with two different mixing length values, namely α = 1.2 and 1.9. Moreover, for Z ≥ 0.008, we also provided models with two different initial deuterium abundances. The characteristics of the models have been discussed in detail and compared with other work in the literature. The main uncertainties affecting theoretical predictions have been critically discussed. Comparisons with selected data indicate that there is close agreement between theory and observation. Tracks and isochrones are available on the web at the http://astro.df.unipi.it/stellar-models/Tracks and isochrones are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A109

  9. Predicting Cognitive, Functional, and Diagnostic Change over 4 Years Using Baseline Subjective Cognitive Complaints in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Melissa J; Sachdev, Perminder S; Kochan, Nicole A; Woolf, Claudia; Crawford, John D; Giskes, Katrina; Reppermund, Simone; Trollor, Julian N; Draper, Brian; Delbaere, Kim; Brodaty, Henry

    2015-09-01

    There is limited understanding of the usefulness of subjective cognitive complaint(s) (SCC) in predicting longitudinal outcome because most studies focus solely on memory (as opposed to nonmemory cognitive) complaints, do not collect data from both participants and informants, do not control for relevant covariates, and have limited outcome measures. Therefore the authors investigate the usefulness of participant and informant SCCs in predicting change in cognition, functional abilities, and diagnostic classification of mild cognitive impairment or dementia in a community-dwelling sample over 4 years. Nondemented participants (N = 620) in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study aged between 70 and 90 years completed 15 memory and 9 nonmemory SCC questions. An informant completed a baseline questionnaire that included 15 memory and 4 nonmemory SCC questions relating to the participant. Neuropsychological, functional, and diagnostic assessments were carried out at baseline and again at 4-year follow-up. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were carried out to determine the association between SCC indices and neuropsychological, functional, and diagnostic data while controlling for psychological measures. Once participant characteristics were controlled for, participant complaints were generally not predictive of cognitive or functional decline, although participant memory-specific complaints were predictive of diagnostic conversion. Informant-related memory questions were associated with global cognitive and functional decline and with diagnostic conversion over 4 years. Informant memory complaint questions were better than participant complaints in predicting cognitive and functional decline as well as diagnoses over 4 years. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Opportunistic detection of atrial fibrillation in subjects aged 65 years or older in primare care: a randomised clinical trial of efficacy. DOFA-AP study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérula-de-Torres LuisÁ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend using peripheral blood pulse measuring as a screening test for Atrial Fibrillation. However, there is no adequate evidence supporting the efficacy of such procedure in primary care clinical practice. This paper describes a study protocol designed to verify whether early opportunistic screening for Atrial Fibrillation by measuring blood pulse is more effective than regular practice in subjects aged 65 years attending primary care centers. Methods/design An cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Primary Care Centers of the Spanish National Health Service. A total of 269 physicians and nurses will be allocated to one of the two arms of the trial by stratified randomization with a 3:2 ratio (three practitioners will be assigned to the Control Group for every two practitioners assigned to the Experimental Group. As many as 12 870 patients aged 65 years or older and meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited (8 580 will be allocated to the Experimental Group and 4 290 to the Control Group. Randomization and allocation to trial groups will be carried out by a central computer system. The Experimental Group practitioners will conduct an opportunistic case finding for patients with Atrial Fibrillation, while the Control Group practitioners will follow the regular guidelines. The first step will be finding new Atrial Fibrillation cases. A descriptive inferential analysis will be performed (bivariate and multivariate by multilevel logistic regression analysis. Discussion If our hypothesis is confirmed, we expect Primary Care professionals to take a more proactive approach and adopt a new protocol when a patient meeting the established screening criteria is identified. Finally, we expect this measure to be incorporated into Clinical Practice Guidelines. Trial registration The study is registered as NCT01291953 (ClinicalTrials.gob

  11. Opportunistic detection of atrial fibrillation in subjects aged 65 years or older in primare care: a randomised clinical trial of efficacy. DOFA-AP study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérula-de-Torres, Luis Á; Martínez-Adell, Miguel Á; González-Blanco, Virginia; Baena-Díez, José M; Martín-Rioboó, Enrique; Parras-Rejano, Juan M; González-Lama, Jesús; Martín-Alvarez, Remedios; Ruiz-Moral, Roger; Fernández-García, José Á; Pérez-Díaz, Modesto; Ruiz-de-Castroviejo, Joaquin; Pérula-de-Torres, Carlos; Valero-Martín, Antonio; Roldán-Villalobos, Ana; Criado-Larumbe, Margarita; Burdoy-Joaquín, Emili; Coma-Solé, Montserrat; Cervera-León, Mercè; Cuixart-Costa, Lluís

    2012-10-30

    Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend using peripheral blood pulse measuring as a screening test for Atrial Fibrillation. However, there is no adequate evidence supporting the efficacy of such procedure in primary care clinical practice. This paper describes a study protocol designed to verify whether early opportunistic screening for Atrial Fibrillation by measuring blood pulse is more effective than regular practice in subjects aged 65 years attending primary care centers. An cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Primary Care Centers of the Spanish National Health Service. A total of 269 physicians and nurses will be allocated to one of the two arms of the trial by stratified randomization with a 3:2 ratio (three practitioners will be assigned to the Control Group for every two practitioners assigned to the Experimental Group). As many as 12 870 patients aged 65 years or older and meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited (8 580 will be allocated to the Experimental Group and 4 290 to the Control Group). Randomization and allocation to trial groups will be carried out by a central computer system. The Experimental Group practitioners will conduct an opportunistic case finding for patients with Atrial Fibrillation, while the Control Group practitioners will follow the regular guidelines. The first step will be finding new Atrial Fibrillation cases. A descriptive inferential analysis will be performed (bivariate and multivariate by multilevel logistic regression analysis). If our hypothesis is confirmed, we expect Primary Care professionals to take a more proactive approach and adopt a new protocol when a patient meeting the established screening criteria is identified. Finally, we expect this measure to be incorporated into Clinical Practice Guidelines. The study is registered as NCT01291953 (ClinicalTrials.gob).

  12. Subjective Cognitive Complaints and Objective Cognitive Function in Aging: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Recent Cross-Sectional Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Bridget; Leathem, Janet; Merrick, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Research investigating how subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) might reliably indicate impairments in objective cognitive functioning has produced highly varied findings, and despite attempts to synthesise this literature (e.g., Jonker et al. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 983-991, 2000; Reid and MacLullich Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22(5-6), 471-485, 2006; Crumley et al. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 250-263, 2014), recent work continues to offer little resolution. This review provides both quantitative and qualitative synthesis of research conducted since the last comprehensive review in 2006, with the aim of identifying reasons for these discrepancies that might provide fruitful avenues for future exploration. Meta-analysis found a small but significant association between SCCs and objective cognitive function, although it was limited by large heterogeneity between studies and evidence of potential publication bias. Often, assessments of SCCs and objective cognitive function were brief or not formally validated. However, studies that employed more comprehensive SCC measures tended to find that SCCs were associated independently with both objective cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Further explicit investigation of how assessment measures relate to reports of SCCs, and the validity of the proposed 'compensation theory' of SCC aetiology, is recommended.

  13. The Effects of Augmented Verbal Information Feedback in the Motor Skill Learning of Totally Blind Subjects Fourteen to Twenty-one Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Daniel P.

    This study examined the effects of Knowledge of Results, Knowledge of Performance and a combination of the two in the learning of a novel motor task by totally blind subjects. Thirty-three totally blind subjects tossed a velcro ball dart at a target while receiving augmented verbal information feedback. Each subject completed three learning…

  14. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  15. Dose-response relationship for life-shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated at day 7 postnatal age with dose range below 1 Gy of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shunsaku; Fukuda, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the dose-response relationships for life-shortening and tumorigenic effect in the dose range below 1 Gy of gamma rays delivered during the infant period. Female B6C3F 1 mice were irradiated with 0.10, 0.48 or 0.95 Gy at 7 days of age. All irradiated mice were allowed to live out their entire life span together with a simultaneously ongoing control group under a specific pathogen-free condition. Shortening of the mean life span was 1.58% in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy, which was statistically significant. The coefficient of the linear dose-response relationship for life-shortening was 11.21% Gy -1 . The attributable death fraction for all causes of death in 0.10 Gy group reached 0.092. The excess relative risk for death rate from all causes was 0.102 in the group irradiated with 0.10 Gy. The coefficient of the linear dose-response relationship of the excess relative risk for death rate from all causes was 1.30 Gy -1 . The mean number of types of solid tumors at the time of death in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy was distinctly larger than that in the control group. The excess relative risk for death rate from solid tumors was 0.45 in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy. The coefficient of the linear dose-response relationship of excess relative risk for death rate from solid tumors was 4.52 Gy -1 . Increase in incidences of the pituitary, ovarian and adrenal tumors was observed in mice irradiated with 0.10 Gy. The results of the present study showed that infant mice are susceptible to solid tumor induction, especially of the endocrine organs. (author)

  16. Association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with subjective oral health status and oral functions in Korean adults aged 35 years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Han-Na; Lee, Jung-Ha; Kim, Se-Yeon; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2017-06-23

    Oral health greatly affects well-being throughout the different stages of life from childhood to late adulthood. Loss of teeth due to poor oral health hinders mastication, leading to poor nutrition absorption, and affects pronunciation and aesthetics, leading to interpersonal difficulties. As social activities become limited, a sense of isolation and loneliness, stress, and depression grows while happiness decreases. This study aimed to examine the association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with oral health status and oral functions in a large nationwide sample of Korean adults aged 35 years or more. The sample comprised 15,716 adults, selected using a rolling survey sampling method and data were extracted from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2010-2012). Participants were interviewed about their self-evaluation of health including oral health status and mental health, such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Data from 11,347 adults were finally selected after excluding participants with missing answers. The dependent variables were stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. The independent variables were gender, age, household income, education, smoking, drinking, oral health perception, chewing, and speaking. Complex samples logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Participants met the criteria for stress (25.4%), depression (13.0%), and suicidal ideation (13.9%). Subjective oral health status was not significantly associated with stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. However, the presence of very uncomfortable chewing problems was significantly associated with stress (OR = 2.294, 95% CI = 1.41, 3.72), depression (OR = 3.232, 95% CI = 1.97, 5.31), and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.727, 95% CI = 1.58, 4.72). The presence of very uncomfortable speaking problems was significantly associated with stress (OR

  17. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  18. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. [Analysis of relationships between perimenopausal symptoms and professional functioning and life satisfaction--Subjective perception of the dependence in women aged 40+].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Iwona; Rasińska, Renata; Głowacka, Maria Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse and present the opinions of women in perimenopause on subjectively perceived symptoms characteristic of the climacteric period, and connected with their professional functioning, as well as to evaluate the effects of selected variables on the incidence and severity of these symptoms and the women's life satisfaction. The study included 250 professionally active women in perimenopausal age (40-57 years). The study used the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to evaluate life satisfaction of women and the Kupperman Index (KI) as quantitative and qualitative self-assessment of climacteric symptoms. The authors also used a questionnaire of their own design that contains an index of defined symptoms of perimenopause, which warrants the use of Pareto-Lorenz analysis. The obtained results prove the presence of statistically significant correlations between the occurrence and severity of menopausal symptoms and the place of enployment (p=0.04912), gynecological care (p=0.00325), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (p=0.01523) and assessment of life satisfaction (p=0.0325). Among the symptoms particularly influencing effective professional functioning, women pointed out hot flashes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. There is a statistically significant correlation between the woman's place of employment, gynecological care, HRT, the evaluation of life satisfaction and the severity of perimenopausal symptoms. A set of symptoms whose presence and severity influence the sense of life satisfaction and evaluation of professional functioning was observed. Among the most frequently reported symptoms that exert an adverse effect on professional functioning of women are: hot flushes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  1. White-black and white-Hispanic differences on fluid and crystallized abilities by age across the 11- to 94-year range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J C; McLean, J E; Kaufman, A S; Kaufman, N L

    1994-12-01

    Standardization data for the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) were used to examine white-black and white-Hispanic differences on the Horn-Cattell crystallized and fluid constructs at several age groups across the broad 11- to 94-year span. Samples included 1,547 white, 241 black, and 140 Hispanic persons. Multivariate analyses with educational attainment covaried yielded only one significant finding: the white-black difference on the Crystallized Famous Faces subtest became smaller with increasing age.

  2. Experimental verification of the reversibility window concept in binary As-Se glasses subjected to a long-term physical aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchak, R.; Jain, H.; Shpotyuk, O.; Kozdras, A.; Saiter, A.; Saiter, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Physical aging effects caused by prolonged natural storage (∼22 years) in binary As x Se 100-x glasses are probed by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry. It is shown that all aged samples with x 2 Se 3 glass; lack of aging within the so-called reversibility window, 28< x<38, is not found. High-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy fails to show any evidence of fourfold-coordinated As atoms, which is consistent with the aging ability of glasses with x<40

  3. Isoprene levels in the exhaled breath of 200 healthy pupils within the age range 7-18 years studied using SIFT-MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Enderby, B.; Lenney, W.; Turner, C.; Davies, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), 017101 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SIFT-MS * mass spectroscopy * isoprene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2010

  4. HbA1c Alone Is a Poor Indicator of Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Subjects with Pre-Diabetes but Is Suitable for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Seán R.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement is recommended as an alternative to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, evidence suggests discordance between HbA1c and FPG. In this study we examine a range of metabolic risk features, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute-phase response proteins, coagulation factors and white blood cell counts to determine which assay more accurately identifies individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,047 men and women aged 46-73 years. Binary and multinomial logistic regression were employed to examine risk feature associations with pre-diabetes [either HbA1c levels 5.7-6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol) or impaired FPG levels 5.6-6.9 mmol/l] and type 2 diabetes [either HbA1c levels >6.5% (>48 mmol/mol) or FPG levels >7.0 mmol/l]. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the ability of HbA1c to discriminate pre-diabetes and diabetes defined by FPG. Results Stronger associations with diabetes-related phenotypes were observed in pre-diabetic subjects diagnosed by FPG compared to those detected by HbA1c. Individuals with type 2 diabetes exhibited cardiometabolic profiles that were broadly similar according to diagnosis by either assay. Pre-diabetic participants classified by both assays displayed a more pro-inflammatory, pro-atherogenic, hypertensive and insulin resistant profile. Odds ratios of having three or more metabolic syndrome features were also noticeably increased (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.8-5.8) when compared to subjects diagnosed by either HbA1c (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8) or FPG (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.1) separately. Conclusions In middle-aged Caucasian-Europeans, HbA1c alone is a poor indicator of cardiometabolic risk but is suitable for diagnosing diabetes. Combined use of HbA1c and FPG may be of additional benefit for detecting individuals at highest odds of

  5. Evaluation of skeletal maturity in North Indian subjects using an objective method based on cervical vertebral bone age and assessment of its reliability as compared to hand wrist radiographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the skeletal maturity objectively and assess the reliability and validity of this method in North Indian subjects. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects (8-16 years were taken and divided into two groups of 30 males and 30 females. For each subject, cervical vertebral bone age (VA was evaluated by the objective method described by Mito et al., and bone age (BA was estimated by Grave and Brown method of hand wrist radiograph. Correlations and average differences between various ages were determined. An analysis of variance and Tukey′s post-hoc tests were used to compare various ages at 5% significance level. Results: The correlations between cervical VAs and BAs were higher than other ages and also more in females than males. The analysis of female data showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 whereas analysis of male data showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 between various ages. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that this method of objectively evaluating skeletal maturation is reliable and can be applied to North Indian females only. The development of a new method to objectively evaluate cervical VA in males is needed.

  6. Is soy intake related to age at onset of menarche? A cross-sectional study among adolescents with a wide range of soy food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Pribis, Peter; Messina, Mark; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background Early onset of menarche may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Several factors affect the timing of menarche but it is not clear if soy foods consumption around pubertal years plays a role; thus, we examined its relation to age at onset of menarche (AOM) in a high soy-consuming population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 339 girls ages 12–18 years attending middle and high schools near two Seventh-day Adventist universities in California and...

  7. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  8. Improving motor reliability in nuclear power plants: Volume 2, Functional indicator tests on a small electric motor subjected to accelerated aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.; Lofaro, R.; Sugarman, A.C.; Sheets, M.W.; Skreiner, K.M.

    1987-11-01

    A ten horsepower electric motor was artificially aged by plug reverse cycling for test purposes. The motor was manufactured in 1967 and was in service at a commercial nuclear power plant for twelve years. Various tests were performed on the motor throughout the aging process. The motor failed after 3.79 million reversals (3 seconds per reversal) over seven months of testing. Each test parameter was trended to assess its suitability in monitoring aging and service wear degradation in motors. Results and conclusions are discussed relative to the applicability of the tests performed to nuclear power plant motor maintenance programs. 15 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  9. Aging, rejuvenation, and memory effects in short-range Ising spin glass: Cu_0.5Co_0.5Cl_2-FeCl3 GBIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Suzuki, I. S.

    2004-03-01

    Cu_0.5Co_0.5Cl_2-FeCl3 GBIC undergoes a spin glass (SG) transition at Tg (= 3.92 ± 0.11 K). The system shows a dynamic behavior that has some similarities and some significant differences compared to a 3D Ising SG.^1 Here we report on non-equilibrium aging dynamics which has been studied using zero-field cooled (ZFC) magnetization and low frequency AC magnetic susceptibility.^2 The time dependence of the relaxation rate S(t) = (1/H)dM_ZFC/dln t for the ZFC magnetization after the ZFC aging protocol, shows a peak at a characteristic time t_cr near a wait time t_w, corresponding to a crossover from quasi equilibrium dynamics to non-equilibrium. The time t_cr strongly depends on t_w, temperature, magnetic field, and the temperature shift. The rejuvenation effect is observed in both i^' and i^'' under the T-shift and H-shift procedures. The memory of the specific spin configurations imprinted during the ZFC aging protocol can be recalled when the system is re-heated at a constant heating rate. The aging, rejuvenation, and memory effects are discussed in terms of the scaling concepts derived from numerical studies on 3D Edwards-Anderson spin glass model. 1. I.S. Suzuki and M. Suzuki, Phys. Rev. B 68, 094424 (2003) 2. M. Suzuki and I.S. Suzuki, cond-mat/0308285

  10. A generalised age- and phase-structured model of human tumour cell populations both unperturbed and exposed to a range of cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basse, Britta; Ubezio, Paolo

    2007-07-01

    We develop a general mathematical model for a population of cells differentiated by their position within the cell division cycle. A system of partial differential equations governs the kinetics of cell densities in certain phases of the cell division cycle dependent on time t (hours) and an age-like variable tau (hours) describing the time since arrival in a particular phase of the cell division cycle. Transition rate functions control the transfer of cells between phases. We first obtain a theoretical solution on the infinite domain -infinity infinity. We then assume that age distributions at time t=0 are known and write our solution in terms of these age distributions on t=0. In practice, of course, these age distributions are unknown. All is not lost, however, because a cell line before treatment usually lies in a state of asynchronous balanced growth where the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle remain constant. We assume that an unperturbed cell line has four distinct phases and that the rate of transition between phases is constant within a short period of observation ('short' relative to the whole history of the tumour growth) and we show that under certain conditions, this is equivalent to exponential growth or decline. We can then gain expressions for the age distributions. So, in short, our approach is to assume that we have an unperturbed cell line on t

  11. [The influence of procaine electrophoresis and mesotherapy on the indices of body components and biochemical characteristics in the subjects above 30 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turova, E A; Konchugova, T V; Balaban, E I; Fadeeva, N I; Golovach, A V; Teniaeva, E A

    2013-01-01

    This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of a 2% procaine solution given with a view to improving metabolic parameters of aging, such as the body weight and composition along with the lipid profile in the patients varying in age from 30 years to 75 years. The study involved 95 patients treated with a 2% procaine solution that was administered by different methods (electrophoresis and mesotherapy) into several points of the collar region and upper back. The control group was comprised of the patients who received placebo by means of galvanization and mesotherapy. The results of the study indicate that the introduction of a 2% procaine solution in the treatment of metabolic disorders effectively improves selected metabolic characteristics of ageing and thereby helps to reduce the biological age in comparison with the control patients treated with placebo.

  12. The effect of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress and functional fitness in aged rats subjected to swimming: an aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldo, Simone A; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Amadio, Eliane Martins; Antônio, Ednei Luis; Silva, Flávio; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conjunction with aerobic training interferes with oxidative stress, thereby influencing the performance of old rats participating in swimming. Thirty Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) (24 aged and six young) were tested. The older animals were randomly divided into aged-control, aged-exercise, aged-LLLT, aged-LLLT/exercise, and young-control. Aerobic capacity (VO2max(0.75)) was analyzed before and after the training period. The exercise groups were trained for 6 weeks, and the LLLT was applied at 808 nm and 4 J energy. The rats were euthanized, and muscle tissue was collected to analyze the index of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. VO2 (0.75)max values in the aged-LLLT/exercise group were significantly higher from those in the baseline older group (p exercise group (p exercise group than those in the LLLT and exercise groups. Young animals presented lesser and statistically significant activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the aged group. The LLLT/exercise group and the LLLT and exercise group could also mitigate the concentration of TBARS (p > 0.05). Laser therapy in conjunction with aerobic training may reduce oxidative stress, as well as increase VO2 (0.75)max, indicating that an aerobic exercise such as swimming increases speed and improves performance in aged animals treated with LLLT.

  13. Preservation of blood glucose homeostasis in slow-senescing somatotrophism-deficient mice subjected to intermittent fasting begun at middle or old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, Oge; Saleh, Jamal K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Kopchick, John J; Khardori, Romesh K; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Poor blood glucose homeostatic regulation is common, consequential, and costly for older and elderly populations, resulting in pleiotrophically adverse clinical outcomes. Somatotrophic signaling deficiency and dietary restriction have each been shown to delay the rate of senescence, resulting in salubrious phenotypes such as increased survivorship. Using two growth hormone (GH) signaling-related, slow-aging mouse mutants we tested, via longitudinal analyses, whether genetic perturbations that increase survivorship also improve blood glucose homeostatic regulation in senescing mammals. Furthermore, we institute a dietary restriction paradigm that also decelerates aging, an intermittent fasting (IF) feeding schedule, as either a short-term or a sustained intervention beginning at either middle or old age, and assess its effects on blood glucose control. We find that either of the two genetic alterations in GH signaling ameliorates fasting hyperglycemia; additionally, both longevity-inducing somatotrophic mutations improve insulin sensitivity into old age. Strikingly, we observe major and broad improvements in blood glucose homeostatic control by IF: IF improves ad libitum-fed hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, and reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis, in aging mutant and normal mice. These results on correction of aging-resultant blood glucose dysregulation have potentially important clinical and public health implications for our ever-graying global population, and are consistent with the Longevity Dividend concept.

  14. Functional capacity of people with early osteoarthritis : a comparison between subjects from the cohort hip and cohort knee (CHECK) and healthy ageing workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, H. J.; van Ittersum, M. W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Oostveen, J. C. M.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.; van der Schans, C. P.; Soer, R.; Reneman, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases, but the impact of the disorder on peoples' functional capacity is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare self-reported health status and functional capacity of subjects with early OA of hip and/or knee to reference data of

  15. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Peterson

    Full Text Available Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT.Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, and 66-79 years. ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL, length of scleral spur landmark (SSL to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM, iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM, pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe, and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter.Mean (±SD values were 2.24 mm (±0.46, 4.06 mm (±0.27, 3.65 mm (±0.48, 4.16 mm (±0.47, 1.14 (±0.04, 1.51 mm2 (±0.23, and 38.42 μL (±4.91 for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002 and RICe (P = 0.027 decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002 and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001. ICR (P = 0.54 and iris volume (P = 0.49 were not affected by age.This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states.

  16. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of a combined extract of sage, rosemary and melissa, traditional herbal medicines, on the enhancement of memory in normal healthy subjects, including influence of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, N S L; Menzies, R; Hodgson, F; Wedgewood, P; Howes, M-J R; Brooker, H J; Wesnes, K A; Perry, E K

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate for the first time the effects of a combination of sage, rosemary and melissa (Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.; SRM), traditional European medicines, on verbal recall in normal healthy subjects. To devise a suitable study design for assessing the clinical efficacy of traditional herbal medicines for memory and brain function. Forty-four normal healthy subjects (mean age 61 ± 9.26y SD; m/f 6/38) participated in this study. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study was performed with subjects randomised into an active and placebo group. The study consisted of a single 2-week term ethanol extract of SRM that was chemically-characterised using high resolution LC-UV-MS/MS analysis. Immediate and delayed word recall were used to assess memory after taking SRM or placebo (ethanol extract of Myrrhis odorata (L.) Scop.). In addition analysis was performed with subjects divided into younger and older subgroups (≤ 62 years mean age n = 26: SRM n = 10, Placebo n = 16; ≥ 63 years n = 19: SRM n = 13, Placebo n = 6). Overall there were no significant differences between treatment and placebo change from baseline for immediate or delayed word recall. However subgroup analysis showed significant improvements to delayed word recall in the under 63 year age group (p memory in healthy subjects under 63 years of age. Short- and long- term supplementation with SRM extract merits more robust investigation as an adjunctive treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease and in the general ageing population. The study design proved a simple cost effective trial protocol to test the efficacy of herbal medicines on verbal episodic memory, with future studies including broader cognitive assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  18. [Neurological and neuropsychological comparison between subjects with learning disorder and those suffering from learning difficulties when eeg abnormalities are detected at pediatric age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsetti, L; Viberti, B; Ariano, C; Isocrono, A

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study is to compare data and investigate the points of overlap between the two clinical conditions. The hypothesis is to observe a similar cognitive and neuropsychological profile in LD children and subjects with electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The present study consists of a descriptive analysis of 35 children who have been tested for suspected learning disorder (LD). The diagnostic protocol includes a detailed cognitive and neuropsychological evaluation, as well as logopedic and neuropsychomotor assessment. Children carried neurological visit, EEG in waking and encephalic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In this study, anamnestic data and the results of some of the neuropsychological tests were administrated to children and subsequently were analyzed. Depending on EEG report (positive or negative), subjects were split in two subsample: subjects with "pure" LD and subjects who showed significant paroxysmal abnormalities at the EEG. This comparison shows that the profile of the two subsamples matches for many aspects. The only statistically significant differences are the increased impairment of meta-phonological skills and reading speed in children with EEG abnormalities. On the other hand, children with "pure" LD are inclined to manifest more frequently difficulties in highly-modularized processes, such as counting. In conclusion, the substantial overlap of the two profiles causes a reflection about the difficulty in making differential diagnosis in children who show a suspected LD, in absence of an accurate neurophysiological and neuroradiological investigation. The study did not find out useful markers to select subjects who should carry EEG and encephalic NMR. Our team established to keep EEG in waking in the diagnostic protocol, for all children with LD diagnosis. Only in case of abnormalities at the track, we prescribed EEG in sleeping and encephalic NMR.

  19. High participation rate among 25 721 patients with broad age range in a hospital-based research project involving whole-genome sequencing - the Lausanne Institutional Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochud, Murielle; Currat, Christine; Chapatte, Laurence; Roth, Cindy; Mooser, Vincent

    2017-10-24

    We aimed to evaluate the interest of adult inpatients and selected outpatients in engaging in a large, real-life, hospital-based, genomic medicine research project and in receiving clinically actionable incidental findings. Within the framework of the cross-sectional Institutional Biobank of Lausanne, Switzerland, a total of 25721 patients of the CHUV University Hospital were systematically invited to grant researchers access to their biomedical data and to donate blood for future analyses, including whole-genome sequencing. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify personal factors, including age, gender, religion, ethnicity, citizenship, education level and mode of admission, associated with willingness to participate in this genomic research project and with interest in receiving clinically actionable incidental findings. The overall participation rate was 79% (20343/25721). Participation rate declined progressively with age, averaging 83%, 75%, 67% and 62% in patients aged rate, but not with higher willingness to receive incidental findings within the population who had agreed to participate. A large proportion of adult patients, even among the elderly, are willing to actively participate and receive incidental findings in this systematic hospital-based precision and genomic medicine research program with broad consent.

  20. In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian subjects living in Mumbai. Part II: Variability with age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, L; Flament, F; Wagle, A; Idelcaid, Y; Agrawal, D

    2018-04-01

    A previously published work explored the diversity of some biophysical parameters (colour, elasticity, sebum production, skin microrelief, etc.) of the skin of 1204 Indian women, differently aged, living in four Indian cities (Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai). The present work aimed at completing such research by focusing on possible gender-related differences in the same skin parameters, between Indian men and women living in the same Indian city (Mumbai). A total of 297 Indian men, differently aged (18-70y), were recruited in Mumbai, completing the panel of 303 women who were previously recruited in this same city. The same instrumental measurements of facial skin colour and its homogeneity, its mechanical properties, the sebum production, skin pores size, skin relief, etc. as in the previous work, were conducted. Overall, the facial skin colour shows a darker complexion in men as compared to women, on forehead, ocular region, lips, chin and cheek. The skin colour unevenness, which increases with age, was found higher in men, as compared to women. At comparable age, women and men present a same density of skin pores, whereas those of men appear larger, up to 55y. The deepness of Crow's feet wrinkles does not significantly differ between genders. A lesser extensibility was found on the cheeks of men. In men, the sebum production was found significantly higher than that of women at ages above 40y. This work indicates some commonly shared age-related skin features between women and men from Mumbai, despite slight different characteristics such as skin pigmentation, forehead/cheek colour contrast, mechanical properties and sebum production. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  2. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  3. Effects of exogenous vitamins A, C, and E and NADH supplementation on proliferation, cytokines release, and cell redox status of lymphocytes from healthy aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama, Samia; Merzouk, Hafida; Medjdoub, Amel; Merzouk-Saidi, Amel; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological event that is associated with immune alterations. These alterations are related to increased cellular oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiency. Antioxidant supplementation could improve these age-related abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) on T cell proliferation, cytokine release, and cell redox status in the elderly compared with young adults. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured in vitro and stimulated with concanavalin A in the presence or absence of vitamins. Cell proliferation was determined by conducting MTT assays, and based on interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 secretions. Cell oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed by assaying reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein levels, and catalase activity. The present study demonstrated that T-lymphocyte proliferation was decreased with aging and was associated with cytokine secretion alterations, GSH depletion, and intracellular oxidative stress. In the elderly, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH significantly improved lymphocyte proliferation and mitigated cellular oxidative stress, whereas vitamin A did not affect cell proliferation or cell redox status. In conclusion, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH supplementation improved T-lymphocytes response in the elderly, and could contribute to the prevention of age-related immune alterations. Consumption of food items containing these vitamins is recommended, and further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effect of vitamin supplementation in vivo.

  4. Functional performance and physical activity levels of subjects enrolled at an Open University of the Third Age at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities of the University of São Paulo (UnATI EACH-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Caldeira de Melo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional performance, according to the physical activity levels, of the students of UnATI EACH-USP. The study included 269 subjects, of both sexes, aged between 50 and 80 years-old. The most active group showed better functional performance in balance, mobility and lower limb strength tests compared with the sedentary group. On the other hand, perform physical activities in an irregular fashion was not associated to better functional performance in middleaged/older subjects.

  5. Response of a comprehensive climate model to a broad range of external forcings: relevance for deep ocean ventilation and the development of late Cenozoic ice ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Eric; de Lavergne, Casimir

    2018-03-01

    Over the past few million years, the Earth descended from the relatively warm and stable climate of the Pliocene into the increasingly dramatic ice age cycles of the Pleistocene. The influences of orbital forcing and atmospheric CO2 on land-based ice sheets have long been considered as the key drivers of the ice ages, but less attention has been paid to their direct influences on the circulation of the deep ocean. Here we provide a broad view on the influences of CO2, orbital forcing and ice sheet size according to a comprehensive Earth system model, by integrating the model to equilibrium under 40 different combinations of the three external forcings. We find that the volume contribution of Antarctic (AABW) vs. North Atlantic (NADW) waters to the deep ocean varies widely among the simulations, and can be predicted from the difference between the surface densities at AABW and NADW deep water formation sites. Minima of both the AABW-NADW density difference and the AABW volume occur near interglacial CO2 (270-400 ppm). At low CO2, abundant formation and northward export of sea ice in the Southern Ocean contributes to very salty and dense Antarctic waters that dominate the global deep ocean. Furthermore, when the Earth is cold, low obliquity (i.e. a reduced tilt of Earth's rotational axis) enhances the Antarctic water volume by expanding sea ice further. At high CO2, AABW dominance is favoured due to relatively warm subpolar North Atlantic waters, with more dependence on precession. Meanwhile, a large Laurentide ice sheet steers atmospheric circulation as to strengthen the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, but cools the Southern Ocean remotely, enhancing Antarctic sea ice export and leading to very salty and expanded AABW. Together, these results suggest that a `sweet spot' of low CO2, low obliquity and relatively small ice sheets would have poised the AMOC for interruption, promoting Dansgaard-Oeschger-type abrupt change. The deep ocean temperature and

  6. Assessment of DNA damage using comet assay in middle-aged overweight/obese subjects after following a hypocaloric diet supplemented with cocoa extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Azqueta, Amaya; Lopez de Cerain, Adela; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient excess and unbalanced diets can result in overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with oxidative stress. Cocoa extract contains antioxidants that inhibit the harmful effects of ROS. This trial analysed the effect of cocoa extract consumption integrated as a bioactive compound into ready-to-eat meals, on oxidative stress at the level of DNA in overweight/obese subjects. Fifty volunteers [57.26(5.24) years, 30.59(2.33)kg/m(2)] participated in a 4-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel nutritional intervention. Half of the volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g/day cocoa extract, while the other half received control meals, both within a 15% energy restriction diet. Lymphocytes were isolated and endogenous strand breaks, oxidised bases and resistance to H2O2-induced damage were measured by the comet assay. The intake of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract did not show relevant changes in the oxidative status of DNA. However, in the cocoa group, oxidised bases negatively correlated with methyl epicatechin-O-sulphate (r = -0.76; P = -0.007) and epicatechin sulphate (r = -0.61; P = -0.046). When volunteers of both groups were analysed together, a marginal decrease (P = 0.072) in oxidised bases was observed, which attributed to weight loss. Subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage showed a greater reduction in oxidised bases after 4 weeks (P = 0.040) compared to those who had lower baseline levels. In conclusion, even if 1.4 g of cocoa supplementation for 4 weeks did not show notable changes in terms of antioxidant status of DNA, the energy restriction showed a slightly decrease in oxidised bases and this was seen to a greater extent in subjects who started the intervention with higher levels of damage. On the other hand, the inverse associations found between oxidised bases and some cocoa-derived metabolites suggest that a protective effect might be seen in a

  7. A study of the effect of maintenance on the safety of a mechanical system subject to aging and its application to steam generator tube degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussarte, D.

    1991-11-01

    The different degradation mechanisms to which pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes are observed to be subject may result in the risk of their rupture being greater than anticipated. Prevention of tube rupture essentially consists of inspections during outages of the units and applying appropriate criteria for the withdrawal of defective tubes from service. Planning such measures implies being able to gauge the effectiveness of the action taken. This document describes a proposed technique for quantifying the effects of the preventive maintenance we have had to develop to address this problem and, hence, to obtain material for assessing the action taken by the utility. (author)

  8. Use of cosmogenic 35S for comparing ages of water from three alpine-subalpine basins in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueker, J.K.; Turk, J.T.; Michel, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    High-elevation basins in Colorado are a major source of water for the central and western United States; however, acidic deposition may affect the quality of this water. Water that is retained in a basin for a longer period of time may be less impacted by acidic deposition. Sulfur-35 (35S), a short-lived isotope of sulfur (t( 1/2 ) = 87 days), is useful for studying short-time scale hydrologic processes in basins where biological influences and water/rock interactions are minimal. When sulfate response in a basin is conservative, the age of water may be assumed to be that of the dissolved sulfate in it. Three alpine-subalpine basins on granitic terrain in Colorado were investigated to determine the influence of basin morphology on the residence time of water in the basins. Fern and Spruce Creek basins are glaciated and accumulate deep snowpacks during the winter. These basins have hydrologic and chemical characteristics typical of systems with rapid hydrologic response times. The age of sulfate leaving these basins, determined from the activity of 35S, averages around 200 days. In contrast, Boulder Brook basin has broad, gentle slopes and an extensive cover of surficial debris. Its area above treeline, about one-half of the basin, is blown free of snow during the winter. Variations in flow and solute concentrations in Boulder Brook are quite small compared to Fern and Spruce Creeks. After peak snowmelt, sulfate in Boulder Brook is about 200 days older than sulfate in Fern and Spruce Creeks. This indicates a substantial source of older sulfate (lacking 35S) that is probably provided from water stored in pore spaces of surficial debris in Boulder Brook basin.

  9. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeteman, M.A.; Baret, A.; Courtiere, A.; Rebuffel, P.; Mattei, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes

  10. Minimizing the effects of multicollinearity in the polynomial regression of age relationships and sex differences in serum levels of pregnenolone sulfate in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloun, Milan; Hill, Martin; Vceláková-Havlíková, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) is known as a steroid conjugate positively modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on neuronal membranes. These receptors are responsible for permeability of calcium channels and activation of neuronal function. Neuroactivating effect of PregS is also exerted via non-competitive negative modulation of GABA(A) receptors regulating the chloride influx. Recently, a penetrability of blood-brain barrier for PregS was found in rat, but some experiments in agreement with this finding were reported even earlier. It is known that circulating levels of PregS in human are relatively high depending primarily on age and adrenal activity. Concerning the neuromodulating effect of PregS, we recently evaluated age relationships of PregS in both sexes using polynomial regression models known to bring about the problems of multicollinearity, i.e., strong correlations among independent variables. Several criteria for the selection of suitable bias are demonstrated. Biased estimators based on the generalized principal component regression (GPCR) method avoiding multicollinearity problems are described. Significant differences were found between men and women in the course of the age dependence of PregS. In women, a significant maximum was found around the 30th year followed by a rapid decline, while the maximum in men was achieved almost 10 years earlier and changes were minor up to the 60th year. The investigation of gender differences and age dependencies in PregS could be of interest given its well-known neurostimulating effect, relatively high serum concentration, and the probable partial permeability of the blood-brain barrier for the steroid conjugate. GPCR in combination with the MEP (mean quadric error of prediction) criterion is extremely useful and appealing for constructing biased models. It can also be used for achieving such estimates with regard to keeping the model course corresponding to the data trend, especially in polynomial type

  11. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco, Eduardo; Logica Tornatore, Tamara M A; Romero, Juan I; Holubiec, Mariana I; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Capani, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE) has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA). At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM). Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia.

  12. Bone mineral density, muscle strength and physical activity. A population-based study of 332 subjects aged 15-42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düppe, H; Gärdsell, P; Johnell, O; Nilsson, B E; Ringsberg, K

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to find out whether differences in levels of physical activity have an influence on bone mass quantity and whether quadriceps muscle strength is a reliable determinant of bone mass. Included were 175 men and 157 women, aged 15-42 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at various sites by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Muscle strength was assessed using an isokinetic muscle force meter. A questionnaire was used to estimate the level of physical activity. We found a positive correlation between physical activity and BMD for boys at the distal forearm and for girls at the trochanter (age group 15-16 years). Active men (age group 21-42 years) had up to 9% higher BMD levels at the hip than those who were less active. Quadriceps muscle torque was not an independent predictor of BMD. Our data suggest that a higher level of physical activity-within the limits of a "normal life style"-may have a positive effect on BMD in the proximal femur of young adults, which in turn may lessen the subsequent risk of fracture.

  13. Subjective and psychological well-being of students of a University of the Third Age: Benefits of continuing education for psychological adjustment in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thaís Bento; Cachioni, Meire

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to characterize the degree of general satisfaction with life and degree of satisfaction on four domains: health, physical capacity, mental capacity and social involvement, and to determine the characteristics of self-reports of individuals enrolled on the program in relation to their psychological well-being focusing on the dimensions: autonomy, personal growth, control, positive relationships with others, purpose, personal acceptance and generativity, and to analyse the effect of time studying on level of well-being. Method A total of 140 elderly students of a University for the Third Age took part in the study. The Global Satisfaction With Life Scale and the Self Development Scale (with six psychological well-being subscales) were applied. Continuous variables for the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship among numeric variables. Internal consistency of the instrument scales was analysed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results Results showed that students who had attended the University of the Third Age for six months or longer had a higher level of satisfaction with life and greater psychological adjustment compared with new entrants to the same institution. Conclusion The study results confirmed the positive effects of continuing education on the well-being of elderly and its contribution to successful aging. PMID:29213747

  14. Incidence of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in subjects 0-14 years of age in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ríos, M; Moy, C S; Martín Serrano, R; Minuesa Asensio, A; de Tomás Labat, M E; Zarandieta Romero, G; Herrera, J

    1990-07-01

    A retrospective, population-based registry was established in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain (total population: 4,780,572; under age 15: 1,105,243) to investigate the epidemiology of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Included were all cases diagnosed with diabetes between 1985 and 1988, with age onset less than 15 years, and using insulin at discharge from hospital. Using the capture-recapture method employing hospital records as the primary source and membership files of the Spanish Diabetic Association as the secondary source, the ascertainment was 90%. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 11.3/100,000 (Poison 95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4). There was no temporal increase in incidence, nor was there a significant sex difference in incidence rates, either overall or by year. The seasonal onset pattern showed the highest incidence in winter (December-February) and lowest in summer (June-August) (r = 7.36, p less than 0.05). The age-adjusted (world standard) incidence of 10.9/100,000 was inconsistent with the hypothesis of a north-south gradient in diabetes risk.

  15. Extraction of oak volatiles and ellagitannins compounds and sensory profile of wine aged with French winewoods subjected to different toasting methods: behaviour during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-09-01

    In Merlot wines the evolution of volatile and non-volatile (ellagitannins) compounds extracted from winewoods while being macerated for 12 months was studied. Seven types of winewoods subjected to different toasting methods were used. Different rates of extraction, depending mainly on wood compounds origin (toasting or naturally present in wood) and on the watering process during toasting, were observed, which were reflected in sensory differences. Globally, volatile phenols together with aldehydes, phenols and lactones showed an increase with increasing maceration time. Ellagitannins were extracted faster during the first 3 months; after 6 months an important decrease was observed. Wines with winewoods subjected to watering during toasting were lower in ellagitannins concentrations and demonstrated the greatest decrease of these compounds during maceration. Astringency and bitterness intensified with increasing ellagitannins. Lactones induced positive sweetness sensations, whereas furanic and guaiacol compounds influenced bitterness and astringency. Spicy and vanilla descriptors were related to eugenol, vanillin and other odorous chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alzheimer disease pathology in subjects without dementia in 2 studies of aging: the Nun Study and the Adult Changes in Thought Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantaCruz, Karen S; Sonnen, Joshua A; Pezhouh, Maryam Kherad; Desrosiers, Mark F; Nelson, Peter T; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with antemortem preservation of cognition who show autopsy evidence of at least moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology suggest the possibility of brain reserve, that is, functional resistance to structural brain damage. This reserve would, however, only be relevant if the pathologic markers correlate well with dementia. Using data from the Nun Study (n = 498) and the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study (n = 323), we show that Braak staging correlates strongly with dementia status. Moreover, participants with severe(Braak stage V-VI) AD pathology who remained not demented represent only 12% (Nun Study) and 8% (ACT study) of nondemented subjects. Comparison of these subjects to those who were demented revealed that the former group was often significantly memory-impaired despite not being classified as demented. Most of these nondemented participants showed only stage V neurofibrillary pathology and frontal tangle counts that were slightly lower than a comparable (Braak stage V) dementia group. In summary, these data indicate that, in individuals with AD-type pathology who do not meet criteria for dementia, neocortical neurofibrillary tangles are somewhat reduced and incipient cognitive decline is present. Our data provide a foundation for helping to define additional factors that may impair, or be protective of, cognition in older adults.

  17. Alzheimer Disease Pathology in Subjects Without Dementia in Two Studies of Aging: The Nun Study and the Adult Changes in Thought Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantaCruz, Karen S.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Pezhouh, Maryam Kherad; Desrosiers, Mark F.; Nelson, Peter T.; Tyas, Suzanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with antemortem preservation of cognition who show autopsy evidence of at least moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology suggest the possibility of brain reserve, that is, functional resistance to structural brain damage. This reserve would, however, only be relevant if the pathologic markers correlate well with dementia. Using data from the Nun Study (n = 498) and the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study (n = 323), we show that Braak staging correlates strongly with dementia status. Moreover, participants with severe (Braak stage V–VI) AD pathology who remained not demented represent only 12% (Nun Study) and 8% (ACT study) of nondemented subjects. Comparison of these subjects to those who were demented revealed that the former group was often significantly memory impaired despite not being classified as demented. Most of these nondemented participants showed only stage V neurofibrillary pathology and frontal tangle counts that were slightly lower than a comparable (Braak stage V) dementia group. In summary, these data indicate that, in individuals with AD-type pathology who do not meet criteria for dementia, neocortical neurofibrillary tangles are somewhat reduced and incipient cognitive decline is present. Our data provide a foundation for helping to define additional factors that may impair, or be protective of, cognition in older adults. PMID:21937909

  18. Visual field (Octopus 1-2-3 in normal subjects divided into homogeneous age-groups Perimetria computadorizada no Octopus 1-2-3: estudo de uma população normal por faixas etárias estratificadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Calixto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the values in decibels of retinal sensitivity within the central 26 degrees of the visual field of normal subjects divided into homogenous age groups using the Octopus 1-2-3; to compare the values of retinal sensitivity we have found with those considered normal in the statistical package obtained by a multicenter study performed in 1994 with Octopus 201. METHODS: 181 subjects divided into 6 homogeneous age groups (10 to 19 yr; 20 to 29 yr; 30 to 39 yr; 40 to 49 yr; 50 to 59 yr and 60 year-old or older were evaluated. Data on visual sensitivity and age, average sensitivity of central and paracentral regions and eccentricity were calculated. RESULTS: The average visual sensitivity of all groups was 26.77 ± 1.74 dB. Correlation between visual sensitivity and age evaluated by linear regression was 28.4 - 0.040 x (age for the whole sample and 28.7 - 0.050 x (age for subjects aged 20 or more. Sensitivity reduction by eccentricity was -0.30 dB/degree for the whole sample and for subjects aged 20 or more. CONCLUSIONS: Correlation between retinal sensitivity values and age based on the autoperimeter Octopus 201 (average sensitivity of 31.2 - 0.064 x age is different from that found in this study: average sensitivity of 28.4 - 0.040 x (age for the whole sample; 28.7 - 0.050 x (age for subjects aged 20 or more. Values obtained with the Octopus 1-2-3 autoperimeter cannot be compared with those by other Octopus models (101, 201 and 500 due to their distinct features.OBJETIVO: Determinar, utilizando o autoperímetro Octopus 1-2-3, os valores da sensibilidade retiniana em dB, nos 26 graus centrais do campo visual, em voluntários normais, distribuídos em grupos etários homogêneos. Comparar os valores da sensibilidade retiniana com aqueles considerados normais no pacote estatístico do programa do autoperímetro Octopus 1-2-3 obtidos por estudo multicêntrico realizado em 1994. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 181 voluntários, distribuídos em

  19. Frequency and outcomes of painful physical symptoms in a naturalistic population with major depressive disorder: an analysis of pooled observational studies focusing on subjects aged 65 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnabic, A; Raskin, J; Alev, L; Serap Monkul, E; Lowry, A

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the frequency of painful physical symptoms (PPS) in elderly subjects (≥ 65 years) with major depressive disorder (MDD) in real-world clinical conditions and to establish whether PPS are associated with poor depression outcomes, including more severe depression and worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Observational studies of MDD that included assessment of PPS and elderly subjects were screened. Measures of PPS were based on the Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI) or Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Data from a variety of depressive symptom severity and HRQoL scales were used. Analysis cohorts were based on age [aged ≥ 65 years (elderly) or depression in addition to physical causes when PPS are present. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Age-related mechanism and its relationship with secondary metabolism and abscisic acid in Aristotelia chilensis plants subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villagra, Jorge; Rodrigues-Salvador, Acácio; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Cohen, Jerry D; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie M

    2018-03-01

    Drought stress is the most important stress factor for plants, being the main cause of agricultural crop loss in the world. Plants have developed complex mechanisms for preventing water loss and oxidative stress such as synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds such as anthocyanins, which might help plants to cope with abiotic stress as antioxidants and for scavenging reactive oxygen species. A. chilensis (Mol.) is a pioneer species, colonizing and growing on stressed and disturbed environments. In this research, an integrated analysis of secondary metabolism in Aristotelia chilensis was done to relate ABA effects on anthocyanins biosynthesis, by comparing between young and fully-expanded leaves under drought stress. Plants were subjected to drought stress for 20 days, and physiological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were performed. The relative growth rate and plant water status were reduced in stressed plants, with young leaves significantly more affected than fully-expanded leaves beginning from the 5th day of drought stress. A. chilensis plants increased their ABA and total anthocyanin content and showed upregulation of gene expression when they were subjected to severe drought (day 20), with these effects being higher in fully-expanded leaves. Multivariate analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between transcript levels for NCED1 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase) and UFGT (UDP glucose: flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase) with ABA and total anthocyanin, respectively. Thus, this research provides a more comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms that allow plants to cope with drought stress. This is highlighted by the differences between young and fully-expanded leaves, showing different sensibility to stress due to their ability to synthesize anthocyanins. In addition, this ability to synthesize different and high amounts of anthocyanins could be related to higher NCED1 and MYB expression and ABA levels

  1. Extensão vocal de idosos coralistas e não coralistas Vocal range in aged choristers and non-choristers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Rocha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a extensão vocal de idosos coralistas e não coralistas e analisar a influência da prática do canto-coral amador na extensão vocal dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: extração dos valores da extensão vocal em semitons por meio de um teclado musical e análise comparativa do número de semitons entre 40 idosos coralistas e 40 não coralistas. RESULTADOS: o número de semitons atingido pelos coralistas é significativamente maior que o atingido pelos não coralistas. O perfil de extensão vocal dos idosos coralistas foi de 27 a 39 semitons, perfazendo um total de 3 oitavas, 1 tom e 1 semitom. O perfil de extensão vocal dos idosos não coralistas foi de 18 a 35 semitons, perfazendo um total de 2 oitavas, 5 tons e 1 semitom. CONCLUSÃO: a prática do canto coral amador aumenta a extensão vocal de idosos coralistas.PURPOSE: compare the vocal extension of senior choristers and non-choristers and analyze the influence of the practice of the amateur coral-song in the vocal extension of the aforementioned subjects. METHODS: extracting the vocal extension through a musical keyboard and comparative analysis of the number of half-notes among 40 senior choristers and 40 non-choristers. RESULTS: the number of half-notes achieved by the choristers is significantly higher than the one achieved by the non-choristers. The vocal extension profile of the seniors choristers was from 27 to 39 half-notes, totalizing a sum of 3 octaves, 1 tone and 1 half-note. The profile of the no-choristers seniors' vocal extension was from 18 to 35 half-notes, totalizing a sum of 2 octaves, 5 tones and 1 half-note. CONCLUSION: The practice of the amateur coral song increases the choristers seniors' vocal extension.

  2. Middle-aged human apoE4 targeted-replacement mice show retention deficits on a wide range of spatial memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Alexandra; Grootendorst, Jeannette; Vogel, Elise; Kelche, Christian; Dodart, Jean-Cosme; Bales, Kelly; Moreau, Pierre-Henri; Sullivan, Patrick M; Mathis, Chantal

    2008-11-21

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E4, one of three human apoE (h-apoE) isoforms, has been identified as a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and for cognitive deficits associated with aging. However, the biological mechanisms involving apoE in learning and memory processes are unclear. A potential isoform-dependent role of apoE in cognitive processes was studied in human apoE targeted-replacement (TR) mice. These mice express either the human apoE3 or apoE4 gene under the control of endogenous murine apoE regulatory sequences, resulting in physiological expression of h-apoE in both a temporal and spatial pattern similar to humans. Male and female apoE3-TR, apoE4-TR, apoE-knockout and C57BL/6J mice (15-18 months) were tested with spatial memory and avoidance conditioning tasks. Compared to apoE3-TR mice, spatial memory in female apoE4-TR mice was impaired based on their poor performances in; (i) the probe test of the water-maze reference memory task, (ii) the water-maze working memory task and (iii) an active avoidance Y-maze task. Retention performance on a passive avoidance task was also impaired in apoE4-TR mice, but not in other genotypes. These deficits in both spatial and avoidance memory tasks may be related to the anatomical and functional abnormalities previously reported in the hippocampus and the amygdala of apoE4-TR mice. We conclude that the apoE4-TR mice provide an excellent model for understanding the mechanisms underlying apoE4-dependent susceptibility to cognitive decline.

  3. Neutron importance calculation in an equivalent cell using the age approximation and differential thermalization models. Determination of the cross section sensitivity to the parameters of a differential model in the thermal range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, V.D.

    1978-01-01

    The equations are discussed for calculating the importance of neutron function in heterogeneous media obtained with the integral transport theory method. The thermalization effect in the thermal range is described using the differential model. The account of neutron slowing-down in the epithermal range is accomplished in the age approximation. The fast range is described in the 3-group approximation. On the basis of the equations derived the share of delayed neutrons and lifetimes of prompt neutrons are calculated and compared with available experimental data. In the thermal range the sensitivity of cross sections to some parameters of the differential model is analyzed for reactor cells typical for WWER type reactor cores. The models and approximations used are found to be adequate for the calculations

  4. On the integrity of functional brain networks in schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and advanced age: Evidence from connectivity-based single-subject classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pläschke, Rachel N; Cieslik, Edna C; Müller, Veronika I; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Plachti, Anna; Varikuti, Deepthi P; Goosses, Mareike; Latz, Anne; Caspers, Svenja; Jockwitz, Christiane; Moebus, Susanne; Gruber, Oliver; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Reetz, Kathrin; Heller, Julia; Südmeyer, Martin; Mathys, Christian; Caspers, Julian; Grefkes, Christian; Kalenscher, Tobias; Langner, Robert; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2017-12-01

    Previous whole-brain functional connectivity studies achieved successful classifications of patients and healthy controls but only offered limited specificity as to affected brain systems. Here, we examined whether the connectivity patterns of functional systems affected in schizophrenia (SCZ), Parkinson's disease (PD), or normal aging equally translate into high classification accuracies for these conditions. We compared classification performance between pre-defined networks for each group and, for any given network, between groups. Separate support vector machine classifications of 86 SCZ patients, 80 PD patients, and 95 older adults relative to their matched healthy/young controls, respectively, were performed on functional connectivity in 12 task-based, meta-analytically defined networks using 25 replications of a nested 10-fold cross-validation scheme. Classification performance of the various networks clearly differed between conditions, as those networks that best classified one disease were usually non-informative for the other. For SCZ, but not PD, emotion-processing, empathy, and cognitive action control networks distinguished patients most accurately from controls. For PD, but not SCZ, networks subserving autobiographical or semantic memory, motor execution, and theory-of-mind cognition yielded the best classifications. In contrast, young-old classification was excellent based on all networks and outperformed both clinical classifications. Our pattern-classification approach captured associations between clinical and developmental conditions and functional network integrity with a higher level of specificity than did previous whole-brain analyses. Taken together, our results support resting-state connectivity as a marker of functional dysregulation in specific networks known to be affected by SCZ and PD, while suggesting that aging affects network integrity in a more global way. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5845-5858, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017

  5. Influence of Aging on Plasma Renin Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, K. W.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.

    1982-01-01

    Influence of aging on plasma renin activity was evaluated in healthy normotensive subjects(age range 21-63 years, 413 males) devoid of cardiorenal or endocrinological problems. The age-related decrease of plasma renin activity in the subjects between 21-28 years group and 36-42 years group was slight, but over the 43 years groups was significantly different. The age-related suppression of plasma renin activity was much more smooth and continuous all over the age ranges evaluated. The sexual difference in plasma renin activity was noticed between the subjects of 22 years old group (34 males) and 19 years group (34 females) (p<0.003). The data suggest that the age-related suppression of plasma renin activity appeared in healthy normotensive subjects should be considered in the case of evaluation of low renin essential hypertension.

  6. Aging and functional brain networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi D.; Volkow, N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

  7. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ages: Lower Narmada basin, western India. 413. Advective heat transfer. Advective heat transfer and fabric development in a shallow crustal intrusive granite – the case of Pro- terozoic Vellaturu granite, south India. 433. Andaman Islands. Improved bathymetric datasets for the shallow water regions in the Indian Ocean. 261.

  8. Successful Isolation of Viable Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Human Adipose Tissue Subject to Long-Term Cryopreservation: Positive Implications for Adult Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics in Patients of Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Devitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2–1159 days from patients of varying ages (26–62 years. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved 2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages.

  9. Micro-planning in a wide age range measles rubella (MR) campaign using mobile phone app, a case of Kenya, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amina; Tabu, Collins; Onuekwusi, Iheoma; Otieno, Samuel Kevin; Ademba, Peter; Kamau, Peter; Koki, Beatrice; Ngatia, Anthony; Wainaina, Anthony; Davis, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A Measles rubella campaign that targeted 9 months to 14 year old children was conducted in all the 47 counties in Kenya between 16th and 24th of May 2016. Micro-planning using an android phone-based app was undertaken to map out the target population and logistics in all the counties 4 weeks to the campaign implementation instead of 6 months as per the WHO recommendation. The outcomes of the micro-planning exercise were a detailed micro-plan that served as a guide in ensuring that every eligible individual in the population was vaccinated with potent vaccine. A national Trainer of Trainers training was done to equip key officers with new knowledge and skills in developing micro-plans at all levels. The micro planning was done using a mobile phone app, the doforms that enabled data to be transmitted real time to the national level. The objective of the study was to establish whether use of mobile phone app would contribute to quality of sub national micro plans that can be used for national level planning and implementation of the campaign. There were 9 data collection forms but only forms 1-7 were to be uploaded onto the app. Forms 8A and 9A were to be filled but were to remain at the implementation level for use intra campaign. The forms were coded; Form 1A&B, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 8A and 9A The Village form (form 1A&B) captured information by household which included village names, name of head of household, cell phone contact of head of household, number of children aged 9 months to 14years in the household, possible barriers to reaching the children, appropriate vaccination strategy based on barriers identified and estimated or proposed number of teams and type. This was the main form and from this every other form picked the population figures to estimate other supplies and logistics. On advocacy, communication and social mobilization the information collected included mobile network coverage, public amenities such as churches, mosques and key partners at

  10. Killing Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  11. The Value of History, Physical Examination, and Radiographic Findings in the Diagnosis of Symptomatic Meniscal Tear among Middle-Age Subjects with Knee Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeffrey N.; Smith, Savannah R.; Yang, Heidi Y.; Martin, Scott D.; Wright, John; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A.; Losina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of clinical history, radiographic and physical exam findings in the diagnosis of symptomatic meniscal tear (SMT) in patients over age 45, in whom concomitant osteoarthritis is prevalent. Methods In a cross-sectional study of patients from two orthopedic surgeons’ clinics we assessed clinical history, physical examination and radiographic findings in patients over 45 with knee pain. The orthopedic surgeons rated their confidence that subjects’ symptoms were due to MT; we defined the diagnosis of SMT as at least 70% confidence. We used logistic regression to identify factors independently associated with diagnosis of SMT and we used the regression results to construct an index of the likelihood of SMT. Results In 174 participants, six findings were associated independently with the expert clinician having ≥70% confidence that symptoms were due to MT: localized pain, ability to fully bend the knee, pain duration <1 year, lack of varus alignment, lack of pes planus, and absence of joint space narrowing on radiographs. The index identified a low risk group with 3% likelihood of SMT. Conclusion While clinicians traditionally rely upon mechanical symptoms in this diagnostic setting, our findings did not support the conclusion that mechanical symptoms were associated with the expert’s confidence that symptoms were due to MT. An index that includes history of localized pain, full flexion, duration <1 year, pes planus, varus alignment, and joint space narrowing can be used to stratify patients according to their risk of SMT and it identifies a subgroup with very low risk. PMID:27390312

  12. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQoL-Bref), Psychache Scale (PAS) instruments were administered on subjects that consented to the study. Results: One hundred and forty four (144) subjects of equal sex distribution were studied. The mean age was 31.7±10.2 years. The highest number of subjects, ...

  13. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, M.; Salmaso, D.; Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A.; Jacobsson, H.; Waegner, A.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, M. [Inst. of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine, CNR, Rome (Italy); Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, D. [Inst. of Psychology, CNR, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Waegner, A. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  15. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  16. 123I-5-I-R91150, a new single-photon emission tomography ligand for 5-HT2A receptors: influence of age and gender in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeken, C.; D'haenen, H.; Flamen, P.; Bossuyt, A.; Mertens, J.; Terriere, D.; Chavatte, K.; Boumon, R.

    1998-01-01

    5-HT 2A receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and in the therapeutic effect of the so-called atypical antipsychotics. Recently, a new radioiodinated ligand with high affinity and selectivity for serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors, 123 iodinated 4-amino-N-1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl] 5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide ( 123 I-5-I-R91150), has been developed and has been shown to be suitable for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. In this study the influence of age and gender on the ligand binding was investigated in normal volunteers. One hundred and fifty MBq of 123 I-5-I-R91150 was administered to 26 normal volunteers (13 females and 13 males) with an age range of 23-60 years. SPET imaging was performed with a triple-headed gamma camera. For semi-quantitative analysis, ratios of ligand binding in different regions of interest to the binding in the cerebellum were calculated. Mean ratios of 1.7 were obtained. No gender difference was demonstrated. 5-HT 2A binding was shown to decline with age. Over an age range of 40 years a reduction in ligand binding of 42%±7% was found. These results are in agreement with in vitro and positron emission tomography findings of a decline in 5-HT 2A receptor binding with age. The findings confirm the suitability of 123 I-5-I-R91150 for SPET imaging of 5-HT 2A receptors, and highlight the necessity for age-matched controls in clinical studies. (orig.)

  17. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  18. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Sleep Continuity and Slow Wave Sleep as Predictors of Cognition, Mood, and Subjective Sleep Quality in Healthy Men and Women, Aged 20–84 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro della Monica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its sub-states are assumed to be important for brain function across the lifespan but which aspects of sleep associate with various aspects of cognition, mood and self-reported sleep quality has not yet been established in detail. Sleep was quantified by polysomnography, quantitative Electroencephalogram (EEG analysis and self-report in 206 healthy men and women, aged 20–84 years, without sleep complaints. Waking brain function was quantified by five assessments scheduled across the day covering objectively assessed performance across cognitive domains including sustained attention and arousal, decision and response time, motor and sequence control, working memory, and executive function as well as self-reports of alertness, mood and affect. Controlled for age and sex, self-reported sleep quality was negatively associated with number of awakenings and positively associated with the duration of Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep, but no significant associations with Slow Wave Sleep (SWS measures were observed. Controlling only for age showed that associations between objective and subjective sleep quality were much stronger in women than in men. Analysis of 51 performance measures demonstrated that, after controlling for age and sex, fewer awakenings and more REM sleep were associated significantly with better performance on the Goal Neglect task, which is a test of executive function. Factor analysis of the individual performance measures identified four latent variables labeled Mood/Arousal, Response Time, Accuracy, and Visual Perceptual Sensitivity. Whereas Mood/Arousal improved with age, Response Times became slower, while Accuracy and Visual perceptual sensitivity showed little change with age. After controlling for sex and age, nominally significant association between sleep and factor scores were observed such that Response Times were faster with more SWS, and Accuracy was reduced where individuals woke more often or had less REM

  19. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... African Research Review (AFRREV) is a Peer Reviewed .... the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research ... The Egyptian Journal of Natural History is now closed to all new submissions

  20. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... It also publishes topical reviews on science and technology in development, arts, humanities and culture. .... construction or performance evaluation of technological systems. ... Such works either demonstrate a significant new discovery or other ... Rwanda Journal, Series H: Economics and Management.

  1. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... The Journal of Science and Technology (JUST) aims principally at publishing articles ... basic sciences, public health, social medicine and medical politics. .... The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad ...

  2. Evaluation of {sup 123}I-orthoiodohippurate single kidney clearance rate by renal sequential scintigraphy in a large cohort of likely normal subjects aged between 0 and 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperiale, Alessio; Olianti, Catia; Comis, Giannetto; Cava, Giuseppe la [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Pathophysiology, Florence (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Age-related values of{sup 123}I-orthoiodohippurate (OIH) single kidney clearance rate (Cl) were estimated in a large cohort of likely normal children aged between 0 and 18 years. Among 4,111 children examined in the past 10 years, 917 were selected with the following inclusion criteria: (a) mild ultrasonographic hydronephrosis with right differential renal function (DRF) <53% and >47% (498 pts), (b) known or suspected urinary tract infection with normal ultrasound, serum creatinine and DMSA and DRF <53% and >47% (419 pts).{sup 123}I-OIH-Cl was assessed using a validated gamma camera method. Children were divided into 21 age classes: from 0 to 2 years, eight 3-month classes; from 2 to 14 years, twelve 1-year classes; from 14 to 18 years, one 4-year class. Cl, plotted against age, was fitted using an increasing function (y = a - be - cx). Mean{sup 123}I-OIH-Cl of 1,834 kidneys was 306{+-}22 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} BSA. Mean{sup 123}I-OIH-Cl of the right and left kidneys was 307{+-}23 and 305{+-}22 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} BSA, respectively (p<0.002). The best-fitting{sup 123}I-OIH-Cl growing function was: Cl=311-230e-0.69 x Age (months).{sup 123}I-OIH-Cl improved progressively starting from birth, reaching 96% and 98% of the mature value at 1 and 1.5 years, respectively.{sup 123}I-OIH-Cl at birth (age=0) was 81 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} BSA. After 18.6 days of life, the renal function had doubled its starting value, and it reached a plateau of 311 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} BSA at 2 years. This work represents a systematic evaluation of ERPF by a gamma camera method in a large cohort of selected likely normal paediatric subjects. (orig.)

  3. The Agreement between the MMSE and IQCODE Tests in a Community-Based Sample of Subjects Aged 70 Years or Older Receiving In-Home Nursing: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kirkevold

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It was the aim of this study to compare the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE with the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE and to explore the characteristics of subjects with possible dementia with only one of the two tools. Methods: We used a random sample of patients aged 70+ receiving social service or in-home nursing. The patients were tested with the MMSE, and the next of kin was interviewed using the following: the IQCODE, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, personal ADL (PADL and the General Medical Health Rating (GMHR. Results: Subjects with dementia defined only according to the MMSE showed a pattern of scores on IADL, PADL, CSDD, NPI-10 and GMHR similar to the no-dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE. Those with dementia defined only according to the IQCODE showed a pattern of scores similar to the possible dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE.

  4. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  5. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  6. Subjective method of refractometry and depth of focus

    OpenAIRE

    Sergienko, Nikolai M.; Gromova, Anastasia; Sergienko, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of the depth of focus on subjective refraction and distribution of myopic and hyperopic refractions. Methods: A total of 450 eyes of 305 subjects in the age range of 23–34 years were recruited for the study. A distribution of refractions was examined using a traditional method of the subjective refractometry on the basis of point-like posterior focus notion. Correction of the results was made on the assumption that the emmetropic eye retains high visual acuity ...

  7. Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Raffaele, Angelo; Pistacchio, Luana; Righetti, Roberta; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that flavanol consumption may have many health benefits in humans, including improved cognitive activities. The aim was to evaluate the effect of flavanol consumption on cognitive performance in cognitively intact elderly subjects. This was a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study conducted in 90 elderly individuals without clinical evidence of cognitive dysfunction who were randomly assigned to consume daily for 8 wk a drink containing 993 mg [high flavanol (HF)], 520 mg [intermediate flavanol (IF)], or 48 mg [low flavanol (LF)] cocoa flavanols (CFs). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 8 wk by using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). The changes in MMSE score in response to the 3 different treatments were not different. In contrast, there was a positive impact of the intervention on specific aspects of cognitive function. Mean changes (±SEs) in the time required to complete the TMT A and B after consumption of the HF (-8.6 ± 0.4 and -16.5 ± 0.8 s, respectively) and IF (-6.7 ± 0.5 and -14.2 ± 0.5 s, respectively) drinks significantly (P consumption of the LF drinks (-0.8 ± 1.6 and -1.1 ± 0.7 s, respectively). Similarly, VFT scores significantly improved among all treatment groups, but the magnitude of improvement in the VFT score was significantly (P consumption can reduce some measures of age-related cognitive dysfunction, possibly through an improvement in insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that the habitual intake of flavanols can support healthy cognitive function with age. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Richardt, Gert; Potratz, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Circadian Profile of Heart Rate Variability. INTRODUCTION: Although heart rate variability (HRV) has been established as a tool to study cardiac autonomic activity, almost no data are available on the circadian patterns of HRV in healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years. METHODS AND RESULTS...... higher in men. Younger men also exhibited significantly higher values...... parasympathetic activity. The significant gender-related difference of HRV decreases with aging. These findings emphasize the need to determine age-, gender-, and nycthemeral-dependent normal ranges for HRV assessment....

  9. The effect of high dilutions of Pulsatilla nigricans on the vigour of soybean seeds subjected to accelerated aging=O efeito de altas diluições de Pulsatilla nigricans no vigor de sementes de soja submetidas ao envelhecimento acelerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Reis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high dilutions of Pulsatilla nigricans in dinamisations 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 CH on the vigour of soybean seeds subjected to accelerated aging. The experiment was conducted according to a randomised design with 6 treatments and 10 replicates. The treatments consisted of dinamisations 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 CH and a distilled-water control. After the treatments, the seeds were subjected to accelerated aging (48h at 42ºC in a growth chamber (25 ± 2ºC. The study evaluated the germination, the length of primary roots and shoots, the fresh weight of roots and shoots and the enzymatic activity of peroxidase (POX-EC1.11.1.7. The variables were analysed by ANOVA, and the means were compared using the Scott-Knott test (p = 0.05. The germination and the fresh weight of roots and shoots of the seedlings treated with Pulsatilla nigricans were higher than the water control, except that CH 30 did not significantly increase the fresh weight of shoots. The dinamisations 6, 24 and 30 CH produced a lower primary root length compared with the control. The dinamisations 12, 18 and 30 CH yielded a greater length of shoots. The total length of seedlings was reduced by the high dilutions 6 and 24 CH.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi de avaliar o efeito de altas diluições de Pulsatilla nigricans nas dinamizações 6, 12, 18, 24 e 30 CH, no vigor de sementes de soja submetidas ao envelhecimento acelerado. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 6 tratamentos e 10 repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos das dinamizações 6, 12, 18, 24 e 30 CH e testemunha com água destilada. Após aplicação dos tratamentos, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste de envelhecimento acelerado (48h a 42ºC, em câmara de crescimento (25 ± 2ºC. Avaliou-se a germinação, o comprimento da raiz primária e da parte aérea, massa fresca da raiz e da parte aérea e atividade enzimática da

  10. Assessment of emerging biomarkers of liver injury in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Shelli; Warner, Roscoe; Bock, Jeff; Johnson, Kent; Potter, David; Van Winkle, Joyce; Aubrecht, Jiri

    2013-04-01

    Hepatotoxicity remains a major challenge in drug development. Although alanine aminotransferase (ALT) remains the gold standard biomarker of liver injury, alternative biomarker strategies to better predict the potential for severe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are essential. In this study, we evaluated the utility of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and paraxonase 1 (PON1) as indicators of liver injury in cohorts of human subjects, including healthy subjects across age and gender, subjects with a variety of liver impairments, and several cases of acetaminophen poisoning. In the healthy subjects, levels of GLDH and MDH were not affected by age or gender. Reference ranges for GLDH and MDH in healthy subjects were 1-10 and 79-176U/L, respectively. In contrast, the levels of PON1 and PNP were not consistent across cohorts of healthy subjects. Furthermore, GLDH and MDH had a strong correlation with elevated ALT levels and possessed a high predictive power for liver injury, as determined by ROC analysis. In contrast, PON1 and PNP did not detect liver injury in our study. Finally, evaluation of patients with acetaminophen-induced liver injury provided evidence that both GLDH and MDH might have utility as biomarkers of DILI in humans. This study is the first to evaluate GLDH, MDH, PON1, and PNP in a large number of human subjects and, and it provides an impetus for prospective clinical studies to fully evaluate the diagnostic value of GLDH and MDH for detection of liver injury.

  11. Normal range of gastric emptying in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Collins, C.; Francis, L.; Henry, R.; O'Loughlin, E.; John Hunter Children's Hospital, Newcastle, NSW

    1999-01-01

    Full text: As part of a larger study looking at gastric emptying times in cystic fibrosis, we assessed the normal range of gastric emptying in a control group of children. Thirteen children (8 girls, 5 boys) aged 4-15 years (mean 10) were studied. Excluded were children with a history of relevant gastrointestinal medical or surgical disease, egg allergy or medication affecting gastric emptying. Imaging was performed at 08.00 h after an overnight fast. The test meal was consumed in under 15 min and comprised one 50 g egg, 80 g commercial pancake mix, 10 ml of polyunsaturated oil, 40 ml of water and 30 g of jam. The meal was labelled with 99 Tc m -macroaggregates of albumin. Water (150 ml) was also consumed with the test meal. One minute images of 128 x 128 were acquired over the anterior and posterior projections every 5 min for 30 min, then every 15 min until 90 min with a final image at 120 min. Subjects remained supine for the first 60 min, after which they were allowed to walk around. A time-activity curve was generated using the geometric mean of anterior and posterior activity. The half emptying time ranged from 55 to 107 min (mean 79, ± 2 standard deviations 43-115). Lag time (time for 5% to leave stomach) ranged from 2 to 26 min (mean 10). The percent emptied at 60 min ranged from 47 to 73% (mean 63%). There was no correlation of half emptying time with age. The normal reference range for a test meal of pancakes has been established for 13 normal children

  12. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  13. Aging in complex interdependency networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Dervis C; Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L

    2014-02-01

    Although species longevity is subject to a diverse range of evolutionary forces, the mortality curves of a wide variety of organisms are rather similar. Here we argue that qualitative and quantitative features of aging can be reproduced by a simple model based on the interdependence of fault-prone agents on one other. In addition to fitting our theory to the empiric mortality curves of six very different organisms, we establish the dependence of lifetime and aging rate on initial conditions, damage and repair rate, and system size. We compare the size distributions of disease and death and see that they have qualitatively different properties. We show that aging patterns are independent of the details of interdependence network structure, which suggests that aging is a many-body effect, and that the qualitative and quantitative features of aging are not sensitively dependent on the details of dependency structure or its formation.

  14. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  15. Sonographic evaluation of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, N; Kichouh, M; Boulet, C; Machiels, F; De Mey, J; De Maeseneer, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the appearance of the plantar fascia in asymptomatic subjects. Thirty-one asymptomatic subjects were examined by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists. The plantar fascia was evaluated for thickness, echogenicity, vascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, andcalcifications. The study included 14 men and 17 women (age, 17-79 years; mean, 45 years). The mean thickness of the plantar fascia in men was 3.7 mm (range 2.5-7 mm), and in women 3.5 mm (range, 1.7-5.1 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 4 men (bilateral in 2). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in men was 5.4 mm (range, 4.3-7 mm). The thickness was greater than 4 mm in 5 women ( bilateral in 4). The mean thickness of fascias thicker than 4 mm in women was 4.7 mm (range, 4.2-5.1 mm). There was no statistically significant difference between men and women and between both heels. Hypoechogenicity was observed in 3 men (bilateral in 2), and in 5 women (bilateral in 6). Hypervascularity, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications were not observed. A thickness greater than 4 mm and hypoechogenicity, are common in the plantar fascia of asymptomatic subjects. Findings that were not seen in asymptomatic subjects include a thickness greater than 7 mm, hypervascularity on power Doppler, rupture, fluid adjacent to the fascia, and calcifications.

  16. Normal lactate concentration range in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Aida, Noriko; Shibasaki, Jun; Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Endo, Mamiko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Lactate peaks are occasionally observed during in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans of the neonatal brain, even in healthy patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of neonatal brain lactate concentration, as a definitive normal range would be clinically valuable. Using a clinical 3T scanner (echo/repetition times, 30/5000ms), single-voxel MRS data were obtained from the basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) in 48 healthy neonates (postconceptional age (PCA), 30-43weeks), nine infants (age, 1-12months old), and 20 children (age, 4-15years). Lactate concentrations were calculated using an MRS signal quantification program, LCModel. Correlations between regional lactate concentration and PCA (neonates), or age (all subjects) were investigated. Absolute lactate concentrations of the BG and CS were as follows: neonates, 0.77mM (0-2.02) [median (range)] and 0.77 (0-1.42), respectively; infants, 0.38 (0-0.79) and 0.49 (0.17-1.17); and children, 0.17 (0-0.76) and 0.22 (0-0.80). Overall, subjects' lactate concentrations decreased significantly with age (Spearman: BG, n=61, ρ=-0.38, p=0.003; CS, n=68, ρ=-0.57, p<0.001). However, during the neonatal period no correlations were detected between lactate concentration in either region and PCA. We determined normal ranges of neonatal lactate concentration, which may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Further studies regarding changes in brain lactate concentration during development would help clarify the reasons for higher concentrations observed during the neonatal period, and contribute to improvements in diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  18. Ranging behavior relates to welfare indicators pre- and post-range access in commercial free-range broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of accessing an outdoor range on chicken welfare. We tracked individual ranging behavior of 538 mixed-sex Ross 308 chickens on a commercial farm across 4 flocks in winter and summer. Before range access, at 17 to 19 d of age, and post-range access, at 30 to 33 and 42 to 46 d of age in winter and summer flocks respectively, welfare indicators were measured on chickens (pre-range: winter N = 292; summer N = 280; post-range: winter N = 131; summer N = 140), including weight, gait score, dermatitis and plumage condition. Post-ranging autopsies were performed (winter: N = 170; summer: N = 60) to assess breast burn, leg health, and ascites. Fewer chickens accessed the range in winter flocks (32.5%) than summer flocks (82.1%). Few relationships between welfare and ranging were identified in winter, likely due to minimal rangin