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Sample records for subjective vertical perception

  1. Subjective visual vertical perception and sense of smell in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Docherty, Sharon; Bagust, Jeff; Willington, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Amar, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an open cross-sectional observational study involving 47 participants with Parkinson disease (PD) and 47 (age- and sex-matched) nondisabled controls without PD. The aim was to determine the profiles of subjective visual vertical (SVV) perception and sense of smell perception in both groups. There was a statistically significant difference (p smell test performance. Controls were more likely to correctly identify odors, with a median score of 10 out of 12 compared with 6.5 out of 12 for patients with PD. The median SVV error for the PD group when the frame was untilted was 0.75 degrees compared with 0.50 degrees for controls. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02). When the frame was tilted, the median SVV error for the PD group was 2.31 degrees compared with 2.00 degrees for controls (not statistically significant), with both groups showing similar distribution pattern of errors. There was no statistical correlation between number of correctly identified odors and an individual's SVV error. However, a statistically significant negative correlation (r = -0.45, p = 0.01) was found between Mini-Mental State Examination score and mean time taken to complete each rod and frame test in patients with PD, suggesting that SVV errors might be more correlated with cognitive function than with loss of sense of smell.

  2. High variability of the subjective visual vertical test of vertical perception, in some people with neck pain - Should this be a standard measure of cervical proprioception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleaven, Julia; Takasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Subjective visual vertical (SVV) assesses visual dependence for spacial orientation, via vertical perception testing. Using the computerized rod-and-frame test (CRFT), SVV is thought to be an important measure of cervical proprioception and might be greater in those with whiplash associated disorder (WAD), but to date research findings are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the most sensitive SVV error measurement to detect group differences between no neck pain control, idiopathic neck pain (INP) and WAD subjects. Cross sectional study. Neck Disability Index (NDI), Dizziness Handicap Inventory short form (DHIsf) and the average constant error (CE), absolute error (AE), root mean square error (RMSE), and variable error (VE) of the SVV were obtained from 142 subjects (48 asymptomatic, 36 INP, 42 WAD). The INP group had significantly (p proprioception in neck pain and more research is required before the SVV can be considered an important measure and utilized clinically. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors affecting perception thresholds of vertical whole-body vibration in recumbent subjects: Gender and age of subjects, and vibration duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Maeda, S.; Iwane, Y.; Iwata, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Some factors that may affect human perception thresholds of the vertical whole-body vibrations were investigated in two laboratory experiments with recumbent subjects. In the first experiment, the effects of gender and age of subjects on perception were investigated with three groups of 12 subjects, i.e., young males, young females and old males. For continuous sinusoidal vibrations at 2, 4, 8, 16, 31.5 and 63 Hz, there were no significant differences in the perception thresholds between male and female subjects, while the thresholds of young subjects tended to be significantly lower than the thresholds of old subjects. In the second experiment, the effect of vibration duration was investigated by using sinusoidal vibrations, at the same frequencies as above, modulated by the Hanning windows with different lengths (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 s) for 12 subjects. It was found that the peak acceleration at the threshold tended to decrease with increasing duration of vibration. The perception thresholds were also evaluated by the running root-mean-square (rms) acceleration and the fourth power acceleration method defined in the current standards. The differences in the threshold of the transient vibrations for different durations were less with the fourth power acceleration method. Additionally, the effect of the integration time on the threshold was investigated for the running rms acceleration and the fourth power acceleration. It was found that the integration time that yielded less differences in the threshold of vibrations for different durations depended on the frequency of vibration.

  4. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  5. Effect of Postural Control Demands on Early Visual Evoked Potentials during a Subjective Visual Vertical Perception Task in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tzu; Meng, Ling-Fu; Chang, Chun-Ju; Lai, Po-Liang; Lung, Chi-Wen; Chern, Jen-Suh

    2017-01-01

    Subjective visual vertical (SVV) judgment and standing stability were separately investigated among patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Although, one study has investigated the central mechanism of stability control in the AIS population, the relationships between SVV, decreased standing stability, and AIS have never been investigated. Through event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study examined the effect of postural control demands (PDs) on AIS central mechanisms related to SVV judgment and standing stability to elucidate the time-serial stability control process. Thirteen AIS subjects (AIS group) and 13 age-matched adolescents (control group) aged 12-18 years were recruited. Each subject had to complete an SVV task (i.e., the modified rod-and-frame [mRAF] test) as a stimulus, with online electroencephalogram recording being performed in the following three standing postures: feet shoulder-width apart standing, feet together standing, and tandem standing. The behavioral performance in terms of postural stability (center of pressure excursion), SVV (accuracy and reaction time), and mRAF-locked ERPs (mean amplitude and peak latency of the P1, N1, and P2 components) was then compared between the AIS and control groups. In the behavioral domain, the results revealed that only the AIS group demonstrated a significantly accelerated SVV reaction time as the PDs increased. In the cerebral domain, significantly larger P2 mean amplitudes were observed during both feet shoulder-width-apart standing and feet together standing postures compared with during tandem standing. No group differences were noted in the cerebral domain. The results indicated that (1) during the dual-task paradigm, a differential behavioral strategy of accelerated SVV reaction time was observed in the AIS group only when the PDs increased and (2) the decrease in P2 mean amplitudes with the increase in the PD levels might be direct evidence of the competition for central

  6. Effect of Postural Control Demands on Early Visual Evoked Potentials during a Subjective Visual Vertical Perception Task in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tzu Chang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Subjective visual vertical (SVV judgment and standing stability were separately investigated among patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Although, one study has investigated the central mechanism of stability control in the AIS population, the relationships between SVV, decreased standing stability, and AIS have never been investigated. Through event-related potentials (ERPs, the present study examined the effect of postural control demands (PDs on AIS central mechanisms related to SVV judgment and standing stability to elucidate the time-serial stability control process. Thirteen AIS subjects (AIS group and 13 age-matched adolescents (control group aged 12–18 years were recruited. Each subject had to complete an SVV task (i.e., the modified rod-and-frame [mRAF] test as a stimulus, with online electroencephalogram recording being performed in the following three standing postures: feet shoulder-width apart standing, feet together standing, and tandem standing. The behavioral performance in terms of postural stability (center of pressure excursion, SVV (accuracy and reaction time, and mRAF-locked ERPs (mean amplitude and peak latency of the P1, N1, and P2 components was then compared between the AIS and control groups. In the behavioral domain, the results revealed that only the AIS group demonstrated a significantly accelerated SVV reaction time as the PDs increased. In the cerebral domain, significantly larger P2 mean amplitudes were observed during both feet shoulder-width-apart standing and feet together standing postures compared with during tandem standing. No group differences were noted in the cerebral domain. The results indicated that (1 during the dual-task paradigm, a differential behavioral strategy of accelerated SVV reaction time was observed in the AIS group only when the PDs increased and (2 the decrease in P2 mean amplitudes with the increase in the PD levels might be direct evidence of the competition for

  7. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  8. Perception of the dynamic visual vertical during sinusoidal linear motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomante, A; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system provides information for spatial orientation. However, this information is ambiguous: because the otoliths sense the gravitoinertial force, they cannot distinguish gravitational and inertial components. As a consequence, prolonged linear acceleration of the head can be interpreted as tilt, referred to as the somatogravic effect. Previous modeling work suggests that the brain disambiguates the otolith signal according to the rules of Bayesian inference, combining noisy canal cues with the a priori assumption that prolonged linear accelerations are unlikely. Within this modeling framework the noise of the vestibular signals affects the dynamic characteristics of the tilt percept during linear whole-body motion. To test this prediction, we devised a novel paradigm to psychometrically characterize the dynamic visual vertical-as a proxy for the tilt percept-during passive sinusoidal linear motion along the interaural axis (0.33 Hz motion frequency, 1.75 m/s2 peak acceleration, 80 cm displacement). While subjects (n=10) kept fixation on a central body-fixed light, a line was briefly flashed (5 ms) at different phases of the motion, the orientation of which had to be judged relative to gravity. Consistent with the model's prediction, subjects showed a phase-dependent modulation of the dynamic visual vertical, with a subject-specific phase shift with respect to the imposed acceleration signal. The magnitude of this modulation was smaller than predicted, suggesting a contribution of nonvestibular signals to the dynamic visual vertical. Despite their dampening effect, our findings may point to a link between the noise components in the vestibular system and the characteristics of dynamic visual vertical.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A fundamental question in neuroscience is how the brain processes vestibular signals to infer the orientation of the body and objects in space. We show that, under sinusoidal linear motion, systematic error patterns appear in the

  9. The Perception of Subjective Surfaces,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    car- toons. text, and other "unnatural" images, figure perception draws heavily tupon the resources of natural perception. So far as early visual...teitl to stw !-eCt that inter-poL;itioiu o link, (li-J" imc- i10 mo dtimltiots v, not coin- piiiatm1oul1 \\Sound. 1 to t0i0. t111 i~tC (of stt 1 e1tLMC

  10. Subjective visual vertical after treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

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    Ferreira, Maristela Mian; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. We evaluated 20 patients. The estimated position where a fluorescent line within a bucket reached the vertical position was measured before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Before repositioning maneuver, 9 patients (45.0%) had absolute values of the subjective visual vertical above the reference standard and 2 (10.0%) after the maneuver; the mean of the absolute values of the vertical deviation was significantly lower after the intervention (pbenign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Uplift Capacity of Inclined Underreamed Piles Subjected to Vertical Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Akilur; Sengupta, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Inclined (batter) piles are used to support such structures, and to carry the horizontal and vertical loads resulted from the overturning moments. Though studies have been done with inclined piles having no underream bulb, little information is available in the literature about estimating the uplift capacity of inclined underreamed piles. In the present study laboratory experiments have been done with vertically loaded model piles having no underream as well as with one and two underreams. The piles were positioned at angle of inclination of θ = 0°, 10°, 20°, 30° (with vertical); and placed in locally available sand under vertical uplift load. Three different pile stem diameters (D = 20, 25, and 35 mm) were used. The corresponding pile length to stem diameter (l/D) ratio were 18, 14, and 10 respectively. Experiments had been conducted with two relative different densities (45 and 70%) of sand. The failure uplift loads were obtained in each case. It had been found that for inclined piles increase in number of underream bulbs from 0 to 2 was quite effective in resisting uplift loads corresponding to piles having l/D equals to 10. The percentage decreases in uplift capacity corresponding to increase in inclination angle were more pronounced for piles with double underreams.

  12. [Chin morphology in subjects with different vertical skeletal craniofacial pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pei-Zeng; Wu, Wei

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate whether there is difference with regard to chin morphology in subjects with different vertical skeletal craniofacial pattern and the relationship among them. The sample was composed of 80 adolescents who denied orthodontic treatment history and presented Class I skeletal pattern, aged (12.69+/-0.70) years. They were divided into three groups according to mandibular plane angle: High angle group (21 cases, FH/MP> or = 32 degrees), average angle group(43 cases, 22 degrees pattern were evaluated. In addition, chin dimensions studied included height, depth, ratio (depth/height), angle, and so on. They were compared between different groups with One-Way ANOVA. Correlation was analyzed between vertical skeletal craniofacial pattern and chin morphology. SNA, SNB and ANB presented no significant difference among three groups. Compared with the low angle group, high angle subjects exhibited increased chin height, depth/height ratio, concavity and decreased chin angle. Therefore the chin looked lathier and less protrusive in high angle group. Positive correlation was found between mandibular plane angle and chin height, concavity, curvature (Pskeletal pattern, which deserves to be taken into consideration in orthodontic treatment planning.

  13. From Perception to Subject: The Bergsonian Reversal

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    Messay Kebede

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In lieu of an abstract, here is the opening paragraph to the essay:What singles out philosophical analyses of perception is the challenge to common sense, that is, to the spontaneous, instinctive belief that an external world exists and that it is similar to the perception we have of it. Even those theories that refrain from questioning the independent existence of the world concede that the resemblance of whatever is out there to the perceived reality is anything but assured. Henri Bergson proposes a theory of perception that not only restores the common belief in the existence of an external world, but also goes a long way in narrowing the alleged disparity between perception and the objective world. With few exceptions, Bergson’s theory of perception has been either ignored or misunderstood. Through a close reading of the first chapter of Matter and Memory, the paper argues, in addition to correcting misreadings, that the strength and originality of Bergson’s theory lie in the reversal of the method of explaining perception from the premise of a given subject, a premise shared by all idealist and realist theories as well as phenomenology. This de-subjectification proposes an approach deriving perception from the interactions of objects while countering the materialist theory of the brain as an organ of representation. The paper contends that the Bergsonian elucidation of the brain as an organ of simulation both anticipates the findings of the sensorimotor theory and overcomes its limitation by showing how simulation inserts indetermination into materiality, thereby actualizing consciousness.

  14. Precision and accuracy of the subjective haptic vertical in the roll plane

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    Bockisch Christopher J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When roll-tilted, the subjective visual vertical (SVV deviates up to 40° from earth-vertical and trial-to-trial variability increases with head roll. Imperfections in the central processing of visual information were postulated to explain these roll-angle dependent errors. For experimental conditions devoid of visual input, e.g. adjustments of body posture or of an object along vertical in darkness, significantly smaller errors were noted. Whereas the accuracy of verticality adjustments seems to depend strongly on the paradigm, we hypothesize that the precision, i.e. the inverse of trial-to-trial variability, is less influenced by the experimental setup and mainly reflects properties of the otoliths. Here we measured the subjective haptic vertical (SHV and compared findings with previously reported SVV data. Twelve healthy right-handed human subjects (handedness assessed based on subjects' verbal report adjusted a rod with the right hand along perceived earth-vertical during static head roll-tilts (0-360°, steps of 20°. Results SHV adjustments showed a tendency for clockwise rod rotations to deviate counter-clockwise and for counter-clockwise rod rotations to deviate clockwise, indicating hysteresis. Clockwise rod rotations resulted in counter-clockwise shifts of perceived earth-vertical up to -11.7° and an average counter-clockwise SHV shift over all roll angles of -3.3° (± 11.0°; ± 1 StdDev. Counter-clockwise rod rotations yielded peak SHV deviations in clockwise direction of 8.9° and an average clockwise SHV shift over all roll angles of 1.8° (± 11.1°. Trial-to-trial variability was minimal in upright position, increased with increasing roll (peaking around 120-140° and decreased to intermediate values in upside-down orientation. Compared to SVV, SHV variability near upright and upside-down was non-significantly (p > 0.05 larger; both showed an m-shaped pattern of variability as a function of roll position

  15. Software para avaliação da subjetiva vertical visual: um estudo transversal observacional Software for subjective visual vertical assessment: an observational cross-sectional study

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    Theo Zeferino Pavan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A orientação espacial em relação ao eixo gravitacional é de suma importância para a manu tenção da postura, marcha e para a maioria das atividades motoras realizadas pelo ser humano. A subjetiva vertical visual é um exame que avalia a percepção individual de verticalidade. OBJETIVOS: Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (1 desenvolver um sistema virtual para avaliar a subjetiva vertical visual, (2 produzir uma ferramenta simples para a prática clínica e (3 medir os valores da subjetiva vertical visual em indivíduos saudáveis usando a nova ferramenta. Forma de estudo: estudo obser vacional transversal. MÉTODO: Trinta voluntários saudáveis realizaram a subjetiva vertical visual em ambas as condições, estática e dinâmica. O exame consistia em ajustar uma linha virtual na posição vertical usando o mouse do computador. Na condição estática, a linha virtual foi projetada em uma tela branca. Na condição dinâmica, círculos pretos giravam no sentido horário e anti-horário. Seis medidas foram feitas e o desvio médio em relação a vertical real, calculado. RESULTADOS: Os desvios médios da subjetiva vertical visual foram: estática -0,372º ± 1,21; dinâmica sentido horário 1,53º ± 1,80 e dinâmica sentido anti-horário -1,11º ± 2,46. CONCLUSÃO: Este software mostrou ser prático e preciso para ser inserido na rotina de exames clínicos.Spatial orientation in relation to the gravitational axis is significantly important for the maintenance of the posture, gait and for most of the human's motor activities. The subjective visual vertical exam evaluates the individual's perception of vertical orientation. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1 to develop a virtual system to evaluate the subjective visual vertical exam, (2 to provide a simple tool to clinical practice and (3 to assess the subjective visual vertical values of healthy subjects using the new software. Study Design: observational cross-sectional study

  16. Stimulation from Cochlear Implant Electrodes Assists with Recovery from Asymmetric Perceptual Tilt: Evidence from the Subjective Visual Vertical Test

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    Joshua J. Gnanasegaram

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular end organ impairment is highly prevalent in children who have sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL rehabilitated with cochlear implants (CIs. As a result, spatial perception is likely to be impacted in this population. Of particular interest is the perception of visual vertical because it reflects a perceptual tilt in the roll axis and is sensitive to an imbalance in otolith function. The objectives of the present study were thus to identify abnormalities in perception of the vertical plane in children with SNHL and determine whether such abnormalities could be resolved with stimulation from the CI. Participants included 53 children (15.2±4.0 years of age with SNHL and vestibular loss, confirmed with vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing. Testing protocol was validated in a sample of 9 young adults with normal hearing (28.8±7.7 years. Perception of visual vertical was assessed using the static Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV test performed with and without stimulation in the participants with cochleovestibular loss. Trains of electrical pulses were delivered by an electrode in the left and/or right ear. Asymmetric spatial orientation deficits were found in nearly half of the participants with CIs (24/53 [45%]. The abnormal perception in this cohort was exacerbated by visual tilts in the direction of their deficit. Electric pulse trains delivered using the CI shifted this abnormal perception towards centre (i.e., normal [p = 0.007]. Importantly, this benefit was realized regardless of which ear was stimulated. These results suggest a role for CI stimulation beyond the auditory system, in particular, for improving vestibular/balance function.

  17. Subjective visual vertical with the bucket method in Brazilian healthy individuals.

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    Ferreira, Maristela Mian; Cunha, Fabiana; Ganança, Cristina Freitas; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of a healthy individual to estimate the true vertical in relation to the Earth when a fluorescent line is aligned in a completely dark room is called the subjective visual vertical. To evaluate subjective visual vertical using the bucket method in healthy Brazilian individuals. Binocular subjective visual vertical was measured in 100 healthy volunteers, 50 females and 50 males. The volunteers indicated the estimated position in which a fluorescent line inside a bucket reached the vertical position. A total of ten repetitions were performed, five clockwise and five counterclockwise. Data were tabulated and analyzed statistically. It was observed that the highest concentration of absolute values of vertical deviation was present up to 3°, regardless of gender, and the vertical deviation did not increase with age. The analysis of the mean of the absolute values of deviations from the vertical of 90% of the sample showed a maximum value of 2.6°, and at the analysis of 95%, the maximum value was 3.4° deviation from the vertical. The bucket method is easy to perform and interpret when assessing the deviation of the subjective visual vertical in relation to the true vertical in healthy Brazilian individuals. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling motion sickness and subjective vertical mismatch detailed for vertical motions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. E.; van der Bles, W.

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to predict the amount of motion sickness given any kind of motion stimulus, we describe a model using explicit knowledge of the vestibular system. First, the generally accepted conflict theory is restated in terms of a conflict between a vertical as perceived by the sense organs like

  19. Material Resources Availability, Parent Subject Perception and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2348136196731; +2348051303915. E-mail: dryemioyekanmi@gmail.com ... perception and students' students' achievement (r=.244); and positive significant .... consider career for their children based on the job prospect and how the course is ranked.

  20. Developmental study identifies the ages at which the processes involved in the perception of verticality and in postural stability occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Margherita; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the role played by visual information on the development of verticality and postural stability in healthy children. The study comprised 66 healthy children from 4.0 to 15.7 years of age. Postural performances were recorded with a TechnoConcept platform. At the same time, the children's perception of subjective visual vertical (SVV) was recorded while they adjusted a vertical fluorescent line, either in the dark or in the presence of perturbing visual stimuli. Two testing control conditions without an SVV task were also performed by all of the children: static posturographic recording with open eyes and closed eyes. Postural measurements provided evidence of a correlation between the children's age and the tasks performed. Postural stability improved with age until eight to nine years, and SVV performance improved after 10-11 years. After these ages, postural and SVV capabilities did not change until at least 15 years of age. Our findings suggest that the maturation of cortical and central processes involved in both the perception of verticality and in postural stability took place during childhood. However, maturation occurred later for vertical perception, which could imply delayed maturation of sensory integration processes. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ottawa Ankle Rules and Subjective Surgeon Perception to Evaluate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific mechanisms in 3.6%. The orthopedic surgeon responsible for patient care answered a questionnaire containing information related to the Ottawa ankle rules. Perception based on subjective feeling for fracture possibility was determined ...

  2. Subject-specific distortions in haptic perception of force direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, F.E.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Gabrielse, F.L.; Lagerberg, B.W.J.; Verhoogt, T.K.; Wolfs, B.G.A.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that the accuracy of human haptic perception of force direction is not very high. We also found an effect of physical force direction on the error subjects made, resulting in ‘error patterns’. In the current study, we assessed the between- and within-subject variation

  3. Differential effects of visual feedback on subjective visual vertical accuracy and precision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bjasch

    Full Text Available The brain constructs an internal estimate of the gravitational vertical by integrating multiple sensory signals. In darkness, systematic head-roll dependent errors in verticality estimates, as measured by the subjective visual vertical (SVV, occur. We hypothesized that visual feedback after each trial results in increased accuracy, as physiological adjustment errors (A-/E-effect are likely based on central computational mechanisms and investigated whether such improvements were related to adaptational shifts of perceived vertical or to a higher cognitive strategy. We asked 12 healthy human subjects to adjust a luminous arrow to vertical in various head-roll positions (0 to 120deg right-ear down, 15deg steps. After each adjustment visual feedback was provided (lights on, display of previous adjustment and of an earth-vertical cross. Control trials consisted of SVV adjustments without feedback. At head-roll angles with the largest A-effect (90, 105, and 120deg, errors were reduced significantly (p0.05 influenced. In seven subjects an additional session with two consecutive blocks (first with, then without visual feedback was completed at 90, 105 and 120deg head-roll. In these positions the error-reduction by the previous visual feedback block remained significant over the consecutive 18-24 min (post-feedback block, i.e., was still significantly (p<0.002 different from the control trials. Eleven out of 12 subjects reported having consciously added a bias to their perceived vertical based on visual feedback in order to minimize errors. We conclude that improvements of SVV accuracy by visual feedback, which remained effective after removal of feedback for ≥18 min, rather resulted from a cognitive strategy than by adapting the internal estimate of the gravitational vertical. The mechanisms behind the SVV therefore, remained stable, which is also supported by the fact that SVV precision - depending mostly on otolith input - was not affected by visual

  4. Pharmacy students' perceptions of natural science and mathematics subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai

    2014-08-15

    To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.

  5. Diurnal fluctuations of verticality perception – lesser precision immediately after waking up in the morning

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    Aline J Schwarz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internal estimates of direction of gravity are continuously updated by integrating vestibular, visual and proprioceptive input and prior experience about upright position. Prolonged static roll-tilt biases perceived direction of gravity by adaptation of peripheral sensors and central structures. We hypothesized that in the morning after sleep estimates of direction of gravity (assessed by the subjective visual vertical (SVV are less precise than in the evening because of adaptation to horizontal body position and lack of prior knowledge about upright position. Using a mobile SVV-measuring device, verticality perception was assessed in seven healthy human subjects on seven days in the morning immediately after waking-up and in the evening while sitting upright. Paired t-tests were applied to analyze diurnal changes in SVV trial-to-trial variability. Average SVV variability in the morning was significantly larger than in the evening (1.9±0.6° vs. 0.9±0.3°, p=0.002. SVV accuracy was not significantly different (-1.2±0.9° vs. -0.4±0.4°, morning vs. evening, p=0.058 and was within normal range (±2.3° in all but one subject. A good night’s sleep has a profound effect on the brain’s ability to estimate direction of gravity. Resulting variability was significantly worse after waking-up reaching values more than twice as large as in the evening while there was no significant impact on SVV accuracy. We hypothesize that lacking prior knowledge, adaptation of peripheral sensors and lower levels of arousal and cerebral metabolism contribute to such impoverished estimates. Our observations have considerable clinical impact as they indicate an increased risk for falls and fall-related injuries in the morning.

  6. Avaliação da vertical visual subjetiva em indivíduos brasileiros normais Subjective visual vertical evaluation in normal Brazilian subjects

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    Aline M. Kozoroski Kanashiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A função otolítica pode ser avaliada pela Vertical Visual Subjetiva (VVS que determina a capacidade de um indivíduo julgar se objetos estão na posição vertical na ausência de outras referências visuais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a VVS em indivíduos brasileiros normais usando um aparelho portátil. As medidas da VVS foram realizadas em 160 indivíduos (16 a 85 anos. O valor médio da VVS foi obtido após dez ajustes. A VVS teve valores médios entre -2,0º e +2,4º (média=0,18º, e DP=0,77º. Não houve diferença entre as médias da VVS em relação à idade (teste de Kruskal-Wallis; p=0,40, mas as faixas etárias maiores tiveram variância maior (teste de Levene; p=0,016. Os valores da VVS encontrados neste estudo foram semelhantes aos registrados na literatura. Não houve diferença nas médias das inclinações da VVS de acordo com a idade, mas foi encontrada maior variância entre indivíduos mais idosos.Otolith function can be evaluated by subjective visual vertical (SVV that determine the capacity of a subject to judge if the objects are on vertical position with absence of any visual reference. The aim of this study was to evaluate the SVV in a sample of normal Brazilian subjects using a portable device. Measurements of SVV were performed in 160 normal subjects (aged from 16 to 85. SVV mean value was obtained after ten adjustments. SVV mean values ranged from -2.0º to +2.4º (mean=0.18º, and SD=0.77. Considering all age groups, there was no difference of SVV mean values (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.40, but older groups had a greater variance (Levene test; p=0.016. SVV values observed in this study are comparable to those described in previous studies. Although there was no difference in mean SVV-inclination according to age, there was a greater variance in older subjects.

  7. Perception of vertical and horizontal orientation in children with scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, John; Sluiter, Wim J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Cool, Jan C.; van Horn, Jim R.

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether the perception of body posture is altered in idiopathic scoliosis, a simple neurophysiologic experiment through laser line projection was conducted to test this hypothesis in three groups of individuals: 89 children with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), 50 children with congenital

  8. Perception of vertical and horizontal orientation in children with scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, J; Sluiter, WJ; Veldhuizen, AG; Cool, JC; Van Horn, [No Value

    To determine whether the perception of body posture is altered in idiopathic scoliosis, a simple neurophysiologic experiment through laser line projection was conducted to test this hypothesis in three groups of individuals: 89 children with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). 50 children with congenital

  9. Ottawa ankle rules and subjective surgeon perception to evaluate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred seventy‑four adult patients admitted to the emergency department with foot and/or ankle sprain were evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon who completed a questionnaire prior to radiographic assessment. The Ottawa ankle rules and subjective perception of foot and/or ankle fractures were evaluated on the ...

  10. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  11. Material resources availability, parent subject perception and school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' poor performance in the Yoruba language is being considered a serious problem by researchers and education stakeholders. Despite their efforts, no appreciable improvement is noticeable for hardly are enough researches on the extent to which school material resources availability, parental subject perception ...

  12. Distortions of subjective time perception within and across senses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie van Wassenhove

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to estimate the passage of time is of fundamental importance for perceptual and cognitive processes. One experience of time is the perception of duration, which is not isomorphic to physical duration and can be distorted by a number of factors. Yet, the critical features generating these perceptual shifts in subjective duration are not understood. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We used prospective duration judgments within and across sensory modalities to examine the effect of stimulus predictability and feature change on the perception of duration. First, we found robust distortions of perceived duration in auditory, visual and auditory-visual presentations despite the predictability of the feature changes in the stimuli. For example, a looming disc embedded in a series of steady discs led to time dilation, whereas a steady disc embedded in a series of looming discs led to time compression. Second, we addressed whether visual (auditory inputs could alter the perception of duration of auditory (visual inputs. When participants were presented with incongruent audio-visual stimuli, the perceived duration of auditory events could be shortened or lengthened by the presence of conflicting visual information; however, the perceived duration of visual events was seldom distorted by the presence of auditory information and was never perceived shorter than their actual durations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the existence of multisensory interactions in the perception of duration and, importantly, suggest that vision can modify auditory temporal perception in a pure timing task. Insofar as distortions in subjective duration can neither be accounted for by the unpredictability of an auditory, visual or auditory-visual event, we propose that it is the intrinsic features of the stimulus that critically affect subjective time distortions.

  13. Distortions of subjective time perception within and across senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wassenhove, Virginie; Buonomano, Dean V; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Shams, Ladan

    2008-01-16

    The ability to estimate the passage of time is of fundamental importance for perceptual and cognitive processes. One experience of time is the perception of duration, which is not isomorphic to physical duration and can be distorted by a number of factors. Yet, the critical features generating these perceptual shifts in subjective duration are not understood. We used prospective duration judgments within and across sensory modalities to examine the effect of stimulus predictability and feature change on the perception of duration. First, we found robust distortions of perceived duration in auditory, visual and auditory-visual presentations despite the predictability of the feature changes in the stimuli. For example, a looming disc embedded in a series of steady discs led to time dilation, whereas a steady disc embedded in a series of looming discs led to time compression. Second, we addressed whether visual (auditory) inputs could alter the perception of duration of auditory (visual) inputs. When participants were presented with incongruent audio-visual stimuli, the perceived duration of auditory events could be shortened or lengthened by the presence of conflicting visual information; however, the perceived duration of visual events was seldom distorted by the presence of auditory information and was never perceived shorter than their actual durations. These results support the existence of multisensory interactions in the perception of duration and, importantly, suggest that vision can modify auditory temporal perception in a pure timing task. Insofar as distortions in subjective duration can neither be accounted for by the unpredictability of an auditory, visual or auditory-visual event, we propose that it is the intrinsic features of the stimulus that critically affect subjective time distortions.

  14. Temporal cognition: Connecting subjective time to perception, attention, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, William J; Meck, Warren H

    2016-08-01

    Time is a universal psychological dimension, but time perception has often been studied and discussed in relative isolation. Increasingly, researchers are searching for unifying principles and integrated models that link time perception to other domains. In this review, we survey the links between temporal cognition and other psychological processes. Specifically, we describe how subjective duration is affected by nontemporal stimulus properties (perception), the allocation of processing resources (attention), and past experience with the stimulus (memory). We show that many of these connections instantiate a "processing principle," according to which perceived time is positively related to perceptual vividity and the ease of extracting information from the stimulus. This empirical generalization generates testable predictions and provides a starting-point for integrated theoretical frameworks. By outlining some of the links between temporal cognition and other domains, and by providing a unifying principle for understanding these effects, we hope to encourage time-perception researchers to situate their work within broader theoretical frameworks, and that researchers from other fields will be inspired to apply their insights, techniques, and theorizing to improve our understanding of the representation and judgment of time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Visual imagery without visual perception: lessons from blind subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bértolo, Helder

    2014-08-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG's spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

  16. Intensified emotion perception in depression: Differences in physiological arousal and subjective perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Sofia; Hagen, Marleen; Tarvainen, Mika P; Hilke, Marietheres; Ghirmai, Naddy; Huthmacher, Ann-Caitlin; Trettin, Marco; van Dick, Rolf; Reif, Andreas; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2017-07-01

    People suffering from depression perceive themselves and their surroundings as more negative than healthy ones. An explanation might be that depressed individuals experience negative information as more stressful than non-depressed subjects and, consequently, respond in an amplified manner on a subjective and physiological level. To test this proposition, we presented 41 patients with recurrent depressive episodes and 42 controls with stimuli from the International Affective Picture System split into three valence categories while different parameters of physiological arousal (e.g., heart rate variability) and subjective perceptions of valence and arousal were assessed. Furthermore, we examined social skills and emotional competence. Results regarding physiological arousal revealed an elevated skin temperature and a more accentuated respiratory frequency in depressed subjects. Furthermore, depressed subjects rated the stimuli as more negative and arousing, which was associated with reduced social and emotional competence. Variation in antidepressant medication, menstrual cycle and other factors that have an impact on HRV are a potential bias. Our findings suggest an intensified perception of negative emotion in depressed individuals as compared to controls that manifests itself in an increased physiological arousal as well as on a subjective level. This intensified emotion perception is further associated with deficits in social and emotional competence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thirst perception and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrate human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obika, L F O; Idu, F K; George, G O; Ajayi, O I; Mowoe, R S

    2009-06-01

    Studies on how the body senses the need to correct extracellular and intracellular volumes and ionic concentration changes is relatively scanty. The present studies were designed to determine the effect of oral distilled water (DW) and saline loads, gargling with DW and DW preload on thirst perception (TP) and drinking in euhydrate and dehydrated subjects. The subjects were healthy male volunteers between the ages of 17 and 35 years. Group A subjects were given DW or various concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] orally. Subjects in groups B, C and D were dehydrated for 18 hours before the experiment. Group B gargled 500 ml of DW in divided volume of 50 ml at five minutes interval over a period of 50 minutes. Group C gargled with DW and different concentrations of NaCl. Group D were preloaded with four volumes of DW before ad libitum DW intake. TP was rated using the Visual Analogue Scale. Results showed that in Group A, drinking DW reduced TP, suggesting that baseline TP in normal euhydrate subjects is slightly elevated. Drinking DW reduced TP more than drinking NaCl solutions. Gargling resulted in a gradual fall in TP. The decrease in TP was statistically significant after 30 minutes of gargling. Gargling with different concentrations of NaCl solutions resulted in significant reductions in TP in all the groups. There was a significant decrease in TP in the group preloaded with 1000 ml of distilled water at 5 minutes of rehydration. At 20 minutes TP was abolished suggesting that approximately 1000 ml of water was needed for the rehydration. These results show that baseline TP in euhydrates is elevated and that TP increases in dehydrated subjects. Gargling reduces TP, but did not abolish thirst. It is suggested that a fall in plasma osmolality due to drinking may be responsible for abolishing thirst.

  18. Unbounded evidence accumulation characterizes subjective visual vertical forced-choice perceptual choice and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Koeun; Wang, Wei; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2017-11-01

    Humans can subjectively yet quantitatively assess choice confidence based on perceptual precision even when a perceptual decision is made without an immediate reward or feedback. However, surprisingly little is known about choice confidence. Here we investigate the dynamics of choice confidence by merging two parallel conceptual frameworks of decision making, signal detection theory and sequential analyses (i.e., drift-diffusion modeling). Specifically, to capture end-point statistics of binary choice and confidence, we built on a previous study that defined choice confidence in terms of psychophysics derived from signal detection theory. At the same time, we augmented this mathematical model to include accumulator dynamics of a drift-diffusion model to characterize the time dependence of the choice behaviors in a standard forced-choice paradigm in which stimulus duration is controlled by the operator. Human subjects performed a subjective visual vertical task, simultaneously reporting binary orientation choice and probabilistic confidence. Both binary choice and confidence experimental data displayed statistics and dynamics consistent with both signal detection theory and evidence accumulation, respectively. Specifically, the computational simulations showed that the unbounded evidence accumulator model fits the confidence data better than the classical bounded model, while bounded and unbounded models were indistinguishable for binary choice data. These results suggest that the brain can utilize mechanisms consistent with signal detection theory-especially when judging confidence without time pressure.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that choice confidence data show dynamics consistent with evidence accumulation for a forced-choice subjective visual vertical task. We also found that the evidence accumulation appeared unbounded when judging confidence, which suggests that the brain utilizes mechanisms consistent with signal detection theory to determine choice confidence

  19. Integration of visual and haptic informations in the perception of the vertical in young and old healthy adults and right brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, B; Honoré, J; Rousseaux, M; Saj, A; Coello, Y

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal perception raises the issue of sensory integration. The aim of this study is to assess whether the visuo-haptic subjective vertical could be predicted from the visual and haptic unimodal performances, according to a Bayesian model, which optimizes the reliability of the multimodal estimate. The limits of the model were assessed by evaluating the impact of aging, cerebral damage and spatial deficits. Young and older healthy participants, as well as patients with a right hemisphere lesion, suffering from spatial neglect or not, had to align a rod with the gravitational vertical in the visual, haptic and visuo-haptic modalities. Visuo-haptic subjective vertical was correctly predicted by the model in healthy participants, as well as in patients in spite of different performances. An anticlockwise deviation of the subjective vertical was observed in the neglect group whatever the experimental conditions. By contrast, no deviation was observed in both non-neglect and healthy groups, for the visual and the visuo-haptic modalities. Nevertheless, the haptic subjective vertical was deviated, anticlockwise in the non-neglect patients and older healthy adults, and clockwise in the young healthy adults. Moreover, the variance was the smallest in the bimodal condition. The integration of visual and haptic signals appeared to obey a Bayesian model optimizing the reliability of the multimodal estimate. This holds true despite of aging, brain damage or visuospatial disorders. Regarding the perception of the vertical, multisensory integration does not seem thus to depend only on right posterior cortical areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Visiting Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoï eKapoula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesised to have stimulated the body’s vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased 5 monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69° angle.Using computerised dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade. A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway. Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability (in terms of spectral power and cancelling time of body sway at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of cancelling time. Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto was cancelled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power increased after the promenade.Fourteen additional visitors were asked to sit in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra’s monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test.We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic training ground thereby improving the visitors’ overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium and gravity.

  1. Developing Buoyancy Driven Flow of a Nanofluid in a Vertical Channel Subject to Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal C. Sacheti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The developing natural convective flow of a nanofluid in an infinite vertical channel with impermeable bounding walls has been investigated. It is assumed that the nanofluid is dominated by two specific slip mechanisms and that the channel walls are subject to constant heat flux and isothermal temperature, respectively. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations coupling different transport processes have been solved numerically. The variations of velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration have been discussed in relation to a number of physical parameters. It is seen that the approach to the steady-state profiles of velocity and temperature in the present work is different from the ones reported in a previous study corresponding to isothermal wall conditions.

  2. Gravity dependence of the effect of optokinetic stimulation on the subjective visual vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bryan K; Bockisch, Christopher J; Caramia, Nicoletta; Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander Andrea

    2017-05-01

    Accurate and precise estimates of direction of gravity are essential for spatial orientation. According to Bayesian theory, multisensory vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive input is centrally integrated in a weighted fashion based on the reliability of the component sensory signals. For otolithic input, a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio was demonstrated with increasing roll angle. We hypothesized that the weights of vestibular (otolithic) and extravestibular (visual/proprioceptive) sensors are roll-angle dependent and predicted an increased weight of extravestibular cues with increasing roll angle, potentially following the Bayesian hypothesis. To probe this concept, the subjective visual vertical (SVV) was assessed in different roll positions (≤ ± 120°, steps = 30°, n = 10) with/without presenting an optokinetic stimulus (velocity = ± 60°/s). The optokinetic stimulus biased the SVV toward the direction of stimulus rotation for roll angles ≥ ± 30° (P integration when estimating direction of gravity with optokinetic stimulation. Visual input was weighted more when vestibular input became less reliable, i.e., at larger roll-tilt angles. However, according to Bayesian theory, the variability of combined cues is always lower than the variability of each source cue. If the observed increase in variability, although nonsignificant, is true, either it must depend on an additional source of variability, added after SVV computation, or it would conflict with the Bayesian hypothesis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Applying a rotating optokinetic stimulus while recording the subjective visual vertical in different whole body roll angles, we noted the optokinetic-induced bias to correlate with the roll angle. These findings allow the hypothesis that the established optimal weighting of single-sensory cues depending on their reliability to estimate direction of gravity could be extended to a bias caused by visual self-motion stimuli. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological

  3. Factors influencing subjective perceptions of everyday occupations: Comparing day centre attendees with non-attendees.

    OpenAIRE

    Argentzell, Elisabeth; Leufstadius, Christel; Eklund, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Subjective perceptions of everyday occupations are important for the well-being of people with psychiatric disabilities (PD) and are likely to vary with factors such as attending a day centre or not, activity level, self-mastery, sociodemographic and clinical factors. Aim: To explore differences in subjective perceptions of occupation and activity level between day centre attendees and non-attendees, and to investigate factors of importance for the subjective perceptions ...

  4. Hysteresis of haptic vertical and straight ahead in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnutzer Alexander A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subjective haptic vertical (SHV task requires subjects to adjust the roll orientation of an object, mostly in the roll plane, in such a way that it is parallel to perceived direction of gravity. Previously we found a tendency for clockwise rod rotations to deviate counter-clockwise and vice versa, indicating hysteresis. However, the contributing factors remained unclear. To clarify this we characterized the SHV in terms of handedness, hand used, direction of hand rotation, type of grasping (wrap vs. precision grip and gender, and compared findings with perceived straight-ahead (PSA. Healthy subjects repetitively performed adjustments along SHV (n = 21 and PSA (n = 10 in complete darkness. Results For both SHV and PSA significant effects of the hand used and the direction of rod/plate rotation were found. The latter effect was similar for SHV and PSA, leading to significantly larger counter-clockwise shifts (relative to true earth-vertical and objective straight-ahead for clockwise rotations compared to counter-clockwise rotations irrespective of the handedness and the type of grip. The effect of hand used, however, was opposite in the two tasks: while the SHV showed a counter-clockwise bias when the right hand was used and no bias for the left hand, in the PSA a counter-clockwise bias was obtained for the left hand without a bias for the right hand. No effects of grip and handedness (studied for SHV only on accuracy were observed, however, SHV precision was significantly (p  Conclusions Unimanual haptic tasks require control for the hand used and the type of grip as these factors significantly affect task performance. Furthermore, aligning objects with the SHV and PSA resulted in systematic direction-dependent deviations that could not be attributed to handedness, the hand used, or the type of grip. These deviations are consistent with hysteresis and are likely not related to gravitational pull, as they were

  5. Perceptions of Classroom Assessment Tasks: An Interplay of Gender, Subject Area, and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain Ali; Al-Hosni, Salim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' perceptions of classroom assessment tasks as a function of gender, subject area, and grade level. Data from 2753 students on Dorman and Knightley's (2006) Perceptions of Assessment Tasks Inventory (PATI) were analyzed in a MANOVA design. Results showed that students tended to hold positive perceptions of their…

  6. Fatty acid profile in vertical strata of elephant grass subjected to intermittent stocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Kamila M; Schmitt, Daniel; Rodolfo, Giselle R; Deschamps, Francisco C; Camargo, Guilherme N; Pereira, Raphael S; Sbrissia, André F

    2017-01-01

    The milk and meat from animals with a pasture-based diet have higher proportions of CLA and C18:3 and lower omega-6:omega-3 ratios than products from animals with diets based on corn silage and concentrate. However, most of the published studies have evaluated fatty acid profiles in temperate climate grasses and the literature with tropical grasses is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and fatty acid compositions in the vertical strata of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) swards subjected to grazing heights (90 or 120 cm pre-grazing heights) and levels of defoliation (50% or 70% removal of the initial pre-grazing height). There were no interactions among pre-grazing height, the level of defoliation and grazing stratum. However, higher proportion of C18:3 (58% and 63%) was found in the 90-cm swards and in the half upper stratum. A higher proportion of C18:3 was associated with a higher leaf proportion and crude protein content. Thus, the upper stratum of sward or a grazing management scheme (e.g. first-last stocking) resulting in a higher proportion of leaves and crude protein both provide higher proportions of C18:3 to animals grazing in elephant grass swards.

  7. Vestibular compensation after vestibular schwannoma surgery: normalization of the subjective visual vertical and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Santacruz-Ruiz, Santiago; Muñoz-Herrera, Angel; Sousa, Pablo; Otero, Alvaro; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    The degree of caloric weakness before surgery influences faster or slower recovery of patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is a good index to show the recovery of patients as it relates directly to an improvement or not of the subjective visual vertical (SVV). To evaluate the process of recovery of patients as measured by the SVV and the DHI after surgical removal of vestibular schwannoma. We studied 24 consecutive patients of the University Hospital of Salamanca who underwent vestibular schwannoma surgery. We assessed age, tumour size, degree of canalicular weakness and preoperative SVV, and their relationship with DHI and SVV at discharge and also at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Patients with lesser degrees of caloric weakness took longer to normalize SVV than those with a higher caloric weakness before surgery (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between DHI and improvements in SVV with time. The differences disappeared in 6 months where all patients, with greater or lesser degree of caloric weakness, had the same results.

  8. Sands subjected to repetitive vertical loading under zero lateral strain: accumulation models, terminal densities, and settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song Hun

    2016-08-09

    Geosystems often experience numerous loading cycles. Plastic strain accumulation during repetitive mechanical loads can lead to shear shakedown or continued shear ratcheting; in all cases, volumetric strains diminish as the specimen evolves towards terminal density. Previously suggested models and new functions are identified to fit plastic strain accumulation data. All accumulation models are formulated to capture terminal density (volumetric strain) and either shakedown or ratcheting (shear strain). Repetitive vertical loading tests under zero lateral strain conditions are conducted using three different sands packed at initially low and high densities. Test results show that plastic strain accumulation for all sands and density conditions can be captured in the same dimensionless plot defined in terms of the initial relative density, terminal density, and ratio between the amplitude of the repetitive load and the initial static load. This observation allows us to advance a simple but robust procedure to estimate the maximum one-dimensional settlement that a foundation could experience if subjected to repetitive loads. © 2016, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.

  9. Linguistic Means of Depersonalization and Dematerialization in the Descriptions of Subjective Perception of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Nesterik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses linguistic means of depersonalization and dematerialization in the descriptions of subjective perception of time by characters, detects functions, fulfilled by them in such contexts. Subjective perception of time is considered as a text category and is studied in terms of text linguistics

  10. Teachers' Assessment Experiences and Perceptions in the Practical-Aesthetic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltedal, Elizabeth; Gamlem, Siv M.; Kleivenes, Ole M.; Ryslett, Kari; Vasset, Thorstein

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for the practical-aesthetic subjects is the perception that they are less important than theoretical knowledge subjects. These subjects are among the non-core subjects receiving highest grades in Norwegian lower secondary schools, but also represent the highest number of complaints about grading. This study investigates teachers'…

  11. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia—Perception of Different Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Methods: A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education (n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. Results: The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Conclusion: Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations. PMID:28970391

  12. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia—Perception of Different Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Gross

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Methods: A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education (n = 40 in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. Results: The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Conclusion: Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations.

  13. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia-Perception of Different Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-04-19

    From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education (n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations.

  14. Association between risk perception, subjective knowledge, and depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Fukutomi, Eriko; Wada, Taizo; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Chen, Wen-Ling; Tanaka, Mire; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-05-30

    Risk perception is one of the core factors in theories of health behavior promotion. However, the association between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in depression is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between subjective knowledge, risk perception, and objective scores of depression in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. A total of 747 elderly participants (mean age: 76.1, female: 59.8%) who completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) along with items assessing subjective knowledge and risk perception were included in the analysis. We assessed the correlation between subjective knowledge and risk perception, and then compare GDS-15 scores by level of subjective knowledge and risk perception. Subjective knowledge was weakly associated with risk perception and related to lower GDS-15 scores in a dose-response pattern, which did not change after adjusting for age, gender, basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, years of education and history of depression. There was no significant association between risk perception and GDS-15 scores. The relationship between knowledge, risk perception, and depressed mood in younger generations is unclear, but warrants examination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between Dental Arch Dimensions and Vertical Facial Morphology in Class I Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Khera

    2012-01-01

    Results: The results showed that, for both males and females, there was a trend that as vertical facial height increased, arch width, arch perimeter and overbite decreased but palatal height and curve of Spee increased and males have significantly larger arch dimensions than those of females. Conclusion: It was concluded that dental arch dimensions were associated with facial vertical morphology and gender. Thus, using individualized archwires according to each patient′s pretreatment arch form and width is suggested during orthodontic treatment.

  16. Effects of varying mandibular protrusion and degrees of vertical opening on upper airway dimensions in apneic dentate subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskin, B; Karakoc, O; Genc, H; Akay, S; Sipahi, C; Erdem, M; Karaman, B; Gorgulu, S; Yetkin, S; Ayyildiz, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies investigating the dimensional and therapeutic effects of mandibular advancement splints (MASs), data regarding the effects of differently designed individual and non-adjustable MASs on the upper airway in fully dentate apneic subjects in the sagittal plane including comparison of these effects with a placebo device are sparse. The present study aimed to determine the dimensional changes in the sagittal plane created by differently designed MASs in the upper airway in fully dentate apneic subjects and to compare these changes with the effects of a placebo device. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 9 dentate apneic subjects with 5 differently designed MASs and without a MAS were obtained. We measured the area of the entire pharynx (velopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx) on these MR images and compared the dimensional changes. The dimensional changes triggered by two specific MASs (75% of the maximum mandibular protrusion with 5 mm vertical opening, and 75% of the maximum mandibular protrusion with 10 mm of vertical opening) in the entire pharynx in the sagittal plane were statistically significant compared to the other MASs (p mandibular protrusion and 10 mm of vertical opening created a significant dimensional increase only in the velopharyngeal area among the three pharyngeal sites (p ≤ 0.003). While the degree of mandibular protrusion created by the MAS affects the dimensions of the upper airway, the degree of the vertical opening exerts no significant dimensional effect in the sagittal plane in fully dentate apneic patients. The mandibular protrusion effect is comparatively larger in the velopharyngeal region.

  17. Time Perception in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Interval Length and Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Sara; Guerreiro, Manuela; Chester, Catarina; Silva, Dina; Maroco, João; Coelho, Miguel; Paglieri, Fabio; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may have difficulties in time perception, which in turn might contribute to some of their symptoms, especially memory deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of interval length and subjective passage of time in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. Fifty-five MCI patients and 57 healthy controls underwent an experimental protocol for time perception on interval length, a questionnaire for the subjective passage of time and a neuropsychological evaluation. MCI patients presented no changes in the perception of interval length. However, for MCI patients, time seemed to pass more slowly than it did for controls. This experience was significantly correlated with memory deficits but not with performance in executive tests, nor with complaints of depression or anxiety. Memory deficits do not affect the perception of interval length, but are associated with alterations in the subjective passage of time. (JINS, 2016, 22, 755-764).

  18. Time perception in mild cognitive impairment: Interval length and subjective passage of time

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Sara; Guerreiro, Manuela; Chester, Catarina Carapeto da Silva; Silva, Dina Lúcia Gomes da, 1981-; Maroco, João; Coelho, Miguel; Paglieri, Fabio; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may have difficulties in time perception, which in turn might contribute to some of their symptoms, especially memory deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of interval length and subjective passage of time in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. Methods: Fifty-five MCI patients and 57 healthy controls underwent an experimental protocol for time perception on interval length, a questionnaire for...

  19. Thermal perception of ventilation changes in full-face motorcycle helmets: subject and manikin study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogerd, Cornelis P; Rossi, René M; Brühwiler, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    We report the effects of full-face motorcycle helmet ventilation systems on heat, airflow, noise, and comfort perception for ventilation changes on the scalp. Eight subjects (aged 28.0 ± 5.4 years...

  20. Shared computational mechanism for tilt compensation accounts for biased verticality percepts in motion and pattern vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrijer, M; Medendorp, W P; Van Gisbergen, J A M

    2008-02-01

    To determine the direction of object motion in external space, the brain must combine retinal motion signals and information about the orientation of the eyes in space. We assessed the accuracy of this process in eight laterally tilted subjects who aligned the motion direction of a random-dot pattern (30% coherence, moving at 6 degrees /s) with their perceived direction of gravity (motion vertical) in otherwise complete darkness. For comparison, we also tested the ability to align an adjustable visual line (12 degrees diameter) to the direction of gravity (line vertical). For small head tilts (60 degrees revealed a pattern of large systematic errors (often >30 degrees ) that was virtually identical in both tasks. Regression analysis confirmed that mean errors in the two tasks were closely related, with slopes close to 1.0 and correlations >0.89. Control experiments ruled out that motion settings were based on processing of individual single-dot paths. We conclude that the conversion of both motion direction and line orientation on the retina into a spatial frame of reference involves a shared computational strategy. Simulations with two spatial-orientation models suggest that the pattern of systematic errors may be the downside of an optimal strategy for dealing with imperfections in the tilt signal that is implemented before the reference-frame transformation.

  1. Investigation of Subject perceptions of the Environment in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    of the employees. It is relevant to know how the employees assess the thermal conditions and what their subjective reactions in commercial kitchens are. The subjective feedback is the effective way, together with the physical measurements, of defining the values of thermal comfort parameters in commercial kitchens...

  2. Sensory perception and pleasantness of food flavour in elderly subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de C.; Polet, P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the perceived intensity and pleasantness of different food flavors. A group of 32 young subjects (mean age: 22, range 20-25) and 23 elderly subjects (mean age: 76, range 72-82) judged the intensity and the pleasantness of five series of food flavors, each with

  3. Perception of depth distance of integral photography through the measurement of eye movement and subjective test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Sumio; Suzuki, Makoto; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-05-01

    We developed a measurement tool for binocular eye movement and examined the perception of depth distance in integral photography images, which is a type of three dimensional image, using the tool we developed. Furthermore, we evaluated the perception of the depth distance in integral photography images by the subjective test, and we considered the perception results of the depth distance, which were these two experimental results. Additionally, we examined the perception of the depth distance in the real objects, and compared with the results in the case of integral photography images and real objects.

  4. The Effects of Training and Subject Reproducibility During Vertical Impact Acceleration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Hilary; Pellettiere, Joseph; Doczy, Erica

    2005-01-01

    .... There is little data, however, describing the effects of subject training on human response. There are also questions regarding the effect of subject reproducibility and how it might affect data variability...

  5. Subjectivity of Time Perception: A Visual Emotional Orchestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLambrechts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine how visual emotional content could orchestrate time perception. The experimental design allowed us to single out the share of emotion in the specific processing of content-bearing pictures, i.e. real-life scenes. Two groups of participants had to reproduce the duration (2, 4 or 6s of content-deprived stimuli (grey squares or differentially valenced content-bearing stimuli, which included neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures (IAPS. Results showed that the effect of content differed according to duration: for 2s, the reproduced duration was longer for content-bearing than content-deprived stimuli, but the difference between the two types of stimuli decreased as duration increased and was not significant for the longest duration (6s. For 4s, emotional (pleasant and unpleasant stimuli were judged longer than neutral pictures. Furthermore, whatever the duration, the precision of the reproduction was greater for non-emotional than emotional stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant. These results suggest a dissociation within content effect on timing: relative overestimation of all content-bearing pictures limited to short durations (2s, and delayed overestimation of emotional relative to neutral pictures at 4s, as well as a lesser precision in the temporal judgment of emotional pictures whatever the duration. The angle of emotion processing in time perception allows us to discuss a few theoretical models proposed in the timing literature.

  6. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-05-01

    Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients' perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Compared to controls (n = 25), patients (n = 35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027

  8. The Effects of Training and Subject Reproducibility during Vertical Impact Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    were used to analyze the biodynamic response along with neck loads generated at the occipital condyles . These neck forces were calculated using the...used to analyze the biodynamic response along with neck loads generated at the occipital condyles (OC). These neck forces were calculated using the...performed on the VDT (Figure 1) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH. The VDT is comprised of a carriage-mounted seat, guided by two vertical rails

  9. Preservice History Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…

  10. Semi-automatic measurement of visual verticality perception in humans reveals a new category of visual field dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Kaleff

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous assessment of verticality by means of rod and rod and frame tests indicated that human subjects can be more (field dependent or less (field independent influenced by a frame placed around a tilted rod. In the present study we propose a new approach to these tests. The judgment of visual verticality (rod test was evaluated in 50 young subjects (28 males, ranging in age from 20 to 27 years by randomly projecting a luminous rod tilted between -18 and +18° (negative values indicating left tilts onto a tangent screen. In the rod and frame test the rod was displayed within a luminous fixed frame tilted at +18 or -18°. Subjects were instructed to verbally indicate the rod’s inclination direction (forced choice. Visual dependency was estimated by means of a Visual Index calculated from rod and rod and frame test values. Based on this index, volunteers were classified as field dependent, intermediate and field independent. A fourth category was created within the field-independent subjects for whom the amount of correct guesses in the rod and frame test exceeded that of the rod test, thus indicating improved performance when a surrounding frame was present. In conclusion, the combined use of subjective visual vertical and the rod and frame test provides a specific and reliable form of evaluation of verticality in healthy subjects and might be of use to probe changes in brain function after central or peripheral lesions.

  11. Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Knowledge: Augmenting Learning to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores pre-service teachers' perceptions of subject knowledge as they learn to teach during a one-year postgraduate certificate in education (PGCE) programme in England. The article examines the impact of pre-service teachers' previous experiences and individual subject knowledge profiles on their development during their PGCE course.…

  12. Visual Images of Subjective Perception of Time in a Literary Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterik, Ella V.; Issina, Gaukhar I.; Pecherskikh, Taliya F.; Belikova, Oxana V.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the subjective perception of time, or psychological time, as a text category and a literary image. It focuses on the visual images that are characteristic of different types of literary time--accelerated, decelerated and frozen (vanished). The research is based on the assumption that the category of subjective perception…

  13. Influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and facial vertical dimensions in subjects with or without skeletal open bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron; Pérez-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives: To determine the influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and dentofacial vertical dimensions in individuals with or without skeletal open bite (SOB). Materials and methods: Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 139 young adults were examined. The sample was divided into eight groups categorized according to their sagittal and vertical skeletal facial growth pattern and maxillary posterior discrepancy (present or absent). Upper molar vertical position, overbite, lower anterior facial height and facial height ratio were measured. Independent t-test was performed to determine differences between the groups considering maxillary posterior discrepancy. Principal component analysis and MANCOVA test were also used. Results: No statistically significant differences were found comparing the molar vertical position according to maxillary posterior discrepancy for the SOB Class I group or the group with adequate overbite. Significant differences were found in SOB Class II and Class III groups. In addition, an increased molar vertical position was found in the group without posterior discrepancy. Limitations: Some variables closely related with the individual’s intrinsic craniofacial development that could influence the evaluated vertical measurements were not considered. Conclusions and implications: Overall maxillary posterior discrepancy does not appear to have a clear impact on upper molar vertical position or facial vertical dimensions. Only the SOB Class III group without posterior discrepancy had a significant increased upper molar vertical position. PMID:26385786

  14. Influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and facial vertical dimensions in subjects with or without skeletal open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis Ernesto; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron; Pérez-Vargas, Luis Fernando; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    To determine the influence of maxillary posterior discrepancy on upper molar vertical position and dentofacial vertical dimensions in individuals with or without skeletal open bite (SOB). Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 139 young adults were examined. The sample was divided into eight groups categorized according to their sagittal and vertical skeletal facial growth pattern and maxillary posterior discrepancy (present or absent). Upper molar vertical position, overbite, lower anterior facial height and facial height ratio were measured. Independent t-test was performed to determine differences between the groups considering maxillary posterior discrepancy. Principal component analysis and MANCOVA test were also used. No statistically significant differences were found comparing the molar vertical position according to maxillary posterior discrepancy for the SOB Class I group or the group with adequate overbite. Significant differences were found in SOB Class II and Class III groups. In addition, an increased molar vertical position was found in the group without posterior discrepancy. Some variables closely related with the individual's intrinsic craniofacial development that could influence the evaluated vertical measurements were not considered. Overall maxillary posterior discrepancy does not appear to have a clear impact on upper molar vertical position or facial vertical dimensions. Only the SOB Class III group without posterior discrepancy had a significant increased upper molar vertical position. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. What subjective experiences determine the perception of falling asleep during sleep onset period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ming; Han, Huei-Ya; Yang, Ming-Hsin; Su, Wei-Chen; Lane, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    Sleep onset is associated with marked changes in behavioral, physiological, and subjective phenomena. In daily life though subjective experience is the main criterion in terms of which we identify it. But very few studies have focused on these experiences. This study seeks to identify the subjective variables that reflect sleep onset. Twenty young subjects took an afternoon nap in the laboratory while polysomnographic recordings were made. They were awakened four times in order to assess subjective experiences that correlate with the (1) appearance of slow eye movement, (2) initiation of stage 1 sleep, (3) initiation of stage 2 sleep, and (4) 5 min after the start of stage 2 sleep. A logistic regression identified control over and logic of thought as the two variables that predict the perception of having fallen asleep. For sleep perception, these two variables accurately classified 91.7% of the cases; for the waking state, 84.1%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Subject of Subordinate Clause as Object with Verbs of Perception, Thought, and Communication in Old Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Pichkhadze

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Old Russian construction involving verbs of perception, thought, and communication. In this construction, a single semantic argument corresponds to two syntactic constituents: a direct object and a finite subordinate clause, the subject of which is coreferential with the direct object of the main clause. The Old Russian construction is seen as an instantiation of a cross-linguistic option in the argument structure of these verbs (above all, of the perception verbs, that is, to take the subject of the subordinate clause as the direct object.

  17. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.

  18. Analogy between training for dancers and problems of adjustment to microgravity: An evaluation of the subjective vertical in dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Kitsou

    "Moderne dance" (as opposed to a more academic or classical dance form) uses techniques from kinesiology, anatomy and improvization which are adapted to a cultural, technological and political environment. The function of a choreographic system is to take and give a measure of the world. This includes, with the present tendency of the evolution of culture, a new "naturalism" which seeks the secrets of the body. Dance movements express in terms of space the dimension fo the infinite. It gives somehow the measure of a world within which everything is relative. Except for the speed of light, time and space are bound together by the same principle. The qualities of body awareness and specific motricity in dancers imply—besides a strict discipline—balance, coordination, muscular performance and perfect orientation, problems that astronauts also encounter in microgravity. Could chosen exercises used in modern dance technique be applied to the training of astronauts? Dancer-choreographer Kitsou Dubois has been working in this direction since 1988. She was granted a "Villa Medicis Hors Les Murs" by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to carry on with her research at NASA, Houston, Tex. in April 1989. It allowed her to investigate the reality of this analogy. She intends to evaluate the dancers' subjective vertical refering to Mittelstaedt's observations on the proportional relationship between "space sickness" and some astronauts poor evaluation of the subjective vertical. This study should create a relationship between a choreographer's empirical intuition and a scientific reality.

  19. Reliability of different facial measurements for determination of vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous using accepted facial dimensions recorded from dentulous subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Abhishek; Parkash, Hari; Bhargava, Akshay; Chittaranjan, B

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of different facial measurements for determination of vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous subjects using accepted facial dimensions recorded from dentulous subjects. The hypothesis was that facial measurements can be used to obtain the vertical dimension of occlusion for edentulous patients where no pre-extraction records exist. A total of 180 subjects were selected in the age groups of 50-60 years, consisting of 75 dentate male and 75 dentate female subjects for whom different facial measurements were recorded including vertical dimension of occlusion and rest, and 15 edentulous male and 15 edentulous female subjects for whom all the facial measurements were recorded including the vertical dimension of rest and occlusion following construction of upper and lower complete dentures. The left outer canthus of eye to angle of mouth distance and the right Ear-Eye distance were found to be as valuable adjuncts in the determination of occlusal vertical dimension. The Glabella-Subnasion distance, the Pupil-Stomion distance, the Pupil-Rima Oris distance and the distance between the two Angles of the Mouth did not have a significant role in the determination of the occlusal vertical dimension. The vertical dimension can be determined with reasonable accuracy by utilizing other facial measurements for patients for whom no pre-extraction records exist.

  20. Tactile-auditory speech perception by unimodally and bimodally trained normal-hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, J I; Blamey, P J; Clark, G M

    1993-03-01

    The following study compared the effectiveness of unimodal and bimodal training strategies at improving the perception of speech information under a variety of conditions. Normal-hearing subjects were trained in the perception of vowel and consonant stimuli. Speech information was provided either via a multiple channel electrotactile speech processing aid (the Tickle Talker), and/or by a 200-Hz low-pass filtered auditory signal. Two subjects were trained only in the combined tactile-plus-auditory (TA) condition; the remaining two were trained in both the tactile-alone (T) and auditory-alone (A) conditions; however, only one condition was used at any single time. All subjects were evaluated in the TA, T, and A conditions, both at the beginning of the study, prior to training, and at the completion of training, on closed-set vowel and consonant confusion tests, and on an open-set word test. Results indicated that whilst statistically significant improvements occurred from one evaluation period to the next, in both groups of subjects, the improvements per condition were not dependent on the type of training received. The results provide a preliminary indication that the provision of unimodal training does not impair the perception of speech information under bimodal perception conditions.

  1. Alterations of sensory perceptions in healthy elderly subjects during fasting and refeeding. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine; Moreau, Karine; Brandolini, Marion; Livingstone, Barbara; Beaufrère, Bernard; Boirie, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Sensory perception losses may contribute to age-related malnutrition by affecting food selection and consumption. To determine the effects of a 36-hour fast followed by a 6-hour refeeding period on sensory perceptions in 7 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years of age) and 6 healthy young subjects (18-35 years of age). Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings were recorded on visual analogue scales in response to three different classes of odorant stimuli (salt, sweet and sour). Odorant stimuli were administered three times during the study, twice during the fasting period (12 and 24 h fasted) and once at the end of the re-nutrition period. A significant difference was found between the two groups for the self-perceived hunger ratings in response to the sour stimuli. A significant difference was observed between the two groups for olfactory ratings as regards the salt and sour odorant stimuli. Among the metabolic changes associated with fasting and refeeding, blood glucose was significantly related (r(2) = 0.97, p = 0.001) to the perception of hunger in the control group subjects, but no such relationship was found for the elderly subjects (r(2) = 0.16, p = NS). (1) Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings are specifically affected in healthy elderly. (2) Nutritional status can modulate sensory perceptions in elderly and young during the transition from fasting to refeeding. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. The Teacher as One of the Factors Influencing Students' Perception of Biology as a School Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Torkar, Gregor; Rovnanova, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of our research was to determine whether the teacher is one of the factors influencing students' perception of biology as a school subject. The study also aimed to identify the influence of certain other factors in this regard, specifically: students' gender and place of residence, the number of biology teachers who have taught the…

  3. Effects of cervical headgear and pendulum appliance on vertical dimension in growing subjects: a retrospective controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Franchi, Lorenzo; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the effects on vertical dentoskeletal dimension produced by cervical headgear (CHG) or Pendulum (P) both followed by full fixed appliances in growing patients with Class II malocclusion. The CHG group (CHGG) consisted of 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) with a mean age of 11.5 years. The P group (PG) comprised 40 patients (21 females, 19 males) with a mean age of 11.6 years. Mean treatment duration with the CHG and P appliances were 1.5 years and 8.2 months, respectively. Lateral cephalograms were available before treatment (T1) and at the end of fixed therapy (T2) with a mean interval of 3.5 years. The effects of the 2 protocols were compared with a matched control group (CG) of 25 untreated Class II subjects (13 females, 12 males). The ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc tests was used to evaluate between-group differences at T1 and during the T1-T2 interval (P < 0.05). CHGG showed significantly greater decreases in both Sella-Nasion to A point angle and A-Nasion-B point anglel when compared with both PG (-1.2 and -0.9 degrees, respectively) and CG (-1.9 and -1.5 degrees, respectively). No significant between-group differences were recorded for any of the vertical skeletal measurements. Both CHGG and PG showed significantly greater improvement in molar relationships with respect to CG (+2.5mm). Both distalizing protocols were effective in the correction of Class II malocclusion without increasing the vertical dimension at the end of comprehensive treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Face inversion disrupts the perception of vertical relations between features in the right human occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno; Sorger, Bettina; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-03-01

    The impact of inversion on the extraction of relational and featural face information was investigated in two fMRI experiments. Unlike previous studies, the contribution of horizontal and vertical spatial relations were considered separately since they have been shown to be differentially vulnerable to face inversion (Goffaux & Rossion, 2007). Hence, inversion largely affects the perception of vertical relations (e.g. eye or mouth height) while the processing of features (e.g. eye shape and surface) and of horizontal relations (e.g. inter-ocular distance) is affected to a far lesser extent. Participants viewed pairs of faces that differed either at the level of one local feature (i.e. the eyes) or of the spatial relations of this feature with adjacent features. Changes of spatial relations were divided into two conditions, depending on the vertical or horizontal axis of the modifications. These stimulus conditions were presented in separate blocks in the first (block) experiment while they were presented in a random order in the second event-related (ER) experiment. Face-preferring voxels located in the right-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (rMFG) largely decreased their activity with inversion. Inversion-related decreases were more moderate in left-lateralized middle fusiform gyrus (lMFG). ER experiment revealed that inversion affected rMFG and lMFG activity in distinct stimulus conditions. Whereas inversion affected lMFG processing only in featural condition, inversion selectively affected the processing of vertical relations in rMFG. Correlation analyses further indicated that the inversion effect (IE) observed in rMFG and right inferior occipital gyrus (rIOG) reliably predicted the large behavioural IE observed for the processing of vertical relations. In contrast, lMFG IE correlated with the weak behavioural IE observed for the processing of horizontal relations. Our findings suggest that face configuration is mostly encoded in rMFG, whereas more local

  5. As time goes by: Oxytocin influences the subjective perception of time in a social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnello, Valentina; Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Time perception depends on an event's emotional relevance to the beholder; a subjective time dilation effect is associated with self-relevant, emotionally salient stimuli. Previous studies have revealed that oxytocin modulates the salience of social stimuli and attention to social cues. However, whether the oxytocin system is involved in human subjective time perception is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increased oxytocin levels would induce a time dilation effect for self-relevant, positive social cues. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design, heterosexual men were administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo. After about 50min, participants completed a time-bisection task in which they estimated lengths of exposure to happy female faces (self-relevant positive stimuli, based on sexual orientation), emotionally neutral and negative female faces (control), and happy, neutral, and negative male faces (control). Oxytocin induced a subjective time dilation effect for happy female faces and a time compression effect for happy male faces. Our results provide evidence that oxytocin influences time perception, a primary form of human subjectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations Among Individuals' Perceptions of Future Time, Individual Resources, and Subjective Well-Being in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Perceptions of future time are of key interest to aging research because of their implications for subjective well-being. Interestingly, perceptions about future time are only moderately associated with age when looking at the second half of life, pointing to a vast heterogeneity in future time perceptions among older adults. We examine associations between future time perceptions, age, and subjective well-being across two studies, including moderations by individual resources. Using data from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; Mage = 85 years), we link one operationalization (subjective nearness to death) and age to subjective well-being. Using Health and Retirement Study data (N = 2,596; Mage = 77 years), we examine associations of another future time perception indicator (subjective future life expectancy) and age with subjective well-being. Consistent across studies, perceptions of limited time left were associated with poorer subjective well-being (lower life satisfaction and positive affect; more negative affect and depressive symptoms). Importantly, individual resources moderated future time perception-subjective well-being associations with those of better health exhibiting reduced future time perception-subjective well-being associations. We discuss our findings in the context of the Model of Strength and Vulnerability Integration.

  7. Perception of individualism and collectivism in Dutch society: A developmental approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Within Triandis's (1994) theoretical framework, two studies are reported that deal with the developmental course for subjective perceptions of cultural dimensions in Dutch society (i.e., vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism). While perceptions of society are always subjectively

  8. Subjective Risk Assessment and Perception in the Greek and English Bakery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos C. Alexopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards—according to 7 risk aspects—were collected and analyzed. Subjective assessment on important occupational hazards included handling heavy loads, repetitiveness, high temperatures, high rate of work, stressful deadlines, and noise. Although limited in the population involved, our findings revealed strong cross-national differences in employee risk perception of specific groups of hazards in the bakery industry. Additional interviews revealed evidence that Greek employees' risk perception depends mostly on work experience while British employees were aware of risks due to company health and safety policy, recognizing that safety is the responsibility of both the management and the worker. Cross-national (cultural factors that influence workforce risk perception and attitudes towards safety have to be taken into account by technical experts and policy makers in the designing of prevention strategies and risk communication.

  9. Subjective risk assessment and perception in the Greek and English bakery industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Kavadi, Zafira; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Papantonopoulos, Sotiris

    2009-01-01

    Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards-according to 7 risk aspects-were collected and analyzed. Subjective assessment on important occupational hazards included handling heavy loads, repetitiveness, high temperatures, high rate of work, stressful deadlines, and noise. Although limited in the population involved, our findings revealed strong cross-national differences in employee risk perception of specific groups of hazards in the bakery industry. Additional interviews revealed evidence that Greek employees' risk perception depends mostly on work experience while British employees were aware of risks due to company health and safety policy, recognizing that safety is the responsibility of both the management and the worker. Cross-national (cultural) factors that influence workforce risk perception and attitudes towards safety have to be taken into account by technical experts and policy makers in the designing of prevention strategies and risk communication.

  10. Psychophysiology and psychoacoustics of music: Perception of complex sound in normal subjects and psychiatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovides, Stefanos A; Iliadou, Vassiliki TH; Bizeli, Vassiliki TH; Kaprinis, Stergios G; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Kaprinis, George S

    2004-01-01

    Perception of complex sound is a process carried out in everyday life situations and contributes in the way one perceives reality. Attempting to explain sound perception and how it affects human beings is complicated. Physics of simple sound can be described as a function of frequency, amplitude and phase. Psychology of sound, also termed psychoacoustics, has its own distinct elements of pitch, intensity and tibre. An interconnection exists between physics and psychology of hearing. Music being a complex sound contributes to communication and conveys information with semantic and emotional elements. These elements indicate the involvement of the central nervous system through processes of integration and interpretation together with peripheral auditory processing. Effects of sound and music in human psychology and physiology are complicated. Psychological influences of listening to different types of music are based on the different characteristics of basic musical sounds. Attempting to explain music perception can be simpler if music is broken down to its basic auditory signals. Perception of auditory signals is analyzed by the science of psychoacoustics. Differences in complex sound perception have been found between normal subjects and psychiatric patients and between different types of psychopathologies. PMID:15050030

  11. Intensive care unit team perception of palliative care: the discourse of the collective subject

    OpenAIRE

    Gulini, Juliana El Hage Meyer de Barros; Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira do; Moritz, Rachel Duarte; Rosa, Luciana Martins da; Silveira, Natyele Rippel; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To learn the perception of health professionals in an intensive care unit towards palliative care. METHOD This was a descriptive and qualitative study based on the converging care approach conducted at an intensive care unit in the South of Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate the understanding of the professionals about palliative care in this unit. The data were organized and analyzed using the discourse of the collective subject method with the h...

  12. Students' perceptions of vertical and horizontal integration in a discipline-based dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, T C; White, J G

    2017-05-01

    Integration is a key concern in discipline-based undergraduate dental curricula. Therefore, this study compared feedback on integration from students who participated in different instructional designs in a Comprehensive Patient Care course. The study was conducted at the University of Pretoria (2009-2011). Third-year cohorts (Cohorts A, B and C) participated in pre-clinical case-based learning, whilst fourth-year cohorts (Cohorts D and E) received didactic teaching in Comprehensive Patient Care. Cohorts A, D and E practised clinical Comprehensive Patient Care in a discipline-based clinic. Cohort B conducted their Comprehensive Patient Care patient examinations in a dedicated facility supervised by dedicated faculty responsible to teach integration. Students had to indicate on visual analogue scales whether the way they were taught at the school helped them to integrate knowledge from the same (horizontal integration) and preceding (vertical integration) year of study. The end-points of the scales were defined as 'definitely' and 'not at all'. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to measure the differences between cohorts according to the year of study. Third-year case-based learning cohorts rated the horizontal integration close to 80/100 and vertical integration ranging from 64 to 71/100. In year four, Cohort B rated vertical and horizontal integration 9-15% higher (ANOVA, P vertical and horizontal integration 11-18% higher (ANOVA, P integration in the discipline-based undergraduate dental curriculum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  14. Normative perceptions and past-year consequences as predictors of subjective evaluations and weekly drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R

    2013-11-01

    Problem drinking during the college years continues to be an important area of study. Subjective evaluations of consequences have recently been demonstrated to predict future drinking behavior; however, what predicts those evaluations is yet unknown. Social Learning Theory (SLT) provides a guiding framework in this study. Primary aims are to investigate whether individual differences in past experience with alcohol consequences and normative perceptions of alcohol consequences predict subjective evaluations (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe) and weekly drinking behavior. We also test whether evaluations mediate the influence of past consequences and norms on weekly drinking behavior. Following a baseline assessment, participants (N = 96 regularly drinking college students, 52% female) completed ten weekly web-based surveys on previous week alcohol use, consequences, and subjective evaluations of those consequences. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to test hypotheses. Most mediational pathways were not supported - weekly level evaluations do not appear to fully explain the effect of norms or past experience on weekly level drinking behavior. However, results demonstrated that normative perceptions of and past experience with consequences were associated with both weekly drinking behavior and subjective evaluations, and evaluations remained significant predictors of alcohol use behavior after accounting for these important between-person influences. Findings support the importance placed by SLT on cognition in drinking behavior, and suggest that norms for consequences and subjective evaluations may be appropriate targets of intervention in college students. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between Respiratory Load Perception and Perception of Nonrespiratory Sensory Modalities in Subjects with Life-Threatening Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Davenport

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with life-threatening asthma (LTA have reported decreased sensitivity to inspiratory resistive (R loads. It is unknown if decreased sensitivity is specific for inspiratory R loads, other types of respiratory loads, or a general deficit affecting sensory modalities. This study hypothesized that impairment is specific to respiratory stimuli. This study tested perceptual sensitivity of LTA, asthmatic (A, and nonasthmatic (NA subjects to 4 sensory modalities: respiratory, somatosensory, auditory, visual. Perceptual sensitivity was measured with magnitude estimation (ME: respiratory loads ME, determined using inspiratory R and pressure threshold (PT loads; somatosensory ME, determined using weight ranges of 2–20 kg; auditory ME, determined using graded magnitudes of 1 kHz tones delivered for 3 seconds bilaterally; visual ME, determined using gray-to-white disk intensity gradations on black background. ME for inspiratory R loads lessened for LTA over A and NA subjects. There was no significant difference between the 3 groups in ME for PT inspiratory loads, weight, sound, and visual trials. These results demonstrate that LTA subjects are poor perceivers of inspiratory R loads. This deficit in respiratory perception is specific to inspiratory R loads and is not due to perceptual deficits in other types of inspiratory loads, somatosensory, auditory, or visual sensory modalities.

  16. Absolute and convective instabilities of a film flow down a vertical fiber subjected to a radial electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Xue; Ding, Zijing

    2018-01-01

    We consider the motion of a gravity-driven flow down a vertical fiber subjected to a radial electric field. This flow exhibits rich dynamics including the formation of droplets, or beads, driven by a Rayleigh-Plateau mechanism modified by the presence of gravity as well as the Maxwell stress at the interface. A spatiotemporal stability analysis is performed to investigate the effect of electric field on the absolute-convective instability (AI-CI) characteristics. We performed a numerical simulation on the nonlinear evolution of the film to examine the transition from CI to AI regime. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with the spatiotemporal stability analysis. The blowup behavior of nonlinear simulation predicts the formation of touchdown singularity of the interface due to the effect of electric field. We try to connect the blowup behavior with the AI-CI characteristics. It is found that the singularities mainly occur in the AI regime. The results indicate that the film may have a tendency to form very sharp tips due to the enhancement of the absolute instability induced by the electric field. We perform a theoretical analysis to study the behaviors of the singularities. The results show that there exists a self-similarity between the temporal and spatial distances from the singularities.

  17. Altered Pain Perception and Fear-Learning Deficits in Subjects With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenewein, Josef; Erni, Jeannine; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Grillon, Christian; Schumacher, Sonja; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Hassanpour, Katayun; Seiler, Annina; Wittmann, Lutz; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    There is growing evidence that fear-learning abnormalities are involved in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain. More than 50% of PTSD patients suffer from chronic pain. This study aimed to examine the role of fear-learning deficits in the link between pain perception and PTSD. We included 19 subjects with PTSD and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects in a fear-conditioning experiment. The conditioned stimulus (CS) consisted of visual signs flashed upon a screen in front of each subject. The unconditioned stimulus was either a low or high temperature impulse delivered through a thermal contact thermode on the subjects' hand. A designation of 'CS-' was assigned to CS always followed by nonpainful low-temperature stimuli; a designation of 'CS+' was given to CS that were randomly followed by either a low or a more painful high temperature. Skin conductance was used as a physiological marker of fear. In healthy control subjects, CS+ induced more fear than CS-, and a low-temperature stimulus induced less subjective pain after CS- than after CS+. PTSD subjects failed to demonstrate such adaptive conditioning. Fear ratings after CS presentation were significantly higher in the PTSD group than in the control group. There were significant interaction effects between group and the type of CS on fear and pain ratings. Fear-learning deficits are a potentially promising, specific psychopathological factor in altered pain perception associated with PTSD. Deficits in safety learning may increase fear and, consequently, pain sensations. These findings may contribute to elucidating the pathogenesis behind the highly prevalent comorbidity that exists between PTSD and pain disorders, and to developing new treatments. This study provides new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic pain in patients with PTSD. The findings may help to develop new treatment strategies for this highly prevalent comorbidity in PTSD. Copyright © 2016

  18. Perception of self motion during and after passive rotation of the body around an earth-vertical axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N; Zaher, N; Shaikh, A G; Lasker, A G; Zee, D S; Tarnutzer, A A

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the perception of self-rotation using constant-velocity chair rotations. Subjects signalled self motion during three independent tasks (1) by pushing a button when rotation was first sensed, when velocity reached a peak, when velocity began to decrease, and when velocity reached zero, (2) by rotating a disc to match the perceived motion of the body, or (3) by changing the static position of the dial such that a bigger change in its position correlated with a larger perceived velocity. All three tasks gave a consistent quantitative measure of perceived angular velocity. We found a delay in the time at which peak velocity of self-rotation was perceived (2-5 s) relative to the beginning or to the end of chair rotation. In addition the decay of the perception of self-rotation was preceded by a sensed constant-velocity interval or plateau (9-14 s). This delay in the rise of self-motion perception, and the plateau for the maximum perceived velocity, contrasts with the rapid rise and the immediate decay of the angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR). This difference suggests that the sensory signal from the semicircular canals undergoes additional neural processing, beyond the contribution of the velocity-storage mechanism of the aVOR, to compute the percept of self-motion.

  19. Perceptions of disease risk: from social construction of subjective judgments to rational decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoberts, N; Hall, C; Madden, L V; Hughes, G

    2011-06-01

    Many factors influence how people form risk perceptions. Farmers' perceptions of risk and levels of risk aversion impact on decision-making about such things as technology adoption and disease management practices. Irrespective of the underlying factors that affect risk perceptions, those perceptions can be summarized by variables capturing impact and uncertainty components of risk. We discuss a new framework that has the subjective probability of disease and the cost of decision errors as its central features, which might allow a better integration of social science and epidemiology, to the benefit of plant disease management. By focusing on the probability and cost (or impact) dimensions of risk, the framework integrates research from the social sciences, economics, decision theory, and epidemiology. In particular, we review some useful properties of expected regret and skill value, two measures of expected cost that are particularly useful in the evaluation of decision tools. We highlight decision-theoretic constraints on the usefulness of decision tools that may partly explain cases of failure of adoption. We extend this analysis by considering information-theoretic criteria that link model complexity and relative performance and which might explain why users reject forecasters that impose even moderate increases in the complexity of decision making despite improvements in performance or accept very simple decision tools that have relatively poor performance.

  20. Comparison of music perception in bilateral and unilateral cochlear implant users and normal-hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veekmans, K; Ressel, L; Mueller, J; Vischer, M; Brockmeier, S J

    2009-01-01

    Music plays an important role in the daily life of cochlear implant (CI) users, but electrical hearing and speech processing pose challenges for enjoying music. Studies of unilateral CI (UCI) users' music perception have found that these subjects have little difficulty recognizing tempo and rhythm but great difficulty with pitch, interval and melody. The present study is an initial step towards understanding music perception in bilateral CI (BCI) users. The Munich Music Questionnaire was used to investigate music listening habits and enjoyment in 23 BCI users compared to 2 control groups: 23 UCI users and 23 normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Bilateral users appeared to have a number of advantages over unilateral users, though their enjoyment of music did not reach the level of NH listeners. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Perception of risk and subjective health among victims of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenaar, J M; de Wilde, E J; van den Bout, J; Drottz-Sjöberg, B M; van den Brink, W

    2003-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 had a strong impact on the subjective health of the inhabitants in the surrounding regions and that the majority of these health complaints appear to be stress-related. An epidemiological survey among the adult population of the Gomel region in Belarus near Chernobyl showed higher rates of self-reported health problems, psychological distress and medical service use in this region than in a comparable unexposed region. This paper presents an analysis of data on cognitive factors that were collected in this study. The findings support the hypothesis that cognitive variables such as risk perception and sense of control play an important role as mediating factors in the explanation of the observed health differences between the exposed and non-exposed regions. A tentative model is presented to further clarify the role of risk perception in the occurrence of non-specific health complaints after such ecological disasters.

  2. The Influence of Gender, Grade Level and Favourite Subject on Czech Lower Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Geography is an important school subject that brings pupils' description and explanation of social, economic and/or political aspects of the changing world. It has been affirmed that the interest in a subject depends on the attitude to this subject. This study investigates Czech lower secondary school pupils' perception of geography. The research…

  3. The Relationship between Use and Perception: The Case of Catalan Variants of a Subject Coreferential with an Antecedent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Carreras, Joan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between use and perception of five Catalan variants of the variable "subject coreferential with an antecedent." This will be done by examining the results of a cloze test and three perception surveys answered in 1997 by 26 respondents. Two different correct constructions were then presented as…

  4. [Exploratory population study of overweight and obese subjects' perceptions: Searching for improved management practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutze, C; Pétré, B; Dardenne, N; Donneau, A-F; Streel, S; Albert, A; Scheen, A; Husson, E; Guillaume, M

    2017-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health problems of growing concern. Few studies have investigated the representations and perceptions of subjects with overweight and obesity, especially in the general population, as compared to people in a medical weight loss process. The objective of this study was to fill this gap by enabling participants to express their feelings and experience about their overweight, and to assess the extent of the body mass index (BMI) as a determinant of these perceptions. A total of 4155 persons participated in an exploratory study conducted in Wallonia (Belgium). Data were collected by means of a web-based questionnaire. This study investigated the following parameters: sociodemographic and anthropometric factors, perceived health, quality of life, diet perception, enrolment in a weight loss process and weight loss target. The influence of BMI was considered, on one hand, looking at how the above variables evolve according to BMI category, secondly, as a mediation factor in the relationship between socioeconomic level and these same variables. A large majority (87.5%) of subjects were overweight (32.2%) or obese (obese class I 29.9%, class II 14.8%, class III 10.6%). Perceived health was found to deteriorate with the BMI (Ppsychological quality of life reported by the subjects decreased significantly with the BMI (Presignation and powerlessness which can seize obese individuals (especially when BMI increases). As a consequence, there is a need for more adapted weight management to achieve a genuine therapeutic alliance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Subjective disease perception and symptoms of depression in relation to healthcare-seeking behaviour in patients with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Kristi; Silm, Helgi; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid; Oona, Marje

    2009-01-01

    Many patients with rosacea do not seek medical care. The aim of this study was to find predictors for healthcare-seeking behaviour among patients with rosacea. The study subjects were 70 consecutive patients attending a dermatologist (seekers) and 56 subjects with rosacea symptoms selected randomly from among the working population (non-seekers). All subjects completed an Estonian Mood Scale questionnaire, a screening instrument for depressive symptoms, and evaluated their subjective disease perception on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Multivariate analysis showed that the independent predictors for healthcare-seeking behaviour were VAS scores >5 and the presence of advanced forms of rosacea. Higher mean VAS scores were not related to severity of rosacea, but were associated with the presence of depressive symptoms among seekers. In conclusion, healthcare-seeking behaviour is associated with higher subjective disease perception. The presence of depressive symptoms is not related to severity of the disease, but to the subjective disease perception of rosacea patients.

  6. The effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception in healthy subjects: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimpf, Marlene; Liegl, Gregor; Boeckle, Markus; Leitner, Anton; Geisler, Peter; Pieh, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    There is strong evidence indicating an interaction between sleep and pain. However, the size of this effect, as well as the clinical relevance, is unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception. A systematic literature search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane, Psyndex, Psycinfo, and Scopus. By conducting a random-effect model, the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) of sleep deprivation on pain perception was calculated. Studies that investigated any kind of sleep deprivation in conjunction with a pain measurement were included. In cases of several pain measurements within a study, the average effect size of all measures was calculated. Five eligible studies (N = 190) for the between-group analysis and ten studies (N = 266) for the within-group analysis were identified. Sleep deprivation showed a medium effect in the between-group analysis (SMD = 0.62; CI95: 0.12, 1.12; z = 2.43; p = 0.015) and a large effect in the within-group analysis (SMD = 1.49; CI95: 0.82, 2.17; z = 4.35; p sleep deprivation on pain perception. As this meta-analysis is based on experimental studies in healthy subjects, the clinical relevance should be clarified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial perception in normal and strabismic subjects: role of stereopsis and monocular clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzi, G; Cantù, C

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate the roles of binocular vision, monocular clues, and experience in spatial perception in a prospective, nonrandomized, case-control study. A test was created consisting of three wood blocks arranged along the frontal plane inside Panum area. To produce some degrees of horizontal disparity, blocks were moved along a sagittal plane. Thirteen normal subjects (control group) and 13 nonamblyopic strabismic subjects (study group) were asked to identify, both under binocular and monocular vision, the position of the blocks in a series of 12 randomized presentations (phase 1). In phase II of the trial, a letter E in three different sizes, acting as a monocular clue, marked the three blocks. In both phases, the number of correct answers to the test during binocular and monocular vision was recorded. Binocular normal responses appeared greater than monocular normal responses and strabismic binocular responses in both phases (p < 0.001). Binocular strabismic responses and monocular answers of both groups appeared similar. In our experimental model, spatial orientation of strabismic subjects in binocular vision is substantially identical to that of normal subjects in monocular vision. Monocular clues were used in the same manner in both groups of subjects, and experience seemed to play no role in spatial localization of visual objects.

  8. Intranasal Oxytocin Selectively Modulates Social Perception, Craving, and Approach Behavior in Subjects With Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer M; Arcuni, Peter A; Weinstein, Dawn; Woolley, Josh D

    2016-01-01

    A pharmacotherapy that both improves social abilities and promotes abstinence may be particularly helpful for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Recent clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that oxytocin has prosocial and antiaddiction effects. We performed a pilot, laboratory-based, preclinical trial of oxytocin in subjects with alcohol abuse (as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 Edition criteria) to evaluate therapeutic potential and assess tolerability. Social perceptual ability, cue-induced craving, and approach bias for alcohol and appetitive imagery were quantified after intranasal oxytocin and placebo administration to 32 nontreatment-seeking individuals with alcohol abuse in a double-blind, crossover study. Because attachment style can moderate the effects of oxytocin, we also explored whether attachment style moderated oxytocin's effects on our behavioral measures. Oxytocin significantly improved recognition of easier items on a social perception task, but had no significant group-level effect on cue-induced craving. However, oxytocin effects on craving were moderated by attachment anxiety, with oxytocin reducing craving in more anxiously attached individuals and increasing craving in less anxiously attached individuals. Subjects did not display an approach bias to alcohol images on the placebo day, preventing meaningful analysis of this measure. Subjects did display an approach bias to appetitive images on the placebo day, which was significantly reduced by oxytocin administration. No adverse reactions were observed. Intranasal oxytocin has potential to improve social perception, reduce cue-induced alcohol cravings, and reduce appetitive approach bias in subjects with alcohol abuse, and can be safely tolerated in this population. The effects of oxytocin are complex, however, and require further investigation.

  9. ”Nice to have!”: Teacher perceptions of practical and aesthetical curriculum subjects in primary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Aadland Helga; Magne Espeland; Ingrid Grønsdal; Trond Egil Arnesen; Kjetil Sømoe

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present findings from "Skolefagsundersøkelsen 2011", a national survey mapping teacher perceptions of different aspects of teaching and conditions for the curriculum subjects art & craft, home economics, music, and physical education (PA-subjects), in grades 1-7 in primary school. The questions we focus on and discuss in the article are connected to teachers’ attitudes to this group of subjects, and their use of methods often associated with PA-subjects in other school ...

  10. Fatty acid translocase gene CD36 rs1527483 variant influences oral fat perception in Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hing-Huat; Tan, Yen-Nee; Say, Yee-How

    2017-01-01

    We determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the fatty acid translocase CD36 gene - a receptor for fatty acids - is associated with oral fat perception (OFP) of different fat contents in custards and commercially-available foods, and obesity measures in Malaysian subjects (n=313; 118 males, 293 ethnic Chinese; 20 ethnic Indians). A 170-mm visual analogue scale was used to assess the ratings of perceived fat content, oiliness and creaminess of 0%, 2%, 6% and 10% fat content-by-weight custards and low-fat/regular versions of commercially-available milk, mayonnaise and cream crackers. Overall, the subjects managed to significantly discriminate the fat content, oiliness and creaminess between low-fat/regular versions of milk and mayonnaise. Females rated the perception of fat content and oiliness of both milks higher, but ethnicity, obesity and adiposity status did not seem to play a role in influencing most of OFP. The overall minor allele frequencies for rs1761667 and rs1527483 were 0.30 and 0.26, respectively. Females and individuals with rs1527483 TT genotype significantly perceived greater creaminess of 10% fat-by-weight custard. Also, individuals with rs1527483 TT genotype and T allele significantly perceived greater fat content of cream crackers, independent of fat concentration. rs1761667 SNP did not significantly affect OFP, except for cream crackers. Both gene variants were also not associated with obesity measures. Taken together, this study supports the notion that CD36 - specifically rs1527483, plays a role in OFP, but not in influencing obesity in Malaysian subjects. Besides, gender is an important factor for OFP, where females had higher sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Interpersonal Behaviour across Four Different School Subjects: Control Is Good but Affiliation Is Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telli, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have pointed out that teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' positive attitudes towards schooling. However, only few studies have examined whether students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' subject-related attitudes across different school subjects. In this study, it was…

  12. Subjective Time Perceptions and Aging Well: A Review of Concepts and Empirical Research - A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrian, Martina; Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-01-01

    Human beings impose subjective, time-related interpretations on their existence, and the experience of time is a major aspect of lifespan development. In this mini-review, we understand subjective time as the way individuals subjectively perceive and evaluate the passing of their personal "objective" lifetime. A broad range of constructs and operationalizations has been developed in (gero-) psychology to capture subjective time, including future time perspective, personal goals, or autobiographical memories. In order to theoretically integrate this yet loosely connected body of literature, we propose a conceptual model of subjective time concepts according to 2 dimensions: temporal direction (past, present, future) and thematic field (duration/expansion, time-ordered life content, and time-related evaluations, attitudes, and mindsets). This conceptual model of subjective time perceptions builds the foundation for a review of the empirical literature regarding associations of subjective time with developmental outcomes (i.e., subjective well-being and physical health) in middle and late adulthood. Empirical findings establish subjective time concepts as a consistent predictor of well-being and health. Positive subjective time perceptions (i.e., an expanded view of the future, a focus on positive past and future life content, and favorable time-related evaluations) were associated with higher well-being and better physical health, while negative subjective time perceptions in general were linked to lower levels of health and well-being. Contrasting past- and future-oriented subjective time perceptions, it appears that past-oriented subjective time perceptions have been studied primarily in relation to subjective well-being, while future-oriented time perceptions play a key role both with regard to physical health and well-being. In conclusion, we argue that a stronger integration of subjective time constructs into developmental regulation models may deepen our

  13. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. Making Time for Nature: Visual Exposure to Natural Environments Lengthens Subjective Time Perception and Reduces Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Meredith S; Repke, Meredith A; Nickerson, Norma P; Conway, Lucian G; Odum, Amy L; Jordan, Kerry E

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity in delay discounting is associated with maladaptive behaviors such as overeating and drug and alcohol abuse. Researchers have recently noted that delay discounting, even when measured by a brief laboratory task, may be the best predictor of human health related behaviors (e.g., exercise) currently available. Identifying techniques to decrease impulsivity in delay discounting, therefore, could help improve decision-making on a global scale. Visual exposure to natural environments is one recent approach shown to decrease impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task, although the mechanism driving this result is currently unknown. The present experiment was thus designed to evaluate not only whether visual exposure to natural (mountains, lakes) relative to built (buildings, cities) environments resulted in less impulsivity, but also whether this exposure influenced time perception. Participants were randomly assigned to either a natural environment condition or a built environment condition. Participants viewed photographs of either natural scenes or built scenes before and during a delay discounting task in which they made choices about receiving immediate or delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants also completed an interval bisection task in which natural or built stimuli were judged as relatively longer or shorter presentation durations. Following the delay discounting and interval bisection tasks, additional measures of time perception were administered, including how many minutes participants thought had passed during the session and a scale measurement of whether time "flew" or "dragged" during the session. Participants exposed to natural as opposed to built scenes were less impulsive and also reported longer subjective session times, although no differences across groups were revealed with the interval bisection task. These results are the first to suggest that decreased impulsivity from exposure to natural as opposed to built

  15. Making Time for Nature: Visual Exposure to Natural Environments Lengthens Subjective Time Perception and Reduces Impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith S Berry

    Full Text Available Impulsivity in delay discounting is associated with maladaptive behaviors such as overeating and drug and alcohol abuse. Researchers have recently noted that delay discounting, even when measured by a brief laboratory task, may be the best predictor of human health related behaviors (e.g., exercise currently available. Identifying techniques to decrease impulsivity in delay discounting, therefore, could help improve decision-making on a global scale. Visual exposure to natural environments is one recent approach shown to decrease impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task, although the mechanism driving this result is currently unknown. The present experiment was thus designed to evaluate not only whether visual exposure to natural (mountains, lakes relative to built (buildings, cities environments resulted in less impulsivity, but also whether this exposure influenced time perception. Participants were randomly assigned to either a natural environment condition or a built environment condition. Participants viewed photographs of either natural scenes or built scenes before and during a delay discounting task in which they made choices about receiving immediate or delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants also completed an interval bisection task in which natural or built stimuli were judged as relatively longer or shorter presentation durations. Following the delay discounting and interval bisection tasks, additional measures of time perception were administered, including how many minutes participants thought had passed during the session and a scale measurement of whether time "flew" or "dragged" during the session. Participants exposed to natural as opposed to built scenes were less impulsive and also reported longer subjective session times, although no differences across groups were revealed with the interval bisection task. These results are the first to suggest that decreased impulsivity from exposure to natural as

  16. Relations between psychophysical data and speech perception for hearing-impaired subjects. II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreschler, W. A.; Plomp, R.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-one sensorineurally hearing-impaired adolescents were studied with an extensive battery of tone-perception, phoneme-perception, and speech-perception tests. Tests on loudness perception, frequency selectivity, and temporal resolution at the test frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz were

  17. War or Peace? How the Subjective Perception of Great Power Interdependence Shapes Preemptive Defensive Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Why do great powers with benign intentions end up fighting each other in wars they do not seek? We utilize an incentivized, two-person “Preemptive Strike Game” (PSG to explore how the subjective perception of great power interdependence shapes defensive aggression against persons from rival great powers. In Study 1, college students from the United States (N = 115, China (N = 106, and Japan (N = 99 made PSG decisions facing each other. This natural experiment revealed that Chinese and Japanese participants (a made more preemptive attacks against each other and Americans than against their compatriots, and that (b greater preexisting perceptions of bilateral competition increased intergroup attack rates. In Study 2, adult Americans (N = 127 watched real CNN expert interviews portraying United States–China economic interdependence as more positive or negative. This randomized experiment revealed that the more positive portrayal reduced preemptive American strikes against Chinese (but not Japanese, while the more negative portrayal amplified American anger about China’s rise, increasing preemptive attacks against Chinese. We also found, however, that preemptive strikes were primarily defensive and not offensive. Interventions to reduce defensive aggression and promote great power peace are discussed.

  18. War or Peace? How the Subjective Perception of Great Power Interdependence Shapes Preemptive Defensive Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yiming; Gries, Peter H; Li, Yang; Stivers, Adam W; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Kuhlman, D M; Bai, Liying

    2017-01-01

    Why do great powers with benign intentions end up fighting each other in wars they do not seek? We utilize an incentivized, two-person "Preemptive Strike Game" (PSG) to explore how the subjective perception of great power interdependence shapes defensive aggression against persons from rival great powers. In Study 1, college students from the United States ( N = 115), China ( N = 106), and Japan ( N = 99) made PSG decisions facing each other. This natural experiment revealed that Chinese and Japanese participants (a) made more preemptive attacks against each other and Americans than against their compatriots, and that (b) greater preexisting perceptions of bilateral competition increased intergroup attack rates. In Study 2, adult Americans ( N = 127) watched real CNN expert interviews portraying United States-China economic interdependence as more positive or negative. This randomized experiment revealed that the more positive portrayal reduced preemptive American strikes against Chinese (but not Japanese), while the more negative portrayal amplified American anger about China's rise, increasing preemptive attacks against Chinese. We also found, however, that preemptive strikes were primarily defensive and not offensive. Interventions to reduce defensive aggression and promote great power peace are discussed.

  19. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted ...

  20. Pleasant touch moderates the subjective but not objective aspects of body perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Marie Lloyd

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Un-myelinated C tactile afferents (CT afferents are a key finding in affective touch. These fibres, which activate in response to a caress-like touch to hairy skin (CT afferents are not found in palm skin, may have more in common with interoceptive systems encoding body ownership, than afferent systems processing other tactile stimuli. We tested whether subjective embodiment of a rubber hand (measured through questionnaire items was increased when tactile stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at a rate optimal for CT afferents (3cm/s vs. stimulation of glabrous skin (on the palm of the hand or at a non-optimal rate (30cm/s, which should not activate these fibres. We also collected ratings of tactile pleasantness and a measure of perceived limb position, proprioceptive drift, which is mediated by different mechanisms of multisensory integration than those responsible for feelings of ownership. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that proprioceptive drift was a significant predictor of subjective strength of the illusion when tactile stimuli were applied to the back of the hand, regardless of stroking speed. This relationship was modified by pleasantness, with higher ratings when stimulation was applied to the back of the hand at the slower vs. faster stroking speed. Pleasantness was also a unique predictor of illusion strength when fast stroking was applied to the palm of the hand. However, there were no conditions under which pleasantness was a significant predictor of drift. Since the illusion was demonstrated at a non-optimal stroking speed an integrative role for CT afferents within the illusion cannot be fully supported. Pleasant touch, however, does moderate the subjective aspects of the rubber hand illusion, which under certain tactile conditions may interact with proprioceptive information about the body or have a unique influence on subjective body perception.

  1. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L O; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  2. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  3. Nurse leaders' perceptions of the ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Sanna-Maria; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kangasniemi, Mari; Halkoaho, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe nurse leaders' perceptions of ethical recruitment in clinical research. Nurse leaders are expected to get involved in clinical research, but there are few studies that focus on their role, particularly the ethical issues. Qualitative data were collected from ten nurse leaders using thematic one-to-one interviews and analysed with content analysis. Nurse leaders considered clinical research at their workplace in relation to the key issues that enabled ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research. These were: early information and collaboration for incorporating clinical research in everyday work, an opportune and peaceful recruitment moment and positive research culture. Getting involved in clinical research is part of the nurse leader's professional responsibility in current health care. They have an essential role to play in ensuring that recruitment is ethical and that the dignity of study subjects is maintained. The duty of nurse leaders is to maintain good contact with other collaborators and to ensure good conditions for implementing clinical research at their site. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the overall situation on their wards. Implementing clinical research requires careful planning, together with educating, supporting and motivating nursing staff. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  5. Dynamics of thin-film piezoelectric microactuators with large vertical stroke subject to multi-axis coupling and fabrication asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongsoo; Wang, Thomas; Oldham, Kenn

    2018-01-01

    The high performance and small size of MEMS based scanners has allowed various optical imaging techniques to be realized in a small form factor. Many such devices are resonant scanners, and thus their linear and nonlinear dynamic behaviors have been studied in the past. Thin-film piezoelectric materials, in contrast, provide sufficient energy density to achieve both large static displacements and high-frequency resonance, but large deformation can in turn influence dynamic scanner behavior. This paper reports on the influence of very large stroke translation of a piezoelectric vertical actuator on its resonant behavior, which may not be otherwise explained fully by common causes of resonance shift such as beam stiffening or nonlinear forcing. To examine the change of structural compliance over the course of scanner motion, a model has been developed that includes internal forces from residual stress and the resultant additional multi-axis coupling among actuator leg structures. Like some preceding vertical scanning micro-actuators, the scanner of this work has four legs, with each leg featuring four serially connected thin-film PZT unimorphs that allow the scanner to generate larger than 400 µm of vertical displacement at 14 V DC. Using an excitation near one or more resonances, the input voltage can be lowered, and complementary multi-axis rotations can be also generated, but change of the resonant frequencies with scanner height needs to be understood to maximize scanner performance. The presented model well predicts the experimental observation of the decrease of the resonant frequencies of the scanner with the increase of a dc bias voltage. Also, the effects of the magnitude and uniformity of residual stress across the scanner structure on the natural frequencies have been studied.

  6. Subjective Well-Being: Keeping up with the Perception of the Joneses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Cahit; Sorensen, Bent E.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the US General Social Survey 1972-2004, we study the role of perceptions and status in self-reported happiness. Reference group income negatively relates to own happiness and high perceptions about own relative income, quality of dwelling, and social class relate positively and very significantly to happiness. Perceptions about…

  7. Effects of stress and relaxation on pain perception in subjects with pain-free occlusional disharmony compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscheweyh, R; Becker, T; Born, Y; Çolak-Ekici, R; Marziniak, M; Evers, S; Gerlach, A L; Wolowski, A

    2015-04-01

    The significance of occlusal disharmony for the development of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is controversial. The ongoing biomechanical strain caused by occlusal disharmony might lead to sensitization processes in the nociceptive system. Understanding these processes might be an important step toward understanding the possible relationship between occlusal disharmony and TMD. In this study, we therefore investigated whether subjects with occlusal disharmony (n = 22) differ from healthy controls (n = 26) in their pain perception and pain modulation by stress and relaxation. Trigeminal and extratrigeminal experimental pain perception (pinprick, heat, and pressure pain) was assessed before and after stress (mental arithmetic) and relaxation (viewing of low-arousal pictures). There were no group differences in pain perception at baseline or during the stress task. Compared with controls, the occlusal disharmony group exhibited an inadequate reduction in pain perception during relaxation, which was significant for the extratrigeminal site (P < 0.01) and reached a trend for significance at the trigeminal site (P = 0.1). These results suggest that subjects with occlusal disharmony show signs of disturbed endogenous pain inhibition during relaxation. There is evidence for the presence of sensitization of the nociceptive system in subjects with occlusal disharmony. Possibly, deficient inhibition of extratrigeminal and trigeminal pain perception by relaxation might contribute to the development of TMD or other chronic pain disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Illusions of integration are subjectively impenetrable: Phenomenological experience of Lag 1 percepts during dual-target RSVP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simione, Luca; Akyürek, Elkan G; Vastola, Valentina; Raffone, Antonino; Bowman, Howard

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between different kinds of target reports in a rapid serial visual presentation task, and their associated perceptual experience. Participants reported the identity of two targets embedded in a stream of stimuli and their associated subjective visibility. In our task, target stimuli could be combined together to form more complex ones, thus allowing participants to report temporally integrated percepts. We found that integrated percepts were associated with high subjective visibility scores, whereas reports in which the order of targets was reversed led to a poorer perceptual experience. We also found a reciprocal relationship between the chance of the second target not being reported correctly and the perceptual experience associated with the first one. Principally, our results indicate that integrated percepts are experienced as a unique, clear perceptual event, whereas order reversals are experienced as confused, similar to cases in which an entirely wrong response was given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diafragmas horizontais de piso em madeira, confeccionados com chapas de OSB e vigas I, submetido ao carregamento vertical = Wood light-frame floor diaphragms, made with OSB panels and Ijoists, subjected to vertical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altevir Castro dos Santos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda construções em madeira sob a ótica de sistemas com estruturas leves; apresenta análise computacional por meio de modelagem pelo método de elementos finitos de diafragmas de piso e vigas I, submetidas a ensaio de flexão a quatro pontos. O objetivo geral é avaliar a resistência e a rigidez de diafragmas horizontais,construídos em Sistemas Leves de Madeira, quando submetidos a ações verticais. As análises foram realizadas por meio do programa computacional SAP2000 e foram avaliadas as influências dos seguintes parâmetros: espaçamento entre vigas que constituem os elementosde ossatura do diafragma horizontal e o espaçamento entre pregos de fixação do contrapiso, composto por chapas de OSB – Oriented Strand Board. Ao final do trabalho, comparam-se os resultados obtidos a partir das análises numérica e teórica, e são apresentadas algumasconclusões.Wood light-frame floor diaphragms, made with OSB panels and I-joists, subjected to vertical loads. This work is focused on lightweight woodframe constructions, and presents a finite element modeling of floor diaphragms and wood I-joists subjected to four-point bending. It presents the results of experimental tests on wood I-joists subjected to vertical loads. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the resistance and rigidity of wood light-frame floor diaphragms, when subjected to monotonic vertical forces acting in the plane of the floor. The analyses were performed using the SAP2000 computer program and tested with diferent constructive arrangements, and the influence of the following variables were examined: distance between wood I-joists, and distance between nails around the perimeter of the OSB boards. Finally, a comparison between analytical and numerical results is performed.

  10. ”Nice to have!”: Teacher perceptions of practical and aesthetical curriculum subjects in primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadland Helga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present findings from "Skolefagsundersøkelsen 2011", a national survey mapping teacher perceptions of different aspects of teaching and conditions for the curriculum subjects art & craft, home economics, music, and physical education (PA-subjects, in grades 1-7 in primary school. The questions we focus on and discuss in the article are connected to teachers’ attitudes to this group of subjects, and their use of methods often associated with PA-subjects in other school subjects, like mathematics and science. Our findings suggest that our teacher informants generally have a very positive attitude to PA-subjects and that they believe in the effects of using PA methods in other subjects. However, in everyday schooling, this does only take place to a very small degree.

  11. Learning with LinkedIn: Students' Perceptions of Incorporating Subject-Related Blogging in an International Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Nataliya; Khodabandehloo, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of implementation of blogging within a LinkedIn discussion group in an international marketing course for a multicultural group of students focusing on the students' perceptions of the subject-related blogging. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This study adopts a qualitative approach; data have been…

  12. Subjective Experiences in Activity Involvement and Perceptions of Growth in a Sample of First-Year Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2008-01-01

    We examined subjective experiences in activities and perceptions of growth in a sample of first-year female university students (N = 196; age range = 17 to 19 years old, M = 18.48, SD = 0.53; the most common ethnic affiliations were British Isles, 51% of respondents, Canadian, 34%, French, 14%, and German, 8%). Students described 4 activities,…

  13. Parallels between Objective Indicators and Subjective Perceptions of Quality of Life: A Study of Metropolitan and County Areas in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-shan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the consistency between objective indicators and subjective perceptions of quality of life in a ranking of survey data for cities and counties in Taiwan. Data used for analysis included the Statistical Yearbook of Hsiens and Municipalities and the Survey on Living Conditions of Citizens in Taiwan, both given for the year 2000.…

  14. Benefits of a short, practical questionnaire to measure subjective perception of nasal appearance after aesthetic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohuis, Peter J F M; Hakim, Sara; Duivesteijn, Wouter; Knobbe, Arno; Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2013-12-01

    The authors tested a short, practically designed questionnaire to assess changes in subjective perception of nasal appearance in patients before and after aesthetic rhinoplasty. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a group of 121 patients who desired aesthetic rhinoplasty and were operated on by one surgeon. The questionnaire contained five questions (E1-E5) based on a five-point Likert scale and a visual analogue scale (range, 0 to 10). Two questions were designed as trick questions to help the surgeon screen for signs of body dysmorphic disorder. All patients rated the appearance of their nose as improved after surgery. The visual analogue scale revealed a Gaussian curve of normal distribution (range, 0.5 to 10) around a significant improvement (mean, 4.36 points, p = 0.018). Also, question E1, question E2, and the sum of questions E1 through E5 showed a statistically significant improvement after surgery (p = 1.74 × 10, p = 4.29 × 10, and p = 9.23 × 10, respectively). The authors found a linear relationship between preoperative score on the trick questions and postoperative increase in visual analogue scale score. Test-retest reliability could be investigated in 74 of 121 patients (61 percent) and showed a positive correlation between postoperative (1 year after surgery) and repostoperative response (2 to 4 years after surgery). The authors concluded that a surgeon performing aesthetic rhinoplasty can benefit from using this questionnaire. It is simple, takes no more than 2 minutes to complete, and provides helpful subjective information regarding patients' preoperative nasal appearance and postoperative surgical outcome. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. Cultural, social and personal ways of experiencing love - an analysis of the perception of subjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    This article is based on analysis of 4 couple's personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma - MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale - Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux - Firenze - ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis.

  16. Cultural, social and personal ways of experiencing love – an analysis of the perception of subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article is based on analysis of 4 couple’s personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma – MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale – Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux – Firenze – ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis. PMID:22037756

  17. Experimental study of time-delay signature of chaos in mutually coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to polarization optical injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yanhua

    2013-07-29

    Time-delay signature of chaos in mutually coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to polarization rotated optical injection has been investigated experimentally. Autocorrelation function and permutation entropy are used to quantitatively identify the time-delay signature of chaos. The experiment results show that the time-delay signature is sensitive to the polarization rotated angle. Minimum time-delay signature has been observed in the intermediate polarization rotated angle for the lower bias current. This is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. At higher bias currents, the lower time-delay signature has been obtained with parallel optical injection.

  18. Dynamic interaction of twin vertically overlapping lined tunnels in an elastic half space subjected to incident plane waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongxian; Wang, Yirui; Liang, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    The scattering of plane harmonic P and SV waves by a pair of vertically overlapping lined tunnels buried in an elastic half space is solved using a semi-analytic indirect boundary integration equation method. Then the effect of the distance between the two tunnels, the stiffness and density of the lining material, and the incident frequency on the seismic response of the tunnels is investigated. Numerical results demonstrate that the dynamic interaction between the twin tunnels cannot be ignored and the lower tunnel has a significant shielding effect on the upper tunnel for high-frequency incident waves, resulting in great decrease of the dynamic hoop stress in the upper tunnel; for the low-frequency incident waves, in contrast, the lower tunnel can lead to amplification effect on the upper tunnel. It also reveals that the frequency-spectrum characteristics of dynamic stress of the lower tunnel are significantly different from those of the upper tunnel. In addition, for incident P waves in low-frequency region, the soft lining tunnels have significant amplification effect on the surface displacement amplitude, which is slightly larger than that of the corresponding single tunnel.

  19. An explanation for catastrophic failures of GaN-based vertical structure LEDs subjected to thermoelectric stressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lilin; Yin, Luqiao; Teng, Dongdong; Zhang, Jianhua; Ma, Xincan; Wang, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Both accelerated life tests and engineering practices present a common behavior: LED products may encounter catastrophic failure under thermo-electric co-stressing. The present work proposes that the applied thermoelectric stresses themselves are not necessary conditions but pre-conditions for LED breakdown. The deformation and sliding of the metal lines on n-GaN under thermoelectric co-stressing cause electrodes to become dilapidated. Such dilapidated electrodes with rough edges will help to generate localized high electrical fields. The catastrophic failure occurs during the de-trapping process of space charges in and around threading dislocations when the applied electric field is removed and short circuits form between the charged dislocation cores and the tips of the dilapidated electrodes. A phenomenological relationship is given to describe the interactions between temperatures and applied electric currents on the diffusion-flux-accommodated sliding and deformation of patterned metal electrodes on vertical LEDs. Such a law is coincident with the practical trend of LED failure rates observed in accelerated life tests and engineering applications.

  20. Polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to feedback with variably rotated polarization angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shuiying; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan; Luo, Bin; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Lei

    2009-09-20

    Influences of variable-angle polarization-rotated optical feedback on polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are investigated numerically. For the so-called case A (x polarization) feedback, only the x mode is selected to pass through the feedback loop. As the polarization angle is varied from 0 degrees to 90 degrees, the dominant polarization mode switching can be observed even for fixed feedback strength and bias current. For the so-called case B (xy polarization) feedback, the total outputs of the VCSEL pass through the feedback loop. The polarization property is much different from case A. The dominant polarization mode switching occurs not in the entire range of polarization angles, however, but in the so-called critical angle, from where the intensities of both polarization modes become comparable to each other and keep around constant values, and can be observed. In addition, the complementary properties of intensities between the two polarization modes for both cases are evaluated quantitatively in terms of the defined normalized intensity.

  1. Early visual responses predict conscious face perception within and between subjects during binocular rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Barnes, Gareth Robert; Overgaard, Morten; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that conscious face perception may be related to neural activity in a large time window around 170-800ms after stimulus presentation, yet in the majority of these studies changes in conscious experience are confounded with changes in physical stimulation. Using multivariate classification on MEG data recorded when participants reported changes in conscious perception evoked by binocular rivalry between a face and a grating, we showed that only MEG signals in the 120-320ms time range, peaking at the M170 around 180ms and the P2m at around 260ms, reliably predicted conscious experience. Conscious perception could not only be decoded significantly better than chance from the sensors that showed the largest average difference, as previous studies suggest, but also from patterns of activity across groups of occipital sensors that individually were unable to predict perception better than chance. Additionally, source space analyses showed that sources in the early and late visual system predicted conscious perception more accurately than frontal and parietal sites, although conscious perception could also be decoded there. Finally, the patterns of neural activity associated with conscious face perception generalized from one participant to another around the times of maximum prediction accuracy. Our work thus demonstrates that the neural correlates of particular conscious contents (here, faces) are highly consistent in time and space within individuals and that these correlates are shared to some extent between individuals. PMID:23281780

  2. Early visual responses predict conscious face perception within and between subjects during binocular rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Barnes, Gareth Robert; Overgaard, Morten; Rees, Geraint

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that conscious face perception may be related to neural activity in a large time window around 170-800 msec after stimulus presentation, yet in the majority of these studies changes in conscious experience are confounded with changes in physical stimulation. Using multivariate classification on MEG data recorded when participants reported changes in conscious perception evoked by binocular rivalry between a face and a grating, we showed that only MEG signals in the 120-320 msec time range, peaking at the M170 around 180 msec and the P2m at around 260 msec, reliably predicted conscious experience. Conscious perception could not only be decoded significantly better than chance from the sensors that showed the largest average difference, as previous studies suggest, but also from patterns of activity across groups of occipital sensors that individually were unable to predict perception better than chance. In addition, source space analyses showed that sources in the early and late visual system predicted conscious perception more accurately than frontal and parietal sites, although conscious perception could also be decoded there. Finally, the patterns of neural activity associated with conscious face perception generalized from one participant to another around the times of maximum prediction accuracy. Our work thus demonstrates that the neural correlates of particular conscious contents (here, faces) are highly consistent in time and space within individuals and that these correlates are shared to some extent between individuals.

  3. Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in vertical counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2014-01-01

    and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark Introduction: Altered loading pattern of the medial aspect of the knee has been associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are associated......Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects Brekke AF1,2, Nielsen DB2, Holsgaard-Larsen A2 1School of physiotherapy, University College Zealand, Denmark 2Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedics...... with early-onset OA with associated pain, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. However, specific knee loading pattern of the medial aspect has not been investigated during different jump-tasks in ACL-reconstructed patients. The purpose was to investigate potential kinetic differences...

  4. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.

  5. Embodied Product Perception: Effects of Verticality Cues in Advertising and Packaging Design on Consumer Impressions and Price Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; de Vries, Pieter Walter; Bontekoe, F.; Dijkstra, K.

    2012-01-01

    As consumers increasingly turn to luxury brands and associated benefits, brand managers face the question how to convey luxury perceptions via marketing communications such as packaging and advertising design. Inspired by theories addressing embodied cognition and symbolic meaning portrayal, this

  6. Embodied Product Perception : Effects of Verticality Cues in Advertising and Packaging Design on Consumer Impressions and Price Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompay, Thomas J L; De Vries, Peter W.; Bontekoe, Fenna; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin

    2012-01-01

    As consumers increasingly turn to luxury brands and associated benefits, brand managers face the question how to convey luxury perceptions via marketing communications such as packaging and advertising design. Inspired by theories addressing embodied cognition and symbolic meaning portrayal, this

  7. Is fear perception special? Evidence at the level of decision-making and subjective confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Ai; Mobbs, Dean; Lau, Hakwan

    2016-01-01

    Fearful faces are believed to be prioritized in visual perception. However, it is unclear whether the processing of low-level facial features alone can facilitate such prioritization or whether higher-level mechanisms also contribute. We examined potential biases for fearful face perception at the levels of perceptual decision-making and perceptual confidence. We controlled for lower-level visual processing capacity by titrating luminance contrasts of backward masks, and the emotional intensi...

  8. Subjective Risk Assessment and Perception in the Greek and English Bakery Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Zafira Kavadi; Giorgos Bakoyannis; Sotiris Papantonopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards?according to 7 risk ...

  9. Subjective perceptions associated with the ascending and descending slopes of breath alcohol exposure vary with recent drinking history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Leah; Morzorati, Sandra L; Foroud, Tatiana; Windisch, Kyle; Darlington, Todd; Zimmerman, Ulrich S; Plawecki, Martin H; O'Connor, Sean J

    2012-06-01

    The differentiator model predicts that individuals with a positive family history of alcoholism (FHA) or heavy alcohol consumers will feel more sensitive to the effects of alcohol on the ascending phase of the blood alcohol content while feeling less sedated on the descending phase. This study tested whether subjective perceptions are sensitive to the slope of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and whether that sensitivity is associated with an FHA and/or recent drinking history (RDH). Family-history-positive (FHP, n = 27) and family-history-negative (FHN, n = 27) young adult nondependent drinkers were infused intravenously with alcohol in 2 sessions separated by 1 week. After 20 minutes, one session had an ascending BrAC (+3.0 mg%/min), while the other session had a descending BrAC (-1 mg%/min). The BrAC for both sessions at this point was approximately 60 mg%, referred to as the crossover point. Subjective perceptions of intoxication, high, stimulated, and sedation were sampled frequently and then interpolated to the crossover point. Within-subject differences between ascending and descending responses were examined for associations with FHA and/or RDH. Recent moderate drinkers reported increased perceptions of feeling intoxicated (p perceptions in young adult social drinkers depend on the slope of the BrAC when examined in association with RDH. These results support the differentiator model hypothesis concerning the ascending slope and suggest that moderate alcohol consumers could be at risk for increased alcohol consumption because they feel more intoxicated and high on the ascending slope. Subjects did not feel less sedated on the descending slope, contrary to the differentiator model but replicating several previous studies. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Intensive care unit team perception of palliative care: the discourse of the collective subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulini, Juliana El Hage Meyer de Barros; Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira do; Moritz, Rachel Duarte; Rosa, Luciana Martins da; Silveira, Natyele Rippel; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira

    2017-05-25

    To learn the perception of health professionals in an intensive care unit towards palliative care. This was a descriptive and qualitative study based on the converging care approach conducted at an intensive care unit in the South of Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate the understanding of the professionals about palliative care in this unit. The data were organized and analyzed using the discourse of the collective subject method with the help of Qualiquantisoft® software. Participants included 37 professionals (12 nurses, 11nursing technicians, 5 physical therapists and 9 doctors). The key ideas extracted from the interviews were: care in the end stage of life that avoids futile measures; comfort care; lack of standardized care and lack of team training. The professionals perceived palliative care as appropriate in the last stages of life, with no need for futile treatment or as comfort measures. However, they are aware of the lack of standardization and lack of capacity building in this area, which leads them to conceive palliative care as terminal care, and measures are recommended to break with this stigma. Conhecer a percepção dos profissionais de saúde de uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva acerca do cuidado paliativo. Pesquisa descritiva, qualitativa do tipo Convergente Assistencial realizada em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva da região sul do Brasil. Utilizou-se de entrevista semiestruturada que investigou o entendimento e a compreensão sobre cuidado paliativo nesta unidade. Os dados foram organizados e analisados pela técnica do discurso do sujeito coletivo com auxílio do software Qualiquantisoft®. Participaram do estudo 37 profissionais (12 enfermeiros, 11 técnicos de enfermagem, cinco fisioterapeutas e nove médicos). As ideias centrais extraídas dos relatos: cuidado na fase terminal da vida sem medidas fúteis; cuidados de conforto; falta uniformizar a assistência e falta capacitação para a equipe. Os profissionais

  11. A study on gender non-conforming subjects in current society : Self-perception of body and identity

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research to be included in a PhD Thesis on Gender nonconformity. Behind the results there is bibliographic research and fieldwork with 11 subjects over18 years-old from La Plata and La Plata metropolitan area. The theoretical framework doesn’t look into the specific realities of gender non-conforming subjects. I attempted to explore the subjects’ narrations on themselves and their self-perception with a quantitative view. From a diversity standing point,...

  12. Subjective Perception of Sleep, but not its Objective Quality, is Associated with Immediate Postpartum Mood Disturbances in Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Design: Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Setting: Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Participants: Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. Conclusions: The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity. Citation: Bei B; Milgrom J; Ericksen J; Trinder J. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in

  13. Early visual responses predict conscious face perception within and between subjects during binocular rivalry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that conscious face perception may be related to neural activity in a large time window around 170–800 msec after stimulus presentation, yet in the majority of these studies changes in conscious experience are confounded with changes in physical stimulation. Using...... multivariate classification on MEG data recorded when participants reported changes in conscious perception evoked by binocular rivalry between a face and a grating, we showed that only MEG signals in the 120–320 msec time range, peaking at the M170 around 180 msec and the P2m at around 260 msec, reliably...... predicted conscious experience. Conscious perception could not only be decoded significantly better than chance from the sensors that showed the largest average difference, as previous studies suggest, but also from patterns of activity across groups of occipital sensors that individually were unable...

  14. Student perceptions and learning outcomes of blended learning in a massive first-year core physiology for allied health subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Janelle; Meehan-Andrews, Terri; Weerakkody, Nivan; Hughes, Diane L; Rathner, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Evidence shows that factors contributing to success in physiology education for allied health students at universities include not only their high school achievement and background but also factors such as confidence with their teachers and quality of their learning experience, justifying intensive and continued survey of students' perceptions of their learning experience. Here we report data covering a 3-yr period in a physiology subject that has been redesigned for blended and online presentation. Consistent with previous reports, we show that when we undertook a blended mode of delivery, students demonstrated better grades than traditional modes of teaching; however the absence of didactic teaching in this subject resulted in lower grades overall. Students have very strong positive attitudes to weekly quizzes (80% positive approval) but report ambivalent attitudes to online self-directed learning (61% negative perception), even though they had 2-h weekly facilitated workshops. Overwhelmingly, students who undertook the subject in a self-directed online learning mode requested more face-to-face-teaching (70% of comments). From these data, we suggest that there is a quantifiable benefit to didactic teaching in the blended teaching mode that is not reproduced in online self-directed learning, even when face-to-face guided inquiry-based learning is embedded in the subject. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Differences in perception of sweet and savoury waffles between elderly and young subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Kroeze, J.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences between two age groups in texture and flavour perception, in food appreciation and in texture and olfactory sensitivity were investigated. Three experiments were conducted: ratings of texture and flavour attributes, ratings of pleasantness of (1) sweet vanilla waffles, (2) savoury cheese

  16. Subjectivity in Design Education: The Perception of the City through Personal Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    Our mental maps related to the cities are limited by our personal perception and fragmented in the process. There are many inner and outer effects that shape our mental maps, and as a result the fragmented whole refers to the total city image in our minds. To represent this image, an experimental study has been conducted with a group of students.…

  17. Geometry, Subjectivity and the Seduction of Language: The Regulation of Spatial Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony; Heywood, David

    2011-01-01

    Following Husserl's speculations on how geometry originated, we suggest that spatial perception is "seduced" by language as a result of human attempts to capture, signify and share its concepts. And this language traps geometry and humans themselves in to the forms that have guided and regulated past practices, thereby obscuring possibilities for…

  18. Age-Related Changes in Objective and Subjective Speech Perception in Complex Listening Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Karen S.; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Wasiuk, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A frequent complaint by older adults is difficulty communicating in challenging acoustic environments. The purpose of this work was to review and summarize information about how speech perception in complex listening situations changes across the adult age range. Method: This article provides a review of age-related changes in speech…

  19. The effect of cognitive training on the subjective perception of well-being in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Bureš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a growing number of studies indicating the major consequences of the subjective perception of well-being on mental health and healthcare use. However, most of the cognitive training research focuses more on the preservation of cognitive function than on the implications of the state of well-being. This secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of individualised television-based cognitive training on self-rated well-being using the WHO-5 index while considering gender and education as influencing factors. The effects of cognitive training were compared with leisure activities that the elderly could be engaged in to pass time. Methods Cognitively healthy participants aged 60 years or above screened using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Major Depression Inventory (MDI were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design and underwent 24 training sessions. Data acquired from the WHO-5 questionnaire administered before and after intervention were statistically analysed using a mixed design model for repeated measures. The effect of individualised cognitive training was compared with leisure activities while the impact of gender and education was explored using estimated marginal means. Results A total of 81 participants aged 67.9 ± 5.59 [60–84] without cognitive impairments and absent of depression symptoms underwent the study. Participants with leisure time activities declared significantly higher scores compared to participants with cognitive training M = 73.48 ± 2.88, 95% CI [67.74–79.22] vs M = 64.13 ± 3.034, 95% CI [58.09–70.17] WHO-5 score. Gender and education were found to moderate the effect of cognitive training on well-being when compared to leisure activities. Females engaged in leisure activities in the control group reported higher by M = 9.77 ± 5.4, 95% CI [

  20. Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwen; Ren, Jiwei; Shi, Lei; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming; Li, Shenghui

    2014-07-30

    Nocturnal awakening is the most frequent insomnia complaint in the general population. In contrast to a growing knowledge based on adults, little is known about its prevalence, correlated factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness in children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and the correlate factors of frequent nocturnal awakening (FNA) among Chinese school-aged children. Furthermore, the associations of FNA with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness were examined. A random sample of 20,505 children aged 5.00 to 11.92 years old (boys: 49.5% vs. girls: 50.5%) participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, sleep perception, and potential influential factors of FNA from six domains. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed. The prevalence of FNA was 9.8% (10.0% for boys vs. 8.9% for girls) in our sampled children. The prominent FNA-related factors inclued biological health problems, such as overweight/obesity (OR = 1.70), chronic pain during night (OR = 2.47), and chronic respiratory condition (OR = 1.23), poor psychosocial condition, such as poor mental and emotional functioning (OR = 1.34), poor sleep hygiene, such as frequently doing exciting activities before bedtime (OR = 1.24) and bedtime resistance (OR = 1.42), and parents' history of insomnia (OR = 1.31). FNA was associated with subjective poor sleep quality (OR = 1.24), subjective insufficient sleep (OR = 1.21), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.35). FNA was associated with poor sleep and daytime sleepiness. Compared to sleep environment and family susceptibility, chronic health problems, poor psychosocial condition, and poor sleep hygiene had greater impact on FNA, indicating childhood FNA could be partly prevented by health promotion, by psychological intervention, and by

  1. Perception and environmental education about mangrove ecosystem improving sciences and biology subjects in public school at Recife, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Lopes Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the aim to identify the perceptions of the students from a school about the mangrove ecosystem, using didactic and natural elements available to do an environmental education action. The previous perception of the students on the ecosystem was evaluated by means of a questionnaire, followed of a theoretical exposition, complemented with a visit to a conserved mangrove (Paripe River, Itamaracá and another impacted (Jiquiá River, Recife, near to the school, being applied new questionnaires to evaluate their conceptions and the academic strategies. The students demonstrated a relative previous knowledge on the mangrove and the educative action showed effectiveness in the transference of the ecological concepts about the ecosystem, using the method of incorporate their daily knowledge to stimulate them to know the scientific side of the subject, ending with the development of ecologic conscience.

  2. Is fear perception special? Evidence at the level of decision-making and subjective confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Ai; Mobbs, Dean; Lau, Hakwan

    2016-11-01

    Fearful faces are believed to be prioritized in visual perception. However, it is unclear whether the processing of low-level facial features alone can facilitate such prioritization or whether higher-level mechanisms also contribute. We examined potential biases for fearful face perception at the levels of perceptual decision-making and perceptual confidence. We controlled for lower-level visual processing capacity by titrating luminance contrasts of backward masks, and the emotional intensity of fearful, angry and happy faces. Under these conditions, participants showed liberal biases in perceiving a fearful face, in both detection and discrimination tasks. This effect was stronger among individuals with reduced density in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a region linked to perceptual decision-making. Moreover, participants reported higher confidence when they accurately perceived a fearful face, suggesting that fearful faces may have privileged access to consciousness. Together, the results suggest that mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex contribute to making fearful face perception special. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medicine Radiation]|[Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia ({approx}4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia ({approx}15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05) during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of {approx}15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  4. Randomized placebo controlled trial of furosemide on subjective perception of dyspnoea in patients with pulmonary oedema because of hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer-Richling, Nina; Holzer, Michael; Herkner, Harald; Riedmüller, Eva; Havel, Christof; Kaff, Alfred; Malzer, Reinhard; Schreiber, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    To compare the administration of furosemide with placebo on the subjective perception of dyspnoea in patients with acute pulmonary oedema because of hypertensive crisis. Design  Randomized, controlled and double-blinded clinical trial. Municipal emergency medical service system and university-based emergency department. Fifty-nine patients with pulmonary oedema because of hypertensive crisis. Additional to administration of oxygen, morphine-hydrochloride and urapidil until the systolic blood pressure was below 160mmHg, the patients were randomized to receive furosemide 80mg IV bolus (furosemide group) or saline placebo (placebo group). The primary outcome was the subjective perception of dyspnoea as measured with a modified BORG scale at one hour after randomization. Secondary outcome parameters were the subjective perception of dyspnoea of patients as measured with a modified BORG scale and a visual analogue scale at 2, 3 and 6h after randomization of the patient; course of the systolic arterial pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation and lactate at admission and at 6h after admission. In 25 patients in the furosemide group and in 28 patients in the placebo group, a BORG score could be obtained. There was no statistically significant difference in the severity of dyspnoea at one hour after randomization (P=0·40). The median BORG score at 1h after randomization in the furosemide group was 3 (IQR 2 to 4) compared to 3 (IQR 2 to 7) in the placebo group (P=0·40). Those patients who were randomized to the placebo group needed higher doses of urapidil at 20min after randomization. There were no significant differences in the rate of adverse events, nonfatal cardiac arrests or death between the two groups. The subjective perception of dyspnoea in patients with hypertensive pulmonary oedema was not influenced by the application of a loop-diuretic. Therefore, additional furosemide therapy needs to be scrutinized in the therapy of these patients. © 2010 The Authors

  5. Subjective perception of cocaine reward in mice assessed by a single exposure place preference (sePP) paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runegaard, Annika H.; Jensen, Kathrine Louise; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Background The potential of abused drugs to induce addiction and compulsive drug-related behavior is associated with their ability to alter dopamine signaling. Dopamine plays a key role in reward signaling and it has been of great interest to investigate how various drugs of abuse alter reward....... The sePP protocol allows further dissection of the mechanism and influence of initial cocaine exposure on subsequent drug-related behaviors by including extinction and reinstatement. The lack of sePP in female mice may reflect a biologically relevant sex difference in the initial subjective perception...

  6. Speech perception performance of subjects with type I diabetes mellitus in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Cristiane Sordi Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder of various origins that occurs when the pancreas fails to produce insulin in sufficient quantities or when the organism fails to respond to this hormone in an efficient manner. Objective: To evaluate the speech recognition in subjects with type I diabetes mellitus (DMI in quiet and in competitive noise. Methods: It was a descriptive, observational and cross-section study. We included 40 participants of both genders aged 18-30 years, divided into a control group (CG of 20 healthy subjects with no complaints or auditory changes, paired for age and gender with the study group, consisting of 20 subjects with a diagnosis of DMI. First, we applied basic audiological evaluations (pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and immittance audiometry for all subjects; after these evaluations, we applied Sentence Recognition Threshold in Quiet (SRTQ and Sentence Recognition Threshold in Noise (SRTN in free field, using the List of Sentences in Portuguese test. Results: All subjects showed normal bilateral pure tone threshold, compatible speech audiometry and "A" tympanometry curve. Group comparison revealed a statistically significant difference for SRTQ (p = 0.0001, SRTN (p < 0.0001 and the signal-to-noise ratio (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The performance of DMI subjects in SRTQ and SRTN was worse compared to the subjects without diabetes.

  7. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-09-01

    To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes' adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.

  8. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  9. Survey data on entrepreneurs׳ subjective plan and perceptions of the likelihood of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan Hoang

    2016-03-01

    Entrepreneurship is an important economic process in both developed and developing worlds. Nonetheless, many of its concepts appear to be difficult to 'operationalize' due to lack of empirical data; and this is particularly true with emerging economy. The data set described in this paper is available in Mendeley Data׳s "Vietnamese entrepreneurs' decisiveness and perceptions of the likelihood of success/continuity, Vuong (2015) [1]" http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/kbrtrf6hh4.2; and can enable the modeling after useful discrete data models such as BCL.

  10. Survey data on entrepreneurs׳ subjective plan and perceptions of the likelihood of success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Hoang Vuong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is an important economic process in both developed and developing worlds. Nonetheless, many of its concepts appear to be difficult to ‘operationalize’ due to lack of empirical data; and this is particularly true with emerging economy. The data set described in this paper is available in Mendeley Data׳s “Vietnamese entrepreneurs’ decisiveness and perceptions of the likelihood of success/continuity, Vuong (2015 [1]” http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/kbrtrf6hh4.2; and can enable the modeling after useful discrete data models such as BCL.

  11. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. N/A. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity.

  12. Correlations between M-CHARTS and PHP findings and subjective perception of metamorphopsia in patients with macular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Eiko; Matsumoto, Chota; Nomoto, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Takada, Sonoko; Okuyama, Sachiko; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-05

    To assess the correlations between a patient's subjective perception of metamorphopsia and the clinical measurements of metamorphopsia by M-CHARTS and PreView PHP (PHP). The authors designed a 10-item questionnaire focusing on the symptoms of metamorphopsia and verified its validity with a Rasch analysis. M-CHARTS measured the minimum visual angle of a dotted line needed to detect metamorphopsia, and PHP used the hyperacuity function for detection. Subjects were 39 patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM), 22 patients with idiopathic macular hole (M-hole), 19 patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and 51 healthy controls. Rasch analysis suggested the elimination of one question. The nine-item questionnaire score significantly correlated to the M-CHARTS score in ERM (r = 0.59; P = 0.0004) but not in M-hole and to the PHP result in AMD (r = -0.29; P = 0.04) but not in ERM. Eighty percent of ERM patients with greater horizontal M-CHARTS score subjectively perceived horizontal metamorphopsia more often. M-CHARTS showed better sensitivities than PHP in both ERM (89% vs. 42%) and AMD (74% vs. 68%) and better specificity (100% vs. 71%) in healthy controls. Rasch analysis indicated that the present form of the questionnaire is better suited for moderate to severe cases of metamorphopsia than for mild cases. The questionnaire appears to be a valid assessment of patient subjective perception of metamorphopsia and can be used to supplement the clinical measurements of metamorphopsia by M-CHARTS and PHP in patients with macular diseases.

  13. The impact of premature ejaculation on the subjective perception of orgasmic intensity: validation and standardisation of the 'Orgasmometer'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoncin, E; Lotti, F; Rossi, M; Maseroli, E; Gravina, G L; Ciocca, G; Mollaioli, D; Di Sante, S; Maggi, M; Lenzi, A; Jannini, E A

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no psychometric tools have been specifically developed to measure if premature ejaculation (PE) is related to low sexual pleasure in terms of perception of orgasmic intensity. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate if men with PE suffer from a low perception of orgasmic intensity using a new tool, the 'Orgasmometer', to quantitatively measure the intensity of orgasmic pleasure. Among 329 subjects attending our andrological unit for suspected PE, 257 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 156 (60.7%; 156/257) were affected by PE (PE group) and 101 (39.3%; 101/257) did not have any sexual dysfunction (Control group). Men were requested to fill out the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the Orgasmometer, a new visual tool recording orgasm intensity on a Likert scale. Interestingly, MANCOVA analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.044) in the subjective perception of orgasm intensity with the PE group scoring lower on the Orgasmometer (mean 5.8; 95% CI 5.191-6.409) than the Control group (mean 7.95; 95% CI 7.033-8.87). In addition, multiple linear regression revealed an inverse correlation between the PEDT and the Orgasmometer scores (p < 0.0001). Hence, higher PEDT scores were associated with a lower subjective perception of orgasmic intensity. The Orgasmometer was well understood, had good test-retest reliability and a high AUC in differentiating between men with high and low orgasmic pleasure intensity. The ROC curve analysis showed that a cut-off ≤6 had 87.7% sensitivity (95% CI 79.6-92.6), 95% specificity (95% CI 88.7-98.4), 95.3% positive predictive value (PPV) and 86.4% negative predictive value (NPV). Men affected by premature ejaculation perceived significantly lower orgasmic intensity than sexually healthy men. The Orgasmometer is an easy-to-perform, user-friendly tool for measuring orgasmic intensity. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and

  14. Subject Knowledge Enhancement Courses for Creating New Chemistry and Physics Teachers: The Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Richard; Jones, Robert Bryn; Mallaburn, Andrea; Clays, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses are one option open in England to graduates with a science background whose first degree content is judged to be insufficient to train to become chemistry or physics teachers. Previous articles in "School Science Review" have discussed the structure of one type of extended SKE course offered at…

  15. Self-perception of health (SPH) in the oldest-old subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, L; Jankelic, S; Milosevic, D P; Despotovic, N; Erceg, P; Davidovic, M

    2009-01-01

    SPH is a subjective and objective assessment of personal health. It is important in evaluation of health status in the elderly as it has capacity to predict mortality, functional declining, and health-care demands. A lot of research has been published about SPH in the elderly, but little is known about SPH in the very old, especially in comparison with the "younger-old" (YO) population. The study has aimed to investigate SPH in 240 elderly patients and compare the data between the "oldest-old" (OO) (aged >or= 90 years; n=52) and the YO (aged 60-74 years; n=188) subjects. Results have shown that the OO group of patients had better SPH than their YO counterparts. Our findings implicate that very old persons belong to a special sub-group of elderly, the "successfully aged", probably due to their genetic stability, distinctive lifestyle, or both.

  16. Gestalt perception and the decline of global precedence in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Markus R; Fink, Gereon R; Mackay, Clare E; Lux, Silke

    2011-01-01

    Our visual world is hierarchically organized. Hierarchical processing is frequently investigated using Navon figures (large letters made up of smaller ones). In young adults, many studies reported faster reaction times (RT) to target letters presented at the global level [i.e., global precedence (GP)]. Furthermore, an age-related decline of this GP has been reported. We tested whether deficits in perceptual grouping via Gestalt laws (Gestalt principles of Proximity and Continuity) might contribute to this decline. In a directed attention task with valid and invalid cues, 20 young (mean age 22) and 20 older (mean age 57) male subjects had to indicate whether a target letter appeared at the global or local level of a Navon figure. The number of local letters forming the global figure was modulated in 5 steps. As expected, during valid trials, young adults showed a GP that linearly increased with increasing numbers of local letters (i.e., GP enhancement). This suggests that GP is related to perceptual grouping via Gestalt laws. By contrast, the group of older subjects demonstrated no precedence effect in RT and a non-significant trend toward GP in error rates (ER). No GP enhancement with an increasing number of local elements was observed. Exploratory analysis revealed that individual insensitivity to the modulation of matrix density, as revealed by a lack of global RT acceleration, was restricted to subjects that showed an overall local precedence (LP). Because older subjects tended to more frequently display an insensitivity to matrix modulation and an LP, we conclude that deficient Gestalt detection as indicated by non-enhanced global RT might contribute to the RT-related decline of GP with age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of experimental modulation of mood on perception of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod; Morris, Norman R; Adams, Lewis

    2016-01-15

    In many diseases across a range of pathologies (e.g., cardiopulmonary, neuromuscular, and cancer), chronic dyspnea, particularly on exertion, is a major debilitating symptom often associated with clinical anxiety/depression. This study aims to explore the interaction between mood state and exertional dyspnea in a healthy population. Following familiarization, 20 healthy subjects (27-54 years old) performed six 5-min treadmill tests on three separate days. On each day subjects viewed randomly assigned images designed to induce positive, negative, or neutral mood states (International Affective Picture System). For each condition, at minute intervals, subjects rated dyspnea (sensory and affective domains) in the first test and mood (valence and arousal domains) in the second test. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2 , liters/min), carbon dioxide production (V̇CO2, liters/min), ventilation (V̇E, liters/min), respiratory frequency (f(R), beats/min), and heart rate (HR, bpm), were measured throughout the exercise. V̇O2, V̇CO2, V̇E, HR, and f(R) were not statistically significantly different among the three mood states (P > 0.05). Mood valence was significantly higher with parallel viewing of positive (last 2-min mean ± SE = 6.9 ± 0.2) compared with negative pictures (2.4 ± 0.2; P negative (sensory: 5.6 ± 0.3; affective: 3.3 ± 0.5) compared with positive mood (sensory: 4.4 ± 0.4, P positive mood alleviates both the sensory and affective domains of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects. Thus the treatment of anxiety/depression in dyspenic populations could be a worthwhile therapeutic strategy in increasing symptom-limited exercise tolerance, thereby contributing to improved quality of life. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. [Self-perception, colonic transit and characteristics of subjects seeking medical care for constipation in Mexico.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Remes-Troche, J M; Gómez-Escudero, O; Icaza-Chávez, M E; García-Leiva, J

    2009-01-01

    Subjects seeking medical care for constipation were evaluated to find out: a) how they describe their complaint, b) their symptoms and colonic transit (CT) time, and c) determine what factors may allow to detect colonic inertia (CI) or obstructive defecation (OD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients demographics and medical history were collected and the modular Rome III questionnaire was applied. A screening CT with radioopaque markers was performed in all subjects. Those with an abnormal result underwent a multiple-pellet CT . Factors associated with CI and OD were analyzed. 105 patients were enrolled (92 females, mean age 36.7 years). Seventy patients described constipation as a bowel movement involving straining or being less frequently than expected (67%). The screening CT was normal in 79 patients (75%). Multiple-pellet CT was performed in 23 patients (9 normal, CI in 6, OD in 8). Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) criteria were met by 79 subjects (75%) and functional constipation by 26 (25%). A greater proportion of patients with CI or OD had attended the Emergency Room, used suppositories or enemas and interfered their activities due to constipation, during the previous year to the survey (p<0.05). Most patients described constipation as straining or lower frequency (67%) than expected. CT was normal in 84% of the patients, but it detected 6 cases of CI and 8 of OD. Patients that attended the Emergency Room, used suppositories or enemas and those whom activities were interfered turned out with CI or OD more frequently.

  19. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants' explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs), and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes.

  20. The Potential of Subjective Semantic Methods in Exploring the Perception of Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyrva A.U.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on empirical explorations of psychological features and mechanisms of the percep¬tion of urban architecture and on the specifics of the perception of buildings of various architectural styles. The techniques employed included those of personality and architectural semantic differential and the Value Spectrum technique. Four factors were found to have a significant impact on an individual’s percep¬tion and understanding of architectural space: ‘passive-active’, ‘whole-split’, ‘open-closed’, and ‘expressive’. People tend to attribute more semantic features and values to listed buildings or buildings that bear witness of a certain historical period than to those buildings that look alike and represent a typical example of mass housing. No significant sex differences were found in the individuals’ evaluations of buildings. Consistent quantitative differences were revealed between the images of listed buildings and of mass housing. The paper describes the relevance of various research methods in explorations of architectural images.

  1. Visual reaction times during prolonged angular acceleration parallel the subjective perception of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of prolonged angular acceleration on choice reaction time to an accelerating visual stimulus was investigated, with 10 commercial airline pilots serving as subjects. The pattern of reaction times during and following acceleration was compared with the pattern of velocity estimates reported during identical trials. Both reaction times and velocity estimates increased at the onset of acceleration, declined prior to the termination of acceleration, and showed an aftereffect. These results are inconsistent with the torsion-pendulum theory of semicircular canal function and suggest that the vestibular adaptation is of central origin.

  2. The relationship between subjective perception and the psychological effects of patients in spatial isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibert, Fabienne

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spatial isolation is a common infection control measure, but negative psychological effects are often neglected. We investigated which factors influence the perception of single room isolated patients.Methods: In the present correlative cross-sectional study, 32 isolated patients have been interviewed within three departments of the Heidelberg University Hospital, one of Germany’s largest hospitals. The following questionnaires were used: 10-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and a self-developed questionnaire to evaluate the individual experience of isolation. Data were analysed using correlation and regression analysis.Results: A significant positive correlation was found between the isolation period and anxiety (r=.42, p<.05. Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the duration of contact to nursing staff and negative daydreaming (r=.89, p<.01. The activity watching television was associated with higher levels of anxiety (r=.38, p<.05. Surfing the internet had a positive relationship with thinking about beautiful things (r=.41, p<.05. Conclusions: Our study results have implications how to improve the psychological situation of patients during spatial isolation. Contact between nursing staff and patients is crucial, since this contact significantly associated with negative daydreaming, probably due to increased neediness of emotional and physical care in some patients. The duration of the isolation has an influence on the experience of anxiety. Activities to cope with the isolation, however, not always have positive effects on the well-being of the patient.

  3. [Intention, attitude, subjective norms and perception of control in Spanish adolescents about using Double Dutch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Oscar; Goulet, Céline; Lampron, Annie

    2005-09-01

    With adolescence, boys and girls reach their sexual maturity and initiate their sexual encounters. They very frequently adopt risk behaviors as they tend not to use any contraceptive methods. Today's trend in relation to contraceptive methods is to recommend the combined utilization of condom and pill. In comparison to other methods, this last one, known as the Double Dutch (DD) method, has the advantage of preventing pregnancy and STD's, at the same time it increases the efficiency of contraception. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior the purpose of the study was to measure the intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control towards the utilization of the DD method among 15-16 year-old Spanish students and to determine the relationships among these variables. The results indicate that adolescents show favorable intention, attitude and subjective norm toward the utilization of the DD method. They seem to be more worried about pregnancy prevention than about STDs'prevention. Parents seem to be the most important reference people for adolescents, followed by their friends; the results show that at this age, adolescents tend to take into consideration these reference people's opinion.

  4. The effects of auditory perception and musical preference on anxiety in naive human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Elliott; Bernstein, Steven R; Kim, Seung-A; Kim, Minsun; Stefano, George B

    2003-09-01

    The use of music as a method of relieving anxiety has been studied extensively by researchers from varying disciplines. The abundance of these reports focused on which genre of music best aided in the relief of stress. Little work has been performed in the area of auditory preference in an attempt to ascertain whether an individual's preferred music type aids in their anxiety reduction at levels greater than music that they have little or no propensity for. In the present report we seek to determine whether naive human subjects exposed to music of their preference show a decrease in anxiety, as measured by systolic and diastolic blood pressure values. We furthermore contrast these values to those obtained during non-preferred music listening. We found statistically significant reduction of anxiety levels only when subjects were exposed to their preferred musical selections. Students participating in the study already had knowledge of what genre of music would best relax them. It is our belief, that within the general population, many people do not have this self understanding. We conclude that music therapy may provide a mechanism for this self-understanding and subsequently help alleviate anxiety and stress.

  5. Subjective stress, role perceptions and coping strategies among mental health nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridoula Doupi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of nursing personnel, the consequent nurses’ work pressure within health care units and the particularities of nursing services provision in mental health institutions, render the examination of stress at work a necessity. Aim: The current study aims in presenting the stress levels among nurses in mental health institutions, their perceptions of the nursing role and the coping strategies they use. Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the population of 85 nurses in mental health open and closed units of two public hospitals of Attica, one psychiatric and one general. Participants filled in questionnaires on demographic characteristics, perceived stress, role conflict and ambiguity and ways of coping with stressful situations. Results: 57 women (67,1% and 28 men (32,9%, aged (mean 41,08 years, mostly married (74,1% and graduates of Technological institutions (29,4% participated in the study. Most were working 16-20 years (32,9%, were nurses (71,8% and were being occupied in a psychiatric structure for more than 21 years (27,1%. Female nurses had a greater amount of role ambiguity (p=0.048 and higher levels of stress (p=0.007. The same pattern was observed to those who worked for more years (p=0.038. Those who were not satisfied with their job suffered from greater role ambiguity (p<0.001 and conflict (p<0.001, while the graduates of secondary education and specialised nurses had higher levels of stress (p=0.004. Nurses with most working years in a psychiatric facility, experienced greater role conflict (p=0.034. Role ambiguity was positively associated with role conflict (p<0.001, perceived stress (p=0.006, positive approach strategy (negatively; p=0.003, self-rated health (negatively; p=0.003 and age (negatively; p=0.006. Perceived stress was negatively associated with positive approach (p=0.019 and self-rated health (p<0.001. Finally, positive approach was positively associated with social

  6. On the effect of subliminal priming on subjective perception of images: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Wong, Ken; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this article investigates the influence of subliminal prime words on peoples' judgment about images, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). In this cross domain priming paradigm, the participants are asked to rate how much they like the stimulus images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words, with EEG recorded simultaneously. Statistical analysis tools are used to analyze the effect of priming on behavior, and machine learning techniques to infer the primes from EEGs. The experiment reveals strong effects of subliminal priming on the participants' explicit rating of images. The subjective judgment affected by the priming makes visible change in event-related potentials (ERPs); results show larger ERP amplitude for the negative primes compared with positive and neutral primes. In addition, Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifiers are proposed to infer the prime types from the average ERPs, which yields a classification rate of 70%.

  7. [Subjective visual perception after laser treatment of myopia on two types of lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyprianou, G; Machácková, M; Feuermannová, A; Rozsíval, P; Langrová, H

    2010-11-01

    Comparison of subjective evaluation of patients with low and moderate myopia undergoing photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and Laser in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) on two types of excimer lasers: Schwind Esiris and Schwind Amaris. Patients were divided into two groups according to the type of laser that was used. Group A comprised of 23 patients (14 females, 9 males) of average age 33.1 years (range 21-51 years), with an average spherical equivalent before operation of -3.5D. Using the excimer laser Esiris (Schwind, Germany), 10 patients had undergone PRK and 13 LASIK. Group B comprised of 32 patients (21 females, 11 males), of average age 31.9 years (range 22-48 years). Median spherical equivalent before operation was -3.05D. With the excimer laser Amaris (Schwind, Germany) 17 patients had undergone PRK and 15 LASIK. For the subjective evaluation we set up a questioner consisting of 21 questions that were aimed on the quality of vision under various illumination types and intensities, vision under various distances, activities and also questions concerning superficial sensitivity of the anterior segment of the eye. We detected a 100% satisfaction one year after refractive laser treatment with both laser types. Statistical improvement was evident by one month after treatment in both patient groups and upto 12 months it progressively increased. Statistically significant differences were noted one month after treatment, where patients in group B were more satisfied in questions concerning quality of vision, distance vision, while watching TV and driving during daytime and during the night. During further follow-up, results were comparable between both groups. Temporary patient satisfaction treated with laser Amaris is apparently due to the result of a more sparing treatment and thus fewer changes in the corneal stroma.

  8. The impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding, subjective hearing performance, and tinnitus perception in patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Távora-Vieira, Dayse; Marino, Roberta; Acharya, Aanand; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise, subjective perception of hearing, and tinnitus perception of adult patients with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss and to investigate whether duration of deafness and age at implantation would influence the outcomes. In addition, this article describes the auditory training protocol used for unilaterally deaf patients. This is a prospective study of subjects undergoing cochlear implantation for unilateral deafness with or without associated tinnitus. Speech perception in noise was tested using the Bamford-Kowal-Bench speech-in-noise test presented at 65 dB SPL. The Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit were used to evaluate the subjective perception of hearing with a cochlear implant and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance was measured using the Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire. Data were collected before cochlear implantation and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Twenty-eight postlingual unilaterally deaf adults with or without tinnitus were implanted. There was a significant improvement in speech perception in noise across time in all spatial configurations. There was an overall significant improvement on the subjective perception of hearing and quality of life. Tinnitus disturbance reduced significantly across time. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not influence the outcomes significantly. Cochlear implantation provided significant improvement in speech understanding in challenging situations, subjective perception of hearing performance, and quality of life. Cochlear implantation also resulted in reduced tinnitus disturbance. Age at implantation and duration of deafness did not seem to influence the outcomes.

  9. Tuning to the Positive: Age-Related Differences in Subjective Perception of Facial Emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Picardo

    Full Text Available Facial expressions aid social transactions and serve as socialization tools, with smiles signaling approval and reward, and angry faces signaling disapproval and punishment. The present study examined whether the subjective experience of positive vs. negative facial expressions differs between children and adults. Specifically, we examined age-related differences in biases toward happy and angry facial expressions. Young children (5-7 years and young adults (18-29 years rated the intensity of happy and angry expressions as well as levels of experienced arousal. Results showed that young children-but not young adults-rated happy facial expressions as both more intense and arousing than angry faces. This finding, which we replicated in two independent samples, was not due to differences in the ability to identify facial expressions, and suggests that children are more tuned to information in positive expressions. Together these studies provide evidence that children see unambiguous adult emotional expressions through rose-colored glasses, and suggest that what is emotionally relevant can shift with development.

  10. Perception of quality of life of a group of individuals subjected to bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Salazar-Maya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study sought to identify the state of health and quality of life of post-bariatric surgery patients. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with the participation of 338 individuals attending the private practice of a bariatric surgeon from Medellín (Colombia. With prior signed informed consent, the survey was filled out by each patient. The information gathered was sociodemographic in nature along with the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Brief Questionnaire (WHOQoL-Bref. Results. It was found that 82.2% were women and mean age was 41±12 years. Gastric bypass was practiced on 79.6% of the cases. Mean weight before surgery was 106.3±17.5 Kg and after surgery it was 73.2±13.4 Kg. Nine of every 10 participants classified their quality of life and state of health between extremely well and quite well. Quality of life was better in men, in those younger than 40 years of age, in those from socio-economic levels 4 to 6, and in those with educational level above the secondary (high school. Conclusion. As a consequence of the important and rapid weight loss occurring during the first months after surgery, most of the participants perceived having a good quality of life and were satisfied with their health status. For nursing, it is a challenge to implement educational programs and projects, bearing in mind the sociocultural diversity of the individuals and communities, through interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, which contributes to the well-being of obese individuals subjected to bariatric surgery and their families.

  11. Adding a subjective dimension to an ICF-based disability measure for people with multiple sclerosis : development and use of a measure for perception of disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynia, K.; Middel, B.; de Ruiter, H.; van Dijk, J.P.; Lok, W.S.; De Keyser, J.H.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The subjective dimension of disability, the perception of disability, is a dimension missing from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and from health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments. However, it is a highly relevant dimension for

  12. Autonomic nervous system responses during perception of masked speech may reflect constructs other than subjective listening effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Francis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking, and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct, and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1 Unmasked speech produced by a computer speech synthesizer, (2 Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by speech-shaped noise and (3 Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a -8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR, a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners’ subjective perception of task demand were comparable

  13. Adaptation of the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Score (OASIS) questionnaire for perception of oral aesthetics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Wladimir Vinicius; Traebert, Jefferson

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the cross-cultural adaptation and reliability and validity of the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Score (OASIS) for the perception of oral aesthetics in Brazilian adolescents. The cross-cultural adaptation was developed in agreement with internationally recommended methodology. The psychometric properties were assessed by application of the Brazilian version of the OASIS in 304 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years who were enrolled at two public schools and one private school in Tubarão, Brazil. The internal consistency of the instrument was measured using Cronbach's alpha. The reliability was estimated through stability and homogeneity, using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and the Bland-Altman agreement. Validity was determined by comparing the OASIS-Brazil with the aesthetic component of the instrument Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) using the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient. The internal consistency obtained was 0.52. Inter-observer and intra-observer correlations were strong, 0.87 and 0.83, respectively. The correlation with the aesthetic part of OIDP was 0.44. The results showed that the process of cross-cultural adaptation was successful and the adapted instrument showed good psychometric properties.

  14. Cognitive function is associated with prison behaviour among women in prison but not with subjective perception of adjustment to prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Nuno B F; Fonseca, Duarte A; Marques, Alina B; Rocha, Susana A; Hoaken, Peter N S

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable evidence that aspects of cognitive function, especially executive function, are associated with antisocial behaviour and violence, but most research to date has measured current cognition and previous criminal behaviour. Furthermore, this research has been conducted almost exclusively with male offenders. The aim of this study is to examine relationships between a wide range of cognitive functions and behaviours among women in prison. Our hypotheses were that cognitive functioning would be associated with both more-or-less contemporaneously observed behaviour problems and self-rated adjustment to the environment. Forty-five drug-free imprisoned female offenders were individually assessed on a battery of cognitive measures. Prison staff rated their behaviour on the Prison Behaviour Rating Scale and the women rated their own sense of adjustment to the environment on the Prison Adjustment Questionnaire. Stepwise hierarchical regressions indicated that attention was independently associated with behaviours reflecting tension, depression, isolation, fear, victimisation and worry, whereas processing speed was independently associated with behaviours reflecting lack of energy, mental slowness and lack of awareness of the surrounding environment and total Prison Adjustment Questionnaire score. There was no relationship between cognitive functioning and subjective perception of adjustment to prison. Results indicate that cognition contributes to some of the behavioural problems displayed by inmates in the prison context. Future studies should evaluate the role of programmes to improve cognitive processes in also improving prison behaviour and also test for continuities and discontinuities with post-release integrative success. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Subjective Health Complaints in Individuals with Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis: Associations with the Severity of the Skin Condition and Illness Perceptions - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbø, Emma Charlott Andersson; Aamodt, Geir; Ihlebæk, Camilla Martha

    2017-06-01

    High comorbidity has been reported among persons with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but the occurrence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) in these patient groups is poorly understood. The study aimed to describe the prevalence of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA in Norway, and investigate whether the severity of their skin condition and their illness perceptions were associated with the number and severity of health complaints. Participants were recruited through the Psoriasis and Eczema Association of Norway (PEF) (n = 942). The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire covering subjective health complaints, the severity of their skin condition, and their illness perceptions measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ-R). The prevalence and severity of SHCs were high. Participants with PsA reported more complaints and higher severity of complaints compared with participants with psoriasis. In both groups, the severity of the skin condition was associated with the number and severity of SHCs. Cognitive illness perceptions (consequences) and emotional illness perceptions (emotional affect) were associated with SHCs in participants with psoriasis, whereas only cognitive illness perceptions (consequences and identity) were associated with SHCs in participants with PsA. The high prevalence and severity of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA were associated with the severity of the skin condition and illness perceptions. Somatic and cognitive sensitizations are proposed as possible mechanisms. The findings suggest that holistic approaches are essential when managing these patient groups in health care institutions and clinical practice.

  16. State bistability between pure- and mixed-mode states in a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser subject to parallel optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Chen, Jianjun; Xia, Guangqiong; Wu, Zhengmao

    2017-07-01

    Polarization dynamics in a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (1550 nm VCSEL) under parallel optical injection (POI) is investigated experimentally, and we experimentally observe the state bistability (SB) between pure- and mixed-mode states by scanning the injection power along different routes. Such a SB occurs only when the frequency of injection light is lower than that of the excited mode of a free-running 1550 nm VCSEL. Moreover, the effect of frequency detuning on the hysteresis loop width is analyzed.

  17. A Comparison between Horizontal and Vertical Interchannel Decorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gribben

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual effects of interchannel decorrelation on perceived image spread have been investigated subjectively in both horizontal and vertical stereophonic reproductions, looking specifically at the frequency dependency of decorrelation. Fourteen and thirteen subjects graded the horizontal and vertical image spreads of a pink noise sample, respectively. The pink noise signal had been decorrelated by a complementary comb-filter decorrelation algorithm, varying the frequency-band, time-delay and decorrelation factor for each sample. Results generally indicated that interchannel decorrelation had a significant effect on auditory image spread both horizontally and vertically, with spread increasing as correlation decreases. However, it was found that the effect of vertical decorrelation was less effective than that of horizontal decorrelation. The results also suggest that the decorrelation effect was frequency-dependent; changes in horizontal image spread were more apparent in the high frequency band, whereas those in vertical image spread were in the low band. Furthermore, objective analysis suggests that the perception of vertical image spread for the low and middle frequency bands could be associated with a floor reflection; whereas for the high band, the results appear to be related to spectral notches in the ear input signals.

  18. Deflections of an implant-supported cantilever beam subjected to vertically directed loads: in vitro measurements in three dimensions using an optoelectronic method. I. Experimental set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Björn; Lundgren, Dan; Karlsson, Dan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to develop and test an experimental set-up consisting of a video camera and computer-based optoelectronic motion analysis system, synchronized with a loading device, for studying load-dependent deflections in three dimensions of single implant-supported cantilever beams. One Brånemark System implant was tightly screwed into a steel plate so that the entire implant became submerged. An abutment was attached to the implant and a cast 22-mm-long cantilever gold alloy beam incorporating a prefabricated gold cylinder was attached to the abutment with a prosthetic gold screw. A force transducer was glued on the upper surface of the beam end with its centre 19.4 mm from the centre of the implant abutment gold cylinder unit to register the applied load. A specially designed loading device was used to apply increasing vertical loads of the beam end via the transducer. The motion analysis system was synchronized with the transducer to enable measurements of three-dimensional positional changes of the beam end related to known loads. Vertical loads from 15.7 to 40.4 N were applied resulting in vertical positional changes of the beam end ranging from 40.8 to 225.2 μm (z-axis). The corresponding horizontal changes perpendicular to the long axis of the beam (y-axis) due to counterclockwise horizontal rotation of the beam around the abutment- and prosthetic cylinder threads varied from 7.4 to 77.4 μm. This rotation changed the position of the beam end from 11.9 to 49.3 μm along the x-axis of the coordinate system toward the supporting implant. It was possible to arrange an experimental set-up for optoelectronic 3-D measurements within such a limited measurement volume that would permit satisfactory registrations of small load-dependent deflections of the prosthetic beam and implant components. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to sever hearing loss: subjective impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Marinda; Pottas, Lidia; Vinck, Bart; van Dijk, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users' quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on hearing aid users' subjective impressions of listening to music. DESIGN & SAMPLE: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants' (N=40) subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users' perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users' enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  20. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to severe hearing loss: Subjective impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on hearing aid users’ subjective impressions of listening to music. Design & sample: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants’ (N=40 subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. Results: The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users’ perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. Conclusion: The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users’ enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  1. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity Using the Multilevel Slug Test Subject to Skin Effects: Comparison of the Uniform-head and Uniform-flux Wellbore Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    wei-Chiang, C.; Chen, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel slug test (MLST) is an in-well technique in characterizing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity K(z) in granular or fractured formations. In modeling MLST, the well screen is either simulated as a uniform-flux (UF) or a uniform head (UH) condition. This study investigates the impact of the skin effect, positive or negative, on the UH and UF models. The positive skin effect, as associated with a reduced hydraulic conductivity surrounding the well due to drilling mud invasion, is taken into account by making use of a skin factor, Sk.The negative skin effect, as associated with an increased hydraulic conductivity due to overdeveloping of the well, is modeled by using an effective well radius, re, which is greater than or equal to the well radius, rw. The UF and UH models are compared using different values of Sk and re for a variety of the partial penetration ratio of screen length to aquifer thickness, φ, the vertical anisotropy ratio of hydraulic conductivity, κ, and the aspect ratio of rw to the screen length, α. It is found that (1) the two models yield results of negligible difference when the well fully penetrates the aquifer (i.e., φ=1) regardless of the values of α,κ, Sk or re, (2) the two models yield essentially the same results for negative skin for all α and κ, (3) the difference between the two models decreases as Sk gets larger, regardless of the values of α, φ, or κ, yet it becomes negligible for Sk is greater than unity, and (4) when the skin effect is absent, the maximum difference between the two models is within 3-5%. As a result, it is suggested the UF model be used since it is mathematically easier to solve than the UH model, with or without skin effects.

  2. Subjective perception of radioactivity. No change post successful treatment with radioiodine; Strahlen bleiben boese. Keine Aenderung der subjektiven Konzepte von Radioaktivitaet nach erfolgreicher Radioiodtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Mueller, S.P.; Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2009-07-01

    We assess the attitude of patients with thyroid disease towards radiation and radioactivity before and after radioiodine therapy by means of a cultural-anthropological approach. We evaluate in patient interviews how their subjective attitude towards radioactivity as an abstract term and towards radioactivity in the medical context on the basis of their personal experiences with radionuclide therapy. 29 patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (17 women, 12 men, 35-79 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed prior to and 22-27 month post radioiodine therapy in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to use a scoring system (1: positive, 5: negative) to quantify their perception of radioactivity. The personal perception of radioactivity as an abstract term does not change significantly (p = 0.15) before and after radioiodine therapy. This perception is linked to mostly negative impressions of radiactivity. However, patients become more positive when assessing the value of radioactivity as part of their therapy regimen. Thus, we observe a significant increase in percepted value of radioactivity post radioiodine therapy (p = 0.03). Patients continue to view radioactivity as something negative despite treatment success following radioiodine therapy. Our results provide useful information for patient information by the nuclear medicine physician prior to a radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  3. Marketing the University: The Subjective Perceptions of Israeli Academics of Their Role in Attracting New Students to Their Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Israeli academics' perceptions of the introduction of educational markets and, particularly, their attitudes towards academics' roles and responsibilities in the new marketing-led university, as well as to obtain a greater understanding of their actual patterns of involvement in the marketing of…

  4. The rod orientation test in patients with right-hemisphere infarction : a clinical study of spatial perception in 154 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Meerwaldt (Johannes David (Jan))

    1982-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a clinical study of disturbances of spatial perception. Chapter I gives a short review of hemispheric asymmetry. For a long time the right hemisphere was regarded as the minor hemisphere, of which substantial regions were thought to have no specific function.

  5. Student Perceptions and Learning Outcomes of Blended Learning in a Massive First-Year Core Physiology for Allied Health Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Janelle; Meehan-Andrews, Terri; Weerakkody, Nivan; Hughes, Diane L.; Rathner, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence shows that factors contributing to success in physiology education for allied health students at universities include not only their high school achievement and background but also factors such as confidence with their teachers and quality of their learning experience, justifying intensive and continued survey of students' perceptions of…

  6. Experiences and Perceptions of STEM Subjects, Careers, and Engagement in STEM Activities among Middle School Students in the Maritime Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A.; Blotnicky, Karen; French, Frederick; Joy, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    To enhance understanding of factors that might improve STEM career participation, we assessed students' self-perceptions of competency and interest in science/math, engagement in STEM activities outside of school, and knowledge of STEM career requirements. We show that the primary positive influencer directing students to a STEM career is high…

  7. Do twins share the same dress code? Quantifying relative genetic and environmental contributions to subjective perceptions of "the dress" in a classical twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroo, Omar A; Williams, Katie M; Hossain, Ibtesham T; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Kozareva, Diana; Yusuf, Ammar; Sheriff, Ibrahim; Oomerjee, Mohamed; Soorma, Talha; Hammond, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of contrasting color perceptions of "the dress" photograph has gained scientific interest. The mechanism underlying why individuals differ is yet to be fully explained. We use the powerful twin model design to ascertain the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors on perception variation. A sample of 466 twins from the British TwinsUK registry were invited to report what color they saw in a standard image of the dress in standard illumination. The mean age of the participants was 49.5 (SD = 17.8) years, and 85% were female. When asked to choose between white and gold (WG) or blue and black (BB), 328 reported WG (70.4%) and 135 (29.0%) reported BB. Subjects choosing WG were significantly older (p dress when adjusted for age, whereas environmental factors contributed 66% (95% CI, 41%-95%). This study suggests environmental factors play a significant role in how an individual perceives the color of "the dress."

  8. Subjective health complaints and illness perception amongst adults with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-HypermobilityType - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lena; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Løvaas, Helene; Løvvik, Camilla; Maeland, Silje

    2017-10-17

    To investigate the prevalence and severity of subjective health complaints and describe illness perception in a population of Joint Hypermobility Syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type. This study was a postal survey with a questionnaire battery on demographic data, subjective health complaints inventory, and illness perception. A total of 110 individuals diagnosed with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type from two specialized hospitals in Norway were offered participation. Further, 140 gender- and age-matched healthy controls from statistics Norway representing the general population were sent the questionnaire for reference. Overall response rate was 30.4% (n = 76), with 44.5% (n = 49) in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type and 19.3% (n = 27) in controls. Subjective health complaints were significantly higher in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type - than in the controls (32.06 vs. 11.08; p Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type had low understanding of their illness and symptoms (understanding, mean: 3.93, SD 2.88), and reported to have moderate personal and treatment control over their illness. Adults with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type reported higher frequency and severity of subjective health complaints than the matched controls from the general adult population in Norway. Furthermore, Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobile Type reported low understanding of their illness and associated symptoms, and moderate belief that their illness can be kept under control through self-management or treatment. This may indicate one of the reasons why prognosis for these patients is poor. Implications for rehabilitation Awareness of the complexity of the subjective health complaints and inquiry into illness perception could contribute with valuable information about these patients

  9. Cardiac reactivity during the ascending phase of acute intravenous alcohol exposure and association with subjective perceptions of intoxication in social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Momenan, Reza; Hommer, Daniel W; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize cardiac reactivity measures, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV), following acute intravenous (IV) alcohol administration and their association with subjective responses in social drinkers. Twenty-four subjects (11 females) received IV alcohol infusions to attain and clamp the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) at 50 mg% or placebo in separate sessions. Serial 5-minute cardiac recordings at baseline and during the infusion were analyzed to obtain frequency and time domain cardiac measures. Self-reported subjective perceptions were also obtained at the same time points. HR showed significant decreases from baseline, while the HRV measure pNN50 showed steady increases during the ascending phase of alcohol infusion. HR was inversely correlated with pNN50 across time and treatment. There was a significant association of HR with subjective feelings of high, intoxication, feeling drug effects, and liking drug effects across time during the ascending phase. Acute IV alcohol resulted in decreases in HR and increases in HRV consistent with autonomic parasympathetic activation. The association of these changes with subjective responses suggests that cardiac reactivity may serve as a physiological marker of subjective alcohol effects. This study broadens the understanding of acute cardiovascular effects of alcohol and clinically significant cardiac conditions such as arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy associated with chronic alcohol drinking. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. A review of chemosensory perceptions, food preferences and food-related behaviours in subjects with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Haqq, Andrea M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2016-04-01

    Hyperphagia and obsessive preoccupation with food are hallmark characteristics of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Although hyperphagia in PWS is linked to hypothalamic dysfunction, the underlying mechanisms behind this problem are poorly understood. Moreover, our understanding of how chemosensory perceptions and food choice/preferences relate to hyperphagia in individuals with PWS is very limited. This narrative review synthesizes studies that assessed chemosensory perceptions, food choices and food-related behaviours in PWS individuals and highlights knowledge gaps in research for further exploration. Twenty seven publications from relevant databases met inclusion criteria and were organized thematically by study technique in the review. Results suggested that PWS individuals have consistent preferences for sweet tastes and in most studies have exhibited a preference for calorie-dense foods over lower calorie foods. No firm conclusions were drawn concerning the chemosensory perceptions of PWS individuals and their influence on food preferences or choices; chemosensation among PWS individuals is an understudied topic. Current evidence suggests that eating behaviour in PWS is a complex phenomenon that involves a dysfunctional satiation and not excessive hunger. Food preferences, choices, and related behaviours and the impact of these on obesity management in those with PWS remain poorly understood and require further study using validated tools and methodologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with

  12. Chlorophyll alpha fluorescence analysis along a vertical gradient of the crown in a poplar (Oxford clone) subjected to ozone and water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desotgiu, Rosanna; Pollastrini, Martina; Cascio, Chiara; Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Bussotti, Filippo

    2012-08-01

    An experiment in open-top chambers was carried out in summer 2008 at Curno (Northern Italy) in order to study the effects of ozone and mild water stress on poplar cuttings (Oxford clone). In this experiment direct fluorescence parameters (JIP-test) were measured in leaves from different sections of the crown (L: lower; M: medium; U: upper parts of the crown). The parameters considered were calculated at the different steps of the fluorescence transient, and include maximum quantum yield efficiency in the dark-adapted state (F(v)/F(M)); the L-band, at 100 ∝ s, that expresses the stability of the tripartite system reaction centre-harvesting light complex-core antenna; the K-band, at 300 ∝ s, that expresses the efficiency of the oxygen-evolving complex; the J-phase, at 2 ms, that expresses the efficiency with which a trapped exciton can move an electron into the electron transport chain from Q(A)(-) to the intersystem electron acceptors; the IP-phase, which expresses the efficiency of electron transport around the photosystem 1 (PSI) to reduce the final acceptors of the electron transport chain, i.e., ferredoxin and NADP; and finally the performance index total (PItot) for energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction flux of PSI end acceptors. The main results are: (i) different dynamics were observed between leaves in the lower section, whose PItot decreased over time, and those in the upper sections in which it increased, with a dynamic connected to the leaf age; (ii) ozone depressed all the considered fluorescence parameters in basal leaves of well-watered plants, while it had little or no damaging effect on medium-level or upper-section leaves; (iii) PItot and IP-phase increased in upper leaves of plants subjected to ozone stress, as well as the net photosynthesis; (iv) water stress increased PItot of leaves in all levels of the crown. The results suggest that ozone-damaged poplar plants compensate, at least partially, for the

  13. Objective reports versus subjective perceptions of crime and their relationships to accelerometer-measured physical activity in Hispanic caretaker-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bakergem, Margaret; Sommer, Evan C; Heerman, William J; Hipp, James Aaron; Barkin, Shari L

    2017-02-01

    Crime and safety are commonly cited barriers to physical activity (PA). We had three objectives, 1) describe the association between objective crime measures and perceptions of crime, 2) analyze the relationships between each type of crime and accelerometer-measured physical activity in caretakers and young children (ages 3-5years), and 3) explore for early gender differences in the relationship between crime and physical activity in young children. Data are from the cross-sectional baseline data of an ongoing randomized controlled trial in Nashville, Tennessee spanning September 2012 through May 2014. Data was analyzed from 480 Hispanic dyads (adult caretaker and 3-5year old child). Objective crime rate was assessed in ArcGIS and perception of crime was measured by caretaker agreement with the statement "The crime rate in my neighborhood makes it unsafe to go on walks." The primary outcome was accelerometer-measured physical activity over seven consecutive days. Objective and perceived crime were significantly positively correlated. Caretaker vigorous PA was significantly related to perceptions of crime; however, its relationship to objective crime was not significant. Child PA was not significantly related to caretaker perceptions of crime. However, interactions suggested that the relationship between crime rate and PA was significantly more negative for girls than for boys. Objective and subjective measures of crime rate are expected to be important correlates of PA, but they appear to have complex relationships that are different for adults than they are for young children, as well as for young girls compared to boys, and research has produced conflicting findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Objective reports versus subjective perceptions of crime and their relationships to accelerometer-measured physical activity in Hispanic caretaker-child dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bakergem, Margaret; Sommer, Evan C.; Heerman, William J.; Hipp, James Aaron; Barkin, Shari L.

    2016-01-01

    Crime and safety are commonly cited barriers to physical activity (PA). We had three objectives, 1) describe the association between objective crime measures and perceptions of crime, 2) analyze the relationships between each type of crime and accelerometer-measured physical activity in caretakers and young children (ages 3–5 years), and 3) explore for early gender differences in the relationship between crime and physical activity in young children. Data are from the cross-sectional baseline data of an ongoing randomized controlled trial in Nashville, Tennessee spanning September 2012 through May 2014. Data was analyzed from 480 Hispanic dyads (adult caretaker and 3–5 year old child). Objective crime rate was assessed in ArcGIS and perception of crime was measured by caretaker agreement with the statement “The crime rate in my neighborhood makes it unsafe to go on walks.” The primary outcome was accelerometer-measured physical activity over seven consecutive days. Objective and perceived crime were significantly positively correlated. Caretaker vigorous PA was significantly related to perceptions of crime; however, its relationship to objective crime was not significant. Child PA was not significantly related to caretaker perceptions of crime. However, interactions suggested that the relationship between crime rate and PA was significantly more negative for girls than for boys. Objective and subjective measures of crime rate are expected to be important correlates of PA, but they appear to have complex relationships that are different for adults than they are for young children, as well as for young girls compared to boys, and research has produced conflicting findings. PMID:27939263

  15. Disturbed body perception, reduced sleep, and kinesiophobia in subjects with pregnancy-related persistent lumbopelvic pain and moderate levels of disability: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Darren; Lutz, Alison; Thompson, Judith; Wand, Benedict Martin; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2016-02-01

    For a small but significant group, pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain may become persistent. While multiple factors may contribute to disability in this group, previous studies have not investigated sleep impairments, body perception or mindfulness as potential factors associated with disability post-partum. To compare women experiencing no pain post-pregnancy with those experiencing pregnancy-related persistent lumbopelvic pain (either low- or high-level disability) across multiple biopsychosocial domains. Cross-sectional. Participants completed questionnaires for thorough profiling of factors thought to be important in pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. Specific measures were the Urinary Distress Inventory, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale, Back Beliefs Questionnaire, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Pain Catastrophising Scale, The Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Women where categorised into three groups; pain free (n = 26), mild disability (n = 12) and moderate disability (n = 12) (based on Oswestry Disability Index scores). Non-parametric group comparisons were used to compare groups across the profiling variables. Differences were identified for kinesiophobia (p = 0.03), body perception (p = 0.02), sleep quantity (p sleep adequacy (p = 0.02). Generally subjects in the moderate disability group had more negative findings for these variables. Disturbances in body-perception, sleep and elevated kinesiophobia were found in pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain subjects with moderate disability, factors previously linked to persistent low back pain. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for identification of directional pathways between factors. The results support the consideration of these factors in the assessment and management of pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Objective quality assessment of stereoscopic images with vertical disparity using EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi Avarvand, Forooz; Bosse, Sebastian; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schäfer, Ralf; Nolte, Guido; Wiegand, Thomas; Curio, Gabriel; Samek, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Neurophysiological correlates of vertical disparity in 3D images are studied in an objective approach using EEG technique. These disparities are known to negatively affect the quality of experience and to cause visual discomfort in stereoscopic visualizations. Approach. We have presented four conditions to subjects: one in 2D and three conditions in 3D, one without vertical disparity and two with different vertical disparity levels. Event related potentials (ERPs) are measured for each condition and the differences between ERP components are studied. Analysis is also performed on the induced potentials in the time frequency domain. Main results. Results show that there is a significant increase in the amplitude of P1 components in 3D conditions in comparison to 2D. These results are consistent with previous studies which have shown that P1 amplitude increases due to the depth perception in 3D compared to 2D. However the amplitude is significantly smaller for maximum vertical disparity (3D-3) in comparison to 3D with no vertical disparity. Our results therefore suggest that the vertical disparity in 3D-3 condition decreases the perception of depth compared to other 3D conditions and the amplitude of P1 component can be used as a discriminative feature. Significance. The results show that the P1 component increases in amplitude due to the depth perception in the 3D stimuli compared to the 2D stimulus. On the other hand the vertical disparity in the stereoscopic images is studied here. We suggest that the amplitude of P1 component is modulated with this parameter and decreases due to the decrease in the perception of depth.

  17. MBBS student perceptions about physiology subject teaching and objective structured practical examination based formative assessment for improving competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, K

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to 1) assess student attitudes to physiology, 2) evaluate student opinions about the influence of an objective structured practical examination (OSPE) on competence, and 3) assess the validity and reliability of an indigenously designed feedback questionnaire. A structured questionnaire containing 16 item statements, 8 items on an Osgood's 5-point semantic differential scale and 8 items on a Likert's 5-point scale, was used. Options were assigned scores of 1-5 according to weightage. For Osgood's semantic differential scale items, a χ(2)-test was done to analyze student attitudes toward the subject. For Likert scale items, mean score and SD were calculated to analyze student opinions of the OSPE. Item validity was assessed by item analysis, and reliability was assessed by calculating Crohnbach's α. The subject as a whole was interesting to 82% of the students (n = 135). The theory was interesting to 75% of the students (n = 132) but complex to 42% (n = 118). The practical was interesting to 93% of the students (n = 134); 76% of the students (n = 104) felt that the practical was simple, whereas 4% felt it was complex. The OSPE was interesting to 79% of the students (n = 131); 57% of the students (n = 116) felt it was simple, whereas 24% found it complex. Components of the subject, intricateness, and student interests were strongly associated. Students chose options on a higher weight scale, favoring the OSPE. Items were found to be valid and reliable. In conclusion, the subject of physiology was interesting but not simple to understand. Student interests varied with the components of the subject, and the components of the subject had varied intricateness. Students were in favor of the OSPE for assessment. The questionnaire used for the study was valid and reliable. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  18. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  19. Family perception of the process of organ donation. Qualitative psychosocial analysis of the subjective interpretation of donor and nondonor families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Martínez, Jorge S; Martín López, María Jesús; Scandroglio, Barbara; Martínez García, José Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Family perception of organ donation has been explored by numerous authors using statements by the people who decided whether or not to donate the organs of a relative in a situation of brain death. Within this tradition, in this work, we analyze the discourse of six families who granted permission for organ donation and three who refused. We describe the process-based interpretation of this experience and identify psychosocial variables and processes that further our understanding of the decision finally adopted. We have identified two heuristics that guide family decision when organ donation is requested: the explicit or inferred will of the deceased and family attitudes to organ donation and transplant. It is postulated that the interaction of these two factors explains a large amount of the decisions made. We also hypothesize that a marked discrepancy between these two factors increases the importance of other aspects, especially the role of the transplant coordinator and of other healthcare personnel. These results support, at a social level, the implementation of transplant promotion programs; and at a healthcare level, the combined use of techniques of crisis intervention and attitude change.

  20. Is Social Phobia a mis-communication disorder? Brain functional connectivity during face perception differs between patients with Social Phobia and healthy control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Danti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a differential recruitment of brain areas throughout the distributed neural system for face perception has been found in social phobic patients as compared to healthy control subjects. These functional abnormalities in social phobic patients extend beyond emotion-related brain areas, such as the amygdala, to include cortical networks that modulate attention and process other facial features, and they are also associated with an alteration of the task-related activation/deactivation trade-off. Functional connectivity is becoming a powerful tool to examine how components of large-scale distributed neural systems are coupled together while performing a specific function. This study was designed to determine whether functional connectivity networks among brain regions within the distributed system for face perception also would differ between social phobic patients and healthy controls. Data were obtained from eight social phobic patients and seven healthy controls by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our findings indicated that social phobic patients and healthy controls have different patterns of functional connectivity across brain regions within both the core and the extended systems for face perception and the default mode network (DMN. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows that functional connectivity during brain response to socially relevant stimuli differs between social phobic patients and healthy controls. These results expand our previous findings and indicate that brain functional changes in social phobic patients are not restricted to a single specific brain structure, but rather involve a mis-communication among different sensory and emotional processing brain areas.

  1. The impact of cigarette branding and plain packaging on perceptions of product appeal and risk among young adults in Norway: A between-subjects experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2013-12-04

    This study examined the perceptions of cigarette packaging and the potential impact of plain packaging regulations. The hypothesis was that the branded cigarette packages would be rated more positively than the corresponding plain packs with and without descriptors. Between-subjects experimental online survey. Male and female participants were separately randomised to one of the three experimental conditions: fully branded cigarette packs, plain packs with descriptors and plain packs without descriptors; participants were asked to evaluate 12 individual cigarette packages. The participants were also asked to compare five pairs of packs from the same brand family. Norway. 1010 youths and adults aged 15-22. Ratings of appeal, taste and harmfulness for individual packages. Ratings of taste, harm, quality, 'would rather try' and 'easier to quit' for pairs of packages. Plain with and without descriptors packs were rated less positively than the branded packs on appeal (index score 1.63/1.61 vs 2.42, ppackaging could lead to a reduction in positive perceptions of cigarettes among young people.

  2. Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy vs. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Eating Behavior and Sweet Taste Perception in Subjects with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nance

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG. We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 23 or SG (n = 8: (1 sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2 the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3 sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4 eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. We found that neither RYGB nor SG affected sweetness or saltiness sensitivity. However, weight loss induced by either RYGB or SG caused the same decrease in: (1 frequency of cravings for foods; (2 influence of emotions and external food cues on eating behavior; and (3 shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (all p-values ≤ 0.01. Therefore, when matched on weight loss, SG and RYGB cause the same beneficial effects on key factors involved in the regulation of eating behavior and hedonic component of taste perception.

  3. The combined effect of subjective body image and body mass index (distorted body weight perception) on suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  4. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception on Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES, an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI and body mass index (BMI categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI, women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42 were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42. Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59. Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs.

  5. Attitudes, subjective norms and perception of behavioural control as predictors of sun-related behaviour in Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Ullén, Henrik; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2004-11-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major preventable cause of skin cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the explanatory value of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control on behaviours related to UV exposure. A random population-based sample (n = 1752, 18-37 years of age) in the Stockholm County, Sweden, answered a questionnaire with items on sun related behaviours and beliefs. The items concerned issues influenced by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, that is, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between behaviours and beliefs. Positive attitudes towards being tanned and being in the sun were both strongly associated with time spent in the sun, intentional tanning, sunbed use, going on vacation to a sunny resort, intention to decrease sunbathing and use of protection against the sun. Perceiving sunbathing as risky was associated with using different ways to protect and intending to reduce sun exposure. Having people around oneself who frequently sunbathe was related to intentional tanning and vacations to sunny resorts. Finally, perceived behavioural control was associated with use of sunscreen and use of other ways to protect from the sun among women. The study identified factors on which primary preventive interventions towards decreasing sun exposure should be focused.

  6. Subjective perceptions of ESP (English for Specific Purposes university teachers’ professional beginnings: Quantitative research into pedagogical content knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jašková Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methodology and results of a quantitative phase within a research into English for Specific Purposes university teachers and their subjectively perceived changes in pedagogical content knowledge from a retrospective view of their professional beginnings. The introduction describes the investigated issues and explains key concepts. The first chapter refers to the theoretical background of teacher professional development. Since the quantitative research phase is a part of a mixed research design, the second chapter deals with the whole research including the research objective and questions. The third chapter is devoted to the quantitative research phase during which an anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to the whole population of Czech university teachers of English for Specific Purposes and processed statistically as well as descriptively. The fourth chapter presents the obtained quantitative data discussed within the individual components of pedagogical content knowledge - conceptions of purposes for teaching subject matter, curricular knowledge, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of students’ understanding. The conclusion summarises all the information and proposes some recommendations for pedagogical practice.

  7. Effect of interferential current therapy on pain perception and disability level in subjects with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz-Cabello, Manuel; Maya-Martín, Julián; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos

    2017-02-01

    To assess the short-term efficacy of transregional interferential current therapy on pain perception and disability level in chronic non-specific low back pain. A randomized, single-blinded (the assessor collecting the outcome data was blinded), controlled trial. A private physiotherapy research clinic. A total of 64 individuals, 20 men and 44 women, mean (SD) age was 51 years (11.93), with low back pain of more than three months, with or without pain radiating to the lower extremities above the knee, were distributed into a control ( n = 20) or an experimental group ( n = 44). A 2:1 randomization ratio was used in favour of the latter. A transregional interferential current electrotherapy protocol was performed for participants in the experimental group, while the control group underwent a 'usual care' treatment (massage, mobilization and soft-tissue techniques). All subjects received up to 10 treatment sessions of 25 minutes over a two-week period, and completed the intervention and follow-up evaluations. Self-perceived pain was assessed with a Visual Analogue Scale. Secondary measure included the Oswestry Low Back Disability Index. Evaluations were collected at baseline and after the intervention protocol. Significant between-group differences were found for interferential current therapy on pain perception ( p = 0.032) and disability level ( p = 0.002). The observed differences in the between-group mean changes were of 11.34 mm (1.77/20.91) and 13.38 points (4.97/21.78), respectively. A two-week transregional interferential current treatment has shown significant short-term efficacy, when compared with a 'usual care' protocol, on self-perceived pain and functionality in subjects with chronic low back pain.

  8. Directive and nondirective social support in the workplace - is this social support distinction important for subjective health complaints, job satisfaction, and perception of job demands and job control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Indahl, Aage; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2017-08-01

    Social support is associated with well-being and positive health outcomes. However, positive outcomes of social support might be more dependent on the way support is provided than the amount of support received. A distinction can be made between directive social support, where the provider resumes responsibility, and nondirective social support, where the receiver has the control. This study examined the relationship between directive and nondirective social support, and subjective health complaints, job satisfaction and perception of job demands and job control. A survey was conducted among 957 Norwegian employees, working in 114 private kindergartens (mean age 40.7 years, SD = 10.5, 92.8% female), as part of a randomized controlled trial. This study used only baseline data. A factor analysis of the Norwegian version of the Social Support Inventory was conducted, identifying two factors: nondirective and directive social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were then performed. Nondirective social support was related to fewer musculoskeletal and pseudoneurological complaints, higher job satisfaction, and the perception of lower job demands and higher job control. Directive social support had the opposite relationship, but was not statistically significant for pseudoneurological complaints. It appears that for social support to be positively related with job characteristics and subjective health complaints, it has to be nondirective. Directive social support was not only without any association, but had a significant negative relationship with several of the variables. Nondirective social support may be an important factor to consider when aiming to improve the psychosocial work environment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797. Registered 23 March 2015.

  9. Immediate effect of nimmo receptor tonus technique on muscle elasticity, pain perception, and disability in subjects with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Terry K; Cohen, Jeffrey H; Zheng, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the immediate effect of Nimmo technique on muscle elasticity, pain perception, and disability and (2) evaluate comparative effectiveness of treating all primary and secondary trigger points (TrPs) vs primary TrP only. Fourteen chronic low back pain subjects recruited from a chiropractic college were tested in this within-day repeated-measures design study. Gluteus medius containing a prominent TrP was indented for 4 sessions using a mechanoacoustic indentor system. A finite element optimization method extracted hyperelastic material constants of the gluteus medius. Load-deformation response on a standardized block was simulated. Area under the load-deformation curve from 0% to 25% deformation (A(FE)) and force at 25% deformation (F(FE)) were determined. No treatment was applied between the first and second sessions. Only the primary TrP in gluteus medius was treated between the second and third sessions. Full Nimmo treatment was used between the third and fourth sessions requiring treatment of all primary and secondary TrPs. The A(FE), F(FE), tissue thickness, subjective pain, and Oswestry Disability Index were compared between sessions. After full Nimmo treatment, A(FE) and F(FE) were significantly smaller than baseline (P = .021 and .027, respectively) and focal TrP treatment only (P = .003 and .001, respectively). The changes accompanied concomitant improvement in subjective pain and disability. It appears that focal TrP treatment resolves TrP, but full Nimmo treatment further reduces electrogenic spasm. Immediate effect of a single full Nimmo treatment appears to reduce muscle tone, subjective pain, and disability and be more beneficial than focal TrP treatment. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of vertical phoria on postural control during binocular vision: what perspective for prevention to nonspecific chronic pain management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Eric; Kapoula, Zoï

    2015-01-01

    Vertical heterophoria (VH) is the latent vertical misalignment of the eyes when the retinal images are dissociated, vertical orthophoria (VO) when there is no misalignment. Studies on postural control, during binocular vision in upright stance, reported that healthy subjects with small VH vs. VO are less stable, but the experimental cancellation of VH with an appropriate prism improves postural stability. The same behavior was recorded in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects, all with VH. It was hypothesized that, without refraction problems, VH indicates a perturbation of the somaesthetic cues required in the sensorimotor loops involved in postural control and the capacity of the CNS to optimally integrate these cues, suggesting prevention possibilities. Sensorimotor conflict can induce pain and modify sensory perception in some healthy subjects; some nonspecific pain or chronic pain could result from such prolonged conflict in which VH could be a sign, with new theoretical and clinical implications.

  11. Short-term effect of spinal manipulation on pain perception, spinal mobility, and full height recovery in male subjects with degenerative disk disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Pellenz, Felipe; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect on spinal mobility, pain perception, neural mechanosensitivity, and full height recovery after high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation (SM) in the lumbosacral joint (L5-S1). Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial with evaluations at baseline and after intervention. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Men (N=40; mean age ± SD, 38 ± 9.14 y) with diagnosed degenerative lumbar disease at L5-S1 were randomly divided into 2 groups: a treatment group (TG) (n=20; mean age ± SD, 39 ± 9.12 y) and a control group (CG) (n=20; mean age ± SD, 37 ± 9.31 y). All participants completed the intervention and follow-up evaluations. A single L5-S1 SM technique (pull-move) was performed in the TG, whereas the CG received a single placebo intervention. Measures included assessing the subject's height using a stadiometer. The secondary outcome measures included perceived low back pain, evaluated using a visual analog scale; neural mechanosensitivity, as assessed using the passive straight-leg raise (SLR) test; and amount of spinal mobility in flexion, as measured using the finger-to-floor distance (FFD) test. The intragroup comparison indicated a significant improvement in all variables in the TG (Pperceived pain, spinal mobility in flexion, hip flexion during the passive SLR test, and subjects' full height. Future studies should include women and should evaluate the long-term results. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Students’ Perception of the Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the Teaching and Learning of Science Subjects in Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegede Samuel Akingbade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated students’ perception of the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the teaching and learning of science subjects in secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The population of the study was made up of all secondary school students in public and private secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample was 400 students selected from both public and private secondary schools in the state using the multi-stage sampling. The only instrument used in collecting relevant data for the study was a questionnaire consisting of two sections A and B. Section A consisted of personal biodata of the respondents, while section B consisted of 22 items which elicited information on the application of ICT in schools for learning science. Four research questions were raised and two hypotheses tested. Data collected were analysed using frequency counts and percentages as well as inferential statistics of t-test. The results showed that apart from the computer, which is available in most schools, the other identified ICT equipment were not available. The findings also showed that there is no significant difference in the availability of ICT facilities in public and private secondary schools, and that students in private schools are more exposed to ICT than their counterparts in public schools.

  13. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingeborg; Scheffels, Janne

    2013-10-24

    In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people's perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15-22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents' views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents.

  14. Dissociated vertical deviation and eye torsion: Relation to disparity-induced vertical vergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. van Rijn; H.J. Simonsz (Huib); M.P.M. ten Tusscher

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the relation between vertical eye movements and binocular torsion in five subjects with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD). During trials, subject viewed a well illuminated Snellen letter chart, with both eyes uncovered during 4 seconds. Subsequently, DVD was induced by

  15. Intrasaccadic perception triggers pupillary constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Mathôt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that vision is impaired during saccadic eye movements. However, here we report that some visual stimuli are clearly visible during saccades, and trigger a constriction of the eye’s pupil. Participants viewed sinusoid gratings that changed polarity 150 times per second (every 6.67 ms. At this rate of flicker, the gratings were perceived as homogeneous surfaces while participants fixated. However, the flickering gratings contained ambiguous motion: rightward and leftward motion for vertical gratings; upward and downward motion for horizontal gratings. When participants made a saccade perpendicular to the gratings’ orientation (e.g., a leftward saccade for a vertical grating, the eye’s peak velocity matched the gratings’ motion. As a result, the retinal image was approximately stable for a brief moment during the saccade, and this gave rise to an intrasaccadic percept: A normally invisible stimulus became visible when eye velocity was maximal. Our results confirm and extend previous studies by demonstrating intrasaccadic perception using a reflexive measure (pupillometry that does not rely on subjective report. Our results further show that intrasaccadic perception affects all stages of visual processing, from the pupillary response to visual awareness.

  16. Perceptions of health equity and subjective social status among baccalaureate nursing students engaged in service-learning activities in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Jarvis, Sarah; Sparacino, Patricia; Kuo, Devina; Genz, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure undergraduate students' knowledge of social determinants of health, health equity, and subjective social status (SSS). A cross-sectional semi-structured survey was administered to 68 racially/ethnically diverse freshman students enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing program in O'ahu, Hawai'i. Students ranked the impact of 13 issues on Hawai'i residents' health and described how well the health care system addressed these issues. A 10-rung ladder was used to rank SSS; students marked an "X" on the ladder rung where they stand in society and explained what they would need to "move up or down" the ladder. The students identified three key issues that adversely impact health: substance abuse, diet/nutrition, and cancer. Sixty-nine percent of students stated that social determinants of health impact Hawai'i residents' health either "quite a bit" or "very much", while only 31% felt that the health care system adequately addressed these determinants. Students who ranked high on the ladder (rungs 6-10) cited family as the reason. The students who ranked low on the ladder (rungs 3-5) credited their position to lack of money. Students' perceptions of social determinants of health and health equity align with findings from public health studies in Hawai'i. These concepts were integrated into the 4-year nursing school curricula and findings inform future research and service-based learning activities conducted by the students. While findings presented here focus on nursing students in Hawai'i, this educational innovation could be replicated with students in other undergraduate health sciences programs.

  17. Adaptive Changes in the Perception of Fast and Slow Movement at Different Head Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Occhigrossi, Chiara; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Lucertini, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration). The rotations induced a bias in the perception of velocity (more pronounced with fast than with slow motion). At the end of rotation, a marked target position error (TPE) was present. For the on-vertical axis rotations, the TPE was no different if the rotations were performed with a 30° nose-down, a 60° nose-up, or a 90° side-down head tilt. With off-vertical axis rotations, the simultaneous activation of the semicircular canals and otolithic receptors produced a significant increase of TPE for all head positions. This difference between on-vertical and off-vertical axis rotation was probably partly due to the vestibular transfer function and partly due to different adaptation to the speed of rotation. Such a phenomenon might be generated in different components of the vestibular system. The adaptive process enhancing the perception of dynamic movement around the vertical axis is not related to the specific semicircular canals that are activated; the addition of an otolithic component results in a significant increase of the TPE.Panichi R, Occhigrossi C, Ferraresi A, Faralli M, Lucertini M, Pettorossi VE. Adaptive changes in the perception of fast and slow movement at different head positions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):463-468.

  18. Vertical vergence adaptation produces an objective vertical deviation that changes with head tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L; Ramey, Nicholas A; Adyanthaya, Rohit S; Ying, Howard S

    2013-05-03

    To document the cyclovertical ocular motor mechanism used for vertical fusion in healthy subjects, and to explore whether vertical vergence training in healthy individuals can produce objectively confirmed vertical deviations that change with head tilt, revealing a basic mechanism that can produce a pattern of misalignment in an otherwise normal ocular motor system that is similar to superior oblique muscle paresis (SOP). Seven subjects with normal orthoptic examinations were adapted to vertical image disparities using our tilting haploscopic eye-tracking apparatus presenting concentric circle targets without torsional cues. Static eye positions were recorded with head straight and when tilted 45 degrees to the left and right, during both binocular and monocular viewing. Vertical fusional vergence was accompanied by a cycloversion, with the downward-moving eye intorting and the upward-moving eye extorting, implicating primary involvement of the oblique extraocular muscles. After adaptation to the slowly increasing vertical target separation, all subjects developed a temporary vertical deviation in the straight ahead position that increased with head tilt to one side and decreased with head tilt to the other side. These results not only show that head-tilt-dependent changes in vertical deviation are not necessarily pathognomonic for SOP, but also, and more importantly, suggest mechanisms that can mimic SOP and suggest a possible role for vertical vergence training in reducing deviations and thus the amount of head tilt required for fusion. Ultimately, vertical vergence training may provide an adjunct or alternative to extraocular muscle surgery in selected cases.

  19. Acquired vertical accommodative vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Scharff, Ulrike; Kommerell, Guntram; Lagrèze, Wolf A

    2008-03-08

    Vertical accommodative vergence is an unusual synkinesis in which vertical vergence is modulated together with accommodation. It results from a supranuclear miswiring of the network normally conveying accommodative convergence. So far, it is unknown whether this condition is congenital or acquired. We identified an otherwise healthy girl who gradually developed vertical accommodative vergence between five to 13 years of age. Change of accommodation by 3 diopters induced a vertical vergence of 10 degrees. This observation proves that the miswiring responsible for vertical accommodative vergence must not necessarily be congenital, but can be acquired. The cause and the mechanism leading to vertical accommodative vergence are yet unknown.

  20. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lund, Ingeborg; Scheffels, Janne

    2013-01-01

    ... on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people's perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties...

  1. Hierarchical organisation in perception of orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, D; Antonucci, G; Daini, R; Martelli, M L; Zoccolotti, P

    1999-01-01

    According to Rock [1990, in The Legacy of Solomon Asch (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates)], hierarchical organisation of perception describes cases in which the orientation of an object is affected by the immediately surrounding elements in the visual field. Various experiments were performed to study the hierarchical organisation of orientation perception. In most of them the rod-and-frame-illusion (RFI: change of the apparent vertical measured on a central rod surrounded by a tilted frame) was measured in the presence/absence of a second inner frame. The first three experiments showed that, when the inner frame is vertical, the direction and size of the illusion are consistent with expectancies based on the hierarchical organisation hypothesis. An analysis of published and unpublished data collected on a large number of subjects showed that orientational hierarchical effects are independent from the absolute size of the RFI. In experiments 4 to 7 we examined the perceptual conditions of the inner stimulus (enclosure, orientation, and presence of luminance borders) critical for obtaining a hierarchical organisation effect. Although an inner vertical square was effective in reducing the illusion (experiment 3), an inner circle enclosing the rod was ineffective (experiment 4). This indicates that definite orientation is necessary to modulate the illusion. However, orientational information provided by a vertical or horizontal rectangle presented near the rod, but not enclosing it, did not modulate the RFI (experiment 5). This suggests that the presence of a figure with oriented contours enclosing the rod is critical. In experiments 6 and 7 we studied whether the presence of luminance borders is important or whether the inner upright square might be effective also if made of subjective contours. When the subjective contour figure was salient and the observers perceived it clearly, its effectiveness in modulating the RFI was comparable to that observed with

  2. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  3. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  4. General practitioners' beliefs about people with schizophrenia and whether they should be subject to discriminatory treatment when in medical hospital: The mediating role of dangerousness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Punzo, Rosanna; Strino, Antonella; Acone, Roberta; Affuso, Gaetana; Read, John

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between General Practitioners' (GPs) beliefs about People With Schizophrenia (PWS) and GPs' recommendations regarding restrictions for such people when in medical (nonpsychiatric) hospital, and whether these relationships were mediated by dangerousness perception. There were 322 randomly selected Italian GPs who completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs about PWS. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to explore the effects of these beliefs on the GPs' views about the need for restrictive rules in hospital. Thirty-1 percent of GPs firmly believed that, in medical wards, PWS should be supervised and 18% that they should be separated from other patients. SEM revealed that belief in such differential treatment was positively related to a belief that PWS need medication for the rest of their lives, and to perceptions of others' need for social distance, and of dangerousness. Dangerousness was, in turn, positively related to the belief that PWS need medication for their lives, and to a perception of the need for social distance, but negatively related to perceived capacity to report health problems. Analyses of indirect effects showed that the relationships of belief in discriminatory treatment with belief in medication for life and with perceived social distance were mediated by perceived dangerousness. GPs' attitudes about PWS appear closely with their beliefs on discriminatory behaviors in hospital, and the mediating role of dangerousness perceptions. Providing GPs with education about schizophrenia treatments and prognosis, and countering stereotypes about dangerousness, could be helpful to reduce GPs' beliefs in the need for discriminatory treatment of PWS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A comparison of muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue perception and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Savci, Sema; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Arikan, Hulya; Aribas, Zeynep; Ozer, Ozge; Bosnak-Guclu, Meral; Coplu, Lutfi

    2014-01-27

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has significant systemic effects that substantially impact quality of life and survival. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare peripheral muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue perception and quality of life between patients with COPD and healthy subjects. Twenty COPD patients (mean FEV1 49.3 ± 19.2%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Pulmonary function testing and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed. Peripheral muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, peripheral muscle endurance was evaluated with sit-ups, squats and modified push-ups tests. Fatigue perception was assessed using the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). General quality of life was determined with the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and cough-specific quality of life was evaluated with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Pulmonary functions, strength of shoulder abductor and flexor muscles, numbers of sit-ups and squats, 6MWT distance and 6MWT% were significantly lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects (p muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity and quality of life were adversely affected in patients with COPD. There are greater effect of fatigue on psychosocial functioning and general daily life activities and effect of cough on the quality of life in patients with COPD. This study supports the idea that COPD patients must be evaluated in a comprehensive manner for planning pulmonary rehabilitation programs.

  6. Analytical Calculation of Errors in Time and Value Perception Due to a Subjective Time Accumulator: A Mechanistic Model and the Generation of Weber's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Mihalas, Stefan; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G

    2016-01-01

    It has been previously shown (Namboodiri, Mihalas, Marton, & Hussain Shuler, 2014) that an evolutionary theory of decision making and time perception is capable of explaining numerous behavioral observations regarding how humans and animals decide between differently delayed rewards of differing magnitudes and how they perceive time. An implementation of this theory using a stochastic drift-diffusion accumulator model (Namboodiri, Mihalas, & Hussain Shuler, 2014a) showed that errors in time perception and decision making approximately obey Weber's law for a range of parameters. However, prior calculations did not have a clear mechanistic underpinning. Further, these calculations were only approximate, with the range of parameters being limited. In this letter, we provide a full analytical treatment of such an accumulator model, along with a mechanistic implementation, to calculate the expression of these errors for the entirety of the parameter space. In our mechanistic model, Weber's law results from synaptic facilitation and depression within the feedback synapses of the accumulator. Our theory also makes the prediction that the steepness of temporal discounting can be affected by requiring the precise timing of temporal intervals. Thus, by presenting exact quantitative calculations, this work provides falsifiable predictions for future experimental testing.

  7. El deseo por alcanzar un espacio acogedor: experiencias de mujeres como sujeto erguido en la construcción de vivienda; O desejo de alcançar um espaço acolhedor: experiências de mulheres como sujeito vertical na construção da moradia; The desire to reach a refuge space: experiences of women as a vertical subject in the construction of housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Almeida Leñero

    2016-01-01

    . A form of divided thought, which I did not include; But it wears out, it gets tired, it gets tired. Just wanting a change produces a movement, a break, a possibility, a paradigm that takes us where we belong. In constructing oneself, beyond a house, is the construction of vertical, conscious subjects.   Keywords: Subject erect, desire, reception

  8. ?Vertical Sextants give Good Sights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Michael

    Mark Dixon suggests (Forum, Vol. 50, 137) that nobody thus far has attempted to quantify the errors from tilt that arise while observing with the marine sextant. The issue in fact, with the related problem of what exactly is the axis about which the sextant is rotated whilst being (to define the vertical), was the subject of a lively controversy in the first two volumes of this Journal some fifty years ago. Since the consensus of opinion seems to have been that the maximum error does not necessarily occur at 45 degrees, whereas Dixon's table suggests that it does, some reiteration of the arguments may be in order.

  9. Subjective evaluation of different ventilation concepts combined with radiant heating and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation and radiant heating/cooling systems. Two test setups simulated a room in a low energy building with a single occupant during winter. The room was equipped either by a ventilation system...... with displacement ventilation. Vertical air temperature distribution was more uniform for floor heating than for warm air heating, but there was no significant difference in thermal perception between the two mixing ventilation systems. For the summer conditions the subjects voted warmer than predicted by the PMV...

  10. Vertical jump coordination: fatigue effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Fowler, Neil E; Bennett, Simon J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the segmental coordination of vertical jumps under fatigue of the knee extensor and flexor muscles. Eleven healthy and active subjects performed maximal vertical jumps with and without fatigue, which was imposed by requesting the subjects to extend/flex their knees continuously in a weight machine, until they could not lift a load corresponding to approximately 50% of their body weight. Knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torques were also measured before and after fatigue. Video, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic data were collected simultaneously and used to provide several variables of the jumps. Fatiguing the knee flexor muscles did not reduce the height of the jumps or induce changes in the kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic profiles. Knee extensor fatigue caused the subjects to adjust several variables of the movement, in which the peak joint angular velocity, peak joint net moment, and power around the knee were reduced and occurred earlier in comparison with the nonfatigued jumps. The electromyographic data analyses indicated that the countermovement jumps were performed similarly, i.e., a single strategy was used, irrespective of which muscle group (extensor or flexors) or the changes imposed on the muscle force-generating characteristics (fatigue or nonfatigue). The subjects executed the movements as if they scaled a robust template motor program, which guided the movement execution in all jump conditions. It was speculated that training programs designed to improve jump height performance should avoid severe fatigue levels, which may cause the subjects to learn and adopt a nonoptimal and nonspecific coordination solution. It was suggested that the neural input used in the fatigued condition did not constitute an optimal solution and may have played a role in decreasing maximal jump height achievement.

  11. Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaré, S.; Lazennec, J. Y.; Camelot, C.; Saillant, G.; Hansen, S.; Trabelsi, R.

    1999-01-01

    An unusual case of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation without medulla oblongata or spinal cord injury is reported. The pathogenic process suggested occipito-axial dislocation. The case was treated surgically with excellent results on mobility and pain.

  12. Coordination in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  13. Perceptions, Attitudes and Institutional Factors That Influence Academic Performance of Visual Arts Students in Ghana's Senior High School Core Curriculum Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Essel, Harry Barton

    2015-01-01

    Senior High School (SHS) students in Ghana are required to pass all core and elective curricula subjects in the West Africa Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) to qualify for higher education. Unfortunately, many Visual Arts students perform poorly or fail in English, Mathematics, Integrated Science and Social Studies, which constitute…

  14. "Poetry Is Happening but I Don't Exactly Know How": Literacy Subject Leaders' Perceptions of Poetry in Their Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambirth, Andrew; Smith, Sarah; Steele, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests (Ofsted, 2007) that the role of the Subject Leader is crucial in how well poetry is taught in schools. This paper attempts to provide some insights on "what it is like" to coordinate poetry teaching in a primary school. Some of the data confirm elements of the findings from earlier research on the state of poetry in…

  15. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  16. Composition of vertical gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Vertical gardens are fully functional gardens in areas where there is less oxygen and space, ideal for residential and urban cities where there is no vegetation; occupy a special place in interiors furniture. The gardens occupy an important aesthetic problem. Aesthetic task in vertical gardens can be achieved by forming sectors of identification in the urban landscape through the choice of a particular plant spatial composition and composition, to create comfort and representation in commu...

  17. 脳卒中後のpusher syndrome の重症度およびその改善経過とsubject visual verticality の偏倚との関連

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    辻本, 直秀; 阿部, 浩明; 大鹿糠, 徹; 大橋, 信義

    2017-01-01

    【目的】本研究の目的は,pusher syndrome(以下,PS)を呈した脳卒中片麻痺者におけるsubject visual verticality(以下,SVV)の偏倚量の推移とPS の重症度およびPS の改善経過との関連について明らかにすることである。【方法】対象は,理学療法初回介入時にSVV の測定が可能であっ...

  18. Price Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Margianti, E.S.; Saptariani, Trini; Sirongoringo, Hotniar

    2008-01-01

    This research is intended to investigate consumer price perception which is set up by two (2) big retail chains. However, research variable is subjected to consumer opinion, so that survey research was deployed to gather data needed. Questionnaire, as research instrument, was distributed to consumers who perform convenience shopping goods at two chains, i.e. Carrefour and Giant in Depok city. As research variables are latent in nature, multilevel structural equation modeling was used to analy...

  19. Subjective perceptions as prognostic factors of time to fitness for work during a 4-year period after inpatient rehabilitation for orthopaedic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuistiner, Philippe; Luthi, François; Erhart, Peter; Scholz, Stefan M; Dériaz, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Time to fitness for work (TFW) was measured as the number of days that were paid as compensation for work disability during the 4 years after discharge from the rehabilitation clinic in a population of patients hospitalised for rehabilitation after orthopaedic trauma. The aim of this study was to test whether some psychological variables can be used as potential early prognostic factors of TFW. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the associations between predictive variables and TFW. Predictors were global health, pain at hospitalisation and pain decrease during the stay (all continuous and standardised by subtracting the mean and dividing by two standard deviations), perceived severity of the trauma and expectation of a positive evolution (both binary variables). Full data were available for 807 inpatients (660 men, 147 women). TFW was positively associated with better perceived health (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.19), pain decrease (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.30-1.64) and expectation of a positive evolution (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.32-1.70) and negatively associated with pain at hospitalisation (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.76) and high perceived severity (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.85). The present results provide some evidence that work disability during a four-year period after rehabilitation may be predicted by prerehabilitation perceptions of general health, pain, injury severity, as well as positive expectation of evolution.

  20. Phase-linking and the perceived motion during off-vertical axis rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Jan E; Wood, Scott J; McCollum, Gin

    2010-01-01

    Human off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) in the dark typically produces perceived motion about a cone, the amplitude of which changes as a function of frequency. This perception is commonly attributed to the fact that both the OVAR and the conical motion have a gravity vector that rotates about the subject. Little-known, however, is that this rotating-gravity explanation for perceived conical motion is inconsistent with basic observations about self-motion perception: (a) that the perceived vertical moves toward alignment with the gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) and (b) that perceived translation arises from perceived linear acceleration, as derived from the portion of the GIA not associated with gravity. Mathematically proved in this article is the fact that during OVAR these properties imply mismatched phase of perceived tilt and translation, in contrast to the common perception of matched phases which correspond to conical motion with pivot at the bottom. This result demonstrates that an additional perceptual rule is required to explain perception in OVAR. This study investigates, both analytically and computationally, the phase relationship between tilt and translation at different stimulus rates-slow (45 degrees /s) and fast (180 degrees /s), and the three-dimensional shape of predicted perceived motion, under different sets of hypotheses about self-motion perception. We propose that for human motion perception, there is a phase-linking of tilt and translation movements to construct a perception of one's overall motion path. Alternative hypotheses to achieve the phase match were tested with three-dimensional computational models, comparing the output with published experimental reports. The best fit with experimental data was the hypothesis that the phase of perceived translation was linked to perceived tilt, while the perceived tilt was determined by the GIA. This hypothesis successfully predicted the bottom-pivot cone commonly reported and a reduced sense

  1. Pain dilates time perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amandine E Rey; George A Michael; Corina Dondas; Marvin Thar; Luis Garcia-Larrea; Stéphanie Mazza

    2017-01-01

    .... We show that being in pain leads to an expansion of subjective time whereby a stronger increase in pain perception relative to non-painful stimulation leads to a stronger time-estimate distortion...

  2. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-01-24

    Jan 24, 2002 ... crustacean zooplankton but also in a Wide array of different marine zooplankton groups. (Russell 1927, McLaren 1963). Thus there is no doubt that ..... cooperation during field work and for their fruitful discussion on the draft manuscript. REFERENCES. Bayly lAE 1986 Aspects of diel vertical migration in ...

  3. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra...... this strategic behavior, yields better market performance than Cournot beliefs...

  4. Hunting Voronoi vertices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrucci, V.; Overmars, Mark; Rao, A.; Vleugels, J.

    1994-01-01

    Given three objects in the plane, a Voronoi vertex is a point that is equidistant simultaneously from each. In this paper, we consider the problem of computing Voronoi vertices for planar objects of xed but possibly unknown shape; we only require the ability to query the closest point on an object

  5. Vertical shaft windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  6. [THE EFFECT OF THE APPLICATION OF THE KINESIOLOGY TAPING TECHNIQUE FOR MUSCLE RANGE OF MOTION OF THE LUMBAR SPINE, AND THE SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTION OF PAIN INTENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH BACK PAIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczyński, Wojciech; Lubkowska, Anna; Dobek, Aleksandra; Andryszczyk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In an era of ubiquitous computing, a considerable part of the population, regardless of age group, spend more time in a sitting position. Long-term, static loading of the spine increases muscle tension, leading to the occurrence of pain. Physiotherapy is recommended as primary and secondary prevention of spinal pain symptoms. The Kinesiology Taping Method is one of the many special methods of physiotherapy which is used during the episodes of back pain in the lumbosacral region. This method consists in sticking on a special tape, which is made of stretch cotton similar to human skin, using a variety of techniques for patch application. The present study evaluated the effect of the application of the Kinesiology Taping technique for muscle mobility in the lumbar spine and the subjective perception of pain intensity. The study group consisted of 100 patients (89 women and 11 men) who experienced pain in the lumbar spine. To assess the mobility of the lumbar spine the Schober test was used. The subjective sensation of pain was assessed using the VAS (visual analogue scale). Measurements were taken four times: before gluing applications, immediately after taping, 7 days after application of the patch, and immediately after its removal. In response to the use of therapy, an increase of mobility of the lumbar spine in flexion front and back, and reduced pain was shown. Application of the muscle kinesiology taping technique is an effective method in reducing pain and increasing mobility of the lumbar spine.

  7. Vertical gastroplasty: evolution of vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E E; Doherty, C; Cullen, J J; Scott, D; Rodriguez, E M; Maher, J W

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize the goals, technical requirements, advantages, and potential risks of gastroplasty for treatment of severe obesity. Gastroplasty is preferred to more complex operations, as it preserves normal digestion and absorption and avoids complications that are peculiar to exclusion operations. The medical literature and a 30-year experience at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) provides an overview of vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) evolution. Preliminary 10-year results with the VBG technique currently used at UIHC are included. At UIHC the VBG is preferred to other gastroplasties because it provides weight control that extends for at least 10 years and the required objective, intraoperative quality control required for a low rate of reoperation. It is recommended that modifications of the operative technique not be attempted until a surgeon has had experience with the standardized operation--and then only under a carefully designed protocol. Realistic goals for surgery and criteria of success influence the choice of operation and the optimum, lifelong risk/benefit ratio. In conclusion, VBG is a safe, long-term effective operation for severe obesity with advantages over complex operations and more restrictive simple operations.

  8. [Analysis of relationships between perimenopausal symptoms and professional functioning and life satisfaction--Subjective perception of the dependence in women aged 40+].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Iwona; Rasińska, Renata; Głowacka, Maria Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse and present the opinions of women in perimenopause on subjectively perceived symptoms characteristic of the climacteric period, and connected with their professional functioning, as well as to evaluate the effects of selected variables on the incidence and severity of these symptoms and the women's life satisfaction. The study included 250 professionally active women in perimenopausal age (40-57 years). The study used the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to evaluate life satisfaction of women and the Kupperman Index (KI) as quantitative and qualitative self-assessment of climacteric symptoms. The authors also used a questionnaire of their own design that contains an index of defined symptoms of perimenopause, which warrants the use of Pareto-Lorenz analysis. The obtained results prove the presence of statistically significant correlations between the occurrence and severity of menopausal symptoms and the place of enployment (p=0.04912), gynecological care (p=0.00325), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (p=0.01523) and assessment of life satisfaction (p=0.0325). Among the symptoms particularly influencing effective professional functioning, women pointed out hot flashes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. There is a statistically significant correlation between the woman's place of employment, gynecological care, HRT, the evaluation of life satisfaction and the severity of perimenopausal symptoms. A set of symptoms whose presence and severity influence the sense of life satisfaction and evaluation of professional functioning was observed. Among the most frequently reported symptoms that exert an adverse effect on professional functioning of women are: hot flushes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. THE ANALYTICAL INSIGHT INTO CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF QUALITY DETERMINANTS OF THE E-COMMERCE MODEL BUSINESS-TO-CONSUMER SUBJECTS IN THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Bačík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to describe the specific aspects of the e-commerce model business-to-consumer as a constantly developing field of an economic life in the Central European countries according to their customers. The current state of e-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce issue was identified by the research in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.Methodology/Approach: For the purposes of collecting primary data the crucial factor for the selection of e-shops was identification of the suitable  online portals focused on post-purchase evaluation of e-shops in Visegrad group countries. Automatic data collection method was used for the observed variables (evaluations within selected online portals of the identified e-shops. The total of 5,228,127 evaluations of 9,260 e-shops were analysed. The main focus was given to customer overall satisfaction with an e-shop in relation to communication with a customer or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Findings: The results of the research showed that there exists a direct relation between overall satisfaction with an e-shop and communication with customers or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Originality/Value of paper: The ambition of this paper through the findings is to help subjects of e-commerce in their marketing decisions in order to even better understand the factors that influence customers’ satisfaction. 

  10. The role of vertical conflict in the relationship between leader self-enhancement and leader performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, Niels A.; Janssen, Onne; van der Vegt, Geert; Stoker, Janka I.

    Although studies have shown that inflated self-perceptions of transformational leadership behavior negatively affect leader performance, insight into the underlying processes explaining this relationship is lacking. The current study addresses this gap by identifying vertical conflict between

  11. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amery Ice Shelf. Study of inter-annual variations in surface melting over. Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, using space-borne scatterometer data. 329. Ammonium. Measurement of marine productivity using 15N and 13C tracers: Some methodological aspects. 99. Anabatic and katabatic wind. Study of vertical wind profiles in ...

  12. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    179. Arabian Sea. Improved bathymetric datasets for the shallow water regions in the Indian Ocean. 261. Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast of India. 331. Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX). Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase of 2003 monsoon. 305.

  13. Correlation of climbing perception and eye movements during daytime and nighttime takeoffs using a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Wada, Yoshiro; Shimizu, Naoki; Inui, Takuo; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests that the subjective climbing perception can be quantitatively evaluated using values calculated from induced eye movements, and the findings may aid in the detection of pilots who are susceptible to spatial disorientation in a screening test. The climbing perception experienced by a pilot during takeoff at night is stronger than that experienced during the day. To investigate this illusion, this study assessed eye movements and analyzed their correlation with subjective climbing perception during daytime and nighttime takeoffs. Eight male volunteers participated in this study. A simulated aircraft takeoff environment was created using a flight simulator and the maximum slow-phase velocities and vestibulo-ocular reflex gain of vertical eye movements were calculated during takeoff simulation. Four of the eight participants reported that their perception of climbing at night was stronger, while the other four reported that there was no difference between day and night. These perceptions were correlated with eye movements; participants with a small difference in the maximum slow-phase velocities of their downward eye movements between daytime and nighttime takeoffs indicated that their perception of climbing was the same under the two conditions.

  14. GPS, su datum vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de la metodología GPS en aplicaciones topográficas y geodésicas pone en notoria evidencia la clásica separación de sistemas de referencia en horizontal y vertical. Con GPS el posicionamiento es tridimensional, pero el concepto de altura difiere del clásico. Si se desea utilizar la información altimétrica debe contemplarse la ondulación del geoide.

  15. Plato's Theory of Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation defends the view that in a number of later dialogues (Theaetetus, Philebus, Timaeus, Sophist, as well as, incidentally, the earlier Phaedo) Plato articulates a coherent and systematic account, and thus a theory, of perception. The theory, I argue, is made up of the following three claims: (1A) The perceiving subject is not the individual sense organs, but rather the unified soul, and (1B) this is the very same subject as the subject of thought. (2A) The objects of perception...

  16. Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Marco; Bonetti, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness in geometr......Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness...... in geometrical figures differing in shape, verticality, size, and symmetry. Verticality, symmetry, and convexity were found to be important factors in the perception of sacredness. In the second test, participants had to mark the point inside geometrical surfaces that was perceived as most sacred, dominant....... Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were largely overlapping....

  17. Magnitude-dependence of equivalent comfort contours for fore-and-aft, lateral, and vertical vibration at the foot for seated persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Miyuki; Griffin, Michael J.

    2010-07-01

    Vibration at the feet can contribute to discomfort in many forms of transport and in some buildings. Knowledge of the frequency-dependence of discomfort caused by foot vibration, and how this varies with vibration magnitude, will assist the prediction of discomfort caused by vibration. With groups of 12 seated subjects, this experimental study determined absolute thresholds for the perception of foot vibration and quantified the discomfort caused by vibration at the foot. The study investigated a wide range of magnitudes (from the threshold of perception to levels associated with severe discomfort) over a wide range of frequencies (from 8 to 315 Hz in one-third octave steps) in each of the three orthogonal translational axes (fore-and-aft, lateral, and vertical). The effects of gender and shoes on absolute thresholds for the perception of vertical vibration at the foot were also investigated. Within each of the three axes, the vibration acceleration corresponding to the absolute thresholds for the perception of vibration, and also all contours showing conditions producing equivalent discomfort, were highly frequency-dependent at frequencies greater than about 40 Hz. The acceleration threshold contours were U-shaped at frequencies greater than 80 Hz in all three axes of excitation, suggesting the involvement of the Pacinian channel in vibration perception. At supra-threshold levels, the frequency-dependence of the equivalent comfort contours in each of the three axes was highly dependent on vibration magnitude. With increasing vibration magnitude, the conditions causing similar discomfort across the frequency range approximated towards constant velocity. Thresholds were not greatly affected by wearing shoes or subject gender. The derived frequency weightings imply that no single linear frequency weighting can provide accurate predictions of discomfort caused by a wide range of magnitudes of foot vibration.

  18. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  19. Understanding Vertical Jump Potentiation: A Deterministic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Lamont, Hugh S; Moir, Gavin L

    2016-06-01

    This review article discusses previous postactivation potentiation (PAP) literature and provides a deterministic model for vertical jump (i.e., squat jump, countermovement jump, and drop/depth jump) potentiation. There are a number of factors that must be considered when designing an effective strength-power potentiation complex (SPPC) focused on vertical jump potentiation. Sport scientists and practitioners must consider the characteristics of the subject being tested and the design of the SPPC itself. Subject characteristics that must be considered when designing an SPPC focused on vertical jump potentiation include the individual's relative strength, sex, muscle characteristics, neuromuscular characteristics, current fatigue state, and training background. Aspects of the SPPC that must be considered for vertical jump potentiation include the potentiating exercise, level and rate of muscle activation, volume load completed, the ballistic or non-ballistic nature of the potentiating exercise, and the rest interval(s) used following the potentiating exercise. Sport scientists and practitioners should design and seek SPPCs that are practical in nature regarding the equipment needed and the rest interval required for a potentiated performance. If practitioners would like to incorporate PAP as a training tool, they must take the athlete training time restrictions into account as a number of previous SPPCs have been shown to require long rest periods before potentiation can be realized. Thus, practitioners should seek SPPCs that may be effectively implemented in training and that do not require excessive rest intervals that may take away from valuable training time. Practitioners may decrease the necessary time needed to realize potentiation by improving their subject's relative strength.

  20. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    composition, and it is truly commonplace in today’s communication with the diversity of VPNs and secure browser sessions. In fact, it is normal that we have several layers of secure channels: For instance, on top of a VPN-connection, a browser may establish another secure channel (possibly with a different...... end point). Even using the same protocol several times in such a stack of channels is not unusual: An application may very well establish another TLS channel over an established one. We call this selfcomposition. In fact, there is nothing that tells us that all these compositions are sound, i.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  1. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index......, an index of refraction of the second low-index layer or air being less than 2; and a thickness of the cap layer and a thickness of the grating layer, and a pitch and a duty cycle of the grating structure are selected to obtain a resonance having a free-space resonance wavelength in the interval 300 nm to 3...... microns, the cap layer comprises an active region configured to generate or absorb photons at the free-space resonance wavelength by stimulated emission or absorption when a sufficient forward or reverse bias voltage is applied across the active region, a thickness of the first low-index layer is less...

  2. Subjective evaluation of different ventilation concepts combined with radiant heating and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2012-01-01

    with displacement ventilation. Vertical air temperature distribution was more uniform for floor heating than for warm air heating, but there was no significant difference in thermal perception between the two mixing ventilation systems. For the summer conditions the subjects voted warmer than predicted by the PMV...... supplying warm air space heating or by a combination of radiant floor heating and mixing ventilation system. Next two test setups simulated an office room with two occupants during summer, ventilated and cooled by a single displacement ventilation system or by a radiant floor cooling combined...... and about one third preferred more air movement. No significant difference in thermal perception between the two displacement ventilation systems was found....

  3. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  4. Speaker perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kawahara, Hideki; Simpson, Adrian P; Skuk, Verena G; Zäske, Romi

    2014-01-01

    While humans use their voice mainly for communicating information about the world, paralinguistic cues in the voice signal convey rich dynamic information about a speaker's arousal and emotional state, and extralinguistic cues reflect more stable speaker characteristics including identity, biological sex and social gender, socioeconomic or regional background, and age. Here we review the anatomical and physiological bases for individual differences in the human voice, before discussing how recent methodological progress in voice morphing and voice synthesis has promoted research on current theoretical issues, such as how voices are mentally represented in the human brain. Special attention is dedicated to the distinction between the recognition of familiar and unfamiliar speakers, in everyday situations or in the forensic context, and on the processes and representational changes that accompany the learning of new voices. We describe how specific impairments and individual differences in voice perception could relate to specific brain correlates. Finally, we consider that voices are produced by speakers who are often visible during communication, and review recent evidence that shows how speaker perception involves dynamic face-voice integration. The representation of para- and extralinguistic vocal information plays a major role in person perception and social communication, could be neuronally encoded in a prototype-referenced manner, and is subject to flexible adaptive recalibration as a result of specific perceptual experience. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:15-25. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1261 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Vertical allometry: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Boxenbaum, Harold

    2014-04-01

    In pharmacokinetics, vertical allometry is referred to the clearance of a drug when the predicted human clearance is substantially higher than the observed human clearance. Vertical allometry was initially reported for diazepam based on a 33-fold higher human predicted clearance than the observed human clearance. In recent years, it has been found that many other drugs besides diazepam, can be classified as drugs which exhibit vertical allometry. Over the years, many questions regarding vertical allometry have been raised. For example, (1) How to define and identify the vertical allometry? (2) How much difference should be between predicted and observed human clearance values before a drug could be declared 'a drug which follows vertical allometry'? (3) If somehow one can identify vertical allometry from animal data, how this information can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of clearance in humans? This report attempts to answer the aforementioned questions. The concept of vertical allometry at this time remains complex and obscure but with more extensive works one can have better understanding of 'vertical allometry'. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Esthetic factors of smile in vertical dimensions: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyaroop Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The variations in aesthetic perception among the professionals and the laypersons were compared, to understand the association of various skeletal and dental factors in vertical dimension, which alter the soft-tissue characteristics during posed/social smile, among young adults. Methods: Images of the posed smile were captured with a digital camera from the 60 nonorthodontic treated young adults (30 girls, 30 boys. Determinants of the "pleasing smile" were identified from the results of a Visual Analog Scale. Quantitative measurements of the soft- and hard-tissue were made by using the smile images and cephalometric radiographs. The esthetics of the smile was correlated with specific skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions. Results: Three factors formed significant components of a pleasant smile, for orthodontists (incisogingival display, upper lip, and buccal corridor and three for laypersons (upper lip, lower lip, and smile arc. A strong positive correlation was seen among skeletal and dental vertical dimensions and incisor show. The vertical thickness of the upper lip had a significant positive correlation with the position of the maxillary incisor. Conclusion: Incisogingival display, upper lip, lower lip and buccal corridor proved to be the most influential variables in smile esthetics. The significant relationship of incisor protrusion with the vertical thickness of the vermilion border of the upper lip shows that skeletal and dental vertical dimensions for incisal display must be considered when planning orthodontic treatment.

  7. Neighborhood Disorder, Subjective Alienation, and Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E.; Mirowsky, John

    2009-01-01

    Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry…

  8. Protected Vertices in Motzkin trees

    OpenAIRE

    Van Duzer, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we find recurrence relations for the asymptotic probability a vertex is $k$ protected in all Motzkin trees. We use a similar technique to calculate the probabilities for balanced vertices of rank $k$. From this we calculate upper and lower bounds for the probability a vertex is balanced and upper and lower bounds for the expected rank of balanced vertices.

  9. CUSTOMER SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTION AS A MAIN ISSUE IN CONCEPTUAL PRODUCT DESING: A METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL LA PERCEPCIÓN SUBJETIVA COMO FACTOR PRIMORDIAL EN EL DISEÑO CONCEPTUAL DE PRODUCTOS: UNA PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A León Duarte

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Present economic scenarios compel organizations to introduce new strategies directed to increase their competitiveness. Industrial design is not detached from this tendency; commonly organizations declare that their products are the effect of " listening to the user" . Nevertheless, this process is identified by two basic characteristics: the associated linguistic nature to and the difficulty for interpreting, categorizing and incorporating the user's needs into product specifications. In this sense, the lack of solid and reliable mechanisms to integrate the user's perceived requirements into product characteristics is well known. A particular emphasis is made in the need to incorporate intangible attributes related to product perception by the user. A mechanism to detect and interpret product attributes in the conceptual or early desig and, a procedure to evaluate the user's subjective perception are incorporated. The methodology draws upon particular mechanisms for detection, interpretation and categorization of the requirements in two basic domains. These attributes, once identified, are incorporated in an affordances structure that shows sets of interactions in which the properties of the object are perceived by the user as action possibilities. This structure serves as a guide for the creative team in the detailed design phase, incorporating aspects that the user values the most, employing a combination of mechanisms that include the Kano method, Osgood's semantic differentials, factor analysis and fuzzy logic.El escenario económico actual obliga a las organizaciones a implantar estrategias novedosas, dirigidas a incrementar su competitividad. El diseño industrial no es ajeno a esto; en la actualidad las organizaciones presumen que sus productos son resultado de escuchar al usuario. Sin embargo, este proceso se distingue por dos características: la naturaleza lingüística asociada al mismo y la dificultad para interpretar, categorizar y

  10. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  11. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and genetic factors related to vertical talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Laura J; Gurnett, Christina A; Connolly, Anne M; Pestronk, Alan; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2011-04-01

    Congenital vertical talus is a fixed dorsal dislocation of the talonavicular joint and fixed equinus contracture of the hindfoot, causing a rigid deformity recognizable at birth. The etiology and epidemiology of this condition are largely unknown, but some evidence suggests it relates to aberrations of skeletal muscle. Identifying the tissue abnormalities and genetic causes responsible for vertical talus has the potential to lead to improved treatment and preventive strategies. We therefore (1) determined whether skeletal muscle abnormalities are present in patients with vertical talus and (2) identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities in these patients. We identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities present in 61 patients affected with vertical talus. We obtained abductor hallucis muscle biopsy specimens from the affected limbs of 11 of the 61 patients and compared the histopathologic characteristics with those of age-matched control subjects. All muscle biopsy specimens (n = 11) had abnormalities compared with those from control subjects including combinations of abnormal variation in muscle fiber size (n = 7), type I muscle fiber smallness (n = 6), and abnormal fiber type predominance (n = 5). Isolated vertical talus occurred in 23 of the 61 patients (38%), whereas the remaining 38 patients had associated nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and/or genetic and genomic abnormalities. Ten of the 61 patients (16%) had vertical talus in one foot and clubfoot in the other. Chromosomal abnormalities, all complete or partial trisomies, were identified in three patients with vertical talus who had additional congenital abnormalities. Vertical talus is a heterogeneous birth defect resulting from many diverse etiologies. Abnormal skeletal muscle biopsies are common in patients with vertical talus although it is unclear whether this is primary or secondary to the joint deformity. Associated anomalies are present in 62

  12. Vertical Dynamic Stiffness of Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Cisternino, Michele; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, pile and suction caisson foundations are widely used to support offshore structures which are subjected to vertical dynamic loads. The dynamic soil-structure interaction of floating foundations (foundations embedded in a soil layer whose height is greater than the foundation length......) is investigated by numerical analyses of representative finite element models. The 3D numerical model is compared and validated with existing analytical solutions. A parametric study is carried out analyzing the effect of the slenderness ratio Hp/d and the height and the stiffness of the soil layer on the dynamic...

  13. Perception and information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Consumer researchers are interested in the responses of people to commercial stimuli. Usually, these stimuli are products and services, including all attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Perception is the first bottleneck in this process...... information and to characterise the operations they perform. To avoid confusion, it should be stressed that the term "perception" is often used in a colloquial sense in consumer research. In concepts like perceived quality, perceived value, or perceived risk, the modifier "perceived" simply highlights...... the subjective nature of these phenomena. However, many of these phenomena are the result of rather complex evaluative judgments and should therefore be regarded as attitudes, not as perceptions in a narrow sense. In this chapter, the term perception will be used in its narrow sense, referring to the selection...

  14. The perception of verticality in lunar and Martian gravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, K.N. de; Clément, G.; Groen, E.L.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of neural adaptation to weightlessness and re-adaptation to Earth-gravity have received a lot of attention since the first human space flight, there is as yet little knowledge about how spatial orientation is affected by partial gravity, such as lunar gravity of 0.16. g or

  15. Perception of the dynamic visual vertical during sinusoidal linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomante, A.; Selen, L.P.J.; Medendorp, W.P.

    2017-01-01

    The vestibular system provides information for spatial orientation. However, this information is ambiguous: because the otoliths sense the gravito-inertial force, they cannot distinguish gravitational and inertial components. As a consequence, prolonged linear acceleration of the head can be

  16. Digital Photo Analysis as a Predictor of Physiological Vertical Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Wirahadikusumah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the vertical dimension is based on patient's resting jaw position, which is the physiological vertical dimension. Objective: To examine the accuracy of physiological vertical dimension using digital photography. Methods: The research was done on 64 students who meet the criterias. The measurements of eyes-lips angles and lower nose-chin distance was performed. Then photo shoot of subject faces was taken from 56cm distance between the camera lens and the tip of the subjects’ nose with tripoded camera. Results: Distance of eyes-lips angles, and lower the nose-chin of the face and the photo has no meaningful differences. Conclusions: Analysis of digital photos can be applied to predict physiological vertical dimension.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.62

  17. Effect of various training modalities on vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kevin; Magnusen, Marshall; Walters, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effects of weight training, training with weights and plyometrics, and training with weights and the VertiMax on vertical jump. Subjects were 37 intercollegiate athletes assigned to one of four training groups: strength (S), strength-plyometric (P), strength-VertiMax without arms (VNA), and strength-VertiMax with arms (VA). Each group completed a 6-week training program. There were no statistical increases in pre-post vertical jump within all groups. There were no significant differences for posttest vertical jump between the four training groups. Pre- and posttest effect sizes were minimal across all groups. The findings of this study demonstrate that there is no difference in vertical jump among strength training, plyometric training, and jump training over a 6-week timeframe.

  18. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-good...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  19. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  20. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  1. Dentoalveolar Heights in Vertical and Sagittal Facial Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zafar Ul; Shaikh, Attiya Jawaid; Fida, Mubassar

    2016-09-01

    To determine and compare the mean dentoalveolar heights (mm) in different vertical and sagittal facial patterns. Cross-sectional study. Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from September to November 2013. Subjects, aged 15 - 20 years, having fully erupted first permanent molars and central incisors were included in the study from orthodontic records. The pretreatment cephalographs of subjects were traced manually over an illuminator. The various parameters like angles and dentoalveolar heights were measured and recorded on data collection form. Mean value ± SD for the variables were generated. ANOVAwas used to compare the means of dentoalveolar heights among the vertical and sagittal facial patterns. Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied to show difference among the three vertical and three sagittal facial patterns. P-value equal to or less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. The mean age of subjects was 15.8 ±3.2 years in vertical group and 16.3 ±2.9 years in sagittal group. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.008) for the upper anterior dentoalveolar height (UADH) among vertical groups, with statistically significant difference for UADH between hyperdivergent and normodivergent (p=0.04) and hyperdivergent and hypodivergent (p=0.01) facial patterns. The UADH were significantly greater in the hyperdivergent group as compared to both the normodivergent and hypodivergent groups. The sagittal groups showed no statistically significant difference for dentoalveolar heights.

  2. Perception, time of perception, perception of the time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata, André

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available From a conceptual point of view, time is independent of its experience. That is: it can be given a conceptual description of time without any reference to terms related to the subjective consciousness of time. But concerning a phenomenology of that subjective experience of time, it can it be showed that such experience of time is, in itself, temporal. The very same terms employed in a conceptual description of time – terms like “change” and “duration”– are implied in the phenomenological description of every perception, including perception of time. This authorizes a characterization of subjective time experience as subjective time. At last, based on temporal nature of perception of time, I will suggest an explanation for our common experience of asymmetries subjective time and objective time.Desde un punto de vista conceptual, el tiempo es independiente respecto de la experiencia del tiempo. Es decir: puede darse una descripción conceptual del tiempo sin referencia ninguna a términos relacionados con la conciencia subjetiva del tiempo. Pero en lo concerniente a una fenomenología de esa experiencia subjetiva del tiempo, puede revelarse que tal experiencia de tiempo es, ella en sí misma, temporal? Los mismísimos términos empleados en una descripción conceptual del tiempo, como “cambio” y “duración”, están implicados en la descripción fenomenológica de toda percepción, incluida la percepción del tiempo. Esto autoriza una caracterización de la experiencia subjetiva del tiempo como tiempo subjetivo. Finalmente, sobre la base de la naturaleza temporal de la percepción del tiempo, sugeriré una explicación racional de nuestra experiencia común de asimetrías entre el tiempo subjetivo y el tiempo objetivo.

  3. Backward integration, forward integration, and vertical foreclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    I show that partial vertical integration may either alleviates or exacerbate the concern for vertical foreclosure relative to full vertical integration and I examine its implications for consumer welfare.

  4. Da conceituação de Estado Subjetivo até a proposição dos Escalões de percepto From the Subjective State concept toward the Percept Echelons proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Engelmann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo refaz o percurso de Engelmann, lidando em 1962 com perceptos chamados de afetivos até a proposição mais recente de escalões de percepto. O estudo aprofundado dos perceptos afetivos indicavam estados conscientes internos, porém não localizados. Engelmann denominou-os estados subjetivos. Mas deparou que havia ao mesmo tempo outros perceptos internos, esses localizados. A solução era dois escalões: um superior - estados subjetivos - e outro inferior - perceptos internos. Mais tarde Engelmann encontrou estados objetivos, estados conscientes não localizados e externos, representados principalmente por locuções meteorológicas. Finalmente, reestudando um número enorme de experimentos de percepção humana, verificou que havia cinco escalões de percepto, organizados prioritariamente na seqüência seguinte levando em conta o tamanho das partes: estados total, bipartido, supramodal, modal e fragmentário. Os indivíduos são capazes de estar momentaneamente apenas num desses escalões, nunca mais de um. Não se sabe, por enquanto, se é possível representar por intermédio de escalões outras partes da consciência além dos perceptos.Dealing firstly with the affective percepts in 1962 and ending with percept echelons, the paper reconstructs Engelmann's psychological pathway. A serious study of mostly affect percepts indicated nonlocalized internal conscious states. Engelmann called them subjeticve states. But at the same time he found that there were other internal but localized external percepts. He called them objetive states. They were mainly characterized through reporting the weather. Finally, revising numerous perception studies, total, bipartite, supramodal, modal and fragmentary states are found and organizaed through largeness priority. Engelmann called them percepts echelons. In one moment only one percept echelon is possible, not more than one. So far it is not known if others parts of consciousness are divisible

  5. The power of pictures: Vertical picture angles in power pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen); M.K. Ryan (Michelle); T.W. Schubert (Thomas); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in

  6. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the

  7. second vertical derivatives and trend surface analysis of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    900. Gunn, P.J., 1997. Quantitative methods for interpreting aeromagnetic data: a subjective review; AGSO. Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics,. 17,(2): pp.105 -113. Gupta, V.H. and Ramani, S.D., 1982. Optimum second vertical derivative application in geologic mapping and mineral exploration; Geophysics,.

  8. Determination of vertical transmission rate of Hepatitis B Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the vertical transmission rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the socio-demographic factors associated with its transmission in pregnant women (PW). The subjects were pregnant women who presented for delivery in the prenatal wards and their newborns at Muhimbili ...

  9. Vertical saccades in dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiadi, Aimé; Seassau, Magali; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2014-11-01

    Vertical saccades have never been studied in dyslexic children. We examined vertical visually guided saccades in fifty-six dyslexic children (mean age: 10.5±2.56 years old) and fifty-six age matched non dyslexic children (mean age: 10.3±1.74 years old). Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system (mobileEBT®, e(ye)BRAIN). Dyslexic children showed significantly longer latency than the non dyslexic group, also the occurrence of anticipatory and express saccades was more important in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. The gain and the mean velocity values were significantly smaller in dyslexic than in non dyslexic children. Finally, the up-down asymmetry reported in normal population for the gain and the velocity of vertical saccades was observed in dyslexic children and interestingly, dyslexic children also reported an up-down asymmetry for the mean latency. Taken together all these findings suggested impairment in cortical areas responsible of vertical saccades performance and also at peripheral level of the extra-ocular oblique muscles; moreover, a visuo-attentionnal bias could explain the up-down asymmetry reported for the vertical saccade triggering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Rifleman Shooter Handedness Eye to Aim Weapon Corrective Glasses 1 2, 2012 M4 Expert Right Right Yes 2 10, 2012 M4 Sharpshooter Left Left No 3 9...perhaps the use of a vertical grip should be left to the discretion of each user. 15. SUBJECT TERMS vertical grip, M4 carbine, shooting performance...use, and the vertical grips and plastic forward rail covers for use on the M4 carbines. viii INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 1 1. Introduction and

  11. Effects of Foam Rolling on Vertical Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foam rolling is a popular activity utilized by strength and conditioning coaches as it is believed to increase muscle length and break up fibrous adhesions located in connective tissue. However, there is little research investigating the effects of foam rolling on athletic performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lower body foam rolling on vertical jump performance. Methods: Twenty males (age 24.05 ± 2.02 years; height 177.43 ± 6.31 cm; mass 81.41 ± 8.76 kg volunteered to participate. Subjects completed three days of testing, separated by at least twenty-four hours. Day one consisted of baseline vertical jumps on a force plate, followed by familiarization with foam rolling and control protocols. Subjects returned on days two and three and performed 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling or mimicked foam rolling movements on a skateboard followed by vertical jumps on a force plate. The highest jump from each day was used for statistical analyses. Results: Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no significant differences in Jump height, impulse, relative ground reaction force, or take-off velocity between conditions. Conclusion: 30-second bouts of lower body foam rolling do not improve vertical jump performance. Keywords: Dynamic Warm-Up, Foam Rolling, Vertical Jump

  12. Waves, circulation and vertical dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, George

    2013-04-01

    Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (J Fluid Mech 13:481-504, 1962; Deep-Sea Res 11:529-562, 1964) and later Phillips (1977) introduced the problem of waves incident on a beach, from deep to shallow water. From the wave energy equation and the vertically integrated continuity equation, they inferred velocities to be Stokes drift plus a return current so that the vertical integral of the combined velocities was nil. As a consequence, it can be shown that velocities of the order of Stokes drift rendered the advective term in the momentum equation negligible resulting in a simple balance between the horizontal gradients of the vertically integrated elevation and wave radiation stress terms; the latter was first derived by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart. Mellor (J Phys Oceanogr 33:1978-1989, 2003a), noting that vertically integrated continuity and momentum equations were not able to deal with three-dimensional numerical or analytical ocean models, derived a vertically dependent theory of wave-circulation interaction. It has since been partially revised and the revisions are reviewed here. The theory is comprised of the conventional, three-dimensional, continuity and momentum equations plus a vertically distributed, wave radiation stress term. When applied to the problem of waves incident on a beach with essentially zero turbulence momentum mixing, velocities are very large and the simple balance between elevation and radiation stress gradients no longer prevails. However, when turbulence mixing is reinstated, the vertically dependent radiation stresses produce vertical velocity gradients which then produce turbulent mixing; as a consequence, velocities are reduced, but are still larger by an order of magnitude compared to Stokes drift. Nevertheless, the velocity reduction is sufficient so that elevation set-down obtained from a balance between elevation gradient and radiation stress gradients is nearly coincident with that obtained by the aforementioned papers. This paper

  13. Audiovisual perception of communication problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkhuysen, P.; Krahmer, E.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Bell, B.; Marien, I.

    2004-01-01

    We describe three perception studies in which subjects are offered film fragments (without any dialogue context) of speakers interacting with a spoken dialogue system. In half of these fragments, the speaker is or becomes aware of a communication problem. Subjects have to determine by forced choice

  14. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  15. Effects of fatigue of plantarflexors on control and performance in vertical jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; van Doorn, H.; van der Krogt, M.M.; de Ruiter, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effects of a mismatch between control and musculoskeletal properties on performance in vertical jumping. METHODS: Six subjects performed maximum-effort vertical squat jumps before (REF) and after the plantarflexors of the right leg had been fatigued (FAT) while

  16. Effects of Frequency and Motion Paradigm on Perception of Tilt and Translation During Periodic Linear Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Holly, J. E.; Clement, G. R.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an effect of frequency on the gain of tilt and translation perception. Results from different motion paradigms are often combined to extend the stimulus frequency range. For example, Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) and Variable Radius Centrifugation (VRC) are useful to test low frequencies of linear acceleration at amplitudes that would require impractical sled lengths. The purpose of this study was to compare roll-tilt and lateral translation motion perception in 12 healthy subjects across four paradigms: OVAR, VRC, sled translation and rotation about an earth-horizontal axis. Subjects were oscillated in darkness at six frequencies from 0.01875 to 0.6 Hz (peak acceleration equivalent to 10 deg, less for sled motion below 0.15 Hz). Subjects verbally described the amplitude of perceived tilt and translation, and used a joystick to indicate the direction of motion. Consistent with previous reports, tilt perception gain decreased as a function of stimulus frequency in the motion paradigms without concordant canal tilt cues (OVAR, VRC and Sled). Translation perception gain was negligible at low stimulus frequencies and increased at higher frequencies. There were no significant differences between the phase of tilt and translation, nor did the phase significantly vary across stimulus frequency. There were differences in perception gain across the different paradigms. Paradigms that included actual tilt stimuli had the larger tilt gains, and paradigms that included actual translation stimuli had larger translation gains. In addition, the frequency at which there was a crossover of tilt and translation gains appeared to vary across motion paradigm between 0.15 and 0.3 Hz. Since the linear acceleration in the head lateral plane was equivalent across paradigms, differences in gain may be attributable to the presence of linear accelerations in orthogonal directions and/or cognitive aspects based on the expected motion paths.

  17. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...

  18. Physics and the Vertical Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.

    1970-01-01

    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  19. Multiservice Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Fang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Future wireless networks must be able to coordinate services within a diverse-network environment. One of the challenging problems for coordination is vertical handoff, which is the decision for a mobile node to handoff between different types of networks. While traditional handoff is based on received signal strength comparisons, vertical handoff must evaluate additional factors, such as monetary cost, offered services, network conditions, and user preferences. In this paper, several optimizations are proposed for the execution of vertical handoff decision algorithms, with the goal of maximizing the quality of service experienced by each user. First, the concept of policy-based handoffs is discussed. Then, a multiservice vertical handoff decision algorithm (MUSE-VDA and cost function are introduced to judge target networks based on a variety of user- and network-valued metrics. Finally, a performance analysis demonstrates that significant gains in the ability to satisfy user requests for multiple simultaneous services and a more efficient use of resources can be achieved from the MUSE-VDA optimizations.

  20. Children's perception of physical symptoms: The example of asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, S.; Prins, P.J.M.; Lahey, B.B.; Kazdin, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces symptom perception as a concept to explain and understand the discordance between objective and subjective symptoms of disease. Contemporary models describing symptom perception and factors that influence these symptom perceptual processes are evaluated in light of recent empirical

  1. Countermovement strategy changes with vertical jump height to accommodate feasible force constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Park, Sukyung; Choi, Sangkyu

    2014-09-22

    In this study, we developed a curve-fit model of countermovement dynamics and examined whether the characteristics of a countermovement jump can be quantified using the model parameter and its scaling; we expected that the model-based analysis would facilitate an understanding of the basic mechanisms of force reduction and propulsion with a simplified framework of the center of mass (CoM) mechanics. Ten healthy young subjects jumped straight up to five different levels ranging from approximately 10% to 35% of their body heights. The kinematic and kinetic data on the CoM were measured using a force plate system synchronized with motion capture cameras. All subjects generated larger vertical forces compared with their body weights from the countermovement and sufficiently lowered their CoM position to support the work performed by push-off as the vertical elevations became more challenging. The model simulation reasonably reproduced the trajectories of vertical force during the countermovement, and the model parameters were replaced by linear and polynomial regression functions in terms of the vertical jump height. Gradual scaling trends of the individual model parameters were observed as a function of the vertical jump height with different degrees of scaling, depending on the subject. The results imply that the subjects may be aware of the jumping dynamics when subjected to various vertical jump heights and may select their countermovement strategies to effectively accommodate biomechanical constraints, i.e., limited force generation for the standing vertical jump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perception of Age, Attractiveness, and Tiredness After Isolated and Combined Facial Subunit Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Antonio Jorge; Andrew, Tom W; Colasante, Cesar; Persing, John A

    2015-12-01

    Patients often seek help to redress aging that affects various regions of the face (subunits). The purpose of this study was to determine how aging of different facial subunits impacts perception of age, attractiveness, and tiredness. Frontal and lateral view facial photographs of a middle-aged woman were modified using imaging software to independently age different facial features. Sixty-six subjects were administered with a questionnaire, and presented with a baseline unmodified picture and others containing different individual or grouped aging of facial subunits. Test subjects were asked to estimate the age of the subject in the image and quantify (0-10 scale) how "tired" and "attractive" they appeared. Facial subunits were organized following rank assignment regarding impact on perception of age, attractiveness, and tiredness. The correlation coefficient between age and attractiveness had a strong inverse relationship of approximately -0.95 in both lateral and frontal views. From most to least impact in age, the rank assignment for frontal view facial subunits was full facial aging, middle third, lower third, upper third, vertical lip rhytides, horizontal forehead rhytides, jowls, upper eyelid ptosis, loss of malar volume, lower lid fat herniation, deepening glabellar furrows, and deepening nasolabial folds. From most to least impact in age, the rank assignment for lateral view facial subunits was severe neck ptosis, jowls, moderate neck ptosis, vertical lip rhytides, crow's feet, lower lid fat herniation, loss of malar volume, and elongated earlobe. This study provides a preliminary template for further research to determine which anatomical subunit will have the most substantial effect on an aged appearance, as well as on the perception of tiredness and attractiveness. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the

  3. Neonatal Anaplasma platys infection in puppies: Further evidence for possible vertical transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matei, I.A.; Stuen, S.; Modrý, David; Degan, A.; D'Amico, G.; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 219, 1 January (2017), s. 40-41 ISSN 1090-0233 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma platys * canine * vertical transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.802, year: 2016

  4. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Kessler, Daniel P

    2011-09-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients' best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism.

  5. The perception of probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Krishan, Monika; Liu, Ye; Miller, Reilly; Latham, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational model to explain the results from experiments in which subjects estimate the hidden probability parameter of a stepwise nonstationary Bernoulli process outcome by outcome. The model captures the following results qualitatively and quantitatively, with only 2 free parameters: (a) Subjects do not update their estimate after each outcome; they step from one estimate to another at irregular intervals. (b) The joint distribution of step widths and heights cannot be explained on the assumption that a threshold amount of change must be exceeded in order for them to indicate a change in their perception. (c) The mapping of observed probability to the median perceived probability is the identity function over the full range of probabilities. (d) Precision (how close estimates are to the best possible estimate) is good and constant over the full range. (e) Subjects quickly detect substantial changes in the hidden probability parameter. (f) The perceived probability sometimes changes dramatically from one observation to the next. (g) Subjects sometimes have second thoughts about a previous change perception, after observing further outcomes. (h) The frequency with which they perceive changes moves in the direction of the true frequency over sessions. (Explaining this finding requires 2 additional parametric assumptions.) The model treats the perception of the current probability as a by-product of the construction of a compact encoding of the experienced sequence in terms of its change points. It illustrates the why and the how of intermittent Bayesian belief updating and retrospective revision in simple perception. It suggests a reinterpretation of findings in the recent literature on the neurobiology of decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  7. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  8. Vertical distribution of Arctic methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukiainen, Simo; Karppinen, Tomi; Hakkarainen, Janne; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Tamminen, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    In this study we show the vertical distribution of atmospheric methane (CH4) measured in Sodankylä, Northern Finland. The CH4 profiles are retrieved from the direct Sun FTS measurements using the dimension reduction retrieval method. In the retrieval method, we have a few degrees of freedom about the profile shape. The data set covers years 2010-2016 (from February to November) and altitudes 0-40 km. The retrieved FTS profiles are validated against ACE satellite measurements and AirCore balloon measurements. The total columns derived from the FTS profiles are compared to the official TCCON XCH4 data. A vertically resolved methane data set can be used, e.g., to study stratospheric methane during the polar vortex.

  9. INTERNATIONAL SPECIALIZATION AND VERTICAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furia Donatella

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, market segmentation and intra-industry trade have become increasingly relevant. The underlying hypothesis of our work is that distinct articles have heterogeneous potential for vertical differentiation, implying that different patterns of international specialization should be identifiable. We carry out an analysis on revealed comparative advantage (through the Lafay Index in specific sectors of interest. Then we highlight the emergence of diverse degrees of product quality differentiation among sectors (through the Relative Quality Index. Results confirm our hypothesis. Indeed it appears that only certain goods, for which the pace of either creative or technological innovation (or both is particularly fast, present a high degree of vertical differentiation and market segmentation. This allows countries to specialize in a particular product variety and gain market power position for that variety. These findings should be taken in due consideration when designing trade policies.

  10. Effect of a dynamic loaded warm-up on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattong, Charles; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J

    2010-07-01

    Considering the importance of the vertical jump in several sports, an optimal warm-up protocol may help athletes perform at their maximum level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiating effects of different levels of external resistance (weighted vest) during box jumps on vertical jump performance. Twenty resistance trained men (age 22.45 +/- 1.73 years, height 176.83 +/- 6.67 cm, mass 76.98 +/- 8.56 kg) participated in this study. Subjects performed 5 jumps onto a box equivalent in height to their lateral femoral condyle. After a 2-minute rest period, subjects performed 3 vertical jumps with the greatest height being recorded. On day 1, each subject performed a control condition with no external resistance to establish a baseline vertical jump height. On the following days, they performed 4 random jump conditions with a weight vest equivalent to 5, 10, 15, or 20% of their body weight then rested for 2 minutes before performing 3 posttest vertical jumps. Results demonstrated no significant interaction of condition by time for vertical jump height. However, there was a significant main effect for time (p jump height (22.99 +/- 3.35 in.) being greater than pretest jump height (22.69 +/- 3.37 in.). Performing an active dynamic warm-up with or without a weighted vest produced significantly greater posttest vertical jump performance. A dynamic warm-up may improve vertical jump performance, albeit to a very small increment.

  11. Poligonación Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La poligonación vertical es un método de medición de diferencias de altura que aprovecha las posibilidades de las estaciones totales. Se presta fundamentalmente para líneas de nivelación entre nodos formando red. El nombre se debe a que las visuales sucesivas se proyectan sobre aristas verticales en lugar de un plano horizontal, como ocurre en la poligonación convencional.

  12. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...mathematically complex and require training to operate the software. A Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ) Excel (Microsoft Corporation, 2015...lockheed/data/ms2/documents/laun chers/MK41 VLS factsheet.pdf Microsoft Excel version 14.4.3, VBA computer software. (2011). Redmond, WA: Microsoft

  13. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data. Finally, we notice that our model's sorting pattern is in line with recent evidence when the wage difference across countries is not too big....

  14. Prophylaxis of vertical HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Pniewska, Anna; Pilarczyk, Malgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Domagalski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    An appropriate management of HBV infection is the best strategy to finally reduce the total burden of HBV infection. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. Because HBV infection in infancy or early childhood often leads to chronic infection, appropriate prophylaxis and management of HBV in pregnancy is crucial to prevent MTCT. The prevention of HBV vertical transmission is a complex task and includes: universal HBV screening of pregnant women, administration of antivirals in the third trimester of pregnancy in women with high viral load and passive-active HBV immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in newborns of all HBV infected women. Universal screening of pregnant women for HBV infection, early identification of HBV DNA level in HBV-infected mothers, maternal treatment with class B according to FDA antivirals and passive/active anti-HBV immunoprophylaxis to newborns of HBV-positive mothers are crucial strategies for reducing vertical HBV transmission rates. Consideration of caesarean section in order to reduce the risk of vertical HBV transmission should be recommend in HBV infected pregnant women with high viral load despite antiviral therapy or when the therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy is not available.

  15. Energy harvesting from coherent resonance of horizontal vibration of beam excited by vertical base motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-15

    This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.

  16. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Quella, T. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Institute for Mathematics; Schomerus, V. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xT{sup 4}. Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  17. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  18. A comparative analysis of vertical and horizontal fixation disparity in sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, S; Blythe, H I; Nikolova, M; Jones, M O; Liversedge, S P

    2015-05-01

    Humans have two, frontally placed eyes and during reading oculomotor and sensory processes are needed to combine the two inputs into a unified percept of the text. Generally, slight vergence errors, i.e., fixation disparities, occur but do not cause double vision since disparate retinal inputs fall into Panum's fusional area, that is, a range of disparity wherein sensory fusion of the two retinal images is achieved. In this study, we report benchmark data with respect to the mean magnitude and range of vertical compared to horizontal fixation disparities for natural reading. Our data clearly fit to an elliptical pattern of Panum's fusional area that corresponds with theoretical estimates. Furthermore, when we examined disparity-driven vergence adjustments during fixations by comparing monocular with binocular reading conditions, we found that only horizontal fixation disparities increased significantly under conditions of monocular stimulation. Also, no significant vertical fine-tuning (vergence adjustment) was observed for vergence eye movements during reading fixations. Thus, horizontal and vertical fixation disparities and vergence adjustments during reading showed quite different characteristics, and this dissociation is directly related to the functional role of vergence adjustments: vertical fusion - and vertical vergence - subserve the maintenance of a single percept and stereopsis by keeping the eyes in register and allowing for horizontal fusional processes to successfully operate over a vertically aligned input. A reliable and stable vertical alignment is, thus, a pre-requisite over which horizontal fusional responses (and depth perception) can work most efficiently - even in a task like reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vertical Jump Height Estimation Algorithm based on Vertical Acceleration Profile Characteristics via Foot-Worn Inertial Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianren; Xu, Junkai; Shull, Peter B

    2017-12-13

    Vertical jump height is widely used for assessing motor development, functional ability, and motor capacity. Traditional methods for estimating vertical jump height rely on force plates or optical marker-based motion capture systems limiting assessment to people with access to specialized laboratories. This paper presents a novel algorithm for estimating vertical jump height based on foot-worn inertial sensors. Twenty healthy subjects performed countermovement jumping trials and maximum jump height was determined via inertial sensors located above the toe and under the heel and was compared with the gold standard maximum jump height estimation via optical marker-based motion capture. Vertical jump height estimation with the presented algorithm via inertial sensing showed excellent reliability at the toe (ICC_(2,1)=0.98) and heel (ICC_(2,1)=0.97). There was no significant bias in the inertial sensing at the toe, but proportional bias (b=1.22) and fixed bias (a=-10.23 cm) were detected in inertial sensing at the heel. Average vertical jump height estimation errors from inertial sensing at the toe and heel were -2.2±2.1 cm and -0.4±3.8 cm, respectively. These results indicate that the presented algorithm could be applied to foot-worn inertial sensors to estimate maximum jump height enabling assessment outside of traditional laboratory settings, and to avoid bias errors, the toe may be a more suitable location for inertial sensor placement than the heel.

  20. Determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke from baryonic Λ{sub b} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Y.K. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Geng, C.Q. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications (SICQEA), Changsha (China)

    2017-10-15

    We present the first attempt to extract vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}{sup +}l anti ν{sub l} decay without relying on vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke inputs from the B meson decays. Meanwhile, the hadronic Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}M{sub (c)} decays with M = (π{sup -},K{sup -}) and M{sub c} =(D{sup -},D{sup -}{sub s}) measured with high precisions are involved in the extraction. Explicitly, we find that vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(44.6 ± 3.2) x 10{sup -3}, agreeing with the value of (42.11 ± 0.74) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub c}l anti ν{sub l} decays. Furthermore, based on the most recent ratio of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the exclusive modes, we obtain vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke = (4.3 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -3}, which is close to the value of (4.49 ± 0.24) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub u}l anti ν{sub l} decays. We conclude that our determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke favor the corresponding inclusive extractions in the B decays. (orig.)

  1. Vertical Drop Test of a Transport Fuselage Section

    OpenAIRE

    熊倉, 郁夫; KUMAKURA, Ikuo

    2002-01-01

    The NAL Structures and Materials Research Center conducted a vertical drop test of a fuselage section from a YS-11A transport airplane in December 2001. This test program is part of research into the structural crashworthiness of transport aircraft in the event of a crash accident, one of the subjects of Aviation Safety and Environmental Compatibility Technology Research(ASET) at NAL. Cooperative research related to this test program has also been carried out by NAL and Kawasaki Heavy Industr...

  2. Thesaurus of descriptors for the vertical file system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The Thesaurus used for the NYIT Energy Information Center is presented. The center is a comprehensive information service covering every aspect of energy conservation and related technology, including conservation programs and practices, alternative energy systems, energy legislation, and public policy development in the United States and abroad. The Thesaurus includes all subject headings found in the Vertical File as well as other cross referenced terms likely to come to mind when seeking information on a specific energy area.

  3. BATCH SETTLING IN VERTICAL SETTLERS

    OpenAIRE

    Lama Ramirez, R.; Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias Av. Venezuela cdra. 34 sin, Lima - Perú; Condorhuamán Ccorimanya, C.; Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias Av. Venezuela cdra. 34 sin, Lima - Perú

    2014-01-01

    lt has been studied the batch sedimentation of aqueous suspensions of precipitated calcium carbonate, barium sulphate and lead oxide , in vertical thickeners of rectangular and circular cross sectional area. Suspensions vary in concentration between 19.4 and 617.9 g/I and the rate of sedimentation obtained between 0.008 and 7.70 cm/min. The effect of the specific gravity of the solid on the rate of sedimentation is the same for all the suspensions, that is, the greater the value of the specif...

  4. Binocular responses and vertical strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risović Dušica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Elevation in adduction is the most common pattern of vertical strabismus, and it is mostly treated with surgery. The results of weaking of inferior oblique muscle are very changeable. The aim of this study was to evaluate binocular vision using sensory tests before and one and six months after the surgery. Methods. A total of 79 children were divided in two groups: the first, with inferior oblique muscle of overaction (n = 52, and the second with dissociated vertical deviation (DVD, and primary inferior oblique muscle overaction (n = 27. We tested them by polaroid mirror test (PMT, Worth test at distance and near, fusion amplitudes on sinoptofore, Lang I stereo test and Wirt-Titmus stereo test. We examined our patients before and two times after the surgery for vertical strabismus. Results. Foveal suppression in the group I was found in 60.5% of the patients before, and in 56.4% after the surgery. In group II Foveal suppression was detected in 64.7% of the patients before, but in 55.6% 6 months after the surgery with PMT. Worth test revealed suppression in 23.5% of the patients before, and in 40.7% after the vertical muscle surgery. Parafoveal fussion persisted in about 1/3 of the patients before the surgery, and their amplitudes were a little larger after the surgery in the group I patients. Lang I stereo test was negative in 53.9% before and 51.9% after the surgery in the group I, and in 48.2% of the patients before and after the surgery in the group II patients. Wirt-Titmus stereo test was negative in 74.5% of the patients before and in 72.9% after the surgery in the group I, but in the group II it was negative in 70.8% before and in 68.0% of the patients 6 months after the surgery. Conclusion. Binocular responses were found after surgery in 65.7% of the patients the group I and in 55.6% patients the group II. There was no significant difference between these two groups, but binocular responses were more often in the patients

  5. P1-19: Horizontal Vertical Illusion by Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Kinoshita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Revesz (1934 Zeitschrift fur PsychologieBd. 1, Kap 20 and Bean (1938 Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 283–289. reported almost all the geometrical optical illusions existed in a tactual mode. Such a study can examine theories of visual illusions with modality-free theories. A number of articles have been devoted to the theory that repeated judgments decline the magnitude of visual illusion. In the current study, we examine whether repeated judgments decline the magnitude of geometrical haptic illusion. The Fick illusion (i.e., a horizontal vertical illusion was investigated. A graphics Braille display with 32×48 dots was used to present an inverted T haptically without vision. The horizontal line was consistently 49.2 mm long, and the vertical line was varied in each trial. Three subjects with normal sight participated. They judged which line was longer than the other. The point of subjective equality at which the subject perceives the two lines to be the same was measured using the method of constant stimuli. In the first session the mean PSE was about 13%; to compensate for the illusion, the vertical line must be set physically shorter than the horizontal line. We found that repeated judgments produced a reduction in illusion magnitude and dissolved the illusion entirely.

  6. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10(4) loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  7. Parachute landing fall characteristics at three realistic vertical descent velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitting, John W; Steele, Julie R; Jaffrey, Mark A; Munro, Bridget J

    2007-12-01

    Although parachute landing injuries are thought to be due in part to a lack of exposure of trainees to realistic descent velocities during parachute landing fall (PLF) training, no research has systematically investigated whether PLF technique is affected by different vertical descent conditions, with standardized and realistic conditions of horizontal drift. This study was designed to determine the effects of variations in vertical descent velocity on PLF technique. Kinematic, ground reaction force, and electromyographic data were collected and analyzed for 20 paratroopers while they performed parachute landings, using a custom-designed monorail apparatus, with a constant horizontal drift velocity (2.3 m x s(-1)) and at three realistic vertical descent velocities: slow (2.1 m x s(-1)), medium (3.3 m x s(-1)), and fast (4.6 m x s(-1)). Most biomechanical variables characterizing PLF technique were significantly affected by descent velocity. For example, at the fast velocity, the subjects impacted the ground with 123 degrees of plantar flexion and generated ground reaction forces averaging 13.7 times body weight, compared to 106 degrees and 6.1 body weight, respectively, at the slow velocity. Furthermore, the subjects activated their antigravity extensor muscles earlier during the fast velocity condition to eccentrically control the impact absorption. As vertical descent rates increased, the paratroopers displayed a significantly different strategy when performing the PLF. It is therefore recommended that PLF training programs include ground training activities with realistic vertical descent velocities to better prepare trainees to withstand the impact forces associated with initial aerial descents onto the Drop Zone and, ultimately, minimize the potential for injury.

  8. Psychology or semiotics: persons or subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Cultural studies and especially semiological theory has recently sought to re-conceptualise classical problems considered in academic psychology such as perception, identity, and "subjectivity". It is argued that these theorizations are reductionist and/or theoretically incoherent without an adequate epistemology. Yet they have become for many students of the human sciences the conventional modes of analyzing such questions as personal identity.

  9. Emoções de uma escuta musical afetam a percepção subjetiva de tempo Emotions from listening to music affect the subjective perception of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou se emoções percebidas durante uma escuta musical influenciam a percepção temporal. Músicos e não músicos foram submetidos a tarefas de escuta de trechos musicais do repertório erudito ocidental com 20 segundos de duração cada um e tarefas de associação temporal de cada trecho ouvido a durações padrões, que variavam de 16 a 24 segundos. Os trechos musicais empregados eram representativos de uma dentre as categorias emocionais Alegria, Tristeza, Serenidade ou Medo / Raiva. Uma análise de variância mostrou que, enquanto os não músicos apresentaram subestimações temporais associadas a pelo menos um trecho musical de cada uma das categorias emocionais, os músicos subestimaram todos os trechos musicais tristes, relacionados às características de baixo arousal e valência afetiva negativa.This study examined whether perceived emotions during music listening tasks influence time perception. Musicians and non-musicians were submitted to tasks of listening to musical excerpts from Western classical repertoire of 20 seconds and tasks of temporal association of each piece of music to standard durations, ranging from 16 to 24 seconds. Musical excerpts were representative from one of the following emotional categories: Happiness, Sadness, Threat and Peacefulness. An analysis of variance showed that, while non-musicians showed temporal underestimations associated with, at least, one piece of music from each emotional category, musicians underestimated all sad musical excerpts, related to low arousal and negative valence features.

  10. Humans use internal models to construct and update a sense of verticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Julien; Marquer, Adélaïde; Joassin, Roxane; Reymond, Céline; Metge, Liliane; Chauvineau, Valérie; Pérennou, Dominic

    2010-12-01

    Internal models serve sensory processing, sensorimotor integration and motor control. They could be a way to construct and update a sense of verticality, by combining vestibular and somatosensory graviception. We tested this hypothesis by investigating self-orientation relative to gravity in 39 normal subjects and in subjects with various somatosensory losses showing either a complete deafferentation of trunk and lower limbs (14 paraplegic patients after complete traumatic spinal cord injury) or a gradient in the degree of a hemibody sensory loss (23 hemiplegic patients after stroke). We asked subjects to estimate, in the dark, the direction of the Earth vertical in two postural conditions-upright and at lateral whole body tilt. For upright conditions, verticality estimates were not different from the direction of the Earth vertical in normal (0.24° ± 1; P = 0.42) and paraplegic subjects (0.87° ± 0.9; P = 0.14). The within-subject variability was much greater in hemiplegic than in normal subjects (2.05° ± 1.15 versus 1.06° ± 0.4; P integrity of the posterolateral thalamus. This study reveals the existence of a synthesis of vestibular and somaesthetic graviception for which the posterolateral thalamus plays a major role. This corresponds to a primary property of internal models and yields the neural bases of the Aubert effect. We conclude that humans construct and update internal models of verticality in which somatosensory information plays an important role.

  11. Perception of facial expressions produced by configural relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Barabanschikov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss the problem of perception of facial expressions produced by configural features. Experimentally found configural features influence the perception of emotional expression of subjectively emotionless face. Classical results by E. Brunsvik related to perception of schematic faces are partly confirmed.

  12. Consumers' sensory and nutritional perceptions of three types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify consumer perceptions of whole milk, reduced-fat milk and soy milk, and to investigate demographic influences on perceptions and types of milk consumption. Design and setting: Questionnaires covering nutritional and sensory perceptions of three types of milk. Subjects: Three

  13. Space Perception and Language Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Корина Наталья

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study brings a brief view at the problem of cognitive association between the space perception and the categorization reflected in natural language from the linguistic point of view that is very close connected to the linguistic worldview and possesses the ethno-cultural specifics. The analysis is focused on the differences of the vertical and horizontal space models’ cognitive dominants in two relative Slavic languages – Russian and Slovak, and on the possible reasons of its existence. The study is devoted to the prominent Slovak philologist Viktor Krupa.

  14. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  15. Perception of the Incest Taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfa, Emil; Whalen, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Subjects found the genetic and cultural theories the primary reason to prevent incest and were aware of the hazardous effect on the family. Counselors must be aware of their own bias and perceptions as well as those of their clients. (JAC)

  16. Vertical motion of particles in vibration-induced granular capillarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Fengxian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When a narrow tube inserted into a static container filled with particles is subjected to vertical vibration, the particles rise in the tube, much resembling the ascending motion of a liquid column in a capillary tube. To gain insights on the particle dynamics dictating this phenomenon – which we term granular capillarity – we numerically investigate the system using the Discrete Element Method (DEM. We reproduce the dynamical process of the granular capillarity and analyze the vertical motion of the individual particles in the tube, as well as the average vertical velocities of the particles. Our simulations show that the height of the granular column fluctuates in a periodic or period-doubling manner as the tube vibrates, until a steady-state (capillary height is reached. Moreover, our results for the average vertical velocity of the particles in the tube at different radial positions suggest that granular convection is one major factor underlying the particle-based dynamics that lead to the granular capillarity phenomenon.

  17. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production syste...

  18. Perception-Aware Motion Planning via Multiobjective Search on GPUs

    OpenAIRE

    Ichter, Brian; Landry, Benoit; Schmerling, Edward; Pavone, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe a framework towards computing well-localized, robust motion plans through the perception-aware motion planning problem, whereby we seek a low-cost motion plan subject to a separate constraint on perception localization quality. To solve this problem we introduce the Multiobjective Perception-Aware Planning (MPAP) algorithm which explores the state space via a multiobjective search, considering both cost and a perception heuristic. This framework can accommodate a lar...

  19. Affect from mere perception: Illusory contour perception feels good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erle, Thorsten M; Reber, Rolf; Topolinski, Sascha

    2017-08-01

    Can affect be evoked by mere perception? Earlier work on processing fluency, which manipulated the dynamics of a running perceptual process, has shown that efficient processing can indeed trigger positive affect. The present work introduces a novel route by not manipulating the dynamics of an ongoing perceptual process, but by blocking or allowing the whole process in the first place. We used illusory contour perception as one very basic such process. In 5 experiments (total N = 422), participants briefly (≤100 ms) viewed stimuli that either allowed illusory contour perception, so-called Kanizsa shapes, or proximally identical control shapes that did not allow for this process to occur. Self-reported preference ratings (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and facial muscle activity (Experiment 3) showed that participants consistently preferred Kanizsa over these control shapes. Moreover, even within Kanizsa shapes, those that most likely instigated illusory contour perception (i.e., those with the highest support ratio) were liked the most (Experiment 5). At the same time, Kanizsa stimuli with high support ratios were objectively and subjectively the most complex, rendering a processing fluency explanation of this preference unlikely. These findings inform theorizing in perception about affective properties of early perceptual processes that are independent from perceptual fluency and research on affect about the importance of basic perception as a source of affectivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Guodong; Zhang, Jiasheng; Wu, Wenbing; Shi, Xiong; Meng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solu...

  1. The application of subjective job task analysis techniques in physically demanding occupations: evidence for the presence of self-serving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Bates, Benjamin; Billing, Daniel C; Caputi, Peter; Carstairs, Greg L; Linnane, Denise; Middleton, Kane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if perceptions of physically demanding job tasks are biased by employee demographics and employment profile characteristics including: age, sex, experience, length of tenure, rank and if they completed or supervised a task. Surveys were administered to 427 Royal Australian Navy personnel who characterised 33 tasks in terms of physical effort, importance, frequency, duration and vertical/horizontal distance travelled. Results showed no evidence of bias resulting from participant characteristics, however participants who were actively involved in both task participation and supervision rated these tasks as more important than those involved only in the supervision of that task. This may indicate self-serving bias in which participants that are more actively involved in a task had an inflated perception of that task's importance. These results have important implications for the conduct of job task analyses, especially the use of subjective methodologies in the development of scientifically defensible physical employment standards. Practitioner Summary: To examine the presence of systematic bias in subjective job task analysis methodologies, a survey was conducted on a sample of Royal Australian Navy personnel. The relationship between job task descriptions and participant's demographic and job profile characteristics revealed the presence of self-serving bias affecting perceptions of task importance.

  2. Vertical Jump Biomechanics Altered With Virtual Overhead Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Hegedus, Eric J; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2017-04-01

    Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8 ± 1.1 years, height: 163.2 ± 8.1 cm, weight 63.0 ± 7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of drop vertical jump with different goal conditions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions. Vertical jump height displacement was not different during VOG compared with POG. Greater hip extensor moment (P biomechanical testing, screening, and training conditions.

  3. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    to many consumers. After a decade of growth, the Danish craft brewing segment is rapidly reaching maturity, and a higher degree of consumer orientation seems to be needed for continuing success. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate some of the key aspects of consumers’ perception of novel beers...... industry. More generally, this work makes a number of original contributions to our understanding of determinants of consumers’ perception of novel food and beverages, as well as methodological advances in the use of consumers as subjects in sensory and consumer research....

  4. Lidar measured vertical atmospheric scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical structure of the atmosphere, which is of invaluable interest to meteorologists, geo-physicists and environmental researchers, can be measured with LIDAR. A method has been proposed and applied to invert lidar signals from vertical soundings to height resolved scattering coefficients. In

  5. Vertical integration from the large Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    We develop an alternative description of the procedure of vertical integration based on the observation that amplitudes can be written in BRST exact form in the large Hilbert space. We relate this approach to the description of vertical integration given by Sen and Witten.

  6. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function as plas...

  7. A vertically resolved model for phytoplankton aggregation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    components undergo vertical mixing, and phytoplank- ton sink. Phytoplankton growth is limited by the product of nutrient and light terms. The equations for nitrate (NO3) and ... resolved model there is an extra complication: the largest particles that sink out of ...... and biogeochemistry with satellite ocean colour data. Vertically ...

  8. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function as plas...

  9. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND EVALUATION OF A VERTICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertical plate metering device is intended to minimize seed damage during planting while improving metering efficiency and field capacity. A vertical plate maize seed planter which is adapted for gardens and small holder farmers cultivating less than two hectares has been designed, constructed and tested. The major ...

  10. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  11. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  12. Breaking Wave Impact Pressure on a Vertical Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rajasekaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Offshore and coastal structures experience wave impact loads particularly due to breaking waves throughout its design period. In the present paper, an experimental program has been devised to improve our perceptive of the physics and the characteristics of impact pressures due to breaking waves on a vertical wall. The salient features of the study such as model details, breaking wave simulation, the impact and dynamic pressure variation along the depth of the wall are presented. The maximum impact pressure magnitude is found to be of the order of ten times that of the non-breaking dynamic pressure and it always occurred above the still water level for different intensities of breaking waves considered. The minimum pressure rise time is observed to be 0.235 ms.

  13. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  14. Effects of reverse headgear on pharyngeal airway in patients with different vertical craniofacial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloş Tuncer, Burcu; Ulusoy, Çağrı; Tuncer, Cumhur; Türköz, Çağrı; Kale Varlik, Selin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reverse headgear (RH) on pharyngeal airway morphology in two groups of Class III patients with different vertical craniofacial features in comparison with an untreated Class III group. Seventeen subjects (9 males, 8 females; mean age 11.3 ± 0.98 years) with optimum vertical growth and 17 subjects (10 males, 7 females, mean age 11.5 ± 1.1 years) with a vertical growth pattern treated with a removable intra-oral appliance and a Delaire type facemask were included. An untreated Class III control group of 11 subjects (8 males, 3 females, mean age 9.1 ± 1.1 years) was included to compare the treated groups. The paired t-test for intragroup and one-way ANOVA for intergroup comparisons were performed. The relationships between changes in the craniofacial morphology and airway were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. The airway dimensions at the adenoid side and soft palate were increased in the treatment groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The nasopharyngeal area demonstrated a significant difference in normodivergent and control subjects (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the airway morphology due to different vertical features. The effect of RH treatment on the sagittal airway dimensions revealed no significant difference between different vertical craniofacial features in the short term.

  15. Effects of reverse headgear on pharyngeal airway in patients with different vertical craniofacial features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu BALOŞ TUNCER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reverse headgear (RH on pharyngeal airway morphology in two groups of Class III patients with different vertical craniofacial features in comparison with an untreated Class III group. Seventeen subjects (9 males, 8 females; mean age 11.3 ± 0.98 years with optimum vertical growth and 17 subjects (10 males, 7 females, mean age 11.5 ± 1.1 years with a vertical growth pattern treated with a removable intra-oral appliance and a Delaire type facemask were included. An untreated Class III control group of 11 subjects (8 males, 3 females, mean age 9.1 ± 1.1 years was included to compare the treated groups. The paired t-test for intragroup and one-way ANOVA for intergroup comparisons were performed. The relationships between changes in the craniofacial morphology and airway were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. The airway dimensions at the adenoid side and soft palate were increased in the treatment groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05. The nasopharyngeal area demonstrated a significant difference in normodivergent and control subjects (p < 0.05. No significant difference was found in the airway morphology due to different vertical features. The effect of RH treatment on the sagittal airway dimensions revealed no significant difference between different vertical craniofacial features in the short term.

  16. A whole body vibration perception map and associated acceleration loads at the lower leg, hip and head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonza, Anelise; Völkel, Nina; Zaro, Milton A; Achaval, Matilde; Hennig, Ewald M

    2015-07-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has become popular in recent years. However, WBV may be harmful to the human body. The goal of this study was to determine the acceleration magnitudes at different body segments for different frequencies of WBV. Additionally, vibration sensation ratings by subjects served to create perception vibration magnitude and discomfort maps of the human body. In the first of two experiments, 65 young adults mean (± SD) age range of 23 (± 3.0) years, participated in WBV severity perception ratings, based on a Borg scale. Measurements were performed at 12 different frequencies, two intensities (3 and 5 mm amplitudes) of rotational mode WBV. On a separate day, a second experiment (n = 40) included vertical accelerometry of the head, hip and lower leg with the same WBV settings. The highest lower limb vibration magnitude perception based on the Borg scale was extremely intense for the frequencies between 21 and 25 Hz; somewhat hard for the trunk region (11-25 Hz) and fairly light for the head (13-25 Hz). The highest vertical accelerations were found at a frequency of 23 Hz at the tibia, 9 Hz at the hip and 13 Hz at the head. At 5 mm amplitude, 61.5% of the subjects reported discomfort in the foot region (21-25 Hz), 46.2% for the lower back (17, 19 and 21 Hz) and 23% for the abdominal region (9-13 Hz). The range of 3-7 Hz represents the safest frequency range with magnitudes less than 1 g(*)sec for all studied regions. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A ...

  18. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  19. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A total of 494 ...

  20. A prática desportiva dos estudantes universitários e suas relações com as autopercepções físicas, bem-estar subjectivo e felicidade University students' sport practice and its relations with physical self-perceptions, subjective well-being and happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação analisou as relações entre a prática desportiva de estudantes universitários e o modo como estes se percepcionavam a si próprios e às suas vidas. Participaram nesta investigação 2284 estudantes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre os 18 e os 30 anos (M = 21,87 ±2,37, que preencheram um questionário sobre a sua prática desportiva, bem como versões portuguesas do Physical Self-Perception Profile (Fox & Corbin, 1989, da Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999, da Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985 e da Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988. Em geral, a análise dos resultados revelou que os indivíduos que possuíam mais confiança física e que avaliavam a sua vida mais positivamente praticavam desporto mais regularmente; porém, verificou-se igualmente que quem se percebia menos forte fisicamente e tinha uma auto-estima mais baixa também praticava desporto mais regularmente do que os pares.The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between university students' sport practice and the way they perceived themselves and their lives. Participated in this investigation 2284 male and female students, with ages between 18 and 30 years (M = 21.87 ±2.37, who filled out a questionnaire to assess their levels of sport practice, as well the Portuguese versions of the Physical Self-Perception Profile (Fox & Corbin, 1989, the Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985 and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988. Overall, the analysis of the results showed that students who were more physically confident and evaluated their lives more positively did sport more regularly; however, results also showed that students who reported lower levels of physical strength and self-esteem practiced sport more regularly

  1. Auditory environmental context affects visual distance perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchemendy, Pablo E; Abregú, Ezequiel; Calcagno, Esteban R; Eguia, Manuel C; Vechiatti, Nilda; Iasi, Federico; Vergara, Ramiro O

    2017-08-03

    In this article, we show that visual distance perception (VDP) is influenced by the auditory environmental context through reverberation-related cues. We performed two VDP experiments in two dark rooms with extremely different reverberation times: an anechoic chamber and a reverberant room. Subjects assigned to the reverberant room perceived the targets farther than subjects assigned to the anechoic chamber. Also, we found a positive correlation between the maximum perceived distance and the auditorily perceived room size. We next performed a second experiment in which the same subjects of Experiment 1 were interchanged between rooms. We found that subjects preserved the responses from the previous experiment provided they were compatible with the present perception of the environment; if not, perceived distance was biased towards the auditorily perceived boundaries of the room. Results of both experiments show that the auditory environment can influence VDP, presumably through reverberation cues related to the perception of room size.

  2. Spatiotemporal interactions in retinal prosthesis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsager, Alan; Greenberg, Robert J; Fine, Ione

    2010-02-01

    Vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa affects an estimated 15 million people worldwide. Through collaboration between Second Sight Medical Products, Inc., and the Doheny Eye Institute, six blind human subjects underwent implantation with epiretinal 4 x 4 electrode arrays designed to directly stimulate the remaining cells of the retina, with the goal of restoring functional vision by applying spatiotemporal patterns of stimulation. To better understand spatiotemporal interactions between electrodes during synchronous and asynchronous stimulation, the authors investigated how percepts changed as a function of pulse timing across the electrodes. Pulse trains (20, 40, 80, and 160 Hz) were presented on groups of electrodes with 800, 1600, or 2400 microm center-to-center separation. Stimulation was either synchronous (pulses were presented simultaneously across electrodes) or asynchronous (pulses were phase shifted). Using a same-different discrimination task, the authors were able to evaluate how the perceptual quality of the stimuli changed as a function of phase shifts across multiple electrodes. Even after controlling for electric field interactions, subjects could discriminate between spatiotemporal pulse train patterns based on differences of phase across electrodes as small as 3 ms. These findings suggest that the quality of the percept is affected not only by electric field interactions but also by spatiotemporal interactions at the neural level. During multielectrode stimulation, interactions between electrodes have a significant influence on the quality of the percept. Understanding how these spatiotemporal interactions at the neural level influence percepts during multielectrode stimulation is fundamental to the successful design of a retinal prosthesis.

  3. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Saloranta, Seppo

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability education (SE) is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD) into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in…

  4. Unconventional vertical word-order impairs reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglioli, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Western written languages unfold across both the horizontal (from left to right) and the vertical (from top to bottom) dimensions. Culturally determined horizontal reading/writing habits are so pervasive that their influence can be found not only in visual scanning but also in performance across different domains and tasks. However, little is known on the effects of vertical word order. In the present study, a lexical decision task is used to show that reading performance is less efficient when verbal material is vertically arranged following a bottom-to-top order.

  5. Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, N.; Caps, H.

    2015-01-01

    Surface tension profiles in vertical soap films are experimentally investigated. Measurements are performed by introducing deformable elastic objets in the films. The shape adopted by those objects once set in the film is related to the surface tension value at a given vertical position by numerically solving the adapted elasticity equations. We show that the observed dependency of the surface tension versus the vertical position is predicted by simple modeling that takes into account the mechanical equilibrium of the films coupled to previous thickness measurements.

  6. Understanding Latina/o Students' Meaning in Life, Spirituality, and Subjective Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Castro, Veronica; Cavazos, Leticia; Cavazos, Michelle; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee

    2015-01-01

    One-hundred nineteen Latina/o college students provided perceptions of presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and subjective happiness. Perceptions of meaning in life and daily spiritual experiences were significant predictors of subjective happiness. A discussion regarding the importance of these…

  7. Perceiving the Causes of Objective and Subjective Outcomes Following Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo

    1978-01-01

    Subjective perceptions of outcomes (both success and failure) may vary considerably from those of the experimenter's, and causal attributions are based as much on subject's own perceptions of success and failure as on the experimenter's definitions of outcomes. (Author/MJB)

  8. Effect of functional fatigue on vertical ground-reaction force in individuals with flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozari, Sahar; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Jafari, Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Flat foot is one of the lower extremity deformities that might change kinetic variables of gait. Fatigue is one of the factors that can alter the vertical ground-reaction force (GRF). The effect of a fatiguing condition on vertical GRF has not been documented in individuals with flat feet. To examine the fatigue effect on vertical GRF in individuals with flat feet compared with a normal group during barefoot walking. Repeated-measure ANOVA for the effects of fatigue on individuals with flat feet and normal feet. Biomechanics laboratory. 17 subjects with flat feet and 17 normal subjects (recruited according to their arch-height ratio). Three vertical GRF measures (F1, the first peak force; F2, minimum force; and F3, the second peak force) were extracted before and after a functional fatigue protocol. No significant interaction between fatigue and group was observed for the 3 vertical GRF measures. For F2, fatigue and group effects were significant (P = .001 and P = .02, respectively). Furthermore, F2 was higher in the flat-feet group than in the normal group; F2 also increased after fatigue. For F3, only a significant fatigue effect was observed (P = .004). F3 decreased after fatigue in both groups. In the flat-feet group, a decrease in the variation of vertical GRF might be due to more flexible foot joints. After fatigue, muscles might lose their ability to control the foot joints and cause higher F2 in the flat-feet group.

  9. Prediction of vertical jump height from anthropometric factors in male and female martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m(2). Waist-hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power.

  10. Predator and prey perception in copepods due to hydromechanical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Visser, Andre

    1999-01-01

    large and rapidly swimming/sinking prey particles, and (4) that the model can accommodate the 3 orders of magnitude variation in clearance rates observed in the copepod Oithona similis feeding on motile protists and sinking particles. We finally discuss the implications of hydromechanical predator...... and prey perception to trophic interactions and vertical particle fluxes, and suggest important research questions that may be addressed....

  11. A Levels Approach to Student Perceptions of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garger, John; Jacques, Paul H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore student perceptions of instructor leader behaviors from a levels of analysis perspective. Analyses were conducted to determine if an average leadership style, a vertical dyad linkages style, or a leader-member exchange leadership style operated within the college context.…

  12. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

  13. Reevaluating the "subjective weathering" hypothesis: subjective aging, coping resources, and the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janel E

    2014-03-01

    The subjective weathering model contends that subjective aging is a key component of the stress process. This study reevaluates and extends this model by considering how adaptive capacities influence subjective aging and depressive symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,230), I investigate how earlier stressors and coping resources contribute to older age identities (ages 18-22) and how these self-perceptions influence subsequent depressive symptoms (ages 25-29). The results show that subjective weathering alone does not lead to depressive symptoms; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies an older age identity. Those with high levels of psychosocial maturity, regardless of subjective age, were least likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate that psychosocial maturity is an important adaptive resource that can shield young adults from the negative effects of "subjective weathering" or growing up fast.

  14. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  15. Thermal vertical bimorph actuators and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sehr, H J

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, a novel concept for lateral actuators based on vertical bimorphs is presented. Vertical bimorphs consist of silicon beams side-coated with aluminium, which bend when heated due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials causing a displacement in the wafer plane. The heating of the actuator is provided by an electrical current through the silicon beam. The simplest implementation of a vertical bimorph actuator is a clamped-clamped beam. To obtain higher deflections, a meander shaped actuator has been designed. By combining four meander actuators, a two-dimensional positioning stage has been realised. The meander actuator has also been applied for normally closed and normally open micro-relays. Analytical calculations and ANSYS simulations have been carried out to predict the physical behaviour of the bimorph devices, including temperature distribution, static deflection, vertical stiffness, thermal time constant and lateral resonances. For both the clamped-clamped beam...

  16. Multiloop string vertices from the path integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Lerda, A.

    1989-02-02

    We derive the multiloop vertices for the bosonic string using path integral methods and establish a precise equivalence between the functional approach to string perturbation theory and the operator formalism on Riemann surfaces recently developed by various authors.

  17. Vertical Land Change, Perry County, Kentucky

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The vertical land change activity focuses on the detection, analysis, and explanation of topographic change. These detection techniques include both quantitative...

  18. Association between condylar position and vertical skeletal craniofacial morphology: A cone beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh

    2017-12-01

    Condylar position may play an important role in the establishment of different craniofacial morphologies. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible association between condylar position and vertical skeletal craniofacial morphology in subjects with normal sagittal skeletal pattern using CBCT. The CBCT images of 45 patients with Class I sagittal skeletal pattern were classified into three balanced groups on the basis of SN-MP angle. Each group contained 15 subjects: low angle, normal angle and high angle. The condylar position was determined for the left and right joints. Chi square test was applied to assess the association between condylar position and vertical skeletal growth pattern. The condyles were more anteriorly-positioned in patients with high angle vertical pattern than in those with normal and low angle vertical pattern. No significant differences were found in condylar position between low angle and normal angle subjects. A significant correlation between condylar position and vertical skeletal pattern was found in the present study. This relationship can be considered for predicting and establishing a proper treatment plan for temporomandibular diseases during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. A Computational Framework for Vertical Video Editing

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Vineet; Ronfard, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Vertical video editing is the process of digitally editing the image within the frame as opposed to horizontal video editing, which arranges the shots along a timeline. Vertical editing can be a time-consuming and error-prone process when using manual key-framing and simple interpolation. In this paper, we present a general framework for automatically computing a variety of cinematically plausible shots from a single input video suitable to the special case of live per...

  20. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...... cargo ship regulations, was based on a very simplified presumption of bow heights. This paper investigates the development of this damage extent distribution based on three independent methodologies; actual casualty measurements, world fleet bow height statistics, and collision simulation modeling...

  1. Vertical Jump: Biomechanical Analysis and Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Babic, Jan; Lenarcic, Jadran

    2007-01-01

    By building an efficient biorobotic model which includes an elastic model of the biarticular muscle gastrocnemius and by simulation of the vertical jump we have demonstrated that biarticular links contribute a great deal to the performance of the vertical jump. Besides, we have shown that timing of the biarticular link activation and stiffness of the biarticular link considerably influence the height of the jump. Methodology and results of our study offer an effective tool for the design of t...

  2. VERTIC SOILS IN CODRY REGIONS OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ursu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The features of structure of some parent materials essentially influence of direction of pedogenesis, cause the processes of lithomorphism. On heavy tertiary clays in different conditionsare formed the special genetic type (vertisols or transitive to lithomorphic subtype of zonal soil (vertic soil. In article the characteristic of vertisols (the subtype of mollic and ochric and thesubtypes of vertic chernozems and grey soils is given.

  3. Vertical zonality of septal nectaries of Monocots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnastasiya Odintsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the septal nectary as a system of exogenous cavities inside the ovary and taking account of possibilities of various ways of the formation of nectary walls we propose to apply the concept of vertical zonality to the analysis of the septal nectary structure. The comparative analysis of the gynoecium with septal nectaries must include data about the nectary vertical zones and its location in the structural zones of the gynoecium.

  4. Inhibition of eye blinking reveals subjective perceptions of stimulus salience

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, Sarah; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous eye blinking serves a critical physiological function, but it also interrupts incoming visual information. This tradeoff suggests that the inhibition of eye blinks might constitute an adaptive reaction to minimize the loss of visual information, particularly information that a viewer perceives to be important. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the timing of blink inhibition, during natural viewing, is modulated between as well as within tasks, and also whether the timin...

  5. Inhibition of eye blinking reveals subjective perceptions of stimulus salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sarah; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren

    2011-12-27

    Spontaneous eye blinking serves a critical physiological function, but it also interrupts incoming visual information. This tradeoff suggests that the inhibition of eye blinks might constitute an adaptive reaction to minimize the loss of visual information, particularly information that a viewer perceives to be important. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the timing of blink inhibition, during natural viewing, is modulated between as well as within tasks, and also whether the timing of blink inhibition varies as a function of viewer engagement and stimulus event type. While viewing video scenes, we measured the timing of blinks and blink inhibition, as well as visual scanning, in a group of typical two-year-olds, and in a group of two-year-olds known for attenuated reactivity to affective stimuli: toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Although both groups dynamically adjusted the timing of their blink inhibition at levels greater than expected by chance, they inhibited their blinking and shifted visual fixation differentially with respect to salient onscreen events. Moreover, typical toddlers inhibited their blinking earlier than toddlers with ASD, indicating active anticipation of the unfolding of those events. These findings indicate that measures of blink inhibition can serve as temporally precise markers of perceived stimulus salience and are useful quantifiers of atypical processing of social affective signals in toddlers with ASD.

  6. Subjective perceptions of success in top-class tennis players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The players also completed the Telic Dominance and Negativism Dominance Metamotivational Scales, in line with the Reversal Theory of emotion and motivation. Cyclical thematic analysis of the interview texts and descriptive statistical analysis of the scale items were carried out. Ten integrative theme clusters emerged ...

  7. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture...... is able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol...... in which, however, sham acupuncture without any needle penetration was used. Results: During real acupuncture, both N1 and N2/P2 amplitudes were reduced, as compared to baseline (p . < 0.01). The reduction lasted up to 15. min after needle removal. Furthermore, laser pain perception was reduced during...

  8. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  9. Efectes aguts de les vibracions mecàniques sobre el salt vertical

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Pardo, Esmeraldo; Carrasco Páez, Luis; Alcaraz Ramón, Pedro Emilio; Brunet Gómez, Antonio; Nadal Soler, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    L’objectiu d’aquest estudi va ser determinar l’efecte agut d’una exposició a vibracions mecàniques sobre la força desenvolupada en un salt vertical. Un total de 15 subjectes sans i actius (11 homes i 4 dones) es van sotmetre a 60 s d’estimulació sobre una plataforma vibratòria que va induir oscil·lacions verticals (freqüència: 50 Hz; amplitud: 2 mm). Abans del període d’estimulació vibratòria i 30 s i 2 min. després d’aquest, els subjectes van realitzar un salt vertical (squat jump) sobre una...

  10. Quantifying vertical and horizontal stand structure using terrestrial LiDAR in Pacific Northwest forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, Alexandra N.

    Stand level spatial distribution is a fundamental part of forest structure that influences many ecological processes and ecosystem functions. Vertical and horizontal spatial structure provides key information for forest management. Although horizontal stand complexity can be measured through stem mapping and spatial analysis, vertical complexity within the stand remains a mostly visual and highly subjective process. Tools and techniques in remote sensing, specifically LiDAR, provide three dimensional datasets that can help get at three dimensional forest stand structure. Although aerial LiDAR (ALS) is the most widespread form of remote sensing for measuring forest structure, it has a high omission rate in dense and structurally complex forests. In this study we used terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) to obtain high resolution three dimensional point clouds of plots from stands that vary by density and composition in the second-growth Pacific Northwest forest ecosystem. We used point cloud slicing techniques and object-based image analysis (OBIA) to produce canopy profiles at multiple points of vertical gradient. At each height point we produced segments that represented canopies or parts of canopies for each tree within the dataset. The resulting canopy segments were further analyzed using landscape metrics to quantify vertical canopy complexity within a single stand. Based on the developed method, we have successfully created a tool that utilizes three dimensional spatial information to accurately quantify the vertical structure of forest stands. Results show significant differences in the number and the total area of the canopy segments and gap fraction between each vertical slice within and between individual forest management plots. We found a significant relationship between the stand density and composition and the vertical canopy complexity. The methods described in this research make it possible to create horizontal stand profiles at any point along the vertical

  11. Modification of Otolith-Ocular Reflexes, Motion Perception and Manual Control During Variable Radius Centrifugation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Clarke, A. H.; Rupert, A. H.; Harm, D. L.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    Two joint ESA-NASA studies are examining changes in otolith-ocular reflexes and motion perception following short duration space flights, and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. Data is currently being collected on astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation is utilized to elicit otolith reflexes in the lateral plane without concordant roll canal cues. Unilateral centrifugation (400 deg/s, 3.5 cm radius) stimulates one otolith positioned off-axis while the opposite side is centered over the axis of rotation. During this paradigm, roll-tilt perception is measured using a subjective visual vertical task and ocular counter-rolling is obtained using binocular video-oculography. During a second paradigm (216 deg/s, less than 20 cm radius), the effects of stimulus frequency (0.15 - 0.6 Hz) are examined on eye movements and motion perception. A closed-loop nulling task is also performed with and without vibrotactile display feedback of chair radial position. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for perceived tilt and translation amplitudes to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. One result of this study will be to characterize the variability (gain, asymmetry) in both otolith-ocular responses and motion perception during variable radius centrifugation, and measure the time course of post-flight recovery. This study will also address how adaptive changes in otolith-mediated reflexes correspond to one's ability to perform closed-loop nulling tasks following G-transitions, and whether manual control performance can be improved

  12. Vertical distribution of alewife in the Lake Ontario offshore: Implications for resource use

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, Milan; Walsh, M. G.; Connerton, M. J.; Holden, J.; Weidel, B. C.; Sullivan, P. J.; Holda, T. J.; Rudstam, L. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2017), s. 823-837 ISSN 0380-1330 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15021 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diel vertical migration * deep chlorophyll layer * zooplankton * mysids * alewife Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.958, year: 2016

  13. Bifurcations of Oscillatory and Rotational Solutions of Double Pendulum with Parametric Vertical Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Marszal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates dynamics of double pendulum subjected to vertical parametric kinematic excitation. It includes detailed bifurcation diagrams in two-parameter space (excitation’s frequency and amplitude for both oscillations and rotations in the domain of periodic solutions.

  14. Interpretation of a discontinuity in the sense of verticality at large body tilt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.G.; Gisbergen, J.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Results of earlier spatial-orientation studies focusing on the sense of verticality have emphasized an intriguing paradox. Despite evidence that nearly veridical signals for gravicentric head orientation and egocentric visual stimulus orientation are available, roll-tilted subjects err in the

  15. Auditory Feedback: Effects on Vertical Force Production during Standing Up Following Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, V.; Carr, J.

    1996-01-01

    Twelve individuals recovering from stroke were given a three-week period of rehabilitative training with or without auditory feedback. The purpose was to investigate weight distribution on the pattern of vertical force through the affected leg during standing up. Results indicated the training improved subjects' strength and muscle control, though…

  16. Accuracy of Interpersonal Perception in Mediated Contacts in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinskaya E.P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issue of accuracy of interpersonal perception in computer-mediated communication. It shows how J.Biesanz’s social accuracy model of interpersonal perception may be used in explorations of interpersonal perception in mediated contacts — via personal webpages in social media. In the study the subjects (15 people were asked to assess individuals with whom they were unacquainted basing on their webpages in VKontakte (30 web pages using a brief version of the Big Five Inventory. The outcomes reveal which objective parameters of the assessed webpages contribute most to the accuracy of interpersonal perception in the subjects, and also prove that the accuracy of interpersonal perception in this case is shaped by its normative component, not by the distinctive one. This suggests that in virtual communication one’s perception of a partner may be more affected by stereotypes than in real communication — a hypothesis that needs to be further tested.

  17. A Physician's Perspective On Vertical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Vertical integration has been a central feature of health care delivery system change for more than two decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that vertically integrated health care systems raise prices and costs without observable improvements in quality, despite many theoretical reasons why cost control and improved quality might occur. Less well studied is how physicians view their newfound partnerships with hospitals. In this article I review literature findings and other observations on five aspects of vertical integration that affect physicians in their professional and personal lives: patients' access to physicians, physician compensation, autonomy versus system support, medical professionalism and culture, and lifestyle. I conclude that the movement toward physicians' alignment with and employment in vertically integrated systems seems inexorable but that policy should not promote such integration either intentionally or inadvertently. Instead, policy should address the flaws in current payment approaches that reward high prices and excessive service use-outcomes that vertical integration currently produces. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Vertical saccades in children: a developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Seassau, Magali

    2014-03-01

    There are no studies exploring the development of vertical saccades in large populations of children. In this study, we examined the development of vertical saccades in sixty-nine children. Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video oculography system [Mobile EBT(®), e(ye)BRAIN], and movements from both eyes had been analyzed. The gain and the peak velocity of vertical saccades show an up-down asymmetry. Latency value decreases with the age of children, and it does not depend on the direction of the saccades; in contrast, the gain and the peak velocity values of vertical saccades are stable during childhood. We suggest that the up-down asymmetry is developed early, or is innate, in humans. Latencies of vertical saccades develop with the age of children, in relationship with the development of the cortical network responsible for the saccade preparation. In contrast, the precision and the peak velocity are not age-dependent as they are controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem structures.

  19. Axiology, the Subject and the Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses two gaps in the literature related to science department chairs: the axiological relationship between the chair and science, the subject, and the perceptions of the chair with respect to teaching and learning within their departments. In this work, axiology is used to understand how the chair's values toward the subject influenced his own perceived capacity to lead learning within his department in a reformed discourse. A narrative inquiry methodology was used to consider the chair's experiences in the development of his identify over his life span in the form of two stories: (1) the relationship between the chair and science, the subject, and (2) the perceptions of the chair with regards to teacher learning within the department. The findings revealed that the work and career of the chair in this study were authored by strong elements of personal continuity and points of stability around the valuing of science, the subject, even as this valuing evolved from being more focused on epistemic values early in his career, to being more concerned with universal values connected to his legacy and his department later in his career.

  20. Sagittal and vertical aspects of Class II division 1 subjects according to the respiratory pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura de Castro Cabrera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The teeth position, specially maxillary and mandibular incisors, in relation to basal bone and surrounding soft tissues must be considered in the elaboration of diagnosis, treatment planning and execution to obtain alignment, leveling, intercuspation, facial balance and harmony with stability of results. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the modifications in the positioning of incisors in individuals with Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion in two distinct moments of dentocraniofacial development, with mean interval of 2 years and 5 months. METHODS: The measures were obtained by means of lateral cephalograms of 40 individuals, being 23 nasal breathers (NB and 17 mouth breathers (MB. The analyzed measures were overjet, overbite, UCI-NA, LCI-NB, UCI.NA, LCI.NB, UCI.SN, LCI.GoGn, UCI.LCI, ANB, GoGn.SN, and OccPl.SN. Statistical analysis (2-way repeated-measures ANOVA was applied to verify intergroups differences. RESULTS: Overjet, UCI-NA, LCI-NB, ANB, GoGn.SN, and OccPl.SN demonstrated statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 when observed the moment or the respiratory method. CONCLUSION: There is alteration in the positioning of incisors during growth with interference of the respiratory pattern.

  1. Observation and modelling of barrel droplets on vertical fibres subjected to gravitational and drag forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Braddock, Roger D; Agranovski, Igor E; Cropp, Roger A

    2006-08-15

    Extensive experimental investigation of the wetting processes of fibre/liquid systems during air filtration (when drag and gravitational forces are acting) has shown many important features, including droplet extension, oscillatory motion, and detachment or flow of drops from fibres as airflow velocity increases. A detailed experimental study of the aforementioned processes was conducted using glass filter fibres and H(2)O aerosol, which coalesce on the fibre to form barrel droplets with small contact angles. The droplets were predominantly observed in the Reynolds transition (or unsteady laminar) flow region. The droplet oscillation appears to be induced by the onset of vortexes in the flow field around the droplet as the increasing droplet size increases the Reynolds number. Flow in this region is usually modelled using the classical two-dimensional Karman vortex street, and there exist no 3D equivalents. Therefore to model such oscillation it was necessary to create a new conceptual model to account for the forces both inducing and inhibiting such oscillation. The agreement between the model and experimental results is acceptable for both the radial and transverse oscillations.

  2. Sagittal and vertical aspects of Class II division 1 subjects according to the respiratory pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura de Castro; Retamoso, Luciana Borges; Mei, Raul Magnoler Sampaio; Tanaka, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    The teeth position, specially maxillary and mandibular incisors, in relation to basal bone and surrounding soft tissues must be considered in the elaboration of diagnosis, treatment planning and execution to obtain alignment, leveling, intercuspation, facial balance and harmony with stability of results. To evaluate the modifications in the positioning of incisors in individuals with Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion in two distinct moments of dentocraniofacial development, with mean interval of 2 years and 5 months. The measures were obtained by means of lateral cephalograms of 40 individuals, being 23 nasal breathers (NB) and 17 mouth breathers (MB). The analyzed measures were overjet, overbite, UCI-NA, LCI-NB, UCI.NA, LCI.NB, UCI.SN, LCI.GoGn, UCI.LCI, ANB, GoGn.SN, and OccPl.SN. Statistical analysis (2-way repeated-measures ANOVA) was applied to verify intergroups differences. Overjet, UCI-NA, LCI-NB, ANB, GoGn.SN, and OccPl.SN demonstrated statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) when observed the moment or the respiratory method. There is alteration in the positioning of incisors during growth with interference of the respiratory pattern.

  3. A influência de ritmos musicais sobre a percepção dos estados subjetivos de pacientes adultos em hemodiálise La influencia de ritmos musicales sobre la percepción de los estados subjetivos de pacientes adultos en hemodiálisis The influence of musical rhythms on the perception of subjective states of adult patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bechert Caminha

    2009-12-01

    presentaron.Being submitted to dialysis four hours a day, three times a week can mean experiencing boredom, besides discomfort. Patients often report that the time seems to take longer to go by. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of two different musical rhythms in the states of mind and perception of adult patients undergoing dialysis, since the literature on this subject is scarce. The study was performed at a private hospital with 43 patients, who participated in two sessions of musical improvisation with a keyboard. The subjective states and perception were evaluated before and after the intervention. Over 80% of the patients felt that time went by faster after the interventions in both rhythms. However, the pace was a decisive factor in the kind of emotional experience that the patients had.

  4. Probabilistic Classification of Grasping Behaviours Using Visuo-Haptic Perception

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hosseini; Faria, Diego,; Lobo, Jorge; Dias, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Part 9: Perceptional Systems; International audience; This paper presents a novel approach to visuo-haptic perception of grasping/manipulative tasks. The proposed approach is founded on a hierarchical Bayesian model which integrates the visual information with the haptic data to reach a reasonable percept of what is happening in grasping tasks. The primary goal of the approach is to identify what type of grasping behaviour is being performed by the human subject, and as a secondary goal, to s...

  5. Color differences and perceptive properties of prints made with microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raša Urbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish whether addition on fragranced microcapsules influences on color values and perceptive properties of prints. For this purpose, three types of printing inks were used on two sets of the paper substrate. Color properties were measured by standard methods while perceptive properties were determined by subjective method. Research has shown that microcapsules cause small color differences while perceptive analyses gave very interesting results.

  6. Accuracy of Interpersonal Perception in Mediated Contacts in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya E.P.; Bronin I.D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on the issue of accuracy of interpersonal perception in computer-mediated communication. It shows how J.Biesanz’s social accuracy model of interpersonal perception may be used in explorations of interpersonal perception in mediated contacts — via personal webpages in social media. In the study the subjects (15 people) were asked to assess individuals with whom they were unacquainted basing on their webpages in VKontakte (30 web pages) using a brief version of the Big Five In...

  7. Facilitation of vertical vergence by horizontal saccades, found in a patient with dissociated vertical deviation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); L.J. van Dijk (Laurens)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The authors examined vertical vergence in a Is-year-old girl with dissociated vertical deviation, a 60 convergent strabismus, no binocular vision, latent nystagmus, and a minimal left amblyopia. Eye movements were recorded during 4s-periods of (1) both eyes open, alternated with

  8. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  9. Oral perceptions of fat and taste stimuli are modulated by affect and mood induction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Platte, Petra; Herbert, Cornelia; Pauli, Paul; Breslin, Paul A S

    2013-01-01

    ...) on fat and taste perception in healthy subjects. After a baseline orosensory evaluation, 'sad', 'happy' and 'neutral' video clips were presented to induce corresponding moods in eighty participants...

  10. The Effect of Increasing Inertia upon Vertical Ground Reaction Forces during Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John K.; Hagan, R. Donald; Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2007-01-01

    The addition of inertia to exercising astronauts could increase ground reaction forces and potentially provide a greater health benefit. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding the adaptations to additional mass (inertia) without additional net weight (gravitational force) during locomotion. We examined the effect of increasing inertia while maintaining net gravitational force on vertical ground reaction forces and kinematics during walking and running. Vertical ground reaction force was measured for ten healthy adults (5 male/5 female) during walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) using a force-measuring treadmill. Subjects completed locomotion at normal weight and mass, and at 10, 20, 30, and 40% of added inertial force. The added gravitational force was relieved with overhead suspension, so that the net force between the subject and treadmill at rest remained equal to 100% body weight. Peak vertical impact forces and loading rates increased with increased inertia during walking, and decreased during running. As inertia increased, peak vertical propulsive forces decreased during walking and did not change during running. Stride time increased during walking and running, and contact time increased during running. Vertical ground reaction force production and adaptations in gait kinematics were different between walking and running. The increased inertial forces were utilized independently from gravitational forces by the motor control system when determining coordination strategies.

  11. Filling of simulated lateral canals with gutta-percha or thermoplastic polymer by warm vertical compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo SANT’ANNA JUNIOR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of gutta-percha and a thermoplastic synthetic polymer (Resilon to fill simulated lateral canals, using warm vertical compaction. Forty-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared using the rotary crown-down technique. Artificial lateral canals were made at 2, 5, and 8 mm from the working length (WL in each root. The specimens were divided into three groups (n = 15, according to the filling material: Dentsply gutta-percha (GD, Odous gutta-percha (GO, and Resilon cones (RE. The root canals were obturated using warm vertical compaction, without endodontic sealer. The specimens were subjected to a tooth decalcification and clearing procedure. Filling of the lateral canals was analyzed by digital radiography and digital photographs, using the Image Tool software. The data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at 5% significance. RE had the best filling ability in all root thirds (p 0.05. Resilon may be used as an alternative to gutta-percha as a solid core filling material for use with the warm vertical compaction technique. The study findings point to the potential benefit of the warm vertical compaction technique for filling lateral canals, and the study provides further information about using Resilon and gutta-percha as materials for the warm vertical compaction technique.

  12. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2018-01-01

    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aavp/rvlt.

  13. Running quietly reduces ground reaction force and vertical loading rate and alters foot strike technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Xuan; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wernli, Kevin; Stearne, Sarah M; Davey, Paul; Ng, Leo

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running. Simple linear regressions revealed no significant relationships between impact sound and peak vGRF in the normal and quiet conditions and vertical loading rate in the normal condition. t-Tests revealed significant within-subject decreases in peak sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate during the quiet compared to the normal running condition. During the normal running condition, 15.4% of participants utilised a non-rearfoot strike technique compared to 76.9% in the quiet condition, which was corroborated by an increased ankle plantarflexion angle at initial contact. This study demonstrated that quieter impact sound is not directly associated with a lower peak vGRF or vertical loading rate. However, given the instructions to run quietly, participants effectively reduced peak impact sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate.

  14. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen......This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging...

  15. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle......It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...

  16. CIRSS vertical data integration, San Bernardino study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, W.; Christenson, J.; Michel, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The creation and use of a vertically integrated data base, including LANDSAT data, for local planning purposes in a portion of San Bernardino County, California are described. The project illustrates that a vertically integrated approach can benefit local users, can be used to identify and rectify discrepancies in various data sources, and that the LANDSAT component can be effectively used to identify change, perform initial capability/suitability modeling, update existing data, and refine existing data in a geographic information system. Local analyses were developed which produced data of value to planners in the San Bernardino County Planning Department and the San Bernardino National Forest staff.

  17. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  18. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  19. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  20. On the measurement of vertical velocity by MST radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is presented of the measurement of atmospheric vertical motion utilizing the MST radar technique. Vertical motion in the atmosphere is briefly discussed as a function of scale. Vertical velocity measurement by MST radars is then considered from within the context of the expected magnitudes to be observed. Examples are drawn from published vertical velocity observations.

  1. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  3. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  4. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Self-esteem, social support perception and seizure controllability perception in adolescents with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália F. Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare the self-esteem of adolescents with epilepsy and adolescents without epilepsy and relate it to social support and seizure controllability perception. METHOD: The study sample consisted: case participants (34 subjects attending the pediatric epilepsy clinic of University Hospital and control participants (30 subjects from public schools in Campinas-SP. The instruments utilized were: identification card with demographic and epilepsy data, a semi-structured interview on aspects of the disease, and a Self-Esteem Multidimensional Scale. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups but majority of adolescents with epilepsy presented higher self esteem rate, have knowledge about epilepsy, presented high levels of social support and seizure controllability perception. There was no significant relationship between social support and seizure controllability perception with self-esteem. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about epilepsy, social support such good controllability seizure perception seem are important contingencies for a better evaluation of self esteem in adolescents with epilepsy.

  7. Elementary Schoolchildren's Self- and Social Perceptions of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Elina; Mykkänen, Arttu; Järvelä, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate children's self- and social perceptions of success to identify how success could be promoted in a classroom context. Using a participatory approach, this study explored children's subjective experiences with success in 41 learning situations selected by researchers (Phase 1: self-perceptions) and 48…

  8. students' perceptions of difficult concepts in biology in senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    that there was no significant difference in the perception of students on difficult topics in Biology on the basis of their subject areas ... KEYWORDS: Perceptions of students, difficult biology topics, Biology learning, effective teaching, effective learning. ..... significant factor in the understanding of physics concepts. The result of ...

  9. Differences between Male Students' and Female Students' Perception of Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Joseph; Bass, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study is an empirical examination of possible differences between female and male college seniors' perceptions between male and female college professors. Subjects were presented with three variations of a scale designed to measure students' perceptions of university professors in general, female professors, and male professors. These…

  10. Sweating, thirst perception and plasma electrolyte composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirst is a perception, the subjective experience evoked by fluid deficits. Exercise induces sweating and subsequently electrolyte loss and thirst but there is little documented on post exercise thirst perception in women of varying body mass indices. 40 apparently healthy young women (19-25years) in the follicular phase of ...

  11. Neighborhood disorder, subjective alienation, and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E; Mirowsky, John

    2009-03-01

    Living in a threatening, noxious, and dangerous neighborhood may produce anxiety, anger, and depression because it is subjectively alienating. We hypothesize that neighborhood disorder represents ambient threat that elicits perceptions of powerlessness, normlessness, mistrust, and isolation. These perceptions in turn lead to anxious and angry agitation, and depressed exhaustion. We use data from the 1995 Community, Crime, and Health survey, a probability sample of 2,482 adults in Illinois, with a follow-up survey in 1998. We find that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with high levels of anxiety, anger, and depression. Personal victimization mediates about 10 percent of the association. The rest of the association is mediated primarily by mistrust and, secondarily, by perceived powerlessness. Normlessness reflects neighborhood disorder but it appears to have little influence on distress. Social isolation has trade-offs in its connections to neighborhood disorder and to distress.

  12. Gestalt grouping via closure degrades suprathreshold depth percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, Lesley M; Wilcox, Laurie M

    2014-08-19

    It is well known that the perception of depth is susceptible to changes in configuration. For example, stereoscopic precision for a pair of vertical lines can be dramatically reduced when these lines are connected to form a closed object. Here, we extend this paradigm to suprathreshold estimates of perceived depth. Using a touch-sensor, observers made quantitative estimates of depth between a vertical line pair presented in isolation or as edges of a closed rectangular object with different figural interpretations. First, we show that the amount of depth estimated within a closed rectangular object is consistently reduced relative to the vertical edges presented in isolation or when they form the edges of two segmented objects. We then demonstrate that the reduction in perceived depth for closed objects is modulated by manipulations that influence perceived closure of the central figure. Depth percepts were most disrupted when the horizontal connectors and vertical lines matched in color. Perceived depth increased slightly when the connectors had opposite contrast polarity, but increased dramatically when flankers were added. Thus, as grouping cues were added to counter the interpretation of a closed object, the depth degradation effect was systematically eliminated. The configurations tested here rule out explanations based on early, local interactions such as inhibition or cue conflict; instead, our results provide strong evidence of the impact of Gestalt grouping, via closure, on depth magnitude percepts from stereopsis. © 2014 ARVO.

  13. Multi-Joint Coordination of Vertical Arm Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Seth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of the human arm was developed to study coordination of multi-joint movement in the vertical plane. The arm was represented as a two-segment, two-degree of freedom dynamic system with net muscle torques acting at the shoulder and elbow. Kinematic data were collected from a subject who performed unrestrained vertical movements with only the initial and final hand elevations prescribed. Movements were performed with and without a hand-held load. The method of computed torques was implemented to obtain net muscle torques, which enables position and velocity feedback to be used to estimate joint angular accelerations that produce a more stable simulation of arm movement. The model simulation was then used to calculate the contributions of the net muscle torques, gravitational torques and velocity-interaction torques to the angular accelerations of the shoulder and elbow and also to the vertical acceleration of the hand. The net muscle torques and gravity were the prime movers of the arm. The velocity-dependent effects contributed little to the dynamics of arm movement and were, in fact, insignificant when the hand was loaded. The muscles of the shoulder and elbow acted synergistically to elevate the arm in the sagittal plane. The hand was accelerated upward by the elbow first, until the point of maximum elbow flexion, after which the shoulder became the prime mover. Gravity acted consistently to accelerate the hand downward. Coordination was notably invariant to changes in external load. Some compensation for load was observed in the control, and these differences were attributed mainly to an increase in system inertia.

  14. Age-related differences between thinning of horizontal and vertical trabeculae in human lumbar bone as assessed by a new computerized method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J.S.; Ebbesen, E.N.; Mosekilde, Li.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether vertical trabeculae undergo compensatory thickening with age in the human vertebral body, a new computerized method was developed that is able to distinguish between horizontal and vertical trabeculae on normal histological sections. Study subjects included 48 individuals (24...

  15. control perceptions and control appraisal: relation to measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-01

    Jun 1, 2008 ... CONTROL PERCEPTIONS AND CONTROL APPRAISAL: RELATION. TO MEASURES OF SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING. FRANCES E. OWUSU-ANSAH. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Behavioural Sciences, University Post Office. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

  16. Improved perception-reaction time information for intersection sight distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Perception-reaction time (PRT) data were obtained in an operational setting to assess the adequacy of existing PRT specifications for intersection sight distance standards. A sample of 124 subjects traversed a 3-hour driving circuit in an instrumente...

  17. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  18. Electrostatic comb drive for vertical actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1997-07-10

    The electrostatic comb finger drive has become an integral design for microsensor and microactuator applications. This paper reports on utilizing the levitation effect of comb fingers to design vertical-to-the-substrate actuation for interferometric applications. For typical polysilicon comb drives with 2 {micro}m gaps between the stationary and moving fingers, as well as between the microstructures and the substrate, the equilibrium position is nominally 1-2 {micro}m above the stationary comb fingers. This distance is ideal for many phase shifting interferometric applications. Theoretical calculations of the vertical actuation characteristics are compared with the experimental results, and a general design guideline is derived from these results. The suspension flexure stiffnesses, gravity forces, squeeze film damping, and comb finger thicknesses are parameters investigated which affect the displacement curve of the vertical microactuator. By designing a parallel plate capacitor between the suspended mass and the substrate, in situ position sensing can be used to control the vertical movement, providing a total feedback-controlled system. Fundamentals of various capacitive position sensing techniques are discussed. Experimental verification is carried out by a Zygo distance measurement interferometer.

  19. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™ were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra. Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

  20. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  1. Flow and scour around vertical submerged structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although past investigations establish the effect of various parameters on scour around vertical submerged structures for live and clear water condition, yet further studies are required to analyze the scour around group of submerged structures for various bed sediments, understand the flow physics around the group and ...

  2. integrated vertical photobioreactor system for carbon dioxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Astri Nugroho

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... Abstract. A vertical photobioreactor containing the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus is a highly efficient system for converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into biomass. The use of photobioreactor for CO2 mitigation has been explored using microalgae as photosynthetic microorganism. The growth rate (μ, h-1) ...

  3. DIURNAL VERTICAL MIGRATIONS OF MEIOFAUNA IN AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diurnal vertical migrations of meiofauna were observed in an estuarine sand flat and these were related primarily to desiccation and temperature. The migrations. which occurred in the top 10 cm of the sediment. had a mean range of 5 cm and were most strongly exhibited by the interstitial flatworms. polychaetes and ...

  4. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that not all types of natural resource endowment have a 'Dutch disease' effect. While inflation, exchange rate, and foreign aid variables have a mixed effect on vertical and horizontal export diversification, political instability however has a strong adverse effect on export diversification; especially for SSA. The key ...

  5. Phase diagram of vertically vibrated dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kann, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    When a hole is created in a layer of a dense, vertically vibrated suspension, phenomena are known to occur that defy the natural tendency of gravity to close the hole. Here, an overview is presented of the different patterns that we observed in a variety of dense particulate suspensions.

  6. OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIEL VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) of six common species of hydromedusae was investigated during two drogue studies conducted in St Helena Bay on the west coast of South Africa in February 1995. Clytia spp., Obelia spp. and Bougainvillia macloviana, were largely confined to surface waters and did not appear to display any ...

  7. Vertical reflector for bifacial PV-panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial solar modules offer an interesting price/performance ratio, and much work has been focused on directing the ground albedo to the back of the solar cells. In this work we design and develop a reflector for a vertical bifacial panel, with the objective to optimize the energy harvest...

  8. Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...

  9. Manufacturing: the new case for vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumpe, Ted; Bolwijn, Piet

    1988-01-01

    The article argues that the solid corporation will continue to view vertical integration as a critical part of manufacturing reform. Manufacturing reform and backward integration are related in insidious ways to the three stages of production over which the big manufacturers preside. Without

  10. Integrated Vertical Photobioreactor System for Carbon Dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical photobioreactor containing the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus is a highly efficient system for converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into biomass. The use of photobioreactor for CO2 mitigation has been explored using microalgae as photosynthetic microorganism. The growth rate (m, h-1) were 0.03; 0.13; 0.20; 0.09 ...

  11. The Design Philosophy for a Vertical Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijling, J. K.; Burcharth, H. F.; Voortman, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A consistent risk-based design philosophy for vertical breakwaters is proposed. The design philosophy consists of a two-step approach. The first step is the definition of the main function of the breakwater, which leads to a definition of failure. The second step is the choice of the acceptable...

  12. Surround-gated vertical nanowire quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Weert, M.H.M.; Den Heijer, M.; Van Kouwen, M.P.; Algra, R.E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Zwiller, V.

    2010-01-01

    We report voltage dependent photoluminescence experiments on single indium arsenide phosphide (InAsP) quantum dots embedded in vertical surround-gated indium phosphide (InP) nanowires. We show that by tuning the gate voltage, we can access different quantum dot charge states. We study the

  13. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS- P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation Coeffcient () and an optical ...

  14. VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    1 D. E. Manolakis. Efficient solution and performance analysis of 3-d position estimation by trilateration. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, volume 32(4), pages 1239–1248, October 1996. 2 D. E. Manolakis. Aircraft vertical profile prediction based on surveillance data only. IEE Proceedings on Radar, ...

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection flow in vertical concentric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports an analytical solution for fully developed mixed convection flow of viscous,incompressible, electrically conducting fluid in vertical concentric annuli under the influence of a transverse magnetic field, where the outer surface of inner cylinder is heated sinusoidally and the inner surface of outercylinder is kept ...

  16. A note on partial vertical integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); H.J.M. Peters (Hans)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA simple model is constructed to show how partial vertical integration may emerge as an equilibrium market structure in a world characterized by rationing, differences in the reservation prices of buyers, and in the risk attitudes of buyers and sellers. The buyers with the high

  17. Vertical integration of HRD policy within companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Ida

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns HRD policy making in companies. More specifically, it explores whether so-called vertical integration of HRD policy at different organizational levels occurs within companies. The study involved forty-four large companies in the industrial and the financial and commercial

  18. Vertical Integration Spurs American Health Care Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Under new "managed health care systems," the classical functional separation of risk taker, claims payor, and provider are vertically integrated into a common entity. This evolution should produce a competitive environment with medical care rendered to all Americans on a more cost-effective basis. (CJH)

  19. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, L.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  20. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS-. P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical ...

  1. Vertical electrical resistivity investigation of foundation conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Vertical Electrical Soundings have been carried out for building sites using Schlumberger array within a buried River channel near Okilton close, Port Harcourt. The objective was to delineate the different geoelectric and geologic parameters of the subsurface as a means of determining its effect on foundation.

  2. Vertical and horizontal transmission drive bacterial invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, N.; Huigens, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    A huge variety of Arthropod species is infected with endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria that manipulate their host’s reproduction to invade populations. In addition to vertical transmission from mother to offspring through the egg cytoplasm, it has been demonstrated through phylogenetic analyses and

  3. Modeling vertical coral connectivity and mesophotic refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Daniel M.; Paris, Claire B.; Vaz, Ana C.; Smith, Tyler B.

    2016-03-01

    Whether mesophotic reefs will behave as refugia for corals threatened by global climate change and coastal development depends on vertical exchange of larvae between diverse habitats. Here we use a biophysical model of larval dispersal to estimate vertical connectivity of a broadcasting ( Orbicella faveolata) and a brooding ( Porites astreoides) species of coral in the US Virgin Islands. Modeling predicts subsidy to shallow areas by mesophotic larvae of both species based on local hydrology, adult reproductive characteristics, larval traits, and a wide range of scenarios developed to test depth-sensitive factors, such as fertilization rates and post-settlement survivorship. In extreme model scenarios of reduced fertilization and post-settlement survivorship of mesophotic larvae, 1-10 % local mesophotic subsidy to shallow recruitment is predicted for both species, which are demographically significant. Although direct vertical connectivity is higher for the broadcaster, the brooder demonstrates higher local multigenerational vertical connectivity, which suggests that local P. astreoides populations are more resilient than those of O. faveolata, and corroborates field studies. As shallow habitat degrades, mesophotic-shallow subsidy is predicted to increase for both species. This study is the first of its kind to simulate larval dispersal and settlement between habitats of different depths, and these findings have local, regional, and global implications for predicting and managing coral reef persistence in a changing climate.

  4. Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

  5. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  6. Mathematical model of Zika virus with vertical transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.B. Agusto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika is a flavivirus transmitted to humans through either the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes or sexual transmission. Zika has been linked to congenital anomalies such as microcephaly. In this paper, we analyze a new system of ordinary differential equations which incorporates human vertical transmission of Zika virus, the birth of babies with microcephaly and asymptomatically infected individuals. The Zika model is locally and globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number is less than unity. Our model shows that asymptomatic individuals amplify the disease burden in the community, and the most important parameters for ZIKV spread are the death rate of mosquitoes, the mosquito biting rate, the mosquito recruitment rate, and the transmission per contact to mosquitoes and to adult humans. Scenario exploration indicates that personal-protection is a more effective control strategy than mosquito-reduction strategy. It also shows that delaying conception reduces the number of microcephaly cases, although this does little to prevent Zika transmission in the broader community. However, by coupling aggressive vector control and personal protection use, it is possible to reduce both microcephaly and Zika transmission. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classifications: 92B05, 93A30, 93C15. Keywords: Zika virus, Vertical transmission, Microcephaly, Stability, Control

  7. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1995-02-21

    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall.

  8. Simulation study of granular compaction dynamics under vertical tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenović, D; Vrhovac, S B; Jaksić, Z M; Budinski-Petković, Lj; Belić, A

    2006-12-01

    We study, by numerical simulation, the compaction dynamics of frictional hard disks in two dimensions, subjected to vertical shaking. Shaking is modeled by a series of vertical expansion of the disk packing, followed by dynamical recompression of the assembly under the action of gravity. The second phase of the shake cycle is based on an efficient event-driven molecular-dynamics algorithm. We analyze the compaction dynamics for various values of friction coefficient and coefficient of normal restitution. We find that the time evolution of the density is described by rho(t)=rho{infinity}-DeltarhoE{alpha}[-(ttau){alpha}], where E{alpha} denotes the Mittag-Leffler function of order 0

  9. Determination of vertical dimension by hydraulic intraoral jack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoSchiavo, M; Madhav, S; Whyman, R

    1988-07-01

    This paper describes the application of a hydraulic intraoral jig to the establishment of the vertical dimension of occlusion for full denture construction. The device enables the patient to establish an occlusal height which is most comfortable without the intervention or guidance of the dentist. Six patients for whom new dentures were to be constructed in the University of Otago School of Dentistry were invited to participate in the study. A conventional technique of denture construction was employed, but an additional stage was introduced after the jaw records had been taken and the casts mounted. Each patient was instructed in the use of the hydraulic jig and was asked to find a comfortable bite height in his own time. The results were compared with occlusal heights determined by conventional subjective methods. The former results proved to be more repeatable than those utilizing rest position and an average free-way space. The results are discussed and the implications outlined. Suggestions for further research using the hydraulic jig are made and the authors conclude that the hydraulic jig may be used to determine vertical dimension for full denture construction.

  10. Determination of vertical dimension of occlusion by using the phonetic vowel "O" and "E"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igić Marko

    2015-01-01

    values f or the vertical dimension at rest, “OLO” and “ELE” for both genders. There was a statistically significant correlation between the value for the vertical dimension at rest, “OLO” and “ELE”, for both groups of subjects. Conclusion. Determining the vertical dimension of occlusion requires 5.5 mm subtraction from the position of the mandible in pronunciation of the word “OLO” or 7.5 mm in pronunciation of the word “ELE”.

  11. Determination of vertical dimension of occlusion by using the phonetic vowel "O" and "E".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igić, Marko; Krunić, Nebojsa; Aleksov, Ljiljana; Kostić, Milena; Igić, Aleksandra; Petrović, Milica B; Dacić, Stefan; Igić, Stevan; Igić, Aleksandar

    2015-02-01

    statistically significant correlation between the value for the vertical dimension at rest, "OLO" and "ELE", for both groups of subjects. Determining the vertical dimension of occlusion requires 5.5 mm subtraction from the position of the mandible in pronunciation of the word "OLO" or 7.5 mm in pronunciation of the word "ELE".

  12. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    to many consumers. After a decade of growth, the Danish craft brewing segment is rapidly reaching maturity, and a higher degree of consumer orientation seems to be needed for continuing success. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate some of the key aspects of consumers’ perception of novel beers...... industry. More generally, this work makes a number of original contributions to our understanding of determinants of consumers’ perception of novel food and beverages, as well as methodological advances in the use of consumers as subjects in sensory and consumer research......., and ways in which these can be considered to inform product development decisions. Sensory insights into how consumers perceive a new beer are paramount. As craft breweries rarely have access to traditional sensory analysis (in the form of a trained panel), the first part of the project has examined...

  13. Researching Risk: Narrative, Biography, Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Henwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the development of methodological practices promoting greater epistemic reflexivity in risk research and in social science generally. Knowledge of the specific practices researchers will find useful cannot exist separately from any particular empirical project. Accordingly, we report on, and provide a reflective account of, the "nuclear risk" project that was part of the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk (SCARR network in the UK (2003-2008. A key focus is exploring the value of narrative methods—especially narrative elicitation methods—for understanding people's perceptions of, and ways of living with, risk. We credit our deployment of a narrative method with producing a rich form of data on risk-biography intersections, which have carried great significance in our analytical work on the way biographical experiences, dynamically unfolding through space and time, can be interrupted by risk events. Arguments from the literature on reflexive modernity are deployed to make the case for: researching risk in everyday life as a problematic in and of itself; placing concepts of risk-biography, risk-reflexivity and risk-subjectivity at centre stage; and finding ways to inquire into the social and psychic complexities involved in the dynamic construction and reconstruction of risk phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001201

  14. Sensorimotor incongruence alters limb perception and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Nobusako, Satoshi; Zama, Takuro; Taniguchi, Megumi; Shimada, Sotaro; Morioka, Shu

    2017-09-21

    Altered limb ownership or heaviness has been observed in patients with hemiplegia, chronic pain, and several other conditions. Although these sensations are thought to be caused by sensorimotor incongruence, few studies have systematically verified this relationship. In addition, it remains unclear whether these subjective sensations affect movement execution. In a psychophysical experiment, we systematically investigated the relationships between sensorimotor integration and subjective limb perception, such as sense of ownership/heaviness, and verified the relationship between subjective limb perception and movement execution. Thirty-nine healthy participants were enrolled, and a visual feedback delay system was used to systematically evoke sensorimotor incongruence. Participants periodically flexed and extended their wrist while seeing a delayed image of their hand under five delay conditions (0, 150, 250, 350, 600ms). During wrist movement, electromyography (EMG) activity in flexor carpi radialis (FCR) was recorded. Also, to analyze the change in muscle activity and movement speed, the values of integral and peak frequency were calculated. To record changes in the subjective limb perception of the altered limb ownership and heaviness, we used a 7-point Likert scale for each participant. We found that altered ownership and heaviness increased with increasing feedback delay. Also, muscle activity and movement speed decreased with visual feedback delay. There was no significant correlation between subjective altered limb perception (i.e., altered limb ownership and heaviness) and muscle activity or movement speed. We systematically demonstrated that limb ownership, heaviness, muscle activation and movement speed were altered by sensorimotor incongruence. However, our study did not reveal the relationships between these factors. These results indicate the existence of different mechanisms governing subjective limb perception and movement execution. In the future, we

  15. Experiencing Double-Bind Conflict: A Semantic Differential Assessment of Interaction Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Bob; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Four interaction-perception perspectives of the fictitious target of a double-bind conflict were provided by four groups of subjects. The perspectives included perceptions of a daughter about herself and her father (the double-bind source), and her estimates of his perceptions of both himself and her. (Editor)

  16. Up/down anisotropies of vertical saccades in healthy children from 6 to 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Chrystal; Kapoula, Zoï

    2014-11-25

    Although the overall development of saccades in children has recently gained increasing interest, the precise characteristics of vertical saccades remain understudied. This study focused on the development of vertical saccades and their interaction with vergence movements. Thirty-one children (mean age: 7.33 ± 0.21 years) performed vertical saccades with an eccentricity of 7.5° at 40 and 150 cm viewing distance, in a simultaneous paradigm (simultaneous offset of central dot and onset of peripheral target). The results revealed shorter latency, more vertical conjugate postsaccadic drift after upward saccades, and less horizontal vergence during and after upward saccades in children. Furthermore, the intrasaccadic convergence decreased progressively with children's age for upward saccades. Relative to adult behavior, children present more hypometric saccades, longer latencies, higher vertical disconjugacy, and a different pattern of horizontal vergence during vertical saccades. This result suggests that up/down asymmetries are built progressively in mutual interaction with a perceptive peripheral bias such as up being perceived as far and down as near. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. Burge on Perception and the Disjunction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Altschul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Disjunction Problem states that teleological theories of perception cannot explain why a subject represents an F when an F causes the perception and not the disjunction F v G, given that the subject has mistaken G’s for F’s in the past.  Without a suitable answer, non-veridical representation becomes impossible to explain.  Here, I defend Burge’s teleological theory of perception against the Disjunction Problem, arguing that a perceptual state’s representing a disjunctive property is incompatible with perceptual anti-individualism.  Because anti-individualism is at the heart of Burge’s theory, I conclude that Burgeans need not be concerned with the Disjunction Problem.

  18. Emotion perception from a componential perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Vera; Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Meuleman, Ben; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R

    2017-01-01

    The common conceptual understanding of emotion is that they are multi-componential, including subjective feelings, appraisals, psychophysiological activation, action tendencies, and motor expressions. Emotion perception, however, has traditionally been studied in terms of emotion labels, such as "happy", which do not clearly indicate whether one, some, or all emotion components are perceived. We examine whether emotion percepts are multi-componential and extend previous research by using more ecologically valid, dynamic, and multimodal stimuli and an alternative response measure. The results demonstrate that observers can reliably infer multiple types of information (subjective feelings, appraisals, action tendencies, and social messages) from complex emotion expressions. Furthermore, this finding appears to be robust to changes in response items. The results are discussed in light of their implications for research on emotion perception.

  19. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  20. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.