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Sample records for subjective memory impairment

  1. Evidence of Objective Memory Impairments in Deployed Gulf War Veterans With Subjective Memory Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L

    2017-05-01

    Despite the fact that many veterans returned from the 1991 Gulf War (GW) with complaints of memory difficulties, most neuropsychological studies to date have found little evidence of a correspondence between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans. However, if GW veterans complain about memory problems, it is likely that they experience memory problems in their daily lives. In this respect, it is notable that the past studies that have investigated the relationship between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans used composite measures to quantify subjective complaints and batteries of neuropsychological tests that assessed multiple domains to objectively measure cognitive function. The study's focus on memory was motivated by the suggestive evidence that subjective memory complaint may be a harbinger of further cognitive decline and increased risk for dementia. This study examined the association between subjective memory complaint (probed with single question: "Do you have difficulty remembering things?") and performance on a single objective test of verbal learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT-II) in a sample of 428 deployed GW veterans. GW veterans who endorsed memory difficulties performed more poorly on CVLT-II measures of total learning, retention, and delayed recall than GW veterans without subjective memory complaints (p subjective memory complaint significantly predicted CVLT-II retention scores (β = -0.12, p = 0.04) and marginally predicted CVLT-II delayed recall scores (β = -0.11, p = 0.05) over and above potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables. This study suggests that deployed GW veterans with subjective memory complaints have objective memory impairments. In light of the evidence linking subjective memory complaint to increased risk for dementia in the elderly, these findings suggest that aging GW veterans with subjective memory complaints

  2. Extended retention intervals can help to bridge the gap between subjective and objective memory impairment.

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    Witt, Juri-Alexander; Glöckner, Carina; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    Despite their excellent clinical validity, objective measures of memory often do not reflect self-perceived memory impairment. This discordance has mostly been attributed to depressed mood. Alternatively, a lack of ecological validity due to the rather short standard retention intervals of 20-60 min may be responsible for this discordance. Therefore, we explored the value of extended retention intervals in regard to subjective memory deficits. Our prospective study was based on 73 patients with epilepsy. In addition to the standard 30-min retention interval of a verbal learning and memory test (VLMT) patients were randomized to either a free delayed recall after 1 week or after 4 weeks. Mood was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Forty-four patients (60%) reported self-perceived memory deficits, whereas objective verbal memory impairment was present in 26 patients (36%). Concordance between subjective and objective memory performance was observed in 53% of the patients. Multivariate analyses identified memory performance after 4 weeks and self-rated mood as determinants of subjective memory impairment. Self-perceived memory impairment correlated with the number of remembered words after 4 weeks (r = -0.361, p = 0.030) and the BDI total score (r = 0.332, p = 0.004) but neither with recall performance after 30 min nor after 1 week. Subjective memory appears to follow a different time scale than routine memory testing. Thus, the introduction of longer retention intervals may enhance the ecological validity of standard memory tests. Furthermore, the findings again underscore that controlling for mood is mandatory when dealing with subjective memory complaints. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Are depressive symptomatology and self-focused attention associated with subjective memory impairment in older adults?

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    Chin, Juhee; Oh, Kyung Ja; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L

    2014-04-01

    Subjective memory impairment (SMI) refers to conditions in which people complain of memory problems despite intact cognition. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the roles of self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology in subjective memory complaints. One hundred and eight patients who visited a memory disorder clinic with complaints of memory decline, but who were found on subsequent neuropsychological assessment to have normal cognitive function, were recruited to participate in the study. The severity of subjective memory complaints was measured with the modified Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire. In addition, neuropsychological functions, self-focused attention, and depressive symptomatology were also assessed. The results showed that the severity of SMI was not significantly correlated with any of the neuropsychological test scores except for the complex figure copy. The severity of SMI, however, was significantly correlated with self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology significantly contributed to the severity of subjective memory complaints over and above the neuropsychological test performance. The interaction effects between self-focused attention/depressive symptomatology and objective memory performance on the severity of SMI were not significant. In conclusion, self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology appear to play important roles in the severity of SMI, even though it is not clear how these factors interact with objective memory performance. Clinical implications as well as limitations of the present study were discussed.

  4. Subjective memory complaints, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment.

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    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-03-01

    The diagnostic relevance of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains to be unresolved. The aim of this study is to determine clinical correlates of SMCs in MCI. Furthermore, we examined whether there are the differences due to different aspects of complaints (i.e. prospective memory (PM) versus retrospective memory (RM) complaints). We examined the cross-sectional associations between SMCs and depressive symptoms, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and cognitive measures in sixty-six individuals with MCI (mean age: 65.7 ± 8.01 years). The criteria for MCI included SMCs, objective cognitive impairment, normal general cognitive function, largely intact functional activities, and absence of dementia. SMCs were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which contains 16 items describing everyday memory failure of both PM and RM. SMC severity (i.e. PRMQ total score) was associated with stronger depressive symptoms and worse IADL performance. SMCs were not related to cognitive measures. For PM and RM subscores, both depressive symptoms and IADL were related to the PRMQ-PM and -RM scores. The main contributors to these PM and RM scores were depressive symptoms and IADL impairment, respectively. This study suggests that SMCs are more associated with depressive symptoms and IADL problems than with cognitive performance in individuals with MCI. Furthermore, while PM and RM complaints are related to both depressive symptoms and IADL, the differences between these main contributors suggest that RM complaints based on IADL could be more associated with the organically driven pathological features of MCI.

  5. Medial temporal lobe atrophy and memory dysfunction as preditors for dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Scheltens, P.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Launer, L.L.J.; Jolles, J.; Jonker, C.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the medial temporal lobe is atrophic in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and whether atrophy of this structure is a better predictor of dementia than memory dysfunction. Forty-five noninstitutionalized subjects aged 65-85 years were randomly selected from a population

  6. Medial temporal lobe atrophy and memory dysfunction as predictors for dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Scheltens, P.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Schmand, B.A.; Launer, L.L.J.; Jolles, J.; Jonker, C.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the medial temporal lobe is atrophic in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and whether atrophy of this structure is a better predictor of dementia than memory dysfunction. Forty-five noninstitutionalized subjects aged 65-85 years were randomly selected from a population

  7. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other

  8. The association between vascular factors and subjective memory impairment in older people: The HUNT Study, Norway

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    Ellen Melbye Langballe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Subjective memory impairment (SMI is often considered an early sign of dementia. This study investigates the relationship between SMI and dementia-related vascular factors in older people.Method: This study was based on data from 12,255 individuals, 65 years and older, participating in the Nord-Trøndelag health study, third survey 2006-08 (HUNT3. SMI, vascular diseases, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption were self-reported. Blood pressure, cholesterol and body mass index (BMI were clinically measured. SMI were predicted using linear regression analysis.Results: Stroke and heart disease were associated with SMI. High exercise intensity was associated with less SMI. Respondents with high systolic blood pressure (SBP reported less SMI than those with moderate SBP. In men, low SBP was associated with significantly more SMI compared to those with moderate SBP. In women, moderate alcohol consumption compared to low alcohol consumption was associated with significantly more SMI.Conclusion: SMI was positively associated with stroke and heart disease in this study. For the other investigated vascular factors, we did not find strong relationships with SMI. However, for preventive and treatment purposes, it is noteworthy that high exercise intensity and high systolic blood pressure was associated with less SMI in both genders.

  9. Sex-specific effects of subjective memory complaints with respect to cognitive impairment or depressive symptoms.

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    Tomita, Tetsu; Sugawara, Norio; Kaneda, Ayako; Okubo, Noriyuki; Iwane, Kaori; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between subjective memory complaints (SMC) and sex. We researched the prevalence of SMC in a sample of 394 participants who were at least 60 years of age (138 male and 256 female). We also administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D) scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis, which included SMC in association with the MMSE or CES-D scores and other confounding factors, was performed to determine the influence of sex on SMC. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The durations of education of male participants were significantly higher than those of female participants. MMSE scores for female participants were significantly higher than those for male participants. There was no significant difference in CES-D scores between male and female participants. Twenty-four male participants and 72 female participants showed evidence of SMC. The incidence of SMC was more frequent in female participants than in male participants. In all participants, sex difference and CES-D score were significantly associated with SMC. In male participants, MMSE score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. Both in female participants and all participants, CES-D score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. SMC varied by sex and were associated with the degree of cognitive impairment in male participants, while they were associated with depressive symptoms in female participants.

  10. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

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    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  11. The association between the subjective memory complaints scale and depressive state and cognitive impairment: a factor analysis.

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    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sugawara, Norio; Takahashi, Ippei; Sawada, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to discriminate individuals with depressive state from individuals with cognitive impairment among community-dwelling people using the subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. The study group consisted of 289 volunteers (over 60 years old; 104 males and 185 females). Participants' SMCs were assessed using the SMC scale. The Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination were administered. Participants whose Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scores were 16 or higher were defined as the depressive group and participants whose Mini-Mental State Examination scores were less than 24 were defined as the cognitive impairment group. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure of the items of the SMC scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis of the association between depressive state and cognitive impairment and the score of each factor was performed. In the final factor analysis model, six items of the SMC scale remained, and a two-factor structure was adequate. Factor 1 included the items 8, 9, and 10 about thought or the ability to think; thus, Factor 1 was defined as "thought disturbance factor". Factor 2 included the items 1, 2, and 4 about memory or forgetfulness; thus, Factor 2 was defined as "memory disturbance factor". In the multiple logistic regression analysis, Factor 1 was significantly associated with depressive state and Factor 2 was significantly associated with cognitive impairment. For individuals with SMCs, we might be able to discriminate depressive state or depression from cognitive impairment or dementia through a detailed investigation using the SMC scale.

  12. Subjective memory impairment, objective cognitive functioning and social activity in French older people: findings from the Three Cities study.

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    Genziani, Mirella; Stewart, Robert; Béjot, Yannick; Amieva, Hélène; Artero, Sylvaine; Ritchie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association between subjective memory impairment (SMI) and objective cognitive impairment in later life, and to ascertain whether this is modified by level of social activity, education or living alone. Data were analyzed from three French community surveys carried out in Bordeaux, Dijon and Montpellier. Representative samples of 9294 residents aged 65 years and over were included in the study. SMI was ascertained and investigated in relation to performance on the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), the Isaac Set Test (IST) and Trail Making Test B (TMT). Adjustments were made for age, sex, education, depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiological Depression scale), site where study was carried out and living alone. Stratified analyses investigated modification by high or low social activity, education or living arrangement. SMI was reported by 21.9% of the sample, and was significantly associated with lower scores on BVRT and TMT after adjustment for age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, site and living alone. These associations were not significantly modified by social activity, education or living alone. Worse subjective memory was associated independently with worse performance on two tests of cognitive function; however, in these cohorts, no evidence was found for modification of associations by social activity/support or education. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Oxytocin can impair memory for social and non-social visual objects: a within-subject investigation of oxytocin's effects on human memory.

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    Herzmann, Grit; Young, Brent; Bird, Christopher W; Curran, Tim

    2012-04-27

    Oxytocin is important to social behavior and emotion regulation in humans. Oxytocin's role derives in part from its effect on memory performance. More specifically, previous research suggests that oxytocin facilitates recognition of social (e.g., faces), but not of non-social stimuli (e.g., words, visual objects). We conducted the first within-subject study to this hypothesis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. We administered oxytocin (24IU) and placebo (saline) in two separate sessions and in randomized order to healthy men. To obtain a baseline measure for session-dependent memory effects, which are caused by proactive interference, an additional group of male subjects in each session received placebo unbeknownst to them and the experimenter. After administration, participants studied faces and houses. Exactly one day after each study session, participants were asked to make memory judgments of new and old items. In the first study-test session, participants administered with oxytocin showed reduced recollection of previously studied faces and houses. Oxytocin also interacted with proactive-interference effects. By impeding memory in the first session, it reduced proactive interference in the second. But oxytocin contributed additionally to the memory-reducing effect of proactive interference when administered in the second session. These results demonstrate that oxytocin can have a memory-impairing effect on both social and non-social visual objects. The present study also emphasizes the necessity of including a non-treated, baseline group in within-subject designs when investigating oxytocin's effects on human memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impaired hippocampal acetylcholine release parallels spatial memory deficits in Tg2576 mice subjected to basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    (BFCD) in 3 months old male Tg2576 mice to co-express cholinergic degeneration with Aβ overexpression as these characteristics constitutes key hallmarks of AD. At 9 months, SAP lesioned Tg2576 mice were cognitively impaired in two spatial paradigms addressing working memory and mid to long-term memory...

  15. Neural Basis of Cognitive Assessment in Alzheimer Disease, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Subjective Memory Complaints.

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    Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Valles-Salgado, María; Pérez-Pérez, Alicia; Rognoni, Teresa; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Carreras, José Luis; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    Interpreting cognitive tests is often challenging. The same test frequently examines multiple cognitive functions, and the functional and anatomical basis underlying test performance is unknown in many cases. This study analyses the correlation of different neuropsychological test results with brain metabolism in a series of patients evaluated for suspected Alzheimer disease. 20 healthy controls and 80 patients consulting for memory loss were included, in which cognitive study and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET were performed. Patients were categorized according to Reisberg's Global Deterioration Scale. Voxel-based analysis was used to determine correlations between brain metabolism and performance on the following tests: Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Trail Making Test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test, Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP), and Tower of London (ToL) test. Mean age in the patient group was 73.9 ± 10.6 years, and 47 patients were women (58.7%). FCSRT findings were positively correlated with metabolism in the medial and anterior temporal region bilaterally, the left precuneus, and posterior cingulate. BNT results were correlated with metabolism in the middle temporal, superior, fusiform, and frontal medial gyri bilaterally. VOSP results were related to the occipital and parietotemporal regions bilaterally. ToL scores were correlated to metabolism in the right temporoparietal and frontal regions. These results suggest that different areas of the brain are involved in the processes required to complete different cognitive tests. Ascertaining the functional basis underlying these tests may prove helpful for understanding and interpreting them. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase in the impairment of learning and memory in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

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    Luo, Ying; Kuang, Shengnan; Xue, Lai; Yang, Junqing

    2016-12-01

    To examine the mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in the learning and memory dysfunction in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Eighty rats were divided into eight groups: the 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (NaCMC)-treated group, empty vector (LV-Mock)-treated group, CUMS+NaCMC-treated group, CUMS+sertraline-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (10mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (30mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+LV-Mock-treated group, and CUMS+5-LO-silencers lentiviral vectors (LV-si-5-LO)-treated group, n=10. Sucrose preference tests were performed to assess depression-like behavior. The Morris water maze and step-down tests were used to evaluate learning and memory performance. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, malondialdehyde, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to estimate inflammation and oxidative stress. Changes in 5-LO mRNA and protein were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The expression of synaptophysin, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemical staining. Treatment with caffeic acid or LV-si-5-LO increased sucrose consumption, decreased escape latency and increased the number of platform crosses in the Morris water maze test, and decreased the number of errors and prolonged the latency in the step-down test. We observed a decreased expression of 5-LO, and levels of malondialdehyde, leukotriene-B4, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, while the protein levels of synaptophysin, PSD-95, BDNF, and the activity of SOD were increased in the hippocampus of the CUMS-treated rats. CUMS-induced impairment in learning and memory could be triggered by an inflammatory response in the rat hippocampus, which results in oxidative stress injury and impacts the synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons. Inhibition of the activity or expression of 5-LO

  17. Donepezil Impairs Memory in Healthy Older Subjects: Behavioural, EEG and Simultaneous EEG/fMRI Biomarkers

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    Balsters, Joshua H.; O'Connell, Redmond G.; Martin, Mary P.; Galli, Alessandra; Cassidy, Sarah M.; Kilcullen, Sophia M.; Delmonte, Sonja; Brennan, Sabina; Meaney, Jim F.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Upton, Neil; Lai, Robert; Laruelle, Marc; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil) on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL)) and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power) that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta), right frontal-parietal network (Alpha), and default-mode network (Beta). We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify the precise

  18. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

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    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  19. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

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    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  20. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

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    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  1. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

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    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  2. Subjective Cognitive Impairment Is a Predominantly Benign Condition in Memory Clinic Patients Followed for 6 Years: The Gothenburg-Oslo MCI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hessen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the quest for prevention or treatment, there is a need to find early markers for preclinical dementia. This study observed memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI and normal cognitive function at baseline. The primary aim was to address SCI as a potential risk factor for cognitive decline. The secondary aim was to address a potential relation between (1 baseline cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and (2 a decline in memory performance over the first 2 years of follow-up, with a possible cognitive decline after 6 years. Methods: Eighty-one patients (mean age 61 years were recruited from university memory clinics and followed up for 6 years. Results: Eighty-six percent of the cohort remained cognitively stable or improved, 9% developed mild cognitive impairment, and only 5% (n = 4 developed dementia. Regression analysis revealed that low levels of Aβ42 at baseline and memory decline during the first 2 years predicted dementia. When combined, these variables were associated with a 50% risk of developing dementia. Conclusions: Cognitive stability for 86% of the cohort suggests that SCI is predominantly a benign condition with regard to neuropathology. The low number of individuals who developed dementia limits the generalizability of the results and discussion of progression factors.

  3. Subjective Memory Complaints are Associated with Incident Dementia in Cognitively Intact Older People, but Not in Those with Cognitive Impairment: A 24-Month Prospective Cohort Study.

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    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Makino, Keitaro; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-06-01

    Although subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are considered a risk factor for incident dementia in older people, the effect might differ based on cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effect of SMCs on the incidence of dementia in older people differed based on cognitive function. A 24-month follow-up cohort study. Japanese community. Prospective, longitudinal data for incident dementia were collected for 3,672 participants (mean age: 71.7 years; 46.5% men) for up to 24 months. Baseline measurements included covariates for incident dementia, SMCs, and cognitive function. Associations between SMCs, cognitive impairment, and incident dementia were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Incidences of dementia in the cognitively intact without SMC, cognitively intact with SMC, cognitive impairment without SMC, and cognitive impairment with SMC groups were 0.3%, 1.8%, 3.4%, and 4.8%, respectively. In the cognitively intact participants, SMCs were associated with a significantly higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-16.11, p = 0.008). Incident dementia with cognitive impairment was not significantly different based on SMC presence (p = 0.527). Participants with cognitive impairment in multiple domains had a significantly higher risk of incident dementia (HR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.01-4.24, p = 0.046) CONCLUSION: SMCs were related with dementia in cognitively intact older people, but not in those with cognitive impairment.Multiple domains of cognitive impairment were associated with a higher risk of incident dementia. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Functioning of memory in subjects with autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Vincendon, A; Bursztejn, C; Danion, J-M

    2008-12-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder with cognitive impairments that leads to learning and social integration disabilities. The characterization of memory functions in individuals with autism has been the subject of numerous investigations, with widely varying conclusions. The notable differences between these studies can be attributed to variations in the age, intelligence and level of severity of the participants with autism. The purpose of our review of the recent literature is to describe the memory function of individuals with autism. Some of the different memory subtypes are intact, others are impaired. Short-term memory (digit span) is not impaired while working memory is impaired in some of its components, but the findings are inconsistent. More recent studies demonstrate reduced spatial working memory abilities in autism and extend previous findings by demonstrating that these deficits are significant when tasks impose heavier demands on working memory. Episodic long-term memory, as measured by free recall, cued recall or recognition tasks, is intact, but participants with autism perform significantly less well than controls as the complexity of the verbal or visual material to be recalled increases. Source or contextual memory involves a variety of characteristics specifying the conditions under which specific items or facts are acquired: it has been investigated in individuals with autism with different methods. Deficits in source memory for temporal information have been found, but there were no reality monitoring deficits. Recent findings indicate that the nature of source memory confusion in autism does not appear to reflect a generalized deficit in attaching context to memories, but rather is dependant on the specific to-be-remembered information that involves social aspects of context. The self-reference effect is missing, with individuals with autism recalling events performed by themselves less well than the events performed by a peer

  5. [Early episodic memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergis, A-M; Eusop-Roussel, E

    2008-05-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show early episodic memory impairments. Such deficits reflect specific impairments affecting one or several stages of encoding, storage and retrieval processes. However, AD patients not only have great difficulty retrieving memories and information but also suffer from distortions of memory, as intrusions and false recognitions. Intrusions can be defined as the unintentional recall of inappropriate information in a laboratory-learning tasks such as word-list recall and story recall. False recognition refers to the erroneous recognition of information that was not previously presented. The first objective of this review is to present studies from the literature that allowed a better understanding of the nature of episodic memory deficits in AD, and to examine recent research on false memories. The second part of this review is aimed at presenting recent research conducted on prospective memory (PM) in Alzheimer's disease. Prospective memory situations involve forming intentions and then realizing those intentions at some appropriate time in the future. Everyday examples of prospective memory include remembering to buy bread on the way home from work, remembering to give friends a message upon next encountering them, and remembering to take medication. Patients suffering from AD show difficulties in performing prospective tasks in daily life, according to the complaints of their care givers, and these difficulties are massively present at the first stages of the disease. Nevertheless, very few studies have been dedicated to this subject, although the evaluation of PM could be helpful for the early diagnosis of AD.

  6. Do subjective memory complaints predict senile Alzheimer dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Susanne; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Weissgram, Silvia; Weber, Germain; Tragl, Karl Heinz; Fischer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Many elderly complain about their memory and undergo dementia screening by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). While objective memory impairment always precedes Alzheimer dementia (AD) it is unclear whether subjective memory complaints are predicting AD. We tried to answer this question in a prospective cohort study. The 75-years old non-demented inhabitants of Vienna-Transdanube were investigated for conversion to AD after 30 months. The predictive value of subjective memory complaints was analysed in two groups: subjects with high MMSE-score (28-30) and subjects with low MMSE-score (23-27). Only in subjects with high MMSE univariate analyses showed an association between subjective memory complaints and incident AD. In both groups the verbal memory test was the main predictor of AD in multivariate analyses. We suggest to perform memory testing in subjects complaining about memory irrespective of their performance in a screening procedure like the MMSE.

  7. Does Fatigue Complaint Reflect Memory Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Jougleux-Vie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Fatigue and memory impairment are common symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS and both may interact with cognition. This can contribute to making a complaint misrepresentative of the objective disorder. We sought to determine whether fatigue complaint in MS reflects memory impairment and investigated whether patients’ subjective fatigue is associated with memory complaint. Methods. Fifty MS patients complaining of fatigue underwent subjective assessment of fatigue and memory complaint measured using self-assessment scales. Cognitive functions were assessed using a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a test of verbal episodic memory, the selective reminding test (SRT. Correlations were studied between subjective fatigue, memory complaint, and performance in verbal episodic memory. Results. Depression score, psychotropic and/or antiepileptic drug use, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and MS form were confounding factors. After adjusting for these confounding factors, neither fatigue complaint nor memory complaint was correlated with SRT performance. Subjective fatigue was significantly associated with memory complaint. Conclusion. Although complaint of fatigue in MS was correlated with memory complaint, subjective fatigue was not the expression of memory impairment.

  8. The relationship among unawareness of memory impairment, depression, and dementia in older adults with memory impairment in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianlin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Shafie, Saleha B; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Shahwan, Shazana; Magadi, Harish; Ng, Li Ling; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has studied the relationships among unawareness of memory impairment, depression, and dementia in older adults with severe dementia, but it has not considered the associations and clinical implications at earlier stages of memory impairment. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship among unawareness of memory impairment, depression, and dementia in older adults with memory impairment in Singapore. The participants were 751 older adults with memory impairment in Singapore. They were assessed for objective and subjective memory loss, depression, and dementia severity. Participants' subjective memory loss was determined based on a self-appraisal question on memory, and their objective memory loss was calculated based on their performance on three cognitive tasks. Unawareness was assessed based on the contrast between subjective and objective memory loss. Descriptive statistics revealed a high prevalence of unawareness (80.4%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and marital status were significantly associated with unawareness. Men (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5) and those who were divorced or separated (OR = 23.0) were more likely to be unaware than women and those who were married, respectively. After chronic conditions and demographic characteristics were controlled for, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that older adults with depression were less likely (OR = 0.2) to be unaware than those without depression. Unawareness was also related with dementia severity; older adults with questionable (OR = 0.3) and mild dementia (OR = 0.4) were less likely to be unaware than someone without dementia. Unawareness of memory impairment was common among older adults with memory impairment. However, unawareness may be the result of denial as a strategy for coping with memory loss of which the older adult is aware. Psychological care should be integrated into the overall treatment management of dementia to

  9. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  10. Reduced Mastication Impairs Memory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima-Nakayama, Y; Ono, Takehito; Hayashi, M; Inoue, M; Wake, H; Ono, Takashi; Nakashima, T

    2017-08-01

    Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we show that the reduced mastication resulted in impaired spatial memory and learning function owing to the morphological change and decreased activity in the hippocampus. We used an in vivo model for reduced masticatory stimuli, in which juvenile mice were fed with powder diet and found that masticatory stimulation during the growth period positively regulated long-term spatial memory to promote cognitive function. The functional linkage between mastication and brain was validated by the decrease in neurons, neurogenesis, neuronal activity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. These findings taken together provide in vivo evidence for a functional linkage between mastication and cognitive function in the growth period, suggesting a need for novel therapeutic strategies in masticatory function-related cognitive dysfunction.

  11. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  12. Explaining the Objective-Subjective Memory Discrepancy in Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that epilepsy patients frequently report increased memory impairments compared to the normal population but that their performance on standardised memory tests does not reflect this, displaying an “objective-subjective memory discrepancy” not seen in healthy controls (e.g. Witt et al., 2012). Multiple factors have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, many summarised comprehensively by Hall et al. (2009). These explanations include methodological flaws in both ...

  13. [Subjective memory complaints in older people. Is it a symptom of dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are common in older people. They are inconsistently related to current cognitive impairment, but are more consistently correlated to future development of dementia. Subjective memory complaints are also related to depression and personality traits. Many patients with ...... with dementia have impaired awareness of deficits even in the early stages of dementia and therefore do not complain about memory problems. Reports about impaired memory in older people should lead to diagnostic examination Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/12...

  14. Working Memory and Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.; Botting, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental language impairments (DLI) are often reported to show difficulties with working memory. This review describes the four components of the well-established working memory model, and considers whether there is convincing evidence for difficulties within each component in children with DLI. The emphasis is on the most…

  15. Anticholinergic drugs and functional, cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances in patients from a memory clinic with subjective cognitive decline or neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphinot, Virginie; Mouchoux, Christelle; Veillard, Sébastien; Delphin-Combe, Floriane; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Drugs with anticholinergic properties may be associated with various adverse clinical effects. The relationship between the anticholinergic (AC) burden and functional, global cognitive performance and behavior disturbances was assessed among elderly patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2012 and June 2014 in a memory clinic among outpatients living at home and with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or neurocognitive disorders (NCD). The AC burden was measured using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS), the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB), Chew's score, Han's score, and the number of drugs with AC activity. Functional, cognitive performance and behavior disturbances were assessed using the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale (IADL), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Among 473 included patients, 46.3% were at major NCD. Patients took on average 5.3 ± 2.6 drugs. MMSE was lower when Han's score (p = 0.04) and number of AC drugs were higher (p drugs were higher. After adjustment, all AC scores remained associated with IADL, while Han's score and number of drugs with AC remained associated with the MMSE. In patients with SCD or NCD, AC burden is associated with lower functional score, whereas the cross-sectional association between AC burden and cognitive performance or behavioral disturbance varies according to AC scores. Particular attention should be paid when prescribing drugs with AC properties, especially among patients with memory complaints.

  16. Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Michael T Ullman; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding ...

  17. A calendar savant with episodic memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian E; Drowos, David B; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-06-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures and retain some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year-old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient's memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable.

  18. Relations between subjective evaluations of memory and objective memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W; Berg, I.J; Deelman, B.G

    2001-01-01

    Several explanations for the weak relations between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance were investigated in two groups of normal older adults. Group 1 sampled a general population (mean age 61.6 yr., range 46-891, while Group 2 sampled subjects who were on a waiting Est for

  19. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subjective memory complaints and the risk of stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sajjad (Ayesha); S.S. Mirza (Saira); M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); M.J. Bos (Michiel); A. Hofman (Albert); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.A. Ikram (Arfan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Purpose-Persons with cognitive impairment, as assessed by cognitive tests, are at a higher risk of stroke. Subjective memory complaints might be an earlier marker for stroke, especially in persons with higher education. Their cognitive reserve might mask their cognitive

  1. Patterns of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Joubert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the semantic memory impairment has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease, little is known about semantic memory in the preclinical phase of the disease (Mild Cognitive Impairment. The purpose of this study was to document the nature of semantic breakdown using a battery of tests assessing different aspects of conceptual knowledge: knowledge about common objects, famous people and famous public events. Results indicate that all domains of semantic memory were impaired in MCI individuals but knowledge about famous people and famous events was affected to a greater extent than knowledge about objects. This pattern of results suggests that conceptual entities with distinctive and unique properties may be more prone to semantic breakdown in MCI. In summary, results of this study support the view that genuine semantic deficits are present in MCI. It could be useful to investigate the etiological outcome of patients failing or succeeding at such tests.

  2. Cognitive impairments in alcohol-dependent subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent eBernardin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units.

  3. Spatial memory impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a virtual radial arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jun-Young Lee,1,2 Sooyeon Kho,1,2 Hye Bin Yoo,1,2 Soowon Park,1,2 Jung-Seok Choi,1,2 Jun Soo Kwon,3 Kyung Ryeol Cha,4 Hee-Yeon Jung1,21Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University, 2Seoul Metropolitan Government – Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Osan Mental Hospital, Gyeonggi, South KoreaObjective: This study aims to apply the virtual radial arm maze (VRAM task to find spatial working memory and reference memory impairments in patients of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Spatial memory functions between aMCI converters and nonconverters are also compared using VRAM results.Methods: We assessed the spatial memory in 20 normal controls, 20 aMCI, and 20 mild AD subjects using VRAM. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and other neuropsychological tests were given to the subjects in conjunction with the VRAM test. Scores in working memory errors and reference memory errors were compared among the three groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, aMCI patients were followed-up after 5 years and surveyed for AD conversion rate.Results: In AD patients, both spatial working and reference memory were impaired. However, in aMCI subjects, only spatial reference memory was impaired. Significant spatial reference memory impairment was found in the aMCI converter group when compared to the nonconverter group.Conclusion: Spatial working memory is less impaired in aMCI while reference memory is similarly damaged in AD. In aMCI patients, more severe spatial reference memory deficit is a neuropsychological marker for AD conversion. VRAM may be well utilized in humans to assess spatial memory in normal aging, in aMCI, and in AD.Keywords: spatial behavior, Alzheimer's disease, user computer interface, cognition

  4. Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Algarabel González, Salvador; Fuentes, Manuel; Escudero, Joaquín; Pitarque, Alfonso; Peset, Vicente; Mazón Herrero, José Francisco; Meléndez Moral, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    There is no agreement on the pattern of recognition memory deficits characteristic of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (Mel). Whereas lower performance in recollection is the hallmark of Mel, there is a strong controversy about possible deficits in familiarity estimates when using recognition memory tasks. The aim of this research is to shed Iight on the pattern of responding in recollection and familiarity in MCl. Five groups of participants were tested. The main participant...

  5. Borderline personality disorder: impaired visual perception and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andreas; Burkhardt, Michaela; Hautzinger, Martin; Schwarz, Jürgen; Unckel, Christine

    2004-03-15

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is still elusive. There are a few studies on neuropsychological performance in BPD, which report a broad spectrum of abnormalities. The present study evaluates perception and working memory as instances of basic cognitive functions. Female subjects diagnosed with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder (n=22) were compared with age- and education-matched controls (n=25). Perception speed was assessed by a backward masking paradigm. Working memory was tested by a series of delayed matching-to-sample paradigms involving varying subsidiary functions like mental rotation, retrieval from memory, ignoring distracters, and cross-modal performance. In backward masking, BPD subjects required significantly longer stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) than controls to identify the visual target, and there was an additional slowing of the motor response. Working memory accuracy was impaired in BPD subjects, but did not worsen when the cognitive load was increased. With increasing task difficulty, they traded off speed for accuracy similarly as the controls. Impulsivity and dissociation ratings were not correlated with performance. It is concluded that perceptional speed and working memory are impaired in BPD, but that the deficits are not augmented by increasing cognitive load.

  6. Visual memory profiling with CANTAB in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pereiro, Arturo X; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Although visual memory has been shown to be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the differences between MCI subtypes are not well defined. The current study attempted to investigate visual memory profiles in different MCI subtypes. One hundred and seventy volunteers aged older than 50 years performed several visual memory tests included in the CANTAB battery. Participants were classified into four groups: (1) multiple domain aMCI (mda-MCI) (32 subjects); (2) single domain aMCI (sda-MCI)(57 subjects); (3) multiple domain non amnestic MCI (mdna-MCI) (32 subjects); and (4) controls (54 healthy individuals without cognitive impairment). Parametric and non parametric analyses were performed to compare the groups and to obtain their corresponding memory profiles. The mda-MCI group exhibited impairments in both dimensions of episodic memory (recognition and recollection/recall), and also in learning and working memory, whereas the sda-MCI only showed impairment in recollection-delayed recall and learning. The mdna-MCI group displayed impairment in working memory but good preservation of learning and episodic memory. The CANTAB visual memory profiles may contribute to better cognitive characterization of patients with different MCI subtypes, allowing comparison across several processes involved in visual memory such as attention, recognition, recollection and working memory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Working memory contributions to reinforcement learning impairments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Brown, Jaime K; Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

    2014-10-08

    Previous research has shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in reinforcement learning tasks. However, behavioral learning curves in such tasks originate from the interaction of multiple neural processes, including the basal ganglia- and dopamine-dependent reinforcement learning (RL) system, but also prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive strategies involving working memory (WM). Thus, it is unclear which specific system induces impairments in schizophrenia. We recently developed a task and computational model allowing us to separately assess the roles of RL (slow, cumulative learning) mechanisms versus WM (fast but capacity-limited) mechanisms in healthy adult human subjects. Here, we used this task to assess patients' specific sources of impairments in learning. In 15 separate blocks, subjects learned to pick one of three actions for stimuli. The number of stimuli to learn in each block varied from two to six, allowing us to separate influences of capacity-limited WM from the incremental RL system. As expected, both patients (n = 49) and healthy controls (n = 36) showed effects of set size and delay between stimulus repetitions, confirming the presence of working memory effects. Patients performed significantly worse than controls overall, but computational model fits and behavioral analyses indicate that these deficits could be entirely accounted for by changes in WM parameters (capacity and reliability), whereas RL processes were spared. These results suggest that the working memory system contributes strongly to learning impairments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413747-10$15.00/0.

  8. FMRI of working memory impairment after recovery from subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmore, Timothy M; Rohlffs, Fiona; Khursheed, Faraz

    2013-01-01

    Recovery from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often incomplete and accompanied by subtle but persistent cognitive deficits. Previous neuropsychological reports indicate these deficits include most prominently memory impairment, with working memory particularly affected. The neural basis of these memory deficits remains unknown and unexplored by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the present study, patients who experienced (SAH) underwent fMRI during the performance of a verbal working memory paradigm. Behavioral results indicated a subtle but statistically significant impairment relative to healthy subjects in working memory performance accuracy, which was accompanied by relatively increased blood-oxygen level dependent signal in widespread left and right hemisphere cortical areas during periods of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Activity increases remained after factoring out inter-individual differences in age and task performance, and included most notably left hemisphere regions associated with phonological loop processing, bilateral sensorimotor regions, and right hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We conclude that deficits in verbal working memory following recovery from (SAH) are accompanied by widespread differences in hemodynamic correlates of neural activity. These differences are discussed with respect to the immediate and delayed focal and global brain damage that can occur following (SAH), and the possibility that this damage induces subcortical disconnection and subsequent decreased efficiency in neural processing.

  9. Impaired memory consolidation during sleep in patients with functional memory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetz, Julia; Grohmann, Svenja; Metternich, Birgitta; Kloepfer, Corinna; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Riemann, Dieter; Hüll, Michael; Hornyak, Magdolna

    2011-01-01

    Functional memory disorder (FMD) is characterized by mnestic and attentional deficits without symptoms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. FMD usually develops in subjects with high psychosocial stress level and is classified to the somatoform disorders. We assessed memory performance (procedural mirror tracing task, declarative visual and verbal memory task) and other cognitive functions before and after one night of sleep in 12 FMD patients (mean age: 51.7 yrs, 7 females) and 12 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and IQ. Memory performance and other neurocognitive tasks did not differ between the groups at baseline. After one night of sleep, FMD patients showed an impairment of declarative memory consolidation compared to healthy subjects (visual task: p=0.004; verbal task: p=0.039). Spectral analysis of sleep-EEG indicated an increased cortical excitation in FMD. We hypothesize that a hyperarousal state in FMD might contribute to sleep disturbance implicating negative effects on declarative memory consolidation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Caffeine cravings impair memory and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew A; Sauer, James D; Ling, Angus; Riza, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    Cravings for food and other substances can impair cognition. We extended previous research by testing the effects of caffeine cravings on cued-recall and recognition memory tasks, and on the accuracy of judgements of learning (JOLs; predicted future recall) and feeling-of-knowing (FOK; predicted future recognition for items that cannot be recalled). Participants (N = 55) studied word pairs (POND-BOOK) and completed a cued-recall test and a recognition test. Participants made JOLs prior to the cued-recall test and FOK judgements prior to the recognition test. Participants were randomly allocated to a craving or control condition; we manipulated caffeine cravings via a combination of abstinence, cue exposure, and imagery. Cravings impaired memory performance on the cued-recall and recognition tasks. Cravings also impaired resolution (the ability to distinguish items that would be remembered from those that would not) for FOK judgements but not JOLs, and reduced calibration (correspondence between predicted and actual accuracy) for JOLs but not FOK judgements. Additional analysis of the cued-recall data suggested that cravings also reduced participants' ability to monitor the likely accuracy of answers during the cued-recall test. These findings add to prior research demonstrating that memory strength manipulations have systematically different effects on different types of metacognitive judgements.

  11. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lum, J. A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; Page, D.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which...... for Children, declarative memory with the Children's Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared...... at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed...

  12. Subjective Experience of Episodic Memory and Metacognition: A Neurodevelopmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine eSouchay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing. We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different neurodevelopmental disorders there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process.

  13. Schizophrenia and prospective memory impairments: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2017-11-22

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future. Prospective forgetting has been shown to be one of the key cognitive impairments that contribute to medication non-adherence, reduced independence, and social dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia. This review aimed to provide an up to date appraisal of the nature and extent of PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk and to discuss clinical applications in this area. We searched and reviewed relevant studies in this area between 2013 and August 2017. Findings of studies conducted so far indicate that PM is severely impaired in schizophrenia. The most frequent type of PM errors in individuals with schizophrenia is no response, or failure to carry out the intended action. PM impairments in schizophrenia have been found to be related to everyday functioning. For individuals with schizophrenia, a number of assessment techniques have been developed to assess PM. These include: self-report questionnaires, computerized tasks, psychometric test batteries, and virtual reality tasks. So far, a few studies have used the compensatory approach to improve PM performance in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk, and the results reported are promising. Based on findings of these studies, suggestions for the development of interventions for PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia are provided. PM dysfunction is an important impairment in individuals with schizophrenia, and more rehabilitation studies to improve PM performance in these individuals are needed.

  14. Neuropsychological evidence for subjective memory complaints in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Subjective memory and concentration difficulties are frequently expressed in modern society and, if sufficiently worrying, may elicit a medical consultation for elucidation. When a clear explanation cannot be given, a neuropsychological assessment may be a useful tool. Method. The present naturalistic study ...

  15. Memory and Executive Function Impairments after Frontal or Posterior Cortex Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Daum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Free recall and recognition, memory for temporal order, spatial memory and prospective memory were assessed in patients with frontal lobe lesions, patients with posterior cortex lesions and control subjects. Both patient groups showed equivalent memory deficits relative to control subjects on a range of free recall and recognition tasks, on memory for temporal order and on a prospective memory task. The patient groups also performed equivalently on the spatial memory task although only patients with frontal lobe lesions were significantly impaired. However, the patients with frontal lobe lesions showed an increased false alarm rate and made more intrusion errors relative not only to the control subjects, but also to the patients with poster or cortex lesions. These memory problems are discussed in relation to deficits in executive function and basic memory processes.

  16. Physical activity impairment in depressed COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Terraneo, Silvia; Roggi, Maria Adelaide; Repossi, Alice C; Pellegrino, Giulia M; Veronelli, Anna; Santus, Pierachille; Pontiroli, Antonio E; Centanni, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Limited exercise tolerance is a cardinal clinical feature in COPD. Depression and COPD share some clinical features, such as reduced physical activity and impaired nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate maximum and daily physical activities and the nutritional status of COPD patients affected or not by depression. In 70 COPD out-patients, daily and maximum physical activities were assessed by multisensor accelerometer armband, 6-min walk test, and cardiopulmonary exercise test. Mental status, metabolic/muscular status, and systemic inflammation were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and with regard to fibrinogen/C-reactive protein, respectively. Depressed subjects (27% of the sample) showed a similar level of respiratory functional impairment but a higher level of shortness of breath and a worse quality of life compared to non-depressed subjects (P physical activity impairment consisting of a reduced number of steps per day, a lower peak of oxygen consumption, an early anaerobic threshold, and a reduced distance in the 6-min walk test (P daily number of steps. Our study found that depressed COPD patients have a reduced daily and maximum exercise capacity compared to non-depressed patients. This further suggests the potential utility of screening for depression in COPD.

  17. Subjective cognitive impairment: Towards early identification of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ptacek, S; Eriksdotter, M; Jelic, V; Porta-Etessam, J; Kåreholt, I; Manzano Palomo, S

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD) begins decades before dementia and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) already demonstrate significant lesion loads. Lack of information about the early pathophysiology in AD complicates the search for therapeutic strategies.Subjective cognitive impairment is the description given to subjects who have memory-related complaints without pathological results on neuropsychological tests. There is no consensus regarding this heterogeneous syndrome, but at least some of these patients may represent the earliest stage in AD. We reviewed available literature in order to summarise current knowledge on subjective cognitive impairment. Although they may not present detectable signs of disease, SCI patients as a group score lower on neuropsychological tests than the general population does, and they also have a higher incidence of future cognitive decline. Depression and psychiatric co-morbidity play a role but cannot account for all cognitive complaints. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in these patients reveal a pattern of hippocampal atrophy similar to that of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and functional MRI shows increased activation during cognitive tasks which might indicate compensation for loss of function. Prevalence of an AD-like pattern of beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid is higher in SCI patients than in the general population. Memory complaints are relevant symptoms and may predict AD. Interpatient variability and methodological differences between clinical studies make it difficult to assign a definition to this syndrome. In the future, having a standard definition and longitudinal studies with sufficient follow-up times and an emphasis on quantifiable variables may clarify aspects of early AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Anosognosia for memory deficit in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Filomena; Pappalardo, Stella; Chieffi, Sergio; Iavarone, Alessandro; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    to investigate patterns of anosognosia for memory deficit in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). the study involved twenty-five subjects with MCI, 15 with mild AD and 21 normal controls (NC). Subjective rating of memory functioning was assessed with a six-items questionnaire that was administered before and after memory testing; an informant version from caregivers gave a discrepancy score (SRD). In the Objective Judgement (OJ) task, aiming to evaluate memory-monitoring abilities, subjects were requested three times to predict their memory performance in recalling words from a list of ten. Then they had to recall the words. Prediction accuracy was computed by subtracting the predicted performance from the actual performance. MCI and AD showed reduced awareness of memory difficulties at the SRD and did not change their rating of these difficulties after memory testing. At the OJ task, MCI and AD consistently overestimated their memory performances as compared with NC. The SRD and OJ measures were not correlated with some patients being impaired on only one measure. Only the OJ measure was significantly related to executive functioning. AD and MCI subjects show unawareness for memory deficit and significant memory-monitoring disorder. This confirms that anosognosia is an important symptom of MCI. Similarities of patterns of impaired awareness between AD and MCI supports the view of a continuum of the anosognosia phenomenon in MCI and AD. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. fMRI abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a working memory task in manic, euthymic and depressed bipolar subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Foland, Lara C.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies of subjects with bipolar disorder suggest impairment of working memory not only in acute mood states, but also while subjects are euthymic. Using fMRI to probe working memory regions in bipolar subjects in different mood states, we sought to determine the functional neural basis for these impairments. Typical working memory areas in normal populations include dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9/46) and the posterior parietal cortex (BA40). We evaluated the activatio...

  20. The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented t...

  1. Experimental pain impairs recognition memory irrespective of pain predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, K; Schmidt, K; Schultz, H; Sommer, T; Bingel, U

    2016-07-01

    Pain is hardwired to signal threat and tissue damage and therefore automatically attracts attention to initiate withdrawal or defensive behaviour. This well-known interruptive function of pain interferes with cognitive functioning and is modulated by bottom-up and top-down variables. Here, we applied predictable or unpredictable painful heat stimuli simultaneously to the presentation of neutral images to investigate (I) whether the predictability of pain modulated its effect on the encoding of images (episodic memory) and (II) whether subjects remember that certain images have been previously presented with pain (source memory). Twenty-four healthy subjects performed a categorization task in which 80 images had to be categorized into living or non-living objects. We compared the processing and encoding of these images during cued and non-cued pain trials as well as cued and non-cued pain-free trials. Effects on recognition performance and source memory for pain were immediately tested using a surprise recognition task. Painful thermal stimulation impaired recognition accuracy (d', recollection, familiarity). This negative effect of pain was positively correlated with the individual expectation of pain interference and the attentional avoidance of pain-related words. However, the interruptive effect of pain was not modulated by the predictability of pain. Source memory for painful stimulation was at chance level, indicating that subjects did not explicitly remember that images had been paired with pain. Targeting negative expectations and a maladaptive attentional bias for pain-related material might help reducing frequently reported pain-induced cognitive impairments. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  2. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we

  3. Subjective memory ability and long-term forgetting in patients referred for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieberen Pieter Van Der Werf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the one-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological assessment and who had normal memory performance during standard memory assessment with that of a non-patient control group. Both groups performed equally in verbal learning and delayed recall. However, after one week, the patients performed worse than controls on both recall and recognition tests. Although subjective memory ability predicted short-term memory function in patients, it did not predict long-term delayed forgetting rates in either the patients or controls. Thus, long-term delayed recall and recognition intervals provided no additional value to explain poor subjective memory ability in the absence of objective memory deficits.

  4. Memory complaints with and without memory impairment: the impact of leukoaraiosis on cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Melissa; Dannhauser, Thomas M; Walker, Zuzana; Rodda, Joanne E; Cutinha, Darren J; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2011-11-01

    White matter alterations, leukoaraiosis (LA) on structural MRI, are associated with cognitive deficits and increased risk of dementia. LA may also impact on subjective memory complaints in otherwise healthy older adults. Little is known about the interplay between LA memory complaints and cognition. We investigated cognitive phenotypes associated with LA in 42 non-demented older adults categorized as having subjective cognitive complaints with no objective cognitive impairment-the subjective cognitive impairment group (SCI; n = 12), amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 20), or healthy controls (HC; n = 11). We measured LA severity on MRI with a 40-point visual rating scale. Controlling for age and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, analyses revealed multiple between-group differences. Follow-up linear regression models investigating the underlying contributors to each clinic group's cognitive profile indicated that LA contributed to learning slope variance (after accounting for age and MMSE) but only for the SCI group. Although the SCI group showed a significantly steeper learning slope when compared to HC and aMCI, increasing LA severity negatively impacted this group's rate of learning. This, in conjunction with the significant contribution of age on SCI learning slope performance variance suggests that greater LA burden at a younger age may contribute to subtle changes in learning for individuals with subjective cognitive complaints.

  5. Subjective worsening of memory predicts dementia after three years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Brækhus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTStudy Objective:  Design:  Setting:  Paricipants:  Measurements:  Results:  Conclusions:  Key words:  aged, 75 years and over; subjective memory impairment; prospective study; dementiaElderly persons expressing a worsening of memory function are at increased risk ofdeveloping dementia.When adjusting for potential confounding by depressive symptoms, two of the GMSquestions scored at baseline, 'Is it more difficult to remember things than it used to be?' and 'Do youwrite reminders to yourself more often now than before?', were significant predictors of dementiawithin three years, OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.2–8.6 and OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0–7.6, respectively.Dementia (DSM-III and DSM-III-R criteria.285 non-demented persons aged 75 years and above at start of study, 77.5% women.Persons living at home.Prospective study of a random sample of older people with follow-ups after three, six, nineand twelve years.To assess whether complaining of memory impairment, as measured by the subjectivepart of the Geriatric Mental State examination (GMS, the Canberra community version, predictslater development of dementia.

  6. Allocentric memory impaired and egocentric memory intact as assessed by virtual reality in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Godehard; Irle, Eva

    2008-04-01

    Present evidence suggests that schizophrenia is associated with explicit memory deficits, whereas implicit memory seems to be largely preserved. Virtual reality studies on declarative allocentric memory in schizophrenia are rare, and studies on implicit egocentric memory in schizophrenia are lacking. However, virtual realities have a major advantage for the assessment of spatial navigation and memory formation, as computer-simulated first-person environments can simulate navigation in a large-scale space. Twenty-five subjects with recent-onset schizophrenia were compared with 25 healthy matched control subjects on two virtual reality tasks affording the navigation and learning of a virtual park (allocentric memory) and a virtual maze (egocentric memory). Compared with control subjects, schizophrenia subjects were significantly impaired in learning the virtual park. However, schizophrenia subjects were as able as control subjects to learn the virtual maze. Stronger disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia subjects were significantly related to more errors on the virtual maze. It is concluded that egocentric spatial learning adds to the many other implicit cognitive skills being largely preserved in schizophrenia. Possibly, the more global neural network supporting egocentric spatial learning is less affected than the declarative hippocampal memory system in early stages of schizophrenia and may offer opportunities for compensation in the presence of focal deficits.

  7. Memory evaluation in mild cognitive impairment using recall and recognition tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, IJ; Golob, EJ; Parker, ES; Starr, A

    2006-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a selective episodic memory deficit that often indicates early Alzheimer's disease. Episodic memory function in MCI is typically defined by deficits in free recall, but can also be tested using recognition procedures. To assess both recall and recognition in MCI, MCI (n = 21) and older comparison (n = 30) groups completed the USC-Repeatable Episodic Memory Test. Subjects memorized two verbally presented 15-item lists. One list was used for three fre...

  8. Rethinking the Connection between Working Memory and Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Harder Griebeling, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working memory deficits have been found for children with specific language impairment (SLI) on tasks imposing increasing short-term memory load with or without additional, consistent (and simple) processing load. Aims: To examine the processing function of working memory in children with low language (LL) by employing tasks imposing…

  9. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  10. Cognitive loci of impairments in picture naming by aphasic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R H; Knox, A W; Juola, J F; Salmon, S J

    1979-03-01

    In order to identify the process or processes responsible for impaired naming by aphasic patients, ten aphasic adults and ten normal adults performed three independent tasks--picture naming, modified Sternberg picture recognition, and modified Sternberg random shape recognition (Sternberg, 1966). Response times and error percentages were the dependent variables. Independent variables in naming were stimulus codability measured in bits of uncertainty (two levels) and number of naming trials (three trials). Independent variables in the recognition tasks were uncertainty (two levels), number of stimuli to be remembered (two or four stimuli) and response type ("yes" or "no"). The results showed that uncertainty had significant effects on naming but not on recognition performance. The aphasic group produced significantly longer naming response times regardless of uncertainty level. The differences between groups were much greater for high-uncertainty pictures (1100 msec) than for low-uncertainty pictures (270 msec). A comparison of estimates of word retrieval times showed that the two subject groups differed significantly for high-uncertainty but not for low-uncertainty items. It was concluded that (1) use of the term "word retrieval problem" rather than "loss of memory problem" was justified to describe the major component in the aphasic naming impairment for high-uncertainty items, and (2) when naming low-uncertainty items these aphasic subjects did not demonstrate a word retrieval problem. The results indicate that treatment procedures designed to improve naming should be process rather than content oriented.

  11. Extinction and recovery of an avoidance memory impaired by scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, N M; Krawczyk, M C; Boccia, M M; Blake, M G

    2017-03-15

    Pre-training administration of scopolamine (SCP) resembles situations of cholinergic dysfunction, leading to memory impairment of mice trained in an inhibitory avoidance task. We suggest here that SCP does not impair memory formation, but acquisition is affected in a way that reduces the strength of the stored memory, thus making this memory less able to control behavior when tested. Hence, a memory trace is stored, but is poorly expressed during the test. Although weakly expressed, this memory shows extinction during successive tests, and can be strengthened by using a reminder. Our results indicate that memories stored under cholinergic dysfunction conditions seem absent or lost, but are in fact present and experience common memory processes, such as extinction, and could be even recovered by using appropriate protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Negative Emotion Impairs Working Memory in Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated affect recognition and the impact of emotional valence on working memory (using happy, angry, and neutral faces) in pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls (HC). Method Subjects (N=70) consisted of unmedicated patients with BD type I (n=23) and type II (n=16) and matched HC (n=31). All subjects completed tasks of emotion recognition (Chicago Pediatric Emotional Acuity Task; Chicago PEAT) and working memory for happy, angry, and neutral faces (Affective N-Back Memory Task; ANMT). Results Compared to HC, BD patients performed significantly more poorly when identifying the intensity of happy and angry expressions on the Chicago PEAT, and demonstrated working memory impairments regardless of the type of facial emotional stimuli. Pediatric BD patients displayed the most impaired accuracy and reaction time performance with negative facial stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, but did not display this pattern with positive stimuli. Only BD type I patients displayed working memory deficits, while both type I and type II patients displayed emotion identification impairments. Results remained significant after controlling for comorbid ADHD and mood state. Conclusion Both type I and type II BD youth demonstrate emotion identification deficits. BD youth also demonstrate working memory impairments for facial stimuli irrespective of emotional valence, however, working memory deficits were the most pronounced with negative emotional stimuli. These deficits appear to be specific to BD type I patients, and suggest therefore that a more severe form of illness is characterized by more severe social-cognitive impairment. PMID:22564881

  13. Enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between core memory-task activation peaks is associated with memory impairment in MCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Gesierich, Benno; Taylor, Alexander N W; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Ewers, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its predictive value for episodic memory impairment is debated. Here, we aimed to assess whether resting-state FC in core brain regions activated during memory-task functional magnetic resonance imaging is altered and predictive of memory performance in AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Twenty-three elderly cognitively healthy controls (HC), 76 aMCI subjects, and 19 AD dementia patients were included. We computed resting-state FC between 18 meta-analytically determined peak coordinates of brain activation during successful memory retrieval. Higher FC between the parahippocampus, parietal cortex, and the middle frontal gyrus was observed in both AD and mild cognitive impairment compared to HC (false-discovery rate-corrected p < 0.05). The increase in FC between the parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus was associated with reduced episodic memory in aMCI, independent of amyloid-beta positron emission tomography binding and apolipoprotein E ε4-carrier status. In conclusion, increased parahippocampal-prefrontal FC is predictive of impaired episodic memory in aMCI and may reflect a dysfunctional change within the episodic memory-related neural network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of reading comprehension and working memory in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is the most important human need for learning. In normal-hearing people working memory is a predictor of reading comprehension. In this study the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension skills was studied in hearing-impaired children, and then compared with the normal-hearing group.Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. The working memory and reading comprehension skills of 18 (8 male, 10 female sever hearing-impaired children in year five of exceptional schools were compared by means of a reading test with 18 hearing children as control group. The subjects in the control group were of the same gender and educational level of the sample group.Results: The children with hearing loss performed similarly to the normal-hearing children in tasks related to auditory-verbal memory of sounds (reverse, visual-verbal memory of letters, and visual-verbal memory of pictures. However, they showed lower levels of performance in reading comprehension (p<0.001. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between working memory and reading comprehension skills.Conclusion: Findings indicated that children with hearing loss have a significant impairment in the reading comprehension skill. Impairment in language knowledge and vocabulary may be the main cause of poor reading comprehension in these children. In hearing-impaired children working memory is not a strong predictor of reading comprehension.

  15. Positive emotion can protect against source memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Graham; Powell, Tim F; Donaldson, David I

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread belief that memory is enhanced by emotion, evidence also suggests that emotion can impair memory. Here we test predictions inspired by object-based binding theory, which states that memory enhancement or impairment depends on the nature of the information to be retrieved. We investigated emotional memory in the context of source retrieval, using images of scenes that were negative, neutral or positive in valence. At study each scene was paired with a colour and during retrieval participants reported the source colour for recognised scenes. Critically, we isolated effects of valence by equating stimulus arousal across conditions. In Experiment 1 colour borders surrounded scenes at study: memory impairment was found for both negative and positive scenes. Experiment 2 used colours superimposed over scenes at study: valence affected source retrieval, with memory impairment for negative scenes only. These findings challenge current theories of emotional memory by showing that emotion can impair memory for both intrinsic and extrinsic source information, even when arousal is equated between emotional and neutral stimuli, and by dissociating the effects of positive and negative emotion on episodic memory retrieval.

  16. Episodic Memory Impairments in Primary Brain Tumor Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Thomas; Berzero, Giulia; Bompaire, Flavie; Hoffmann, Sabine; Léger, Isabelle; Jego, Virginie; Baruteau, Marie; Delgadillo, Daniel; Taillia, Hervé; Psimaras, Dimitri; Ricard, Damien

    2018-01-04

    Cognitive investigations in brain tumor patients have mostly explored episodic memory without differentiating between encoding, storage, and retrieval deficits. The aim of this study is to offer insight into the memory sub-processes affected in primary brain tumor patients and propose an appropriate assessment method. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and memory assessments of 158 patients with primary brain tumors who had presented to our departments with cognitive complaints and were investigated using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. Retrieval was the process of episodic memory most frequently affected, with deficits in this domain detected in 92% of patients with episodic memory impairments. Storage and encoding deficits were less prevalent, with impairments, respectively, detected in 41% and 23% of memory-impaired patients. The pattern of episodic memory impairment was similar across different tumor histologies and treatment modalities. Although all processes of episodic memory were found to be impaired, retrieval was by far the most widely affected function. A thorough assessment of all three components of episodic memory should be part of the regular neuropsychological evaluation in patients with primary brain tumors.

  17. Delayed recall memory impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelp, Arthur Oscar; Mendes-Chiloff, Cristiane Lara; Paduan, Vanessa Cristina; Corrente, José Eduardo; de Lima, Fabrício Diniz; Marchette, Juliana Cristine Nunes; Luvizuto, Gustavo José; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Age is one of the risk factors for dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PDD). Distinct cognitive syndromes of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been identified in previous studies. Questions about the role of such cognitive disorders in PD outcomes, especially memory dysfunction, in patients with PD remain unanswered. Objective: To establish possible correlations between delayed recall memory (episodic memory), age, and other demographic variables in patients with PD. Methods: A two-stage protocol was applied. Patients with delayed recall memory compromise, selected based on a brief battery of tests (BBRC-Edu), were classified as dementia cases and submitted to the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS). Data from patients with memory disturbances were compared against individuals without episodic memory impairment, and correlated with age and demographic variables. Results: Except for identification and naming, all subtests in the screening battery showed a significant difference (p≤0.0001) between the memory-compromised group (case) and the group without memory impairment (no case). The results also correlated negatively with age (p≤0.0001) and positively with level of education (p=0.0874) in patients with PD. Conclusion: The analysis showed a significant relationship between age and dementia characterized by impaired episodic memory. The findings support reports of a wide spectrum of neuropsychological performance impairment in PD with age, particularly dementia associated with memory deterioration. No correlations between disease duration and cognitive dysfunction were evident. PMID:29213456

  18. Benzodiazepine impairment of perirhinal cortical plasticity and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H; Warburton, E C; Zhu, X O; Koder, T J; Park, Y; Aggleton, J P; Cho, K; Bashir, Z I; Brown, M W

    2004-10-01

    Benzodiazepines, including lorazepam, are widely used in human medicine as anxiolytics or sedatives, and at higher doses can produce amnesia. Here we demonstrate that in rats lorazepam impairs both recognition memory and synaptic plastic processes (long-term depression and long-term potentiation). Both impairments are produced by actions in perirhinal cortex. The findings thus establish a mechanism by means of which benzodiazepines impair recognition memory. The findings also strengthen the hypotheses that the familiarity discrimination component of recognition memory is dependent on reductions in perirhinal neuronal responses when stimuli are repeated and that these response reductions are due to a plastic mechanism also used in long-term depression.

  19. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.

  20. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Sonia; Malik, Bilal R; Hodge, James J L

    2013-01-01

    In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ) when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.

  1. KCNQ Channels Regulate Age-Related Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Sonia; Malik, Bilal R.; Hodge, James J. L.

    2013-01-01

    In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ) when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment. PMID:23638087

  2. The Impairing Role of Stress on Autobiographical Memory Reconsolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Azimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite some studies indicating improving role of stress on memory consolidation, very few animal and human studies show that stress impairs reconsolidation of memories. This study aimed to determine the effect of stress on autobiographical memory reconsolidation.Materials and Methods: The present study was done with an experimental method (Solomon Four-Group design. The statistical society of this study was all undergraduate female students in 2009-2010 academic year at Tabriz University. Forty students were selected using random cluster sampling, and we ensure about their physical and mental health by GHQ-28 and interview. Tools for this study were cueing autobiographical memory test, SECPT (for raising blood pressure and stress induction, autobiographical memory test, PANAS and general health questionnaire (GHQ-28. MANOVA was used for data analysis by SPSS-17.Results: The results show that stress after activation of memory impairs memory for neutral events (p0.05. None of stress and memory activation alone had effect on memory performance (p>0.05.Conclusion: These findings indicate that stress impairs autobiographical memory reconsolidation, which is opposite to its effects on memory consolidation, so it supports the view that consolidation and reconsolidation are separate process.

  3. Therapy for memory and attention impairments in young patients

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    Elena Glebovna Filatova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the efficacy and tolerance of tanakan in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment in young patients. Patients and methods. The study enrolled 30 patients whose mean age was 33.5±7.5 years. It used clinical neurological examination; a test for rating general condition, activity, and mood; studies to evaluate aural short-term and verbal short-term memories and to estimate the level of attention using Schulte's tables, and questionnaires for the rating of autonomic disorders and nocturnal sleep quality, those for the patient subjective assessment of treatment efficiency and for the recording of adverse reactions. Results. Tanakan therapy led to the normalized emotional status in the patients, improved nocturnal sleep, and reduced autonomic disorders. There was a tendency towards improvement of all characteristics of attention. Aural and verbal memories became better. Conclusion. Tanakan is an effective and safe drug to treat cognitive impairment at any age.

  4. Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders; Stokholm, Jette

    2005-01-01

    The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD......' were the most frequently impaired tests in both patient groups. The study demonstrated that impairments on semantically related tests are common in mild AD and may exist prior to the clinical diagnosis. The results imply that assessment of semantic memory is relevant in the evaluation of patients...

  5. "Everyday Memory" Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Pickles, Andrew; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    "Everyday memory" is conceptualised as memory within the context of day-to-day life and, despite its functional relevance, has been little studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first study of its kind, 94 adolescents with an ASD and 55 without an ASD completed measures of everyday memory from the Rivermead…

  6. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Subjective qualities of memories associated with the picture superiority effect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huron, Caroline; Danion, Jean-Marie; Rizzo, Lydia; Killofer, Valérie; Damiens, Annabelle

    2003-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) matched with 24 normal subjects were presented with both words and pictures. On a recognition memory task, they were asked to give remember, know, or guess responses to items that were recognized on the basis of conscious recollection, familiarity, or guessing, respectively. Compared with normal subjects, patients exhibited a lower picture superiority effect selectively related to remember responses. Unlike normal subjects, they did not exhibit any word superiority effect in relation to guess responses; this explains why the overall picture superiority effect appeared to be intact. These results emphasize the need to take into account the subjective states of awareness when analyzing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  8. Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Human Entorhinal Region and Hippocampus Impairs Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joshua; Miller, Jonathan; Lee, Sang Ah; Coffey, Tom; Watrous, Andrew J; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Worrell, Gregory; Berry, Brent; Lega, Bradley; Jobst, Barbara C; Davis, Kathryn; Gross, Robert E; Sheth, Sameer A; Ezzyat, Youssef; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stein, Joel; Gorniak, Richard; Kahana, Michael J; Rizzuto, Daniel S

    2016-12-07

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown promise for treating a range of brain disorders and neurological conditions. One recent study showed that DBS in the entorhinal region improved the accuracy of human spatial memory. Based on this line of work, we performed a series of experiments to more fully characterize the effects of DBS in the medial temporal lobe on human memory. Neurosurgical patients with implanted electrodes performed spatial and verbal-episodic memory tasks. During the encoding periods of both tasks, subjects received electrical stimulation at 50 Hz. In contrast to earlier work, electrical stimulation impaired memory performance significantly in both spatial and verbal tasks. Stimulation in both the entorhinal region and hippocampus caused decreased memory performance. These findings indicate that the entorhinal region and hippocampus are causally involved in human memory and suggest that refined methods are needed to use DBS in these regions to improve memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of Spirituality in Elderly With Subjective Memory Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Surbhi C; Subramanyam, Alka A; Kamath, Ravindra M; Pinto, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are very common among elderly. They can be due to depression, cognitive decline, or be a part of normal aging process. Spirituality is another important dimension in elderly, and it is believed to help them cope with various adversities. This study was done to find out whether any relation exists between these 2 variables in elderly. A total of 120 elderly individuals, presenting with subjective memory complaints, were divided into 3 groups - controls, elderly with depression, and elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Spirituality in them was studied by dividing it into the subdomains of self-transcendence, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, and locus of control. Spirituality was the highest in controls, followed by MCI group, and then depression group. Spirituality had a direct negative relationship with severity of depression, while relationship of spirituality with severity of cognitive decline was more complex. Relationship of spirituality with mental health status in elderly patients seemed bidirectional, that is, cause as well as effect relationship. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and sleep quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ting Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although nicotine can enhance some cognitive functions, cigarette smoking may impair memory and sleep quality. Our aim was to investigate the impact of cigarette smoking on memory and sleep quality in healthy smokers. Sixty-eight healthy participants (34 smokers and 34 controls completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and a Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was performed, and Hochberg’s Sharpened Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. The results show that current smokers had a worse visual memory compared to nonsmokers. There was no significant correlation between the index of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Fagerström test for nicotine dependence. Moreover, smokers had poorer sleep quality. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and adversely influence sleep quality.

  11. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  12. Odor recognition memory is not idepentently impaired in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Muinck Keizer, de R.J.O.; Wolters, E.C.H.; Berendse, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The results of previous studies in small groups of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are inconclusive with regard to the presence of an odor recognition memory impairment in PD. The aim of the present study was to investigate odor recognition memory in PD in a larger group of patients. Odor

  13. Sleep Deprivation Selectively Impairs Memory Consolidation for Contextual Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Laurel A.; Heller, Elizabeth A.; Pack, Allan I.; Abel, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Many behavioral and electrophysiological studies in animals and humans have suggested that sleep and circadian rhythms influence memory consolidation. In rodents, hippocampus-dependent memory may be particularly sensitive to sleep deprivation after training, as spatial memory in the Morris water maze is impaired by rapid eye movement sleep deprivation following training. Spatial learning in the Morris water maze, however, requires multiple training trials and performan...

  14. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Subjective memory complaints in aging are associated with elevated cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T; Dziobek, Isabel; McHugh, Pauline; Sweat, Victoria; de Leon, Mony J; Javier, Elizabeth; Convit, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The origin and clinical significance of subjective memory complaints among middle aged and older individuals is not well understood. Associations with objective memory impairments, personality traits or mood disturbances have been reported. Elevated cortisol levels occur in aging and depression and causal links to cognitive or emotional problems have been suggested. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between basal and feedback indices of cortisol regulation and subjective memory impairment in a sample of healthy middle aged and older subjects (mean age 61.8 years) with (n=27) and without (n=19) subjective memory complaints. Participants with memory complaints had both higher basal cortisol levels and higher cortisol levels after dexamethasone. There was a significant group by gender interaction for basal cortisol levels, where women without memory complaints showed significantly lower cortisol levels, whereas no such difference was found for the men. All effects were not due to slight differences in depression scores. Differences in personality traits or in stress susceptibility might underlie the present findings. Future studies of memory complaints should take a comprehensive approach including relevant endocrine parameters.

  16. Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders; Stokholm, Jette

    2005-01-01

    The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD...

  17. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-09-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  18. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasant More

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease dementia and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  19. Impairment of memory and plasma flunitrazepam levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S

    1998-01-01

    Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males

  20. Self-perceived memory impairment and cognitive performance in an elderly independent population with age-related white matter changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, B.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.

    2008-01-01

    . A question about self-perceived memory impairment was used as a measure for presence of memory complaints. Cognitive performance was analysed test-by-test and in three main domains: memory, executive functions and speed/motor control. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used as a measure of depressive...... symptoms. RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-eight subjects were included in this study. No association was found between memory complaints and the severity of WMC. Subjects with memory complaints (n = 399) had a higher GDS score [t((637)) = -7.15; ptests......OBJECTIVES: To determine whether self-perceived memory impairment is associated with the severity of white matter changes (WMC) and is related to cognitive impairment. METHODS: Data were drawn from the multinational Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study (LADIS), which investigates the impact of WMC...

  1. Verbal Memory Impairment in Patients with Subsyndromal Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomiki Sumiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundsSeveral domains of cognitive function, including learning memory and executive function, are impaired in mood disorders. Also, the relationship between disturbances of these two cognitive domains has been suggested. In line with the recent initiative to establish a standard measure of cognitive decline in bipolar disorder, the present study was conducted to (1 test the criterion-related validity and test–retest reliability of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II Japanese version, and (2 determine if type of word learning tasks (i.e., with or without a category structure affects severity of verbal memory deficits in patients with subsyndromal bipolar disorder.MethodsThirty-six patients with bipolar disorder with mild symptoms and 42 healthy volunteers participated in the study. We first compared effect sizes for memory deficits in patients among the CVLT-II, Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS, and Hopkins Verbal Memory Tests-Revised (HVLT-R. We next evaluated the correlations between scores of the CVLT-II vs. those of the BACS and HVLT-R. Bipolar patients were re-assessed with the same (standard or alternate forms of the CVLT-II and HVLT-R 1 month later.ResultsScores on the CVLT-II 1–5 Free Recall and Long-delay Free Recall, as well as the HVLT-R Immediate Recall, but not the BACS List Learning were significantly lower for patients compared to control subjects. The effect sizes for cognitive decline due to the illness were comparable when measured by the CVLT-II and HVLT-R, ranging from 0.5 to 0.6. CVLT-II scores were significantly correlated with those of the HVLT-R and BACS. Test–retest reliability of the CVLT-II was acceptable, and no significant practice effect was observed when the alternate form was used. There was no consistent relationship between mood symptoms and performance on the CVLT-II.ConclusionThese results suggest the CVLT-II Japanese version is able to discriminate between bipolar

  2. Isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in mice is prevented by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diansan Su

    Full Text Available Although many studies have shown that isoflurane exposure impairs spatial memory in aged animals, there are no clinical treatments available to prevent this memory deficit. The anticholinergic properties of volatile anesthetics are a biologically plausible cause of cognitive dysfunction in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that pretreatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, prevents isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. In present study, eighteen-month-old mice were administered donepezil (5 mg/kg or an equal volume of saline by oral gavage with a feeding needle for four weeks. Then the mice were exposed to isoflurane (1.2% for six hours. Two weeks later, mice were subjected to the Morris water maze to examine the impairment of spatial memory after exposure to isoflurane. After the behavioral test, the mice were sacrificed, and the protein expression level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, choline acetylase (ChAT and α7 nicotinic receptor (α7-nAChR were measured in the brain. Each group consisted of 12 mice. We found that isoflurane exposure for six hours impaired the spatial memory of the mice. Compared with the control group, isoflurane exposure dramatically decreased the protein level of ChAT, but not AChE or α7-nAChR. Donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairments and increased ChAT levels, which were downregulated by isoflurane. In conclusions, pretreatment with the AChE inhibitor donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. The mechanism was associated with the upregulation of ChAT, which was decreased by isoflurane.

  3. Impaired memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nathalie; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Peretz, Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    We examined memory for pitch in congenital amusia in two tasks. In one task, we varied the pitch distance between the target and comparison tone from 4 to 9 semitones and inserted either a silence or 6 interpolated tones between the tones to be compared. In a second task, we manipulated the number of pitches to be retained in sequences of length 1, 3, or 5. Amusics' sensitivity to pitch distance was exacerbated by the presence of interpolated tones, and amusics' performance was more strongly affected by the number of pitches to maintain in memory than controls. A pitch perception deficit could not account for the pitch memory deficit of amusics.

  4. Impaired Pitch Perception and Memory in Congenital Amusia: The Deficit Starts in the Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Mattout, Jeremie; Bouet, Romain; Maby, Emmanuel; Sanchez, Gaetan; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Daligault, Sebastien; Delpuech, Claude; Bertrand, Olivier; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder of music perception and production. The present study investigated the cerebral bases of impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia using behavioural measures, magnetoencephalography and voxel-based morphometry. Congenital amusics and matched control subjects performed two melodic tasks (a…

  5. Metacognition of visual short-term memory: Dissociation between objective and subjective components of VSTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the objective accuracy of visual-short term memory (VSTM representations and their subjective conscious experience is unknown. We investigated this issue by assessing how the objective and subjective components of VSTM in a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task are affected by intervening distracters. On each trial, participants were shown a memory cue (a grating, the orientation of which they were asked to hold in memory. On approximately half of the trials, a distractor grating appeared during the maintenance interval; its orientation was either identical to that of the memory cue, or it differed by 10 or 40 degrees. The distractors were masked and presented briefly, so they were only consciously perceived on a subset of trials. At the end of the delay period, a memory test probe was presented, and participants were asked to indicate whether it was tilted to the left or right relative to the memory cue (VSTM accuracy; objective performance. In order to assess subjective metacognition, participants were asked indicate the vividness of their memory for the original memory cue. Finally, participants were asked rate their awareness of the distracter. Results showed that objective VSTM performance was impaired by distractors only when the distractors were very different from the cue, and that this occurred with both subjectively visible and invisible distractors. Subjective metacognition, however, was impaired by distractors of all orientations, but only when these distractors were subjectively invisible. Our results thus indicate that the objective and subjective components of VSTM are to some extent dissociable.

  6. Impairment of working memory maintenance and response in schizophrenia: functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesen, Naomi R; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Calhoun, Vincent D; Constable, R Todd; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Hoffman, Ralph; Skudlarski, Pawel; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S; Krystal, John H

    2008-12-15

    Comparing prefrontal cortical activity during particular phases of working memory in healthy subjects and individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia might help to define the phase-specific deficits in cortical function that contribute to cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia. This study featured a spatial working memory task, similar to that used in nonhuman primates, that was designed to facilitate separating brain activation into encoding, maintenance, and response phases. Fourteen patients with schizophrenia (4 medication-free) and 12 healthy comparison participants completed functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a spatial working memory task with two levels of memory load. Task accuracy was similar in patients and healthy participants. However, patients showed reductions in brain activation during maintenance and response phases but not during the encoding phase. The reduced prefrontal activity during the maintenance phase of working memory was attributed to a greater rate of decay of prefrontal activity over time in patients. Cortical deficits in patients did not appear to be related to antipsychotic treatment. In patients and in healthy subjects, the time-dependent reduction in prefrontal activity during working memory maintenance correlated with poorer performance on the memory task. Overall, these data highlight that basic research insights into the distinct neurobiologies of the maintenance and response phases of working memory are of potential importance for understanding the neurobiology of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and advancing its treatment.

  7. Impairment of fear memory consolidation and expression by antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Ayako; Masuda, Fumitaka; Nomura, Hiroshi; Matsuki, Norio

    2013-02-01

    Antihistamines are widely used to treat allergy symptoms. First-generation antihistamines have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS), such as hypnotic and amnesic effects, whereas second-generation antihistamines have poor brain penetration, and therefore, have fewer CNS-related adverse effects. Memory consists of several phases, including acquisition, consolidation, expression, and extinction. It remains unclear whether these phases are affected by antihistamines. We investigated the effects of diphenhydramine, a first-generation antihistamine, and levocetirizine and olopatadine, second-generation antihistamines, on memory phases. Mice were subjected to fear conditioning on day 1 and tested on day 2. Antihistamines were administered before conditioning, immediately after conditioning, or before the test session. Diphenhydramine (30mg/kg) decreased freezing time when administered immediately after conditioning or before the test session. These effects were not attributable to a change in locomotor activity. Levocetirizine (0.1, 1, 10mg/kg) and olopatadine (1, 10, 20mg/kg) had no effects on conditioned fear. We also examined the effect of diphenhydramine and levocetirizine on the expression of an activity-dependent gene associated with the test session. Diphenhydramine, but not levocetirizine, increased Arc transcription in the central nucleus of the amygdala. These data indicate that diphenhydramine, but not levocetirizine or olopatadine, impairs the consolidation and expression of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cue-independent memory impairment by reactivation-coupled interference in human declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zijian; Wang, Yingying; Cao, Zhijun; Chen, Biqing; Cai, Huaqian; Wu, Yanhong; Rao, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Memory is a dynamic process. While memory becomes increasingly resistant to interference after consolidation, a brief reactivation renders it unstable again. Previous studies have shown that interference, when applied upon reactivation, impairs the consolidated memory, presumably by disrupting the reconsolidation of the memory. However, attempts have failed in disrupting human declarative memory, raising a question about whether declarative memory becomes unstable upon reactivation. Here, we used a double-cue/one-target paradigm, which associated the same target with two different cues in initial memory formation. Only one cue/target association was later reactivated and treated with behavioral interference. Our results showed, for the first time, that reactivation-coupled interference caused cue-independent memory impairment that generalized to other cues associated with the memory. Critically, such memory impairment appeared immediately after interference, before the reconsolidation process was completed, suggesting that common manipulations of reactivation-coupled interference procedures might disrupt other processes in addition to the reconsolidation process in human declarative memory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Nintedanib in Subjects With Hepatic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzin, Kristell; Kretschmar, Gunther; Luedtke, Doreen; Kraemer, Sandrine; Kuelzer, Raimund; Schlenker-Herceg, Rozsa; Schmid, Ulrike; Schnell, David; Dallinger, Claudia

    2017-11-06

    Nintedanib is an intracellular inhibitor of tyrosine kinases used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This phase 1 open-label study investigated the influence of mild and moderate hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of nintedanib following oral administration of a single 100-mg dose. Subjects with hepatic impairment classified as Child-Pugh A (mild hepatic impairment) or Child-Pugh B (moderate hepatic impairment) were eligible. The control group comprised healthy matched subjects. Primary end points were Cmax and AUC0-∞ of nintedanib. Thirty-three subjects received nintedanib (8 in each of the Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B groups and 17 controls). The shape of the plasma concentration-time curve for nintedanib was similar between Child-Pugh A or B and healthy subjects. Nintedanib exposure was ∼2-fold higher in Child-Pugh A subjects and ∼8-fold higher in Child-Pugh B subjects than in healthy subjects. Adverse events were reported in 3 Child-Pugh B subjects (37.5%), no Child-Pugh A subjects, and 3 healthy subjects (17.6%). In conclusion, exposure to nintedanib was higher in Child-Pugh A and B subjects than in matched healthy subjects. A single dose of nintedanib 100 mg had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in subjects with hepatic impairment. Results of this dedicated phase 1 study are in line with exploratory investigations into the PK of nintedanib in patients with advanced solid tumors or IPF and hepatic impairment. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Intrahemispheric theta rhythm desynchronization impairs working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseichuk, Ivan; Pabel, Stefanie Corinna; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in large-scale connectivity as one of the crucial factors in working memory. Correlative evidence has revealed the anatomical and electrophysiological players in the working memory network, but understanding of the effective role of their connectivity remains elusive. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study we aimed to identify the causal role of theta phase connectivity in visual-spatial working memory. The frontoparietal network was over- or de-synchronized in the anterior-posterior direction by multi-electrode, 6 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). A decrease in memory performance and increase in reaction time was caused by frontoparietal intrahemispheric desynchronization. According to the diffusion drift model, this originated in a lower signal-to-noise ratio, known as the drift rate index, in the memory system. The EEG analysis revealed a corresponding decrease in phase connectivity between prefrontal and parietal areas after tACS-driven desynchronization. The over-synchronization did not result in any changes in either the behavioral or electrophysiological levels in healthy participants. Taken together, we demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating multi-site large-scale networks in humans, and the disruptive effect of frontoparietal desynchronization on theta phase connectivity and visual-spatial working memory.

  11. Subjective hearing impairment after subarachnoid haemorrhage : Prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Erik M.; Greebe, Paut; Visser-Meily, J. M Anne; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-01-01

    Background Sensorineural hearing impairment is a key symptom in patients with superficial siderosis of the central nervous system, a disease caused by chronic or intermittent haemorrhage into the subarachnoid space. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of subjective hearing impairment

  12. Tempol prevents chronic sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Albawaana, Amal S; Alhashimi, Farah H; Athamneh, Rabaa Y

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. Tempol is a nitroxide compound that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of tempol can overcome oxidative stress and prevent learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using multiple platform model. Tempol was administered to rats via oral gavages. Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze. The hippocampus was dissected; antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, SOD, and catalase) were assessed. The result of this project revealed that chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short and long term memory (Psleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD (Psleep deprived rats treated with tempol as compared with only sleep deprived rats (Psleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with tempol prevented this impairment probably through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Time Perception in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Interval Length and Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Sara; Guerreiro, Manuela; Chester, Catarina; Silva, Dina; Maroco, João; Coelho, Miguel; Paglieri, Fabio; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may have difficulties in time perception, which in turn might contribute to some of their symptoms, especially memory deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of interval length and subjective passage of time in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. Fifty-five MCI patients and 57 healthy controls underwent an experimental protocol for time perception on interval length, a questionnaire for the subjective passage of time and a neuropsychological evaluation. MCI patients presented no changes in the perception of interval length. However, for MCI patients, time seemed to pass more slowly than it did for controls. This experience was significantly correlated with memory deficits but not with performance in executive tests, nor with complaints of depression or anxiety. Memory deficits do not affect the perception of interval length, but are associated with alterations in the subjective passage of time. (JINS, 2016, 22, 755-764).

  14. Working memory and reward association learning impairments in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn; Small, Dana M

    2014-12-01

    Obesity has been associated with impaired executive functions including working memory. Less explored is the influence of obesity on learning and memory. In the current study we assessed stimulus reward association learning, explicit learning and memory and working memory in healthy weight, overweight and obese individuals. Explicit learning and memory did not differ as a function of group. In contrast, working memory was significantly and similarly impaired in both overweight and obese individuals compared to the healthy weight group. In the first reward association learning task the obese, but not healthy weight or overweight participants consistently formed paradoxical preferences for a pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer food rewards). To determine if the deficit was specific to food reward a second experiment was conducted using money. Consistent with Experiment 1, obese individuals selected the pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer monetary rewards) more frequently than healthy weight individuals and thus failed to develop a significant preference for the most rewarded patterns as was observed in the healthy weight group. Finally, on a probabilistic learning task, obese compared to healthy weight individuals showed deficits in negative, but not positive outcome learning. Taken together, our results demonstrate deficits in working memory and stimulus reward learning in obesity and suggest that obese individuals are impaired in learning to avoid negative outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucocorticoids in the prefrontal cortex enhance memory consolidation and impair working memory by a common neural mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsegyan, Areg; Mackenzie, Scott M.; Kurose, Brian D.; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that acute administration of adrenocortical hormones enhances the consolidation of memories of emotional experiences and, concurrently, impairs working memory. These different glucocorticoid effects on these two memory functions have generally been considered to be

  16. Medial prefrontal lesions in mice impair sustained attention but spare maintenance of information in working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Julia B.; Ward, Ryan D.; Kahn, Lora W.; Rudy, Nicole M.; Kandel, Eric R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Simpson, Eleanor H.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory and attention are complex cognitive functions that are disrupted in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Mouse models of such human diseases are commonly subjected to maze-based tests that can neither distinguish between these cognitive functions nor isolate specific aspects of either function. Here, we have adapted a simple visual discrimination task, and by varying only the timing of events within the same task construct, we are able to measure independently the behavioral response to increasing attentional demand and increasing length of time that information must be maintained in working memory. We determined that mPFC lesions in mice impair attention but not working memory maintenance. PMID:23073640

  17. Early exposure to volatile anesthetics impairs long-term associative learning and recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley H Lee

    Full Text Available Anesthetic exposure early in life affects neural development and long-term cognitive function, but our understanding of the types of memory that are altered is incomplete. Specific cognitive tests in rodents that isolate different memory processes provide a useful approach for gaining insight into this issue.Postnatal day 7 (P7 rats were exposed to either desflurane or isoflurane at 1 Minimum Alveolar Concentration for 4 h. Acute neuronal death was assessed 12 h later in the thalamus, CA1-3 regions of hippocampus, and dentate gyrus. In separate behavioral experiments, beginning at P48, subjects were evaluated in a series of object recognition tests relying on associative learning, as well as social recognition.Exposure to either anesthetic led to a significant increase in neuroapoptosis in each brain region. The extent of neuronal death did not differ between groups. Subjects were unaffected in simple tasks of novel object and object-location recognition. However, anesthetized animals from both groups were impaired in allocentric object-location memory and a more complex task requiring subjects to associate an object with its location and contextual setting. Isoflurane exposure led to additional impairment in object-context association and social memory.Isoflurane and desflurane exposure during development result in deficits in tasks relying on associative learning and recognition memory. Isoflurane may potentially cause worse impairment than desflurane.

  18. Neuropsychological evidence for subjective memory complaints in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banzi

    increased awareness of memory difficulties. Dopamine metabo- lism in the frontal and cingulate areas declines in middle age and is associated with detrimental cognitive changes.9 The nature of these changes is similar to that seen in depression.7 In fact both frontal lobe dysfunction and dopamine metabolism have been.

  19. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  20. Sulforaphane Prevents Neuronal Apoptosis and Memory Impairment in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To explore the effects of sulforaphane (SFN on neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and memory impairment in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty male rats were randomly divided into normal control, diabetic model and SFN treatment groups (N = 10 in each group. Streptozotocin (STZ was applied to establish diabetic model. Water Morris maze task was applied to test learning and memory. Tunel assaying was used to detect apoptosis in hippocampus. The expressions of Caspase-3 and myeloid cell leukemia 1(MCL-1 were detected by western blotting. Neurotrophic factor levels and AKT/GSK3β pathway were also detected. Results: Compared with normal control, learning and memory were apparently impaired, with up-regulation of Caspase-3 and down-regulation of MCL-1 in diabetic rats. Apoptotic neurons were also found in CA1 region after diabetic modeling. By contrast, SFN treatment prevented the memory impairment, decreased the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. SFN also attenuated the abnormal expression of Caspase-3 and MCL-1 in diabetic model. Mechanically, SFN treatment reversed diabetic modeling-induced decrease of p-Akt, p-GSK3β, NGF and BDNF expressions. Conclusion: SFN could prevent the memory impairment and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in diabetic rat. The possible mechanism was related to the regulation of neurotropic factors and Akt/GSK3β pathway.

  1. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses.

  2. Psychosocial stress impairs working memory at high loads: an association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, N Y L; Everaerd, W T A M; Elzinga, B M; van Well, S; Bermond, B

    2006-09-01

    Stress and cortisol are known to impair memory retrieval of well-consolidated declarative material. The effects of cortisol on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Therefore, effects of stress and cortisol should be observable on both hippocampal-dependent declarative memory retrieval and PFC-dependent working memory (WM). In the present study, it was tested whether psychosocial stress would impair both WM and memory retrieval in 20 young healthy men. In addition, the association between cortisol levels and cognitive performance was assessed. It was found that stress impaired WM at high loads, but not at low loads in a Sternberg paradigm. High cortisol levels at the time of testing were associated with slow WM performance at high loads, and with impaired recall of moderately emotional, but not of highly emotional paragraphs. Furthermore, performance at high WM loads was associated with memory retrieval. These data extend previous results of pharmacological studies in finding WM impairments after acute stress at high workloads and cortisol-related retrieval impairments.

  3. Psychosocial stress impairs working memory at high loads: An association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Well, S.; Bermond, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stress and cortisol are known to impair memory retrieval of well-consolidated declarative material. The effects of cortisol on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Therefore, effects of stress and cortisol should

  4. Sulforaphane alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siyoung; Kim, Jisung; Seo, Sang Gwon; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Han, Jung-Soo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jiyoung

    2014-07-01

    Sulforaphane, an organosulfur compound present in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. To determine whether sulforaphane can preserve cognitive function, we examined its effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze test. Sulforaphane (10 or 50mg/kg) was administered to C57BL/6 mice by oral gavage for 14 days (days 1-14), and memory impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (1mg/kg) for 7 days (days 8-14). Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as indicated by a decreased acetylcholine (ACh) level and an increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Sulforaphane significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment and improved cholinergic system reactivity, as indicated by an increased ACh level, decreased AChE activity, and increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. These effects of sulforaphane on cholinergic system reactivity were confirmed in vitro. Sulforaphane (10 or 20μM) increased the ACh level, decreased the AChE activity, and increased ChAT expression in scopolamine-treated primary cortical neurons. These observations suggest that sulforaphane might exert a significant neuroprotective effect on cholinergic deficit and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Verbal Memory Impairment in Polydrug Ecstasy Users: A Clinical Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim P C Kuypers

    Full Text Available Ecstasy use has been associated with short-term and long-term memory deficits on a standard Word Learning Task (WLT. The clinical relevance of this has been debated and is currently unknown. The present study aimed at evaluating the clinical relevance of verbal memory impairment in Ecstasy users. To that end, clinical memory impairment was defined as decrement in memory performance that exceeded the cut-off value of 1.5 times the standard deviation of the average score in the healthy control sample. The primary question was whether being an Ecstasy user (E-user was predictive of having clinically deficient memory performance compared to a healthy control group.WLT data were pooled from four experimental MDMA studies that compared memory performance during placebo and MDMA intoxication. Control data were taken from healthy volunteers with no drug use history who completed the WLT as part of a placebo-controlled clinical trial. This resulted in a sample size of 65 E-users and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy drug-naïve controls. All participants were recruited by similar means and were tested at the same testing facilities using identical standard operating procedures. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models, Bayes factor, and logistic regressions.Findings were that verbal memory performance of placebo-treated E-users did not differ from that of controls, and there was substantial evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. History of use was not predictive of memory impairment. During MDMA intoxication of E-users, verbal memory was impaired.The combination of the acute and long-term findings demonstrates that, while clinically relevant memory impairment is present during intoxication, it is absent during abstinence. This suggests that use of Ecstasy/MDMA does not lead to clinically deficient memory performance in the long term. Additionally, it has to be investigated whether the current findings apply to more complex cognitive

  6. Subjectively impaired bed mobility in Parkinson disease affects sleep efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M.; Sloun, R.J. van; Pevernagie, D.A.; Arends, J.B.; Cluitmans, P.J.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired bed mobility (IBM) may be an important reason for the high prevalence of sleep insomnia in Parkinson disease (PD). Here we assessed the influence of subjectively IBM on both subjective and objective sleep parameters in insomnia PD patients with (PD+IBM) and without (PD-IBM)

  7. Subjective cognitive failures after stroke in young adults: prevalent but not related to cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaijwee, Noortje A M M; Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Kessels, Roy P C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2014-07-01

    Few studies exist on subjective cognitive failures after a stroke in young adults (≤50 years) and their relation to objective cognitive performance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients with a stroke in young adulthood and their relation with objective cognitive impairment. This study is part of the "Follow-Up of Transient ischemic attack and stroke patients and Unelucidated Risk factor Evaluation"-study (FUTURE study), including patients, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980 and 2010 with a first-ever TIA or ischemic stroke. The prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients was determined and compared with 146 age- and sex-matched stroke-free controls. The relation of subjective failures with objective cognitive performance was investigated with linear and logistic regression analysis. 160 patients with a TIA and 277 with an ischemic stroke were included. After a mean follow-up of 10.1 (SD 8.3) years, the prevalence of subjective memory failures was 86.4% and that of subjective executive failures was 67.4% in patients, versus 69.7% (p = 0.008) and 41.4% (p = 0.002) in controls. A weak association between subjective memory failures and objective immediate (beta -0.12, p = 0.011) and delayed memory performance (beta -0.13, p = 0.010) was observed in patients. Subjective cognitive failures are prevalent after stroke in young adults, but not strongly related to objective cognitive impairment. Therefore, extensive neuropsychological assessment is essential for determination of objective cognitive impairment. However, it is important that subjective cognitive failures are recognized as they may indicate underlying psychosocial problems.

  8. Self-Imagining Enhances Recognition Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The ability to imagine an elaborative event from a personal perspective relies on a number of cognitive processes that may potentially enhance subsequent memory for the event, including visual imagery, semantic elaboration, emotional processing, and self-referential processing. In an effort to find a novel strategy for enhancing memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage, the present study investigated the mnemonic benefit of a method we refer to as “self-imagining” – or the imagining of an event from a realistic, personal perspective. Method Fourteen individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits and fourteen healthy control participants intentionally encoded neutral and emotional sentences under three instructions: structural-baseline processing, semantic processing, and self-imagining. Results Findings revealed a robust “self-imagination effect” as self-imagination enhanced recognition memory relative to deep semantic elaboration in both memory-impaired individuals, F (1, 13) = 32.11, p imagination were not limited by severity of the memory disorder nor were they related to self-reported vividness of visual imagery, semantic processing, or emotional content of the materials. Conclusions The findings suggest that the self-imagination effect may depend on unique mnemonic mechanisms possibly related to self-referential processing, and that imagining an event from a personal perspective makes that event particularly memorable even for those individuals with severe memory deficits. Self-imagining may thus provide an effective rehabilitation strategy for individuals with memory impairment. PMID:20873930

  9. Time perception in mild cognitive impairment: Interval length and subjective passage of time

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Sara; Guerreiro, Manuela; Chester, Catarina Carapeto da Silva; Silva, Dina Lúcia Gomes da, 1981-; Maroco, João; Coelho, Miguel; Paglieri, Fabio; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may have difficulties in time perception, which in turn might contribute to some of their symptoms, especially memory deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of interval length and subjective passage of time in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. Methods: Fifty-five MCI patients and 57 healthy controls underwent an experimental protocol for time perception on interval length, a questionnaire for...

  10. Prospective Memory Impairment in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine E; Thomas, Kevin G F; Molteno, Christopher D; Kliegel, Matthias; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is linked to impaired performance on tests of retrospective memory, but prospective memory (PM; the ability to remember and act on delayed intentions) has not been examined in alcohol-exposed children. We investigated event-based PM in children with heavy PAE and the degree to which associations between PAE and PM are influenced by IQ, executive functioning (EF), retrospective memory, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We administered a computerized PM task to 89 children (Mage = 11.1 years) whose mothers were recruited prenatally: 29 with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 32 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 28 Controls. We examined effects of diagnostic group, cue focality, and task difficulty on PM performance. The association between a continuous measure of alcohol exposure and PM performance was also examined after controlling for sociodemographic confounders. Mediation of alcohol effects on PM by IQ, EF, and retrospective memory scores was assessed as was the effect of ADHD on PM performance. Children with FAS/PFAS made more PM errors than either HE or Control children. PAE was negatively related to PM performance even after adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, EF, and retrospective memory. This relation was only partially mediated by IQ. PAE was related to ADHD, but ADHD was not related to PM performance. Fetal alcohol-related impairment in event-based PM was seen in children with FAS/PFAS. The effect of PAE on PM was not attributable to impaired EF and retrospective memory and was not solely attributable to lower IQ. Consistent with previous studies, we found no effect of ADHD on event-based PM performance at this age. This is the first study documenting PM impairment in children with heavy PAE and identifies a new domain of impairment warranting attention in diagnosis and management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Kargar, Mahmoud; Hesami, Ehsan

    2018-02-06

    Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared. Our newly developed VRNT consists of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and virtual maze (egocentric memory). Verbal and visuospatial memory impairments were also examined with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, respectively. We found that miAD and aMCImd subjects were impaired in both allocentric and egocentric memory, but aMCIsd subjects performed similarly to the normal controls on both tasks. The miAD, aMCImd, and aMCIsd subjects performed worse on finding the target or required more time in the virtual environment than the aMCImd, aMCIsd, and normal controls, respectively. Our findings indicated the aMCImd and miAD subjects, as well as the aMCIsd subjects, were more impaired in egocentric orientation than allocentric orientation. We concluded that VRNT can distinguish aMCImd subjects, but not aMCIsd subjects, from normal elderly subjects. The VRNT, along with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, can be used as a valid diagnostic tool for properly distinguishing different forms of aMCI. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  12. Subjective memory complaints are associated with brain activation supporting successful memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jessica M; Tang, Lingfei; Viviano, Raymond P; van Rooden, Sanneke; Ofen, Noa; Damoiseaux, Jessica S

    2017-12-01

    Subjective memory complaints, the perceived decline in cognitive abilities in the absence of clinical deficits, may precede Alzheimer's disease. Individuals with subjective memory complaints show differential brain activation during memory encoding; however, whether such differences contribute to successful memory formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated how subsequent memory effects, activation which is greater for hits than misses during an encoding task, differed between healthy older adults aged 50 to 85 years with (n = 23) and without (n = 41) memory complaints. Older adults with memory complaints, compared to those without, showed lower subsequent memory effects in the occipital lobe, superior parietal lobe, and posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, older adults with more memory complaints showed a more negative subsequent memory effects in areas of the default mode network, including the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that for successful memory formation, older adults with subjective memory complaints rely on distinct neural mechanisms which may reflect an overall decreased task-directed attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Memory in language-impaired children with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alison Presmanes; van Santen, Jan; Gorman, Kyle; Langhorst, Beth Hoover; Fombonne, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A subgroup of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have significant language impairments (phonology, grammar, vocabulary), although such impairments are not considered to be core symptoms of and are not unique to ASD. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) display similar impairments in language. Given evidence for phenotypic and possibly etiologic overlap between SLI and ASD, it has been suggested that language-impaired children with ASD (ASD + language impairment, ALI) may be characterized as having both ASD and SLI. However, the extent to which the language phenotypes in SLI and ALI can be viewed as similar or different depends in part upon the age of the individuals studied. The purpose of the current study is to examine differences in memory abilities, specifically those that are key "markers" of heritable SLI, among young school-age children with SLI, ALI, and ALN (ASD + language normal). In this cross-sectional study, three groups of children between ages 5 and 8 years participated: SLI (n = 18), ALI (n = 22), and ALN (n = 20). A battery of cognitive, language, and ASD assessments was administered as well as a nonword repetition (NWR) test and measures of verbal memory, visual memory, and processing speed. NWR difficulties were more severe in SLI than in ALI, with the largest effect sizes in response to nonwords with the shortest syllable lengths. Among children with ASD, NWR difficulties were not associated with the presence of impairments in multiple ASD domains, as reported previously. Verbal memory difficulties were present in both SLI and ALI groups relative to children with ALN. Performance on measures related to verbal but not visual memory or processing speed were significantly associated with the relative degree of language impairment in children with ASD, supporting the role of verbal memory difficulties in language impairments among early school-age children with ASD. The primary difference between

  14. Procedural and declarative memory in children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A G; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young children with and without specific language impairment. A total of 15 children with specific language impairment and 15 non-impaired children of comparable age, gender and handedness were presented with measures of procedural and declarative memory. Procedural memory was assessed using a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) Task in which children implicitly learnt a ten-item sequence pattern. Declarative memory for verbal and visual information was assessed using paired associative learning tasks. The results from the SRT Task showed the children with specific language impairment did not learn the sequence at levels comparable with the non-impaired children. On the measures of declarative memory, differences between the groups were observed on the verbal but not the visual task. The differences on the verbal declarative memory task were found after statistically controlling for differences in vocabulary and phonological short-term memory. The results were interpreted to suggest an uneven profile of memory functioning in specific language impairment. On measures of declarative memory, specific language impairment appears to be associated with difficulties learning verbal information. At the same time, procedural memory is also appears to be impaired. Collectively, this study indicates multiple memory impairments in specific language impairment.

  15. Prevalence of impaired memory in hospitalized adults and associations with in-hospital sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calev, Hila; Spampinato, Lisa M; Press, Valerie G; Meltzer, David O; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-07-01

    Effective inpatient teaching requires intact patient memory, but studies suggest hospitalized adults may have memory deficits. Sleep loss among inpatients could contribute to memory impairment. To assess memory in older hospitalized adults, and to test the association between sleep quantity, sleep quality, and memory, in order to identify a possible contributor to memory deficits in these patients. Prospective cohort study. General medicine and hematology/oncology inpatient wards. Fifty-nine hospitalized adults at least 50 years of age with no diagnosed sleep disorder. Immediate memory and memory after a 24-hour delay were assessed using a word recall and word recognition task from the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test. A vignette-based memory task was piloted as an alternative test more closely resembling discharge instructions. Sleep duration and efficiency overnight in the hospital were measured using actigraphy. Mean immediate recall was 3.8 words out of 15 (standard deviation = 2.1). Forty-nine percent of subjects had poor memory, defined as immediate recall score of 3 or lower. Median immediate recognition was 11 words out of 15 (interquartile range [IQR] = 9-13). Median delayed recall score was 1 word, and median delayed recognition was 10 words (IQR = 8-12). In-hospital sleep duration and efficiency were not significantly associated with memory. The medical vignette score was correlated with immediate recall (r = 0.49, P memory while in the hospital, signaling that hospitalization might not be an ideal teachable moment. In-hospital sleep was not associated with memory scores. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Salience Network and Parahippocampal Dopamine Dysfunction in Memory-Impaired Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Leigh; Duff-Canning, Sarah; Koshimori, Yuko; Segura, Barbara; Boileau, Isabelle; Chen, Robert; Lang, Anthony E.; Houle, Sylvain; Rusjan, Pablo; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are vulnerable to dementia and frequently experience memory deficits. This could be the result of dopamine dysfunction in corticostriatal networks (salience, central executive networks, and striatum) and/or the medial temporal lobe. Our aim was to investigate whether dopamine dysfunction in these regions contributes to memory impairment in PD. Methods We used positron emission tomography imaging to compare D2 receptor availability in the cortex and striatal (limbic and associative) dopamine neuron integrity in 4 groups: memory-impaired PD (amnestic MCI; n=9), PD with nonamnestic MCI (n=10), PD without MCI (n=11), and healthy controls (n=14). Subjects were administered a full neuropsychological test battery for cognitive performance. Results Memory-impaired patients demonstrated more significant reductions in D2 receptor binding in the salience network (insular cortex and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC] and the right parahippocampal gyrus [PHG]) compared to healthy controls and patients with no MCI. They also presented reductions in the right insula and right ACC compared to nonamnestic MCI patients. D2 levels were correlated with memory performance in the right PHG and left insula of amnestic patients and with executive performance in the bilateral insula and left ACC of all MCI patients. Associative striatal dopamine denervation was significant in all PD patients. Interpretation Dopaminergic differences in the salience network and the medial temporal lobe contribute to memory impairment in PD. Furthermore, these findings indicate the vulnerability of the salience network in PD and its potential role in memory and executive dysfunction. PMID:25448687

  17. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on okadaic acid induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, N; Dwivedi, Subhash; Tota, Santosh Kumar; Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-09-05

    Okadaic acid (OKA) has been observed to cause memory impairment in human subjects having seafood contaminated with dinoflagellate (Helicondria okadai). OKA induces tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress leading to memory impairment as our previous study has shown. Curcumin a natural antioxidant has demonstrated neuroprotection in various models of neurodegeneration. However, the effect of curcumin has not been explored in OKA induced memory impairment. Therefore, present study evaluated the effect of curcumin on OKA (100ng, intracerebrally) induced memory impairment in male Swiss albino mice as evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance tests (PAT). OKA administration resulted in memory impairment with a decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) (measured by laser doppler flowmetry), ATP level and increased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, neuroinflammation (increased TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and GFAP), oxidative-nitrosative stress, increased Caspase-9 and cholinergic dysfunction (decreased AChE activity/expression and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice brain. Oral administration of curcumin (50mg/kg) for 13 days significantly improved memory function in both MWM and PAT along with brain energy metabolism, CBF and cholinergic function. It decreased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, and ameliorated neuroinflammation and oxidative-nitrostative stress in different brain regions of OKA treated mice. Curcumin also inhibited astrocyte activation as evidenced by decreased GFAP expression. This neuroprotective effect of curcumin is due to its potent anti-oxidant action thus confirming previous studies. Therefore, use of curcumin should be encouraged in people consuming sea food (contaminated with dinoflagellates) to prevent cognitive impairment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential effects of modafinil on memory in naïve and memory-impaired rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Vanessa Athaíde; Souza de Freitas, Betânia; Busato, Stefano Boemler; D'avila Portal, Bernardo Chaves; Piazza, Francisco Correa; Schröder, Nadja

    2013-12-01

    Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug and has been approved for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea. Modafinil was shown to improve learning and memory in rodents, and to reverse memory deficits induced by sleep deprivation or stress. However, depending on the memory paradigm used, modafinil might also impair memory. We aimed to investigate the effects of modafinil on memory consolidation and retrieval for object recognition and inhibitory avoidance in naïve adult rats. We also investigated whether acute or chronic administration of modafinil would reverse memory deficits induced by iron overload, a model of memory impairment related to neurodegenerative disorders. Adult naïve rats received modafinil (0.0, 0.75, 7.5 or 75 mg/kg) either immediately after training or 1 h prior to testing in object recognition or inhibitory avoidance. Iron-treated rats received modafinil immediately after training in object recognition. In order to investigate the effects of chronic modafinil, iron-treated rats received daily injections of modafinil for 17 days, and 24 h later they were trained in object recognition or inhibitory avoidance. Acute modafinil does not affect memory consolidation or retrieval in naive rats. A single injection of modafinil at the highest dose was able to recover recognition memory in iron-treated rats. Chronic modafinil completely recovered iron-induced recognition memory and emotional memory deficits. Additional preclinical and clinical studies are necessary in order to support the applicability of modafinil in recovering memory impairment associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Association between Subjective Memory Complaints and Sleep within Older African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Wright, Regina S; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T; Allaire, Jason C; Thorpe, Roland J; Whitfield, Keith E

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the association between subjective memory complaints and sleep (quantity and quality) in African American older adults. Participants from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA; n = 351; mean age = 71.99) completed a self-report sleep scale, subjective memory complaint scale, global cognitive status measure, and demographic questionnaire. Worse overall sleep quality was significantly associated with subjective reports of difficulty recalling the placement of objects, recalling specific facts from reading materials, and worse memory currently compared to the past. Specific sleep parameters (e.g., longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration) were associated with negative appraisals of participants' ability to do specific tasks involving memory (e.g., difficulty recalling placement of objects). Participants classified as poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] total score > 5) were more likely to report worse memory now compared to the past than participants classified as good sleepers (PSQI total score ≤ 5). Evaluation of sleep may be warranted when older adults, particularly African Americans, communicate concerns regarding their memory. Insufficient sleep may be a useful marker of acute daytime dysfunction and, perhaps, cognitive decline. Given memory problems are the hallmark of dementia, our findings support further evaluation of whether poor sleep can aid in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment.

  20. Self-imagining enhances recognition memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2010-11-01

    The ability to imagine an elaborative event from a personal perspective relies on several cognitive processes that may potentially enhance subsequent memory for the event, including visual imagery, semantic elaboration, emotional processing, and self-referential processing. In an effort to find a novel strategy for enhancing memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage, we investigated the mnemonic benefit of a method we refer to as self-imagining-the imagining of an event from a realistic, personal perspective. Fourteen individuals with neurologically based memory deficits and 14 healthy control participants intentionally encoded neutral and emotional sentences under three instructions: structural-baseline processing, semantic processing, and self-imagining. Findings revealed a robust "self-imagination effect (SIE)," as self-imagination enhanced recognition memory relative to deep semantic elaboration in both memory-impaired individuals, F(1, 13) = 32.11, p visual imagery, semantic processing, or emotional content of the materials. The findings suggest that the SIE may depend on unique mnemonic mechanisms possibly related to self-referential processing and that imagining an event from a personal perspective makes that event particularly memorable even for those individuals with severe memory deficits. Self-imagining may thus provide an effective rehabilitation strategy for individuals with memory impairment.

  1. Memory for proper names in old age: a disproportionate impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Peter G; Castel, Alan D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2005-01-01

    A common complaint of older adults is that they have trouble remembering names, even the names of people they know well. Two experiments examining this problem are reported in the present article. Experiment I tested episodic memory for surnames and occupations; older adults and younger adults under divided attention performed less well than did full attention younger adults, but showed no disproportionate loss of name information. Experiment 2 examined the ability to name photographs of public figures and of uncommon objects; this experiment therefore tested retrieval from semantic memory. In this case adults in their 70s did show an impairment in recall of names of known people, but not of known objects. Further analyses revealed systematic relations between naming, recognition, and rated familiarity of the categories used. Familiarity largely determined the proportions of recognizable items that were named in a prior phase. Overall, little evidence was found for a disproportionate age-related impairment in naming in either episodic or semantic memory.

  2. Clinical efficacy of Guduchyadi Medhya Rasayana on Senile Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulatunga, R D H; Dave, Alankruta R; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-04-01

    Aging has become one of the distinctive demographic phenomena in the 21(st) century and its social, economic and health implications are the most challenging issues. Senile Memory Impairment is a common condition characterized by mild symptoms of cognitive decline and occurs as a part of the normal aging process. It can be correlated to "Jarajanya Smrtibhramsha" according to Ayurveda. The present study deals with the efficacy of Guduchyadi Medhya Rasayana on Senile Memory Impairment. A total of 138 patients aged in between 55-75 years were registered and randomly divided into two groups as the trial and control groups. The drugs were administered for 3. The trial drug showed memory enhancement, anti-stress, anti-depressant and anxiolytic properties. The trial group showed better results in the management compared to the control group.

  3. Subjective Age and Changes in Memory in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Caudroit, Johan; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The subjective experience of aging, indexed by how old or young an individual feels, has been related to well-being and health-related outcomes among older adults. The present study examined whether subjective age is associated with memory level and changes, as indexed by measures of immediate and delayed recall. A complementary purpose was to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms and physical activity in the relation between subjective age and memory changes. Participants were drawn from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Subjective age, baseline memory measures, and covariates were assessed during the 2008 wave (N = 5809), depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed again in the 2010 wave, and the follow-up memory measures were assessed in the 2012 wave. Regression analyses that included demographic, metabolic, and vascular covariates revealed that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with better concurrent performance and with slower decline in immediate and delayed recall. Bootstrap procedures indicated that fewer depressive symptoms mediated these associations. Additional analyses revealed that memory level and change were unrelated to changes in subjective age. Beyond chronological age, the subjective experience of age is associated with cognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Working memory impairment in cannabis- and opioid-dependent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Hoa T; Schacht, Rebecca; Mintzer, Miriam; Fishman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis and opioid use are associated with cognitive impairment, whether preexisting or substance-induced, but there have been few substance-specific assessments of cognitive functioning in adolescent substance users. Working memory impairment may be particularly important, as it has been linked to poorer performance in substance abuse treatment. Working memory (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV or Adult Intelligence Scale-IV) and baseline substance use were assessed in 42 youth (mean age = 17.9 years, SD = 1.3, range: 16-20; 65% Caucasian, 30% female) 1-2 weeks after admission to residential treatment with supervised abstinence, 19 for primary cannabis dependence and 23 for primary opioid dependence. There were substantial deficits in working memory in both groups, with significant differences (P cannabis (M = 16.3th%ile, SD = 13.6) groups. The primary opioid group had high rates of cannabis use, with no significant difference in past-month days of cannabis use from the primary cannabis group. The opioid group was older and had completed more years of formal education. Seventy-nine percent of the cannabis group had public health care coverage (mostly Medicaid), compared with 24% of the opioid sample. Working memory impairment was substantial in treatment-seeking youth with primary cannabis and opioid dependence (the latter actually having comparable rates of cannabis use), and significantly more pronounced in the primary cannabis-dependent group. Without an assessment of working memory prior to substance exposure, the differential contributions of substance-induced vs. preexisting impairment are unclear. Lower scores in the cannabis group may reflect lower socioeconomic status (SES), which is typically correlated with cognitive performance. These findings highlight underrecognized cognitive impairment in youth with SUDs, especially inner-city cannabis-dependent youth. Modification of treatments to account for cognitive capacity and/or cognitive

  5. Dementia worry and its relationship to dementia exposure, psychological factors, and subjective memory concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzer, Adrianna; Suhr, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    With increased societal awareness of dementia, older adults show increased concern about developing dementia, leading to misidentification of aging-related cognitive glitches as signs of dementia. While some researchers have suggested self-reported cognitive concerns accurately identify older adults with early signs of dementia, there is evidence that subjective cognitive decline is not associated with objective cognitive performance and instead reflects psychological factors consistent with models of health anxiety, including dementia worry. We examined the construct of dementia worry and its relationship to subjective memory concerns in 100 older adults (Mage = 69 years) without signs of dementia, using a recently developed measure of dementia worry. Consistent with hypotheses, dementia worry was related to exposure to dementia, having a high number of depressive or general worry symptoms, and having more memory concerns. Exposure to dementia moderated the relationship of dementia worry to depression and general worry. Furthermore, dementia worry moderated the relationship of objective memory impairment to subjective memory ratings. The results provide further evidence of the role of psychological factors such as dementia worry in subjective memory report and emphasize the need for objective cognitive testing before making determinations about dementia in older adults expressing memory concerns.

  6. Natural amyloid-β oligomers acutely impair the formation of a contextual fear memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelberger, Kara A; Piazza, Fabrizio; Tesco, Giuseppina; Reijmers, Leon G

    2012-01-01

    Memory loss is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been proposed that soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomers acutely impair neuronal function and thereby memory. We here report that natural Abeta oligomers acutely impair contextual fear memory in mice. A natural Abeta oligomer solution containing Abeta monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers was derived from the conditioned medium of 7PA2 cells, a cell line that expresses human amyloid precursor protein containing the Val717Phe familial AD mutation. As a control we used 7PA2 conditioned medium from which Abeta oligomers were removed through immunodepletion. Separate groups of mice were injected with Abeta and control solutions through a cannula into the lateral brain ventricle, and subjected to fear conditioning using two tone-shock pairings. One day after fear conditioning, mice were tested for contextual fear memory and tone fear memory in separate retrieval trials. Three experiments were performed. For experiment 1, mice were injected three times: 1 hour before and 3 hours after fear conditioning, and 1 hour before context retrieval. For experiments 2 and 3, mice were injected a single time at 1 hour and 2 hours before fear conditioning respectively. In all three experiments there was no effect on tone fear memory. Injection of Abeta 1 hour before fear conditioning, but not 2 hours before fear conditioning, impaired the formation of a contextual fear memory. In future studies, the acute effect of natural Abeta oligomers on contextual fear memory can be used to identify potential mechanisms and treatments of AD associated memory loss.

  7. Natural Amyloid-Beta Oligomers Acutely Impair the Formation of a Contextual Fear Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelberger, Kara A.; Piazza, Fabrizio; Tesco, Giuseppina; Reijmers, Leon G.

    2012-01-01

    Memory loss is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been proposed that soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomers acutely impair neuronal function and thereby memory. We here report that natural Abeta oligomers acutely impair contextual fear memory in mice. A natural Abeta oligomer solution containing Abeta monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers was derived from the conditioned medium of 7PA2 cells, a cell line that expresses human amyloid precursor protein containing the Val717Phe familial AD mutation. As a control we used 7PA2 conditioned medium from which Abeta oligomers were removed through immunodepletion. Separate groups of mice were injected with Abeta and control solutions through a cannula into the lateral brain ventricle, and subjected to fear conditioning using two tone-shock pairings. One day after fear conditioning, mice were tested for contextual fear memory and tone fear memory in separate retrieval trials. Three experiments were performed. For experiment 1, mice were injected three times: 1 hour before and 3 hours after fear conditioning, and 1 hour before context retrieval. For experiments 2 and 3, mice were injected a single time at 1 hour and 2 hours before fear conditioning respectively. In all three experiments there was no effect on tone fear memory. Injection of Abeta 1 hour before fear conditioning, but not 2 hours before fear conditioning, impaired the formation of a contextual fear memory. In future studies, the acute effect of natural Abeta oligomers on contextual fear memory can be used to identify potential mechanisms and treatments of AD associated memory loss. PMID:22238679

  8. Natural amyloid-β oligomers acutely impair the formation of a contextual fear memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara A Kittelberger

    Full Text Available Memory loss is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD. It has been proposed that soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta oligomers acutely impair neuronal function and thereby memory. We here report that natural Abeta oligomers acutely impair contextual fear memory in mice. A natural Abeta oligomer solution containing Abeta monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers was derived from the conditioned medium of 7PA2 cells, a cell line that expresses human amyloid precursor protein containing the Val717Phe familial AD mutation. As a control we used 7PA2 conditioned medium from which Abeta oligomers were removed through immunodepletion. Separate groups of mice were injected with Abeta and control solutions through a cannula into the lateral brain ventricle, and subjected to fear conditioning using two tone-shock pairings. One day after fear conditioning, mice were tested for contextual fear memory and tone fear memory in separate retrieval trials. Three experiments were performed. For experiment 1, mice were injected three times: 1 hour before and 3 hours after fear conditioning, and 1 hour before context retrieval. For experiments 2 and 3, mice were injected a single time at 1 hour and 2 hours before fear conditioning respectively. In all three experiments there was no effect on tone fear memory. Injection of Abeta 1 hour before fear conditioning, but not 2 hours before fear conditioning, impaired the formation of a contextual fear memory. In future studies, the acute effect of natural Abeta oligomers on contextual fear memory can be used to identify potential mechanisms and treatments of AD associated memory loss.

  9. Late-onset Alzheimer's risk variants in memory decline, incident mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Crook, Julia E; Pedraza, Otto; Thomas, Colleen S; Pankratz, V Shane; Allen, Mariet; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly G; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina D; Roberts, Rosebud O; Lucas, John A; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Machulda, Mary M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    We tested association of nine late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with memory and progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or LOAD (MCI/LOAD) in older Caucasians, cognitively normal at baseline and longitudinally evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Jacksonville (n>2000). Each variant was tested both individually and collectively using a weighted risk score. APOE-e4 associated with worse baseline memory and increased decline with highly significant overall effect on memory. CLU-rs11136000-G associated with worse baseline memory and incident MCI/LOAD. MS4A6A-rs610932-C associated with increased incident MCI/LOAD and suggestively with lower baseline memory. ABCA7-rs3764650-C and EPHA1-rs11767557-A associated with increased rates of memory decline in subjects with a final diagnosis of MCI/LOAD. PICALM-rs3851179-G had an unexpected protective effect on incident MCI/LOAD. Only APOE-inclusive risk scores associated with worse memory and incident MCI/LOAD. The collective influence of the nine top LOAD GWAS variants on memory decline and progression to MCI/LOAD appears limited. Discovery of biologically functional variants at these loci may uncover stronger effects on memory and incident disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bombesin administration impairs memory and does not reverse memory deficit caused by sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L B T; Oliveira, S L B; Raya, J; Esumi, L A; Hipolide, D C

    2017-07-28

    Sleep deprivation impairs performance in emotional memory tasks, however this effect on memory is not completely understood. Possible mechanisms may involve an alteration in neurotransmission systems, as shown by the fact that many drugs that modulate neural pathways can prevent memory impairment by sleep loss. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that emerged as a regulatory molecule of emotional memory through the modulation of other neurotransmission systems. Thus, the present study addressed the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of bombesin (BB) (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0μg/kg), a GRP agonist, on the performance of Wistar rats in a multiple trail inhibitory avoidance (MTIA) task, after sleep deprivation, using the modified multiple platforms method (MMPM). Sleep deprived animals exhibited acquisition and retention impairment that was not prevented by BB injection. In addition, non-sleep deprived animals treated with BB before and after the training session, but not before the test, have shown a retention deficit. In summary, BB did not improve the memory impairment by sleep loss and, under normal conditions, produced a memory consolidation deficit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Discrete memory impairments in largely pure chronic users of MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderli, Michael D; Vonmoos, Matthias; Fürst, Marina; Schädelin, Katrin; Kraemer, Thomas; Baumgartner, Markus R; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2017-10-01

    Chronic use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") has repeatedly been associated with deficits in working memory, declarative memory, and executive functions. However, previous findings regarding working memory and executive function are inconclusive yet, as in most studies concomitant stimulant use, which is known to affect these functions, was not adequately controlled for. Therefore, we compared the cognitive performance of 26 stimulant-free and largely pure (primary) MDMA users, 25 stimulant-using polydrug MDMA users, and 56 MDMA/stimulant-naïve controls by applying a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Neuropsychological tests were grouped into four cognitive domains. Recent drug use was objectively quantified by 6-month hair analyses on 17 substances and metabolites. Considerably lower mean hair concentrations of stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine), opioids (morphine, methadone, codeine), and hallucinogens (ketamine, 2C-B) were detected in primary compared to polydrug users, while both user groups did not differ in their MDMA hair concentration. Cohen's d effect sizes for both comparisons, i.e., primary MDMA users vs. controls and polydrug MDMA users vs. controls, were highest for declarative memory (dprimary=.90, dpolydrug=1.21), followed by working memory (dprimary=.52, dpolydrug=.96), executive functions (dprimary=.46, dpolydrug=.86), and attention (dprimary=.23, dpolydrug=.70). Thus, primary MDMA users showed strong and relatively discrete declarative memory impairments, whereas MDMA polydrug users displayed broad and unspecific cognitive impairments. Consequently, even largely pure chronic MDMA use is associated with decreased performance in declarative memory, while additional deficits in working memory and executive functions displayed by polydrug MDMA users are likely driven by stimulant co-use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Declarative and Procedural Memory in Danish Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Bleses, Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarative memory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…

  13. Ecological assessment of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolló-Gasol, S; Piñol-Ripoll, G; Cejudo-Bolivar, J C; Llorente-Vizcaino, A; Peraita-Adrados, H

    2014-01-01

    The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) is a short, ecologically-valid memory test battery that can provide data about a subject's memory function in daily life. We used RBMT to examine daily memory function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer disease (AD), and in healthy controls. We also evaluated differences between the memory profiles of subjects whose MCI remained stable after 1 year and those with conversion to AD. Sample of 91 subjects older than 60 years: 30 controls, 27 MCI subjects and 34 AD patients. Subjects were assessed using MMSE and RBMT. The 40 men and 51 women in the sample had a mean age of 74.29±6.71 and 5.87±2.93 years of education. For the total profile and screening RBMT scores (P<.001) and total MMSE scores (P<.05), control subjects scored significantly higher than those with MCI, who in turn scored higher than AD patients. In all subtests, the control group (P<.001) and MCI group (P<.05) were distinguishable from the AD group. Prospective, retrospective, and orientation subtests found differences between the MCI and control groups (P<.05). MCI subjects who progressed to AD scored lower at baseline on the total RBMT and MMSE, and on name recall, belongings, story-immediate recall, route-delayed recall, orientation (P<.05), face recognition, story-delayed recall, and messages-delayed recall sections (P<.01). RBMT is an ecologically-valid episodic memory test that can be used to differentiate between controls, MCI subjects, and AD subjects. It can also be used to detect patients with MCI who will experience progression to AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Memory evaluation in mild cognitive impairment using recall and recognition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Golob, Edward J; Parker, Elizabeth S; Starr, Arnold

    2006-11-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a selective episodic memory deficit that often indicates early Alzheimer's disease. Episodic memory function in MCI is typically defined by deficits in free recall, but can also be tested using recognition procedures. To assess both recall and recognition in MCI, MCI (n = 21) and older comparison (n = 30) groups completed the USC-Repeatable Episodic Memory Test. Subjects memorized two verbally presented 15-item lists. One list was used for three free recall trials, immediately followed by yes/no recognition. The second list was used for three-alternative forced-choice recognition. Relative to the comparison group, MCI had significantly fewer hits and more false alarms in yes/no recognition, and were less accurate in forced-choice recognition. Signal detection analysis showed that group differences were not due to response bias. Discriminant function analysis showed that yes/no recognition was a better predictor of group membership than free recall or forced-choice measures. MCI subjects recalled fewer items than comparison subjects, with no group differences in repetitions, intrusions, serial position effects, or measures of recall strategy (subjective organization, recall consistency). Performance deficits on free recall and recognition in MCI suggest a combination of both tests may be useful for defining episodic memory impairment associated with MCI and early Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Procedural and Declarative Memory in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young…

  16. Is memory impairment greater than cognitive impairment in moderate chronic alcoholics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, E; Della Pria, M; Doro, G; Spinnler, H

    1983-12-01

    The aims of the research were to test (i) whether moderate chronic alcoholics (A/pts) perform worse than non teetotaler controls (C/pts) either on memory or on intelligence tasks or on both, and (ii) whether there was a significant difference between verbal and spatial memory scores pointing to the claimed prevailing right hemisphere sensitivity to alcohol abuse. Great care was taken in selecting C/pts not to exaggerate by sample biasing the psychological effects of alcoholism. Intelligence was tested by means of verbal and performance Wechsler-Bellevue IQ and Raven PM47; memory was tested by means of serial immediate memory span and learning by means of verbal and spatial devices. The results support the conclusion that chronic wine alcoholism in a band of drinkers with lowish educational background and very set drinking habits impairs memory and intelligence without any significant difference. Moreover there is no evidence of a prevalent right hemisphere sensitivity to chronic alcohol addiction.

  17. Irish Intercultural Cinema: Memory, Identity and Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray, Enda Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irish intercultural cinema looks at the development of a cinematic genre which focuses on issues of Irish migrancy but is produced outside of Ireland. This paper has as its focus the cultural landscape of Irish-Australia. The essay uses methodologies of ethnographic and documentary theory plus textual analysis of film and written texts to establish a throughline of Irish intercultural film. The essay begins by contextualising the place of the Irish diaspora within the creation of Irish identity globally. The discussion around migrancy is widened to consider the place of memory and intergenerational tensions within not just the Irish migrant population, but also within the diverse cultures which comprise the contemporary Australian landscape. The historical development of intercultural cinema is then explored internationally within a context of colonial, gender and class struggles in the 1970s and1980s. The term intercultural cinema has its origins in the Third Cinema of Argentinians Solanas and Getino in the 1970s and covers those films which deal with issues involving two countries or cultures. The term was refined by Laura Marks in 2000 and further developed by Hamid Naficy in 2001 in his discussion of accented cinema which narrows its definition to include the politics of production. The paper then traces the development of Irish intercultural cinema from its beginnings in England in the 1970s with Thaddeus O'Sullivan through to Nicola Bruce and others including Enda Murray in the present day. The essay concludes by bringing these various strands together to see where intercultural film might have a place in today's globalised cultural landscape. Common traits within intercultural film such as the notion of place, autobiographical film and personal identity are explored using examples of intercultural filmmaking from around the globe. These commonalities point to a way forward for the future of a sustainable multicultural film culture.

  18. Environmental enrichment reverses memory impairment induced by toluene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Sergio; Solís-Guillén, Rocío Del Carmen; García-Jácome, David; Páez-Martínez, Nayeli

    2017-05-01

    Toluene is the main component of a variety of inhalants that are used for intoxication purposes. Alterations in memory have been reported in inhalant users; however, it is unclear whether these impairments could be reversed, and the mechanisms involved in the putative recovery. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to model the deleterious effects of toluene on memory in mice and to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on that response. In the second part of the study, the concentrations of glutamate and GABA, following chronic toluene exposure and after environmental enrichment treatment, were evaluated. Adolescent mice were exposed to either a single or repeated schedule of toluene administration and their responses to object recognition were analyzed. An independent group of mice was repeatedly exposed to toluene and then housed either under environmental enrichment or standard conditions for four weeks. At the end of the housing period, the rodents' performance in object recognition test, as well as the concentrations of neurotransmitters, were analyzed. The results showed that toluene caused memory impairment in mice that received a single or repeated solvent exposure. Remarkably, environmental enrichment could reverse memory deficits induced by repeated administration of toluene. Cessation of toluene exposure in mice in standard housing did not produce that response. The glutamate and GABA tissue contents were not involved in the effects of toluene or environmental enrichment of memory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Working memory and novel word learning in children with hearing impairment and children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, K; Forsberg, J; Löfqvist, A; Mäki-Torkko, E; Sahlén, B

    2004-01-01

    Working memory is considered to influence a range of linguistic skills, i.e. vocabulary acquisition, sentence comprehension and reading. Several studies have pointed to limitations of working memory in children with specific language impairment. Few studies, however, have explored the role of working memory for language deficits in children with hearing impairment. The first aim was to compare children with mild-to-moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment and children with normal language development, aged 9-12 years, for language and working memory. The special focus was on the role of working memory in learning new words for primary school age children. The assessment of working memory included tests of phonological short-term memory and complex working memory. Novel word learning was assessed according to the methods of. In addition, a range of language tests was used to assess language comprehension, output phonology and reading. Children with hearing impairment performed significantly better than children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment on tasks assessing novel word learning, complex working memory, sentence comprehension and reading accuracy. No significant correlation was found between phonological short-term memory and novel word learning in any group. The best predictor of novel word learning in children with specific language impairment and in children with hearing impairment was complex working memory. Furthermore, there was a close relationship between complex working memory and language in children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment but not in children with hearing impairment. Complex working memory seems to play a significant role in vocabulary acquisition in primary school age children. The interpretation is that the results support theories suggesting a weakened influence of phonological short-term memory on novel word

  20. Psychosocial stress induces working memory impairments in an n-back paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, Daniela; Preuss, Diana; Wolf, Oliver T

    2008-06-01

    In contrast to the substantial number of studies investigating the effects of stress on declarative memory, effects of stress on working memory have received less attention. We compared working memory (numerical n-back task with single digits) in 40 men exposed either to psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)) or a control condition. Task difficulty was varied using two conditions (2-back vs. 3-back). Salivary cortisol (as a marker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA as a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity) were assessed immediately before and three times after the stress or control condition. As expected stress resulted in an increase in cortisol, sAA, and negative affect. Subjects exposed to stress showed significant working memory impairments in both workload conditions. The analysis of variance indicated a main effect of stress for reaction time as well as accuracy. In addition, for reaction time a stress-block interaction occurred. Follow up tests revealed that only during the first block at each level of difficulty performance was significantly impaired by stress. Thus, the effects of stress became smaller the longer the task was performed. Results provide further evidence for impaired working memory after acute stress and illustrate the time course of this phenomenon.

  1. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects.

  2. Visuospatial working memory is severely impaired in Bálint syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Michitaka; Nakagawa, Yoshitaka; Sunagawa, Kosaku

    2015-08-01

    Although it has been proposed that visuospatial working memory may be impaired in Bálint syndrome patients, neither a systematic study concerning this proposal nor a comparison with patients having right-parietal damage has been made. Visuospatial working memory was assessed for six Bálint syndrome patients and members of two control groups-one composed of individuals with right-parietal damage (n = 15) and a second of age- and gender-matched healthy individuals (n = 26). We placed special emphasis on patients with a mild form of Bálint syndrome who can judge positional relationships between two objects. First, the participants were subjected to delayed visuospatial matching tasks. Next, their visuospatial-temporal integration abilities were assessed using a shape-from-moving-dots task. Visuospatial working memory was impaired for Bálint syndrome patients compared with controls according to the results of the tests. The differences between the Bálint syndrome and control subjects remained when only data for patients with the mild form of Bálint syndrome were included. We conclude that visuospatial working memory may be severely impaired in Bálint syndrome patients and, therefore, might influence their inability to properly execute movements and behaviours associated with daily living. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Grammatical sensitivity and working memory in children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Farkas, Lajos

    2011-12-01

    Children with primary language impairment (LI) show a deficit in processing different grammatical structures, verb inflections, and syntactically complex sentences among other things (Clahsen-Hansen 1997; Leonard et al. 1997). Cross-linguistic research has shown that the pattern of performance is language-specific. We examined grammatical sensitivity to word order and agreement violations in 50 Hungarian-speaking children with and without LI. The findings suggest a strong association between sensitivity to grammatical violations and working memory capacity. Variations in working memory performance predicted grammatical sensitivity. Hungarian participants with LI exhibited a weakness in detecting both agreement and word order violations.

  4. Memory impairment in older adults’ diversionary thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Fátima; Resende, Flávia; Salomé Pinho, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males), aged 65–69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30) and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini–Mental State Examination). Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one’s childhood home or the last party that one had attended) after studying one word list (List 1) and before viewing the second word list (List 2). After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information. PMID:26539106

  5. Memory impairment in older adults’ diversionary thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima eAlves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males, aged 65 to 69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini–Mental State Examination. Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one’s childhood home or the last party that one had attended after studying one word list (List 1 and before viewing the second word list (List 2. After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information.

  6. Subjective cognitive complaints included in diagnostic evaluation of dementia helps accurate diagnosis in a mixed memory clinic cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, L C; Vogel, Asmus Mejling; Ebstrup, J

    2015-01-01

    functions were assessed with the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE), and symptoms of depression were rated with Major Depression Inventory (MDI). All interviews and the diagnostic conclusion were blinded to the SMC score. RESULTS: We found that young patients......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the quantity and profile of subjective cognitive complaints in young patients as compared with elderly patients referred to a memory clinic. METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the Copenhagen University Hospital Memory Clinic at Rigshospitalet....... In total, 307 patients and 149 age-matched healthy controls were included. Patients were classified in 4 diagnostic groups: dementia, mild cognitive impairment, affective disorders and no cognitive impairment. Subjective memory was assessed with subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. Global cognitive...

  7. False Memories Are Not Surprising: The Subjective Experience of an Associative Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments examined subjective experience during retrieval in the DRM false memory paradigm [Deese, J. (1959). "On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall." "Journal of Experimental Psychology," 58, 17-22; Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories: Remembering words not…

  8. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog” is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ, a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks.

  9. Preserved and impaired emotional memory in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanica eKlein-Koerkamp

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with early atrophy of both limbic structures involved in memory and emotion processing in Alzheimer’s disease (AD provide a unique clinical population for investigating how emotion is able to modulate retention processes. This review focuses on the emotional enhancement effect (EEE, defined as the improvement of memory for emotional events compared with neutral ones. The assessment of the EEE for different memory systems in AD suggests that the EEE could be preserved under specific retrieval instructions. The first part of this review examines these data in light of compelling evidence that the amygdala can modulate processes of hippocampus-dependent memory. We argue that the EEE could be a useful paradigm to reduce impairment in episodic memory tasks. In the second part, we discuss theoretical consequences of the findings in favor of an EEE, according to which a compensatory mechanism in patients with AD solicits greater amygdala functioning or additional networks, even when amygdala atrophy is present. These considerations emphasize the relevance of investigating patients with AD to understand the relationship between emotion and memory processes.

  10. Rethinking the connection between working memory and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Harder Griebeling, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Working memory deficits have been found for children with specific language impairment (SLI) on tasks imposing increasing short-term memory load with or without additional, consistent (and simple) processing load. To examine the processing function of working memory in children with low language (LL) by employing tasks imposing increasing processing loads with constant storage demands individually adjusted based on each participant's short-term memory capacity. School-age groups with LL (n = 17) and typical language with either average (n = 28) or above-average nonverbal intelligence (n = 15) completed complex working memory-span tasks varying processing load while keeping storage demands constant, varying storage demands while keeping processing load constant, simple storage-span tasks, and measures of language and nonverbal intelligence. Teachers completed questionnaires about cognition and learning. Significantly lower scores were found for the LL than either matched group on storage-based tasks, but no group differences were found on the tasks varying processing load. Teachers' ratings of oral expression and mathematics abilities discriminated those who did or did not complete the most challenging cognitive tasks. The results implicate a deficit in the phonological storage but not in the central executive component of working memory for children with LL. Teacher ratings may reveal personality traits related to perseverance of effort in cognitive research. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  11. Cannabis-Related Working Memory Deficits and Associated Subcortical Morphological Differences in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew J.; Cobia, Derin J.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Cronenwett, Will J.; Goldman, Morris B.; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M.; Breiter, Hans C.; Csernansky, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subject...

  12. Virtual peer-delivered memory intervention: a single-case experimental design in an adolescent with chronic memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Janine M; Lockett, Stephen; McIlroy, Alissandra; Gonzalez, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Children and adolescents with chronic memory impairment may develop coping strategies that enable functioning, yet these often remain undetectable using traditional psychometric measures. Personalized intervention studies that promote the use of such strategies designed specifically for use by this young cohort are scarce. To investigate the effect of a novel virtual reality peer-delivered memory intervention on the everyday functioning and well-being of SE, a 17-year-old female with a history of chronic verbal memory issues, impaired autobiographical event recall and elevated mood symptoms. A single-case ABA experimental design study was used to assess change. Following initial baseline assessment using objective neuropsychological and subjective functional questionnaires and intervention training, case SE used the intervention daily for 3 weeks before repeating key outcome measures. Using non-overlap of all pairs and qualitative feedback analysis, the results revealed a significant increase in event recall and self-reported positive changes to levels of everyday functioning. Supporting autobiographical event recall and prospective memory via a virtual peer-delivered intervention may lead to reduction in cognitive load, and benefit overall well-being and everyday functioning.

  13. Brain injury impairs working memory and prefrontal circuit function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin James Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 2.5 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI each year. Even mild to moderate traumatic brain injury causes long-lasting neurological effects. Despite its prevalence, no therapy currently exists to treat the underlying cause of cognitive impairment suffered by TBI patients. Following lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI, the most widely used experimental model of TBI, we investigated alterations in working memory and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in the prefrontal cortex. LFPI impaired working memory as assessed with a T-maze behavioral task. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials recorded in the prefrontal cortex were reduced in slices derived from brain-injured mice. Spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were more frequent in slices derived from LFPI mice while inhibitory currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were smaller after LFPI. Additionally, an increase in action potential threshold and concomitant decrease in firing rate was observed in layer 2/3 neurons in slices from injured animals. Conversely, no differences in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic transmission onto layer 5 neurons were observed; however, layer 5 neurons demonstrated a decrease in input resistance and action potential duration after LFPI. These results demonstrate synaptic and intrinsic alterations in prefrontal circuitry that may underlie working memory impairment caused by TBI.

  14. Decaffeinated coffee prevents scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Jin; Kim, Jiyoung; Shim, Jaesung; Kim, Chang-Yul; Jang, Jung-Hee; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2013-05-15

    Several human studies have reported that coffee consumption improves cognitive performance. In the present study, we investigated whether instant decaffeinated coffee also ameliorates cognitive performance and attenuates the detrimental effects of scopolamine on memory. Memory performance was evaluated in Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Instant decaffeinated coffee (p.o.) at 120 or 240 mg/kg in Sprague-Dawley rats, which is equivalent to approximately three or six cups of coffee, respectively, in a 60 kg human, was administered for two weeks. Oral gavage administration of instant decaffeinated coffee inhibited scopolamine-induced memory impairment, which was measured by Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Instant decaffeinated coffee suppressed scopolamine-mediated elevation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and stimulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway (i.e., phosphorylation of IκBα and p65) in the rat hippocampus. These findings suggest that caffeine-free decaffeinated coffee may prevent memory impairment in human through the inhibition of NF-κB activation and subsequent TNF-α production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relevance of quality of life assessment for multiple sclerosis patients with memory impairment.

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    Karine Baumstarck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Memory disturbances, in particular episodic verbal memory dysfunction, are the most frequent cognitive impairment observed in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. The use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care of these subjects has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcomes for use in this impaired population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL instrument, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL. METHODS: DESIGN: cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: MS patients of any disease subtype. DATA COLLECTION: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity and clinical data (MS subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration; QoL (MusiQoL and SF36; and memory performance (Grober and Buschke test. In accordance with the French norms of the memory test, non-impaired and impaired populations were defined for short- and long-delay free composites and for short- and long-delay total composites. For the 8 populations, psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled. The analysis performed in the impaired populations showed that the questionnaire structure adequately matched the initial structure of the MusiQoL. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the reference population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that memory dysfunction did not compromise the reliability or validity of the self-reported QoL questionnaires.

  16. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  17. Impairment in emotional modulation of attention and memory in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Ramirez, Paul Michael; Wong, Philip; Antonius, Daniel; Aujero, Nicole; McMahon, Kevin; Opler, Lewis A; Malaspina, Dolores

    2014-08-01

    Emotion plays a critical role in cognition and goal-directed behavior via complex interconnections between the emotional and motivational systems. It has been hypothesized that the impairment in goal-directed behavior widely noted in schizophrenia may result from defects in the interaction between the neural (ventral) emotional system and (rostral) cortical processes. The present study examined the impact of emotion on attention and memory in schizophrenia. Twenty-five individuals with schizophrenia related psychosis and 25 healthy control subjects were administered a computerized task in which they were asked to search for target images during a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation of pictures. Target stimuli were either positive or negative, or neutral images presented at either 200ms or 700ms lag. Additionally, a visual hedonic task was used to assess differences between the schizophrenia group and controls on ratings of valence and arousal from the picture stimuli. Compared to controls, individuals with schizophrenia detected fewer emotional images under both the 200ms and 700ms lag conditions. Multivariate analyses showed that the schizophrenia group also detected fewer positive images under the 700ms lag condition and fewer negative images under the 200ms lag condition. Individuals with schizophrenia reported higher pleasantness and unpleasantness ratings than controls in response to neutral stimuli, while controls reported higher arousal ratings for neutral and positive stimuli compared to the schizophrenia group. These results highlight dysfunction in the neural modulation of emotion, attention, and cortical processing in schizophrenia, adding to the growing but mixed body of literature on emotion processing in the disorder. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Individual differences in the brain are associated with resilience versus susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Ji, Muhuo; Zong, Manman; Jia, Min; Luo, Dan; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis impairs learning and memory function, yet marked interindividual variability exists in the degree to which sepsis compromises learning and memory function. Thus, testing resilience versus susceptibility to systemic inflammation induced-memory impairment and the underlying mechanism is needed. In the present study, we firstly used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce memory impairment, and then evaluated cognitive function on days 4-7 after the first LPS challenge. Subjects' scores on both behavioral measures were subjected to a hierarchical cluster analysis, identifying two clusters that differed notably on the Y-maze and fear conditioning tests. This analysis divided these subjects into two groups, one cluster (13 of 34 subjects) displayed impaired working and associative memory, named "Susceptive". The remaining cluster (21 of 34 subjects) showed normal memory, named "Resilient". We have also included another group receiving normal saline to serve as the control group. The three groups underwent a battery of biochemical detections. In addition, we investigated whether the individual differences would disappear between the "Resilient" and "Susceptive" groups by using microglia inhibitor minocycline. We showed that as compared with the "Resilient" or control group, the "Susceptive" group was accompanied by increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and biomarkers of microglia activation ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 and cluster of differentiation 68. Notably, after decreasing the activation of microglia, the differences in cognitive function between the "Resilient" and "Susceptive" groups disappeared. Collectively, our study suggests that individual differences in the brain are associated with resilience versus susceptibility to LPS-induced memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction after a stroke diagnosis: a post-stroke memory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Islam, Shabiul; Mohamad, Khairiyah

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction following stroke diagnosis are common symptoms that significantly affect the survivors' quality of life. Stroke patients have a high potential to develop dementia within the first year of stroke onset. Currently, efforts are being exerted to assess stroke effects on the brain, particularly in the early stages. Numerous neuropsychological assessments are being used to evaluate and differentiate cognitive impairment and dementia following stroke. This article focuses on the role of available neuropsychological assessments in detection of dementia and memory loss after stroke. This review starts with stroke types and risk factors associated with dementia development, followed by a brief description of stroke diagnosis criteria and the effects of stroke on the brain that lead to cognitive impairment and end with memory loss. This review aims to combine available neuropsychological assessments to develop a post-stroke memory assessment (PSMA) scheme based on the most recognized and available studies. The proposed PSMA is expected to assess different types of memory functionalities that are related to different parts of the brain according to stroke location. An optimal therapeutic program that would help stroke patients enjoy additional years with higher quality of life is presented.

  20. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Maski

    .03, P = 0.04]. NREM slow oscillation power did not correlate with memory consolidation. All results retained significance after controlling for age and BMI. In sum, participants with mild OSA had impaired memory consolidation and results were mediated by N2 sigma power. These results suggest that N2 sigma power could serve as biomarker of risk for cognitive dysfunction in children with sleep disordered breathing.

  1. Information processing deficits as a driving force for memory impairment in MS: A cross--sectional study of memory functions and MRI in early and late stage MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Wolfgang; Fischer, Martin; Bublak, Peter; Faiss, Jürgen H; Hoffmann, Frank; Kunkel, Annett; Sailer, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Stadler, Erhard; Zettl, Uwe K; Penner, Iris-Katharina

    2017-11-01

    Memory impairment (MI) is a common symptom of MS. Previous studies were conflicting in respect to the possible existence of early MI and the role of hippocampal atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate MI and structural MRI correlates in homogenous groups of early and late MS, controlling for a potential information-processing speed (IPS) deficit, and utilizing multiple memory test paradigms. 152 individually matched subjects were recruited: early MS (EMS, N = 25, disease duration 1.0 ± 0.8 years), late MS (LMS, N = 52, 16.5 ± 5.2 years), and corresponding controls. Five memory tests were utilized to account for differences in learning material (verbal, visual), encoding (incidental, intentional), and retrieval (free recall, recognition, recurring recognition). Performance was related to IPS, memory-specific (hippocampal volumes), and unspecific MRI measures (T1/T2LL, brain volume, cortical thickness). Memory was impaired across all tests in LMS, but not in EMS. LMS-patients were also significantly impaired in IPS which was correlated with several memory scores. Regression analyses revealed IPS and cortical thickness as predictors for visual MI, and IPS, sex, and left hippocampal volume as predictors for verbal MI. Additionally to direct destructions in memory specific tracts such as the hippocampus, memory decline in MS may also be related to a general factor comprising slowed information-processing and global tissue loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impaired motor memory for a pursuit rotor task following Stage 2 sleep loss in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith; MacNeill

    1994-12-01

    It has recently been reported that selective REM sleep deprivation (REMD) in college students results in memory impairment of the application of a set of rules in a logic task, but not recall of a paired associate task. The present experiments were designed to examine the effects of Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) and (REMD) following acquisition of a pure motor task, the pursuit rotor. In Experiment 1, subjects (N = 90) were exposed to TSD for one of several nights following training. Results showed that TSD on the same night as training resulted in poorer performance on retest one week later. In Experiment 2, subjects (N = 42) were exposed to various kinds of sleep deprivation on the night of task acquisition. One group was subjected to REMD. Other groups included a non-REM awakening control group (NREMA), a TSD group, a normally rested Control group and a group allowed the first 4 h of sleep in the night before being subjected to TSD (LH - TSD) for the rest of the night. Results showed the REMD and Control groups to have excellent memory for this task while the TSD and LH - TSD subjects had significantly poorer memory for the task. The NREMA group showed a slight, but not significant deficit. It was concluded that Stage 2 sleep, rather than REM sleep was the important stage of sleep for efficient memory processing of the pursuit rotor task.

  3. Deficits in episodic memory retrieval reveal impaired default mode network connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J. Dunn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI is believed to represent a transitional stage between normal healthy ageing and the development of dementia. In particular, aMCI patients have been shown to have higher annual transition rates to Alzheimer's Disease (AD than individuals without cognitive impairment. Despite intensifying interest investigating the neuroanatomical basis of this transition, there remain a number of questions regarding the pathophysiological process underlying aMCI itself. A number of recent studies in aMCI have shown specific impairments in connectivity within the default mode network (DMN, which is a group of regions strongly related to episodic memory capacities. However to date, no study has investigated the integrity of the DMN between patients with aMCI and those with a non-amnestic pattern of MCI (naMCI, who have cognitive impairment, but intact memory storage systems. In this study, we contrasted the DMN connectivity in 24 aMCI and 33 naMCI patients using seed-based resting state fMRI. The two groups showed no statistical difference in their DMN intra-connectivity. However when connectivity was analysed according to performance on measures of episodic memory retrieval, the two groups were separable, with aMCI patients demonstrating impaired functional connectivity between the hippocampal formation and the posterior cingulate cortex. We provide evidence that this lack of connectivity is driven by impaired communication from the posterior cingulate hub and does not simply represent hippocampal atrophy, suggesting that posterior cingulate degeneration is the driving force behind impaired DMN connectivity in aMCI.

  4. Cerebral atrophy in elderly with subjective memory complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, W.M.; Ferrarini, L.; van der Flier, W.M.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Bollen, E.L.E.M.; Middelkoop, H.A.M.; Milles, J.R.; van der Grond, J.; van Buchem, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate ventricular shape differences along the complete surface of the lateral and third ventricles of persons with subjective memory complaints (MC). Materials and Methods We included 28 controls and 21 persons with MC. FLAIR, T2, and PD-weighted brain MRI scans were acquired at 1.5

  5. Subjective memory complaints in elders: depression, anxiety, or cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balash, Y; Mordechovich, M; Shabtai, H; Giladi, N; Gurevich, T; Korczyn, A D

    2013-05-01

    To study the association of subjective memory complaints (SMC) with affective state and cognitive performance in elders. We studied community dwelling elderly persons with normal physical examination. Participants completed questionnaires regarding memory difficulties and lifestyle habits, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Depending on their answers to the question about their memory condition, participants were divided into complainers and non-complainers and to five groups according to their MMSE scores. These data have been compared to objective cognitive performance according to Mindstreams - a computerized neuropsychological battery. A logistic regression was performed to evaluate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for those factors, which were associated with SMС (dependent variable). Of 636 consecutive subjects (61% females), 507 participants (79.7%) had SMС. Presence of SMC was inversely correlated with MMSE scores, (r = -0.108; P for trend = 0.007). GDS and STAI scores were higher among subjects with SMC (OR = 1.23: CI 95%: 1.1-1.36 and OR = 1.03: CI 95%: 1.01-1.07, respectively). SMC did not correlate with objective cognitive performance measured by Mindstreams. Subjective memory complaints are associated with sub-syndromal depression and anxiety in healthy cognitively normal elders. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Inactivation of Primate Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Auditory and Audiovisual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Hwang, Jaewon; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2015-07-01

    The prefrontal cortex is associated with cognitive functions that include planning, reasoning, decision-making, working memory, and communication. Neurophysiology and neuropsychology studies have established that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is essential in spatial working memory while the ventral frontal lobe processes language and communication signals. Single-unit recordings in nonhuman primates has shown that ventral prefrontal (VLPFC) neurons integrate face and vocal information and are active during audiovisual working memory. However, whether VLPFC is essential in remembering face and voice information is unknown. We therefore trained nonhuman primates in an audiovisual working memory paradigm using naturalistic face-vocalization movies as memoranda. We inactivated VLPFC, with reversible cortical cooling, and examined performance when faces, vocalizations or both faces and vocalization had to be remembered. We found that VLPFC inactivation impaired subjects' performance in audiovisual and auditory-alone versions of the task. In contrast, VLPFC inactivation did not disrupt visual working memory. Our studies demonstrate the importance of VLPFC in auditory and audiovisual working memory for social stimuli but suggest a different role for VLPFC in unimodal visual processing. The ventral frontal lobe, or inferior frontal gyrus, plays an important role in audiovisual communication in the human brain. Studies with nonhuman primates have found that neurons within ventral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) encode both faces and vocalizations and that VLPFC is active when animals need to remember these social stimuli. In the present study, we temporarily inactivated VLPFC by cooling the cortex while nonhuman primates performed a working memory task. This impaired the ability of subjects to remember a face and vocalization pair or just the vocalization alone. Our work highlights the importance of the primate VLPFC in the processing of faces and vocalizations in a manner that

  7. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  8. Selective noradrenaline depletion impairs working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradazzi, Marino; Gulino, Rosario; Fieramosca, Francesco; Falzacappa, Lucia Verga; Riggi, Margherita; Leanza, Giampiero

    2016-12-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus play a role in learning and memory, and their loss is an early event in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Moreover, noradrenaline may sustain hippocampal neurogenesis; however, whether are these events related is still unknown. Four to five weeks following the selective immunotoxic ablation of locus coeruleus neurons, young adult rats underwent reference and working memory tests, followed by postmortem quantitative morphological analyses to assess the extent of the lesion, as well as the effects on proliferation and/or survival of neural progenitors in the hippocampus. When tested in the Water Maze task, lesioned animals exhibited no reference memory deficit, whereas working memory abilities were seen significantly impaired, as compared with intact or sham-lesioned controls. Stereological analyses confirmed a dramatic noradrenergic neuron loss associated to reduced proliferation, but not survival or differentiation, of 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine-positive progenitors in the dentate gyrus. Thus, ascending noradrenergic afferents may be involved in more complex aspects of cognitive performance (i.e., working memory) possibly via newly generated progenitors in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. fMRI and sleep correlates of the age-related impairment in motor memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Stuart M; Albouy, Genevieve; Vien, Catherine; Popovicci, Romana; King, Bradley R; Hoge, Rick; Jbabdi, Saad; Benali, Habib; Karni, Avi; Maquet, Pierre; Carrier, Julie; Doyon, Julien

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral studies indicate that older adults exhibit normal motor sequence learning (MSL), but paradoxically, show impaired consolidation of the new memory trace. However, the neural and physiological mechanisms underlying this impairment are entirely unknown. Here, we sought to identify, through functional magnetic resonance imaging during MSL and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings during daytime sleep, the functional correlates and physiological characteristics of this age-related motor memory deficit. As predicted, older subjects did not exhibit sleep-dependent gains in performance (i.e., behavioral changes that reflect consolidation) and had reduced sleep spindles compared with young subjects. Brain imaging analyses also revealed that changes in activity across the retention interval in the putamen and related brain regions were associated with sleep spindles. This change in striatal activity was increased in young subjects, but reduced by comparison in older subjects. These findings suggest that the deficit in sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in elderly individuals is related to a reduction in sleep spindle oscillations and to an associated decrease of activity in the cortico-striatal network. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of an NCAM mimetic peptide FGL on impairment in spatial learning and memory after neonatal phencyclidine treatment in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    treatment regimen where FGL was administered throughout development. Rats were tested as adults for spatial reference memory, reversal learning, and working memory in the Morris water maze. The PCP-treated rats demonstrated a robust impairment in working memory and reversal learning. However, the long......The FGL peptide is a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived fibroblast growth factor receptor agonist. FGL has both neurotrophic and memory enhancing properties. Neonatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 has been shown to result in long-lasting behavioral abnormalities......, including cognitive impairment relevant to schizophrenia. The present study investigated the effect of FGL on spatial learning and memory deficits induced by neonatal PCP treatment. Rat pups were treated with 30mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11. Additionally, the rats were subjected to a chronic FGL...

  11. Verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia associated with cortical thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guimond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal memory (VM represents one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. Multiple studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with cortical abnormalities, but it remains unclear whether these are related to VM impairments. Considering the vast literature demonstrating the role of the frontal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex, and the hippocampus in VM, we examined the cortical thickness/volume of these regions. We used a categorical approach whereby 27 schizophrenia patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments were compared to 23 patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments and 23 healthy controls. A series of between-group vertex-wise GLM on cortical thickness were performed for specific regions of interest defining the parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal cortex. When compared to healthy controls, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments revealed significantly thinner cortex in the left frontal lobe, and the parahippocampal gyri. When compared to patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments showed a trend of thinner cortex in similar regions. Virtually no differences were observed in the frontal area of patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments relative to controls. No significant group differences were observed in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that patients with greater VM impairments demonstrate significant cortical thinning in regions known to be important in VM performance. Treating VM deficits in schizophrenia could have a positive effect on the brain; thus, subgroups of patients with more severe VM deficits should be a prioritized target in the development of new cognitive treatments.

  12. Blocking Mineralocorticoid Receptors Impairs, Blocking Glucocorticoid Receptors Enhances Memory Retrieval in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Memory retrieval is impaired at very low as well as very high cortisol levels, but not at intermediate levels. This inverted-U-shaped relationship between cortisol levels and memory retrieval may originate from different roles of the mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that bind cortisol with distinctly different affinity. Here, we examined the role of MRs and GRs in human memory retrieval using specific receptor antagonists. In two double-blind within-subject, cross-over designed studies, young healthy men were asked to retrieve emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learnt 3 days earlier) between 0745 and 0915 hours in the morning, either after administration of 400 mg of the MR blocker spironolactone vs placebo (200 mg at 2300 hours and 200 mg at 0400 hours, Study I) or after administration of the GR blocker mifepristone vs placebo (200 mg at 2300 hours, Study II). Blockade of MRs impaired free recall of both texts and pictures particularly for emotional material. In contrast, blockade of GRs resulted in better memory retrieval for pictures, with the effect being more pronounced for neutral than emotional materials. These findings indicate indeed opposing roles of MRs and GRs in memory retrieval, with optimal retrieval at intermediate cortisol levels likely mediated by high MR but concurrently low GR activation. PMID:23303058

  13. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran; Steinhart, Erin; Holbrook, Hannah; Katz, Eliot S; Kapur, Kush; Stickgold, Robert

    2017-01-01

    consolidation. All results retained significance after controlling for age and BMI. In sum, participants with mild OSA had impaired memory consolidation and results were mediated by N2 sigma power. These results suggest that N2 sigma power could serve as biomarker of risk for cognitive dysfunction in children with sleep disordered breathing.

  14. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan

    2015-08-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global impairment of prospective memory following acute alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Julie R; Morgan, Celia J A; Bisby, James A; Rendell, Peter G; Curran, H Valerie

    2009-08-01

    Whilst the deleterious effects of alcohol on retrospective remembering have been widely documented, no study has yet objectively determined alcohol's effects on prospective memory (PM)--remembering to do something in the future. With this aim, the present study determined the acute effects of alcohol upon PM using a laboratory measure that simulates the PM tasks in everyday life--'Virtual Week'--both (a) in its standard form with regular, irregular, event-based and time-based PM tasks; and (b) an adapted version which enabled exploration of how future event simulation at encoding impacted upon subsequent PM. Forty healthy volunteers were administered 0.6 g/kg ethanol or a matched placebo in a double-blind fashion and completed the two versions of Virtual Week along with prose recall (to tap retrospective memory) and an executive function task. Alcohol acutely produced global impairments across all (regular, irregular, event-based and time-based) PM tasks. It also produced impairments of episodic memory which positively correlated with PM performance of irregular tasks. Future-event simulation tended to enhance PM in the placebo but not in the alcohol group. These findings on an objective measure of PM suggest that 4-5 units of alcohol will compromise PM abilities in everyday life.

  16. Anti-ribosomal P protein autoantibodies from patients with neuropsychiatric lupus impair memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Zehnder, Marcela; Toledo, Enrique M; Segovia-Miranda, Fabián; Serrano, Felipe G; Benito, María J; Metz, Claudia; Retamal, Claudio; Álvarez, Alejandra; Massardo, Loreto; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; González, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    To define whether anti-ribosomal P (anti-P) autoantibodies from patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) impair the function of hippocampal neurons that express the neuronal surface P antigen (NSPA) when accessing the brain via circulating blood. We used anti-P antibodies from patients with NPSLE and rabbit-generated anti-P and anti-NSPA antibodies. Primary hippocampal neurons from mice were analyzed to determine antibody cell surface binding (double immunofluorescence), intracellular calcium variations (Fura 2 AM), and apoptosis (caspase 3 activation). Hippocampal-dependent spatial flexible memory was assessed in mice subjected to a water maze test 24 hours after an intravenous injection of anti-P or anti-NSPA, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to permeate the blood-brain barrier. Presence of antibodies and apoptosis in the hippocampus was studied using immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays. Hippocampal neurons expressed NSPA on the cell surface, as revealed by anti-P and anti-NSPA staining colocalization, and responded to both anti-P and anti-NSPA by exhibiting increased intracellular calcium levels. Neuronal apoptosis was induced when anti-P was directly injected by stereotaxis into the hippocampus or added to primary cultures. Upon LPS treatment, intravenously injected anti-P impaired memory but did not elicit neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus, where it was detectable in low amounts. Anti-NSPA antibodies also impaired memory. Anti-P antibodies interact with NSPA on the surface of hippocampal neurons leading to apoptotic death or to functional perturbations, results that are likely dependent on the concentration of these antibodies. Circulating anti-P can access the hippocampus and impair memory without requiring neuronal death when the blood-brain barrier is disrupted. NSPA can mediate antibody-driven diffuse brain dysfunction, and anti-P might contribute to the cognitive impairment that is frequently observed in SLE. Copyright

  17. Structural Connectivity Changes Underlying Altered Working Memory Networks in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Three-Way Image Fusion Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Ehlers, Inga; Erbe, Anna; Holzmann, Carsten; Lau, Esther; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Berger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Working memory impairment is among the earliest signs of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We aimed to study the functional and structural substrate of working memory impairment in early AD dementia and MCI. We studied a group of 12 MCI and AD subjects compared to 12 age- and gender-matched healthy elderly controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a 2-back versus 1-back letter recognition task. We performed a three-way image fusion analysis with joint independent component analysis of cortical activation during working memory, and DTI derived measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and the mode of anisotropy. We found significant hypoactivation in posterior brain areas and relative hyperactivation in anterior brain areas during working memory in AD/MCI subjects compared to controls. Corresponding independent components from DTI data revealed reduced FA and reduced mode of anisotropy in intracortical projecting fiber tracts with posterior predominance and increased FA and increased mode along the corticospinal tract in AD/MCI compared to controls. Our findings suggest that impairments of structural fiber tract integrity accompany breakdown of posterior and relatively preserved anterior cortical activation during working memory performance in MCI/AD subjects. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  18. FDG-PET Contributions to the Pathophysiology of Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segobin, Shailendra; La Joie, Renaud; Ritz, Ludivine; Beaunieux, Hélène; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Pitel, Anne Lise; Eustache, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of synaptic activity by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and its relation to cognitive functions such as episodic memory, working memory and executive functions in healthy humans and patients with neurocognitive disorders have been well documented. In this review, we introduce the concept of PET imaging that allows the observation of a particular biological process in vivo through the use of radio-labelled compounds, its general use to the medical world and its contributions to the understanding of memory systems. We then focus on [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), the radiotracer that is used to measure local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that is indicative of synaptic activity in the brain. FDG-PET at rest has been at the forefront of functional neuroimaging over the past 3 decades, contributing to the understanding of cognitive functions in healthy humans and how these functional patterns change with cognitive alterations. We discuss methodological considerations that are important for optimizing FDG-PET imaging data prior to analysis. We then highlight the contribution of FDG-PET to the understanding of the patterns of functional differences in non-degenerative pathologies, normal ageing, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Through reasonable temporal and spatial resolution, its ability to measure synaptic activity in the whole brain, independently of any specific network and disease, makes it ideal to observe regional functional changes associated with memory impairment.

  19. Poor frequency discrimination probes dyslexics with particularly impaired working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Karen; Ahissar, Merav

    2004-01-01

    Substantial difficulties in performing simple auditory discriminations were previously found in some individuals with a specific reading disability but not in others. This high variability in psychoacoustic performance raises the question of whether this difficulty is related to the reading deficit. Addressing this question, we compared adult dyslexics with and without difficulty in simple auditory discriminations, using 2-tone frequency discrimination as our probe. The distribution of their frequency discrimination scores was bimodal. On this basis, we divided our participants into subgroups having either poor or adequate psychoacoustic performance. Only dyslexics with poor psychoacoustic scores had significantly impaired verbal working memory compared to their matched controls. Furthermore, and only in this subgroup, working memory scores were correlated with both cognitive abilities and reading-related tasks. Consistent with the hypothesis that in this subgroup poor working memory impedes performance in a broad range of academically related tasks, we found that the majority of dyslexics in this subgroup had more extensive academic difficulties and consequently needed special support in schools. We propose that dyslexics with poor psychoacoustic abilities form a distinct subtype of dyslexia in which the core deficit is not specific to phonological components. For these individuals, poor verbal working memory may be the main impediment to success in academic environments. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Disrupting frontal eye-field activity impairs memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Cazzoli, Dario; Kalla, Roger; Müri, René; Mast, Fred W

    2016-04-13

    A large body of research demonstrated that participants preferably look back to the encoding location when retrieving visual information from memory. However, the role of this 'looking back to nothing' is still debated. The goal of the present study was to extend this line of research by examining whether an important area in the cortical representation of the oculomotor system, the frontal eye field (FEF), is involved in memory retrieval. To interfere with the activity of the FEF, we used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Before stimulation was applied, participants encoded a complex scene and performed a short-term (immediately after encoding) or long-term (after 24 h) recall task, just after cTBS over the right FEF or sham stimulation. cTBS did not affect overall performance, but stimulation and statement type (object vs. location) interacted. cTBS over the right FEF tended to impair object recall sensitivity, whereas there was no effect on location recall sensitivity. These findings suggest that the FEF is involved in retrieving object information from scene memory, supporting the hypothesis that the oculomotor system contributes to memory recall.

  1. Part-set cueing impairment & facilitation in semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parihar, Sushmeena A

    2018-01-19

    The present study explored the influence of part-set cues in semantic memory using tests of "free" recall, reconstruction of order, and serial recall. Nine distinct categories of information were used (e.g., Zodiac signs, Harry Potter books, Star Wars films, planets). The results showed part-set cueing impairment for all three "free" recall sets, whereas part-set cueing facilitation was evident for five of the six ordered sets. Generally, the present results parallel those often observed across episodic tasks, which could indicate that similar mechanisms contribute to part-set cueing effects in both episodic and semantic memory. A novel anchoring explanation of part-set cueing facilitation in order and spatial tasks is provided.

  2. Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction after a stroke diagnosis: a post-stroke memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Qazzaz NK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz,1,5 Sawal Hamid Ali,1 Siti Anom Ahmad,2 Shabiul Islam,3 Khairiyah Mohamad41Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering, Baghdad University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: Cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction following stroke diagnosis are common symptoms that significantly affect the survivors’ quality of life. Stroke patients have a high potential to develop dementia within the first year of stroke onset. Currently, efforts are being exerted to assess stroke effects on the brain, particularly in the early stages. Numerous neuropsychological assessments are being used to evaluate and differentiate cognitive impairment and dementia following stroke. This article focuses on the role of available neuropsychological assessments in detection of dementia and memory loss after stroke. This review starts with stroke types and risk factors associated with dementia development, followed by a brief description of stroke diagnosis criteria and the effects of stroke on the brain that lead to cognitive impairment and end with memory loss. This review aims to combine available neuropsychological assessments to develop a post-stroke memory assessment (PSMA scheme based on the most recognized and available studies. The proposed PSMA is expected to assess different types of memory functionalities that are related to different parts of the brain according to stroke location. An

  3. Subjective ratings of prospective memory deficits in chronic heavy alcohol users

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, Tom; Moss, Mark; Ling, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has a detrimental effect on retrospective memory. Less is known about its putative effects on everyday memory. This study looked at self-ratings of prospective memory (PM) (memory for future events). After controlling for other drug and strategy use, chronic heavy alcohol users showed global impairments in PM, when compared to matched controls. The underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Longitudinal Associations of Subjective Memory with Memory Performance and Depressive Symptoms: Between-Person and Within-Person Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Hertzog, Christopher; Pearman, Ann; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnostic criteria for memory loss in adults typically assume that subjective memory ratings accurately reflect compromised memory functioning. Research has documented small positive between-person associations between subjective memory and memory performance in older adults. Less is known, however, about whether within-person fluctuations in subjective memory covary with within-person variance in memory performance and depressive symptoms. The present study applied multilevel models of change to nine waves of data from 27,395 participants of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; mean age at baseline = 63.78; SD = 10.30; 58% women) to examine whether subjective memory is associated with both between-person differences and within-person variability in memory performance and depressive symptoms and explored the moderating role of known correlates (age, gender, education, and functional limitations). Results revealed that across persons, level of subjective memory indeed covaried with level of memory performance and depressive symptoms, with small-to-moderate between-person standardized effect sizes (0.19 for memory performance and 0.21 for depressive symptoms). Within individuals, occasions when participants scored higher than usual on a test of episodic memory or reported fewer-than-average depressive symptoms generated above-average subjective memory. At the within-person level, subjective memory ratings became more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance over time and those suffering from functional limitations were more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance and depressive symptoms. We take our results to suggest that within-person changes in subjective memory in part reflect monitoring flux in one’s own memory functioning, but are also influenced by flux in depressive symptoms. PMID:25244464

  5. Cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning involve executive dysfunction and memory impairment in cross-sectional and long-term perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezdíček, O.; Michalec, J.; Vaněčková, M.; Klempíř, J.; Lišková, I.; Seidl, Z.; Janíková, B.; Miovský, M.; Hubáček, J.; Diblík, P.; Kuthan, P.; Pilin, A.; Kurcová, I.; Fenclová, Z.; Petřík, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.; Zakharov, S.; Růžička, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, MAR 2017 (2017), s. 27-35 ISSN 0741-8329 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : methanol poisoning * cognitive impairment * memory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2016

  6. Predicting progression of amnesic MCI: The integration of episodic memory impairment with perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Davide; Gainotti, Guido; Di Giuda, Daniela; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Cocciolillo, Fabrizio; Lacidogna, Giordano; Guglielmi, Valeria; Masullo, Carlo; Giordano, Alessandro; Marra, Camillo

    2018-01-30

    The present study aimed at assessing if the ability to predict progression from amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) to dementia is improved by considering the presence at the baseline of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) perfusion abnormalities in addition to a defect of long term memory. The Episodic Memory Score (EMS), a global index which integrates results obtained in subtests of the Rey's Verbal Learning Test and the Rey-Osterrieth Figure recall, were taken into account to evaluate defects of long term memory. The study sample consisted of 42 subjects affected by aMCI, who were followed-up during a two-year period. At the final follow-up 15 subjects progressed to AD. The EMS predicted progression from aMCI to dementia with a high level of sensitivity and a lower level of specificity, but the association of neuropsychological (EMS) and SPECT data (hypoperfusion in the Posterior Cingulate Cortex) increased the accuracy in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD. The association of results obtained by aMCI patients on memory tests and perfusion SPECT may improve the accuracy in detecting subjects who will progress to dementia. The use of currently available and low-cost investigations could be advantageous in terms of public health policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlling memory impairment in elderly adults using virtual reality memory training: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optale, Gabriele; Urgesi, Cosimo; Busato, Valentina; Marin, Silvia; Piron, Lamberto; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gamberini, Luciano; Capodieci, Salvatore; Bordin, Adalberto

    2010-05-01

    Memory decline is a prevalent aspect of aging but may also be the first sign of cognitive pathology. Virtual reality (VR) using immersion and interaction may provide new approaches to the treatment of memory deficits in elderly individuals. The authors implemented a VR training intervention to try to lessen cognitive decline and improve memory functions. The authors randomly assigned 36 elderly residents of a rest care facility (median age 80 years) who were impaired on the Verbal Story Recall Test either to the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG underwent 6 months of VR memory training (VRMT) that involved auditory stimulation and VR experiences in path finding. The initial training phase lasted 3 months (3 auditory and 3 VR sessions every 2 weeks), and there was a booster training phase during the following 3 months (1 auditory and 1 VR session per week). The CG underwent equivalent face-to-face training sessions using music therapy. Both groups participated in social and creative and assisted-mobility activities. Neuropsychological and functional evaluations were performed at baseline, after the initial training phase, and after the booster training phase. The EG showed significant improvements in memory tests, especially in long-term recall with an effect size of 0.7 and in several other aspects of cognition. In contrast, the CG showed progressive decline. The authors suggest that VRMT may improve memory function in elderly adults by enhancing focused attention.

  8. Impaired everyday memory associated with encephalopathy of severe malaria: the role of seizures and hippocampal damage

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Michael; Carter, Julie A; Holding, Penny A; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Scott, Rod C; Idro, Richard; Fegan, Greg W; de Haan, Michelle; Neville, Brian GR; Newton, Charles RJC

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Seizures are common in children admitted with severe falciparum malaria and are associated with neuro-cognitive impairments. Prolonged febrile seizures are associated with hippocampal damage and impaired memory. It was hypothesized that severe malaria causes impaired everyday memory which may be associated with hippocampal damage. Methods An everyday memory battery was administered on 152 children with cerebral malaria (CM) (mean age, 7 y 4 months [SD 13 months]; 77 males)...

  9. Neural Stem Cell Grafting Counteracts Hippocampal Injury-Mediated Impairments in Mood, Memory, and Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal injury typically leads to mood and memory impairments associated with reduced and aberrant neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. This study examined whether subventricular zone-neural stem cell (SVZ-NSC) grafting after hippocampal injury would counteract impairments in mood, memory, and neurogenesis. Analyses through forced swim, water maze, and novel object recognition tests revealed significant impairments in mood and memory function in animals that underwent injury and sham-grafti...

  10. Apoptotic Process Induced by Oxaliplatin in Rat Hippocampus Causes Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Enrica; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Micheli, Laura; Farzad, Mersedez; Aglianò, Margherita; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Aspects of memory involved in cognitive mechanisms were investigated in rat after oxaliplatin (OX) chemotherapy using animal behavioural assessment of passive avoidance and social learning paradigms, which are both hippocampus-sensitive. Rodents, previously subjected to 2-week OX treatment, showed passive avoidance and social learning impairment and apoptotic processes in the hippocampus. Apoptosis rate significantly increased in cultured hippocampal cells exposed to OX at increasing doses, and this effect was dose-dependent. Ex vivo experiments showed that cell damage and apoptosis were blocked in the hippocampus from OX rats cotreated with copper sulphate (CS) which precludes OX transport inside the cell. In vivo, passive avoidance and social learning impairment could not be observed in OX rats co-administered with CS. Thus, a site of action of OX treatment on memory impairment appears to be located at the hippocampus. These findings strongly support that cellular damage induced by OX in rodent hippocampus underlies the weakening of some memory functions. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. 3',4'-Dihydroxyflavonol attenuates spatial learning and memory impairments in global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Mehmet; Demir, Enver Ahmet; Caliskan, Merve; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Nurullahoglu Atalik, K Esra

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, effects of 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonol (DiOHF) on anxiety-like behavior, and learning and memory were investigated in a model of transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. The animals were assigned to sham-operated, ischemia, and two DiOHF-treated (10 mg/kg i.p.) groups. DiOHF was administered at 1 hour before and immediately after the ischemia. Male rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce acute cerebral ischemia for 20 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 7 days. The openfield, elevated plus maze (EPM), and Morris water maze tests were used to evaluate the effects of DiOHF treatment on ischemia-induced locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, and spatial and recognition memory impairments, respectively. In the open field test, locomotor activity in the ischemic rats was not altered 6 days after the ischemia, nor was anxiety-like behavior, which was evaluated with the EPM (P > 0.05). In the water-maze test, cerebral ischemia significantly decreased the exploration time in the target quadrant, and the platform crossing counts were lower (P memory impairment was significantly improved by DiOHF applied 1 hour before and immediately after ischemia (P learning and memory deficits resulting from transient global ischemia but has no significant effect on anxiety-like behavior.

  12. Glucocorticoids in the prefrontal cortex enhance memory consolidation and impair working memory by a common neural mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsegyan, Areg; Mackenzie, Scott M.; Kurose, Brian D.; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that acute administration of adrenocortical hormones enhances the consolidation of memories of emotional experiences and, concurrently, impairs working memory. These different glucocorticoid effects on these two memory functions have generally been considered to be independently regulated processes. Here we report that a glucocorticoid receptor agonist administered into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of male Sprague-Dawley rats both enhances memory consolidation and impairs working memory. Both memory effects are mediated by activation of a membrane-bound steroid receptor and depend on noradrenergic activity within the mPFC to increase levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. These findings provide direct evidence that glucocorticoid effects on both memory consolidation and working memory share a common neural influence within the mPFC. PMID:20810923

  13. Chronic sleep restriction impairs spatial memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, John G; Christie, Michael A; Kim, Youngsoo; Brennan, Robert; Poeta, Devon L; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E

    2013-01-23

    Although numerous experimental investigations have evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of either short periods of total sleep deprivation or selective rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, few studies have examined the effects of chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Long-Evans rats were deprived of sleep by the automated movement of activity wheels for 18 h/day for 5 consecutive days from 16:00 to 10:00 h, and were allowed 6 h/day of sleep opportunity (10:00-16:00 h; lights on from 10:00 to 22:00 h). Activity wheels were intermittently activated on a 3 s on : 12 s off schedule for the CSR condition, whereas a schedule of 36 min of continuous wheel movement in every 3 h was used for a cage movement control condition. A cross-over design was used with rats serving in both the CSR and the movement control conditions with 2 days of rest between conditions. Water maze acquisition training occurred at 16:00 h immediately after the 6-h sleep opportunity on each of the first 4 days, followed by a probe trial on day 5 to assess spatial memory recall. Although the rate of learning/acquisition was not affected by the daily 18 h of CSR, the day 5 recall of the platform location was impaired on three different probe trial measures. Thus, CSR impaired spatial memory, but did not affect the rate of learning/acquisition in the water maze.

  14. Neutral and emotional episodic memory: global impairment after lorazepam or scopolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Curran, H Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs have repeatedly been shown to impair episodic memory for emotionally neutral material in humans. However, their effect on memory for emotionally laden stimuli has been relatively neglected. We sought to investigate the effects of the benzodiazepine, lorazepam, and the anticholinergic, scopolamine, on incidental episodic memory for neutral and emotional components of a narrative memory task in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled independent group design was used with 48 healthy volunteers to examine the effects of these drugs on emotional and neutral episodic memory. As expected, the emotional memory advantage was retained for recall and recognition memory under placebo conditions. However, lorazepam and scopolamine produced anterograde recognition memory impairments on both the neutral and emotional components of the narrative, although floor effects were obtained for recall memory. Furthermore, compared with placebo, recognition memory for both central (gist) and peripheral (detail) aspects of neutral and emotional elements of the narrative was poorer after either drug. Benzodiazepine-induced GABAergic enhancement or scopolamine-induced cholinergic hypofunction results in a loss of the enhancing effect of emotional arousal on memory. Furthermore, lorazepam- and scopolamine-induced memory impairment for both gist (which is amygdala dependent) and detail raises the possibility that their effects on emotional memory do not depend only on the amygdala. We discuss the results with reference to potential clinical/forensic implications of processing emotional memories under conditions of globally impaired episodic memory.

  15. Working memory binding and episodic memory formation in aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Heringa, Sophie M; van den Berg, Esther; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that in both normal and pathological aging working memory (WM) performance deteriorates, especially when associations have to be maintained. However, most studies typically do not assess the relationship between WM and episodic memory formation. In the present study, we examined WM and episodic memory formation in normal aging and in patients with early Alzheimer's disease (mild cognitive impairment, MCI; and Alzheimer's dementia, AD). In the first study, 26 young adults (mean age 29.6 years) were compared to 18 middle-aged adults (mean age 52.2 years) and 25 older adults (mean age 72.8 years). We used an associative delayed-match-to-sample WM task, which requires participants to maintain two pairs of faces and houses presented on a computer screen for short (3 s) or long (6 s) maintenance intervals. After the WM task, an unexpected subsequent associative memory task was administered (two-alternative forced choice). In the second study, 27 patients with AD and 19 patients with MCI were compared to 25 older controls, using the same paradigm as that in Experiment 1. Older adults performed worse than both middle-aged and young adults. No effect of delay was observed in the healthy adults, and pairs that were processed during long maintenance intervals were not better remembered in the subsequent memory task. In the MCI and AD patients, longer maintenance intervals hampered the task performance. Also, both patient groups performed significantly worse than controls on the episodic memory task as well as the associative WM task. Aging and AD present with a decline in WM binding, a finding that extends similar results in episodic memory. Longer delays in the WM task did not affect episodic memory formation. We conclude that WM deficits are found when WM capacity is exceeded, which may occur during associative processing.

  16. Restoring polyamines protects from age-induced memory impairment in an autophagy-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, V.K.; Scheunemann, L.; Eisenberg, T.; Mertel, S.; Bhukel, A.; Koemans, T.S.; Kramer, J.M.; Liu, K.S.; Schroeder, S.; Stunnenberg, H.G.; Sinner, F.; Magnes, C.; Pieber, T.R.; Dipt, S.; Fiala, A.; Schenck, A.; Schwaerzel, M.; Madeo, F.; Sigrist, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Age-dependent memory impairment is known to occur in several organisms, including Drosophila, mouse and human. However, the fundamental cellular mechanisms that underlie these impairments are still poorly understood, effectively hampering the development of pharmacological strategies to treat the

  17. Sodium Butyrate Prevents Memory Impairment by Re-establishing BDNF and GDNF Expression in Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Faller, Cristiano Julio; Ceretta, Renan A; Petronilho, Fabricia; Lopes-Borges, Jéssica; Valvassori, Samira S; Quevedo, João

    2015-08-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a serious infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with high fatality rates that causes reduced psychomotor performance, slight mental slowness, impairments in attention executive functions and learning and memory deficiencies. Previously, we demonstrated a correlation between memory impairment and decreased levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampi of rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. Emerging evidence demonstrates that histone acetylation regulates neurotrophins; therefore, a potential molecular intervention against cognitive impairment in bacterial meningitis may be the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, sodium butyrate, which stimulates the acetylation of histones and increases BDNF expression. In this study, animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid as a placebo or a Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The animals received antibiotic treatment as usual and received saline or sodium butyrate as an adjuvant treatment. Ten days after, meningitis was induced; the animals were subjected to open-field habituation and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately after these behavioural tasks, the animals were killed, and their hippocampi were removed to evaluate the expression of BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the meningitis group that received saline, the animals presented memory impairment in both behavioural tasks, and hippocampal BDNF and GDNF expression was decreased. Sodium butyrate was able to prevent memory impairment and re-establish hippocampal neurotrophin expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

  18. Neuropsychological Impairment in Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Subjects with Preserved Psychosocial Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Martelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChronic alcoholism and its related cognitive impairments are associated with increased social, relational, and professional deficits which have a variable overall impact on social integration. These impairments are known to have varying severities and have rarely been studied among healthy alcohol-dependent subjects with preserved psychosocial functioning. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe neuropsychological performance in this particular population.MethodTwenty-nine socially adjusted alcohol-dependent men, hospitalized for a first or second withdrawal and abstinent for 3 weeks minimum, were compared to 29 healthy non-alcoholic controls. All subjects underwent clinical and psychiatric examination, neuropsychological tests of memory (M, working memory (WM, and executive functions (EF. Comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests or Mann–Whitney U tests.ResultsNo group differences were found on the Self-Reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR or in the Mini-Mental State Examination. Compared to controls, patients had greater episodic, spatial, and WM deficits as well as slightly altered executive functions. In contrast, their executive functions (spontaneous flexibility, criteria generation, rule maintenance, and inhibitory control were relatively preserved.ConclusionOur sample of socially and professionally integrated alcoholic patients shows fewer cognitive deficits than described in previous studies. Our results suggest that early on, alcohol-dependent subjects develop compensatory adaptation processes to preserve social function and adaptation. Minor cognitive impairments should be screened early in the disease to integrate cognitive interventions into the health-care plan to thus eventually prevent further socio-professional marginalization.

  19. Aggressive behavior, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Michele Sicolo,1 Lucia Spinelli,1 Franco Mastroianni,2 Adriana Pastore,1 Francesco Craig,3 Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli31Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, Hospital Polyclinic of Bari, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 2Geriatrics Unit, Hospital “Miulli”, Acquaviva delle Fonti; 3Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro,” Bari, ItalyAbstract: Patients with dementia often have neuropsychiatric symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between neuropsychiatric symptoms and progressive cognitive decline by assessing cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, and aggressive behavior in a sample of elderly subjects. The study sample consisted of 201 subjects admitted to nursing homes. For the purpose of the present study each subject was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The results show that aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms are associated with progressive cognitive decline in elderly subjects. Early assessment of these conditions can promote rational therapeutic strategies that may improve the quality of life and delay institutionalization for elderly patients.Keywords: neuropsychiatric symptoms, dementia, behavioral and psychological syndromes of dementia (BPSD, progressive cognitive decline

  20. Mitochondrial involvement in memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Guerra, Maylin; Jiménez-Martin, Javier; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Fonseca-Fonseca, Luis A; Souza, Diogo O; de Assis, Adriano M; Ramirez-Sanchez, Jeney; Del Valle, Roberto Menéndez-Soto; Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier

    2017-07-01

    Scopolamine (SCO) administration to rats induces molecular features of AD and other dementias, including impaired cognition, increased oxidative stress, and imbalanced cholinergic transmission. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in different types of dementias, its role in cognitive impairment induced by SCO has not been well elucidated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vivo effect of SCO on different brain mitochondrial parameters in rats to explore its neurotoxic mechanisms of action. Saline (Control) or SCO (1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min prior to neurobehavioral and biochemical evaluations. Novel object recognition and Y-maze paradigms were used to evaluate the impact on memory, while redox profiles in different brain regions and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the whole brain were assessed to elucidate the amnesic mechanism of SCO. Finally, the effects of SCO on brain mitochondria were evaluated both ex vivo and in vitro, the latter to determine whether SCO could directly interfere with mitochondrial function. SCO administration induced memory deficit, increased oxidative stress, and increased AChE activities in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Isolated brain mitochondria from rats administered with SCO were more vulnerable to mitochondrial swelling, membrane potential dissipation, H 2 O 2 generation and calcium efflux, all likely resulting from oxidative damage. The in vitro mitochondrial assays suggest that SCO did not affect the organelle function directly. In conclusion, the present results indicate that SCO induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress may involve brain mitochondrial impairment, an important target for new neuroprotective compounds against AD and other dementias.

  1. Phonological working memory impairments in children with specific language impairment: where does the problem lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions to word learning of the initial encoding of phonological information and the link to long-term memory. Children took part in a computer-based fast-mapping task which manipulated word length and phonotactic probability to address the hypotheses. The task had a recognition and a production component. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing. Results indicate that the main problem for children with SLI is with initial encoding, with implications for limited capacity. There was not strong evidence for specific deficits in the link to long-term memory. We were able to ascertain which aspects of lexical learning are most problematic for children with SLI in terms of fast-mapping. These findings may allow clinicians to focus intervention on known areas of weakness. Future directions include extending these findings to slow mapping scenarios. The reader will understand how different components of phonological working memory contribute to the word learning problems of children with specific language impairment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [GLIATILIN CORRECTION OF WORKING AND REFERENCE SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN AGED RATS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the influence of gliatilin administration on the spatial memory in aged rats. Cognitive function and spatial memory in animals was evaluated using radial (8-beam) maze test. Errors of working spatial memory and reference memory were used as indicators of impaired cognitive function. It was found that aged (24-month) rats compared with younger (6-months) age group exhibited cognitive impairment, as manifested by deterioration of short- and long-term memory processes. Course administration of gliatilin in rats of the older age group at a dose of 100 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement of the working and reference spatial memory in aged rats.

  3. Impaired retention is responsible for temporal order memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, M Meredith; Quinn, Kristen M; Phillips, Pamela A T; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2013-05-01

    Temporal order memory, or remembering the order of events, is critical for everyday functioning and is difficult for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). It is currently unclear whether these patients have difficulty acquiring and/or retaining such information and whether deficits in these patients are in excess of "normal" age-related declines. Therefore, the current study examined age and disease-related changes in temporal order memory as well as whether memory load played a role in such changes. Young controls (n=25), older controls (n=34), and MCI patients (n=32) completed an experimental task that required the reconstruction of sequences that were 3, 4, or 5 items in length both immediately after presentation (i.e., immediate recall) and again after a 10-min delay (i.e., delayed recall). During the immediate recall phase, there was an effect of age largely due to reduced performance at the two longest span lengths. Older controls and MCI patients only differed during the five span (controls>MCI). During the delayed recall, however, there were significant effects of both age and MCI regardless of span length. In MCI patients, immediate recall was significantly correlated with measures of executive functioning, whereas delayed recall performance was only related to other memory tests. These findings suggest that MCI patients experience initial temporal order memory deficits at the point when information begins to exceed working memory capacity and become dependent on medial temporal lobe functioning. Longer-term deficits are due to an inability to retain information, consistent with the characteristic medial temporal lobe dysfunction in MCI. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Verbal working memory impairments following traumatic brain injury: an fNIRS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Merzagora, Anna C; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Onaral, Banu; Schultheis, Maria T

    2014-09-01

    The construct of working memory and its reliance on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) have been the focus of many studies in healthy subjects and in clinical populations. However, transfer of knowledge gained from cognitive science studies to clinical applications can be a challenging goal. This scarce cross-dissemination may be partially due to the use of 'tools' that are limited in their ability to generate meaningful information about impairments in clinical groups. To this end, this paper investigates the use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which offers unique opportunities for recording neuroactivation. Specifically, we examine measures of the DLPFC hemodynamic response during a working memory task in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and healthy controls. Analysis of hemodynamic measures showed significant differences between the two groups, even without differences in behavioral performance. Additional subtle disparities were linked to levels of performance in TBI and healthy subjects. fNIRS hemodynamic measures may therefore provide novel information to existing theories and knowledge of the working memory construct. Future studies may further define these subtle differences captured by fNIRS to help identify which components affect inter-individual variations in performance and could play a contributing role in the choice and planning of neurorehabilitation interventions targeting working memory.

  5. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Gina eConti-Ramsden; Ullman, Michael T.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which proc...

  6. Cognitive psychopathology in Schizophrenia: Comparing memory performances with Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and normal subjects on the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisuli, Davide Maria; Sportiello, Marco Timpano

    2016-06-01

    Memory system turns out to be one of the cognitive domains most severely impaired in schizophrenia. Within the theoretical framework of cognitive psychopathology, we compared the performance of schizophrenia patients on the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV with that in matched patients with Obsessive-compulsive disorder and that in healthy control subjects to establish the specific nature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. 30 schizophrenia patients, 30 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and 40 healthy controls completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV. Schizophrenia symptom severity was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Performances on memory battery including Indexes and subtests scores were compared by a One-Way ANOVA (Scheffé post-hoc test). Spearman Rank correlations were performed between scores on PANSS subscales and symptoms and WMS-IV Indexes and subtests, respectively. Schizophrenia patients showed a memory profile characterized by mild difficulties in auditory memory and visual working memory and poor functioning of visual, immediate and delayed memory. As expected, schizophrenia patients scored lower than healthy controls on all WMS-IV measures. With regard to the WMS-IV Indexes, schizophrenia patients performed worse on Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, Immediate and Delayed Memory than Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients but not on Visual Working Memory. Such a pattern was made even clearer for specific tasks such as immediate and delayed recall and spatial recall and memory for visual details, as revealed by the lowest scores on Logical Memory (immediate and delayed conditions) and Designs (immediate condition) subtests, respectively. Significant negative correlations between Logical Memory I and II were found with PANSS Excitement symptom as well as between DE I and PANSS Tension symptom. Significant positive correlations between LM II and PANSS Blunted affect and Poor rapport symptoms as well as DE I and PANSS Blunted affect

  7. Investigating patterns of memory impairment in ischemic stroke in an iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Negar; Asgari, Karim; Neshat Doost, Hamid Taher; Oreizi, Hamid Reza; Najafi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-07

    Up until the date of this research, studies have examined poststroke cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and executive functions. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of memory problems in various patterns of memory in ischemic stroke patients in an attempt to determine specific memory profiles of the patients. The goal was to determine the severity and patterns of memory impairments in ischemic stroke patients and to identify specific profiles of memory impairments in stroke patients, in order to help therapists to develop more appropriate memory rehabilitation programs for the patients. The sample consisted of 35 patients with ischemic stroke. Thirty-five individuals who were matched with the patients were selected as the control group. Demographic questionnaires, subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III), including logical memory I and II and visual reproduction I and II, digit span from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R (WAIS-R), and the Corsi span test were administered to both of the patients and control groups. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was carried out to unveil possible differences in memory between the two groups. The mean scores of different memory patterns were significantly higher in the control group comparing to the patient group (p < 0.05). Among different aspects of memory, visual long-term memory and visual short-term memory had the largest effect sizes. Substantial impairments were also found in visual short-term memory, visuospatial short-term memory, and visual long-term memory. The findings suggest that the stroke patients have identifiable patterns of memory impairment.

  8. The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shiang Chu

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.

  9. Wearable Cameras Are Useful Tools to Investigate and Remediate Autobiographical Memory Impairment: A Systematic PRISMA Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, Mélissa C; Manning, Liliann; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Autobiographical memory, central in human cognition and every day functioning, enables past experienced events to be remembered. A variety of disorders affecting autobiographical memory are characterized by the difficulty of retrieving specific detailed memories of past personal events. Owing to the impact of autobiographical memory impairment on patients' daily life, it is necessary to better understand these deficits and develop relevant methods to improve autobiographical memory. The primary objective of the present systematic PRISMA review was to give an overview of the first empirical evidence of the potential of wearable cameras in autobiographical memory investigation in remediating autobiographical memory impairments. The peer-reviewed literature published since 2004 on the usefulness of wearable cameras in research protocols was explored in 3 databases (PUBMED, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar). Twenty-eight published studies that used a protocol involving wearable camera, either to explore wearable camera functioning and impact on daily life, or to investigate autobiographical memory processing or remediate autobiographical memory impairment, were included. This review analyzed the potential of wearable cameras for 1) investigating autobiographical memory processes in healthy volunteers without memory impairment and in clinical populations, and 2) remediating autobiographical memory in patients with various kinds of memory disorder. Mechanisms to account for the efficacy of wearable cameras are also discussed. The review concludes by discussing certain limitations inherent to using cameras, and new research perspectives. Finally, ethical issues raised by this new technology are considered.

  10. Working memory impairment in fibromyalgia patients associated with altered frontoparietal memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehye Seo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM is a disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and frequently associated with other symptoms. Patients with FM commonly report cognitive complaints, including memory problem. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in neural correlates of working memory between FM patients and healthy subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nineteen FM patients and 22 healthy subjects performed an n-back memory task during MRI scan. Functional MRI data were analyzed using within- and between-group analysis. Both activated and deactivated brain regions during n-back task were evaluated. In addition, to investigate the possible effect of depression and anxiety, group analysis was also performed with depression and anxiety level in terms of Beck depression inventory (BDI and Beck anxiety inventory (BAI as a covariate. Between-group analyses, after controlling for depression and anxiety level, revealed that within the working memory network, inferior parietal cortex was strongly associated with the mild (r = 0.309, P = 0.049 and moderate (r = 0.331, P = 0.034 pain ratings. In addition, between-group comparison revealed that within the working memory network, the left DLPFC, right VLPFC, and right inferior parietal cortex were associated with the rating of depression and anxiety? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the working memory deficit found in FM patients may be attributable to differences in neural activation of the frontoparietal memory network and may result from both pain itself and depression and anxiety associated with pain.

  11. The Cognitive and Neural Expression of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M.; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Celine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to…

  12. Explicit (semantic) memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Explicit memory for music was investigated by using a new test with 24 existing and 3 newly composed pieces. Ten patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 10 patients with early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) were compared with 23 healthy subjects, in terms of verbal memory of music by the identification of familiar music excerpts and the discrimination of distortion and original timbre of musical excerpts. MCI and Alzheimer's patients showed significantly poorer performances in tasks requiring verbal memory of musical excerpts than the healthy participants. For discrimination of musical excerpts, MCI and AD patients surprisingly performed significantly better than the healthy comparison subjects. Our results support the notion of a specialized memory system for music.

  13. Impaired white matter connections of the limbic system networks associated with impaired emotional memory in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoshu Li; Haibao Wang; Yanghua Tian; Shanshan Zhou; Xiaohu Li; Kai Wang; Yongqiang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM).Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of...

  14. Impaired White Matter Connections of the Limbic System Networks Associated with Impaired Emotional Memory in Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoshu; WANG, HAIBAO; Tian, Yanghua; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Xiaohu; Wang, Kai; Yu, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM)...

  15. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced impairment of retrieval of stimulus-response memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsak, P.; Guenzel, F.M.; Kantar-Gok, D.; Zalachoras, I.; Yargicoglu, P.; Meijer, O.C.; Quirarte, G.L.; Wolf, O.T.; Schwabe, L.; Roozendaal, B.

    2016-01-01

    Acute stress and elevated glucocorticoid hormone levels are well known to impair the retrieval of hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory. Recent findings suggest that stress might also impair the retrieval of non-hippocampal memories. In particular, stress shortly before retention testing was

  16. Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…

  17. Short-term exposure to enriched environment rescues chronic stress-induced impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity, anxiety, and memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagya, Venkanna Rao; Srikumar, Bettadapura N; Veena, Jayagopalan; Shankaranarayana Rao, Byrathnahalli S

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to prolonged stress results in structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus including reduced long-term potentiation (LTP), neurogenesis, spatial learning and working memory impairments, and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) has beneficial effects on hippocampal structure and function, such as improved memory, increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and progressive synaptic plasticity. It is unclear whether exposure to short-term EE for 10 days can overcome restraint stress-induced cognitive deficits and impaired hippocampal plasticity. Consequently, the present study explored the beneficial effects of short-term EE on chronic stress-induced impaired LTP, working memory, and anxiety-like behavior. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (6 hr/day) over a period of 21 days, and then they were exposed to EE (6 hr/day) for 10 days. Restraint stress reduced hippocampal CA1-LTP, increased anxiety-like symptoms in elevated plus maze, and impaired working memory in T-maze task. Remarkably, EE facilitated hippocampal LTP, improved working memory performance, and completely overcame the effect of chronic stress on anxiety behavior. In conclusion, exposure to EE can bring out positive effects on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and thereby elicit its beneficial effects on cognitive functions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Awareness of Memory Abilities in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Suspected Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N. Maritza; Ries, Michele L.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Asthana, Sanjay; Gleason, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine awareness of memory abilities by groups (healthy control, suspected dementia/mild cognitive impairment, MCI, and diagnosed dementia/MCI), and to describe group differences in the relationship between awareness and cognitive performance in a community sample. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 183 subjects were evaluated in a community setting and categorized into 3 groups based on their cognitive performance and reported medical history. Awareness of memory abilities was quantified using a published anosognosia ratio (AR) comparing the estimated to the objective memory performance by subjects. Each group was further categorized into ‘overestimators’, ‘accurate estimators’, and ‘underestimators’ based on their AR scores. Results The suspected and diagnosed dementia/MCI groups had significantly higher AR scores than the controls. The suspected group also had a significantly larger proportion (96.2%) of overestimators than the diagnosed (73.3%) and control groups (26.1%). Impaired awareness in overestimators of the suspected and diagnosed groups was correlated with deficits in executive function, language or global cognition. Conclusion Impaired awareness of memory abilities was prevalent in community-dwelling older adults with suspected and diagnosed dementia or MCI. Those with suspected dementia or MCI were more likely to overestimate their memory abilities than their diagnosed counterparts, suggesting that limited awareness of deficits may hinder utilization of dementia diagnostic services. PMID:20714155

  19. Prospective memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Isabelle; Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Tremblay, Alexandra; Demers, Mélanie; Roger, Élaine; Jobin, Céline; Duquette, Pierre

    2017-08-04

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system affecting information processing speed, episodic memory, attention, and executive functions. MS patients also often report prospective memory (PM) failures that directly impact their functional autonomy, including professional and social life. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the assessment and remediation of PM deficits in MS. The literature pertaining to PM impairment in MS was carefully reviewed using PubMed, PsyINFO, and Google Scholar, as well as cross-references from the articles published on this topic. Since PM rehabilitation in MS patients is still in its infancy, this review mainly focuses on studies that have directly assessed PM through various measures including questionnaires, standardized clinical tests, and experimental procedures. This literature review confirms the presence of PM deficits in MS patients, even in the early stages of the disease. A further need for controlled studies on PM assessment and PM interventions in patients with MS is stressed.

  20. High dose tetrabromobisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jaewon

    2017-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant that is commonly used in commercial and household products, such as, computers, televisions, mobile phones, and electronic boards. TBBPA can accumulate in human body fluids, and it has been reported that TBBPA possesses endocrine disruptive activity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBBPA on hippocampal neurogenesis has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of TBBPA on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Male C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated vehicle or TBBPA (20 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 500 mg/kg daily) for two weeks. TBBPA was observed to significantly and dose-dependently reduce the survival of newly generated cells in the hippocampus but not to affect the proliferation of newly generated cells. Numbers of hippocampal BrdU and NeuN positive cells were dose-dependently reduced by TBBPA, indicating impaired neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Interestingly, glial activation without neuronal death was observed in hippocampi exposed to TBBPA. Furthermore, memory retention was found to be adversely affected by TBBPA exposure by a mechanism involving suppression of the BDNF-CREB signaling pathway. The study suggests high dose TBBPA disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and induces associated memory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuron-specific Sumo1-3 knockdown in mice impairs episodic and fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangli; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Sheng, Huaxin; Zhao, Shengli; Liu, Xiaozhi; Paschen, Wulf; Yang, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation plays a key role in brain plasticity by modulating activity-dependent synaptic transmission. However, these observations are based largely on cell culture experiments. We hypothesized that episodic and fear memories would be affected by silencing SUMO1-3 expression. To investigate the role of SUMO conjugation in neuronal functioning in vivo, we generated a novel Sumo transgenic mouse model in which a Thy1 promoter drives expression of 3 distinct microRNAs to silence Sumo1-3 expression, specifically in neurons. Wild-type and Sumo1-3 knockdown mice were subjected to a battery of behavioural tests to elucidate whether Sumoylation is involved in episodic and emotional memory. Expression of Sumo1-3 microRNAs and the corresponding silencing of Sumo expression were particularly pronounced in hippocampal, amygdala and layer V cerebral cortex neurons. The Sumo knockdown mice displayed anxiety-like responses and were impaired in episodic memory processes, contextual and cued fear conditioning and fear-potentiated startle. Since expression of Sumo1-3 was silenced in this mouse model, we need to verify in future studies which of the SUMO paralogues play the pivotal role in episodic and emotional memory. Our results indicate that a functional SUMO conjugation pathway is essential for emotionality and cognition. This novel Sumo knockdown mouse model and the technology used in generating this mutant may help to reveal novel mechanisms that underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions associated with anxiety and impairment of episodic and emotional memory.

  2. BDNF protects against stress-induced impairments in spatial learning and memory and LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, Daniel T; Brown, Laurie M; Martinez, James; Teyler, Timothy J

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated whether infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) could ameliorate stress-induced impairments in spatial learning and memory as well as hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) of rats. Chronic immobilization stress (2 h/day x 7 days) significantly impaired spatial performance in the Morris water maze, elevated plasma corticosterone, and attenuated LTP in hippocampal slices from these animals as compared with normal control subjects. BDNF was infused into the left hippocampus (0.5 mul/h) for 14 days, beginning 7 days before the stress exposure. The BDNF group was protected from the deleterious effects of stress and performed at a level indistinguishable from normal control animals despite the presence of elevated corticosterone. BDNF alone and sham infusions had no effect on performance or LTP. These results demonstrate that spatial learning and memory, and LTP, a candidate neural substrate of learning and memory, are compromised during chronic stress, and may be protected by BDNF administration. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face-name pairs. Participants' memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults' associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults' failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. These data have important practical implications for older adults' ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Short or long sleep duration is associated with memory impairment in older Chinese: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Lam, Tai Hing; Liu, Bin; Jin, Ya Li; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Wei Sen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Thomas, G Neil

    2011-05-01

    To examine the association between sleep-related factors and memory impairment. Cross-sectional study Community-based study in Guangzhou, China. 28,670 older Chinese (20,776 women and 7,894 men) aged 50 to 85 years. Demographic and socioeconomic data, sleep-related factors, and cognitive function were collected by face-to-face interview. Potential confounders, such as employment and occupational status, smoking, alcohol and tea use, physical activity, self-rated health, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose and lipids were measured. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, an inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and delayed word recall test (DWRT) score, a validated measure of memory impairment, was found, with 7 to 8 h of habitual sleep duration showing the highest score (P-values for trend from 3 to 7 h and from 7 to ≥ 10 h were all ≤ 0.001). Compared to sleep duration of 7 h, the adjusted odds ratio for memory impairment from the sleep duration of 3 to 4 or ≥ 10 h was 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.56) and 1.52 (1.25-1.86), respectively. Subjects with daily napping, morning tiredness, or insomnia had significantly lower DWRT scores than those without (P ranged from long sleep duration was an important sleep-related factor independently associated with memory impairment and may be a useful marker for increased risk of cognitive impairment in older people.

  5. Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James L; Gilman, Jodi M; Roberts, Andrea G; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wang, Lei; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We examined differences in hippocampus morphology between control and schizophrenia subjects with and without a past (not current) cannabis use disorder (CUD). Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls (CON), 10 subjects with a CUD history (CON-CUD), 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders (SCZ), and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history (SCZ-CUD). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI produced surface-based representations of the hippocampus that were compared across all four groups and correlated with EM and CUD history. Surface maps of the hippocampus were generated to visualize morphological differences. CON-CUD and SCZ-CUD were characterized by distinct cannabis-related hippocampal shape differences and parametric deficits in EM performance. Shape differences observed in CON-CUD were associated with poorer EM performance, while shape differences observed in SCZ-CUD were associated with a longer duration of CUD and shorter duration of CUD remission. A past history of CUD may be associated with notable differences in hippocampal morphology and EM impairments among adults with and without schizophrenia. Although the results may be compatible with a causal hypothesis, we must consider that the observed cannabis-related shape differences in the hippocampus could also be explained as biomarkers of a neurobiological susceptibility to poor memory or the effects of cannabis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ingestion of ethanol just prior to sleep onset impairs memory for procedural but not declarative tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlyle; Smith, Danielle

    2003-03-15

    The aim of Experiment 1 was to determine if moderate ethanol consumption at bedtime would result in memory loss for recently learned cognitive procedural and declarative tasks. The aim of Experiment 2 was to establish that the memory loss due to alcohol consumption at bedtime was due to the effect of alcohol on sleep states. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to learn a cognitive procedural task and a declarative task in the evening. Then, either the same evening or 2 nights later, they were asked to drink ethanol (0.7g/kg). Sleep was monitored for 3 days and re-testing of the tasks was done on the eighth day after training at the same time of day. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to learn a cognitive procedural task (Tower of Hanoi) and a motor procedural task (Pursuit Rotor) in the late afternoon. Then one group was asked to drink ethanol (0.9 g/kg) right after task acquisition (5 hours before bed), while the other was asked to drink the same dose of ethanol just prior to bedtime. Re-testing was done 8 days later at the same time of day. Subjects in Experiment 1 were 15 college students between the ages of 19 and 24 that appeared to be in good health and were relatively naive in terms of drinking alcohol. Subjects in Experiment 2 were 13 college students in the same age range. These subjects were considered to be more experienced drinkers than subjects in Experiment 1 but were not judged to be heavy drinkers. In Experiment 1, the alcohol ingestion resulted in memory loss for the cognitive procedural task but not the declarative task. Further, the effect was seen when alcohol ingestion occurred the same day or 2 days after the end of acquisition. In Experiment 2, alcohol ingestion at bedtime impaired memory for the cognitive procedural and motor procedural tasks. By contrast, alcohol ingestion in the afternoon, immediately after the acquisition of these two tasks, did not impair memory. There were clear changes in the nature of rapid eye movement (REM

  7. Surgery and Brain Atrophy In Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects and Subjects Diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard P.; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Cheng, Hao; Santi, Susan De; Li, Yi; Haile, Michael; de Leon, Mony J.; Bekker, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural MRI is used to longitudinally monitor the progression of Alzheimer's disease from its presymptomatic to symptomatic phases. Using magnetic resonance imaging data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we tested the hypothesis that surgery would affect brain parameters associated with progression of dementia. Materials and Methods Brain images from the neuroimaging initiative database were used to study normal volunteer subjects and patients with mild cognitive impairment for the age group 55 to 90 inclusive. We compared changes in regional brain anatomy for three visits that defined two inter-visit intervals for a surgical cohort (n=41) and a propensity matched non-surgical control cohort (n = 123). The first interval for the surgical cohort contained the surgical date. Regional brain volumes were determined with Freesurfer and quantitatively described with J-image software (University of California at San Francisco). Statistical analysis used Repeated Measures ANCOVA (SPSS, v.18.0; Chicago, IL). Results We found that surgical patients, during the first follow-up interval (5–9 months), but not subsequently, had increased rates of atrophy for cortical gray matter and hippocampus, and lateral ventricle enlargement, as compared to non-surgical controls. A composite score of five cognitive tests during this interval showed reduced performance for surgical patients with mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions Elderly subjects after surgery experienced an increased rate of brain atrophy during the initial evaluation interval, a time associated with enhanced risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Although there was no difference in atrophy rate by diagnosis, subjects with mild cognitive impairment suffered greater subsequent cognitive effects. PMID:22293721

  8. Later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Most studies investigating the PDH have used the sequence learning paradigm; however these studies have principally focused on initial sequence learning in a single practice session. The present study sought to extend these investigations by assessing the consolidation stage and longer-term retention of implicit sequence-specific knowledge in 42 children with or without SLI. Both groups of children completed a serial reaction time task and were tested 24h and one week after practice. Results showed that children with SLI succeeded as well as children with typical development (TD) in the early acquisition stage of the sequence learning task. However, as training blocks progressed, only TD children improved their sequence knowledge while children with SLI did not appear to evolve any more. Moreover, children with SLI showed a lack of the consolidation gains in sequence knowledge displayed by the TD children. Overall, these results were in line with the predictions of the PDH and suggest that later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Disruption of the Core Circadian Clock Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Sarah M.; Phan, Trongha X.; Saraf, Amit; Chen, Xuanmao; Storm, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Perturbing the circadian system by electrolytically lesioning the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) or varying the environmental light:dark schedule impairs memory, suggesting that memory depends on the circadian system. We used a genetic approach to evaluate the role of the molecular clock in memory. Bmal1[superscript -/-] mice, which are arrhythmic…

  10. Intra-Amygdala Injections of CREB Antisense Impair Inhibitory Avoidance Memory: Role of Norepinephrine and Acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E.; Chang, Qing; Gold, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Infusions of CREB antisense into the amygdala prior to training impair memory for aversive tasks, suggesting that the antisense may interfere with CRE-mediated gene transcription and protein synthesis important for the formation of new memories within the amygdala. However, the amygdala also appears to modulate memory formation in distributed…

  11. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  12. Impaired working memory capacity is not caused by failures of selective attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Molly A; Hahn, Britta; Leonard, Carly J; Robinson, Benjamin; Gray, Brad; Luck, Steven J; Gold, James

    2015-03-01

    The cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia have long been known to involve deficits in working memory (WM) capacity. To date, however, the causes of WM capacity deficits remain unknown. The present study examined selective attention impairments as a putative contributor to observed capacity deficits in this population. To test this hypothesis, we used an experimental paradigm that assesses the role of selective attention in WM encoding and has been shown to involve the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia. In experiment 1, participants were required to remember the locations of 3 or 5 target items (red circles). In another condition, 3-target items were accompanied by 2 distractor items (yellow circles), which participants were instructed to ignore. People with schizophrenia (PSZ) exhibited significant impairment in memory for the locations of target items, consistent with reduced WM capacity, but PSZ and healthy control subjects did not differ in their ability to filter the distractors. This pattern was replicated in experiment 2 for distractors that were more salient. Taken together, these results demonstrate that reduced WM capacity in PSZ is not attributable to a failure of filtering irrelevant distractors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Is sleep-related verbal memory consolidation impaired in sleepwalkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    In order to evaluate verbal memory consolidation during sleep in subjects experiencing sleepwalking or sleep terror, 19 patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror and 19 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16-word list from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and a 220- and 263-word modified story recall test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video polysomnography (n = 29) and morning recall (night-time consolidation after 14 h, n = 38). The following morning, they were given a daytime learning task using the modified story recall test in reverse order, followed by an evening recall test after 9 h of wakefulness (daytime consolidation, n = 38). The patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror exhibited more frequent awakenings during slow-wave sleep and longer wakefulness after sleep onset than the controls. Despite this reduction in sleep quality among sleepwalking/sleep terror patients, they improved their scores on the verbal tests the morning after sleep compared with the previous evening (+16 ± 33%) equally well as the controls (+2 ± 13%). The performance of both groups worsened during the daytime in the absence of sleep (-16 ± 15% for the sleepwalking/sleep terror group and -14 ± 11% for the control group). There was no significant correlation between the rate of memory consolidation and any of the sleep measures. Seven patients experiencing sleepwalking also sleep-talked during slow-wave sleep, but their sentences were unrelated to the tests or the list of words learned during the evening. In conclusion, the alteration of slow-wave sleep during sleepwalking/sleep terror does not noticeably impact on sleep-related verbal memory consolidation. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter during development impairs memory in adult Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Ilaria; Davis, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism and cell survival. We demonstrate here that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn) – a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation – causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same...

  15. Do subjective memory complaints lead or follow objective cognitive change? A five-year population study of temporal influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitz, Beth E.; Small, Brent J.; Wang, Tianxiu; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Hughes, Tiffany F.; Ganguli, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between subjective memory complaints (SM) and objective memory (OM) performance in aging has been variably characterized in a substantial literature, to date. In particular, cross-sectional studies often observe weak or no associations. We investigated whether subjective memory complaints and objectively measured cognition influence each other over time, and if so, which is the stronger pathway of change – objective to subjective, or subjective to objective – or whether they are both important. Method Using bivariate latent change score modeling in data from a population study (N=1980) over 5 annual assessment cycles, we tested 4 corresponding hypotheses: 1) no coupling between SM and OM over time; 2) SM as leading indicator of change in OM; 3) OM as leading indicator of change in SM; 4) dual coupling over time, with both SM and OM leading subsequent change in the other. We also extended objective cognition to two other domains, language and executive functions. Results The dual-coupling models best fit the data for all three objective cognitive domains. The SM – OM temporal dynamics differ qualitatively compared to other domains, potentially reflecting changes in insight and self-awareness specific to memory impairment. Conclusions Subjective memory and objective cognition reciprocally influence each other over time. The temporal dynamics between subjective and objective cognition in aging are nuanced, and must be carefully disentangled to shed light on the underlying processes. PMID:26477680

  16. A Computational Model of Semantic Memory Impairment: Modality- Specificity and Emergent Category-Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    living things only when know.ledge is probed verbally . A /A 1 ii t A computational model of semantic memory impairment: Modality-specificity and...can account for a recent observation of impaired knowledge of living thngs only when knowledge is probed verbally . 3 How is semantic memory organized...just one modality (e.g. visual or auditory agnosia) or impaired manipulation of objects with specific uses, despite intact recognition of them ( apraxia

  17. Examining factors involved in stress-related working memory impairments: Independent or conditional effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Tamayo, Brittney A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of research demonstrates the impact of psychological stress on working memory. However, the typical study approach tests the effects of a single biological or psychological factor on changes in working memory. The current study attempted to move beyond the standard single-factor assessment by examining the impact of 2 possible factors in stress-related working memory impairments. To this end, 60 participants completed a working memory task before and after either a psychological stressor writing task or a control writing task and completed measures of both cortisol and mind wandering. We also included a measure of state anxiety to examine the direct and indirect effect on working memory. We found that mind wandering mediated the relationship between state anxiety and working memory at the baseline measurement. This indirect relationship was moderated by cortisol, such that the impact of mind wandering on working memory increased as cortisol levels increased. No overall working memory impairment was observed following the stress manipulation, but increases in state anxiety and mind wandering were observed. State anxiety and mind wandering independently mediated the relationship between change in working memory and threat perception. The indirect paths resulted in opposing effects on working memory. Combined, the findings from this study suggest that cortisol enhances the impact of mind wandering on working memory, that state anxiety may not always result in stress-related working memory impairments, and that high working memory performance can protect against mind wandering. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Perinatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

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    Xi Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working

  19. Impaired Attentional Disengagement from Stimuli Matching the Contents of Working Memory in Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Although many cognitive models in anxiety propose that an impaired top-down control enhances the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, few studies have paid attention to task-irrelevant stimuli under a cognitive load task. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the working memory load on attention to task-irrelevant stimuli in trait social anxiety. The results showed that as trait social anxiety increased, participants were unable to disengage from task-irrelevant stimuli identical to the memory cue under low and high working memory loads. Impaired attentional disengagement was positively correlated with trait social anxiety. This impaired attentional disengagement was related to trait social anxiety, but not state anxiety. Our findings suggest that socially anxious people have difficulty in disengaging attention from a task-irrelevant memory cue owing to an impaired top-down control under a working memory load. PMID:23071765

  20. Impaired attentional disengagement from stimuli matching the contents of working memory in social anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Moriya

    Full Text Available Although many cognitive models in anxiety propose that an impaired top-down control enhances the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, few studies have paid attention to task-irrelevant stimuli under a cognitive load task. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the working memory load on attention to task-irrelevant stimuli in trait social anxiety. The results showed that as trait social anxiety increased, participants were unable to disengage from task-irrelevant stimuli identical to the memory cue under low and high working memory loads. Impaired attentional disengagement was positively correlated with trait social anxiety. This impaired attentional disengagement was related to trait social anxiety, but not state anxiety. Our findings suggest that socially anxious people have difficulty in disengaging attention from a task-irrelevant memory cue owing to an impaired top-down control under a working memory load.

  1. Working memory supports listening in noise for persons with hearing impairment.

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    Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a relation between cognitive capacity, in particular working memory, and the ability to understand speech in noise with different types of hearing aid signal processing. The present study investigates the relation between working memory capacity and the speech recognition performance of persons with hearing impairment under both aided and unaided conditions, following a period of familiarization to both fast- and slow-acting compression settings in the participants' own hearing aids. Speech recognition was tested in modulated and steady state noise with fast and slow compression release settings (for aided conditions) with each of two materials. Working memory capacity was also measured. Thirty experienced hearing aid users with a mean age of 70 yr (SD = 7.8) and pure-tone average hearing threshold across the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz (PTA7) and for both ears of 45.8 dB HL (SD = 6.6. 9 wk experience with each of fast-acting and slow-acting compression. Speech recognition data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with the within-subjects factors of material (high constraint, low constraint), noise type (steady state, modulated), and compression (fast, slow), and the between-subjects factor working memory capacity (high, low). With high constraint material, there were three-way interactions including noise type and working memory as well as compression, in aided conditions, and performance level, in unaided conditions, but no effects of either working memory or compression with low constraint material. Investigation of simple main effects showed a significant effect of working memory during speech recognition under conditions of both "high degradation" (modulated noise, fast-acting compression, low signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]) and "low degradation" (steady state noise, slow-acting compression, high SNR). The finding of superior performance of persons with high working memory capacity in

  2. Memory assessment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy to predict memory impairment after surgery: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Díaz, P; García-Casares, N

    2017-04-19

    Given that surgical treatment of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy may cause memory impairment, determining which patients are eligible for surgery is essential. However, there is little agreement on which presurgical memory assessment methods are best able to predict memory outcome after surgery and identify those patients with a greater risk of surgery-induced memory decline. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine which presurgical memory assessment methods best predict memory outcome. The literature search of PubMed gathered articles published between January 2005 and December 2015 addressing pre- and postsurgical memory assessment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients by means of neuropsychological testing, functional MRI, and other neuroimaging techniques. We obtained 178 articles, 31 of which were included in our review. Most of the studies used neuropsychological tests and fMRI; these methods are considered to have the greatest predictive ability for memory impairment. Other less frequently used techniques included the Wada test and FDG-PET. Current evidence supports performing a presurgical assessment of memory function using both neuropsychological tests and functional MRI to predict memory outcome after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural MRI Correlates of Episodic Memory Processes in Parkinson's Disease Without Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Pirogovsky-Turk, Eva; Filoteo, J Vincent; Litvan, Irene; Harrington, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Changes in episodic memory are common early in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may be a risk factor for future cognitive decline. Although medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory and frontostriatal (FS) executive systems are thought to play different roles in distinct components of episodic memory impairment in PD, no study has investigated whether different aspects of memory functioning are differentially associated with MTL and FS volumes in nondemented patients without mild cognitive impairment (PD-woMCI). The present study investigated MRI markers of different facets of memory functioning in 48 PD-woMCI patients and 42 controls. Regional volumes were measured in structures comprising the MTL and FS systems and then correlated with key indices of memory from the California Verbal Learning Test. In PD-woMCI patients, memory was impaired only for verbal learning, which was not associated with executive, attention/working memory, or visuospatial functioning. Despite an absence of cortical atrophy, smaller right MTL volumes in patients were associated with poorer verbal learning, long delayed free recall, long delayed cued recall, and recognition memory hits and false positives. Smaller right pars triangularis (inferior frontal) volumes were also associated with poorer long delayed cued recall and recognition memory hits. These relationships were not found in controls. The findings indicate that MTL volumes are sensitive to subtle changes in almost all facets of memory in PD-woMCI, whereas FS volumes are sensitive only to memory performances in cued-testing formats.

  4. Physical activity reduces the risk of dementia in mild cognitive impairment subjects: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Giulia; Vanacore, Nicola; Maggiore, Laura; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Mariani, Claudio; Clerici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Leisure activities, particularly exercise, play a protective role against dementia in healthy people, but it is unknown if this protective effect could be generalized to subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To investigate the influence of leisure activities on the risk of progression of MCI to dementia. 176 MCI subjects attending a memory clinic underwent a standardized lifestyle questionnaire between October 2007 and May 2010. Social, cognitive, and physical scores were derived based on the assiduity of interpersonal contacts and on the frequency of participation in individual leisure activities. Subjects were requested to return every 12 months for dementia surveillance. The outcome measure was the risk of dementia associated with social, cognitive, and physical scores. Over a median follow-up time of 2.59 year, 92 (52.2%) MCI subjects developed dementia. Subjects with physical scores in the highest third had a lower risk (HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.23-0.85) of dementia compared with those in the lowest third. No association was found between cognitive or social scores and the risk of dementia. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective clinical study which demonstrates that high levels of participation in physical leisure activities are associated with reduced risk of dementia in subjects with MCI. In line with findings coming from community-based studies on healthy elderly, our finding suggests that the protective role of exercise against the development of dementia can be generalized to MCI subjects seen in clinical practice. Clinicians should encourage MCI subjects to participate in physical leisure activities.

  5. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  6. Neuropeptide S mitigates spatial memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengqing; Huang, Liuqing; Wu, Huijuan; Li, Yanpeng; Zhang, Lin; Yin, You; Xiang, Zhenghua; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2010-06-23

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation causes learning and memory deficits. Neuropeptide S, a newly discovered neuropeptide, has been shown to regulate arousal, anxiety, and may enhance long-term memory formation and spatial memory. However, it is unknown whether neuropeptide S could improve the REM sleep deprivation-induced memory impairment. Here, we report that 72-h REM sleep deprivation in rats resulted in spatial memory impairment and reduced phosphorylation level of cAMP-response element binding protein in the hippocampus, both of which were reversed by central administration of neuropeptide S. The results suggest that neuropeptide S mitigates spatial memory impairment in rats induced by 72-h REM sleep deprivation, possibly through activating cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation in the hippocampus.

  7. Relationships between divided attention and working memory impairment in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bradley E; Hahn, Britta; Robinson, Benjamin; Harvey, Alex; Leonard, Carly J; Luck, Steven J; Gold, James M

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that people with schizophrenia (PSZ) have difficulty distributing their attention broadly. Other research suggests that PSZ have reduced working memory (WM) capacity. This study tested whether these findings reflect a common underlying deficit. We measured the ability to distribute attention by means of the Useful Field of View (UFOV) task, in which participants must distribute attention so that they can discriminate a foveal target and simultaneously localize a peripheral target. Participants included 50 PSZ and 52 healthy control subjects. We found that PSZ exhibited severe impairments in UFOV performance, that UFOV performance was highly correlated with WM capacity in PSZ (r = -.61), and that UFOV impairments could not be explained by either impaired low-level processing or a generalized deficit. These results suggest that a common mechanism explains deficits in the ability to distribute attention broadly, reduced WM capacity, and other aspects of impaired cognition in schizophrenia. We hypothesize that this mechanism may involve abnormal local circuit dynamics that cause a hyperfocusing of resources onto a small number of internal representations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwey, B; Eling, P; Wientjes, H; Zitman, F G

    2000-06-01

    A prospective study was conducted to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose and to study the correlation with sedation. In 43 patients who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory was tested with a 15-word memory recall task. The immediate and delayed recall on the first day after admission (day 1) and 24 hours later (day 2) were rated. Each patient and the interviewer scored the patient's degree of sedation on a visual analogue scale. Patients also had to try to recognize, from photographs, the psychiatrist with whom they had spoken the day before. The ratings of immediate and delayed recall were significantly lower on day 1 than on day 2. Subjective ratings of sedation of the patients were not significantly higher than the ratings of the observer. Less than half of the patients recognized the psychiatrists and knew that they were the ones they had spoken to the day before. Anterograde amnesia is present in suicide attempters who take overdoses of benzodiazepines. The implications of this finding for the assessment of suicide attempters during admission are discussed.

  9. Relationship of tooth loss to mild memory impairment and cognitive impairment: findings from the fujiwara-kyo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomioka Kimiko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the number of remaining teeth to mild memory impairment (MMI, which is a preclinical stage of dementia, and to cognitive impairment. Methods The subjects were aged 65 years or older and were grouped according to their score for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the three-word delayed recall test in the MMSE, and the Geriatric Depression Scale into the control group (n = 3,696, the MMI group (n = 121, and the low MMSE score (23 or lower group (n = 214. We collected data on the number of remaining teeth, the length of the edentulous period, health-related lifestyle, medical history, blood pressure, height, and body weight. Fasting venous blood samples were also obtained. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for depressive symptoms, age, sex, length of education, and other explanatory variables, revealed that the odds ratios of 0-10 remaining teeth to 22-32 remaining teeth were 1.679 (95% CI 1.073-2.627 for MMI and 2.177 (95% CI 1.510-3.140 for a low MMSE score. A significant relationship was also found between the length of the edentulous period and the risk of a low MMSE score (odds ratio 3.102, 95% CI 1.432-6.720 (15 years or more/less than 15 years. Conclusions Our findings suggest that tooth loss is associated with cognitive function.

  10. Whole brain radiation-induced impairments in learning and memory are time-sensitive and reversible by systemic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junie P Warrington

    Full Text Available Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT is commonly used for treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumors; however, cognitive impairment occurs in 40-50% of brain tumor survivors. The etiology of the cognitive impairment following WBRT remains elusive. We recently reported that radiation-induced cerebrovascular rarefaction within hippocampal subregions could be completely reversed by systemic hypoxia. However, the effects of this intervention on learning and memory have not been reported. In this study, we assessed the time-course for WBRT-induced impairments in contextual and spatial learning and the capacity of systemic hypoxia to reverse WBRT-induced deficits in spatial memory. A clinical fractionated series of 4.5Gy WBRT was administered to mice twice weekly for 4 weeks, and after various periods of recovery, behavioral analyses were performed. To study the effects of systemic hypoxia, mice were subjected to 11% (hypoxia or 21% oxygen (normoxia for 28 days, initiated 1 month after the completion of WBRT. Our results indicate that WBRT induces a transient deficit in contextual learning, disruption of working memory, and progressive impairment of spatial learning. Additionally, systemic hypoxia completely reversed WBRT-induced impairments in learning and these behavioral effects as well as increased vessel density persisted for at least 2 months following hypoxia treatment. Our results provide critical support for the hypothesis that cerebrovascular rarefaction is a key component of cognitive impairment post-WBRT and indicate that processes of learning and memory, once thought to be permanently impaired after WBRT, can be restored.

  11. Δ⁹Tetrahydrocannabinol impairs visuo-spatial associative learning and spatial working memory in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffe, Michael A

    2012-10-01

    Cannabis remains the most commonly abused illicit drug and is rapidly expanding in quasi-licit use in some jurisdictions under medical marijuana laws. Effects of the psychoactive constituent Δ⁹tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹THC) on cognitive function remain of pressing concern. Prior studies in monkeys have not shown consistent evidence of memory-specific effects of Δ⁹THC on recognition tasks, and it remains unclear to what extent Δ⁹THC causes sedative versus specific cognitive effects. In this study, adult male rhesus monkeys were trained on tasks which assess spatial working memory, visuo-spatial associative memory and learning as well as motivation for food reward. Subjects were subsequently challenged with 0.1-0.3 mg/kg Δ⁹THC, i.m., in randomized order and evaluated on the behavioral measures. The performance of both vsPAL and SOSS tasks was impaired by Δ⁹THC in a dose and task-difficulty dependent manner. It is concluded that Δ⁹THC disrupts cognition in a way that is consistent with a direct effect on memory. There was evidence for interference with spatial working memory, visuo-spatial associative memory and incremental learning in the latter task. These results and the lack of specific effect of Δ⁹THC in prior visual recognition studies imply a sensitivity of spatial memory processing and/or working memory to endocannabinoid perturbation.

  12. Plasma phospholipids identify antecedent memory impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapstone, Mark; Cheema, Amrita K; Fiandaca, Massimo S; Zhong, Xiaogang; Mhyre, Timothy R; MacArthur, Linda H; Hall, William J; Fisher, Susan G; Peterson, Derick R; Haley, James M; Nazar, Michael D; Rich, Steven A; Berlau, Dan J; Peltz, Carrie B; Tan, Ming T; Kawas, Claudia H; Federoff, Howard J

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease causes a progressive dementia that currently affects over 35 million individuals worldwide and is expected to affect 115 million by 2050 (ref. 1). There are no cures or disease-modifying therapies, and this may be due to our inability to detect the disease before it has progressed to produce evident memory loss and functional decline. Biomarkers of preclinical disease will be critical to the development of disease-modifying or even preventative therapies. Unfortunately, current biomarkers for early disease, including cerebrospinal fluid tau and amyloid-β levels, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and the recent use of brain amyloid imaging or inflammaging, are limited because they are either invasive, time-consuming or expensive. Blood-based biomarkers may be a more attractive option, but none can currently detect preclinical Alzheimer's disease with the required sensitivity and specificity. Herein, we describe our lipidomic approach to detecting preclinical Alzheimer's disease in a group of cognitively normal older adults. We discovered and validated a set of ten lipids from peripheral blood that predicted phenoconversion to either amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease within a 2-3 year timeframe with over 90% accuracy. This biomarker panel, reflecting cell membrane integrity, may be sensitive to early neurodegeneration of preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  14. Validation of the Argentine version of the Memory Binding Test (MBT for Early Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Roman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: "Forgetfulness" is frequent in normal aging and characteristic of the early stages of dementia syndromes. The episodic memory test is central for detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The Memory Binding Test (MBT is a simple, easy and brief memory test to detect the early stage of episodic memory impairment. Objective: To validate the Argentine version of the MBT in a Latin American population and to estimate the diagnostic accuracy as a tool for early detection of MCI. Methods: 88 subjects (46 healthy controls and 42 patients with amnestic MCI matched for age and educational level were evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological battery and the memory binding test. Results: A significantly better performance was detected in the control group; all MBT scales were predictive of MCI diagnosis (p<.01. The MBT showed high sensitivity (69% and high specificity (88%, with a PPV of 93% and a NPV of 55% for associative paired recall. A statistically significant difference (c2=14,164, p<.001 was obtained when comparing the area under the curve (AUC of the MBT (0.88 and the MMSE (0.70. Conclusion: The Argentine version of the MBT correlated significantly with the MMSE and the memory battery and is a useful tool in the detection of MCI. The operating characteristics of the MBT are well suited, surpassing other tests commonly used for detecting MCI.

  15. Thickness in Entorhinal and Subicular Cortex Predicts Episodic Memory Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    A. C. Burggren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI most likely to decline in cognition over time is a major focus in Alzheimer's disease (AD research. Neuroimaging biomarkers that predict decline would have great potential for increasing the efficacy of early intervention. In this study, we used high-resolution MRI, combined with a cortical unfolding technique to increase visibility of the convoluted medial temporal lobe (MTL, to assess whether gray matter thickness in subjects with MCI correlated to decline in cognition over two years. We found that thickness in the entorhinal (ERC and subicular (Sub cortices of MCI subjects at initial assessment correlated to change in memory encoding over two years (ERC: r=0.34; P=.003 and Sub (r=0.26; P=.011 but not delayed recall performance. Our findings suggest that aspects of memory performance may be differentially affected in the early stages of AD. Given the MTL's involvement in early stages of neurodegeneration in AD, clarifying the relationship of these brain regions and the link to resultant cognitive decline is critical in understanding disease progression.

  16. Early detection of memory impairment in people over 65 years old consulting at Health Examination Centers for the French health insurance: the EVATEM protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier-Nitenberg, Christiane; Dauphinot, Virginie; Bongue, Bienvenu; Sass, Catherine; Rouch, Isabelle; Beauchet, Olivier; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Fantino, Bruno

    2013-06-06

    Only half of those living with Alzheimer's disease in France are currently diagnosed, and only one patient in three is supported during the early stages of dementia. This study aims to evaluate three cognitive tests for their predictive ability to diagnose mild cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. For people aged 65 years or over, presenting with a memory complaint, these tests can be performed easily during a preventative consultation. The EVATEM (évaluation des troubles de l'équilibre et de la mémoire (evaluation of balance and memory problems)) cohort study was designed to prospectively assess the predictive value of tests for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease in elderly subjects aged 65 years or over. Subjects were recruited from three health examination centers that are part of the French health insurance system. If a memory complaint was identified (using a dedicated questionnaire), the five-word test, the cognitive disorders examination test and the verbal fluency test were administered during a preventative consultation. A memory consultation was performed at a University Hospital to diagnosis any potential cognitive disorder and a one-year follow-up consultation was also scheduled. We recorded 2041 cases of memory complaint at our Health Examination Centers. Cognitive tests were refused by 33.6% of people who had a memory complaint. The number of subjects sent to a University Hospital memory consultation was 832 and 74.5% of them completed this consultation. The study population therefore includes 620 subjects. Tests for the early diagnosis of a mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease and related disorders should be used in centers dedicated to disease prevention. These should guide subjects with memory impairment to full memory consultations at hospitals and improve the access to early medical and behavioral support. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01316562.

  17. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity. PMID:26900567

  18. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  19. Impaired Processing of Serial Order Determines Working Memory Impairments in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Belder, Maya; Santens, Patrick; Sieben, Anne; Fias, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) problems are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the affected mechanisms leading to impaired WM are still insufficiently understood. The ability to efficiently process serial order in WM has been demonstrated to be fundamental to fluent daily life functioning. The decreased capability to mentally process serial position in WM has been put forward as the underlying explanation for generally compromised WM performance. Determine which mechanisms, such as order processing, are responsible for deficient WM functioning in AD. A group of AD patients (n = 32) and their partners (n = 25), assigned to the control group, were submitted to an extensive battery of neuropsychological and experimental tasks, assessing general cognitive state and functioning of several aspects related to serial order WM. The results revealed an impaired ability to bind item information to serial position within WM in AD patients compared to controls. It was additionally observed that AD patients experienced specific difficulties with directing spatial attention when searching for item information stored in WM. The processing of serial order and the allocation of attentional resources are both disrupted, explaining the generally reduced WM functioning in AD patients. Further studies should now clarify whether this observation could explain disease-related problems for other cognitive functions such as verbal expression, auditory comprehension, or planning.

  20. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and predictors of subjective memory complaints in adult male carriers of the FMR1 premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Rachael Cherie; Hocking, Darren Robert; Trollor, Julian Norman

    2016-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and predictors of subjective memory complaints among a cohort of male FMR1 premutation (PM) carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Twenty-two PM males (ages 26-80, 7 with FXTAS) and 24 matched controls with normal FMR1 alleles (ages 26-77) completed cross-sectional assessments of subjective memory complaints (memory complaints questionnaire, MAC-Q), objective memory function (Logical Memory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale, third edition), and psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders). Although a greater proportion of PM males (36%) endorsed subjective memory complaints compared to controls (21%), formal statistical comparisons failed to reach significance. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that subjective memory complaints were not associated with objective memory performance, but rather were predicted by elevated psychiatric symptoms. The relationship between psychiatric symptoms and subjective complaints found in the PM group was not statistically different to that found in the control group. There were no significant relationships between FMR1 molecular measures (CGG repeat length, FMR1 mRNA level) and measures of subjective memory complaints, objective memory performance, or psychiatric symptoms. In keeping with findings from the general population, this study suggests that subjective ratings of memory performance in PM males are associated with underlying psychological factors rather than cross-sectional objective memory function. However, future longitudinal studies are required to determine whether subjective memory complaints may predict changes in objective memory function over time.

  2. Sleep deprivation in the dark period does not impair memory in OF1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykova, Svitlana; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaëlle; Tobler, Irene

    2009-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that sleep facilitates memory acquisition and consolidation. Moreover, the sleep-wake history preceding memory acquisition and retention as well as circadian timing may be important. We showed previously that sleep deprivation (SD) following learning in OF1 mice impaired their performance on an object recognition task. The learning task was scheduled at the end of the 12 h dark period and the test 24 h later. To investigate the influence of the prominent circadian sleep-wake distribution typical for rodents, we now scheduled the learning task at the beginning of the dark period. Wakefulness following immediately after the learning task was attained either by gentle interference (SD; n = 20) or by spontaneous wheel running (RW; n = 20). Two control groups were used: one had no RW throughout the experiment (n = 23), while the other group's wheel was blocked immediately after acquisition (n = 16), thereby preventing its use until testing. Recognition memory, defined as the difference in exploration of a novel and of familiar objects, was assessed 24 h later during the test phase. Motor activity and RW use were continuously recorded. Remarkably, performance on the object recognition task was not influenced by the protocols; the waking period following acquisition did not impair memory, independent of the method inducing wakefulness (i.e., sleep deprivation or spontaneous running). Thus, all groups explored the novel object significantly longer than the familiar ones during the test phase. Interestingly, neither the amount of rest lost during the SD interventions nor the amount of rest preceding acquisition influenced performance. However, the total amount of rest obtained by the control and SD mice subjected to acquisition at "dark offset" correlated positively (r = 0.66) with memory at test, while no such relationship occurred in the corresponding groups tested at dark onset. Neither the amount of running nor intermediate rest correlated

  3. Cognitive impairment in depressive disorders. Neuropsychological evaluation of memory and behavioural disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, G; Penasse, C; Waltregny, A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the contribution that clinical neuropsychology and neuropsychological assessment can conter to neuropsychiatry, particularly in the evaluation of cognitive disturbances and pharmacological treatment of depression. Six patients (4 females, 2 males; age: 16-54 years old) suffering from depressive disorders underwent a clinical neuropsychological examination. Depending on the memory scores obtained on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, the patients were classified as having mild or no memory impairment (memory impairment (20-40% decrease) or severe memory alteration (> 60% deterioration). Evaluation of memory scores of two other memory tests (Wechsler memory scale and Rey visual design learning test) were also considered. Patients who were classified as having severe memory impairment were consistently reported as seriously impaired on all memory tests. The severity of cognitive dysfunction is in accordance with the serious ness of the neuropsychiatric disturbances of the patients as revealed by personality testing (MMPI, IDS and Eysenck questionnaires) or by personal details as assessed during the interview. This paper discusses the importance of the utility of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of depressed patients and seriously considers the possibility of the use of this approach for pharmacological treatment evaluation.

  4. Impairments of memory and learning in older adults exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls via consumption of Great Lakes fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, S L; Gasior, D M; Polverejan, E; McCaffrey, R J; Sweeney, A M; Humphrey, H E; Gardiner, J C

    2001-06-01

    An association between in utero polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and impaired childhood intellectual functioning has been reported, but the potential impact of PCB exposure during adulthood on intellectual functioning has received little attention. We assessed the impact of PCBs and other fish-borne contaminants on intellectual functioning in older adults. The subjects were 49- to 86-year-old Michigan residents recruited from an existing cohort. Fish eaters ate > 24 lb of sport-caught Lake Michigan fish per year and non-fish eaters ate tests including tests of memory and learning, executive function, and visual-spatial function was administered to 180 subjects (101 fish eaters and 79 non-fish eaters). Blood samples were analyzed for PCBs and 10 other contaminants. We evaluated cognitive outcomes using multiple regression. PCBs and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) were markedly elevated in fish eaters. After controlling for potential confounders PCB, but not DDE, exposure was associated with lower scores on several measures of memory and learning. These included the Weschler Memory Scale verbal delayed recall (p = 0.001), the semantic cluster ratio (p = 0.006), and list A, trial 1 (p = 0.037), from the California Verbal Learning Test. In contrast, executive and visual-spatial function were not impaired by exposure to either PCBs or DDE. In conclusion, PCB exposure during adulthood was associated with impairments in memory and learning, whereas executive and visual-spatial function were unaffected. These results are consistent with previous research showing an association between in utero PCB exposure and impairments of memory during infancy and childhood.

  5. Prospective memory performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease who have mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Zabberoni, Silvia; Serafini, Francesca; Barban, Francesco; Scalici, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2015-09-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to keep in memory and realize future intentions. We aimed at investigating whether in Parkinson's disease (PD) PM deficits are related to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Other aims were to investigate the cognitive abilities underlying PM performance, and the association between PM performance and measures of daily living functioning. The study included 15 PD patients with single domain MCI, 15 with multiple domain MCI, 17 PD patients without cognitive disorders (PDNC) and 25 healthy controls (HCs). All subjects were administered a PM procedure that included focal (PM cue is processed in the ongoing task) and nonfocal (PM cue is not processed in the ongoing task) conditions. PD patients were administered an extensive neuropsychological battery and scales to assess daily living abilities. PD patients with MCI (both single and multiple domains) showed lower accuracy on all PM conditions than both HC and PDNC patients. This was predicted by their scores on shifting indices. Conversely, PM accuracy of PDNC patients was comparable to HCs. Regression analyses revealed that PD patients' PM performance significantly predicted scores on daily living scales Conclusions: Results suggest that PM efficiency is not tout-court reduced in PD patients, but it specifically depends on the presence of MCI. Moreover, decreased executive functioning, but not episodic memory failure, accounts for a significant proportion of variance in PM performance. Finally, PM accuracy indices were found to be associated with measures of global daily living functioning and management of medication. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Working memory impairment as a common component in recurrent depressive disorder and certain somatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika; Moczulski, Dariusz; Bobinska, Kinga; Opuchlik, Katarzyna; Galecka, Elzbieta; Florkowski, Antoni; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Deterioration of the working memory is regarded as one of the most important deficits in a number of somatic diseases. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of working memory in 4 groups of patients: 1) diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder (rDD), 2) with diabetes type 1 (DM1), 3) with diabetes type 2 (DM2), 4) with arterial hypertension (HA) and in healthy controls (HC). The study comprised 300 subjects: rDD (n=99), DM1 (n=31), DM2 (n=31), HA (n=30) and HC (n=109).Cognitive function assessment was based on Trail Making Test (TMT) and the Stroop test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated statistically significant differences of the mean values among particular groups for each of the analysed results of the Stroop Test and TMT (pdepressive disorder and cognitive impairment. 2) Patients with rDD had worse performance on working memory tasks than the patients with DM type 1, DM type 2 and HA. 3) Further investigation is needed to clarify the role of inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) processes in neurocognitive dysfunctions occurring in recurrent depression and somatic disease.

  7. Hippocampal inactivation with TTX impairs long-term spatial memory retrieval and modifies brain metabolic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida María Conejo

    Full Text Available Functional inactivation techniques enable studying the hippocampal involvement in each phase of spatial memory formation in the rat. In this study, we applied tetrodotoxin unilaterally or bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus to evaluate the role of this brain structure in retrieval of memories acquired 28 days before in the Morris water maze. We combined hippocampal inactivation with the assessment of brain metabolism using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Several brain regions were considered, including the hippocampus and other related structures. Results showed that both unilateral and bilateral hippocampal inactivation impaired spatial memory retrieval. Hence, whereas subjects with bilateral hippocampal inactivation showed a circular swim pattern at the side walls of the pool, unilateral inactivation favoured swimming in the quadrants adjacent to the target one. Analysis of cytochrome oxidase activity disclosed regional differences according to the degree of hippocampal functional blockade. In comparison to control group, animals with bilateral inactivation showed increased CO activity in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus during retrieval, while the activity of the dentate gyrus substantially decreased. However, unilateral inactivated animals showed decreased CO activity in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus. This study demonstrated that retrieval recruits differentially the hippocampal subregions and the balance between them is altered with hippocampal functional lesions.

  8. Impairments of exploration and memory after systemic or prelimbic D1-receptor antagonism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina; Schachtman, Todd R.; Mark, Louise T.

    2011-01-01

    to examine the effects on memory: cross-maze and object recognition task. Systemic administration reduced spatial exploration in cross-maze as well as in an open field test, and also reduced object exploration. Spatial (hippocampus-dependent) short-term memory was inhibited in the cross-maze and non......-spatial short-term object retention was also impaired. In contrast to these systemic effects, bilateral injections of SCH23390 into the prelimbic cortices altered neither spatial nor object exploration, but did inhibit short-term memory in both cross-maze and object recognition task. Therefore, the inhibiting......D1-receptor antagonism is known to impair rodent memory but also inhibits spontaneous exploration of stimuli to be remembered. Hypo-exploration could contribute to impaired memory by influencing event processing. In order to explore this effect, the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390...

  9. Topographic processing in developmental prosopagnosia: Preserved perception but impaired memory of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klargaard, Solja K; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Gerlach, Christian

    Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing - that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants included nine individuals with developmental prosopagnosia and 18 matched controls. The group with developmental prosopagnosia had no difficulty with topographic perception, but was reliably poorer in the retention of topographic information. Additional testing revealed that this did not reflect a general deficit in visual processing or visual short-term memory. Interestingly, a classical dissociation could be demonstrated between impaired face memory and preserved topographic memory in two developmental prosopagnosics. We conclude that impairments in topographic memory tend to co-occur with developmental prosopagnosia, although the underlying functions are likely to be independent.

  10. TREK-1 pathway mediates isoflurane-induced memory impairment in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanhui; Peng, Zhengwu; Guo, Haiyun; Wang, Feng; Zeng, Yi

    2017-11-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been widely reported, especially in elderly patients. An association between POCD and inhalational anesthetics, such as isoflurane, has been suggested. The TWIK-related K+ channel-1 (TREK-1) controls several major cellular responses involved in memory formation and is believed to participate in the development of depression, cerebral ischemia and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. However, the specific role of TREK-1 in mediating anesthesia-induced POCD remains unknown. In the current study, we determined that exposure to isoflurane affected memory in middle-aged mice and altered TREK-1 expression. In addition, TREK-1 over-expression exacerbated isoflurane-induced memory impairment, while TREK-1 silence attenuated the impairment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that inhibition of TREK-1 protects mice from cognitive impairment induced by anesthesia and TREK-1 is a potential therapeutic target against memory impairment induced by volatile anesthetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determining the association of medical co-morbidity with subjective and objective cognitive performance in an inner city memory disorders clinic: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Depeng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical co-morbidity may be associated with impaired cognitive function based on prior studies. However, no studies to date have determined to what extent this association is linked to medical illness or other factors that may be linked to medical illness (such as education, income levels, depression or subjective memory loss. The present study examined how medical co-morbidity, socioeconomic status (defined as residential SES, education and depression are associated with subjective and objective memory function in a sample of patients recruited from a university affiliated Memory Disorders Clinic located in a large Canadian inner city teaching hospital. Methods Data was collected from 85 consecutive referrals to an Inner City Memory Disorders Clinic including socio-demographic characteristics, cognitive status and medical co-morbidity. Descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted. Results Impaired objective cognitive function correlated significantly with increased medical co-morbidity and partially with education but not with residential SES or depression. Elevated memory complaints correlated significantly with depression, inversely with residential SES and not at all with medical co-morbidity or education. Conclusions Increased medical co-morbidity is significantly associated with impaired cognitive performance but not with subjective memory complaints in an Inner City Memory Clinic sample.

  12. Self-discipline and self-consciousness predict subjective memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Ann; Storandt, Martha

    2005-05-01

    Research has shown the personality variables of conscientiousness and neuroticism to be related to subjective memory in older adults. This study was designed to determine the specific facets of these traits involved in the relation between personality and memory complaints. Subjective memory evaluations were examined in 85 community-dwelling people aged 56 to 94 years. Regression analysis revealed that one facet of conscientiousness (self-discipline) and two facets of neuroticism (self-consciousness and anxiety) explained almost one third of the variance in subjective memory complaints. Anxiety acted as a suppressor variable to enhance the contribution of self-consciousness. Objective measures of episodic and prospective memory were not related to subjective memory. Effective treatments of memory complaints in healthy older adults may have to focus on enhancing self-discipline and self-concept.

  13. Subjective Memory Ability and Long-Term Forgetting in Patients Referred for Neuropsychological Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, S.P.; Geurts, S.; de Werd, M.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the 1-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological

  14. Subjective memory ability and long-term forgetting in patients referred for neuropsychological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, S.P. van der; Geurts, S.; Werd, M.M.E. de

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the 1-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological

  15. Arbutus andrachne L. Reverses Sleep Deprivation-Induced Memory Impairments in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Malkawi, Bayan S; Khabour, Omar F; El-Elimat, Tamam; Alali, Feras Q

    2017-01-18

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with cognitive deficits. It was found to affect the hippocampus region of the brain by impairing memory formation. This impairment is suggested to be caused by elevation in oxidative stress in the body, including the brain during SD. It was hypothesized that the methanolic extract of the fruits of Arbutus andrachne L. (Ericaceae) will prevent chronic SD-induced impairment of hippocampal memory via its antioxidative properties. The methanolic extract of the fruits of A. andrachne was evaluated for its beneficial properties to reverse SD-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Animals were sleep deprived for 8 weeks using a multiple platform model. The extract was administered i.p. at three doses (50, 200, and 500 mg/kg). Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM). In addition, the hippocampus was dissected to analyze the following oxidative stress markers: glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Chronic SD impaired short- and long-term memories (P memory impairment induced by SD while such treatment prevented short-term memory impairment only at 200 and 500 mg/kg dose levels. Moreover, A. andrachne fruit extract normalized the reduction in the hippocampus GSH/GSSG ratio and activity of GPx, and catalase (P sleep deprivation. Chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short- and long-term memory formation, while methanolic extract of A. andrachne fruits reversed this impairment, probably through normalizing oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

  16. The effect of coaching on the simulated malingering of memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Alexandra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting malingering or exaggeration of impairments in brain function after traumatic brain injury is of increasing importance in neuropsychological assessment. Lawyers involved in brain injury litigation cases routinely coach their clients how to approach neuropsychological testing to their advantage. Thus, it is important to know how robust assessment methods are with respect to symptom malingering or exaggeration. Methods The influence of different coaching methods on the simulated malingering of memory impairments is investigated in neurologically healthy participants using the Short-Term-Memory Test from the Bremer Symptom-Validierung (STM-BSV. Cut-offs were derived from patients with mild to severe traumatic brain injury. For comparison purposes, the German adaptation of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT, and the Rey 15 Items Test (FIT were additionally administered. Four groups of neurologically healthy subjects were instructed to (1 perform as best as they can, (2 simulate brain injury, (3 simulate brain injury and received additional information about the sequelae of head trauma, (4 simulate brain injury and received additional information on how to avoid detection. Furthermore, a group of patients with mild to severe closed head injury performed the tests with best effort. Results The naïve simulator and the symptom coached groups were the easiest to detect, whereas the symptom plus test coached group was the hardest to detect. The AVLT and the FIT were not suited to detect simulators (sensitivities from 0% to 50.8% at 75% specificity whereas the STM-BSV detected simulators with 67% – 88% sensitivity at a specificity of 73%. However, the STM-BSV was not robust to coaching. Conclusion The present investigation shows that symptom validity testing as implemented in the BSV-STM is one clinically useful element in the detection of memory malingering. However, clinicians have to be aware that coaching

  17. Objective and subjective memory ratings in cannabis-dependent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Lydiard, Jessica B; Goddard, Scott D; Gray, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance worldwide, with an estimated 160 million users. Among adolescents, rates of cannabis use are increasing, while the perception of detrimental effects of cannabis use is declining. Difficulty with memory is one of the most frequently noted cognitive deficits associated with cannabis use, but little data exist exploring how well users can identify their own memory deficits, if present. The current secondary analysis sought to characterize objective verbal and visual memory performance via a neurocognitive battery in cannabis-dependent adolescents enrolled in a pharmacotherapeutic cannabis cessation clinical trial (N = 112) and compare this to a single self-reported item assessing difficulties with memory loss. Exploratory analyses also assessed dose-dependent effects of cannabis on memory performance. A small portion of the study sample (10%) endorsed a "serious problem" with memory loss. Those participants reporting "no problem" or "serious problem" scored similarly on visual and verbal memory tasks on the neurocognitive battery. Exploratory analyses suggested a potential relationship between days of cannabis use, amount of cannabis used, and gender with memory performance. This preliminary and exploratory analysis suggests that a sub-set of cannabis users may not accurately perceive difficulties with memory. Further work should test this hypothesis with the use of a control group, comprehensive self-reports of memory problems, and adult populations that may have more years of cannabis use and more severe cognitive deficits. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Volkers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.

  19. Phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI, one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.

  20. Dysfunctional and compensatory duality in mild cognitive impairment during a continuous recognition memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurtenetxe, Sara; Castellanos, Nazareth P; Moratti, Stephan; Bajo, Ricardo; Gil, Pedro; Beitia, Garikoitz; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    One of the current issues of debate in the study of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is deviations of oscillatory brain responses from normal brain states and its dynamics. This work aims to characterize the differences of power in brain oscillations during the execution of a recognition memory task in MCI subjects in comparison with elderly controls. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals were recorded during a continuous recognition memory task performance. Oscillatory brain activity during the recognition phase of the task was analyzed by wavelet transform in the source space by means of minimum norm algorithm. Both groups obtained a 77% hit ratio. In comparison with healthy controls, MCI subjects showed increased theta (p<0.001), lower beta reduction (p<0.001) and decreased alpha and gamma power (p<0.002 and p<0.001 respectively) in frontal, temporal and parietal areas during early and late latencies. Our results point towards a dual pattern of activity (increase and decrease) which is indicative of MCI and specific to certain time windows, frequency bands and brain regions. These results could represent two neurophysiological sides of MCI. Characterizing these opposing processes may contribute to the understanding of the disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Violent and sexual media impair second-language memory during encoding and retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lull, R.B.; Cetin, Y.; Bushman, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to media containing violence and sex impairs attention and memory. Learning a foreign language is one domain in which attention and memory are critical. Two experiments addressed whether exposure to media containing violence and sex interferes with foreign-language

  2. Are Errors Differentiable from Deceptive Responses when Feigning Memory Impairment? An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Au, Ricky K. C.; Liu, Ho-Ling; Ting, K. H.; Huang, Chih-Mao; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the neural activity associated with truthful recall, with false memory, and with feigned memory impairment are different from one another. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that addressed an important but yet unanswered question: Is the neural activity associated…

  3. Interactions between working memory and language in young children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugs, B.A.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cuperus, J.M.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The underlying structure of working memory (WM) in young children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) was examined. The associations between the components of WM and the language abilities of young children with SLI were then analyzed. The Automated Working Memory Assessment and four

  4. Children with Specific Language Impairment and Resolved Late Talkers: Working Memory Profiles at 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Nadia; Bavin, Edith L.; Bretherton, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The evidence of a deficit in working memory in specific language impairment (SLI) is of sufficient magnitude to suggest a primary role in developmental language disorder. However, little research has investigated memory in late talkers who recover from their early delay. Drawing on a longitudinal, community sample, this study compared the…

  5. Does Reactivating a Witnessed Memory Increase Its Susceptibility to Impairment by Subsequent Misinformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J.; DeFranco, Rachel M.; Rich, Patrick R.; Zaragoza, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent PNAS article, Chan and LaPaglia (2013) provided arguments and evidence to support the claim that reactivating a witnessed memory (by taking a test) renders the memory labile and susceptible to impairment by subsequent misinformation. In the current article, we argue that Chan and LaPaglia's (2013) findings are open to alternative…

  6. Spatial but Not Object Memory Impairments in Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Lynn; Uecker, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Thirty Native American children (mean age=10.3 years), 15 identified with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 15 controls, were asked to recall places and objects in a task previously shown to be sensitive to memory skills in individuals with and without mental retardation. Children with FAS demonstrated a spatial but not an object memory impairment.…

  7. Memory impairment in chronic pain patients and the related neuropsychological mechanisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianhua; Li, Li; Tang, Fanggui; Wu, Siwei; Hu, Yiqiu

    2014-08-01

    This study provides a comprehensive review of the literature on memory impairment and the potential effective factors in patients with chronic pain. A literature search of databases PubMed, EMBASE, SpringerLink, and PsycINFO until September 2012 was conducted using the keywords ‘memory’ and ‘chronic pain’. The study emphasises on publications over the past 20 years. Memory impairment in chronic pain patients is substantial, but the aspects of memory (e.g. working memory, long-term memory, and autobiographical memory) in chronic pain patients and the potentially related factors (e.g. age, level of education, pain conditions, emotion, neural network, and use of analgesics) are modest. Memory impairment is interpreted with the attention-narrowing hypothesis and the capacity-reduction hypothesis. The currently available data and theory have explained memory impairment in chronic pain patients, but many controversies remain. Future research should focus on the subclinical characteristics of chronic pain, enlarging the sample size, and emphasise on the experimental intervention method and the cognitive neuroscience method.

  8. Working memory performance and thalamus microstructure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F; Caltagirone, C; Spalletta, G

    2010-12-01

    Research on the neural basis of working memory (WM) has generally focused on cortical regions, specifically frontal and parietal areas. Comparatively, evidence of a possible involvement of deep gray matter structures, that are parts of cortico-cortical circuits linking anterior and posterior cortical areas, is far less clear. The goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that individual structural variations within deep gray matter structures may affect the cortical networks involved in WM. To this aim, a large sample (n=181) of healthy subjects underwent a high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan protocol. Data of micro- (mean diffusivity, MD) and macro- (volume) structural variations of six bilateral deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus, amygdala and pallidum) and lateral ventriculi volume were analyzed in association with score in a WM (the so-called n-back task) and other neuropsychological tasks. Results showed that increased MD of bilateral thalami was the only structural parameter that significantly correlated with reduced WM performance. In particular, a voxel-by-voxel analysis revealed that the greater percentage of voxels showing significant anticorrelation between WM score and MD values were localized in those thalamic nuclei projecting to prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Results highlight the specific involvement of thalamus microstructure, not volume, in modulating WM performance, possibly by regulating the connections among cortical areas that are recruited during WM tasks. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Subjective memory complaints in preclinical autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Daniel J; Amariglio, Rebecca; Protas, Hillary; Chen, Kewei; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; Pulsifer, Brendan; Castrillon, Gabriel; Tirado, Victoria; Munoz, Claudia; Tariot, Pierre; Langbaum, Jessica B; Reiman, Eric M; Lopera, Francisco; Sperling, Reisa A; Quiroz, Yakeel T

    2017-10-03

    To cross-sectionally study subjective memory complaints (SMC) in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). We examined self-reported and study partner-based SMC in 52 young, cognitively unimpaired individuals from a Colombian kindred with early-onset ADAD. Twenty-six carried the PSEN-1 E280A mutation, averaging 7 years of age younger than the kindred's expected clinical onset. Twenty-six were age-matched noncarriers. Participants also underwent structural MRI and cognitive testing. Self-reported SMC were greater in carriers than noncarriers ( p = 0.02). Study partner-based SMC did not differ between groups ( p = 0.21), but in carriers increased with age ( r = 0.66, p < 0.001) and decreased with hippocampal volume ( r = -0.35, p = 0.08). Cognitively unimpaired PSEN-1 carriers have elevated SMC. Self-reported SMC may be a relatively early indicator of preclinical AD, while partner- reported SMC increases later in preclinical AD, closer to clinical onset. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Temporal cognition: Connecting subjective time to perception, attention, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, William J; Meck, Warren H

    2016-08-01

    Time is a universal psychological dimension, but time perception has often been studied and discussed in relative isolation. Increasingly, researchers are searching for unifying principles and integrated models that link time perception to other domains. In this review, we survey the links between temporal cognition and other psychological processes. Specifically, we describe how subjective duration is affected by nontemporal stimulus properties (perception), the allocation of processing resources (attention), and past experience with the stimulus (memory). We show that many of these connections instantiate a "processing principle," according to which perceived time is positively related to perceptual vividity and the ease of extracting information from the stimulus. This empirical generalization generates testable predictions and provides a starting-point for integrated theoretical frameworks. By outlining some of the links between temporal cognition and other domains, and by providing a unifying principle for understanding these effects, we hope to encourage time-perception researchers to situate their work within broader theoretical frameworks, and that researchers from other fields will be inspired to apply their insights, techniques, and theorizing to improve our understanding of the representation and judgment of time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory. Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats. Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance. Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they ag...

  12. Stereotype threat can enhance, as well as impair, older adults’ memory

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults’ memory; however, the mechanisms underlying this are unclear. In two experiments we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts: executive control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about their memory or not. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall either led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive control interfere...

  13. [Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in improving episodic memory of patients with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-xing; Dong, Zhen-hua; Yu, Zhong-hai; Xiao, Shi-yuan; Li, Ya-ming

    2012-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. It is important in terms of recognizing memory loss in older people as well as identifying a group of individuals at high risk of developing dementia and who may benefit from preventive strategies. Ginkgo biloba extract has been shown to possess polyvalent properties, such as anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation. Ginkgo biloba extract appears to have a neuroprotective effect against neurodegenerative diseases. To observe the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet in improving episodic memory of mild cognitive impairment. This is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. The authors enrolled generally healthy, ambulatory or ambulatory-aided amnestic subjects with MCI, 60 to 85 years old, who expressed a memory complaint from Huadong Hospital, seven Community Health Centers in Shanghai, and Shanghai First Welfare Institution. A total of 120 MCI patients were randomly assigned to the Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet group (treatment group, 60 cases) and control group (60 cases). The patients in the treatment group took Ginkgo biloba leaf tablets 3 times a day, 19.2 mg each dose. The control group did not receive any intelligence-promoting or vasodilator reflex treatment except some health care. The patients were tested with nonsense picture recognition of the clinical memory scale and the logical memory test based on the Wechsler memory scale before and after treatment. After 6 months of treatment, the scores of the logical memory test and nonsense picture recognition were increased significantly in the treatment group (P0.05). After treatment, the positive rate of nonsense picture recognition was 55.17% in the treatment group, which was significantly higher than that of the control group at 32.73% (PGinkgo biloba leaf tablet showed good efficacy in promoting episodic memory function in MCI patients.

  14. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…

  15. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Yshii, Lidia M; Viel, Tania A; Buck, Hudson S; Mattson, Mark P; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa M

    2014-05-06

    Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection.

  16. Predicting impaired extinction of traumatic memory and elevated startle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nalloor

    Full Text Available Emotionally traumatic experiences can lead to debilitating anxiety disorders, such as phobias and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Exposure to such experiences, however, is not sufficient to induce pathology, as only up to one quarter of people exposed to such events develop PTSD. These statistics, combined with findings that smaller hippocampal size prior to the trauma is associated with higher risk of developing PTSD, suggest that there are pre-disposing factors for such pathology. Because prospective studies in humans are limited and costly, investigating such pre-dispositions, and thus advancing understanding of the genesis of such pathologies, requires the use of animal models where predispositions are identified before the emotional trauma. Most existing animal models are retrospective: they classify subjects as those with or without a PTSD-like phenotype long after experiencing a traumatic event. Attempts to create prospective animal models have been largely unsuccessful.Here we report that individual predispositions to a PTSD-like phenotype, consisting of impaired rate and magnitude of extinction of an emotionally traumatic event coupled with long-lasting elevation of acoustic startle responses, can be revealed following exposure to a mild stressor, but before experiencing emotional trauma. We compare, in rats, the utility of several classification criteria and report that a combination of criteria based on acoustic startle responses and behavior in an anxiogenic environment is a reliable predictor of a PTSD-like phenotype.There are individual predispositions to developing impaired extinction and elevated acoustic startle that can be identified after exposure to a mildly stressful event, which by itself does not induce such a behavioral phenotype. The model presented here is a valuable tool for studying the etiology and pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and provides a platform for testing behavioral and pharmacological

  17. Rhinal and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Lesions Produce Selective Impairments in Object and Spatial Learning and Memory in Canines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Lori-Ann; Saunders, Richard C.; Kowalska, Danuta, M.; MacKay, William A.; Head, Elizabeth; Cotman, Carl W.; Milgram, Norton W.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of rhinal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lesions on object and spatial recognition memory in canines, we used a protocol in which both an object (delayed non-matching to sample, or DNMS) and a spatial (delayed non-matching to position or DNMP) recognition task were administered daily. The tasks used similar procedures such that only the type of stimulus information to be remembered differed. Rhinal cortex (RC) lesions produced a selective deficit on the DNMS task, both in retention of the task rules at short delays and in object recognition memory. By contrast, performance on the DNMP task remained intact at both short and long delay intervals in RC animals. Subjects who received dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) lesions were impaired on a spatial task at a short, 5-sec delay, suggesting disrupted retention of the general task rules, however, this impairment was transient; long-term spatial memory performance was unaffected in dlPFC subjects. The present results provide support for the involvement of the RC in object, but not visuospatial, processing and recognition memory, whereas the dlPFC appears to mediate retention of a non-matching rule. These findings support theories of functional specialization within the medial temporal lobe and frontal cortex and suggest that rhinal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices in canines are functionally similar to analogous regions in other mammals. PMID:18792072

  18. Cognitive impairment, decline and fluctuations in older community-dwelling subjects with Lewy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitakis, Z.; Yu, L.; Boyle, P. A.; Leurgans, S. E.; Bennett, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Lewy bodies are common in the ageing brain and often co-occur with Alzheimer’s disease pathology. There is little known regarding the independent role of Lewy body pathology in cognition impairment, decline and fluctuations in community-dwelling older persons. We examined the contribution of Lewy body pathology to dementia, global cognition, cognitive domains, cognitive decline and fluctuations in 872 autopsied subjects (mean age = 87.9 years) from the Rush Religious Order Study (n = 491) and Memory and Aging Project (n = 381) longitudinal community-based clinical–pathological studies. Dementia was based on a clinical evaluation; annual cognitive performance tests were used to create a measure of global cognition and five cognitive domains. Lewy body type was determined by using α-synuclein immunostained sections of substantia nigra, limbic and neocortical regions. Statistical models included multiple regression models for dementia and cognition and mixed effects models for decline. Cognitive fluctuations were estimated by comparing standard deviations of individual residuals from mean trajectories of decline in those with and without Lewy bodies. All models controlled for age, sex, education, Alzheimer’s disease pathology and infarcts. One hundred and fifty-seven subjects (18%) exhibited Lewy body pathology (76 neocortical-type, 54 limbic-type and 27 nigra-predominant). One hundred and three (66%) subjects with Lewy body pathology had a pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neocortical-type, but not nigral-predominant or limbic-type Lewy body pathology was related to an increased odds of dementia (odds ratio = 3.21; 95% confidence interval = 1.78–5.81) and lower cognition (P Lewy body pathology was also related to a faster decline in global cognition (P Lewy body pathology was related to lower and faster decline in visuospatial skills (P = 0.042). The relationship of Lewy body pathology to cognition and dementia was not modified by Alzheimer

  19. Everyday memory impairment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzezak, Patrícia; Lima, Ellen Marise; Gargaro, Ana Carolina; Coimbra, Erica; de Vincentiis, Silvia; Velasco, Tonicarlo Rodrigues; Leite, João Pereira; Busatto, Geraldo F; Valente, Kette D

    2017-04-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) have episodic memory impairment. Memory has rarely been evaluated using an ecologic measure, even though performance on these tests is more related to patients' memory complaints. We aimed to measure everyday memory of patients with TLE-HS to age- and gender-matched controls. We evaluated 31 patients with TLE-HS and 34 healthy controls, without epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, using the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), Visual Reproduction (WMS-III) and Logical Memory (WMS-III). We evaluated the impact of clinical variables such as the age of onset, epilepsy duration, AED use, history of status epilepticus, and seizure frequency on everyday memory. Statistical analyses were performed using MANCOVA with years of education as a confounding factor. Patients showed worse performance than controls on traditional memory tests and in the overall score of RBMT. Patients had more difficulties to recall names, a hidden belonging, to deliver a message, object recognition, to remember a story full of details, a previously presented short route, and in time and space orientation. Clinical epilepsy variables were not associated with RBMT performance. Memory span and working memory were correlated with worse performance on RBMT. Patients with TLE-HS demonstrated deficits in everyday memory functions. A standard neuropsychological battery, designed to assess episodic memory, would not evaluate these impairments. Impairment in recalling names, routes, stories, messages, and space/time disorientation can adversely impact social adaptation, and we must consider these ecologic measures with greater attention in the neuropsychological evaluation of patients with memory complaints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological Characteristics of Children with Visual Impairments: Learning, Memory and Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The performance of children (and sometimes adults) with visual impairments (VI) on a range of tasks that reflect learning, memory and mental imagery is considered in this article. Sometimes the evidence suggests that there are impairments in performance in comparison with typically developing children with vision, and sometimes some advantages…

  1. Free Recall Behaviour in Children with and without Spelling Impairment: The Impact of Working Memory Subcapacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malstadt, Nadine; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lehmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined supraspan free recall in children with and without spelling impairment. A repeated free recall task involving overt rehearsal and three computer-based adaptive working memory tasks were administered to 54 eight-year-old children. Children without spelling impairments tended to recall more items than did those children with…

  2. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a preliminary investigation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irish, Muireann

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient\\'s daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants\\' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  3. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Brian A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient's daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory, associative memory (face-name pairings, spatial memory (route learning and recall, and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months, 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  4. Children with specific language impairment: linguistic impairment or short-term memory deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, H K; Howard, D

    1993-12-01

    This study is concerned with characteristics of short-term memory (STM) in children with specific language impairment (SLI). The linguistic requirements of the test procedure, the characteristics of the test materials, and the development of linguistic representations were considered. Two experimental tasks were used: a verbal-repetition and a picture-pointing procedure. The tasks used auditory presentation and were designed to explore different underlying processes during immediate recall. The linguistic characteristics of the test materials were designed to explore the influence of semantic, lexical, and phonological factors on STM. Six SLI children (aged 6:1 to 9:6) (years:months) were individually matched on comprehension and expression of language to 17 younger children (age 3:4 to 6:5). Both groups were differentially influenced by the materials as a function of the test procedure. In general, both group and individual analyses found no significant difference between the performance of the SLI children and language-age (LA) controls. The implications of the results in relation to previous findings from investigations of STM and the underlying cause of SLI in children are discussed.

  5. Nicotine?prevented learning and memory impairment in REM sleep?deprived rat is modulated by DREAM protein in the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rashid, Norlinda; Hapidin, Hermizi; Abdullah, Hasmah; Ismail, Zalina; Long, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction REM sleep deprivation is associated with impairment in learning and memory, and nicotine treatment has been shown to attenuate this effect. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of DREAM protein in learning and memory processes. This study investigates the association of DREAM protein in REM sleep?deprived rats hippocampus upon nicotine treatment. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to normal condition, REM sleep deprivation and control wide platfor...

  6. Intermittent Hypoxia Does not Elicit Memory Impairment in Spinal Cord Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Alcayaga, Julio; Testa, Denisse; Quinteros, Ana Luisa

    2016-06-01

    There is a critical need for new therapeutic strategies to restore motor function in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs), without unwanted effects. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) induces plasticity in spared synaptic pathways to motor neurons below the level of injury, which can be harnessed to elicit motor recovery in incomplete SCI patients. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of IH on memory function. The aim of this study was to assess episodic verbal and visual memory function with the Complutense verbal learning test (TAVEC) and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), respectively, before and after a 4-week protocol of repetitive IH combined with body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in incomplete ASIA C and D SCI subjects. Subjects received either IH (cycling 9%/21% FiO2 every 1.5 min, 15 cycles per day) or continued normoxia (Nx, 21% FiO2) combined with 45 min of BWSTT for 5 consecutive days, followed by 3 times per week IH and BWSTT for 3 additional weeks. ROCF Z scores between IH plus BWSTT and Nx plus BWSTT were not significantly different (p = .43). Compared with baseline, IH and BWSTT group showed a significantly greater (p .05). Our results suggest that a 4-week protocol of moderate IH does not elicit visual or verbal memory impairment. Thus, repetitive IH may be a safe therapeutic approach to incomplete spinal cord injury patients, without deleterious cognitive effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mice lacking collapsin response mediator protein 1 manifest hyperactivity, impaired learning and memory, and impaired prepulse inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya eYamashita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1 is one of the CRMP family members that are involved in various aspects of neuronal development such as axonal guidance and neuronal migration. Here we provide evidence that crmp1-/- mice exhibited behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenia. The crmp1-/- mice exhibited hyperactivity and/or impaired emotional behavioral phenotype. These mice also exhibited impaired context-dependent memory and long-term memory retention. Furthermore, crmp1-/- mice exhibited decreased prepulse inhibition, and this phenotype was rescued by administration of chlorpromazine, a typical antipsychotic drug. In addition, in vivo microdialysis revealed that the methamphetamine-induced release of dopamine in prefrontal cortex was exaggerated in crmp1-/- mice, suggesting that enhanced mesocortical dopaminergic transmission contributes to their hyperactivity phenotype. These observations suggest that impairment of CRMP1 function may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We propose that crmp1-/- mouse may model endophenotypes present in this neuropsychiatric disorder.

  8. Usefulness of an Integrated Analysis of Different Memory Tasks to Predict the Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease: The Episodic Memory Score (EMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Camillo; Gainotti, Guido; Fadda, Lucia; Perri, Roberta; Lacidogna, Giordano; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Taking into the account both the severity and the consistency of performances obtained on memory tests by patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) could improve the power to predict their progression to Alzheimer's disease. For this purpose, we constructed the Episodic Memory Score (EMS), which is obtained by subdividing in tertiles performances obtained at baseline in verbal (RAVLT) and visual episodic memory (Rey-Osterrieth Figure-delayed recall) and giving a score ranging from 1 (worst result) to 3 (best result) to results falling within each tertile. The EMS was computed for each patient by summing the tertile score obtained on each memory task, so that the total score ranged from 4 (worst performance) to 12 (best performance). The aMCI sample consisted of 198 subjects who completed the two-year follow-up, at the end of which 55 subjects had converted to dementia. The mean EMS score obtained by aMCI converters was significantly lower than that of aMCI-stable patients. In detecting conversion to dementia, the comparison between EMS and individual memory scores obtained at baseline was made by computing ROC curves, and estimating the respective area under the curve (AUC). The EMS had a larger AUC than the individual memory scores. At baseline aMCI converters performed worse than non-converters not only on memory tasks, but also on executive functions tasks. However, in a multiple variables logistic regression analysis in which all scores showing statistically significant differences between aMCI-converters and aMCI-stable were entered, the EMS was the only reliable predictor of progression from aMCI to dementia.

  9. Chronic Melatonin Treatment Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Mayyas, Fadia A; Khabour, Omar F; Bani Salama, Fatima M; Alhashimi, Farah H; Mhaidat, Nizar M

    2016-07-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been associated with memory impairment through induction of oxidative stress. Melatonin, which promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS), has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. In this study, the effect of melatonin on memory impairment induced by 4 weeks of SD was investigated using rat animal model. Animals were sleep deprived using modified multiple platform model. Melatonin was administered via oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day). Spatial learning and memory were assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers in the hippocampus following treatments were measured using ELISA procedure. The result revealed that SD impaired both short- and long-term memory (P memory impairment induced by SD. Furthermore, melatonin normalized SD-induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, melatonin enhanced the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione GSH/GSSG in sleep-deprived rats (P  0.05). In conclusion, SD induced memory impairment, which was prevented by melatonin. This was correlated with normalizing hippocampus antioxidant mechanisms during chronic SD.

  10. True and false memories in adolescents with psychosis: evidence for impaired recollection and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caza, Nicole; Doré, Marie-Claire; Gingras, Nathalie; Rouleau, Nancie

    2011-05-01

    Psychotic patients are impaired on recall and recognition of studied items (true memory) and typically make more false recall (intrusions) and false recognition than controls, reflecting greater susceptibility to false memory. The functional mechanisms underlying these deficits are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine recollection and familiarity in true and false memory in psychotic adolescents without long-term exposure to medication and repeated hospitalisations. Seventeen adolescents with psychosis and 17 matched controls were tested on a DRM false memory paradigm combined with a remember (R)/know (K)/guess (G) procedure. Recall and recognition of targets (studied words), critical lures (associated words) and unrelated distractors were measured. Between-group comparisons were made using t-tests and mixed ANOVAs. Independent estimates for recollection and familiarity were also calculated. True memory was impaired in patients. Similar rates of false memory for critical lures were found in both groups. False memory for unrelated distractors was increased in patients. Contrary to controls, who attributed more R and K responses to targets than lures, patients attributed similar proportions of R and K responses to targets and lures. Furthermore, patients attributed more K responses than controls to all distractors. These findings suggest a deficit in recollection- and familiarity-based memory in psychotic adolescents as well as reliance on preserved gist or meaning-based memory to support poor item-specific memory.

  11. Assessment of short-term memory in Arabic speaking children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddah, F A; Shoeib, R M; Mahmoud, H E

    2010-12-15

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) may have some kind of memory disorder that could increase their linguistic impairment. This study assessed the short-term memory skills in Arabic speaking children with either Expressive Language Impairment (ELI) or Receptive/Expressive Language Impairment (R/ELI) in comparison to controls in order to estimate the nature and extent of any specific deficits in these children that could explain the different prognostic results of language intervention. Eighteen children were included in each group. Receptive, expressive and total language quotients were calculated using the Arabic language test. Assessment of auditory and visual short-term memory was done using the Arabic version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Both groups of SLI performed significantly lower linguistic abilities and poorer auditory and visual short-term memory in comparison to normal children. The R/ELI group presented an inferior performance than the ELI group in all measured parameters. Strong association was found between most tasks of auditory and visual short-term memory and linguistic abilities. The results of this study highlighted a specific degree of deficit of auditory and visual short-term memories in both groups of SLI. These deficits were more prominent in R/ELI group. Moreover, the strong association between the different auditory and visual short-term memories and language abilities in children with SLI must be taken into account when planning an intervention program for these children.

  12. Sleep deprivation impairs emotional memory retrieval in mice: influence of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Santos, Luciano; Patti, Camilla L; Zanin, Karina A; Fernandes, Helaine A; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2012-08-07

    The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation on memory processes are well documented. However, non-selective sleep deprivation occurs more commonly in modern society and thus represents a better translational model. We have recently reported that acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) for 6 h immediately before testing impaired performance of male mice in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and in the passive avoidance task (PAT). In order to extend these findings to females, we examined the effect of (pre-test) TSD on the retrieval of different memory tasks in both male and female mice. Animals were tested using 3 distinct memory models: 1) conditioning fear context (CFC), 2) PAT and 3) PM-DAT. In all experiments, animals were totally sleep-deprived by the gentle interference method for 6h immediately before being tested. In the CFC task and the PAT, TSD induced memory impairment regardless of sex. In PM-DAT, the memory impairing effects of TSD were greater in females. Collectively, our results confirm the impairing effect of TSD on emotional memory retrieval and demonstrate that it can be higher in female mice depending on the memory task evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep deprivation specifically impairs short-term olfactory memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Yu, Feng; Guo, Aike

    2009-11-01

    Sleep is crucial to memory consolidation in humans and other animals; however, the effect of insufficient sleep on subsequent learning and memory remains largely elusive. Learning and memory after 1-day sleep deprivation (slpD) was evaluated using Pavlovian olfactory conditioning in Drosophila, and locomotor activity was measured using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring System in a 12:12 light-dark cycle. We found that slpD specifically impaired 1-h memory in wild type Canton-S flies, and this effect could persist for at least 2 h. However, alternative stresses (heat stress, oxidative stress, starvation, and rotation stress) did not result in a similar effect and left the flies' memory intact. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that flies with either silenced transmission of the mushroom body (MB) during slpD or down-regulated cAMP levels in the MB demonstrated no slpD-induced 1-h memory impairment. We found that slpD specifically impaired 1-h memory in Drosophila, and either silencing of MB transmission during slpD or down-regulation of the cAMP level in the MB protected the flies from slpD-induced impairment.

  14. Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter during Development Impairs Memory in Adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Ilaria; Davis, Ronald L

    2016-09-06

    The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn)-a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation-causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect. The behavioral impairment was associated with structural defects in MBn, including a decrease in synaptic vesicles and an increased length in the axons of the αβ MBn. Our results reveal an in vivo developmental role for the mitochondrial uniporter complex in establishing the necessary structural and functional neuronal substrates for normal memory formation in the adult organism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter during Development Impairs Memory in Adult Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Drago

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn—a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation—causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect. The behavioral impairment was associated with structural defects in MBn, including a decrease in synaptic vesicles and an increased length in the axons of the αβ MBn. Our results reveal an in vivo developmental role for the mitochondrial uniporter complex in establishing the necessary structural and functional neuronal substrates for normal memory formation in the adult organism.

  16. Persistent frequent subclinical seizures and memory impairment after clinical remission in smoldering limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Riki; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kinoshita, Masako; Otsuka, Akiko; Watanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Keiko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2014-09-01

    To delineate a possible correlation between clinical course and EEG abnormalities in non-infectious "smoldering" limbic encephalitis. Long-term clinical data, including video-EEG monitoring records, were analysed in two patients. The two patients were positive for anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody and unspecified antineuronal antibody, respectively. The latter patient had small cell lung carcinoma. Both patients had memory impairment and clinical seizures. EEG showed frequent subclinical seizure patterns in the bilateral temporal regions. Subclinical seizure patterns and memory impairment persisted over one to two years after clinical seizure remission. Therapy (prednisolone and chemoradiation in the two patients, respectively) resulted in decreased occurrence of subclinical seizure patterns and memory improvement. EEG seizure patterns may persist years after clinical seizure remission in "smoldering" limbic encephalitis and lead to memory impairment.

  17. Intact memory for irrelevant information impairs perception in amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barense, M.D.; Groen, I.I.A.; Lee, A.C.H.; Yeung, L.K.; Brady, S.M.; Gregory, M.; Kapur, N.; Bussey, T.J.; Saksida, L.M.; Henson, R.N.A.

    2012-01-01

    Memory and perception have long been considered separate cognitive processes, and amnesia resulting from medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage is thought to reflect damage to a dedicated memory system. Recent work has questioned these views, suggesting that amnesia can result from impoverished

  18. Working memory limitations in children with severe language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an

  19. Elevated rates of memory impairment in military service-members and veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Nikki H; Lippa, Sara M; Green, Deborah L; McGlynn, Susan M; Grande, Laura J; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2017-10-01

    Studies investigating the neurocognitive effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) routinely find "deficits" in various cognitive domains. However, the rate of cognitive impairment in individuals with PTSD remains unclear, as studies have focused on null hypothesis testing (NHT) and inferring patterns of impairment rather than empirically determining the rate of cognitive impairment in this sample. This study examined rates of cognitive impairment using a domain-specific approach in non-treatment-seeking Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn service members and veterans with (n = 92) and without (n = 79) PTSD and without substance abuse/dependence who passed a performance validity measure and were matched on age, education, estimated IQ, and ethnicity. Chi-square analyses were used to compare the rate of cognitive impairment across groups based on normative scores using three cutoffs (-1, -1.5, and -2 SDs). NHT was also used to compare performances across groups. Individuals with PTSD showed higher rates of impairment in memory (-1-SD cutoff) than controls, but equivalent rates of impairment in attention, processing speed, and executive functioning; no significant differences were found on NHT. Impairment in any domain was also more prevalent in PTSD (-1-, -1.5-, and -2-SD cutoffs). No differences were found on NHT or rates of impairment in individuals with PTSD with (n = 34) and without (n = 58) depression. Patients with PTSD were more likely to meet criteria for memory impairment and to show impairment in any domain than controls. Patients with PTSD and comorbid depression were no more likely to be impaired in any cognitive domain or to have lower scores on individual cognitive tasks than patients with PTSD alone. Clinicians noting cognitive impairment in individuals with PTSD should exercise caution before ascribing that impairment to another etiology if deficits are limited to memory.

  20. Impaired everyday memory associated with encephalopathy of severe malaria: the role of seizures and hippocampal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegan Greg W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seizures are common in children admitted with severe falciparum malaria and are associated with neuro-cognitive impairments. Prolonged febrile seizures are associated with hippocampal damage and impaired memory. It was hypothesized that severe malaria causes impaired everyday memory which may be associated with hippocampal damage. Methods An everyday memory battery was administered on 152 children with cerebral malaria (CM (mean age, 7 y 4 months [SD 13 months]; 77 males 156 children (mean age, 7 y 4 months [SD, 14 months]; 72 males with malaria plus complex seizures (MS and 179 children (mean age, 7 y 6 months [SD, 13 months]; 93 males unexposed to either condition. Results CM was associated with poorer everyday memory [95% CI, -2.46 to -0.36, p = 0.004] but not MS [95% CI, -0.91 to 1.16, p = 1.00] compared to unexposed children. Children with exposure to CM performed more poorly in recall [95% CI, -0.79 to -0.04, p = 0.024] and recognition subtests [95% CI, -0.90 to -0.17, p = 0.001] but not in prospective memory tests compared to controls. The health factors that predicted impaired everyday memory outcome in children with exposure to CM was profound coma [95% CI, 0.02 to 0.88, p = 0.037] and multiple episodes of hypoglycaemia [95% CI, 0.05 to 0.78, p = 0.020], but not seizures. Discussion The findings show that exposure to CM was associated with a specific impairment of everyday memory. Seizures commonly observed in severe malaria may not have a causal relationship with poor outcome, but rather be associated with profound coma and repeated metabolic insults (multi-hypoglycaemia that are strongly associated with impaired everyday memory.

  1. Impaired everyday memory associated with encephalopathy of severe malaria: the role of seizures and hippocampal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Michael; Carter, Julie A; Holding, Penny A; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Scott, Rod C; Idro, Richard; Fegan, Greg W; de Haan, Michelle; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

    2009-12-01

    Seizures are common in children admitted with severe falciparum malaria and are associated with neuro-cognitive impairments. Prolonged febrile seizures are associated with hippocampal damage and impaired memory. It was hypothesized that severe malaria causes impaired everyday memory which may be associated with hippocampal damage. An everyday memory battery was administered on 152 children with cerebral malaria (CM) (mean age, 7 y 4 months [SD 13 months]; 77 males) 156 children (mean age, 7 y 4 months [SD, 14 months]; 72 males) with malaria plus complex seizures (MS) and 179 children (mean age, 7 y 6 months [SD, 13 months]; 93 males) unexposed to either condition. CM was associated with poorer everyday memory [95% CI, -2.46 to -0.36, p = 0.004] but not MS [95% CI, -0.91 to 1.16, p = 1.00] compared to unexposed children. Children with exposure to CM performed more poorly in recall [95% CI, -0.79 to -0.04, p = 0.024] and recognition subtests [95% CI, -0.90 to -0.17, p = 0.001] but not in prospective memory tests compared to controls. The health factors that predicted impaired everyday memory outcome in children with exposure to CM was profound coma [95% CI, 0.02 to 0.88, p = 0.037] and multiple episodes of hypoglycaemia [95% CI, 0.05 to 0.78, p = 0.020], but not seizures. The findings show that exposure to CM was associated with a specific impairment of everyday memory. Seizures commonly observed in severe malaria may not have a causal relationship with poor outcome, but rather be associated with profound coma and repeated metabolic insults (multi-hypoglycaemia) that are strongly associated with impaired everyday memory.

  2. Effects of smartphone-based memory training for older adults with subjective memory complaints: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seo Jin; Seo, Sungmin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Song, Myeong Ju; Shin, Min-Sup

    2017-01-10

    We explored whether newly developed application (Smartphone-based brain Anti-aging and memory Reinforcement Training, SMART) improved memory performance in older adults with subjective memory complaints (SMC). A total of 53 adults (range: 50-68 years; 52.8% female) were randomized into either one of two intervention groups [SMART (n = 18) vs. Fit Brains® (n = 19)] or a wait-list group (n = 16). Participants in the intervention groups underwent 15-20 minutes of training per day, five days per week for 8 weeks. We used objective cognitive measures to evaluate changes with respect to four domains: attention, memory, working memory (WM), and response inhibition. In addition, we included self-report questionnaires to assess levels of SMC, depression, and anxiety. Total WM quotient [t(17) = 6.27, p smartphone-based memory training program may improve WM function in older adults. However, objective improvement in performance does not necessarily lead to decreased SMC.

  3. Alleviation by Hypericum perforatum of the stress-induced impairment of spatial working memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimiuk, Emil; Braszko, Jan J

    2008-02-01

    It is recognized that chronic stress is an important risk factor for the development of several cognitive impairments involving working memory. Working memory refers to the memory in which the information to be remembered changes from trial-to-trial and should be assessed in a task able to detect retrieval of that information. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that preventive administration of Hypericum perforatum (also named St John's wort) may counteract the working memory impairments caused by repeated stress. Specifically, we attempted to characterize the preventive action of long-lasting treatment with St John's wort (350 mg/kg, p.o.) on the spatial working memory impairments caused by chronic restraint stress (2 h daily for 21 days) or durable medication with exogenous corticosterone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) in male Wistar rats. Spatial working memory was tested in Barnes maze (BM) and in the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that H. perforatum prevented the deleterious effects of both chronic restraint stress and prolonged corticosterone on working memory measured in both tests. The herb significantly improved hippocampus dependent spatial working memory in comparison with control (p stress on cognitive functions.

  4. Learning and memory performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Cynthia A; Cash, Deborah L; Cohen, Morris J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning and memory in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) as compared to 30 normally functioning children on the Children's Memory Scale. Results indicated that children in the SLI group exhibited impaired performance on the Attention/Concentration Index (working memory), as well as significantly lower scores on both the immediate and delayed auditory/verbal indices and subtests relative to the control group. In contrast, no between group differences emerged for the visual/non-verbal indices and subtests. Results demonstrated that children with SLI possess normal ability to process, maintain and manipulate visual/non-verbal information in working memory along with normal ability to store and retrieve visual/non-verbal material from long-term storage. These results provide support for the contention that children with SLI have a "diminished verbal capacity" to process, organize, and maintain auditory information in working memory.

  5. The use of metacognitive strategies to decrease false memories in source monitoring in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Rebecca G; Nadkarni, Neil A; Tat, Michelle J; Flannery, Sean; Frustace, Bruno; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2017-06-01

    Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) often demonstrate high rates of false memories, leading to stressful and frustrating situations for both patients and caregivers in everyday life. Sometimes these false memories are due to failures in monitoring the source of the information. In the current study, we examined interventions aimed to enhance the use of the metacognitive "recall-to-reject" memory strategy. Such interventions could improve source memory and decrease false memory in patients with MCI. Because the picture superiority effect (better memory for pictures compared to words) has been shown to be present in both patients with MCI and healthy older controls, we investigated whether pictures could help patients with MCI use a recall-to-reject strategy in a simulation of real-world source memory task. In this experiment, patients with MCI and healthy older adults were asked to simulate preparing for and then taking a trip to the market. Subjects first studied 30 pictures of items in their "cupboard," followed by a list of 30 words of items on their "shopping list." At test, participants saw 90 pictures (30 cupboard, 30 list, 30 new) organized as they would be if walking down the market aisles, and are provided with either standard or metacognitive instructions. With standard instructions, they were asked if they needed to buy the item. With the metacognitive instructions, they were asked a series of questions to help guide them through a recall-to-reject strategy to highlight the different sources of memories. Results showed that the metacognitive instructions did significantly reduce the false memory rates for patients with MCI. Further studies need to investigate how to best implement these practical strategies into the everyday lives of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Abnormal neural activation patterns underlying working memory impairment in chronic phencyclidine-treated mice.

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    Yosefu Arime

    Full Text Available Working memory impairment is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and is thought be caused by dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and associated brain regions. However, the neural circuit anomalies underlying this impairment are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to assess working memory performance in the chronic phencyclidine (PCP mouse model of schizophrenia, and to identify the neural substrates of working memory. To address this issue, we conducted the following experiments for mice after withdrawal from chronic administration (14 days of either saline or PCP (10 mg/kg: (1 a discrete paired-trial variable-delay task in T-maze to assess working memory, and (2 brain-wide c-Fos mapping to identify activated brain regions relevant to this task performance either 90 min or 0 min after the completion of the task, with each time point examined under working memory effort and basal conditions. Correct responses in the test phase of the task were significantly reduced across delays (5, 15, and 30 s in chronic PCP-treated mice compared with chronic saline-treated controls, suggesting delay-independent impairments in working memory in the PCP group. In layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex, the number of working memory effort-elicited c-Fos+ cells was significantly higher in the chronic PCP group than in the chronic saline group. The main effect of working memory effort relative to basal conditions was to induce significantly increased c-Fos+ cells in the other layers of prelimbic cortex and the anterior cingulate and infralimbic cortex regardless of the different chronic regimens. Conversely, this working memory effort had a negative effect (fewer c-Fos+ cells in the ventral hippocampus. These results shed light on some putative neural networks relevant to working memory impairments in mice chronically treated with PCP, and emphasize the importance of the layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex of the PFC.

  7. Abnormal neural activation patterns underlying working memory impairment in chronic phencyclidine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arime, Yosefu; Akiyama, Kazufumi

    2017-01-01

    Working memory impairment is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and is thought be caused by dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated brain regions. However, the neural circuit anomalies underlying this impairment are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to assess working memory performance in the chronic phencyclidine (PCP) mouse model of schizophrenia, and to identify the neural substrates of working memory. To address this issue, we conducted the following experiments for mice after withdrawal from chronic administration (14 days) of either saline or PCP (10 mg/kg): (1) a discrete paired-trial variable-delay task in T-maze to assess working memory, and (2) brain-wide c-Fos mapping to identify activated brain regions relevant to this task performance either 90 min or 0 min after the completion of the task, with each time point examined under working memory effort and basal conditions. Correct responses in the test phase of the task were significantly reduced across delays (5, 15, and 30 s) in chronic PCP-treated mice compared with chronic saline-treated controls, suggesting delay-independent impairments in working memory in the PCP group. In layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex, the number of working memory effort-elicited c-Fos+ cells was significantly higher in the chronic PCP group than in the chronic saline group. The main effect of working memory effort relative to basal conditions was to induce significantly increased c-Fos+ cells in the other layers of prelimbic cortex and the anterior cingulate and infralimbic cortex regardless of the different chronic regimens. Conversely, this working memory effort had a negative effect (fewer c-Fos+ cells) in the ventral hippocampus. These results shed light on some putative neural networks relevant to working memory impairments in mice chronically treated with PCP, and emphasize the importance of the layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex of the PFC.

  8. Gestures make memories, but what kind? Patients with impaired procedural memory display disruptions in gesture production and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Cook, Susan W; Uc, Ergun Y; Duff, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    Hand gesture, a ubiquitous feature of human interaction, facilitates communication. Gesture also facilitates new learning, benefiting speakers and listeners alike. Thus, gestures must impact cognition beyond simply supporting the expression of already-formed ideas. However, the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting the effects of gesture on learning and memory are largely unknown. We hypothesized that gesture's ability to drive new learning is supported by procedural memory and that procedural memory deficits will disrupt gesture production and comprehension. We tested this proposal in patients with intact declarative memory, but impaired procedural memory as a consequence of Parkinson's disease (PD), and healthy comparison participants with intact declarative and procedural memory. In separate experiments, we manipulated the gestures participants saw and produced in a Tower of Hanoi (TOH) paradigm. In the first experiment, participants solved the task either on a physical board, requiring high arching movements to manipulate the discs from peg to peg, or on a computer, requiring only flat, sideways movements of the mouse. When explaining the task, healthy participants with intact procedural memory displayed evidence of their previous experience in their gestures, producing higher, more arching hand gestures after solving on a physical board, and smaller, flatter gestures after solving on a computer. In the second experiment, healthy participants who saw high arching hand gestures in an explanation prior to solving the task subsequently moved the mouse with significantly higher curvature than those who saw smaller, flatter gestures prior to solving the task. These patterns were absent in both gesture production and comprehension experiments in patients with procedural memory impairment. These findings suggest that the procedural memory system supports the ability of gesture to drive new learning.

  9. Impaired working memory updating affects memory for emotional and non-emotional materials the same way: evidence from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Vahid; Salehinejad, Mohammad Ali; Sabayee, Azam

    2017-09-19

    Due to the limited capacity of working memory (WM), efficient suppression of no longer relevant memory contents (inhibition) and revising the current contents of the memory (updating) are crucial factors in memorizing. However, not every individual is able to do so; among them are post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients who seem to have trouble forgetting trauma-related materials, making their memory overloaded with irrelevant information. The present study assumes that the inability to forget in PTSD patients is due to the impaired updating function of WM and, therefore, suggests that these individuals have inferior WM function for both emotional and unemotional materials. A sample of 30 male veterans with PTSD and 30 healthy individuals (mean age = 46.62, SD = 5.23) participated in the study completing PTSD Checklist, Digit Span Task, and a computerized n-back task. Results revealed that although PTSD subjects showed a generally inferior WM compared with normal individuals; however, their WM performance for emotional and non-emotional stimuli was not significantly different. Supporting the main hypothesis of the study, the findings suggest that a dysfunctional updating function of WM underlies both forgetting and memorizing which affects memory for both emotional and non-emotional material similarly.

  10. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E; Ahmed, Noha Al-Said; El-Khyat, Zakaria A; El-Shamarka, Marwa El-Sayed; Hussein, Jihan Seid; Salem, Neveen A

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984...

  12. Hippocampal dysfunction is associated with memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: A volumetric and functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Torre, Julio Alberto; Cruz-Gómez, Álvaro Javier; Belenguer, Antonio; Sanchis-Segura, Carla; Ávila, César; Forn, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested a relationship between neuroanatomical and neurofunctional hippocampal alterations and episodic memory impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We examined hippocampus volume and functional connectivity (FC) changes in MS patients with different episodic memory capabilities. Hippocampal subfield volume and FC changes were compared in two subgroups of MS patients with and without episodic memory impairment (multiple sclerosis impaired (MSi) and multiple sclerosis preserved (MSp), respectively) and healthy controls (HC). A discriminant function (DF) analysis was used to identify which of these neuroanatomical and neurofunctional parameters were the most relevant components of the mnemonic profiles of HC, MSp, and MSi. MSi showed reduced volume in several hippocampal subfields compared to MSp and HC. Ordinal gradation (MSi > MSp > HC) was also observed for FC between the posterior hippocampus and several cortical areas. DF-based analyses revealed that reduced right fimbria volume and enhanced FC at the right posterior hippocampus were the main neural signatures of the episodic memory impairments observed in the MSi group. Before any sign of episodic memory alterations (MSp), FC increased on several pathways that connect the hippocampus with cortical areas. These changes further increased when the several hippocampal volumes reduced and memory deficits appeared (MSi).

  13. Crocin Improved Learning and Memory Impairments in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Crocin influences many biological functions including memory and learning. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of crocin on learning and memory impairments in streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (IP injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg. Transfer latency (TL paradigm in elevated plus-maze (EPM was used as an index of learning and memory. Plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA, blood levels of glucose, and serum concentrations of insulin were measured. The number of hippocampal neurons was also counted. Results: STZ increased acquisition transfer latency (TL1 and retention transfer latency (TL2, and MDA, decreased transfer latency shortening (TLs and TCA, produced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, and reduced the number of neurons in the hippocampus. Learning and memory impairments and blood TCA, MDA, glucose, and insulin changes induced by streptozotocin were improved with long-term IP injection of crocin at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. Crocin prevented hippocampal neurons number loss in diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results indicate that oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and reduction of hippocampal neurons may be involved in learning and memory impairments in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypoinsulinemic, and neuroprotective activities of crocin might be involved in improving learning and memory impairments.

  14. Ameliorating Effects of Ethanol Extract of Fructus mume on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Soo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that Fructus mume (F. mume extract shows protective effects on memory impairments and anti-inflammatory effects induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Neurodegeneration of basal cholinergic neurons is also observed in the brain with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether F. mume extracts enhance cognitive function via the action of cholinergic neuron using a scopolamine-induced animal model of memory impairments. F. mume (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 14 days (days 1–14 and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, a muscarinic receptor antagonist for 7 days (days 8–14. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze and hippocampal level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT was examined by ELISA and immunoblotting. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impairments in acquisition and retention in Morris water maze task and increased activity of AChE in the hippocampus. Mice that received F. mume and scopolamine showed no scopolamine-induced memory impairment and increased activity of AChE. In addition, treatments of F. mume increased ChAT expression in the hippocampus. These results indicated that F. mume might enhance cognitive function via action of cholinergic neurons.

  15. SPARED RECOGNITION CAPACITY IN ELDERLY AND CLOSED-HEAD-INJURY SUBJECTS WITH CLINICAL MEMORY DEFICITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    This study describes the performance of three groups of subjects on a pictorial forced-recognition task, the Hundred Pictures Test. The aim was to determine whether subjects with memory deficits (elderly and closed-head-injured subjects) would perform as well as healthy young subjects, both on

  16. Neural correlates of true and false memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Sweeney-Reed

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer's disease, which has been described as a 'disconnection syndrome'.

  17. Sleep deprivation impairs spatial memory and decreases extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhiwei; Peng, Xuwen; Fang, Jidong

    2004-08-20

    Loss of sleep may result in memory impairment. However, little is known about the biochemical basis for memory deficits induced by sleep deprivation. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is involved in memory consolidation in different tasks. Phosphorylation of ERK is necessary for its activation and is an important step in mediating neuronal responses to synaptic activities. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on memory and ERK phosphorylation in the brain. Rats were trained in Morris water maze to find a hidden platform (a spatial task) or a visible platform (a nonspatial task) after 6 h TSD or spontaneous sleep. TSD had no effect on spatial learning, but significantly impaired spatial memory tested 24 h after training. Nonspatial learning and memory were not impaired by TSD. Phospho-ERK levels in the hippocampus were significantly reduced after 6 h TSD compared to the controls and returned to the control levels after 2 h recovery sleep. Total ERK1 and ERK2 were slightly increased after 6 h TSD and returned to the control levels after 2 h recovery sleep. These alterations were not observed in the cortex after TSD. Protein phosphotase-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-2, which dephosphorylates phospho-ERK, were also measured, but they were not altered by TSD. The impairments of both spatial memory and ERK phosphorylation indicate that the hippocampus is vulnerable to sleep loss. These results are consistent with the idea that decreased ERK activation in the hippocampus is involved in sleep deprivation-induced spatial memory impairment.

  18. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics and Renal Excretion of Simeprevir in Subjects with Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Sivi; Beumont-Mauviel, Maria; Mortier, Steven; Peeters, Monika; Verloes, Rene; Truyers, Carla; Mannens, Geert; Wynant, Inneke; Simion, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    Simeprevir is a N3/4 protease inhibitor approved for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV prevalence is higher in patients with chronic kidney disease compared with the general population; safe and efficacious therapies in renal impairment are needed. To evaluate simeprevir renal excretion in healthy subjects and to compare the simeprevir steady-state pharmacokinetics between subjects with severe renal impairment and healthy subjects. In the mass balance study, healthy adults received a single 200-mg dose of (14)C-simeprevir; radioactivity in the urine and feces was quantified until concentrations were 150 mg simeprevir for 7 days. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed post-dose on Day 7. (14)C-simeprevir recovery from the urine was low (0.009-0.138% of total dose). The minimum plasma concentration, maximum plasma concentration, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve at 24 h were 71, 34, and 62% higher, respectively, in subjects with severe renal impairment compared with healthy subjects. The mean fraction of simeprevir unbound to protein was <0.0001 (all subjects). Most adverse events were grade I or II; one subject with renal impairment who was receiving fenofibrate presented with grade 3 rhabdomyolysis. Simeprevir plasma concentrations were mildly elevated in subjects with severe renal impairment. The results suggest that simeprevir may be administered without dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment.

  19. Subjective Memory in a National Sample: Predicting Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogle, Jacqueline A; Hill, Nikki; McDermott, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Individual perception of memory performance (i.e., subjective memory) is assessed using a variety of approaches. This article focuses on 2 such approaches: (1) self-comparison assessments that attempt to capture changes in memory ability over a period of time and (2) age-anchored comparisons that assess how an individual perceives their memory in relation to others their age. These different types of assessment may relate to psychological well-being differently due to the underlying mechanisms of assessment. The purpose of these analyses is to examine 2 measures of subjective memory (i.e., a self-comparison measure and an age-anchored comparison measure) as predictors of psychological well-being among adults in mid- and late life. Participants (n = 3,434) in the Midlife in the United States Study completed measures of subjective memory, depressive affect, and life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether the self-comparison and age-anchored comparison measures had differential predictive utility regarding psychological well-being. Higher age-anchored comparison ratings were related to higher life satisfaction scores. There was a significant interaction between the 2 items such that individuals with lower ratings on both subjective memory measures had the poorest outcomes. Additionally, age-anchored comparisons interacted with age: older adults had the poorest outcomes when they reported poorer age-anchored comparisons. These findings highlight the importance of precise measurement in the consideration of subjective memory. How an individual was asked to rate his or her perception of memory influenced the relationships between subjective memory and psychological well-being. This study contributes valuable insight into the importance of the assessment models of subjective memory. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Impaired discourse gist and working memory in children after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sandra B; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Cook, Lori G; Hanten, Gerri; Li, Xiaoqi; Levin, Harvey S

    2006-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood may disrupt the ability to abstract the central meaning or gist-based memory from connected language (discourse). The current study adopts a novel approach to elucidate the role of immediate and working memory processes in producing a cohesive and coherent gist-based text in the form of a summary in children with mild and severe TBI as compared to typically developing children, ages 8-14 years at test. Both TBI groups showed decreased performance on a summary production task as well as retrieval of specific content from a long narrative. Working memory on n-back tasks was also impaired in children with severe TBI, whereas immediate memory performance for recall of a simple word list in both TBI groups was comparable to controls. Interestingly, working memory, but not simple immediate memory for a word list, was significantly correlated with summarization ability and ability to recall discourse content.

  1. Evidence that episodic memory impairment during tobacco abstinence is independent of attentional mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Paul S; Cobb, Adam R; Moissinac, Luke; Hirshman, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated reductions in episodic memory during nicotine withdrawal. However, these studies have been unable to dissociate memory reductions from losses in attention associated with tobacco abstinence. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether episodic memory reduction is a primary effect of nicotine withdrawal during tobacco abstinence. Heavy smokers were tested when smoking normally and following 24 hrs of abstinence. Participants were tested with a recognition memory task in which items were studied under full and divided attention conditions. Forward digit span and backward digit span were also included as control measures. Withdrawal was associated with a reduction in memory performance that was independent of attention at encoding. The authors conclude that impairment of episodic memory is a primary effect of nicotine withdrawal during tobacco abstinence. Further research is required to determine if this is associated with continued use of tobacco and cessation failures.

  2. Impact of anxiety on verbal and visuospatial working memory in patients with acute stroke without severe cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosdemange, Antoine; Monfort, Vincent; Richard, Sébastien; Toniolo, Anne-Marie; Ducrocq, Xavier; Bolmont, Benoît

    2015-05-01

    Working memory is the most impaired cognitive domain in the acute phase of stroke. In a context where anxiety is highly prevalent, close attention must be paid to anxiety which could mimic mild to moderate working memory impairments. This is the first study to assess the contribution of state anxiety (the currently experienced level of anxiety) to the working memory (verbal, visuospatial) in patients with first-ever acute stroke without severe cognitive impairment. 28 patients with first-ever acute stroke and 41 matched control subjects were exposed to a neutral condition and an anxiogenic condition in which verbal (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) performance and state anxiety were assessed. State anxiety was assessed before the beginning of the experiment (baseline), after the neutral condition and after the anxiogenic condition. The mean state anxiety score was higher in patients than in controls in the neutral (z = 1.9, p<0.05) and anxiogenic (z = 2, p<0.05) conditions despite a similar level at baseline. Multiple regression analyses with a dummy variable 'group' (patients vs controls) showed that increased state anxiety in patients contributed significantly more to both reduced VWM (β = -0.93, p<0.05) and VSWM (β = -1, p<0.05) performance between the neutral and anxiogenic conditions compared to controls. In a stressful context, the contribution of state anxiety to reduced working memory performance is more pronounced in patients with acute stroke than in controls. These results are of particular relevance for clinicians assessing patients in the acute phase of stroke in which anxiety is highly prevalent. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Sleep deprivation impairs consolidation of cued fear memory in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankesh Kumar

    Full Text Available Post-learning sleep facilitates negative memory consolidation and also helps preserve it over several years. It is believed, therefore, that sleep deprivation may help prevent consolidation of fearful memory. Its effect, however, on consolidation of negative/frightening memories is not known. Cued fear-conditioning (CuFC is a widely used model to understand the neural basis of negative memory associated with anxiety disorders. In this study, we first determined the suitable circadian timing for consolidation of CuFC memory and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC. Thereafter, we studied the effect of sleep deprivation on CuFC memory consolidation. Three sets of experiments were performed in male Wistar rat (n=51. In experiment-I, animals were conditioned to cued-fear by presenting ten tone-shock paired stimuli during lights-on (7 AM (n=9 and lights-off (7 PM (n=9 periods. In experiment-II, animals were prepared for polysomnographic recording (n=8 and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC was determined. Further in experiment-III, animals were cued fear-conditioned during the lights-off period and were randomly divided into four groups: Sleep-Deprived (SD (n=9, Non-Sleep Deprived (NSD (n=9, Stress Control (SC (n=9 and Tone Control (n=7. Percent freezing amount, a hallmark of fear, was compared statistically in these groups. Rats trained during the lights-off period exhibited significantly more freezing compared to lights-on period. In CuFC trained animals, total sleep amount did not change, however, REM sleep decreased significantly. Further, out of total sleep time, animals spent proportionately more time in NREM sleep. Nevertheless, SD animals exhibited significantly less freezing compared to NSD and SC groups. These data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of cued fear-conditioned memory.

  4. Sleep deprivation impairs consolidation of cued fear memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tankesh; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-01-01

    Post-learning sleep facilitates negative memory consolidation and also helps preserve it over several years. It is believed, therefore, that sleep deprivation may help prevent consolidation of fearful memory. Its effect, however, on consolidation of negative/frightening memories is not known. Cued fear-conditioning (CuFC) is a widely used model to understand the neural basis of negative memory associated with anxiety disorders. In this study, we first determined the suitable circadian timing for consolidation of CuFC memory and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC. Thereafter, we studied the effect of sleep deprivation on CuFC memory consolidation. Three sets of experiments were performed in male Wistar rat (n=51). In experiment-I, animals were conditioned to cued-fear by presenting ten tone-shock paired stimuli during lights-on (7 AM) (n=9) and lights-off (7 PM) (n=9) periods. In experiment-II, animals were prepared for polysomnographic recording (n=8) and changes in sleep architecture after CuFC was determined. Further in experiment-III, animals were cued fear-conditioned during the lights-off period and were randomly divided into four groups: Sleep-Deprived (SD) (n=9), Non-Sleep Deprived (NSD) (n=9), Stress Control (SC) (n=9) and Tone Control (n=7). Percent freezing amount, a hallmark of fear, was compared statistically in these groups. Rats trained during the lights-off period exhibited significantly more freezing compared to lights-on period. In CuFC trained animals, total sleep amount did not change, however, REM sleep decreased significantly. Further, out of total sleep time, animals spent proportionately more time in NREM sleep. Nevertheless, SD animals exhibited significantly less freezing compared to NSD and SC groups. These data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the consolidation of cued fear-conditioned memory.

  5. Memory impairment following status epilepticus in immature rats: time-course and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Annemarieke; van Albada, Mirjam; Silveira, Diosely C; Cha, Byung Ho; Liu, Xianzeng; Hu, Yingchu N; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Holmes, Gregory L

    2002-08-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) has a high mortality and morbidity rate in children. Disturbances in learning and memory are frequently associated with SE although it is not clear when the cognitive deficits occur. If cognitive dysfunction occurs immediately following the seizure, the window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention is limited. The first goal of this study was to determine the timing of cognitive dysfunction following SE in weanling rats. As there is evidence that enriching the environment can improve cognitive and motor deficits following brain injury, our second goal was to determine whether environmental enrichment improves cognitive function following SE. Rats underwent lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE at postnatal (P) day 20 and were then tested for visual-spatial memory in the water maze at P22, P25, P30, or P50. Rats with SE performed significantly worse in the water maze than control rats at all time points. Once the time-courses of visual-spatial memory deficits were determined, a second group of P20 rats were subjected to SE and were then placed in an enriched environment (enriched group) or remained in standard cages in the vivarium (nonenriched group) for 28 days. Following environmental manipulation, the animals were tested in the water maze. Rats housed in an enriched environment following the SE performed substantially better in the water maze than rats housed in standard cages. However, no differences were found between the enriched and nonenriched groups in EEG or histological evaluation. Although SE results in cognitive impairment within days of the seizure, housing in an enriched environment after SE has a beneficial effect on cognitive performance in rats.

  6. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-06-01

    To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats.

  7. Metacognitions are associated with subjective memory problems in patients with chronic fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Børsting Jacobsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjective cognitive impairments are frequent, but poorly understood in patients with chronic fatigue. We hypothesized that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs at baseline were associated with baseline subjective cognitive impairments, that they predict subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, and that a reduction in maladaptive metacognitive beliefs was associated with less subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, independent of changes in fatigue, pain, insomnia, depression, and anxiety.Methods: In this non-controlled study, patients (n=137 on sick leave due to chronic fatigue received a 3.5-week inpatient RTW rehabilitation program. Of these patients 69 (50.4 % was referred with a ICPC-2 diagnosis of chronic fatigue. Patients completed questionnaires about metacognitive beliefs, somatic complaints, psychological complaints, and cognitive impairments before and after treatment. To test the hypotheses we performed paired t tests of change, as well as seven hierarchical linear regressions.Results: Results showed that baseline maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were significantly associated with subjective cognitive impairments at baseline, controlling for symptoms. Score on baseline metacognitive beliefs did not predict impairments post-treatment. Testing specific maladaptive beliefs, pre-treatment scores on cognitive confidence were associated with subjective cognitive impairments both pre and post-treatment, controlling for symptoms. Post-treatment metacognitive beliefs and post-treatment cognitive confidence were associated with post-treatment subjective cognitive impairments, controlling for pre-treatment impairments and pre-treatment metacognitive beliefs, as well as pre and post scores on symptom measures. Conclusion: This study reports associations between maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and subjective cognitive impairments in patients with chronic fatigue. Targeting metacognitive beliefs

  8. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Malingered Memory Impairment: Event-related fMRI of Deception on a Recognition Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browndyke, Jeffrey N.; Paskavitz, James; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Tucker, Karen A.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Burke, James R.; Schmechel, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Primary objective Event-related, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in healthy participants during purposefully malingered and normal recognition memory performances to evaluate the neural substrates of feigned memory impairment. Methods and procedures Pairwise, between-condition contrasts of neural activity associated with discrete recognition memory responses were conducted to isolate dissociable neural activity between normal and malingered responding while simultaneously controlling for shared stimulus familiarity and novelty effects. Response timing characteristics were also examined for any association with observed between-condition activity differences. Outcomes and results Malingered recognition memory errors, regardless of type, were associated with inferior parietal and superior temporal activity relative to normal performance, while feigned recognition target misses produced additional dorsomedial frontal activation and feigned foil false alarms activated bilateral ventrolateral frontal regions. Malingered response times were associated with activity in the dorsomedial frontal, temporal, and inferior parietal regions. Normal memory responses were associated with greater inferior occipitotemporal and dorsomedial parietal activity, suggesting greater reliance upon visual/attentional networks for proper task performance. Conclusions The neural substrates subserving feigned recognition memory deficits are influenced by response demand and error type, producing differential activation of cortical regions important to complex visual processing, executive control, response planning, and working memory processes. PMID:18465389

  9. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Knockout in Mice Impairs Contextual Long-Term Memory and Enhances Spatial Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive effects of cannabinoids have been extensively studied with a focus on CB1 cannabinoid receptors because CB1 receptors have been considered the major cannabinoid receptor in the nervous system. However, recent discoveries of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain demand accurate determination of whether and how CB2 receptors are involved in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are primarily involved in immune functions, but also implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Here, we examined the effects of CB2 receptor knockout in mice on memory to determine the roles of CB2 receptors in modulating cognitive function. Behavioral assays revealed that hippocampus-dependent, long-term contextual fear memory was impaired whereas hippocampus-independent, cued fear memory was normal in CB2 receptor knockout mice. These mice also displayed enhanced spatial working memory when tested in a Y-maze. Motor activity and anxiety of CB2 receptor knockout mice were intact when assessed in an open field arena and an elevated zero maze. In contrast to the knockout of CB2 receptors, acute blockade of CB2 receptors by AM603 in C57BL/6J mice had no effect on memory, motor activity, or anxiety. Our results suggest that CB2 cannabinoid receptors play diverse roles in regulating memory depending on memory types and/or brain areas.

  10. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Analyzing the Subjective Consciousness of the Hearing-Impaired Students in Fine-Art Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Initiative plays an important role in special fine art education. Teachers should take into full consideration the profile of the hearing-impaired students. For better teaching achievement, it is the teachers who shoulder the responsibility to activate the subjective role and consciousness of the hearing-impaired students by arousing their sense…

  12. Spatial working memory impairment in primary onset middle-age type 2 diabetes mellitus: An ethology and BOLD-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ran-Ran; Jia, Bao-Hui; Xie, Lei; Ma, Shu-Hua; Yin, Jing-Jing; Sun, Zong-Bo; Le, Hong-Bo; Xu, Wen-Can; Huang, Jin-Zhuang; Luo, Dong-Xue

    2016-01-01

    To explore mild cognitive dysfunction and/or spatial working memory impairment in patients with primary onset middle-age type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM] using ethology (behavior tests) and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI). Eighteen primary onset T2DM patients and 18 matched subjects with normal blood glucose levels were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test, the Wechsler Memory Scale Chinese-revised test, and scanned using BOLD-fMRI (1.5T, EPI sequence) while performing the n-back task to find the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas. The ethology results showed that T2DM patients had a mild cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction (P working memory-related brain areas for the T2DM group were lower than for the control group under three memory loads. Furthermore, we found that the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas, including the right insular lobe, left caudate nucleus, and bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus were lower than the control group under the memory loads. Diabetes-related brain damage of primary onset middle-age T2DM patients with right DLPFC-posterior parietal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus default network causes impairment of spatial working memory and mild cognitive dysfunction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Episodic memory impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus: involvement of thalamic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Nicolle; Corrêa, Diogo Goulart; Netto, Tania Maria; Kubo, Tadeu; Pereira, Denis Batista; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro

    2015-02-01

    Episodic memory deficits in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been frequently reported in the literature; however, little is known about the neural correlates of these deficits. We investigated differences in the volumes of different brain structures of SLE patients with and without episodic memory impairments diagnosed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Groups were paired based on age, education, sex, Mini Mental State Examination score, accumulation of disease burden (SLICC), and focused attention dimension score. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cortical volumetric reconstruction and segmentation of the MR images were performed with the FreeSurfer software program. SLE patients with episodic memory deficits presented shorter time of diagnosis than SLE patients without episodic memory deficits. ANOVA revealed that SLE patients with episodic memory deficits had a larger third ventricle volume than SLE patients without episodic memory deficits and controls. Additionally, covariance analysis indicated group effects on the bilateral thalamus and on the third ventricle. Our findings indicate that episodic memory may be impaired in SLE patients with normal hippocampal volume. In addition, the thalamus may undergo volumetric changes associated with episodic memory loss in SLE.

  14. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena B. Hales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP. However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF. In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion.

  15. Verbal working memory and reading abilities among students with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios; Masoura, Elvira; Tsiakali, Thomai K; Nikolaraizi, Magda; Lappa, Christina

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM) and reading abilities among students with visual impairment (VI). Seventy-five students with VI (visually impairment and blindness), aged 10-15 years old participated in the study, of whom 44 were visually impaired and 31 were blind. The participants' reading ability was assessed with the standardized reading ability battery Test-A (Padeliadu & Antoniou, 2008) and their verbal working memory ability was assessed with the listening recall task from the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (Pickering et al., 2001). Data analysis indicated a strong correlation between verbal WM and decoding, reading comprehension and overall reading ability among the participants with VI, while no correlation was found between reading fluency and verbal WM. The present study points out the important role of verbal WM in reading among students who are VI and carries implications for the education of those individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related impairments of new memories reflect failures of learning, not retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Louis D.; Wass, Christopher; Kolata, Stefan; Light, Kenneth; Colas, Danielle C.

    2009-01-01

    Learning impairments and the instability of memory are defining characteristics of cognitive aging. However, it is unclear if deficits in the expression of new memories reflect an accelerated decay of the target memory or a consequence of inefficient learning. Here, aged mice (19–21-mo old) exhibited acquisition deficits (relative to 3–5-mo old mice) on three learning tasks, although these deficits were overcome with additional training. When tested after a 30-d retention interval, the performance of aged animals was impaired if initial learning had been incomplete. However, if trained to equivalent levels of competence, aged animals exhibited no retention deficits relative to their young counterparts. These results suggest that age-related “memory” impairments can be overcome through a more effective learning regimen. PMID:19794183

  17. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; Ahmed, Noha Al-Said; El-Khyat, Zakaria A.; El-Shamarka, Marwa El-Sayed; Hussein, Jihan Seid; Salem, Neveen A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ^9-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) ...

  18. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive......BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods...... influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...

  19. Association between subjective memory complaints and nursing home placement: a four-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    nursing home placements were observed. Subjective memory complaints were associated with an adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) of 2.59 for nursing home placement. Other statistical significant covariates were MMSE anxiety......OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate whether elderly persons with subjective memory complaints may be regarded as a group of potentially vulnerable patients who need close follow-up, we investigated the risk of nursing home placement during a 4-year follow-up period. METHODS: Prospective cohort survey....../depression (HR = 4.74). The effect of subjective memory complaints is seen to moderate when subjects are older. CONCLUSION: The data of this study indicated that in an elderly primary care population the presence of subjective memory complaints was a significant independent predictor for nursing home placement...

  20. Impaired White Matter Connections of the Limbic System Networks Associated with Impaired Emotional Memory in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshu; Wang, Haibao; Tian, Yanghua; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Xiaohu; Wang, Kai; Yu, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks. Methods: Twenty-one AD patients, 20 aMCI patients and 25 normal controls participated in emotional picture recognition tests and MRI scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods were used to determine white and gray matter changes of patients. Fourteen regions of interest (ROI) of WM and 20 ROIs of GM were then selected for the correlation analyses with behavioral scores. Results: The EEM effect was lost in AD patients. Both white and gray matter of the limbic system networks were impaired in AD patients. Significant correlations or tendencies between the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, corpus callosum (genu and body), left cingulum bundle, left parahippocampal WM and the recognition sensitivity of emotional valence pictures, and significant correlations or tendencies between the splenium of corpus callosum, left cingulum bundle, left crus of fornix and stria terminalis and the recognition sensitivity of EEM were found. The volume of left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial frontal lobe, anterior and middle cingulum gyrus were positively correlated with the recognition sensitivity of emotional photos, and the right precuneus was positively correlated with the negative EEM effect. However, the affected brain areas of aMCI patients were more localized, and aMCI patients benefited only from positive stimuli. Conclusion: There are impairments of the limbic system networks of AD patients. Damaged WM connections

  1. Impaired white matter connections of the limbic system networks associated with impaired emotional memory in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshu Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM.Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM of the limbic system networks. Methods: Twenty-one AD patients, 20 aMCI patients and 25 normal controls participated in emotional picture recognition tests and MRI scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM methods were used to determine white and gray matter changes of patients. Fourteen regions of interest (ROI of WM and 20 ROIs of GM were then selected for the correlation analyses with behavioral scores. Results: The EEM effect was lost in AD patients. Both white and gray matter of the limbic system networks were impaired in AD patients. Significant correlations or tendencies between the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, corpus callosum (genu and body, left cingulum bundle, left parahippocampal WM and the recognition sensitivity of emotional valence pictures, and significant correlations or tendencies between the splenium of corpus callosum, left cingulum bundle, left crus of fornix and stria terminalis and the recognition sensitivity of EEM were found. The volume of left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial frontal lobe, anterior and middle cingulum gyrus were positively correlated with the recognition sensitivity of emotional photos, and the right precuneus was positively correlated with the negative EEM effect. However, the affected brain areas of aMCI patients were more localized, and aMCI patients benefited only from positive stimuli. Conclusion: There are impairments of the limbic system networks of AD patients. Damaged WM

  2. Forecasting Long Memory Series Subject to Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Papailias, Fotis

    A two-stage forecasting approach for long memory time series is introduced. In the first step we estimate the fractional exponent and, applying the fractional differencing operator, we obtain the underlying weakly dependent series. In the second step, we perform the multi-step ahead forecasts...... change and yields good forecasting results....

  3. The heterogeneity and natural history of mild cognitive impairment of visual memory predominant type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Chin, Juhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Yunhwan; Hong, Chang Hyung; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Moon, So Young; Kim, SangYun; Han, Seol-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Park, Sun Ah; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the longitudinal outcomes of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) according to the modality of memory impairment involved. We recruited 788 aMCI patients and followed them up. aMCI patients were categorized into three groups according to the modality of memory impairment: Visual-aMCI, only visual memory impaired; Verbal-aMCI, only verbal memory impaired; and Both-aMCI, both visual and verbal memory impaired. Each aMCI group was further categorized according to the presence or absence of recognition failure. Risk of progression to dementia was compared with pooled logistic regression analyses while controlling for age, gender, education, and interval from baseline. Of the sample, 219 (27.8%) aMCI patients progressed to dementia. Compared to the Visual-aMCI group, Verbal-aMCI (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.19-3.28, p = 0.009) and Both-aMCI (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.97-4.71, p Memory recognition failure was associated with increased risk of progression to dementia only in the Visual-aMCI group, but not in the Verbal-aMCI and Both-aMCI groups. The Visual-aMCI without recognition failure group were subcategorized into aMCI with depression, small vessel disease, or accelerated aging, and these subgroups showed a variety of progression rates. Our findings underlined the importance of heterogeneous longitudinal outcomes of aMCI, especially Visual-aMCI, for designing and interpreting future treatment trials in aMCI.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Momelotinib in Subjects With Hepatic or Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yan; Kawashima, Jun; Weng, Winnie; Kwan, Ellen; Tarnowski, Thomas; Silverman, Jeffrey A

    2017-12-28

    Momelotinib is a Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of myelofibrosis. Two phase 1 open-label, parallel-group, adaptive studies were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a single 200-mg oral dose of momelotinib in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment compared with healthy matched control subjects with normal hepatic or renal function. Plasma pharmacokinetics of momelotinib and its major active metabolite, M21, were evaluated, and geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) and associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for impaired versus each control group were calculated for plasma exposures (area under concentration-time curve from time 0 to ∞ [AUC ∞ ] and maximum concentration) of momelotinib and M21. There was no clinically significant difference in plasma exposures of momelotinib and M21 between subjects with moderate or severe renal impairment or moderate hepatic impairment and healthy control subjects. Compared with healthy control subjects, momelotinib AUC ∞ was increased (GMR, 197%; 90%CI, 129%-301%), and M21 AUC ∞ was decreased (GMR, 52%; 90%CI, 34%-79%) in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. The safety profile following a single dose of momelotinib was similar between subjects with hepatic or renal dysfunction and healthy control subjects. These pharmacokinetic and safety results indicate that dose adjustment is not necessary for momelotinib in patients with renal impairment or mild to moderate hepatic impairment. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, however, the dose of momelotinib should be reduced. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and safety of the anti-human cytomegalovirus drug letermovir in subjects with hepatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropeit, Dirk; McCormick, David; Erb-Zohar, Katharina; Moiseev, Valentin S; Kobalava, Zhanna D; Stobernack, Hans-Peter; Zimmermann, Holger; Rübsamen-Schaeff, Helga

    2017-07-18

    Human cytomegalovirus constitutes a prevalent and serious threat to immunocompromised individuals and requires new treatments. Letermovir is a novel viral-terminase inhibitor that has demonstrated prophylactic/pre-emptive activity against human cytomegalovirus in Phase 2 and 3 transplant trials. As unchanged letermovir is primarily excreted via the liver by bile, this trial aimed to assess the effect of hepatic impairment on letermovir pharmacokinetics. Phase 1, open-label, parallel-group pharmacokinetic and safety comparison of multiple once-daily oral letermovir in female subjects with hepatic impairment and healthy matched controls. For 8 days, subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (n = 8) and their matched healthy controls (n = 9) received 60 mg letermovir/day and those with severe hepatic impairment (n = 8) and their matched healthy controls (n = 8) received 30 mg letermovir/day. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from blood samples. For subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, maximal observed concentration at steady state (Css,max ) and the area under the concentration vs. time curve over a dosing interval at steady state (AUCτ,ss ) for total letermovir were 1.37-fold (90% confidence interval: 0.87, 2.17) and 1.59-fold (0.98, 2.57) higher, respectively, than in healthy subjects. For subjects with severe hepatic impairment, Css,max and AUCτ,ss values of total letermovir were 2.34-fold (1.91, 2.88) and 3.82-fold (2.94, 4.97) higher, respectively, compared with healthy subjects. Moderate hepatic impairment increased exposure to letermovir letermovir exposure approximately 4-fold as compared with healthy subjects. Letermovir 60/30 mg/day was generally well-tolerated in subjects with hepatic impairment. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  7. Impaired verbal memory in Parkinson disease: relationship to prefrontal dysfunction and somatosensory discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weniger Dorothea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To study the neurocognitive profile and its relationship to prefrontal dysfunction in non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD with deficient haptic perception. Methods Twelve right-handed patients with PD and 12 healthy control subjects underwent thorough neuropsychological testing including Rey complex figure, Rey auditory verbal and figural learning test, figural and verbal fluency, and Stroop test. Test scores reflecting significant differences between patients and healthy subjects were correlated with the individual expression coefficients of one principal component, obtained in a principal component analysis of an oxygen-15-labeled water PET study exploring somatosensory discrimination that differentiated between the two groups and involved prefrontal cortices. Results We found significantly decreased total scores for the verbal learning trials and verbal delayed free recall in PD patients compared with normal volunteers. Further analysis of these parameters using Spearman's ranking correlation showed a significantly negative correlation of deficient verbal recall with expression coefficients of the principal component whose image showed a subcortical-cortical network, including right dorsolateral-prefrontal cortex, in PD patients. Conclusion PD patients with disrupted right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex function and associated diminished somatosensory discrimination are impaired also in verbal memory functions. A negative correlation between delayed verbal free recall and PET activation in a network including the prefrontal cortices suggests that verbal cues and accordingly declarative memory processes may be operative in PD during activities that demand sustained attention such as somatosensory discrimination. Verbal cues may be compensatory in nature and help to non-specifically enhance focused attention in the presence of a functionally disrupted prefrontal cortex.

  8. Impaired verbal memory in Parkinson disease: relationship to prefrontal dysfunction and somatosensory discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlhalter, Stephan; Abela, Eugenio; Weniger, Dorothea; Weder, Bruno

    2009-12-15

    To study the neurocognitive profile and its relationship to prefrontal dysfunction in non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) with deficient haptic perception. Twelve right-handed patients with PD and 12 healthy control subjects underwent thorough neuropsychological testing including Rey complex figure, Rey auditory verbal and figural learning test, figural and verbal fluency, and Stroop test. Test scores reflecting significant differences between patients and healthy subjects were correlated with the individual expression coefficients of one principal component, obtained in a principal component analysis of an oxygen-15-labeled water PET study exploring somatosensory discrimination that differentiated between the two groups and involved prefrontal cortices. We found significantly decreased total scores for the verbal learning trials and verbal delayed free recall in PD patients compared with normal volunteers. Further analysis of these parameters using Spearman's ranking correlation showed a significantly negative correlation of deficient verbal recall with expression coefficients of the principal component whose image showed a subcortical-cortical network, including right dorsolateral-prefrontal cortex, in PD patients. PD patients with disrupted right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex function and associated diminished somatosensory discrimination are impaired also in verbal memory functions. A negative correlation between delayed verbal free recall and PET activation in a network including the prefrontal cortices suggests that verbal cues and accordingly declarative memory processes may be operative in PD during activities that demand sustained attention such as somatosensory discrimination. Verbal cues may be compensatory in nature and help to non-specifically enhance focused attention in the presence of a functionally disrupted prefrontal cortex.

  9. Septal co-infusions of glucose with a GABAB agonist impair memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Erika J; Watts, Kelly D; Parent, Marise B

    2006-01-01

    Septal infusions of glucose exacerbate memory deficits produced by co-infusions of drugs that increase gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor activity. To further understand the interaction between glucose and GABA, this experiment tested whether glucose would also potentiate spatial working memory deficits produced by septal infusions of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen. Fifteen minutes prior to assessing spontaneous alternation (SA), male Sprague-Dawley derived rats were given septal infusions of vehicle, glucose (33 nmol), baclofen (0.1 nmol), or glucose combined with baclofen in one solution. Septal co-infusions of glucose with baclofen, at doses that individually had no effect, significantly impaired SA. Thus, the memory-impairing effects of glucose are observed with either GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor ligands. This raises the possibility that glucose may impair memory by increasing synaptic levels of GABA and subsequent activation of these different receptor subtypes. These effects of glucose could contribute to the memory-impairing effects of hyperglycemia.

  10. Amyloid β Enhances Typical Rodent Behavior While It Impairs Contextual Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Salgado-Puga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with an early hippocampal dysfunction, which is likely induced by an increase in soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ. This hippocampal failure contributes to the initial memory deficits observed both in patients and in AD animal models and possibly to the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADL. One typical rodent behavior that has been proposed as a hippocampus-dependent assessment model of ADL in mice and rats is burrowing. Despite the fact that AD transgenic mice show some evidence of reduced burrowing, it has not been yet determined whether or not Aβ can affect this typical rodent behavior and whether this alteration correlates with the well-known Aβ-induced memory impairment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test whether or not Aβ affects burrowing while inducing hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Surprisingly, our results show that intrahippocampal application of Aβ increases burrowing while inducing memory impairment. We consider that this Aβ-induced increase in burrowing might be associated with a mild anxiety state, which was revealed by increased freezing behavior in the open field, and conclude that Aβ-induced hippocampal dysfunction is reflected in the impairment of ADL and memory, through mechanisms yet to be determined.

  11. L-carnitine prevents memory impairment induced by chronic REM-sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M; Owaisi, Amani; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-05-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively impacts memory, which was related to oxidative stress induced damage. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound, synthesized endogenously in mammalian species and known to possess antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of L-carnitine on learning and memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) deprivation was investigated. REM-sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform model (8h/day, for 6 weeks). Simultaneously, L-carnitine was administered (300mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks. Thereafter, the radial arm water maze (RAWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Additionally, the hippocampus levels of antioxidant biomarkers/enzymes: reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were assessed. The results showed that chronic REM-sleep deprivation impaired both short- and long-term memory (Psleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus ratio of GSH/GSSG, activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD. No change was observed in TBARS among tested groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, chronic REM-sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with L-carnitine prevented this impairment through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Wientjes, H.J.F.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    Backgroud: a prospective study was done to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in suicide attempters who took benzodiazepines (BZ) and to study the correlation with sedation. Method: in 43 patients, who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory perfomrance was tested on a

  13. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  14. Resistance exercise reduces memory impairment induced by monosodium glutamate in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Paulo Cesar Oliveira; Quines, Caroline Brandão; Jardim, Natália Silva; Leite, Marlon Regis; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Monosodium glutamate causes cognitive impairment. Does resistance exercise improve the performance of rats treated with monosodium glutamate? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance exercise is effective against monosodium glutamate-induced memory impairment in male and female rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavour enhancer in diets, causes cognitive impairment in rodents. Exercise has been reported to protect against impairment of memory in humans. In this study, we investigated whether resistance exercise improves the performance of male and female rats treated with MSG in tests of memory and motor co-ordination. Wistar rats received MSG [4 g (kg body weight)(-1)  day(-1) , s.c.] from postnatal day 1 to 10. At postnatal day 60, the animals started a resistance exercise protocol in an 80 deg inclined vertical ladder apparatus and performed it during 7 weeks. Rats performed object recognition and location memory tests. Resistance exercise reduced impairment in motor co-ordination of male and female rats treated with MSG. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in exploratory preference in the long-term recognition memory for novel objects of male rats treated with MSG. In MSG-treated female rats, resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in exploratory preference in the novel object location test. The exploratory preference of female rats in the long-term recognition memory test was similar in all groups. The short-term memory was not altered by MSG or resistance exercise in male and female rats. This study demonstrates that MSG affected the memory of male and female rats in different ways. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in recognition for male rats and in location memory for female rats treated with MSG. This report demonstrates the beneficial effects of resistance exercise against the prejudice of motor condition and impairment of memory

  15. Protein Kinase C Overactivity Impairs Prefrontal Cortical Regulation of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, S. G.; Yuan, P. X.; Wang, M.; Vijayraghavan, S.; Bloom, A. K.; Davis, D. J.; Gobeske, K. T.; Sweatt, J. D.; Manji, H. K.; Arnsten, A. F. T.

    2004-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex is a higher brain region that regulates thought, behavior, and emotion using representational knowledge, operations often referred to as working memory. We tested the influence of protein kinase C (PKC) intracellular signaling on prefrontal cortical cognitive function and showed that high levels of PKC activity in prefrontal cortex, as seen for example during stress exposure, markedly impair behavioral and electrophysiological measures of working memory. These data suggest that excessive PKC activation can disrupt prefrontal cortical regulation of behavior and thought, possibly contributing to signs of prefrontal cortical dysfunction such as distractibility, impaired judgment, impulsivity, and thought disorder.

  16. Severity-Dependent Long-Term Spatial Learning-Memory Impairment in a Mouse Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chengrui; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Pu, Hongjian; Hong, Dandan; Zhang, Wenting; Hu, Xiaoming; Gao, Yanqin

    2016-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in young adults. Long-term mental disability often occurs in patients suffering moderate and severe TBI while not as frequent in the victims of mild TBI. To explore the potential mechanism underlying this severity-dependent cognitive deficit, we subjected C57/BL6 mice to different severities of controlled cortical impact (CCI) and assessed their learning-memory functions. The mice subjected to moderate and severe TBI exhibited significantly impaired long-term spatial learning-memory ability, which was accompanied by marked white matter injury and hippocampus damage. In contrast, long-term learning-memory deficits or structural abnormalities within the hippocampus or white matter were not significant in the case of mild TBI. According to a correlation analysis, the hippocampus or white matter injury severity was more relevant to Morris water maze outcome than tissue volume. This study revealed that long-term spatial learning-memory deficits are dependent on the severity of destruction in the white matter and hippocampus. Therapeutic strategies targeting both the white matter and hippocampus may be needed to improve the neurological functions in TBI victims.

  17. Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teather, Lisa A; Wurtman, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    We previously showed that dietary cytidine (5')-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) supplementation could protect against the development of memory deficits in aging rats. In the present study, younger rats exposed to impoverished environmental conditions and manifesting hippocampal-dependent memory impairments similar to those observed in the aging rodents were given CDP-choline, and its effects on this cognitive deficit were assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats reared for 3 mo in impoverished (IC) or enriched environmental (EC) conditions concurrently received either a control diet or a diet supplemented with CDP-choline (approximately 500 mg/kg/d). After 3 mo, rats were trained to perform spatial and cued versions of the Morris water maze, and their rates of acquisition and retention were compared. Impoverished rats exhibited a selective deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory which could be ameliorated by feeding them CDP-choline. The CDP-choline had no memory-enhancing effect in enriched rats, nor did it prevent the memory impairment of impoverished rats if the animals consumed it for the initial or final months instead of for the entire 3-mo period. These findings indicate that long-term dietary CDP-choline supplementation can ameliorate the hippocampal-dependent memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats, and suggest that its actions result, in part, from a long-term effect such as enhanced membrane phosphatide synthesis, an effect shown to require long-term dietary supplementation with CDP-choline.

  18. Peripheral inflammation acutely impairs human spatial memory via actions on medial temporal lobe glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil A; Doeller, Christian F; Voon, Valerie; Burgess, Neil; Critchley, Hugo D

    2014-10-01

    Inflammation impairs cognitive performance and is implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Rodent studies demonstrated key roles for inflammatory mediators in many processes critical to memory, including long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. They also demonstrated functional impairment of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures by systemic inflammation. However, human data to support this position are limited. Sequential fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography together with experimentally induced inflammation was used to investigate effects of a systemic inflammatory challenge on human MTL function. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning was performed in 20 healthy participants before and after typhoid vaccination and saline control injection. After each scanning session, participants performed a virtual reality spatial memory task analogous to the Morris water maze and a mirror-tracing procedural memory control task. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data demonstrated an acute reduction in human MTL glucose metabolism after inflammation. The inflammatory challenge also selectively compromised human spatial, but not procedural, memory; this effect that was independent of actions on motivation or psychomotor response. Effects of inflammation on parahippocampal and rhinal glucose metabolism directly mediated actions of inflammation on spatial memory. These data demonstrate acute sensitivity of human MTL to mild peripheral inflammation, giving rise to associated functional impairment in the form of reduced spatial memory performance. Our findings suggest a mechanism for the observed epidemiologic link between inflammation and risk of age-related cognitive decline and progression of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Mualem, Liran; Efrati, Matan; Keha, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA) on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test), and for associations (associative recognition test). In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress.

  20. Neurotoxicity induced by alkyl nitrites: Impairment in learning/memory and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hye Jin; Kim, Yun Ji; Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2016-04-21

    Although alkyl nitrites are used as recreational drugs, there is only little research data regarding their effects on the central nervous system including their neurotoxicity. This study investigated the neurotoxicity of three representative alkyl nitrites (isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite), and whether it affected learning/memory function and motor coordination in rodents. Morris water maze test was performed in mice after administrating the mice with varying doses of the substances in two different injection schedules of memory acquisition and memory retention. A rota-rod test was then performed in rats. All tested alkyl nitrites lowered the rodents' capacity for learning and memory, as assessed by both the acquisition and retention tests. The results of the rota-rod test showed that isobutyl nitrite in particular impaired motor coordination in chronically treated rats. The mice chronically injected with isoamyl nitrite also showed impaired function, while butyl nitrite had no significant effect. The results of the water maze test suggest that alkyl nitrites may impair learning and memory. Additionally, isoamyl nitrite affected the rodents' motor coordination ability. Collectively, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites may induce neurotoxicity, especially on the aspect of learning and memory function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of age and mild cognitive impairment on associative memory performance and underlying brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oedekoven, Christiane S H; Jansen, Andreas; Keidel, James L; Kircher, Tilo; Leube, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is essential to everyday activities, such as the binding of faces and corresponding names to form single bits of information. However, this ability often becomes impaired with increasing age. The most important neural substrate of associative memory is the hippocampus, a structure crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main aim of this study was to compare neural correlates of associative memory in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an at-risk state for AD. We used fMRI to investigate differences in brain activation and connectivity between young controls (n = 20), elderly controls (n = 32) and MCI patients (n = 21) during associative memory retrieval. We observed lower hippocampal activation in MCI patients than control groups during a face-name recognition task, and the magnitude of this decrement was correlated with lower associative memory performance. Further, increased activation in precentral regions in all older adults indicated a stronger involvement of the task positive network (TPN) with age. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed a stronger link of hippocampal and striatal components in older adults in comparison to young controls, regardless of memory impairment. In elderly controls, this went hand-in-hand with a stronger activation of striatal areas. Increased TPN activation may be linked to greater reliance on cognitive control in both older groups, while increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the striatum may suggest dedifferentiation, especially in elderly controls.

  2. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Guez

    Full Text Available The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test, and for associations (associative recognition test. In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress.

  3. Intracerebroventricular administration of taurine impairs learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichi; Arko, Matevž; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2012-03-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid widely distributed in the body and we take in it from a wide range of nutritive-tonic drinks to improve health. To date, we have elucidated that oral supplementation of taurine does not affect learning and memory in the rat. However, there are few studies concerning the direct effects of taurine in the brain at the behavior level. In this study, we intracerebroventricularly administered taurine to rats and aimed to elucidate the acute effects on learning and memory using the Morris water maze method. Escape latency, swim distance, and distance to zone, which is the integral of the distance between the rats and the platform for every 0.16 seconds, were adopted as parameters of the ability of learning and memory. We also tried to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal taurine administration. Escape latency, swim distance, and distance to zone were significantly longer in the intracerebroventricularly taurine-administered rats than in the saline-administered rats. Mean swimming velocity was comparable between these two groups, although the physical performance was improved by taurine administration. Probe trials showed that the manner of the rats in finding the platform was comparable. In contrast, no significant differences were found between the intraperitoneally taurine-administered rats and the saline-administered rats. These results indicate that taurine administered directly into the brain ventricle suppresses and delays the ability of learning and memory in rats. In contrast, it is implied that taurine administered peripherally was not involved in learning and memory.

  4. Semantic impairment disrupts perception, memory, and naming of secondary but not primary colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T.; Graham, Kim S.; Patterson, Karalyn

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how basic aspects of perception are shaped by acquired knowledge about the world, we assessed colour perception and cognition in patients with semantic dementia (SD), a disorder that progressively erodes conceptual knowledge. We observed a previously undocumented pattern of impairment to colour perception and cognition characterized by: (i) a normal ability to discriminate between only subtly different colours but an impaired ability to group different colours into categories, (ii) normal perception and memory for the colours red, green, and blue but impaired perception and memory for colours lying between these regions of a fully-saturated and luminant spectrum, and (iii) normal naming of polar colours in the opponent-process colour system (red, green, blue, yellow, white, and black) but impaired naming of other basic colours (brown, gray, pink, and orange). The results suggest that fundamental aspects of perception can be shaped by acquired knowledge about the world, but only within limits. PMID:25637227

  5. Language production and working memory: The case of subject-verb agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartsuiker, R.J.; Barkhuysen, Pashiera

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the role of working memory in sentence formulation, we elicited errors of subject-verb agreement in spoken sentence completion, while speakers did or did not maintain an extrinsic memory load (a word list). We compared participants with low and high speaking spans (a measure of

  6. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Richter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Yael Richter1, Yael Herzog1, Tzafra Cohen1, Yael Steinhart21Enzymotec LTD, Migdal-HaEmeq, Israel; 2Department of Marketing, Haifa Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, IsraelObjective: To evaluate for the first time the efficacy of safe-sourced phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PS-omega-3 in improving memory abilities.Methods: PS-omega-3 was administered daily for 6 weeks to eight elderly volunteers with subjective memory complaints. The Cognitive Drug Research test battery was used to assess the effect on their cognitive abilities.Results: PS-omega-3 supplementation resulted in 42% increase in the ability to recall words in the delayed condition.Conclusion: PS-omega-3 may have a favorable effect on memory in subjects with subjective memory complaints. PS-omega-3 may serve as a safe alternative to phosphatidylserine extracted from bovine cortex.Keywords: cognitive, memory, omega-3, phosphatidylserine

  7. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  8. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina eConti-Ramsden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females and 46 typically developing (TD children (30 males, 16 females, both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group x procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman’s Declarative/Procedural model of language and Procedural Deficit Hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children

  9. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of handheld computers for improving everyday memory functioning in patients with memory impairments after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, Natasha; Carr, Belinda; Allaous, Jeanine; Mackenzie, Bronwyn; Falcon, Alex; Tate, Robyn

    2014-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of personal digital assistant devices on achievement of memory and organization goals in patients with poor memory after acquired brain injury. Assessor blinded randomized controlled trial. Specialist brain injury rehabilitation hospital (inpatients and outpatients). Adults with acquired brain impairments (85% traumatic brain injury; aged ≥17 years) who were assessed as having functional memory impairment on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (General Memory Index). Training and support to use a personal digital assistant for eight weeks to compensate for memory failures by an occupational therapist. The control intervention was standard rehabilitation, including use of non-electronic memory aids. Goal Attainment Scale which assessed achievement of participants' daily memory functioning goals and caregiver perception of memory functioning; and General Frequency of Forgetting subscale of the Memory Functioning Questionnaire administered at baseline (pre-randomization) and post intervention (eight weeks later). Forty-two participants with memory impairment were recruited. Use of a personal digital assistant led to greater achievement of functional memory goals (mean difference 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 2.2), P = 0.0001) and improvement on the General Frequency of Forgetting subscale (mean difference 12.5 (95% CI 2.0 to 22.9), P = 0.021). Occupational therapy training in the use of a handheld computer improved patients' daily memory function more than standard rehabilitation.

  10. Gift from statistical learning: Visual statistical learning enhances memory for sequence elements and impairs memory for items that disrupt regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Sachio; Saiki, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Prior studies have shown that visual statistical learning (VSL) enhances familiarity (a type of memory) of sequences. How do statistical regularities influence the processing of each triplet element and inserted distractors that disrupt the regularity? Given that increased attention to triplets induced by VSL and inhibition of unattended triplets, we predicted that VSL would promote memory for each triplet constituent, and degrade memory for inserted stimuli. Across the first two experiments, we found that objects from structured sequences were more likely to be remembered than objects from random sequences, and that letters (Experiment 1) or objects (Experiment 2) inserted into structured sequences were less likely to be remembered than those inserted into random sequences. In the subsequent two experiments, we examined an alternative account for our results, whereby the difference in memory for inserted items between structured and random conditions is due to individuation of items within random sequences. Our findings replicated even when control letters (Experiment 3A) or objects (Experiment 3B) were presented before or after, rather than inserted into, random sequences. Our findings suggest that statistical learning enhances memory for each item in a regular set and impairs memory for items that disrupt the regularity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Improvement of Memory in the Music Language subject

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Berrón Ruiz; Francisco J. Balsera Gómez; Inés M. Monreal Guerrero

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an experience that was carried out in the first two levels of elementary education in Ear Training courses at the Professional Conservatory of Music in Segovia (Spain). The main objective of the research was to assess whether there is an improvement in 79 students’ memory using different classroom-based educational intervention proposals and if such improvement fosters students’ learning. This research has a constructivist approach and begins by describing the ch...

  12. Distinguishing between impairments of working memory and inhibitory control in cases of early dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Trevor J; Higham, Steve

    2016-01-29

    Dementia (most notably, Alzheimer's Disease) is often associated with impairments of both working memory and inhibitory control. However, it is unclear whether these are functionally distinct impairments. We addressed the issue of whether working memory and inhibitory control can be dissociated, using data from a sample of patients who were recruited in a longitudinal study (Crawford et al., 2013, 2015). The first case revealed a preserved working memory capacity together with poor inhibitory control in the anti-saccade task. A longitudinal follow-up revealed that the defective inhibitory control emerged 12-months before the dementia was evident on the mini-mental state examination assessment. A second case revealed a poor working memory together with a well-preserved level of inhibitory control. The dissociation of working memory and inhibitory control was confirmed statistically in 7 additional cases. These findings yield converging evidence that working memory and inhibitory control are distinct cognitive operations and challenges the Kimberg and Farah (2000) cognitive model of working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term heavy ketamine use is associated with spatial memory impairment and altered hippocampal activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia J A Morgan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, is rising in popularity as a drug of abuse. Preliminary evidence suggests that chronic, heavy ketamine use may have profound effects on spatial memory but the mechanism of these deficits is as yet unclear. This study aimed to examine the neural mechanism by which heavy ketamine use impairs spatial memory processing. In a sample of 11 frequent ketamine users and 15 polydrug controls, matched for IQ, age and years in education. We used fMRI utilising an ROI approach to examine the neural activity of three regions known to support successful navigation; the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and the caudate nucleus during a virtual reality task of spatial memory. Frequent ketamine users displayed spatial memory deficits, accompanied by and related to, reduced activation in both the right hippocampus and left parahippocampal gyrus during navigation from memory, and in the left caudate during memory updating, compared to controls. Ketamine users also exhibited schizotypal and dissociative symptoms that were related to hippocampal activation. Impairments in spatial memory observed in ketamine users are related to changes in medial temporal lobe activation. Disrupted medial temporal lobe function may be a consequence of chronic ketamine abuse and may relate to schizophrenia-like symptomatology observed in ketamine users.

  14. WORKING MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AS AN ENDOPHENOTYPIC MARKER OF A SCHIZOPHRENIA DIATHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Gooding, Diane C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the viability of working memory impairment as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis. It begins with an introduction of the construct of working memory. It follows with a review of the operational criteria for defining an endophenotype. Research findings regarding the working memory performance of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum patients, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, are reviewed in terms of the criteria for being considered an endophenotypic marker. Special attention is paid to specific components of the working memory deficit (namely, encoding, maintenance, and manipulation), in terms of which aspects are likely to be the best candidates for endophenotypes. We consider the extant literature regarding working memory performance in bipolar disorder and major depression in order to address the issue of relative specificity to schizophrenia. Despite some unresolved issues, it appears that working memory impairment is a very promising candidate for an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis but not for mood disorders. Throughout this chapter, we identify future directions for research in this exciting and dynamic area of research and evaluate the contribution of working memory research to our understanding of schizophrenia. PMID:25414816

  15. Working memory impairment as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohee Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the viability of working memory impairment as an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis. It begins with an introduction of the construct of working memory. It follows with a consideration of the operational criteria for defining an endophenotype. Research findings regarding the working memory performance of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum patients, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, are reviewed in terms of the criteria for being considered an endophenotypic marker. Special attention is paid to specific components of the working memory deficit (namely, encoding, maintenance, and manipulation, in terms of which aspects are likely to be the best candidates for endophenotypes. We examine the extant literature regarding working memory performance in bipolar disorder and major depression in order to address the issue of relative specificity to schizophrenia. Despite some unresolved issues, it appears that working memory impairment is a very promising candidate for an endophenotypic marker of a schizophrenia diathesis but not for mood disorders. Throughout this review, we identify future directions for research in this exciting and dynamic area of research and evaluate the contribution of working memory research to our understanding of schizophrenia.

  16. CANTAB Explicit Memory Is Less Impaired in Addicted Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stephane; Briand, Catherine; Prouteau, Antoinette; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Lipp, Olivier; Lalonde, Pierre; Nicole, Luc; Lesage, Alain; Stip, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that in order to sustain the lifestyle of substance abuse, addicted schizophrenia patients would have less negative symptoms, better social skills, and less cognitive impairments. Mounting evidence supports the first two assumptions, but data lack regarding cognition in dual diagnosis schizophrenia. Seventy-six schizophrenia…

  17. Memory Impairment, Dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease in Classical and Contemporary Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Brian H; Feng, Mei; Zhou, Iris W; Chang, Su-Yueh; Lu, Shao-Chen; Zhang, Anthony L; Guo, Xin-Feng; Lu, Chuan-Jian; Xue, Charlie C L

    2016-09-01

    To identify and analyze records of the treatment of dementia and memory disorders in the classical Chinese medical literature that were consistent with the signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), with the aim of determining which traditional medicines have histories of use for these disorders. Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Zhong Hua Yi Dian), a database of more than 1000 classical and premodern Chinese medical books, was systematically searched. Search terms were identified from dictionaries, medical nomenclatures, guidelines, and specialist clinical manuals on aging, neurology, or brain disorders. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to identify citations of conditions whose signs and symptoms were consistent with the clinical features of AD. Passages of text identified by these terms were copied to Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, together with the identity of the source book and all relevant information on the disorder and the intervention. Each distinct passage of text was considered a citation. The frequencies of the traditional formulas used as interventions and their constituent ingredients were calculated. The selection criteria identified 1498 citations of dementia and memory impairments derived from 277 different books written from circa 363 to 1945 AD. In 91 of these citations, memory impairment was associated with aging and was broadly consistent with the clinical features of AD. Although the interventions varied in name, Poria cocos, Polygala tenuifolia, Rehmannia glutinosa, Panax ginseng, and Acorus species consistently appeared as ingredients in multiple formulas for memory impairment in the context of aging. Memory impairment in older age was a recognized condition in the classical literature. Many of the traditional medicines frequently used as ingredients in classical formulas for memory impairment consistent with clinical features of AD remain in contemporary use, and experimental studies suggest biological activities

  18. Impaired structural correlates of memory in Alzheimer's disease mice ?

    OpenAIRE

    Badhwar, AmanPreet; Lerch, Jason P.; Hamel, Edith; Sled, John G.

    2013-01-01

    The healthy adult brain demonstrates robust learning-induced neuroanatomical plasticity. While altered neuroanatomical plasticity is suspected to be a factor mitigating the progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is not known to what extent this plasticity is affected by AD. We evaluated whether spatial learning and memory-induced neuroanatomical plasticity are diminished in an adult mouse model of AD (APP mice) featuring amyloid beta-driven cognitive and cerebrovascular...

  19. Plasma phospholipids identify antecedent memory impairment in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mapstone, Mark; Cheema, Amrita K.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Zhong, Xiaogang; Mhyre, Timothy R.; MacArthur, Linda H.; Hall, William J.; Fisher, Susan G.; Peterson, Derick R; Haley, James M.; Nazar, Michael D; Rich, Steven A; Berlau, Dan J; Peltz, Carrie B; Tan, Ming T.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer?s disease causes a progressive dementia that currently affects over 35 million individuals worldwide and is expected to affect 115 million by 2050 (ref. 1). There are no cures or disease-modifying therapies, and this may be due to our inability to detect the disease before it has progressed to produce evident memory loss and functional decline. Biomarkers of preclinical disease will be critical to the development of disease-modifying or even preventative therapies2. Unfortunately, c...

  20. Detecting Memory Impairment in Deaf People: A New Test of Verbal Learning and Memory in British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Roy, Penny; Woll, Bencie; Atkinson, Joanna

    2016-06-26

    Most existing tests of memory and verbal learning in adults were created for spoken languages, and are unsuitable for assessing deaf people who rely on signed languages. In response to this need for sign language measures, the British Sign Language Verbal Learning and Memory Test (BSL-VLMT) was developed. It follows the format of the English language Hopkins Verbal Learning Test Revised, using standardized video-presentation with novel stimuli and instructions wholly in British Sign Language, and no English language requirement. Data were collected from 223 cognitively healthy deaf signers aged 50-89 and 12 deaf patients diagnosed with dementia. Normative data percentiles were derived for clinical use, and receiver-operating characteristic curves computed to explore the clinical potential and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The test showed good discrimination between the normative and clinical samples, providing preliminary evidence of clinical utility for identifying learning and memory impairment in older deaf signers with neurodegeneration. This innovative video testing approach transforms the ability to accurately detect memory impairments in deaf people and avoids the problems of using interpreters, with international potential for adapting similar tests into other signed languages. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Long-term impairment of social memory in the rat after social defeat is not restored by desglycinamide-vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmers, L.G.J.E.; Hoekstra, K.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ree, van J.M.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Repeated social defeat followed by individual housing caused a long-term impairment of social memory in male rats. Social memory, as assessed in the social discrimination test using an intertrial interval of 3 min, was impaired for at least 8 weeks after the social defeat experience. Since social

  2. Ameliorative effects of telmisartan on the inflammatory response and impaired spatial memory in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease incorporating additional cerebrovascular disease factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Taro; Takasaki, Kotaro; Uchida, Kanako; Onimura, Rika; Kubota, Kaori; Uchida, Naoki; Irie, Keiichi; Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Mishima, Kenichi; Nishimura, Ryoji; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2012-01-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker, is used in the management of hypertension to control blood pressure. In addition, telmisartan has a partial agonistic effect on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Recently, the effects of telmisartan on spatial memory or the inflammatory response were monitored in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of telmisartan on impaired spatial memory and the inflammatory response in an AD animal model incorporating additional cerebrovascular disease factors. In this study, we examined the effect of telmisartan on spatial memory impairment and the inflammatory response in a rat model of AD incorporating additional cerebrovascular disease factors. Rats were subjected to cerebral ischemia and an intracerebroventricular injection of oligomeric or aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ). Oral administration of telmisartan (0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg/d) seven days after ischemia and Aβ treatment resulted in better performance in the eight arm radial maze task in a dose-dependent manner. Telmisartan also reduced tumor necrosis factor α mRNA expression in the hippocampal region of rats with impaired spatial memory. These effects of telmisartan were antagonized by GW9662, an antagonist of PPARγ. These results suggest that telmisartan has ameliorative effects on the impairment of spatial memory in a rat model of AD incorporating additional cerebrovascular disease factors via its anti-inflammatory effect.

  3. Association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects over 90 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyun; Dong, Birong; Hao, Qiu Kui; Ding, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    Eating habits may have a key influence on cognitive function, however, the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive impairment in the elderly Chinese population has not been explored. The present study investigated the association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects >90 years of age. This study comprised data from subjects included in the 2005 Project of Longevity and Ageing in Dujiangyan, China. Subjects were divided into two groups: cognitive impairment group and normal group. Sociodemographic and dietary habit data were collected and cognitive function was assessed in all subjects using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 763 subjects (249 men, 514 women) were included. There was no statistically significant difference in eating habits between the two groups. Education level in the cognitive impairment group was significantly lower than in the normal group. Significant between-group differences were detected in factors relating to subjects' professions. Eating habits were not related to cognitive impairment in elderly Chinese people >90 years of age.

  4. Impaired inhibition and working memory in response to internet-related words among adolescents with internet addiction: A comparison with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jia; Li, Wendi

    2016-02-28

    Impairments in response inhibition and working memory functions have been found to be closely associated with internet addiction (IA) symptoms and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In this study, we examined response inhibition and working memory processes with two different materials (internet-related and internet-unrelated stimuli) among adolescents with IA, ADHD and co-morbid IA/ADHD. Twenty-four individuals with IA, 28 individuals with ADHD, 17 individuals with IA/ADHD, and 26 matched normal controls (NC) individuals were recruited. All participants were measured with a Stop-Signal Task and 2-Back Task under the same experimental conditions. In comparison to the NC group, subjects with IA, ADHD and IA/ADHD demonstrated impaired inhibition and working memory. In addition, in comparison to internet-unrelated conditions, IA and co-morbid subjects performed worse on the internet-related condition in the Stop trials during the stop-signal task, and they showed better working memory on the internet-related condition in the 2-Back Task. The findings of our study suggest individuals with IA and IA/ADHD may be impaired in inhibition and working memory functions that might be linked to poor inhibition specifically related to internet-related stimuli, which will advance our understanding of IA and contribute to prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A look at risk factors of proteinuria in subjects without impaired renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Proteinuria is a common marker of kidney damage. This study aimed at determining predictors of proteinuria in subjects without impaired renal filtration function in Owerri, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 136 subjects, consecutively drawn from Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Owerri, ...

  6. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  7. Face-name memory training in subjective memory decline: how does office-based training translate to everyday situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kerryn Elizabeth; Ong, Ben; Clare, Linda; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2017-08-21

    This study aimed to examine whether people with subjective memory decline (SMD) benefit from face-name memory training (single session) as much as older adult controls in an office-based setting. Approximately 2 months later, groups were reassessed for translation to a naturalistic setting. In the office setting, there was a significant interaction between stimulus type (cued name; uncued name) and training condition (spaced retrieval, semantic association, no training), but no group differences nor interactions. Semantic association was only beneficial for cued names, whereas spaced retrieval was beneficial in cued and uncued conditions. In the naturalistic setting, however, there were no training effects. Naturalistic performance was predicted by demographics, cognition, and motivation. All groups reported improved memory control beliefs and contentment. Our study demonstrates the benefit of simple memory strategies for older adults, including those with SMD, in office-based settings. Translation to everyday settings is complex and may require prior intervention to increase motivation.

  8. Working memory binding and episodic memory formation in aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimers dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geldorp, Bonnie; Heringa, Sophie M.; Van Den Berg, Esther; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies indicate that in both normal and pathological aging working memory (WM) performance deteriorates, especially when associations have to be maintained. However, most studies typically do not assess the relationship between WM and episodic memory formation. In the present

  9. Working memory binding and episodic memory formation in aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Heringa, S.M.; Berg, E. van den; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Biessels, G.J.; Kessels, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent studies indicate that in both normal and pathological aging working memory (WM) performance deteriorates, especially when associations have to be maintained. However, most studies typically do not assess the relationship between WM and episodic memory formation. In the present

  10. Memory, Place and Subjectivity: Experiments in Independent Documentary Filmmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Jill

    2014-01-01

    The research in this doctoral thesis focuses on the mediation of place, memory and\\ud identity in experimental western documentary films and contains film theory and film\\ud practice components. It is comprised of the production of two experimental\\ud documentary films ─ Not Reconciled (41 minutes) (2009) and The Border Crossing\\ud (47 minutes) (2011) ─ and a 50,000 word written exegesis that analyses those films\\ud and films made by others. The key analytic approaches I deploy are located wi...

  11. Short-term long chain omega3 diet protects from neuroinflammatory processes and memory impairment in aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie F Labrousse

    Full Text Available Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimer's disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are the most likely active components of ω3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old and aged (22-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ω3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects.

  12. Elevated risk of an intermediate or high SYNTAX score in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xishan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Fangfang; Dong, Pingshuan; Fa, Xianen; Zhang, Qingyong; Li, Li; Wang, Zhikuan; Zhao, Di

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the SYNTAX score under different fasting plasma glucose (FPG) states in Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography, particularly subjects with impaired FPG. Four hundred and forty-six subjects undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled in this study and divided into four groups based on the FPG level or a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): normal FPG, impaired FPG, known and previously unknown T2DM. The angiographic SYNTAX scores were higher in the subjects with known (pimportance of achieving better glycemic control in order to prevent coronary atherosclerosis and improve the cardiovascular prognosis.

  13. State orientation and memory load impair prospective memory performance in older compared to younger persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschel, Reiner; Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius

    2017-07-01

    A modified event-based paradigm of prospective memory was applied to investigate intention initiation in older and younger participants under high versus low memory load (subsequent episodic word recall vs. recognition). State versus action orientation, a personality dimension related to intention enactment, was also measured. State-oriented persons show a superiority effect for the storage of intentions in an explicit format but have a paradoxical deficit in their actual enactment. We predicted an interaction between aging, personality, and memory load, with longer intention-initiation latencies and higher omission rates for older state-oriented participants under high memory load. Results were consistent with predictions and are interpreted according to current personality and prospective memory models of aging.

  14. Onset of hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Stéphane D; Jacquet, Marlyse; Baranger, Kévin; Migliorati, Martine; Escoffier, Guy; Bernard, Anne; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Féron, François; Rivera, Santiago; Roman, François S; Marchetti, Evelyne

    2014-07-01

    The 5XFAD mice are an early-onset transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in which amyloid plaques are first observed between two and four months of age in the cortical layer five and in the subiculum of the hippocampal formation. Although cognitive alterations have been described in these mice, there are no studies that focused on the onset of hippocampus-dependent memory deficits, which are a hallmark of the prodromal stage of AD. To identify when the first learning and memory impairments appear, 5XFAD mice of two, four, and six months of age were compared with their respective wild-type littermates using the olfactory tubing maze, which is a very sensitive hippocampal-dependent task. Deficits in learning and memory started at four months with a substantial increase at six months of age while no olfactory impairments were observed. The volumetric study using magnetic resonance imaging of the whole brain and specific areas (olfactory bulb, striatum, and hippocampus) did not reveal neuro-anatomical difference. Slight memory deficits appeared at 4 months of age in correlation with an increased astrogliosis and amyloid plaque formation. This early impairment in learning and memory related to the hippocampal dysfunction is particularly suited to assess preclinical therapeutic strategies aiming to delay or suppress the onset of AD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  16. Developmental Associations between Working Memory and Language in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugs, Brigitte; Hendriks, Marc; Cuperus, Juliane; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined differences in the development of working memory (WM) between children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Further, it explored to what extent language at ages 7-8 years could be predicted by measures of language and/or WM at ages 4-5 years. Method: Thirty…

  17. The impact of specific language impairment on working memory in children with ADHD combined subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 8 1/2- to 12 1/2-year-old

  18. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Working Memory and Speech Comprehension in Older Adults with Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Naveen K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between working memory (WM) and speech comprehension in older adults with hearing impairment (HI). It was hypothesized that WM would explain significant variance in speech comprehension measured in multitalker babble (MTB). Method: Twenty-four older (59-73 years) adults with sensorineural HI…

  20. Motor Control and Nonword Repetition in Specific Working Memory Impairment and SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Munson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Debate around the underlying cognitive factors leading to poor performance in the repetition of nonwords by children with developmental impairments in language has centered around phonological short-term memory, lexical knowledge, and other factors. This study examines the impact of motor control demands on nonword repetition in groups of…

  1. Evaluation of the effect of pentoxifylline on sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Tashtoush, Noor H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Mhaidat, Nizar M

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we examined the ability of Pentoxifylline (PTX) to prevent sleep deprivation induced memory impairment probably through decreasing oxidative stress. Sleep deprivation was chronically induced 8 h/day for 6 weeks in rats using modified multiple platform model. Concurrently, PTX (100 mg/kg) was administered to animals on daily basis. After 6 weeks of treatment, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using the Radial Arm Water Maze. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected; and levels/activities of antioxidant defense biomarkers glutathione reduced (GSH), glutathione oxidized (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were assessed. The results show that chronic sleep deprivation impaired short- and long-term memories, which was prevented by chronic treatment with PTX. Additionally, PTX normalized sleep deprivation-induced reduction in the hippocampus GSH/GSSG ratio (P sleep deprivation induces memory impairment, and treatment with PTX prevented this impairment probably through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Anosognosia for memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment: Insight into the neural mechanism using functional and molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Vannini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anosognosia, or loss of insight of memory deficits, is a common and striking symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Previous findings in AD dementia patients suggest that anosognosia is due to both functional metabolic changes within cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processes, as well as functional disconnection between these regions. The present study aims to extend these findings by investigating the neural correlates of anosognosia in the prodromal stage of AD. Here, we used regional brain metabolism (resting state 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET to unravel the metabolic correlates of anosognosia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and subsequently resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI to investigate the intrinsic connectivity disruption between brain regions. Thirty-one subjects (mean age: 74.1; Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR global score: 0.5 with aMCI, and 251 cognitively normal (CN older adults (mean age: 73.3; CDR: 0 were included as a reference group for behavioral and FDG data. An anosognosia index was obtained by calculating a discrepancy score between subjective and objective memory scores. All subjects underwent FDG-PET for glucose metabolism measurement, and aMCI subjects underwent additional rs-fMRI for intrinsic connectivity measurement. Voxel-wise correlations between anosognosia and neuroimaging data were conducted in the aMCI subjects. Subjects with aMCI had significantly decreased memory awareness as compared to the CN older adults. Greater anosognosia in aMCI subjects was associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate (PCC cortices and hippocampus. Intrinsic connectivity analyses revealed a significant association between anosognosia and attenuated functional connectivity between the PCC seed region and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC as well as bilateral inferior parietal lobes (IPL. These findings provide further

  3. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: positional versus object-location recall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  4. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: Positional versus object-location recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been Studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while Studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  5. Astrocytic expression of HIV-1 Nef impairs spatial and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompre, Gladys; Cruz, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Lucianette; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Porter, James T; Noel, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy that effectively limits viral replication, memory impairment remains a dilemma for HIV infected people. In the CNS, HIV infection of astrocytes leads to the production of the HIV-1 Nef protein without viral replication. Post mortem studies have found Nef expression in hippocampal astrocytes of people with HIV associated dementia suggesting that astrocytic Nef may contribute to HIV associated cognitive impairment even when viral replication is suppressed. To test whether astrocytic expression of Nef is sufficient to induce cognitive deficits, we examined the effect of implanting primary rat astrocytes expressing Nef into the hippocampus on spatial and recognition memory. Rats implanted unilaterally with astrocytes expressing Nef showed impaired novel location and novel object recognition in comparison with controls implanted with astrocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). This impairment was correlated with an increase in chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) expression and the infiltration of peripheral macrophages into the hippocampus at the site of injection. Furthermore, the Nef exposed rats exhibited a bilateral loss of CA3 neurons. These results suggest that Nef protein expressed by the implanted astrocytes activates the immune system leading to neuronal damage and spatial and recognition memory deficits. Therefore, the continued expression of Nef by astrocytes in the absence of viral replication has the potential to contribute to HIV associated cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Semantic memory impairment in schizophrenia--deficit in storage or access of knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, O J; Done, D J; Lawrence, V A; Al-Mousawi, A; Ashaye, K

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluates whether patients with schizophrenia have a degraded memory store for semantic knowledge. 20 patients with a chronic history of schizophrenia and evidence of cognitive impairment were selected, since the literature indicates that this subgroup is most likely to manifest a degraded semantic knowledge store. Their profile of semantic memory impairments was compared to that of a group of Alzheimer's Dementia (AD) patients (n=22), who met neuropsychological criteria for degraded semantic store. Both groups were matched for Performance IQ. 15 elderly healthy controls were also included in the study. The AD and schizophrenia groups produced substantially different profiles of semantic memory impairment. This is interpreted as indicating that the semantic impairments in this subgroup of patients with schizophrenia do not result from a degraded store. This is corroborated by an analysis of the data using other neuropsychological criteria for determining degraded store. We conclude that there is little evidence for a classic degradation of semantic knowledge in schizophrenia, and it appears that impairments result from an inability to use semantic knowledge appropriately, particularly when selection of salient semantic relations is required.

  7. Histone Acetylation Regulation in Sleep Deprivation-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ruifeng; Liu, Xiaohua; Wang, Tianhui; Wu, Lei; Gao, Xiujie; Zhang, Zhiqing

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disorders negatively affect cognition and health. Recent evidence has indicated that chromatin remodeling via histone acetylation regulates cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the possible roles of histone acetylation in sleep deprivation (SD)-induced cognitive impairment. Results of the Morris water maze test showed that 3 days of SD can cause spatial memory impairment in Wistar rats. SD can also decrease histone acetylation levels, increase histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression, and decrease histone acetyltransferase (CBP) expression. Furthermore, SD can reduce H3 and H4 acetylation levels in the promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene and thus significantly downregulate BDNF expression and impair the activity of key BDNF signaling pathways (pCaMKII, pErk2, and pCREB). However, treatment with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A attenuated all the negative effects induced by SD. Therefore, BDNF and its histone acetylation regulation may play important roles in SD-induced spatial memory impairment, whereas HDAC inhibition possibly confers protection against SD-induced impairment in spatial memory and hippocampal functions.

  8. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Yael; Herzog, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Steinhart, Yael

    2010-01-01

    Yael Richter1, Yael Herzog1, Tzafra Cohen1, Yael Steinhart21Enzymotec LTD, Migdal-HaEmeq, Israel; 2Department of Marketing, Haifa Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, IsraelObjective: To evaluate for the first time the efficacy of safe-sourced phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PS-omega-3) in improving memory abilities.Methods: PS-omega-3 was administered daily for 6 weeks to eight elderly volunteers with subjective memory complaints. T...

  9. Impairments in learning, memory, and metamemory following childhood head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Jason E; Hanten, Gerri; Li, Xiaoqi; Dennis, Maureen; Chapman, Sandra B; Levin, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    To assess postinjury changes in learning, memory, and metamemory abilities following childhood traumatic brain injury. Prospective, longitudinal with 5 assessments made from baseline to 24 months postinjury. A total of 167 children (aged 5-15 years) with traumatic brain injury (TBI; 64 severe, 55 moderate, and 48 mild). Children completed a judgment of learning task with 4 recall trials and made 3 metamemory judgments. Relative to those with mild TBI, children with moderate or severe TBI performed worse at earlier times postinjury and had a greater change in performance over time. Performance for moderate and severe groups peaked at 12 months and the performance gap between them and mild TBI group increased slightly from 12 to 24 months. Traumatic brain injury severity did not affect initial study-recall trial performance, but groups did diverge in performance with repeated study. Greater TBI severity was associated with poorer performance on prospective metamemory judgments, but not retrospective judgments. Traumatic brain injury severity affected prospective judgments of memory performance and learning strategies, but did not appear to affect either word retention or the forgetting of words over a delay. Implications for rehabilitation are discussed.

  10. Behavioral profiles in frontal lobe epilepsy: Autobiographic memory versus mood impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Genevieve; Jackson, Graeme D; Wilson, Sarah J

    2015-02-01

    Autobiographic memory encompasses the encoding and retrieval of episodes, people, and places encountered in everyday life. It can be impaired in both epilepsy and frontal lobe damage. Here, we performed an initial investigation of how autobiographic memory is impacted by chronic frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) together with its underlying pathology. We prospectively studied a series of nine consecutive patients with medically refractory FLE, relative to 24 matched healthy controls. Seven of the nine patients had frontal lobe structural abnormalities. Episodic and semantic autobiographic memory functioning was profiled, and factors associated with impaired autobiographic memory were identified among epileptologic, neuroimaging, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive variables including auditory-verbal and visual memory, and the executive function of cognitive control. Results showed that the FLE group experienced significantly higher rates of autobiographic memory and mood disturbance (p frontal lobe seizure activity with its underlying pathology may selectively disrupt large-scale cognitive or affective networks, giving rise to different neurobehavioral profiles that may be used to inform clinical management. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Impaired decision making and delayed memory are related with anxiety and depressive symptoms in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Iris; Santos, Alicia; Valassi, Elena; Pires, Patricia; Webb, Susan M; Resmini, Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of cognitive function in acromegaly has revealed contradictory findings; some studies report normal cognition in patients with long-term cured acromegaly, while others show attention and memory deficits. Moreover, the presence of affective disorders in these patients is common. Our aim was to evaluate memory and decision making in acromegalic patients and explore their relationship with affective disorders like anxiety and depressive symptoms. Thirty-one patients with acromegaly (mean age 49.5 ± 8.5 years, 14 females and 17 males) and thirty-one healthy controls participated in this study. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to evaluate decision making, verbal memory, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, respectively. Acromegalic patients showed impairments in delayed verbal memory (p multiple correlations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and performance in memory and decision making were found. Impaired delayed memory and decision making observed in acromegalic patients are related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. Providing emotional support to the patients could improve their cognitive function. A key clinical application of this research is the finding that depressive symptoms and anxiety are essentially modifiable factors.

  12. Impairment of sleep-related memory consolidation in schizophrenia: relevance of sleep spindles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göder, Robert; Graf, Anna; Ballhausen, Felix; Weinhold, Sara; Baier, Paul Christian; Junghanns, Klaus; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Deficits in declarative memory performance are among the most severe neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia and contribute to poor clinical outcomes. The importance of sleep for brain plasticity and memory consolidation is widely accepted, and sleep spindles seem to play an important role in these processes. The aim of this study was to test the associations of sleep spindles and picture memory consolidation in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We studied 16 patients with schizophrenia on stable antipsychotic medication (mean age ± standard deviation, 29.4 ± 6.4 years) and 16 healthy controls matched for age and educational level. Sleep was recorded and scored according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) standard criteria. We performed a picture recognition paradigm and compared recognition performance for neutral and emotional pictures in sleep and wake conditions. Recognition accuracy was better in healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia in the sleep and wake conditions. However, the memory-promoting effect of sleep was significantly lower in schizophrenia patients than in controls. Sleep spindle activity was reduced in patients, and sleep spindle density was correlated with sleep-associated facilitation of recognition accuracy for neutral pictures. Reduced sleep spindles seem to play an important role as a possible mechanism or biomarker for impaired sleep-related memory consolidation in patients with schizophrenia, and are a new target for treatment to improve memory functions and clinical outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hue-specific colour memory impairment in an individual with intact colour perception and colour naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Pearson, P M; Robertson, B

    2008-01-15

    Cases of hue-selective dyschomatopsias, together with the results of recent optical imaging studies [Xiao, Y., Casti, A. R. R., Xiao, J., & Kaplan, E. (2006). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque primary visual cortex. Perception, 35, ECVP Abstract Supplement; Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., & Felleman, D. J. (2003). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature, 421, 535-539], have provided support for the idea that different colours are processed in spatially distinct regions of extrastriate cortex. In the present report, we provide evidence suggesting that a similar, but distinct, map may exist for representations of colour in memory. This evidence comes from observations of a young woman (QP) who demonstrates an isolated deficit in colour memory secondary to a concussive episode. Despite having normal colour perception and colour naming skills, and above-average memory skills in other domains, QP's ability to recall visually encoded colour information over short retention intervals is dramatically impaired. Her long-term memory for colour and her colour imagery skills are also abnormal. Surprisingly, however, these impairments are not seen with all hues; specifically, her ability to remember or imagine blue shades is spared. This interesting case contributes to the literature suggesting that colour perception, naming, and memory can be clinically dissociated, and provides insights into the organization of colour information in memory.

  14. Do the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery episodic memory measures discriminate amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Facal, David; Reboredo, Alba; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Although visual recognition memory and visuospatial paired associates learning has been shown to be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the sensitivity and specificity of the visual memory tests used to identify aMCI are not well defined. The current study attempted to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of three visual episodic memory tests (Pattern Recognition Memory [PRM], Delayed Matching to Sample [DMS], and Paired Associated Learning [PAL]) from the CANTAB, in differentiating aMCI patients from control healthy participants. Seventy seven aMCI patients and 85 cognitive normal controls aged over 50 years performed the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to study the relationships between aMCI and visual memory measures. The three Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery measures significantly predicted aMCI. The optimal predictive model combined the total percent correct responses for PRM and DMS with the PAL total errors (six shapes adjusted), with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 83%, and achieved predictive accuracy of 80%. Visual episodic memory tasks such as those involved in the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests (included in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) may sensitively discriminate aMCI patients from normal controls. These tests may be useful for correct diagnosis of aMCI. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Improves Learning and Memory Impairment Induced by Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein MAHMOUDVAND

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Here, we established the mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis by T. gondii Tehran strain to provide a good understanding about defining the possible association between T. gondii exposure and learning and memory impairments. Moreover, as secondary objective of the present study, we hypothesized whether administration of an acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitor could reduce learning and memory impairments induced by T. gondii infection.Methods: Twenty-four male BALB/c mice were used to establishment of latent toxoplasmosis. The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii. Donepezil (2 mg/kg an AChE inhibitor to treat Alzheimer disease was injected intraperitoneally once a day for two weeks starting from post-infection day 90. Morris water maze (MWM task was used to assay spatial learning and short term spatial memory in all groups. One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc test was used to assess differences between experimental groups.  P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Toxoplasma infection impaired spatial leaning and short term spatial memory of the infected BALB/c mice, whereas donepezil, an AChE inhibitor, improved impairments induced by Toxoplasma infection.Conclusion: T. gondii infection through increasing AChE reduces the level of Acetylcholine (Ach and consequently affects learning and memory activity in infected hosts, whereas, donepezil as an AChE inhibitor improves these impairments by restoring ACh levels at synapses of neurons in brain.

  16. Verbal Dominant Memory Impairment and Low Risk for Post-operative Memory Worsening in Both Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Amr Farid; Iwasaki, Masaki; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Jin, Kazutaka; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-11-15

    Post-operative memory changes after temporal lobe surgery have been established mainly by group analysis of cognitive outcome. This study investigated individual patient-based memory outcome in surgically-treated patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study included 84 consecutive patients with intractable TLE caused by unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent epilepsy surgery (47 females, 41 left [Lt] TLE). Memory functions were evaluated with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised before and at 1 year after surgery. Pre-operative memory function was classified into three patterns: verbal dominant memory impairment (Verb-D), visual dominant impairment (Vis-D), and no material-specific impairment. Post-operative changes in verbal and visual memory indices were classified into meaningful improvement, worsening, or no significant changes. Pre-operative patterns and post-operative changes in verbal and visual memory function were compared between the Lt and right (Rt) TLE groups. Pre-operatively, Verb-D was the most common type of impairment in both the Lt and Rt TLE groups (65.9 and 48.8%), and verbal memory indices were lower than visual memory indices, especially in the Lt compared with Rt TLE group. Vis-D was observed only in 11.6% of Rt and 7.3% of Lt TLE patients. Post-operatively, meaningful improvement of memory indices was observed in 23.3-36.6% of the patients, and the memory improvement was equivalent between Lt and Rt TLE groups and between verbal and visual materials. In conclusion, Verb-D is most commonly observed in patients with both the Lt and Rt TLE associated with HS. Hippocampectomy can improve memory indices in such patients regardless of the side of surgery and the function impaired.

  17. Possible roles of COX-1 in learning and memory impairment induced by traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, J L; Cheng, Q; Yang, W F; Zhang, M; Cui, Y; Wang, Y F

    2014-12-01

    People who suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI) often experience cognitive deficits in spatial reference and working memory. The possible roles of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in learning and memory impairment in mice with TBI are far from well known. Adult mice subjected to TBI were treated with the COX-1 selective inhibitor SC560. Performance in the open field and on the beam walk was then used to assess motor and behavioral function 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following injury. Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze on day 15 post-TBI. The expressions of COX-1, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-6, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), synapsin-I, and synaptophysin were detected in TBI mice. Administration of SC560 improved performance of beam walk tasks as well as spatial learning and memory after TBI. SC560 also reduced expressions of inflammatory markers IL-6 and PGE2, and reversed the expressions of COX-1, BDNF, PDGF-BB, synapsin-I, and synaptophysin in TBI mice. The present findings demonstrated that COX-1 might play an important role in cognitive deficits after TBI and that selective COX-1 inhibition should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic approach for TBI.

  18. Possible roles of COX-1 in learning and memory impairment induced by traumatic brain injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Shang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available People who suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI often experience cognitive deficits in spatial reference and working memory. The possible roles of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 in learning and memory impairment in mice with TBI are far from well known. Adult mice subjected to TBI were treated with the COX-1 selective inhibitor SC560. Performance in the open field and on the beam walk was then used to assess motor and behavioral function 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days following injury. Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze on day 15 post-TBI. The expressions of COX-1, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin (IL-6, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB, synapsin-I, and synaptophysin were detected in TBI mice. Administration of SC560 improved performance of beam walk tasks as well as spatial learning and memory after TBI. SC560 also reduced expressions of inflammatory markers IL-6 and PGE2, and reversed the expressions of COX-1, BDNF, PDGF-BB, synapsin-I, and synaptophysin in TBI mice. The present findings demonstrated that COX-1 might play an important role in cognitive deficits after TBI and that selective COX-1 inhibition should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic approach for TBI.

  19. Antioxidant administration prevents memory impairment in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaini, Giselli; Teodorak, Brena P; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O; Mina, Francielle; Dominguini, Diogo; Pescador, Bruna; Comim, Clarissa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-05-16

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting from deficiency of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex leading to branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and valine accumulation as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-keto acids. MSUD patients present neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Here, we investigated whether acute and chronic administration of a BCAA pool causes impairment of acquisition and retention of avoidance memory in young rats. We have used two administration protocols. Acute administration consisted of three subcutaneous administrations of the BCAA pool (15.8 μL/g body weight at 1-h intervals) containing 190 mmol/L leucine, 59 mmol/L isoleucine, and 69 mmol/L valine or saline solution (0.85% NaCl; control group) in 30 days old Wistar rats. Chronic administration consisted of two subcutaneous administrations of BCAA pool for 21 days in 7 days old Wistar rats. N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 20 mg/kg) and deferoxamine (DFX; 20 mg/kg) co administration influence