WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjective interpersonal stress

  1. Interpersonal predictors of stress generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L

    2009-05-01

    Hammen (1991) provided evidence for a stress generation process in which individuals with a history of depression contributed to the occurrence of stressors, especially interpersonal and conflict events. However, few studies have examined the factors contributing to stress generation. This study examines aspects of individuals' interpersonal style, operationalized as attachment, dependency, and reassurance seeking, as predictors of conflict stress generation within romantic relationships. These effects were examined both prospectively over a 4-week period and cross-sectionally using a 14-day daily diary in a sample of female college students. Overall, there was significant evidence that interpersonal style contributes to the occurrence of interpersonal stressors. Specifically, anxious attachment and reassurance seeking prospectively predicted romantic conflict stress over a 4-week period, and a variety of interpersonal behaviors were associated with romantic conflict stressors on a daily basis. These results are interpreted in relation to previous literature, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Leveraging virtual humans to effectively prepare learners for stressful interpersonal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Andrew; Kopper, Regis; Ambani, Ravi; Qayyum, Farda; Lind, David; Su, Li-Ming; Lok, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Stressful interpersonal experiences can be difficult to prepare for. Virtual humans may be leveraged to allow learners to safely gain exposure to stressful interpersonal experiences. In this paper we present a between-subjects study exploring how the presence of a virtual human affected learners while practicing a stressful interpersonal experience. Twenty-six fourth-year medical students practiced performing a prostate exam on a prostate exam simulator. Participants in the experimental condition examined a simulator augmented with a virtual human. Other participants examined a standard unaugmented simulator. Participants reactions were assessed using self-reported, behavioral, and physiological metrics. Participants who examined the virtual human experienced significantly more stress, measured via skin conductance. Participants stress was correlated with previous experience performing real prostate exams; participants who had performed more real prostate exams were more likely to experience stress while examining the virtual human. Participants who examined the virtual human showed signs of greater engagement; non-stressed participants performed better prostate exams while stressed participants treated the virtual human more realistically. Results indicated that stress evoked by virtual humans is linked to similar previous real-world stressful experiences, implying that learners real-world experience must be taken into account when using virtual humans to prepare them for stressful interpersonal experiences.

  3. Interpersonal interaction and lecturer work stress in school of health X Bengkulu

    OpenAIRE

    Aprianti, Rina; Surono, Agus

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThis paper discussed why the weakness of interpersonal interaction can lead to lecturer work stress.Method A survey interviewed 36 lecturers with questionnaires.Findings This paper found 50% of lecturers still lack interpersonal interaction. The problem on communication among lecturers and university leaders, awareness to build interpersonal interaction in the work environment. Lecturers with good interpersonal interactions have lower stress levels. Social support is very useful to str...

  4. Dysfunctional parenting styles increase interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Shibuya, Naoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro

    2009-12-01

    The effects of dysfunctional parenting styles on interpersonal sensitivity were studied in 640 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was assessed by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM), and perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which is consisted of care and protection factors. Parental rearing was classified into 4 types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Males with paternal affectionless control showed higher total IPSM scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (p = 0.022). Females with maternal affectionate constraint (p = 0.001), neglectful parenting (p = 0.022), and affectionless control (p = 0.003) showed higher total IPSM scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. In males and females, dysfunctional parenting styles by the opposite-sex parents did not affected total IPSM scores. The present study suggests that in both males and females interpersonal sensitivity is increased by dysfunctional parenting styles by the same-sex parents.

  5. [Interpersonal games as a method for doctors' occupational stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Sablik, Zbigniew; Gaszyński, Tomasz; Drożdż, Jarosław

    2015-03-01

    Doctors are frequently expose to stress during their occupational work. It is mainly the result of burdens caused by taking care of patients, dysfunctional arrangements of the health care system and difficult relationships in their workplace. Chronic stress brings negative emotions and they need to cope with them . Doctors, willing to achieve it, may initiate interpersonal games with the hidden motive of restoring their internal balance. Based on transactional analysis, the authors describe some of the games which may be found in doctors' environment: "How to get out of there", "Mine is better than yours", "Scapegoat", "Fault" and "double bind". The outcome of the games may be receiving a support, proving a benefit derived from stress, getting the feeling of being not guilty, justification, or releasing emotions in apparently unintended way. Interpersonal games may help stressed doctors to get rid of internal tension but at the same time they may be a source of stress for other participants in the games. The way to limit their destructive impact is to create such administrative and organizational solutions which allow to make working conditions more friendly. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  6. Chronic interpersonal stress predicts activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways 6 months later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E; Rohleder, Nicolas; Cole, Steve W

    2009-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms underlying chronic interpersonal difficulties and their detrimental influence on mental and physical health. A total of 103 healthy young women (mean age = 17 years) were administered a structured interview to assess the degree of chronic interpersonal stress in their lives. At the same time, blood was drawn to measure systemic inflammation, the expression of signaling molecules that regulate immune activation, and leukocyte production of the cytokine interleukin-6 after ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. All of the immunologic assessments were repeated 6 months later. To the extent subjects were high in chronic interpersonal stress at baseline, their leukocytes displayed greater increases in messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) over the next 6 months. They also showed larger increases in mRNA for inhibitor of kappaB, a molecule that sequesters NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm and minimizes its proinflammatory activities. Chronic interpersonal stress at baseline was unrelated to changes in biomarkers of systemic inflammation but was associated with increasingly pronounced interleukin-6 responses to lipopolysaccharide. These associations were independent of demographics, lifestyle variables, and depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that chronic interpersonal difficulties accentuate expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling molecules. Although this process does not result in systemic inflammation under quiescent conditions, it does accentuate leukocytes' inflammatory response to microbial challenge. These dynamics may underlie the excess morbidity associated with social stress, particularly in inflammation-sensitive diseases like depression and atherosclerosis.

  7. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    OpenAIRE

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2006-01-01

    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from clinical psychology that was adapted to education. Teacher interpersonal behaviour was analysed interms of two, independent behaviour dimensions called Influence and Proximity. This study investigated ...

  8. Coping with Workplace Interpersonal Stress among Japanese Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the relationship between coping with workplace interpersonal stress (WIS) and psychological dysfunction (i.e. depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness). Three hundred twenty-four Japanese full-time workers completed measures assessing coping strategies with WIS and psychological dysfunction. Three strategies of coping with WIS were measured: distancing coping, reassessing coping and constructive coping. Multiple regression analyses revealed that distancing coping, which reflects strategies to actively damage, disrupt and dissolve a stressful relationship, was related to high levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Reassessing coping, which incorporates efforts to patiently wait for an appropriate opportunity to act, such as a change or improvement in the situation, was related to low levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Constructive coping was not significantly associated with psychological dysfunction. Implications for workplace stress are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. College Students Coping with Interpersonal Stress: Examining a Control-Based Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…

  10. Interpersonal Subtypes and Therapy Response in Patients Treated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Julia; Onnen, Margarete; Karl, Regina; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal traits may influence psychotherapy success. One way of conceptualizing such traits is the interpersonal circumplex model. In this study, we analyse interpersonal circumplex data, assessed with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Horowitz, Strauß, & Kordy, 1994) from a randomized study with 138 patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder after trauma in adulthood. The study compared cognitive processing therapy and dialogical exposure therapy, a Gestalt-based intervention. We divided the interpersonally heterogeneous sample according to the quadrants of the interpersonal circumplex. The division into quadrants yielded subgroups that did not differ in their general psychological distress, but the cold-submissive quadrant tended to exhibit higher posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and interpersonal distress than the other three. There was also a trend for patients in different quadrants to be affected differently by the treatments. Correlation analyses supported these results: in cognitive processing therapy, more dominant patients had more successful therapies, while in dialogical exposure therapy, success was not correlated with interpersonal style. Results indicate that especially patients with cold interpersonal styles profited differentially from the two treatments offered. Dividing samples according to the interpersonal circumplex quadrants seems promising. Interpersonal traits may contribute to psychotherapy outcome. Dividing the sample according to the quadrants of the interpersonal circumplex, as opposed to cluster analysis, yielded promising results. Patients higher in dominance fared better with cognitive processing therapy, while interpersonal style had no correlations with therapy success in dialogical exposure therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Vulnerability-specific stress generation: Childhood emotional abuse and the mediating role of depressogenic interpersonal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Evelyn M; Trout, Zoë M; Liu, Richard T

    2016-12-01

    Stress generation in depression (i.e. the tendency for depression-prone individuals to experience more life stress that is in part influenced by the individual) has been well established. However, more research is necessary to clarify the role of specific types of life stress in this effect. The current study extends the stress generation hypothesis by examining whether the type of stress involved is contingent upon the nature of the individual's particular vulnerability. Childhood emotional abuse and interpersonal vulnerability factors were predicted to be associated with prospective interpersonal dependent but not non-interpersonal or independent stress. These interpersonal factors were examined as mediators of the association between childhood emotional abuse and interpersonal stress generation. Data were collected from 185 undergraduate participants at two time-points, four months apart. At baseline, participants completed assessments of depressive symptoms, childhood abuse history, interpersonal risk factors (rejection sensitivity, excessive reassurance-seeking, and negative feedback-seeking), and a diagnostic interview for depression. At the follow-up assessment, participants completed a life stress interview. Childhood emotional abuse prospectively predicted greater interpersonal dependent stress, but not non-interpersonal dependent or independent stress. Only rejection sensitivity mediated this relationship. Consistent with the stress generation hypothesis, neither childhood emotional abuse nor the three interpersonal risk factors predicted independent stress. These findings suggest that targeting interpersonal vulnerabilities in clinical settings, particularly rejection sensitivity, among individuals with a history of childhood emotional abuse, may help to reduce the occurrence of interpersonal dependent stress, thus possibly decreasing risk for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2006-01-01

    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and interpersonal functioning in Vietnam War veterans: a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, C; Chamberlain, K; Long, N; Flett, R

    1999-10-01

    This study examines the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and interpersonal functioning in a New Zealand community sample of 756 Vietnam War veterans. The results support previous research findings showing that PTSD adversely affects veterans' interpersonal relationships, family functioning, and marital/dyadic adjustment and show that the effects of PTSD on family functioning and dyadic adjustment are mediated by severity of interpersonal problems. It is suggested that higher levels of PTSD affect the ability of veterans to initiate and maintain interpersonal relationships and that these interpersonal problems are evident in poorer levels of family functioning and poorer dyadic adjustment.

  14. Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Undergraduate Students' Depression and Stress: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Involving Students’ Opinion in Actual and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Their Attitude Towards Science Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kamal Nasution

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the student perception on teacher interpersonal behavior and their attitude toward science subject. 207 respondents were involved, consisted of 200 students in 10-12 grade and 7 science teachers of public high school in Aceh. Two types of questionnaires were used namely the Indonesian version of the questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI and test of science related attitude (TOSRA. SPSS program were applied to process the data statistically. First, the reliability of questionnaires is measured using descriptive statistics of all and each scale of QTI. Second, the difference between students’ perceptions on the actual and ideal teacher interpersonal behavior was computed by Paired Sample t-tests. Third, the relationship between students' perception on teachers’ interpersonal behavior and students' attitudes towards science subjects was compared using multiple regression analysis-standardized regression coefficient β. The finding showed that the Indonesian version of questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI is reliable (αC = 0.86, to be applied to the high school students in the regency. It is generally seen that the students consider their teachers demonstrate more positive interpersonal behavior than the negative. However, it is clearly seen that between actual and ideal perceptions on the whole scale of QTI is significantly different. Last, from the three scales of teacher interpersonal behavior, helping/friendly, dissatisfaction, and admonishing appeared influential, only the helping/friendly scale significantly correlate (at the .05 level with student attitudes toward science subject.

  16. The Impact of Interpersonal Discrimination and Stress on Health and Performance for Early Career STEM Academicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Katharine R; McAbee, Samuel T; Hebl, Michelle R; Rodgers, John R

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the consequences of perceived interpersonal discrimination on stress, health, and performance in a sample of 210 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) academicians. Using a path model, we test the relation that perceived interpersonal discrimination has on stress and the relation of stress to physical health maladies and on current and future performance. In so doing, we assess the link between discrimination and decrements in performance over time. Additionally, we test supervisor social support as a moderator of the discrimination-stress relation. Findings support relations between perceived interpersonal discrimination and stress, which in turn relates to declines in physical health and performance outcomes. Moreover, supervisory support is shown to mitigate the influence of interpersonal discrimination on stress in STEM academicians.

  17. The impact of interpersonal discrimination and stress on health and performance for early career STEM academicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Ridgway O'Brien

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the consequences of perceived interpersonal discrimination on stress, health, and performance in a sample of 210 STEM academicians. Using a path model, we test the relation that perceived interpersonal discrimination has on stress and the relation of stress to physical health maladies and on current and future performance. In so doing, we assess the link between discrimination and decrements in performance over time. Additionally, we test supervisor social support as a moderator of the discrimination–stress relation. Findings support relations between perceived interpersonal discrimination and stress, which in turn relates to declines in physical health and performance outcomes. Moreover, supervisory support is shown to mitigate the influence of interpersonal discrimination on stress in STEM academicians.

  18. Reclaiming the Subject Matter as a Guide to Mutual Understanding: Effectiveness and Ethics in Interpersonal Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, Stanley

    1990-01-01

    Presents H. G. Gadamer's ontology of understanding as a developmental foundation for interpersonal system ethics. Conceptualizes interaction in terms of demand that the subject matter places on openly formed mutual understanding. Shows unethical interactions as practices which prohibit this development. Provides examples of processes by which…

  19. Stress, self-perception and interpersonal style in patients with physical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül; Hisli Şahin, Nesrin; Karslı Demirel, Esra

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of self-perception, interpersonal style, and anger in the context of stress in patients with physical illnesses, including coronary artery disease, gastrointestinal disorders, dermatological disorders, and diabetes. The study sample included patients with physical illnesses (n = 124) and healthy controls (n = 209). Symptoms of stress, self-perception, interpersonal style, and anger were evaluated using the Stress Symptoms Scale, Social Comparison Scale, Interpersonal Style Scale, and Multidimensional Anger Questionnaire, respectively. The role of self-perception, interpersonal style, and anger in stress experienced in the patients and controls was compared. The patients had higher stress symptoms, perceived themselves more negatively, had more problematic interpersonal styles, and more intense anger than the controls. The higher stress symptoms in the patients and the lower symptoms in the controls was predicted by 4 common variables¾dissatisfaction with life, dissatisfaction with interpersonal relationships, negative self-perception, and aggressive expression of anger. Another predictive variable in the psychosomatic group was age, whereas in the control group gender and internalized anger were predictive variables. As the physical illnesses had by those in the patient group are stress-related, inclusion of psychosocial interventions in treatment protocols, such as communication skills, and stress and anger management training, and interventions aimed at increasing a positive self-perception might improve their QoL.

  20. Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Interpersonal Behaviour across Four Different School Subjects: Control Is Good but Affiliation Is Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telli, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have pointed out that teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' positive attitudes towards schooling. However, only few studies have examined whether students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' subject-related attitudes across different school subjects. In this study, it was…

  1. The relationship between interpersonal traits and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: analyses from Wenchuan earthquake adolescent survivors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Xiang; Ding, Cody

    2011-08-01

    This study explores the relationship between interpersonal traits and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of 617 middle and high school students 16 months after the Wenchuan earthquake in China using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Interpersonal Self-Supporting Scale (ISSS). Even when the effects of gender and grade level were controlled for, the results from regression analyses revealed that greater interpersonal independence, interpersonal initiative, interpersonal responsibility, and interpersonal openness are associated with lesser PTSD symptoms 16 months later. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  2. Comparing chronic interpersonal and noninterpersonal stress domains as predictors of depression recurrence in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Erin S; Craighead, W Edward

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how persistent interpersonal difficulties distinctly affect the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) during emerging adulthood is critical, given that early experiences impact future coping resources and functioning. Research on stress and MDD has mostly concentrated on stressful life events, while chronic stress largely has not been explored. The present study examined interpersonal (intimate relationship, close friendships, social life, family relationships) and noninterpersonal (academic, work, financial, personal health, and family members' health) domains of chronic stress as time-varying predictors of depressive recurrence in emerging adults. Baseline assessments identified previously depressed emerging adults (N = 119), who subsequently completed 6-month, 12-month and 18-month follow-up interviews to determine chronic stress experiences and onset of new major depressive episodes. Survival analyses indicated that time-varying total chronic stress and chronic interpersonal stress predicted higher risk for depression recurrence; however, chronic noninterpersonal stress was not associated with recurrence. Intimate relationship stress, close friendship stress, family relationship stress, personal health, and family members' health independently predicted MDD recurrence, over and above well-established depression risk factors of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorder symptoms. Evidence that interpersonal stress could have substantial impact on course of depression is consistent with theories of emerging adulthood, a time when young people are individuating from the family and experiencing significant social transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Involving Students’ Opinion in Actual and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Their Attitude Towards Science Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kamal Nasution

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the student perception on teacher interpersonal behavior and their attitude toward science subject. 207 respondents were involved, consisted of 200 students in 10-12 grade and 7 science teachers of public high school in Aceh. Two types of questionnaires were used namely the Indonesian version of the questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI) and test of science related attitude (TOSRA). SPSS program were applied to process the data statistically. First, the reli...

  4. Alpha-1 Couples: Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Predictors of Spousal Communication and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A.; Wienke, Sara; Coffman, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Couples often discuss genetic test results, and then manage their implications together. This interdependence can lead to common, shared experiences, similar intrapersonal processes to manage shared stressors, or interpersonal influences between spouses, leading to different outcomes. This study sought to reveal the intracouple, intrapersonal, and interpersonal influences of genetic stigma and negative feelings on spousal communication and perceived stress with 50 couples in which one spouse is a member of a genetic disease registry. The results were analyzed with dyadic analysis, including multilevel modeling. The findings showed that registered members and their spouses were not statistically different in their mean levels of perceived genetic stigma, negative feelings about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), conversations with each other about the AATD test results, and their perceived stress. The findings also showed that their intracouple consistencies were not high, and their intrapersonal and interpersonal influences on communication and stress differed. The social implications of genetic research at the interpersonal level are discussed. PMID:23934327

  5. Cognitive vulnerabilities amplify the effect of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Hamlat, Elissa J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-05-01

    Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology.

  6. Alpha-1 couples: interpersonal and intrapersonal predictors of spousal communication and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Wienke, Sara; Coffman, Donna L

    2014-04-01

    Couples often discuss genetic test results, and then manage their implications together. This interdependence can lead to common, shared experiences, similar intrapersonal processes to manage shared stressors, or interpersonal influences between spouses, leading to different outcomes. This study sought to reveal the intracouple, intrapersonal, and interpersonal influences of genetic stigma and negative feelings on spousal communication and perceived stress with 50 couples in which one spouse is a member of a genetic disease registry. The results were analyzed with dyadic analysis, including multilevel modeling. The findings showed that registered members and their spouses were not statistically different in their mean levels of perceived genetic stigma, negative feelings about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), conversations with each other about the AATD test results, and their perceived stress. The findings also showed that their intracouple consistencies were not high, and their intrapersonal and interpersonal influences on communication and stress differed. The social implications of genetic research at the interpersonal level are discussed.

  7. Reconstruction of the subjective temporal distance of past interpersonal experiences after mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Ryutaro

    2011-05-01

    The present article examines the effect of mortality salience on the subjective temporal distance of past experiences with close friends. Since mortality salience motivates relational strivings, it should also affect the perception of past interpersonal experiences that influence the anticipation of future closeness and continuity of the friendship. Three studies were conducted with a total of 428 Japanese college students. Study 1 revealed that a smaller temporal distance of an experience of positive conduct from a friend was associated with greater satisfaction with the friendship. Study 2 found that the temporal distance of such an experience was perceived as smaller in the mortality salience than in the control condition. Study 3 found equivalent results with respect to the temporal distance of the participants' positive conduct toward a close friend. These results suggest that people cope with existential concerns through reconstructing autobiographical memories in the interpersonal domain.

  8. Alpha-1 Couples: Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Predictors of Spousal Communication and Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Rachel A; Wienke, Sara; Coffman, Donna

    2013-01-01

    Couples often discuss genetic test results, and then manage their implications together. This interdependence can lead to common, shared experiences, similar intrapersonal processes to manage shared stressors, or interpersonal influences between spouses, leading to different outcomes. This study sought to reveal the intracouple, intrapersonal, and interpersonal influences of genetic stigma and negative feelings on spousal communication and perceived stress with 50 couples in which one spouse ...

  9. An Examination of Integrated Cognitive-Interpersonal Vulnerability to Depression: The Role of Rumination, Perceived Social Support, and Interpersonal Stress Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecmanovic, Jelena; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined an integration of cognitive and interpersonal theories of depression by investigating the prospective contribution of depressive rumination to perceptions of social support, the generation of interpersonal stress, and depressive symptoms. It was hypothesized that depressive ruminators would generate stress in their relationships, and that social support discontent would account for this association. Further, depressive rumination and dependent interpersonal stress were examined as joint and unique predictors of depressive symptoms over time. Participants included 122 undergraduate students (M age = 19.78 years, SD = 3.54) who completed assessments of depressive rumination, perceptions of social support, life stress, and depressive symptoms across three waves, each spaced 9 months apart. Results revealed that social support discontent accounted for the prospective association between depressive rumination and dependent interpersonal stress, and that both depressive rumination and dependent interpersonal stress contributed to elevations in depressive symptoms over time. These findings highlight the complex interplay between cognitive and interpersonal processes that confer vulnerability to depression, and have implications for the development of integrated depression-focused intervention endeavors. PMID:25429169

  10. [Psychological features of body integrity identity disorder (BIID): personality traits, interpersonal aspects, coping mechanisms regarding stress and conflicts, body perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, S; Möller, J; Skoruppa, S; Stirn, A

    2014-05-01

    In BIID a disorder of body identity, concerned subjects desire an amputation of a healthy limb. So far, no psychiatric comorbidity was found in the few studies on BIID-subjects. This study explored clinical symptoms, personality characteristics, interpersonal aspects and coping strategies in 15 BIID persons. Psychometric testing on the topics (1) clinical symptoms, (2) personality and interpersonal aspects, (3) coping strategies, (4) attitudes towards the body were used and statistically evaluated with the T-test for one sample. Some psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) could be excluded although an increased tendency of depressiveness was found. BIID subjects showed specific personality and interpersonal characteristics: high agreeableness, autonomy, autarky and restrained behaviour towards others. Stress and conflicts are managed by self-control and self-affirmation. Their subjective physical attractiveness was low. BIID persons do not exhibit psychopathological characteristics (such as anxiety, depression or OCD), but do show specifics in personality, relationships and coping mechanisms. In the future, further personality traits and personality disorders should be investigated to shed more light on the categorisation and treatment of BIID. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Increased pupil dilation to angry faces predicts interpersonal stress generation in offspring of depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, Cope; Burkhouse, Katie L; Siegle, Greg; Gibb, Brandon E

    2017-08-01

    Interpersonal stress generation is one mechanism hypothesized to increase risk for the intergenerational transmission of depression. Although there is some evidence of stress generation in offspring of depressed mothers, specific predictors of stress generation in these youth remain unknown. The goal of this study was to examine a peripheral measure of cognitive-affective reactivity (i.e. pupil dilation) to emotional interpersonal stimuli as a predictor of stress generation in offspring of depressed mothers. The study included 129 mothers and their offspring (ages 8-15) recruited from the community who participated at two time points separated by 6 months. Youth's average pupil dilation to emotional faces (angry, happy, sad) as well as maternal lifetime history of major depressive disorder were assessed at baseline. In addition, both time points included assessments of youth's levels of self-generated (dependent) and independent episodic life stress in the preceding 6 months. Youth's pupil dilation to angry, but not sad or happy, faces predicted prospective increases in dependent interpersonal stress across the follow-up. This effect was only observed in offspring of depressed mothers and was not seen in offspring of never-depressed mothers. This study highlights a potential risk factor (heightened reactivity to facial displays of anger) that may identify which offspring of depressed mothers are at greatest risk for interpersonal stress generation. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Stress and Subjective Age: Those With Greater Financial Stress Look Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Lee-Attardo, Angela; Lachman, Margie E

    2017-12-01

    Subjective indicators of age add to our understanding of the aging process beyond the role of chronological age. We examined whether financial stress contributes to subjective age as rated by others and the self. The participants ( N = 228), aged 26-75, were from a Boston area satellite of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal study. Participants reported how old they felt and how old they thought they looked, and observers assessed the participants' age based on photographs (other-look age), at two occasions, an average of 10 years apart. Financial stress was measured at Time 1. Controlling for income, general stress, health, and attractiveness, participants who reported higher levels of financial stress were perceived as older than their actual age to a greater extent and showed larger increases in other-look age over time. We consider the results on accelerated aging of appearance with regard to their implications for interpersonal interactions and in relation to health.

  13. Interpersonal Stress Generation as a Mechanism Linking Rumination to Internalizing Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Rumination is a risk factor for depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Previous investigations of the mechanisms linking rumination to internalizing problems have focused primarily on cognitive factors. We investigated whether interpersonal stress generation plays a role in the longitudinal relationship between rumination and…

  14. Interpersonal stress, performance level, and parental support : A Longitudinal study among highly skilled young soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.

  15. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    OpenAIRE

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress wa...

  16. Stress-Related Growth among Suicide Survivors: The Role of Interpersonal and Cognitive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Belz, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    Although stress-related growth had been documented in bereaved individuals, it is still not clear to what extent it can be experienced by suicide survivors or which psychological processes facilitate it. The current study examined the role of interpersonal factors-self disclosure and social supports as well as cognitive coping strategies in stress-related growth among suicide survivors. The sample consisted of 135 suicide survivors (104 women and 31 men) aged 18-70. All participants completed the stress-related growth questionnaire as well as instruments measuring interpersonal activities, cognitive strategies, and demographic characteristics concerning the bereavement. The findings showed significant positive correlations between time elapsed since death, self-disclosure, social support, adaptive cognitive strategies, and stress-related growth. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis revealed that together these variables accounted for over 38% of the variance in stress-related growth. Interpersonal activities such as talking and interacting with others, as well as a cognitive focus on planning for the future emerged as important factors in personal transformation after suicide loss.

  17. Coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress at work: comparison of hospital nursing staff and salespeople

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress

  18. Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions and Stress Coping Strategies of Laate Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Aysel Esen

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Adolescence is a stage of major growth and development in terms of significant cognitive, behavioral, psychological, and physiological changes. For adolescents, these developmental changes could be accompanied by stressful situations. Adolescents need to cope with these stressors successfully, yet the developmental period of…

  19. [Relationships between workers' interpersonal helping behavior, social supports, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor in manufacturing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yuji; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2014-01-01

    In the NIOSH Generic Job Stress Model, social support is assumed to moderate the relationship between job stressors and stress responses. However, few studies have investigated how to enhance social support in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor among Japanese workers. A total of 240 workers in manufacturing companies returned a questionnaire regarding their interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor (response rate = 96.0%). After excluding 40 participants due to missing responses, data from a total of 200 participants (163 male and 37 female, mean age = 40.3 yr) were used in the final analyses. Interpersonal helping behavior was assessed by the Japanese version of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to measure job stressors, psychological stress responses, social support, and vigor. Structured equation modeling was performed to examine the relationships between interpersonal helping behavior, social support, job stressors, psychological stress responses, and vigor. Interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant negative effect on psychological stress response through increasing social support. However, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on psychological stress response through increasing the quantitative workload. Of these two effects, the former was stronger than the latter. In addition, interpersonal helping behavior had a statistically significant positive effect on vigor through increasing social support. Although interpersonal helping behavior, which helps other workers may increase quantitative workload, leading to high levels of psychological stress responses, that same behavior strengthens trust and team spirit among workers and may

  20. Restraint feeds stress: The relationship between eating disorder symptoms, stress generation, and the interpersonal theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Dorian; Smith, April; Bodell, Lindsay

    2014-12-01

    Integrating research on stress generation and the interpersonal theory of suicide we examined whether eating disorder symptoms are related to stress generation and whether negative life events (stressors) contribute to feelings of burdensomeness and low belongingness. At two time points (approximately 1month apart), participants (n=186; 75% female) completed questionnaires measuring eating disorder symptoms, negative life events, burdensomeness, and belongingness. Regression analyses indicated that while controlling for depression, anxiety, and baseline frequency of negative events, dietary restraint significantly predicted negative events at follow-up. Dietary restraint indirectly influenced higher levels of perceived burdensomeness and low belongingness through its influence on negative events. Thus, dietary restraint may contribute to stress generation, and in turn exacerbate feelings of burdensomeness and low belongingness, two important constructs of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Greater understanding of these factors could lead to more effective and targeted suicide interventions for individuals who restrict food intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Subjective Effect of September 11, 2001 among Pregnant Women: Is Cumulative History of Interpersonal Violence Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Cavanagh, Paul K.; Ahn, Grace; Yoshioka, Marianne R.

    2008-01-01

    Prior history of trauma may sensitize individuals to subsequent trauma, including terrorist attacks. Using a convenience sample of secondary, cross-sectional data, pregnant women were grouped based on lifetime interpersonal violence history. Cumulative risk theory was used to evaluate the association of lifetime interpersonal violence history and…

  2. Group-based interpersonal psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: theoretical and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael; Rushton, Paul J; Bartrum, Dee; Ray, Rebecca

    2004-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that engenders both symptomatic distress and severe disruption in interpersonal and social functioning. Most of the empirical research on treatment has emphasized interventions that aim to alleviate the symptoms of PTSD, despite the persisting impairments in social, occupational, and interpersonal functioning. In clinical practice, achieving relief from symptoms such as irritability or phobic avoidance is a worthwhile goal, yet significant distress and disability derived from disruptions to interpersonal attachments, social networks, and confiding intimate relationships persist. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has been shown to be efficacious in research settings for depression and eating disorders, in both group and individual formats. Recent pilot data also suggests the potential usefulness of IPT in anxiety disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide a rationale for the use of group-based IPT as an intervention for PTSD as part of a management package, arguing from theoretical and clinical viewpoints. The integration of IPT therapeutic processes with the therapeutic group process is discussed, and a detailed case discussion is presented as an illustration.

  3. The relation among subjective well-being, social skills and quality of interpersonal interaction in adolescent friendships

    OpenAIRE

    徳永, 美紗子; 松下, 姫歌

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the following relationships in adolescent friendships: social skills (assertive skills and responsive skills), quality of interpersonal interaction (closeness, enjoyment, responsiveness, influence, and confidence), and subjective well-being. The results of the analysis revealed that for people with higher responsive skills and lower responsiveness, the lower the assertive skills, the higher the subjective well-being. By contrast, for people with higher ...

  4. Additive Genetic Risk from Five Serotonin System Polymorphisms Interacts with Interpersonal Stress to Predict Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Adam, Emma K.; Redei, Eva E.; Hammen, Constance; Craske, Michelle G.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research supports polygenic models of depression in which many genetic variations each contribute a small amount of risk, and prevailing diathesis-stress models suggest gene-environment interactions (GxE). Multilocus profile scores of additive risk offer an approach that is consistent with polygenic models of depression risk. In a first demonstration of this approach in a GxE predicting depression, we created an additive multilocus profile score from five serotonin system polymorphisms (one each in the genes HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR2C, and two in TPH2). Analyses focused on two forms of interpersonal stress as environmental risk factors. Using five years of longitudinal diagnostic and life stress interviews from 387 emerging young adults in the Youth Emotion Project, survival analyses show that this multilocus profile score interacts with major interpersonal stressful life events to predict major depressive episode onsets (HR = 1.815, p = .007). Simultaneously, there was a significant protective effect of the profile score without a recent event (HR = 0.83, p = .030). The GxE effect with interpersonal chronic stress was not significant (HR = 1.15, p = .165). Finally, effect sizes for genetic factors examined ignoring stress suggested such an approach could lead to overlooking or misinterpreting genetic effects. Both the GxE effect and the protective simple main effect were replicated in a sample of early adolescent girls (N = 105). We discuss potential benefits of the multilocus genetic profile score approach and caveats for future research. PMID:26595467

  5. Mother-daughter communication about breast cancer risk: interpersonal and biological stress processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Kate L; Andreotti, Charissa; Yull, Fiona; Grau, Ana M; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-06-01

    Women with a personal or maternal history of breast cancer experience psychological stress in relation to breast cancer risk, and adolescent and young adult daughters are particularly at risk for experiencing stress related to their mothers' history of breast cancer. The current study examined interpersonal and biological stress responses during a laboratory-based communication task about breast cancer risk in 32 mother-daughter dyads and explores whether certain communication styles between mothers and daughters are associated with increased stress reactivity during the task. Five saliva samples were collected from each participant to determine cortisol baseline levels, reactivity to, and recovery from the task. Negative maternal communication was associated with higher cortisol levels in daughters. In addition, maternal sadness was correlated with lower levels of daughters' cortisol at all time points with the exception of baseline measures. Implications for understanding the psychobiology of stress in women at risk for breast cancer are highlighted.

  6. Subjective stress, salivary cortisol and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming eQi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition or without a time limit (the control condition. The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, and negative affect in the stress condition than they did in the control condition. Moreover, the salivary cortisol level continued to increase after the stress condition but exhibited a sharp decrease after the control condition. In addition, the electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of the frontal-central N1 component was larger for the stress condition than it was for the control condition, while the amplitude of the frontal-central P2 component was larger for the control condition than it was for the stress condition. Our study suggests that the psychological stress characteristics of time pressure and social-evaluative threat caused dissociable effects on perception and on the subsequent attentional resource allocation of visual information.

  7. Interaction effect between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing for interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Ryoichi, Sadahiro; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Enokido, Masanori; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2012-12-30

    Interpersonal sensitivity is defined as undue and excessive awareness of, and sensitivity to, the behaviour and feelings of others and is one of the vulnerable factors to depression. In a twin study, it was suggested that this personality trait was characterised by both genetic and environmental factors. In the present study, we examined the effects of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing on interpersonal sensitivity in 725 healthy Japanese subjects. Assessment of interpersonal sensitivity was performed by the Japanese version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which consists of the care and protection factors. The BDNF polymorphism was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. There was no main effect of the BDNF genotype on the IPSM score, while the PBI factors except maternal care had significant main effect on the IPSM score. There was significant interaction effect between the BDNF genotype and maternal care of the PBI on the IPSM score. Post-hoc analysis of simple slopes showed that the negative relationship between the IPSM score and maternal care was strongest and significant in the Met/Met genotype group, intermediate in the Val/Met genotype group and weakest in the Val/Val genotype group. The present study suggests that the interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing, especially maternal care, influences interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Secondary traumatic stress and disruptions to interpersonal functioning among mental health therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Keilig, Rachael A

    2014-05-01

    Disruptions within interpersonal relationships are often cited as a symptom of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and vicarious trauma among mental health therapists. However, the primary evidence to support these claims is based on theoretical explanations and limited descriptive data. The current study sought to test the theoretical model of STS and to extend prior research by directly measuring interpersonal and sexual disruptions and their association with STS symptomology. The study hypothesized that mental health therapists with higher levels of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms would also report disruptions in their interpersonal relationships. A total of 320 licensed mental health therapists completed the online study questionnaire. Results of the current study were mixed. Higher levels of STS symptoms showed a significant association with lower relationship satisfaction, lower social intimacy, less use of constructive communication patterns, and more use of avoidance communication and demand-withdrawal communication patterns. These relationships remained after controlling for gender, years of counseling experience, and exposure level to trauma clients. However, no association was found between STS, sexual activity interest, and sexual relationship satisfaction. Implications of these findings are reviewed.

  9. Effects of a stress management program for hospital staffs on their coping strategies and interpersonal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined effects of a 3-h stress management program for Japanese hospital staffs that included relaxation and assertion training. Twenty-seven hospital staffs (mean age: 29.4 yr) in a stress management group and 28 hospital staffs (mean age: 29.5 yr) in a wait-list group answered evaluation surveys at both pre- and post-intervention. Self-administered questionnaires including items on job stress, coping strategies, and interpersonal behaviors were evaluated. The stress management program was given six different participant groups: 3 groups were the stress management group and 3 groups were the wait-list group. The program increased active coping and decreased dependent behavior scores significantly in the stress management group, while decreasing assertive behavior scores in the wait-list group. A comparison of the education sub-groups showed that the first group had significantly increased assertiveness and decreased dependency scores. The second group had significantly decreased depression-anxiety scores. The data analyzed for men and women separately showed the stress management intervention significantly improved active coping and assertive behavior in men and dependent behavior in women. A brief one-time stress management program can be effective in improving active coping and assertive behaviors as well as reducing dependent behavior in hospital staffs. Sex differences were noteworthy.

  10. The Comparative Study of Nursing Students and Nurses in Their Twenties on Interpersonal Relations. : Analysis Centering on the Stress Response Burnout

    OpenAIRE

    和田, 由紀子; 小林, 祐子; Wada, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Yuko

    2006-01-01

    We did a questionnaire survey and exam to clarity the connection between stress response burnout and interpersonal relations. The subject of our investigation were nursing students n=226 and 20s nurses in the terminal care unit in the whole country. The results of the exam on nursing students were completely different from a consistent tendency on 20, 30, and 40 nurses. And we analyzed the results on nursing students and 20's nurses based on stress response burnout . According to that, in the...

  11. Interpersonal Relationships and Subjective Well-being among Older Adults in Sheltered Housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbers, Daniel J.; Meijering, Louise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine how experiences with interpersonal relationships contribute to older adults’ well-being in the residential context of sheltered housing. We draw on data collected from sixteen in-depth interviews with older adults living in sheltered housing in a small town in

  12. Interaction of CD38 Variant and Chronic Interpersonal Stress Prospectively Predicts Social Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Over Six Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard E; Prenoveau, Jason M; Mineka, Susan; Redei, Eva E; Adam, Emma K; Craske, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the CD38 gene, which regulates secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin, has been associated with several social phenotypes. Specifically, rs3796863 A allele carriers have demonstrated increased social sensitivity. In 400 older adolescents, we used trait-state-occasion modeling to investigate how rs3796863 genotype, baseline ratings of chronic interpersonal stress, and their gene-environment (GxE) interaction predicted trait social anxiety and depression symptoms over six years. We found significant GxE effects for CD38 A-carrier genotypes and chronic interpersonal stress at baseline predicting greater social anxiety and depression symptoms. A significant GxE effect of smaller magnitude was also found for C/C genotype and chronic interpersonal stress predicting greater depression; however, this effect was small compared to the main effect of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, in the context of chronic interpersonal stress, heightened social sensitivity associated with the rs3796863 A allele may prospectively predict risk for social anxiety and (to a lesser extent) depression.

  13. Interaction of CD38 Variant and Chronic Interpersonal Stress Prospectively Predicts Social Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Over Six Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A.; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Mineka, Susan; Redei, Eva E.; Adam, Emma K.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the CD38 gene, which regulates secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin, has been associated with several social phenotypes. Specifically, rs3796863 A allele carriers have demonstrated increased social sensitivity. In 400 older adolescents, we used trait-state-occasion modeling to investigate how rs3796863 genotype, baseline ratings of chronic interpersonal stress, and their gene-environment (GxE) interaction predicted trait social anxiety and depression symptoms over six years. We found significant GxE effects for CD38 A-carrier genotypes and chronic interpersonal stress at baseline predicting greater social anxiety and depression symptoms. A significant GxE effect of smaller magnitude was also found for C/C genotype and chronic interpersonal stress predicting greater depression; however, this effect was small compared to the main effect of chronic interpersonal stress. Thus, in the context of chronic interpersonal stress, heightened social sensitivity associated with the rs3796863 A allele may prospectively predict risk for social anxiety and (to a lesser extent) depression. PMID:26958455

  14. 5-HTTLPR × interpersonal stress interaction and nonsuicidal self-injury in general community sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Barrocas, Andrea L; Young, Jami F; Haberstick, Brett; Smolen, Andrew

    2015-02-28

    No research with youth has investigated whether measured genetic risk interacts with stressful environment (G⁎E) to explain engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Two independent samples of youth were used to test the a priori hypothesis that the Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) would interact with chronic interpersonal stress to predict NSSI. We tested this hypothesis with children and adolescents from United States public schools in two independent samples (N׳s=300 and 271) using identical procedures and methods. They were interviewed in person with the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview to assess NSSI engagement and with the UCLA Chronic Stress Interview to assess interpersonal stress. Buccal cells were collected for genotyping of 5-HTTLPR. For both samples, ANOVAs revealed the hypothesized G*E. Specifically, short carriers who experienced severe interpersonal stress exhibited the highest level of NSSI engagement. Replicated across two independent samples, results provide the first demonstration that youth at high genetic susceptibility (5-HTTLPR) and high environmental exposure (chronic interpersonal stress) are at heightened risk for NSSI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social support buffers the effect of interpersonal life stress on suicidal ideation and self-injury during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, D M; Perlman, G; Davila, J; Kotov, R; Klein, D N

    2017-04-01

    The effect of life stress on suicidal symptoms during adolescence is well documented. Stressful life events can trigger suicidality, but most adolescents are resilient and it is unclear which factors protect against the deleterious impact of stress. Social support is thought to be one such factor. Therefore, we investigated the buffering effect of specific sources of social support (parental and peer) on life stress (interpersonal and non-interpersonal) in predicting suicidal symptoms during adolescence. In order to test the specificity of this stress buffering, we also examined it with regard to dysphoric mood. Data come from the Adolescent Development of Emotions and Personality Traits (ADEPT) Project, a cohort of 550 adolescent females aged 13.5-15.5 recruited from Long Island. Self-reported social support, suicidality, and dysphoria were assessed at baseline and suicidality and dysphoria were assessed again at 9-month follow-up. Life stress was assessed by interview at the follow-up. High levels of parental support protected adolescent girls from developing suicidal symptoms following a stressor. This effect was less pronounced for peer support. Also, social support did not buffer the pathogenic effects of non-interpersonal stress. Finally, social support did not buffer the effect of life stress on dysphoric symptoms. Altogether, our results highlight a distinct developmental pathway for the development of suicidal symptoms involving parental support that differs from the development of dysphoria, and signifies the importance and specificity of social support in protecting against suicidality in adolescent girls.

  16. Post-traumatic stress problems among poly-victimized Spanish youth: time effect of past vs. recent interpersonal victimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria; Soler, Laia; Planellas, Irina

    2014-08-01

    The cumulative effect of lifetime interpersonal victimization experiences (e.g., child maltreatment, sexual victimizations, conventional crime, witnessing indirect victimization, peer and sibling victimizations) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms is an important topic in the scientific literature. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to analyze the relationship between lifetime interpersonal victimizations and PTS symptoms, (b) to determine the most prevalent specific PTS symptoms among poly-victimized adolescents, and (c) to establish the time-based effect of interpersonal victimization experiences that occurred in the last year versus those that occurred years before on current level of PTS symptoms. Gender differences were taken into account for each of these objectives. Participants were 823 Spanish adolescents (63% girls and 37% boys) between 14 and 18 years of age recruited from May 2010 to November 2011 from schools in Barcelona, Spain. The majority (87.6%) was of Spanish nationality. The results highlighted the cumulative effect of interpersonal victimizations on PTS symptoms. Among poly-victims adolescents, the most prevalent PTS symptom was intrusive thoughts, but some differences were observed according to gender. The time-based effect of interpersonal victimizations showed a different pattern for girls and boys. For girls, the victimizing events occurring in past years had more explanatory power of the current PTS symptoms than those that occurred more recently. In boys, the interpersonal victimizing events occurring in the last year had the greater explanatory power. These results may have clinical and therapeutic value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Interplay between Interpersonal Stress and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence over Time for Young At-Risk Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.

    2013-01-01

    The substantial number of young people in romantic relationships that involve intimate partner violence, a situation deleterious to physical and mental health, has resulted in increased attention to understanding the links between risk factors and course of violence. The current study examined couples' interpersonal stress related to not liking…

  18. Love as a subjective corrlate of interpersonal relationships: attempts of defining of the concepts and methods of measurment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Zolotnyik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to overview the scientific study of the phenomenon of love. Attempts of scientific knowledge presented by developed by sociologists and psychologists love theories, which defined, classified and measure this phenomenon. The paper proposed to review the most popular theory of love studying: the triangular theory of love for Robert J. Sternberg, classification styles love for John Alan Lee and transformational concept of A.Giddens. The importance of studying this subject is explained by the subjective definition by respondents of the role of love as correlates of interpersonal relationships. Love is considered as a factor that acts as a marriage motive and components, which ensures its durability. The complexity of the scientific understanding of love is the absence of clear empirical referents for fixation. The examined theory reaffirms their scientific hypotheses through the use of specific methods of measurement. It is offered for review: Scale of love and sympathy by Z.Rubin, Love Attitude Scale by Hendrick C. and Hendrick S. and scale of romantic relationships by Munro­Adams. These methodologies are widely used in modern scientific research, been undergo with modifications and adaptation depending on the cultural characteristics of the respondents. The phenomenon of love needs more scientific study with the aim of further categorization, require range of techniques selection and should be included  as a component in the sociological survey of interpersonal relationships.

  19. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Koenen, Karestan C; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise B; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-07-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses' Health Study II (N=1,077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C.; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social–cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent “wear and tear” effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined. PMID

  1. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  2. Refining the Candidate Environment: Interpersonal Stress, the Serotonin Transporter Polymorphism, and Gene-Environment Interactions in Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E; Craske, Michelle G; Griffith, James W; Sutton, Jonathan; Redei, Eva E; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Hammen, Constance; Adam, Emma K

    2014-05-01

    Meta-analytic evidence supports a gene-environment (G×E) interaction between life stress and the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on depression, but few studies have examined factors that influence detection of this effect, despite years of inconsistent results. We propose that the "candidate environment" (akin to a candidate gene) is key. Theory and evidence implicate major stressful life events (SLEs)-particularly major interpersonal SLEs-as well as chronic family stress. Participants (N = 400) from the Youth Emotion Project (which began with 627 high school juniors oversampled for high neuroticism) completed up to five annual diagnostic and life stress interviews and provided DNA samples. A significant G×E effect for major SLEs and S-carrier genotype was accounted for significantly by major interpersonal SLEs but not significantly by major non-interpersonal SLEs. S-carrier genotype and chronic family stress also significantly interacted. Identifying such candidate environments may facilitate future G×E research in depression and psychopathology more broadly.

  3. Interpersonal interaction and cardiovascular response in type A subjects and coronary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembroski, T M; MacDougall, J M; Lushene, R

    1979-12-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that Type A subjects respond with greater cardiovascular response than Type B subjects during the structured interview used to assess the Type A pattern. Coronary patients (n = 31) and patient controls (n = 33) were subjected to the interview and a history quiz while ECG and blood pressure were monitored. As predicted, Type A relative to Type B subjects evidenced significantly greater increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which were sustained over the course of the entire 12-15 minute interview. Type A subjects compared with B's also showed significantly greater blood pressure elevations during the quiz. Coronary patients displayed significantly greater Type A attributes than control subjects and tended to show greater blood pressure elevations than controls during the interview. In addition, the quiz induced significant elevations in the blood pressure of coronary patients, but not patient controls, over that displayed during the interview, despite the presence of beta-adrenergic blocking medication. Implications of the findings for coronary-prone behavior and coronary heart disease are discussed.

  4. Self-Esteem, Perceived Stress, and Gender During Adolescence: Interactive Links to Different Types of Interpersonal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yanling; Ma, Lijie; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the relationships between self-esteem, perceived stress, the quality of different types of interpersonal relationships, and gender in adolescents. This study used a sample of 1614 adolescent high school students and robust data analytic techniques to test the proposed relationships. The results partially supported the initial hypothesis in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and four of the types of interpersonal relationships (i.e., same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, parent-child relationships, and teacher-student relationships) and moderated the relationship between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships. In addition, a moderated role of gender was also partially supported in that perceived stress mediated the relationships between self-esteem and same-sex peer relationships, opposite-sex peer relationships, and the parent-child relationship for girls, but not boys. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that perceived stress plays an intervening role in the relationship between self-esteem and different types of interpersonal relationships and that gender seems to be a moderator for some of the patterns of the relationships between these variables. These findings are discussed in light of the possible mechanisms by which the variables could influence each other. Implications for theory and practice as well as some directions for future research were also suggested.

  5. Interpersonal Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat NG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONInterpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors. However, a degree of self-motivation and personal initiative is needed to develop these skills. In this article, I will give an overview on interpersonal skills and will be follow this by a series of articles, in future issues, dealing with these skills.

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Clusters and the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in a Large Military Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Stephanie M; Finn, Joseph; Houtsma, Claire; Green, Bradley A; Anestis, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    Prior studies examining posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters and the components of the interpersonal theory of suicide (ITS) have yielded mixed results, likely stemming in part from the use of divergent samples and measurement techniques. This study aimed to expand on these findings by utilizing a large military sample, gold standard ITS measures, and multiple PTSD factor structures. Utilizing a sample of 935 military personnel, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test the association between PTSD symptom clusters and the ITS variables. Additionally, we tested for indirect effects of PTSD symptom clusters on suicidal ideation through thwarted belongingness, conditional on levels of perceived burdensomeness. Results indicated that numbing symptoms are positively associated with both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness and hyperarousal symptoms (dysphoric arousal in the 5-factor model) are positively associated with thwarted belongingness. Results also indicated that hyperarousal symptoms (anxious arousal in the 5-factor model) were positively associated with fearlessness about death. The positive association between PTSD symptom clusters and suicidal ideation was inconsistent and modest, with mixed support for the ITS model. Overall, these results provide further clarity regarding the association between specific PTSD symptom clusters and suicide risk factors. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  7. The Effect of Physical Activity on the Stress Management, Interpersonal Relationships, and Alcohol Consumption of College Freshmen

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Wilson-Salandy; Nies, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes of health behaviors in college students as they transition through their freshman year. The author surveyed 167 freshmen, ages 18 to 25, to examine the effects of physical activity on the stress management, interpersonal relationships, and alcohol consumption in college freshmen. The participant’s responses were at baseline to 3-month outcome and 3-month to 6-month outcom...

  8. Associations between financial stress and interpersonal events: a daily diary study of middle-aged adults and their life circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, John A; Zautra, Alex J; Okun, Morris A

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between daily negative financial events and positive and negative interpersonal events, as well as the moderating effects of life circumstances, for a sample of 182 adults between the age of 40 and 65 providing 30 days of diary data collected between 2008 and 2011. There was a significant and positive relationship between daily negative interpersonal events and daily levels of both negative interpersonal events and positive interpersonal events; these relationships varied by income, employment status, parenting roles, and the experience of major financial challenges over the previous year. The moderating effect of income was nonlinear but its effect disappeared when the interaction between major financial challenges over the previous year and daily negative financial events was entered into the model. The results were interpreted in the context of the stress proliferation and resource mobilization theoretical models and directions for future studies were delineated with respect to individual- and community-level factors that influence the role of financial events on the daily social worlds of middle-aged adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Role of trait shame in the association between posttraumatic stress and aggression among men with a history of interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Sippel, Lauren M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Tull, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    Given the theoretical and empirical associations among posttraumatic stress, shame, and interpersonal aggression, this study examined whether trait shame accounts for the associations between posttraumatic stress and aggressive behavior in a sample of 103 men with a history of interpersonal trauma. Results indicated that trait shame accounted for the associations of posttraumatic stress with the variety of both physically and psychologically aggressive behavior, as well as with the frequency of physical aggression. This study also examined trait guilt, given its conceptual relationship to both shame and posttraumatic stress; unlike trait shame, trait guilt did not account for the association between posttraumatic stress and the variety of physically aggressive acts. Additionally, although trait guilt reduced the association between posttraumatic stress and the frequency of physical aggression, the indirect path including guilt was nonsignificant. Taken together, the present study supports existing theories suggesting that shame, but not guilt, may contribute to aggressive behavior, especially among individuals with histories of traumatic exposure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Do Acute Benefits of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Endure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Choo, Tse-Hwei; Neria, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    The Psychotherapies for Chronic PTSD randomised trial found that three 14-week psychotherapies acutely benefitted patients with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research has reported sustained follow-up benefits for prolonged exposure (PE) and relaxation therapy (RT), but few comparable data exist for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). We describe 3-month follow-up for acute responders to all 3 treatments. Acute responders, defined a priori as ≥30% improved from baseline, were reevaluated after 3-month no-treatment follow-up by independent evaluators using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Fifty of 110 initial study entrants met acute responder status at week 14. Forty-three (86%) responders entered follow-up: 23 remitters (CAPS ≤20) and 20 responders. At week 26, 27 had achieved remission status, 10 remained responders, and 6 had relapsed. Of week 14 remitters, 8 of 9 PE, all 8 IPT, and 4 of 6 RT patients remained remitted. Relapse rates were 7% (1/9) for PE, 10% (2/20) for IPT, and 33% (3/9) for RT. At week 26, PE showed greater improvement on CAPS than RT ( P = 0.048) and a trend for superiority over IPT ( P = 0.098), with no significant difference between IPT and RT. Depressive symptoms remained low during follow-up. These are the first systematic data on follow-up responder status and persistence of acute treatment benefits in patients receiving individual IPT for chronic PTSD. Patients generally maintained gains across treatments, fluctuating most in RT. Study limitations include small sample size and brief follow-up interval. PTSD research should employ response and remission criteria.

  11. Effects of Chronic Interpersonal Stress Exposure on Depressive Symptoms are Moderated by Genetic Variation at IL6 and IL1β in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartter, Margaret; Hammen, Constance; Bower, Julienne E.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cole, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Aims Close to one third of patients with major depression show increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are in turn associated with risk for inflammatory disease. Genetic variants that enhance immune reactivity may thus enhance inflammatory and depressive reactions to stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate a trio of functional SNPs in the promoter regions of IL6 (-174G>C, rs1800795), IL1β (-511C>T, rs16944), and TNF (-308G>A, rs1800629) as moderators of the relationship between chronic stress exposure and elevations in depressive symptoms. Methods Participants were 444 Australian youth (mean age = 20.12) whose exposure to chronic stress in the past 6 months was assessed using the semi-structured UCLA Life Stress Interview, and who completed the Beck Depression Inventory II at ages 15 and 20. Between ages 22 and 25, all participants in the selected sample provided blood samples for genotyping. Results In line with a hypothesized moderation effect, -174G allele carriers at IL6 had fewer depressive symptoms following interpersonal stress, relative to C/C homozygotes with equal interpersonal stress exposure. However, IL6 genotype did not moderate the effects of non-interpersonal stress exposure (i.e., financial, work and health-related difficulties) on depression. Also in line with hypotheses, the -511C allele in IL1β, previously associated with higher IL-1β expression, was associated with more severe depression following chronic interpersonal stress exposure, relative to T/T homozygotes. Again, the moderating effect was specific to interpersonal stressors and did not generalize to non-interpersonal stress. TNF was not a moderator of the effects of either interpersonal or non-interpersonal stress on later depression outcomes. Conclusion Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory genetic variation increases the risk of stress-induced depression. The present results provide evidence of a genetic mechanism contributing to

  12. Effects of chronic interpersonal stress exposure on depressive symptoms are moderated by genetic variation at IL6 and IL1β in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartter, Margaret; Hammen, Constance; Bower, Julienne E; Brennan, Patricia A; Cole, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Close to one third of patients with major depression show increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are in turn associated with risk for inflammatory disease. Genetic variants that enhance immune reactivity may thus enhance inflammatory and depressive reactions to stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate a trio of functional SNPs in the promoter regions of IL6 (-174G>C, rs1800795), IL1β (-511C>T, rs16944), and TNF (-308G>A, rs1800629) as moderators of the relationship between chronic stress exposure and elevations in depressive symptoms. Participants were 444 Australian youth (mean age=20.12) whose exposure to chronic stress in the past 6months was assessed using the semi-structured UCLA Life Stress Interview, and who completed the Beck Depression Inventory II at ages 15 and 20. Between ages 22 and 25, all participants in the selected sample provided blood samples for genotyping. In line with a hypothesized moderation effect, -174G allele carriers at IL6 had fewer depressive symptoms following interpersonal stress, relative to C/C homozygotes with equal interpersonal stress exposure. However, IL6 genotype did not moderate the effects of non-interpersonal stress exposure (i.e., financial, work and health-related difficulties) on depression. Also in line with hypotheses, the -511C allele in IL1β, previously associated with higher IL-1β expression, was associated with more severe depression following chronic interpersonal stress exposure, relative to T/T homozygotes. Again, the moderating effect was specific to interpersonal stressors and did not generalize to non-interpersonal stress. TNF was not a moderator of the effects of either interpersonal or non-interpersonal stress on later depression outcomes. Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory genetic variation increases the risk of stress-induced depression. The present results provide evidence of a genetic mechanism contributing to individual differences in

  13. The effectiveness of pelvic floor exercises, digital vaginal palpation and interpersonal support on stress urinary incontinence: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yueh-Chi; Liu, Chieh-Hsing

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine if interpersonal support and digital vaginal palpation (DVP) as part of the pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFME) training is more effective for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) than PFME with a printed handout instruction. 108 women who presented to the family medicine outpatient clinic without having urine leakage as a chief complaint were selected. They were randomized to either the group who received interpersonal support and DVP as part of the PFME training (experimental group), or the group who received PFME with a printed handout instruction (control group). The effects were assessed with 1-h pad tests. A total of 99 patients (50 experimental, 49 control) completed the study. The patients' mean age was 55.35+/-9.60 years, ranging from 20 to 80 years. All patients without urinary leakage listed as a chief complaint exhibited more or less urine leakage during the 1-h pad test. A significant decrease in the weight of 1-h pad test from baseline was observed in the experimental group (p<0.001) compared to the control group (p=0.514). Interpersonal support and DVP as part of the PFME training is more effective than PFME with a printed handout instruction. PFME, performed correctly and consistently, is effective even in patients who have very few symptoms of SUI.

  14. Nonsuicidal self-injury and interpersonal violence in U.S. veterans seeking help for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Patrick S; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Elbogen, Eric B; Dedert, Eric A; Clancy, Carolina P; Hair, Lauren P; Hertzberg, Michael; Beckham, Jean C; Kimbrel, Nathan A

    2017-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been defined as deliberately damaging one's body tissue without conscious suicidal intent. NSSI is a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts in adults. While NSSI has been associated with other-directed violence in adolescent populations, the link between NSSI and interpersonal violence in adults is less clear. The current study examined the cross-sectional relationship between NSSI and past-year interpersonal violence among 729 help-seeking veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans who reported a recent history of engaging in cutting, hitting, or burning themselves were significantly more likely to report making violent threats and engaging in violent acts, including the use of a knife or gun, in the past year than veterans without NSSI. NSSI was uniquely associated with interpersonal violence after controlling for a variety of dispositional, historical, contextual, and clinical risk factors for violence, including age, race, socio-economic status, marital status, employment status, combat exposure, alcohol misuse, depression, PTSD symptom severity, and reported difficulty controlling violence. These findings suggest that clinicians working with veterans with PTSD should review NSSI history when conducting a risk assessment of violence. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Developmental inter-relations between early maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress, and their effect on later child cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Dumontheil, Iroise; Barker, Edward D

    2014-07-01

    Maternal depression and contextual risks (e.g. poverty) are known to impact children's cognitive and social functioning. However, few published studies have examined how stress in the social environment (i.e. interpersonal stress) might developmentally inter-relate with maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect a child in these domains. This was the purpose of the current study. Mother-child pairs (n = 6979) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents were the study participants. Mothers reported on depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress between pregnancy and 33 months child age. At age 8, the children underwent cognitive assessments and the mothers reported on the children's social cognitive skills. Maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress showed strong continuity and developmental inter-relatedness. Maternal depression and contextual risks directly predicted a range of child outcomes, including executive functions and social cognitive skills. Interpersonal stress worked indirectly via maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect child outcomes. Maternal depression and contextual risks each increased interpersonal stress in the household, which, in turn, contributed to reduced child cognitive and social functioning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Effect of Physical Activity on the Stress Management, Interpersonal Relationships, and Alcohol Consumption of College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Wilson-Salandy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the changes of health behaviors in college students as they transition through their freshman year. The author surveyed 167 freshmen, ages 18 to 25, to examine the effects of physical activity on the stress management, interpersonal relationships, and alcohol consumption in college freshmen. The participant’s responses were at baseline to 3-month outcome and 3-month to 6-month outcome. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II questionnaire and the Daily Drinking Questionnaire examined the health behaviors and drinking consumption. Students with moderate physical activity had nearly half the odds of better stress management as compared with students with higher physical activity. However, this result was not statistically significant, OR = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.24, 1.01], and OR = 0.52, 95% CI = [0.25, 1.29]. Few studies have evaluated physical activity and the health behaviors of stress management, interpersonal relationships, and alcohol consumption in college students. This study can provide further understanding of health promotion behaviors in college students.

  17. Interpersonal synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, M.A.; Richardson, M.J.; Shockley, K.; Ramenzoni, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the perspective that interpersonal movement coordination results from establishing interpersonal synergies. Interpersonal synergies are higher-order control systems formed by coupling movement system degrees of freedom of two (or more) actors. Characteristic features of synergies

  18. Estimation of Subjective Stress in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND and AIMS: Mental stress is considered to be a precipitating factor in acute coronary events. We aimed to assess the association of subjective or 'perceived' mental stress with the occurrence of acute coronary events. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective case-control survey was carried out in a referral teaching hospital. subjects & METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and ST elevation on electrocardiogram who were admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of a referral teaching hospital were enrolled in the study as cases. Controls were unmatched and were enrolled from amongst patients with coronary artery disease who did not have recent acute coronary events. Subjective Stress Functional Classification (SS-FC for the preceding 2-4 weeks was assessed and assigned four grades from I to IV as follows: I - baseline, II - more than usual but not affecting daily routine, III - significantly high stress affecting daily routine and IV - worst stress in life. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions of different characteristics were compared using chi-square test with Yates continuity correction. Student's unpaired t test was applied for mean age. 'p' value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: SS-FC could be reliably (99% and easily assessed. Eighty (53% of the total 150 patients with acute MI reported 'high' levels of stress (stress class III and IV. This is in contrast to only 30 (20% of 150 healthy controls reporting high stress for the same period (p value < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Patients with acute myocardial infarction report a higher subjective mental stress during 2 to 4 weeks preceding the acute coronary event.

  19. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral and emotional responses to interpersonal stress: A comparison of adolescents engaged in non-suicidal self-injury to adolescent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Puzia, Megan E; Wegbreit, Ezra; Tone, Erin B; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-08-30

    Prominent theoretical models and existing data implicate interpersonal factors in the development and maintenance of suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, no known study has yet used computerized behavioral tasks to objectively assess responses to interpersonal conflict/collaboration among teens engaged in NSSI or having made a suicide attempt. The current study, therefore, compared interpersonal functioning indexed by the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) task among three mutually exclusive groups, adolescents (ages 13-17): engaged in NSSI only without history of a suicide attempt (n=26); who made a suicide attempt without history of NSSI (n=26); and typically developing controls (n=26). Participants also completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure to assess their general sensitivity to/awareness of others' behaviors and feelings. No significant between-group differences were found in PD task performance; however, compared to typically developing control participants and those who had made a suicide attempt, the NSSI group reported significantly more stress during the task. Additionally, NSSI participants rated themselves as more interpersonally sensitive compared to both attempters and typically developing controls. Given the lack of knowledge about whether these groups either differentially activate the same circuitry during stressful interpersonal interactions or instead rely on alternative, compensatory circuits, future work using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Refining the relationships of perfectionism, self-efficacy, and stress to dieting and binge eating: Examining the appearance, interpersonal, and academic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Angela S; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Vohs, Kathleen D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated domain-specific (appearance, interpersonal, and academic) interactive relationships of perfectionism, self-efficacy, and stress to dieting and binge eating, positing that the level of weight/shape self-efficacy would be pivotal in identifying elevated dieting versus elevated binge eating. Participants were 406 randomly selected undergraduate women. At two time points (T1 and T2), 11 weeks apart, participants completed measures of dieting and binge eating attitudes/behaviors as well as domain-specific measures of perfectionism and self-efficacy (e.g., perfectionism related to appearance). Between T1 and T2, participants completed inventories weekly on the previous week's weight/shape, interpersonal, and academic stressors. The combination of high interpersonal perfectionism, low interpersonal self-efficacy, high interpersonal stress, and high weight/shape self-efficacy was associated with the most elevated dieting. The hypothesized interactions related to the appearance and academic domains where not supported. These results highlight the interpersonal context for dieting and the unique relationship between weight/shape self-efficacy and dieting. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Oxidative stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-20

    Aug 20, 2015 ... catalase) and antioxidants Vitamins (A, C, and E). The. Oxidative stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome in Sokoto, North‑Western Nigeria. AA Sabir, LS Bilbis1, Y Saidu1, A Jimoh2, SO Iwuala3, SA Isezuo, AU Kaoje4, SA Abubakar5. Departments of Medicine and 4Community Health, Usmanu ...

  3. Reevaluating the "subjective weathering" hypothesis: subjective aging, coping resources, and the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janel E

    2014-03-01

    The subjective weathering model contends that subjective aging is a key component of the stress process. This study reevaluates and extends this model by considering how adaptive capacities influence subjective aging and depressive symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,230), I investigate how earlier stressors and coping resources contribute to older age identities (ages 18-22) and how these self-perceptions influence subsequent depressive symptoms (ages 25-29). The results show that subjective weathering alone does not lead to depressive symptoms; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies an older age identity. Those with high levels of psychosocial maturity, regardless of subjective age, were least likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. These results demonstrate that psychosocial maturity is an important adaptive resource that can shield young adults from the negative effects of "subjective weathering" or growing up fast.

  4. Traditional versus modern values, self-perceived interpersonal factors, and posttraumatic stress in Chinese and German crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Müller, Mario; Xie, Wei; Hui Yang, Zhi; Wang, Jiangping; Müller, Julia

    2009-06-01

    The influence of cultural factors on mental health is not disputed in general - but elaborated research approaches are still lacking. We investigate cultural influences not only by nationality but also by value orientation (modern vs. traditional). A cross-cultural comparison with Chinese and German crime victims included an assessment of value orientation according to Schwartz's theory (Schwartz, 1994) of personal values. Chinese and German adult crime victims were assessed. By means of structural equation multi-sample analysis, data of the two groups were compared. Traditional (conformity, benevolence, customs orientation) and modern values (achievement, hedonism, stimulation), traumatic exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), and two self-perceived interpersonal mediator processes (disclosure intentions, social acknowledgement as a victim) were assessed by self-report measures in 130 Chinese and 151 German crime victims. The two patterns of prediction for PTS differed between the countries: In the German sample both value types but in the Chinese sample only traditional values were directly or indirectly predictive of PTS. Traditional values inhibited social acknowledgement as a victim in China and Germany. In Germany, traditional values were related to increased PTS severity. Modern values predicted social acknowledgement as well as lower symptoms in Germany, but not in China. The study shows cultural and interpersonal factors that may contribute to the development of PTSD that are under-researched in contemporary psychology and psychotherapy.

  5. PERSONALITY AS SUBJECT OF THE RELATION TO THE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Aleksandrovna Klenova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this scientific article results of the empirical research devoted to studying of the personality as the subject of the relation to a stress are presented. The understanding of a phenomenon of a stress not only taking into account social and psychological features of the personality, but also with inclusion of such category as representations of a stress and the relation towards him for the first time is considered by authors. In empirical research it is established that there are five types of the personality, as subjects of the relation to a stress according to their social and psychological features and ideas of a stress. «Destructive persons» – differ in the reduced level of social and psychological adaptation, they are motivated on failure, and the stress is perceived by them as emotional excitement. «Constructive persons» possess the high level of social and psychological adaptation, are focused on success, for them emotional burning out isn’t characteristic, and their representations and the relation to a stress is based on acceptance of existence of eustressor. «Emotional and intense persons» differ in uneasiness, high level of emotional burning out, and their ideas of a stress are based only on negative characteristics. «Sensitive persons» are characterized by the high level of sensitivity, and their relation to a stress can be defined as «mental anguish». For «rational persons» cognitive approach to a situation of a stress and idea of it as about response of an organism to negative emotions is peculiar. Thus, this scientific article represents results of original research of the personality from a position of its relation to a stress.Purpose: to study social and psychological features of the personality with inclusion of such category as «representations and the relation to a stress».Method or methodology of research it is based on the concept of social representations of S.Moskovichi, and also on the subject

  6. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malta Lise A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Methods Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n = 1319 completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34–36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p  Results Approximately 30% of women reported one or more experience of interpersonal violence. Sixteen percent of women reported exposure to child maltreatment, 12% reported intimate partner violence, and 12% reported other abuse. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that a history of child maltreatment had an independent effect on depression in the postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. Conclusion The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale

  7. Interpersonal Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Michael A.; Richardson, Michael J.; Shockley, Kevin; Ramenzoni, Verónica C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the perspective that interpersonal movement coordination results from establishing interpersonal synergies. Interpersonal synergies are higher-order control systems formed by coupling movement system degrees of freedom of two (or more) actors. Characteristic features of synergies identified in studies of intrapersonal coordination – dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation – are revealed in studies of interpersonal coordination that applied the uncontrolled manifold approach and principal component analysis to interpersonal movement tasks. Broader implications of the interpersonal synergy approach for movement science include an expanded notion of mechanism and an emphasis on interaction-dominant dynamics. PMID:21716606

  8. Responses to Interpersonal Stress: Normative Changes Across Childhood and the Impact of Peer Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Sugimura, Niwako; Rudolph, Karen D

    2017-03-01

    This research examined the development of stress responses across second to sixth grades and whether exposure to peer victimization alters stress response trajectories. Youth (338 girls; 298 boys; Mage  = 7.97 years, SD = .37) reported on stress responses; teachers and youth reported on peer victimization. Latent growth curve modeling revealed an increase in effortful engagement responses and a decrease in disengagement and involuntary engagement responses during this period. Peer victimization disrupted these normative trajectories, resulting in less effortful engagement and more effortful disengagement and involuntary stress responses in early adolescence. These findings suggest that early peer victimization sensitizes youth to stress by interfering with the development of effective coping and fostering maladaptive stress responses. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. The mediating role of interpersonal conflict at work in the relationship between negative affectivity and biomarkers of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Damiano; Falco, Alessandra; De Carlo, Alessandro; Benevene, Paula; Comar, Manola; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between interpersonal conflict at work (ICW) and serum levels of three possible biomarkers of stress, namely the pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), and Interleukin 17 (IL-17). Additionally, this study investigated the role of negative affectivity (NA) in the relationship between ICW and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data from 121 employees in an Italian healthcare organization were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that ICW was positively associated with IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17, after controlling for the effect of gender. Moreover, ICW completely mediated the relationship between NA and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17. This mediating effect was significant after controlling for the effect of gender. Overall, this study suggests that work-related stress may be associated with biomarkers of inflammation, and that negative affectivity may influence the stress process affecting the exposure to psychosocial stressors.

  10. Developmental inter-relations between early maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress, and their effect on later child cognitive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Sarah K. G.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    - Background: Maternal depression and contextual risks (e.g. poverty) are known to impact children's cognitive and social functioning. However, few published studies have examined how stress in the social environment (i.e. interpersonal stress) might developmentally inter-relate with maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect a child in these domains. This was the purpose of the current study.\\ud \\ud - Method: Mother-child pairs (n = 6979) from the Avon Longitudinal Study o...

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, and alcohol-use motives in college students with a history of interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenz, Erin C; Kevorkian, Salpi; Chowdhury, Nadia; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2016-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with coping-motivated alcohol use in trauma-exposed samples. However, it is unclear which individuals experiencing PTSD symptoms are at greatest risk for alcohol-use problems following trauma exposure. Individuals endorsing high anxiety sensitivity, which is the fear of anxiety and related sensations, may be particularly motivated to use alcohol to cope with PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we examined the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity in the association between PTSD symptoms and coping motives in a sample of 295 young adults with a history of interpersonal trauma and current alcohol use. Participants completed measures of past 30-day alcohol consumption, trauma history, current PTSD symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, and alcohol-use motives. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that greater anxiety sensitivity was significantly associated with greater coping (β = .219) and conformity (β = .156) alcohol-use motives, and greater PTSD symptoms were associated with greater coping motives (β = .247), above and beyond the covariates of sex, alcohol consumption, trauma load, and noncriterion alcohol-use motives. The interaction of anxiety sensitivity and PTSD symptoms accounted for additional variance in coping motives above and beyond the main effects (β = .117), with greater PTSD symptoms being associated with greater coping motives among those high but not low in anxiety sensitivity. Assessment and treatment of PTSD symptoms and anxiety sensitivity in young adults with interpersonal trauma may be warranted as a means of decreasing alcohol-related risk in trauma-exposed young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Stiffness Evolution in Frozen Sands Subjected to Stress Changes

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2017-04-21

    Sampling affects all soils, including frozen soils and hydrate-bearing sediments. The authors monitor the stiffness evolution of frozen sands subjected to various temperature and stress conditions using an oedometer cell instrumented with P-wave transducers. Experimental results show the stress-dependent stiffness of freshly remolded sands, the dominant stiffening effect of ice, creep after unloading, and the associated exponential decrease in stiffness with time. The characteristic time for stiffness loss during creep is of the order of tens of minutes; therefore it is inevitable that frozen soils experience sampling disturbances attributable to unloading. Slow unloading minimizes stiffness loss; conversely, fast unloading causes a pronounced reduction in stiffness probably attributable to the brittle failure of ice or ice-mineral bonding.

  13. Effectiveness of Stress Management Training on Hope and Interpersonal Compatibility of Addicts under Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sepehrinasab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of stress management with behavioral–cognitive mode in the promotion of hope and socio-affective adjustment of drug abusers under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: A quasi – experimental research design, along with pretest-posttest and control group was employed for the conduct of this study. In this regard, the number of 20 drug abusers under methadone maintenance treatment was selected by convenience sampling method and these participants were assigned into experimental group (10 individuals and control group (10 individuals. The participants received ten training sessions and, then, completed Snyder's Trait Hope Scale and Bell’s social adjustment scale (BAS. Results: The results of the study showed that there is a significant difference between the two groups in terms of hope and affective and social adjustment. In fact, the experimental group experienced a considerable promotion. Conclusion: It can be concluded that stress management with behavioral–cognitive training can be an effective interventionist method for the addicts under methadone maintenance treatment.

  14. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Powers, Sally I; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-07-02

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period ("matched phase coordination"), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict ("average level coordination"). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial support and resilience building among health workers in Sierra Leone: interrelations between coping skills, stress levels, and interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Linda; Waller, Kathryn; Dowden, Justine; Fotso, Jean Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, a shortage of properly trained, supervised, motivated and equitably distributed health workers often hinder the delivery of lifesaving interventions. Various health workforce bottlenecks can be addressed by tackling well-being and interpersonal relationships of health workers with their colleagues and clients. This paper uses data from the Helping Health Workers Cope (HHWC) project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we describe the effect of counseling and psychosocial training on coping skills, stress levels, and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Second, we examine whether a change in coping skills is associated with a change in relationships. Finally, we qualitatively identify key ways through which the uptake of coping skills is linked to a change in relationships. The HHWC project was implemented from February 2012 to June 2013 in Kono district in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone, with the neighboring district of Tonkolili selected as the control site. The evaluation followed a mixed-methods approach, which included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and clients. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in coping skills, stress levels, and changes in relationships. Overall, the results demonstrate that the HHWC intervention had a positive effect on coping skills, stress levels and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Furthermore, associations were observed between changes in coping skills and changes in relationships as well as changes in stress management skills and changes in relationships. Psychosocial education can have major impacts on health worker well-being and the quality of health care delivery. Integrating psychosocial counseling and training interventions into health worker pre-service and

  16. Ethnicity, work-related stress and subjective reports of health by migrant workers: a multi-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Roberto; Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Smith, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity. A questionnaire consisting of the following sections was submitted to 900 workers in Southern Italy: for individual and cultural characteristics, coping strategies, personality behaviours, and acculturation strategies; for work characteristics, perceived job demands and job resources/rewards; for appraisals, perceived job stress/satisfaction and racial discrimination; for subjective reports of health, psychological disorders and general health. To test the reliability and construct validity of the extracted factors referred to all dimensions involved in the proposed model and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the main effects of the independent variables on the health outcomes were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded seven factors for individual and cultural characteristics (emotional/relational coping, objective coping, Type A behaviour, negative affectivity, social inhibition, affirmation/maintenance culture, and search identity/adoption of the host culture); three factors for work characteristics (work demands, intrinsic/extrinsic rewards, and work resources); three factors for appraisals (perceived job satisfaction, perceived job stress, perceived racial discrimination) and three factors for subjective reports of health (interpersonal disorders, anxious-depressive disorders, and general health). Logistic

  17. Social Goal Orientations, Interpersonal Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescents in Japan: A Test of the Diathesis-Stress Model Using the Trichotomous Framework of Social Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether depression among early adolescents (aged 12-14 years, N = 116; 65 girls) can be predicted by interactions between social goal orientations and interpersonal stress. Based on Kuroda and Sakurai (2001), this study applied Elliot and Harackiewicz's (1996) trichotomous framework of achievement goals to…

  18. Drought stress had a predominant effect over heat stress on three tomato cultivars subjected to combined stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Yu, Xiaqing; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva; Zhao, Liping; Wang, Yinlei; Yu, Wengui; Zhao, Tongmin; Wu, Zhen

    2017-01-25

    Abiotic stresses due to environmental factors could adversely affect the growth and development of crops. Among the abiotic stresses, drought and heat stress are two critical threats to crop growth and sustainable agriculture worldwide. Considering global climate change, incidence of combined drought and heat stress is likely to increase. The aim of this study was to shed light on plant growth performance and leaf physiology of three tomatoes cultivars ('Arvento', 'LA1994' and 'LA2093') under control, drought, heat and combined stress. Shoot fresh and dry weight, leaf area and relative water content of all cultivars significantly decreased under drought and combined stress as compared to control. The net photosynthesis and starch content were significantly lower under drought and combined stress than control in the three cultivars. Stomata and pore length of the three cultivars significantly decreased under drought and combined stress as compared to control. The tomato 'Arvento' was more affected by heat stress than 'LA1994' and 'LA2093' due to significant decreases in shoot dry weight, chlorophyll a and carotenoid content, starch content and NPQ (non-photochemical quenching) only in 'Arvento' under heat treatment. By comparison, the two heat-tolerant tomatoes were more affected by drought stress compared to 'Arvento' as shown by small stomatal and pore area, decreased sucrose content, ΦPSII (quantum yield of photosystem II), ETR (electron transport rate) and qL (fraction of open PSII centers) in 'LA1994' and 'LA2093'. The three cultivars showed similar response when subjected to the combination of drought and heat stress as shown by most physiological parameters, even though only 'LA1994' and 'LA2093' showed decreased Fv/Fm (maximum potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II), ΦPSII, ETR and qL under combined stress. The cultivars differing in heat sensitivity did not show difference in the combined stress sensitivity, indicating that selection for tomatoes

  19. A group therapy approach to treating combat posttraumatic stress disorder: interpersonal reconnection through letter writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Melinda J; Lumley, Vicki A; Schneider, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    Many who have served in a war zone carry deep emotional wounds that go beyond the typical symptom clusters of reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal that comprise a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Specifically, many combatants experience unresolved grief, guilt, and shame caused by losses and traumatic experiences suffered in war, called "moral injury" by some clinicians and researchers (e.g., Litz et al., 2009; Shay, 1994). We describe the aspects of human attachment that set the stage for grief, guilt, and shame, and outline the 3-phase group therapy model we have implemented in a clinical setting to foster the reconnection of severed human bonds. Special attention is paid to killing and related phenomena that are unique to combat PTSD. The program phases include psychoeducation, trauma-focused therapy, and aftercare, which focuses on assisting the veterans in reconnecting with their families and communities. The use of letter writing as an intervention is illustrated through case examples, and clinical outcomes are anecdotally described.

  20. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Roselinde K; Snyder, Hannah R; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual's response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low) responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that (1) learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that (2) this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective) responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n = 109). People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n = 90), we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest Stroop

  1. Effects of lithium on oxidative stress parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairova, Rushaniya; Pawar, Rohit; Salvadore, Giacomo; Juruena, Mario F; de Sousa, Rafael T; Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio G; Salvador, Mirian; Zarate, Carlos A; Gattaz, Wagner F; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2012-03-01

    Increased neuronal oxidative stress (OxS) induces deleterious effects on signal transduction, structural plasticity and cellular resilience, mainly by inducing lipid peroxidation in membranes, proteins and genes. Major markers of OxS levels include the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase. Lithium has been shown to prevent and/or reverse DNA damage, free-radical formation and lipid peroxidation in diverse models. This study evaluates OxS parameters in healthy volunteers prior to and following lithium treatment. Healthy volunteers were treated with lithium in therapeutic doses for 2-4 weeks. Treatment with lithium in healthy volunteers selectively altered SOD levels in all subjects. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the SOD/CAT ratio was observed following lithium treatment, which was associated with decreased OxS by lowering hydrogen peroxide levels. This reduction in the SOD/CAT ratio may lead to lower OxS, indicated primarily by a decrease in the concentration of cell hydrogen peroxide. Overall, the present findings indicate a potential role for the antioxidant effects of lithium in healthy subjects, supporting its neuroprotective profile in bipolar disorder (BD) and, possibly, in neurodegenerative processes.

  2. Cortisol and subjective stress responses to acute psychosocial stress in fibromyalgia patients and control participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Eline; Kempke, Stefan; Van Wambeke, Peter; Claes, Stephan; Morlion, Bart; Luyten, Patrick; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2017-12-11

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to measure ECA history. Salivary cortisol levels and subjective stress ratings were measured at multiple time points before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered. Significant main effects of group [F(1,43)=7.04, p=0.011, lower in FM] and ECA [F(1,43)=5.18, p=0.028, higher in participants with ECA] were found for cortisol responses. When excluding controls with ECA (n=5), a significant group-by-time interaction was found [F(6,39)=2.60, p=0.032], driven by a blunted response to the stressor in FM compared with controls (p=0.037). For subjective stress responses, a significant main effect of group [F(1,45)=10.69, p=0.002, higher in FM] and a trend towards a group-by-time interaction effect [F(6,45)=2.05, p=0.078, higher in FM 30 minutes before and 30 and 75 minutes after the TSST, and impaired recovery (difference immediately after - 30 minutes after the TSST) in FM] were found. Blunted cortisol responsivity to the TSST was observed in FM patients compared with controls without ECA. FM patients had higher subjective stress levels compared with controls, particularly at baseline and during recovery from the TSST. In FM patients, ECA history was not associated with cortisol or subjective stress levels, or with responsivity to the TSST. Future research should investigate the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysregulation in FM.

  3. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on Stroop performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselinde Kaiser Henderson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing to clinical therapy. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual’s response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that 1 learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that 2 this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n=109. People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n=90, we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress

  4. Interpersonal problem areas and onset of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, P; Barbieri, I; Frank, E

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that stressful life events are key precipitants of psychological disturbances. Severe stress often precedes the onset or exacerbation of illness in vulnerable individuals and may be of primary importance in the genesis of some mental disorders. Several authors have suggested that major life events play a role in the development of panic-related symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of stressful life events, in particular events focused in the interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas (grief, role disputes, role transitions, interpersonal deficits), in patients suffering from panic disorder. We interviewed 55 patients suffering from panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, in accordance with the diagnostic criteria specified in MINI PLUS. The panic attack profile was evaluated with the Panic Attack and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale. We assessed the ability to adapt to and derive satisfaction from the social environment with the Social Adjustment Scale Self Report and interpersonal problems with Interpersonal Questionnaire. Using the Interpersonal Questionnaire we found that all subjects had had relevant interpersonal problems in the year preceding the onset of PD: 92.7% had experienced a role transition, 85.5% interpersonal deficits, 74.5% a role dispute and 38.2% had suffered the loss of a relative or significant other. These results were confirmed by Paykel's scale, on which the whole sample reported a high frequency of life events in the 6 months before onset of illness. These preliminary data suggest a rationale for the therapeutic strategies of interpersonal psychotherapy in individuals with panic disorder.

  5. Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; George, Annie; Pugh, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and ?Malaysian ginseng.? TA roots are a traditional ?anti-aging? remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. Methods We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women...

  6. The Measurement of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCroskey, James C.; McCain, Thomas A.

    This paper reports a factor analytic investigation of the interpersonal attraction construct. Two hundred-fifteen subjects completed 30 Likert-type, 7-step scales concerning an acquaintance. Factor analysis indicated three dimensions of the interpersonal attraction construct which were labeled "task,""social," and "physical." Obtained internal…

  7. Oxidative stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its components. Racial differences may exist in the level of markers of oxidative stress and antioxidants in patients with metabolic syndrome. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the oxidative stress and ...

  8. Effects of food on cortisol and mood in vulnerable subjects under controllable and uncontrollable stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, R.; Panhuysen, G.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in stress-prone subjects, carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor food (CR/PP) diminished depressive mood and a cortisol response under controllable as well as uncontrollable laboratory stress. Twenty-two subjects with high stress proneness (HS) and 23

  9. Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; George, Annie; Pugh, Mike

    2013-05-26

    Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and "Malaysian ginseng." TA roots are a traditional "anti-aging" remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized hot-water extract of TA root (TA) or Placebo (PL) for 4 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance set at p sleep deprivation, and exercise training.

  10. Interpersonal circumplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, T

    1996-04-01

    The social and intellectual climate of the late 1940s and early 1950s in America helped nourish humanistic, person-centered views of human behavior. During that time, psychologists such as Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, Harry Murray, and Carl Rogers emphasized the positive growth potential in human character. The psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan proposed that personality can best be understood within the context of interpersonal transactions, and he provided a practical, street-smart understanding of psychiatric symptoms that was quite an advance over the traditional medical and psychoanalytic viewpoints. These ideas, along with the concept of dimensionalizing traits rather than categorizing them, inspired my colleagues and I to conduct our cooperative work on the interpersonal circumplex, which culminated in the publication of my monograph. Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality (Leary, 1957).

  11. Brain activation during the perception of stressful word stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships in anorexia nervosa patients with high degrees of alexithymia in an fMRI paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Onoda, Keiichi; Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yuri; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-02-28

    Several studies have reported that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have high levels of alexithymia. However, relatively little is known about the underlying neurobiological relationships between alexithymia and AN. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the brain responses in 30 AN patients and 20 healthy women during the processing of negative words concerning interpersonal relationships. We investigated the relationship between alexithymia levels and brain activation in AN. AN patients showed significant activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex while processing negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, as compared to the processing of neutral words. Moreover, the subjective rating of unpleasantness with negative words and neural activities in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) negatively correlated with the level of alexithymia in AN. Our neuroimaging results suggest that AN patients tend to cognitively process negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, resulting in activation of the prefrontal cortex. Lower activation of the amygdala, PCC and ACC in response to these words may contribute to the impairments of emotional processing that are hallmarks of alexithymia. Functional abnormalities associated with alexithymia may be involved in the emotional processing impairments in AN patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Life Stress: Related Symptoms, Subjective Appraisal and Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, James E.; And Others

    Stress and its influence upon physiological and emotional functioning has been well documented in research literature. In order to extend this research to study the relationship between accumulated life stress, symptoms, and coping responses, 202 college graduates and undergraduates, (144 females and 58 males) responded to three self-report…

  13. Physical activity, heart rate variability-based stress and recovery, and subjective stress during a 9-month study period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhr, T; Tolvanen, A; Myllymäki, T; Järvelä-Reijonen, E; Peuhkuri, K; Rantala, S; Kolehmainen, M; Korpela, R; Lappalainen, R; Ermes, M; Puttonen, S; Rusko, H; Kujala, U M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery with subjective stress in a longitudinal setting. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2) ) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 work days. Subjective stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale and PA level with a questionnaire. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 10 weeks post intervention, and at the 36-week follow-up. We adopted a latent growth model to investigate the initial level and change in PA, objective stress and recovery, and subjective stress at the three measurement time points. The results showed that initial levels of PA (P stress (P = 0.001) and recovery (P stress. The results persisted after adjustment for intervention group. The present results suggest that high PA and objectively assessed low stress and good recovery have positive effects on changes in subjective stress in the long-term. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Stress and Performance: Effects of Subjective Work Load and Time Urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Kenneth E.

    1982-01-01

    Measured subjective work load, time urgency, and other stress/motivation variables for management personnel taking a demanding problem-solving exam. Data suggest increases in psychological stresses like subjectively high work load and time urgency uniformly impair performance across the whole range of these variables. (Author)

  15. Objective Versus Subjective Measurement of Stress and Social Support: Combat-Related Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied combat intensity, social support, and related stress reactions among soldiers who fought in the 1982 Israeli-Lebanon War, comparing those who experienced combat stress reaction (N=382) and those who did not (N=344). Subjective indicators were found to be stronger predictors than were objective indicators. Combat stress reaction was clearly…

  16. Low-velocity impact response of laminated beams subjected to initial stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, B. V.; Sun, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Finite element procedures are used in conjunction with a numerical algorithm to compute the impact response of a graphite-epoxy laminated beam subjected to tensile initial stresses. The effect of initial stresses on the contact duration, impact force, coefficient of restitution, and bending and shear stresses are discussed. The analytically computed contact force history and strain response are compared with some experimental results.

  17. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction of surface cracks subjected to non-uniform distributions of stress

    OpenAIRE

    Coules, H.E.

    2017-01-01

    Closely-spaced surface cracks in structures interact with each other when subjected to load. The degree of interaction depends strongly on the distribution of stress that is applied. In pressure boundary components, thermal shock, residual stress and global bending can all cause load distributions that are non-uniform through the wall thickness. A wide range of crack pairs subject to various non-uniform stress distributions have been modelled using finite element analysis. Cracks sometimes in...

  19. Turbulent oscillating channel flow subjected to a wind stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, W.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Armenio, V.

    2008-01-01

    The Westerschelde estuary in the Netherlands is characterized by a strong tidal driven flow with typical velocities in the range of 0.2 to 1 m/s. In addition to the tides the wind (5 m/s) exerts a stress at the free surface driving the upper fluid layers. To investigate this flow we performed

  20. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, electrodermal activity and subjective stress responses to the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Schmahl, Christian; Wüst, Stefan; Bohus, Martin

    2012-06-30

    The availability of effective laboratory paradigms for inducing psychological stress is an important requirement for experimental stress research. Reliable protocols are scarce, usually laborious and manpower-intensive. In order to develop an economical, easily applicable standardized stress protocol, we have recently tailored the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST). This test has been shown to induce relatively high stress responses without focusing on social-evaluative components. In this study we evaluated changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol in response to the MMST. The MMST simultaneously combines cognitive (mental arithmetic), emotional (affective pictures), acoustic (white noise) and motivational stressors (loss of money). This study comprised two independent experiments. For experiment 1, 80 female subjects were recruited; 30 subjects (15 females) participated in experiment 2. Significant changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol levels in response to MMST exposure were found. Subjective stress and heart rate responses were significantly increased in both experiments. These results indicate that the MMST is an economical stress paradigm which is also applicable in larger cohorts or multicenter studies for investigating stress reactions. As social-evaluative threat is not the main stress component of the MMST, this procedure represents a useful and complementary alternative to other established stress protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanisms of Change in Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitz, Joshua D.; Markowitz, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. IPT’s interpersonal model integrates both relational theory, building on work by Sullivan, Bowlby, and others, and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness to highlight contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psychiatric disorders. IPT frames therapy around a central interpersonal problem in the patient’s life, a current crisis or relational predicament that is disrupting social support and increasing interpersonal stress. By mobilizing and working collaboratively with the patient to resolve (better manage or negotiate) this problem, IPT seeks to activate several interpersonal change mechanisms. These include: 1) enhancing social support, 2) decreasing interpersonal stress, 3) facilitating emotional processing, and 4) improving interpersonal skills. We hope that articulating these mechanisms will help therapists to formulate cases and better maintain focus within an IPT framework. We propose interpersonal mechanisms that might explain how IPT’s interpersonal focus leads to symptom change. Future work needs to specify and test candidate mediators in clinical trials of IPT. We anticipate that pursuing this more systematic strategy will lead to important refinements and improvements in IPT and enhance its application in a range of clinical populations. PMID:24100081

  2. Diallel analysis in white oat cultivars subjected to water stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to determine the combining ability of three white oat parental genotypes (UPF 18, URS21and URS 22 and to estimate the heterosis of F1 hybrids in two conditions, with and without water stress. The results indicate a largeeffect of the environment on the evaluated characters (cycle, leaf area, plant stature, grain yield per plant, main panicle weight andnumber of grains of the main panicle. The condition without stress was the most efficient for the selection of superior genotypes.Based on the general and specific combining ability, the cultivar URS 22 was shown to be indicated for cycle and stature reduction,while UPF 18 lead to increases in leaf area, main panicle weight and number of grains of the main panicle. The specific cross URS22 x URS 21 was the best for the selection of superior genotypes.

  3. Statistical damage constitutive model for rocks subjected to cyclic stress and cyclic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu

    2017-10-01

    A constitutive model of rocks subjected to cyclic stress-temperature was proposed. Based on statistical damage theory, the damage constitutive model with Weibull distribution was extended. Influence of model parameters on the stress-strain curve for rock reloading after stress-temperature cycling was then discussed. The proposed model was initially validated by rock tests for cyclic stress-temperature and only cyclic stress. Finally, the total damage evolution induced by stress-temperature cycling and reloading after cycling was explored and discussed. The proposed constitutive model is reasonable and applicable, describing well the stress-strain relationship during stress-temperature cycles and providing a good fit to the test results. Elastic modulus in the reference state and the damage induced by cycling affect the shape of reloading stress-strain curve. Total damage induced by cycling and reloading after cycling exhibits three stages: initial slow increase, mid-term accelerated increase, and final slow increase.

  4. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  5. Serum prolidase enzyme activity in obese subjects and its relationship with oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mehmet; Duzenli, Ufuk; Esen, Ramazan; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between increased serum enzyme activity of prolidase and increased rate of collagen turnover in the arterial wall has been asserted in previous studies. Collagen reflects much of the strength to the connective tissue involved in the arterial wall. Atherosclerosis is very common vessel disease and oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis. Our objective was to examine the serum enzyme activity of prolidase and its possible relationships with oxidative stress parameters in obese subjects. Our present study was conducted 27 obese subjects and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects. The serum enzyme activity of prolidase in all study population was evaluated spectrophotometrically. Oxidative stress levels in obese subjects were analyzed with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) as well as oxidative stress index (OSI). Obese subjects have higher serum TOS and OSI indicators as well as prolidase activity than those in control subjects (for all; poxidative stress levels in obese subjects. The significantly correlation between increased oxidative stress and increased prolidase activity may play a pivotal role in etiopathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Medosebni odnosi in vsebina dela kot dejavnika stresa pri srednjem managementu = Interpersonal Relationships and Work Content as Stress Factors among Middle Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kožuh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern society, where importance is placed on progress, newtechnologies and economic trends, there is a lack of awareness of thesignificance of good interpersonal relations and organizational culturewithin a company. They both contribute to the better functioningof employees as well as the entire organization. The purpose of thisstudy was to determine any possible differences between the stressorslinked to the relationships within an organization and those linked tothe work of middle management. The study included 58 middle managersworking in commercial activity in the Ljubljana region. The resultshave indicated that the amount of stressors related to the relationships,and stressors related to the managers’ work, that affect themiddle managers participating in the survey is on average the same.The results have therefore shown no statistically significant differencebetween the two forms of the studied stress factors.

  7. Association between subjective and cortisol stress response depends on the menstrual cycle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Annie; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-12-01

    The relation between the physiologic and subjective stress responses is inconsistently reported across studies. Menstrual cycle phases variations have been found to influence the psychophysiological stress response; however little is known about possible cycle phase differences in the relationship between physiological and subjective stress responses. This study examined the effect of menstrual cycle phase in the association between subjective stress and physiological response. Forty-five women in either the follicular (n=21) or the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle were exposed to a psychosocial stress task. Salivary cortisol, cardiovascular, and subjective stress were assessed throughout the experiment. Results revealed a significant group difference in the association between peak levels of cortisol and post task subjective stress. In women in the follicular phase a negative association was observed (r(2)=0.199, p=0.04), while this relation was positive in the group of women in the luteal phase (r(2)=0.227, p=0.02). These findings suggest a possible role of sex hormones in modulating the cortisol stress response function in emotion regulation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exhaustive exercise modifies oxidative stress in smoking subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochman, Einat; Reznick, Abraham Z; Avizohar, Ophir; Ben-Amotz, Ami; Levy, Yishai

    2007-06-01

    Exhaustive exercise is associated with increased metabolic rate and accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species. Cigarette smoke also contains oxidants that may participate in the development of atherosclerosis. However, data on the association between exercise and smoking are sparse. A homogenous group of 30 young men (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers; mean age, 23.7 +/- 2.6 years), healthy, trained subjects, were assessed before and after a standard maximal exercise test. Exercise led to increased protein oxidation (carbonyl assay) in both smokers (+17.7%, P insults probably due to lower antioxidant capacity.

  9. Endocrinological and subjective stress responses in children with depressive, anxiety, or externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Bae, Yoon Ju; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette Maria; Döhnert, Mirko

    2017-09-20

    In this study, we used a stress test to investigate endocrinological and subjective stress responses of 8- to 14-year-old children with internalizing or externalizing disorders and healthy controls. The sample (N = 170) consisted of clinical and community children. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to diagnose their children's psychiatric condition. We measured saliva cortisol and subjectively experienced arousal in children before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Children also rated their performance immediately after the stress test, and 1 hr later they rated their positive and negative thoughts about this stressful event. Children with internalizing or externalizing disorders exhibited a blunted cortisol response compared to healthy controls. Depressed children rated their test performance lower and reported more negative thoughts after the test in comparison to healthy controls, anxious children reported more arousal before and after the task, and children with externalizing disorders reported more positive thoughts. In regression analyses, cortisol and subjective stress responses were both predictive of psychiatric disorders. The study extends previous work on the relation between psychiatric disorders and children's stress responses to an experimentally induced stress task by including a broad range of psychiatric disorders and by integrating endocrinological and subjective stress responses.

  10. Residual stress redistribution in shot peened samples subject to mechanical loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Dennis J., E-mail: dennis.buchanan@udri.udayton.edu [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0020 (United States); John, Reji [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXCM), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7817 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Shot peening is a well-established surface treatment process that imparts large compressive residual stresses onto the surface and at shallow depths to retard initiation and growth of fatigue cracks. The plastic deformation developed during the surface treatment sets up a constraint that retains compressive stresses on the surface balanced by tensile residual stresses in the interior. However, component service histories that produce subsequent plastic deformation may redistribute these residual stresses. In most engineering components, this additional plastic deformation is localized to stress concentration sites such as holes, notches, and fillets. In the case of gross plastic deformation where the entire cross section experiences material yielding the residual stress profile may redistribute, resulting in tensile stresses on the outside surface balanced by compression in the interior. This paper describes a series of experiments combined with models to explain the redistribution in residual stress depth profiles subject to applied stresses producing gross plastic strains in shot peened laboratory specimens. The initial room temperature residual stress and plastic strain profiles provide initial conditions for predictions. Model predictions correlate well with experimental results on shot peened dogbone specimens subject to single cycle and fatigue loading conditions at elevated temperature. Experiments on shot peened notched specimens do not exhibit the same stress redistribution even for larger applied stresses.

  11. THE STRESS RESISTANCE OF STUDENTS. THE PARADIGM OF SUBJECT PERSONALITY SELF- ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Dyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider a problem of stress resistance of students in the context of subject self-organization of the personality. Methods. The following methods of research are used: questioning; psychological and diagnostic tests «Tolerance of Uncertainty» (NTN and «Personal Factors of Decisions» (PFD by T. V. Kornilova; original experimental experiences – «Coding», a technique of a self-assessment (scaling and «A locus control». While data processing the methods of mathematical statistics (SPSS 12 package – the correlation analysis of Pearson and the factorial analysis with rotation use a component by «verimax» method are applied. Results and scientific novelty. Types of subjectivity and strategy of stress resistance are allocated. The nature and a role of the emotional and stressful mechanism having information and semantic properties in its basis are disclosed. Communication of irresponsible mechanisms of mentality with the sphere of consciousness in the context of subjectivity of the personality is shown. Mechanisms of emotional and rational self-control of system of mental self-organization of the person are presented. The statistical and qualitative data opening communications between properties of subjectivity and stress resistance of the personality are empirically obtained. Variation of the relations and also types of subjectivity and stress resistance emphasized based on the results of the presented research. Original (author’s methods of studying of subjectivity and factors of stress resistance are presented. Practical significance. The revealed factors of subject self-organization reveal the stress-producing directions of the environment and the relation of the personality to situations of changes and uncertainty: and also indicate subject properties of resistance to stress which need to be developed to increase the level of health of students, to reduce risk of deviance and delinquency of

  12. Teachers' interpersonal role identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C A; Pennings, Helena J M

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers'

  13. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C A; Pennings, Helena J M

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers'

  14. Normal stress databases in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy – how many subjects do you need?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Sjöstrand, Karl; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Commercial normal stress databases in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) commonly consist of 30–40 individuals. The aim of the study was to determine how many subjects are needed. Four normal stress databases were developed using patients who underwent 99mTc MPS: non‐corrected images (NC...

  15. Uncontrollable Stress, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether uncontrollable stress related to levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in a group of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Additionally, the researchers examined what types of coping skills were utilized in the face of high levels of uncontrollable stress. Finally, a moderation model was proposed,…

  16. Stress and subjective well-being among first year UK undergraduate students

    OpenAIRE

    Denovan, Andrew; Macaskill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Transition to university is stressful and successful adjustment is imperative for well-being. Historically research on transitional stress focussed on negative outcomes and ill health. This is the first UK study applying a positive psychology approach to investigate the characteristics that facilitate adjustment among new university students. A range of psychological strengths conceptualised as covitality factors, shown individually to influence the stress and subjective well-being (SWB) rela...

  17. Assessing Interpersonal Perceptions Using the Interpersonal Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, D. S.; Zuroff, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Three studies were conducted using the interpersonal grid, a method for assessing perceptions of agentic and communal behavior based on the interpersonal circumplex. The 1st examined consistency across perceivers and convergence between perceiver and the perceived person. The 2nd examined whether responses to the interpersonal grid were sensitive…

  18. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Maria W; Van Gaal, Betsie G I; Jongedijk, Ruud A; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Goossens, Peter J J

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1) PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2) changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients' experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25) with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results enhance the understanding of quantitative outcomes

  19. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives: The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1 PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2 changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods: This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25 with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results

  20. Effects of interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mother and child diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor involving separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Maria I; Moser, Dominik A; Manini, Aurelia; Suardi, Francesca; Sancho-Rossignol, Ana; Torrisi, Raffaella; Rossier, Michel F; Ansermet, François; Dayer, Alexandre G; Rusconi-Serpa, Sandra; Schechter, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    Women who have experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) are at a higher risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired social behavior. Previously, we had reported impaired maternal sensitivity and increased difficulty in identifying emotions (i.e. alexithymia) among IPV-PTSD mothers. One of the aims of the present study was to examine maternal IPV-PTSD salivary cortisol levels diurnally and reactive to their child's distress in relation to maternal alexithymia. Given that mother-child interaction during infancy and early childhood has important long-term consequences on the stress response system, toddlers' cortisol levels were assessed during the day and in response to a laboratory stressor. Mothers collected their own and their 12-48month-old toddlers' salivary samples at home three times: 30min after waking up, between 2-3pm and at bedtime. Moreover, mother-child dyads participated in a 120-min laboratory session, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, stress situation (involving mother-child separation and exposure to novelty) and a 60-min regulation phase. Compared to non-PTSD controls, IPV-PTSD mothers - but not their toddlers, had lower morning cortisol and higher bedtime cortisol levels. As expected, IPV-PTSD mothers and their children showed blunted cortisol reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively correlated to difficulty in identifying emotions. Our data highlights PTSD-IPV-related alterations in the HPA system and its relevance to maternal behavior. Toddlers of IPV-PTSD mothers also showed an altered pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress that potentially may predispose them to later psychological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Seed priming with hormones does not alleviate induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Falleiros Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming with hormones has been an efficient method for increasing seed vigor as well as seedling growth under stressful conditions. These responses have in the past been attributed to the activation of antioxidant systems in a range of crops. The results described in this work show that hormonal priming with methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid or CEPA (chloroethylphosphonic acid, an ethylene (ET releaser, does not induce the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase or glutathione reductase in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress. The enhanced biomass of maize seedlings under salt stress that was observed only from ET priming indicates that the stress tolerance in maize from ethylene priming is a fundamental process for stress tolerance acquisition, which is explained, however, by other biochemical mechanisms but not by changes in the antioxidant system.

  2. [Readaptation time after photo-stress in normal subjects and glaucoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamppeter, B; Degenring, R F; Jonas, J B

    2003-12-01

    A photo-stress test was conducted at the subjective contrast threshold to evaluate whether psychophysical differences could be detected between chronic open-angle glaucoma patients and normal subjects. The prospective, comparative, clinical observational study included 20 patients (29 eyes) with chronic open-angle glaucoma and 20 control subjects (29 eyes). The study groups did not vary significantly in age and refractive error, but visual acuity showed a difference of 0.16. All participants underwent photo-stress using the Kontrastometer BA4. In the glaucoma group compared with the control group, the mean contrast threshold was significantly higher and the readaptation time significantly longer. The latter correlated significantly with the papillo-morphological glaucoma stage. In patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma, the foveal recovery time after a photo-stress test is significantly prolonged compared with normal subjects. It may suggest involvement of the fovea in glaucoma even if the visual acuity is 20/20.

  3. Drought stress had a predominant effect over heat stress on three tomato cultivars subjected to combined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Rong; Yu, Xiaqing; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2017-01-01

    of combined drought and heat stress is likely to increase. The aim of this study was to shed light on plant growth performance and leaf physiology of three tomatoes cultivars ('Arvento', 'LA1994' and 'LA2093') under control, drought, heat and combined stress. RESULTS: Shoot fresh and dry weight, leaf area...... significantly decreased under drought and combined stress as compared to control. The tomato 'Arvento' was more affected by heat stress than 'LA1994' and 'LA2093' due to significant decreases in shoot dry weight, chlorophyll a and carotenoid content, starch content and NPQ (non-photochemical quenching) only...... in 'Arvento' under heat treatment. By comparison, the two heat-tolerant tomatoes were more affected by drought stress compared to 'Arvento' as shown by small stomatal and pore area, decreased sucrose content, ΦPSII (quantum yield of photosystem II), ETR (electron transport rate) and qL (fraction of open PSII...

  4. Predictive behaviors for anxiety and depression in female Wistar rats subjected to cafeteria diet and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; da Silva Castro, André Luis; da Silva Torres, Iraci Lucena; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and chronic stress have been considered important public health problems that affect millions of people worldwide. Our aim was to analyze the effect of obesity associated with chronic stress on neurobehavioral parameters in female rats, considering that the association of these syndromes can enhance the negative effects on homeostasis. The animals were distributed into standard diet (Std), standard diet+stress (Std+stress), cafeteria diet (Cafe), and cafeteria diet+stress (Cafe+stress) groups. The animals of groups Std and Std+stress were fed with rodent standard feed. Groups Cafe and Cafe+stress, additionally to the standard feed, were offered palatable and calorie-rich processed food and cola-type soft drink ad libitum. From the eighth experimental week, groups Std+stress and Cafe+stress were subjected to restraint chronic stress model (50 days). After the stress protocol, predictive anxiety (open-field and elevated plus-maze tests) and depression (forced swim) were applied. The cafeteria diet was effective in inducing obesity. The ratio locomotion in the central quadrants/total locomotion evaluated during the open field test was not indicative of anxiogenic or anxiolytic effect in the animal's behavior. However, the elevated plus maze test showed that obese and stressed animals were prone to higher anxiety levels. In addition, the obese and stressed animals display less climbing behavior than all the other groups, which can be considered an indicator of depression-like behavior. Nevertheless, it is suggested that the mechanisms involved in effects of obesity associated with chronic stress be better investigated in female rats, considering the organic complexity related to these modern illnesses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Experienced and Perceived Stress in Females With Schizophrenia and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi Mogadam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by chronic disturbances of thought and perception. Objectives The current study aimed to compare perceived stress in females with schizophrenia and that of healthy people. Patients and Methods The study sample included 50 patients with schizophrenia in Tuba rehabilitation center in Ardabil selected by available sampling method. Healthy group participants were selected through cloning by age, gender and marital status of the patient group. The data were collected by the questionnaire of Holmes-Rahe scale and Cohen et al. Data were analyzed by multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA using SPSS software. Results Compared with the normal subjects, patients with schizophrenia had a higher mean score in negative perceived and experienced stresses, but had a lower mean score in positive perceived stress as well as in total perceived stress. Conclusions Results showed the levels of perceived stress and negative stress play important role in the creation and maintenance of schizophrenia.

  6. The impact of subjective birth experiences on post-traumatic stress symptoms: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthus-Niegel, Susan; von Soest, Tilmann; Vollrath, Margarete E; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to examine the etiology of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth within a transactional framework of stress. Participants were women (N = 1,499) from the Akershus Birth Cohort. These women were followed from pregnancy to 8 weeks postpartum. We modeled predisposing factors (e.g., fear of childbirth) and precipitating factors (subjective and objective birth experiences) as predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by means of the Impact of Event Scale, objective birth experiences by means of birth journals, and subjective birth experiences by means of three questions. A structural equation model showed that subjective birth experiences had the highest association with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Moreover, they mediated the effect of predisposing factors and objective birth experiences. The results suggest that women's subjective birth experiences are the most important factor in the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth.

  7. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  8. The experimentation of learning models viewed from interpersonal intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhana, M. T. C.; Mardiyana; Pramudya, I.

    2017-11-01

    This research aimed to know experimentation Project Based Learning (PjBL) and Problem Based Learning (PBL) with scientific approach viewed from interpersonal intelligence. The subjects of this research were grade X MIPA students in SMA N 1 Minggir. This research instruments used were test and questionnaire. The result of the research showed that: (1) Students subjected PjBL with scientific approach had a better learning achievement than PBL with scientific approach; (2) students with high interpersonal intelligence had a better learning achievement than low and medium interpersonal intelligence, students with low and medium interpersonal intelligence gave the same learning achievement; (3) In PjBL, students with high interpersonal intelligence had a better learning achievement than low and medium interpersonal intelligence, students with low and medium interpersonal intelligence gave the same learning achievement. In PBL, students with high and medium interpersonal intelligence had a better learning achievement than low interpersonal intelligence, students with high and medium interpersonal intelligence gave the same learning achievement; (4) In high interpersonal intelligence, students subjected PjBL had a better learning achievement than students subjected PBL. In medium and low interpersonal intelligence, students subjected PjBL gave same learning achievement than students subjected PBL.

  9. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…

  10. When Does Stress Help or Harm? The Effects of Stress Controllability and Subjective Stress Response on Stroop Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Roselinde K.; Snyder, Hannah R.; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, r...

  11. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on Stroop performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Roselinde Kaiser Henderson; Snyder, Hannah R.; Tina eGupta; Banich, Marie T.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing to clinical therapy. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding ...

  12. Myricetin Attenuates Depressant-Like Behavior in Mice Subjected to Repeated Restraint Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zegang Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that oxidative stress may be implicated in chronic stress-induced depression. Several flavonoids with anti-oxidative effects have been proved to be anti-depressive. Myricetin is a well-defined flavonoid with the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin on depressant-like behaviors in mice subjected to repeated restraint (4 h/day for 21 days. Our results showed that myricetin administration specifically reduced the immobility time in mice exposed to chronic stress, as tested in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Myricetin treatment improved activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX in the hippocampus of stressed mice. In addition, myricetin treatment decreased plasma corticosterone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effects of myricetin on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in hippocampus were also investigated. The results revealed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provided more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves helpless behaviors. The protective effects of myricetin might be partially mediated by an influence on BDNF levels and might be attributed to myricetin-mediated anti-oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

  13. Cardiovagal modulation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular risk factors in prehypertensive subjects: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Ramkumar; Pal, Pravati; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Bobby, Zachariah; Das, Ashok Kumar; Trakroo, Madanmohan

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension, one of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is known to be associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced cardiovagal modulation. Similar to hypertension, prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. We planned this study to find the association between prehypertension, cardiovagal modulation, oxidative stress, and associated CV risk factors. We recruited 178 subjects through hypertension screening camps conducted in Puducherry, India. Subjects were grouped into prehypertensive (n = 97) and normotensive (n = 81) groups. They were further subdivided, based on age, as young (20-39 years) and middle-aged (40-60 years) adults. We measured basal physiological parameters, heart rate variability, oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)), and CV risk factors. We found significant increase in oxidative stress in prehypertensive subjects of both age groups but the cardiovagal modulation decreased significantly in young prehypertensive subjects when compared with normotensive subjects. Correlation of TAC with root mean square of the sum of successive R wave to R wave (RR) interval differences (RMSSD), a cardiovagal modulation parameter (r = 0. 437; P risk factors. The correlation between MAP and RMSSD (r = 0.199; P = 0.009) was reduced after adjusting for CV risk factors. Prehypertension in young adults is associated with increased oxidative stress and altered cardiovagal modulation. The risk factors for CVDs in prehypertensive young adults were found to be equivalent to that of middle-aged adults who are in the twilight zone for developing CV dysfunctions.

  14. Early Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Sex Differences in the Role of Cortisol Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Ge, Xiaojia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    An accumulating body of literature has shown a link between early pubertal maturation and internalizing problems, particularly among girls. Our knowledge is, however, limited with regard to what accounts for this association. Based on a hypothesis that early maturing girls have heightened stress sensitivity that increases the risk of internalizing…

  15. Relationships between Psychosocial Difficulties and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Women Subject to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Song, Hyang Joo; Kim, Dong Goo; Yim, Yeong Shin

    2017-02-01

    Women subject to violence by their intimate partners often experience a range of psychosocial problems such as depression, excessive alcohol use, and stressful life events that, in turn, lead to health issues. This study examined psychosocial difficulties and oxidative stress levels in abused and non-abused Korean women and analyzed the relationship between psychosocial outcomes and oxidative stress levels. Markers were determined in 16 women (seven abused, nine non-abused). The two groups of women (abused and non-abused) were compared with respect to scores in depression, alcohol use, life stress events, and oxidative stress biomarkers using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between depression, alcohol use, life stress events, and oxidative stress biomarkers were tested by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The abused women had significantly higher levels of oxidative stress markers and significantly lower levels of antioxidants than the non-abused women. Life stress events and oxidative biomarker levels were significantly correlated. These findings have implications for both social services providers and medical personnel when assessing abused women to ensure that they receive the most appropriate service. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  16. Subjective health complaints, work-related stress and self-efficacy in Norwegian aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omholt, M L; Tveito, T H; Ihlebæk, C

    2017-03-01

    The European civilian aviation industry has undergone major changes in the last decade. Despite this, there is little knowledge about work-related stress and subjective health complaints (SHCs) affecting Norwegian aircrew. To investigate the relationships between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs in commercial aircrew in Norway and to explore differences between cockpit and cabin crew. Aircrew members from the three major airlines operating from Norway completed an electronically distributed questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs. There was a 21% response rate. Among the 843 study subjects, tiredness, sleep problems, bloating, low back pain, headaches and neck pain were the most prevalent SHCs. Cabin crew reported significantly higher numbers, prevalences and mean values for all SHCs compared with cockpit crew (P stress levels. High levels of work-related stress were significantly associated with all SHC factors in both groups. Self-efficacy partly moderated the relationship between stress and psychological complaints in both cockpit and cabin crew, and for musculoskeletal complaints in cockpit crew. The model explained 23 and 32% of the variance in psychological complaints for cockpit and cabin crew, respectively. Commercial aircrew in Norway reported high numbers of SHCs, and high levels of work-related stress were associated with high numbers of SHC. More knowledge is needed on the physical, organizational and psychosocial stressors affecting cockpit and cabin crew in order to create a healthier work environment for these groups.

  17. Nonverbal Assessment of Interpersonal Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gary S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two nonverbal methods for assessing degree of interpersonal attraction--placing representative figures on a ruled board and human figure drawing--were explored. Subjects' scores differed as a function of peer liking on the measures of distance, degree of detail, affective peer drawings and peer drawing articulation. (MV)

  18. [The relationship between four components of assertiveness and interpersonal behaviors, interpersonal adjustment in high school students' friendship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Asami

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between four components of assertiveness ("open expression", "control of emotion", "consideration for others" and "self-direction") and interpersonal behaviors on friends, interpersonal stress events, social anxiety. A questionnaire which included scales to measure the four components of assertiveness, activities with friend, considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events and social anxiety was completed by 177 high school students. The results showed that "self-direction" had curvilinear relations with considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events. An excessively high score for "self-direction" was associated with fewer considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events. An optimum score for "self-direction" was associated with more considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events.

  19. [Subjective and objective indicators of job stress and burnout in a residential home for the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiabane, Elena; Dordoni, Paola; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Elderly care workers have a higher risk than other professionals of developing burnout. Despite literature has highlighted the methodological advantage resulting from an integration of subjective and objective measures of stressors, only few studies have investigated job stress and burnout in the Italian elderly care context using this kind of assessment. The aims of this study were: (a) to investigate the level of stress and burnout and their organizational sources in a sample of eldercare workers by means of subjective and objective tools, and b) to compare the stress and burnout levels between health care staff and nursing aides employed in a residential home for the, elderly. The sample of the study included the totality of the elderly workers employed in a residential home for the elderly (N=49; response rate: 100%). The Maslach Burnout Inventory-GS and the Areas of Worklife Scale were used for the subjective assessment of burnout and organizational riskfactors. A check list of objective indicators was used for the objective assessment of job stress. Results from the self-report questionnaires showed high levels of exhaustion and a perception of high workload and unfairness for, the total sample. Objective parameters ofjob stress risk were biomechanical overload, dealing with suffering people and the risk of work-related violence. Nursing aides had greater risk of burnout and reported a greater number of objective sources of stress, compared to health care workers. This exploratory study supports the use of both subjective and objective method for the assessment of job stress risk as the most comprehensive approach for the implementation of preventive and corrective interventions.

  20. Subjective stress, objective heart rate variability-based stress, and recovery on workdays among overweight and psychologically distressed individuals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhr, Tiina; Tolvanen, Asko; Myllymäki, Tero; Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Korpela, Riitta; Peuhkuri, Katri; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Lappalainen, Raimo; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery on workdays. Another aim was to investigate how physical activity (PA), body composition, and age are associated with subjective stress, objective stress, and recovery. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) in this cross-sectional study were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2)) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 workdays. Subjective stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale. PA level was determined by questionnaire, and body fat percentage was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Subjective stress was directly associated with objective stress (P = 0.047) and inversely with objective recovery (P = 0.046). These associations persisted after adjustments for sex, age, PA, and body fat percentage. Higher PA was associated with lower subjective stress (P = 0.037). Older age was associated with higher objective stress (P subjective stress (P = 0.043). The present results suggest that subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective physiological stress, but they are also apparently affected by different factors. However, some of the found associations among these overweight and psychologically distressed participants with low inter-individual variation in PA are rather weak and the clinical value of the present findings should be studied further among participants with greater heterogeneity of stress, PA and body composition. However, these findings suggest that objective stress assessment provides an additional aspect to stress evaluation. Furthermore, the results provide valuable information for developing stress assessment methods.

  1. Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnically Diverse Adolescents the Role of Stress and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura; Gomez, Kenia; Jorgenson, Katherine; Luginbuhl, Paula; Moallem, Isabel; Steele, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines stressors, general stress levels, coping strategies, and subjective well-being in a sample of 144 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents (mean age of 13). The most frequently reported stressors include the death of a family member, feeling socially isolated, family financial problems, injury of a family member, and parents…

  2. Subjective heat stress of urban citizens: influencing factors and coping strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Hackenbruch, Julia; Schipper, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Given urbanization trend and a higher probability of heat waves in Europe, heat discomfort or heat stress for the population in cities is a growing concern that is addressed from various perspectives, such as urban micro climate, urban and spatial planning, human health, work performance and economic impacts. This presentation focuses on subjective heat stress experienced by urban citizens. In order to better understand individual subjective heat stress of urban citizens and how different measures to cope with heat stress in everyday life are applied, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Karlsruhe, Germany. Karlsruhe is located in one of the warmest regions in Germany and holds the German temperature record of 40.2°C in August 2003. In 2013, two hot weather periods with continuous heat warnings by the German Weather Service for 7 and 8 days occurred during the last 10 days of July and first 10 days of August 2013 with an inofficial maximum temperature of again 40.2°C on July 27th in Karlsruhe (not taken by the official network of the German Weather Service). The survey data was collected in the six weeks after the heat using an online-questionnaire on the website of the South German Climate Office that was announced via newspapers and social media channels to reach a wide audience in Karlsruhe. The questionnaire was additionally sent as paper version to groups of senior citizens to ensure having enough respondents from this heat sensitive social group in the sample. The 428 respondents aged 17-94 show differences in subjective heat stress experienced at home, at work and during various typical activities in daily routine. They differ also in the measures they used to adjust to and cope with the heat such as drinking more, evading the heat, seeking cooler places, changing daily routines, or use of air condition. Differences in heat stress can be explained by housing type, age, subjective health status, employment, and different coping measures and strategies

  3. Alterations in Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitophagy in Subjects with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhansali, Shipra; Bhansali, Anil; Walia, Rama; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Dhawan, Veena

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress impedes cell-reparative process like autophagy, which has been implicated in impairment of β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the role of mitophagy (selective mitochondrial autophagy) in progression of hyperglycemia remains elusive. This study aimed to assess the impact of increasing severity of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial stress and mitophagy. A case-control study included healthy controls, subjects with prediabetes, newly diagnosed T2DM (NDT2DM) and advanced duration of T2DM (ADT2DM) (n = 20 each). Mitochondrial stress indices, transcriptional and translational expression of mitophagy markers (PINK1, PARKIN, MFN2, NIX, LC3-II, and LAMP-2) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies were performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With mild hyperglycemia in subjects with prediabetes, to moderate to severe hyperglycemia in NDT2DM and ADT2DM, a progressive rise in mitochondrial oxidative stress was observed. Prediabetic subjects exhibited significantly increased expression of mitophagy-related markers and showed a positive association with HOMA-β, whereas, patients with NDT2DM and ADT2DM demonstrated decreased expression, with a greater decline in ADT2DM subjects. TEM studies revealed significantly reduced number of distorted mitochondria in prediabetics, as compared to the T2DM patients. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed HbA1C > 7% (53 mmol/mol) was associated with attenuated mitophagy. Increasing hyperglycemia is associated with progressive rise in oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial morphology. Sustenance of mitophagy at HbA1C < 7% (53 mmol/mol) strengthens the rationale of achieving HbA1C below this cutoff for good glycemic control. An "adaptive" increase in mitophagy may delay progression to T2DM by preserving the β-cell function in subjects with prediabetes.

  4. Alterations in Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitophagy in Subjects with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Bhansali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimHyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress impedes cell-reparative process like autophagy, which has been implicated in impairment of β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, the role of mitophagy (selective mitochondrial autophagy in progression of hyperglycemia remains elusive. This study aimed to assess the impact of increasing severity of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial stress and mitophagy.Design and methodsA case–control study included healthy controls, subjects with prediabetes, newly diagnosed T2DM (NDT2DM and advanced duration of T2DM (ADT2DM (n = 20 each. Mitochondrial stress indices, transcriptional and translational expression of mitophagy markers (PINK1, PARKIN, MFN2, NIX, LC3-II, and LAMP-2 and transmission electron microscopic (TEM studies were performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.ResultsWith mild hyperglycemia in subjects with prediabetes, to moderate to severe hyperglycemia in NDT2DM and ADT2DM, a progressive rise in mitochondrial oxidative stress was observed. Prediabetic subjects exhibited significantly increased expression of mitophagy-related markers and showed a positive association with HOMA-β, whereas, patients with NDT2DM and ADT2DM demonstrated decreased expression, with a greater decline in ADT2DM subjects. TEM studies revealed significantly reduced number of distorted mitochondria in prediabetics, as compared to the T2DM patients. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed HbA1C > 7% (53 mmol/mol was associated with attenuated mitophagy.ConclusionIncreasing hyperglycemia is associated with progressive rise in oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial morphology. Sustenance of mitophagy at HbA1C < 7% (53 mmol/mol strengthens the rationale of achieving HbA1C below this cutoff for good glycemic control. An “adaptive” increase in mitophagy may delay progression to T2DM by preserving the β-cell function in subjects with prediabetes.

  5. Within-Subject Reliability and between-Subject Variability of Oxidative Stress Markers in Saliva of Healthy Subjects: A Longitudinal Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Z. Alajbeg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated diurnal variations and day-to-day fluctuations of salivary oxidative stress (OS markers in healthy adult individuals. Whole unstimulated saliva was collected at 2 time intervals over 3 consecutive days. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and uric acid (UA were analyzed using spectrophotometric methods, while 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and malondialdehyde (MDA were determined using immunoassays. No significant differences for salivary OS markers between men and women were observed. For all examined OS markers, no significant day-to-day variations were demonstrated. Significant diurnal variations were found in salivary GPX, TAC and MDA levels. For SOD, TAC, GPX, and UA, good-to-moderate intraindividual coefficients of variations (CVs were observed in more than 75% of the subjects. For MDA and 8-OHdG, intraindividual CVs > 35% were observed in 60% and 40% of the subjects, respectively. Between-subject variance was wide for all examined OS markers (CV% 30.08%–85.70%. Due to high intraindividual variability in the salivary concentrations of MDA and 8-OHdG, those markers cannot be reliably verified based on single measurements and multiple measurements over several days would provide more reliable information. Salivary SOD, TAC, GPX, and UA proved stable across three days of measurement. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03029494. Registered on 2017-01-19.

  6. The effects of academic and interpersonal stress on dating violence among college students: a test of classical strain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brandon; Smithey, Martha

    2012-03-01

    This study examines Merton's Classical Strain Theory (1938) as a causative factor in intimate partner violence among college students. We theorize that college students experience general life strain and cumulative strain as they pursue the goal of a college degree. We test this strain on the likelihood of using intimate partner violence. Strain due to unrealistic expectations of intimate partnership and economic strain are also examined. The analysis examines the following causative factors representing strain: 1) the College Undergraduate Stress Scale (Renner & Mackin, 1998); 2) cumulative academic strain measured by college classification; 3) cumulative intimate partner strain measured as the length of time in the relationship; 4) academic strain measured by number of hours studied weekly, and 5) economic strain measured by number of hours worked weekly. Additionally, we examine the extent to which gender and race/ethnicity differentially affect intimate partner in the context of these measures of strain. The Conflict Tactics Scales II (Straus et al, 1996) are used to measure dating violence and include indicators for sexual coercion, physical aggression, injury, and psychological aggression. Data were collected from 142 students in lower-division classes from Texas Tech University. Results show that general strain and cumulative intimate partner strain increase the use of dating violence among college students. The longer dating partners are in a relationship, the higher the chances of psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion. Converse to our expectations, time spent working reduces psychological aggression due to reducing time spent together rather than reflecting economic strain.

  7. Entropy Analysis of RR and QT Interval Variability during Orthostatic and Mental Stress in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Baumert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic activity affects beat-to-beat variability of heart rate and QT interval. The aim of this study was to explore whether entropy measures are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart elicited by two different stress paradigms. We recorded short-term ECG in 11 normal subjects during an experimental protocol that involved head-up tilt and mental arithmetic stress and computed sample entropy, cross-sample entropy and causal interactions based on conditional entropy from RR and QT interval time series. Head-up tilt resulted in a significant reduction in sample entropy of RR intervals and cross-sample entropy, while mental arithmetic stress resulted in a significant reduction in coupling directed from RR to QT. In conclusion, measures of entropy are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart and decoupling of repolarisation variability from heart rate variability elicited by orthostatic or mental arithmetic stress.

  8. Physiological quality of sesame seeds produced from plants subjected to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronimeire Torres da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Germination and seed vigor may be influenced by several factors, such as water stress during production, which affect crops differently according to the phenological stage of the plant. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the physiological quality of sesame seeds from plants subjected to water stress at different phenological stages. To this end, sesame plants were subjected to water stress at the following stages: I - germination to the start of vegetative growth (T1; II - vegetative growth to flowering (T2; III - flowering to pod formation (T3; IV - fruit maturation (T4; also for stress at all stages (T5 and full irrigation (T6. By weighing and daily irrigation of the containers, levels were kept at 50% of pot capacity (CV for treatments with water deficit, and at 100% CV for treatments with no deficit. At 90 days after planting, the plants were harvested. The seeds were evaluated by germination test, first germination count, germination speed index, mean germination time, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, seedling emergence, emergence speed index, mean time of emergence, seedling length and seedling dry weight. Sesame seeds from plants grown under water deficit display lower physiological quality. Between germination and the start of vegetative growth, and between flowering and fruit formation, the sesame is more sensitive to water stress, so that water limitation during these periods results in the production of seeds of low physiological quality.

  9. Expression of NCED gene in colored cotton genotypes subjected to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. S. de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering that the NCED gene acts on the biosynthetic cascade of ABA, a hormone involved in the functioning of stomata and consequently in the regulation of transpiration, the aim of this research was to analyze the expression of this gene in colored cotton genotypes subjected to water stress at the beginning of plant growth. Four colored cotton genotypes were used, subjected to two managements, with and without water stress, beginning the treatments when the blade of the first true leaves reached an area that allowed the evaluation of gas exchange. For the studies of the expression of the NCED gene, via RT-qPCR, leaves were collected on three distinct dates: at 4 and 6 days of water stress, and after the plants regained their turgor. The differential expression of NCED was found in all genotypes, with higher levels of expression related to six days of water stress. When the stomatal conductance was around 25%, there was overexpression in the genotype CNPA 2009.13, followed by CNPA 2009.6, BRS SAFIRA and CNPA 2009.11, confirming the data obtained in the semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The NCED gene is involved in the response to water stress in the vegetative phase of colored cotton.

  10. Stress augments food 'wanting' and energy intake in visceral overweight subjects in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Sofie G; Rutters, Femke; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-03

    Stress may induce eating in the absence of hunger, possibly involving changes in food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting'. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of acute psychological stress on food reward, and on energy intake, in visceral overweight (VO) vs. normal weight (NW) subjects. Subjects (27 NW, age=26 ± 9 yrs, BMI=22 ± 2 kg/m²; 15 VO, age=36 ± 12 yrs, BMI=28 ± 1 kg/m²) came to the university twice, fasted, for either a rest or stress condition (randomized cross-over design). Per test-session 'liking' and 'wanting' for 72 items divided in six categories (bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, and stationery (control)) were measured twice, each time followed by a wanted meal. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, VAS), heart rate, mood state and level of anxiety (POMS/STAI questionnaires) were measured. High hunger and low satiety (64 ± 19, 22 ± 20 mmVAS) confirmed the fasted state. Elevated heart rate, anger and confusion scores (p ≤ 0.03) confirmed the stress vs. rest condition. Consumption of the first meal decreased hunger, increased satiety, and decreased ranking of 'liking' of bread vs. increased ranking of 'liking' of the control (psnacks, energy intake, carbohydrate and fat intake for the second meal stress vs. rest relatively increased in VO vs. decreased in NW (pstress vs. rest VO showed a 6 ± 9% increase in percentage of daily energy requirements consumed over the two meals (p=0.01). To conclude, visceral overweight subjects showed stress-induced food intake in the absence of hunger, resulting in an increased energy intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prior Interpersonal Violence Exposure and Experiences During and After a Disaster as Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi; Zuromski, Kelly L; Galea, Sandro; Price, Matthew; Gilmore, Amanda K; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Ruggiero, Kenneth

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the current report was to examine prior history of exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), as compared with prior accident or prior disaster exposure, experiences during and after a disaster, and demographic variables as predictors of past month posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression severity among adolescents exposed to the tornadoes in Alabama and Missouri. IPV exposure has been consistently identified as a unique category of potentially traumatic events (PTE) that significantly increases risk for development of PTSD and other difficulties relative to other event types among adolescents. A population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers ( N = 2,000) were recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Participants completed structured telephone interviews on an average of 8.8 months posttornado. Prior history of IPV was prevalent (36.5%), as was reported history of accidents (25.9%) and prior disaster exposure (26.9%). Negative binomial regression analyses with PTSD and depression symptom counts for past month as outcome variables indicated that history of predisaster IPV was most robustly related to PTSD and depression symptoms, such that those with a history of IPV endorsed over 3 times the number of symptoms than those without IPV history. Final model statistics indicated that female gender, physical injury to caregiver, concern about others' safety, prior disaster, prior accident, and prior IPV exposure were also related to PTSD. Predictors of depression symptoms were similar with the exception that concern about others' safety was not a predictor and age was a predictor in the final model. It is important to evaluate potential additive effects of IPV history in addition to recent disaster exposure variables and to consider such history when developing interventions aimed to reduce or prevent symptoms of PTSD and depression among adolescents recently exposed to disaster.

  12. Performance of Pre-Stressed Sandwich Composites Subjected to Shock Wave Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper experimentally studies the dynamic behaviour of prestressed sandwich composites under blast loading. The in-plane static compression loadings are implemented on the sandwich composites before they are subjected to the transverse shock wave loading. Three different pre-stress levels are chosen. 3-D realtime deformation data are captured by two high-speed photography systems: a backview Digital Image Correlation (DIC system and a side-view camera system. The results show that pre-stresses can induce local buckling in the front face-sheet of sandwich composites, consequently reduce the blast resistance of sandwich composites.

  13. Attenuated metoclopramide-induced vascular hyperreactivity to cold stress in athletic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M; Gómez, J; Blanco, G; Negrín, C; Velasco, M

    1998-11-01

    We have previously reported a metoclopramide-induced vascular hyperreactivity to the cold pressor test (CPT) in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. The present study was designed to determine whether the state of physical training influences the cardiovascular responses to the CPT in normotensive subjects under metoclopramide (MTC) treatment. In 20 untrained subjects and 32 athletes (football players and runners), the blood pressure and heart rate responses to the CPT were studied after a 30-minute infusion of MTC (7.5 microg/kg per minute) and two placebo periods, before and after MTC, with 5% glucose solution. Under placebo conditions, the CPT produced significant increases of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the untrained subjects and the runners, but not in the football players (17.2, 17.8, and 6.5 mm Hg for untrained subjects, runners, and football players, respectively). The runners responded with a lesser increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) during the CPT than did the others (15.8, 17.9, and 18.2 mm Hg for runners, untrained subjects, and football players, respectively). In the presence of MTC, the CPT induced a larger increase in blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in the untrained subjects (21.4/24.1 mm Hg) than in the football players (10/18.7 mm Hg) and runners (18.7/13.9 mm Hg). MTC diminished the hyperreactivity responses to the CPT in the trained subjects (41 and 56% for football players and runners, respectively). Our conclusions are as follows: (1) Vascular responses to cold stress are attenuated in athletic subjects compared with untrained subjects. (2) The metoclopramide-induced vascular hyperreactivity, formerly reported for normotensive and hypertensive subjects, seems to be absent in trained subjects. (3) It is suggested that a probable dopaminergic system adaptation occurs during exercise.

  14. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora?) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Pugh, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-re...

  15. Interpersonal Meaning in Netanyahu’s Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Firmansah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the interpersonal meaning is realized in the speech of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. This study aimed to uncover (1 the mood structure which realized in Netanyahu‘s speech of Iran and Palestine and (2 To what extent the difference in field determine the interpersonal metafunction of the speaker. This study is largely qualitative but in order to answer those research questions, this study will be assisted by some descriptive quantification to observe the trend in the interpersonal meaning of the speaker. It applies Hallidayan theory of Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG in analyzing the research data. The data were taken from the websites which are readily accessible to the public. Two different transcribed speeches are discovered to extract the data which are needed to investigate the interpersonal meaning. Subject, Finite and Modality are the main tools to realize the interpersonal meaning of Netanyahu in his speech. It can be realized by discovering the use of those parts in his speech in different issue and occasion. It is found that Netanyahu‘s interpersonal meaning is realized through the placement of Subject and the utilization of Finite, Modality and Mood Adjuncts. It is also found that the differences of the field influence the interpersonal meaning of the speaker through the comparison of subject and finite. The findings in this present study are expected to be useful for some purposes in the future.

  16. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  17. Influence of academic examination stress on hematological measurements in subjectively healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Van Der Planken, M; Van Gastel, A; Bruyland, K; Van Hunsel, F; Neels, H; Hendriks, D; Wauters, A; Demedts, P; Janca, A; Scharpé, S

    1998-09-21

    Some recent reports showed that a brief exposure to a mental stressor during 3-20 min may induce hematological changes in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of academic examination stress on erythron variables, such as the number of red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell Hb (MCH), mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC), RBC distribution width (RDW), and serum iron and transferrin (Tf). The above variables were determined in 41 students in three conditions, i.e. the stress condition (the day before a difficult oral exam) and two baseline conditions, i.e. a few weeks earlier and later. At the same occasions, subjects completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Academic examination stress significantly increased Ht, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC and significantly decreased RDW. There were significant relationships between the stress-induced changes in the PSS, STAI and POMS scores and those in Ht, Hb, MCV and MCH (allpositive) and RDW (negative). It is concluded that academic examination stress induces significant hematological changes indicative of an increased number of large RBC and increased hemoglobinisation, which cannot be explained by shifts of fluid out of the intravascular space, concentrating non-diffusible blood constituents.

  18. Relationship between job stress and subjective oral health symptoms in male financial workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Koichi; Suzuki, Seitaro; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Kamijyo, Hideyuki

    2017-04-07

    The aim was to assess subjective oral health symptoms and job stress, as measured by self-assessment of how demanding the job is, in male financial workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. For the stress check, 7 items about how demanding the job is were selected from The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Participants comprised a total of 950 financial male workers, ages 25 to 64. Participants who answered "I can't complete my work in the required time" had more decayed teeth (p=0.010). Participants who felt that their job is highly demanding (answered affirmatively to 6 or all 7 items) were more likely to report "often get food stuck between teeth" (p=0.030), "there are some foods I can't eat" (p=0.005), "bad breath" (p=0.032), and "jaw makes clicking sound" (p=0.032). The independent variable of total stress score of 24-28 was found to be correlated to at least three oral health symptoms (OR: 3.25; 95%CI: 1.66-6.35). These results indicate that certain job stress factors are associated with certain oral health symptoms, and that oral health symptoms are likely predictors of job stress.

  19. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a “traumatic” film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the “toy dog group” and the “alone group.” Results of the “dog group” were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a “traumatic” stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed. PMID:25250009

  20. Oxidised fish oil does not influence established markers of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottestad, Inger; Vogt, Gjermund; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    Intake of fish oil reduces the risk of CHD and CHD deaths. Marine n-3 fatty acids (FA) are susceptible to oxidation, but to our knowledge, the health effects of intake of oxidised fish oil have not previously been investigated in human subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate...... markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammation, and the level of plasma n-3 FA after intake of oxidised fish oil. In a double-blinded randomised controlled study, healthy subjects (aged 18–50 years, n 54) were assigned into one of three groups receiving capsules containing either 8 g...... difference was observed between the fish oil groups. No changes in a variety of in vivo markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation or inflammation were observed after daily intake of oxidised fish oil for 3 or 7 weeks, indicating that intake of oxidised fish oil may not have unfavourable short...

  1. Real-time simulation of thermal stresses and creep in plates subjected to transient heat input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Jacobsen, Torben Krogsdal; Hansen, P.N.

    1997-01-01

    -difference approach. It applies a general formulation which takes into account nonconstant material properties (e.g. temperature, material, or time dependency), heat-transfer coefficients, and creep. The temperature calculation applies a one-dimensional numerical model, whereas the stress analysis is semi......This paper presents a novel numerical technique for solving the temperature and stress fields in a plate subjected to arbitrarily varying transient boundary conditions (transient temperature and heat-flux variations) on a surface. The numerical method is based on the control-volume finite......-two-dimensional. Both plane stress and plane strain conditions are considered as extreme cases. It is shown that, by using the developed numerical technique, very fast real-time simulations can be performed. The method has proved its applicability in e.g. high-pressure die-casting, and applications to this industrial...

  2. Condylar and disk position and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in stress-free subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos Filho, José Osmar; Menezes, Alynne Vieira de; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz de; Manzi, Flávio Ricardo; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2007-09-01

    The authors conducted a study in subjects who tested free of psychological stress to determine the position of the condyle and whether that position was related to signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Forty subjects underwent psychological evaluation to ensure freedom from psychological stress. The authors evaluated tenderness of the masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints (TMJs) by means of bimanual digital palpation, and they determined the positions of the condyle and disk by using magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 23.75 percent of the condyles were displaced away from the centric position either anteriorly (3.75 percent) or posteriorly (20.00 percent). chi(2) analysis showed a relationship between the position of the condyle and displacement of the disk, as well as a relationship between the position of the condyle and tenderness of the TMJs. Although these relationships proved significant, it cannot be assumed that displacement of the condyle away from the centric position is predictive of TMD. Only two subjects were judged to have had TMJ internal derangement. Thus, the absence of psychological stress seems to have played a role in this finding.

  3. Stress, sense of coherence and subjective health in adolescents aged 13-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships between sex, age, stress and sense of coherence (SOC) and each of self-rated health (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHCs) in adolescents. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1239 adolescents aged 13-18 years. The participants reported scores on a questionnaire, including 12 items assessing SHC, the 13-item version of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire and the 30-item Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Data were analysed with descriptive, comparative and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Boys scored significantly higher on SRH than girls, whereas girls scored higher on SHCs. In the multivariate model, stress was significantly associated with SHCs, but not with SRH. SOC was significantly positively related to SRH and negatively related to SHC; the associations were significantly stronger for girls than for boys. A significant moderation effect (protective role) of SOC was found on the relation between stress and SHC. No causal conclusion was possible, but the findings may be used as a basis for further investigation of the role of stress and SOC in longitudinal studies and intervention studies.

  4. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (trauma-film-paradigm. For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the toy dog group and the alone group. Results of the dog group were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a traumatic stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  5. Vitamin C and common cold incidence: a review of studies with subjects under heavy physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, H

    1996-07-01

    Several studies have observed an increased risk of respiratory infections in subjects doing heavy physical exercise. Vitamin C has been shown to affect some parts of the immune system, and accordingly it seems biologically conceivable that it could have effects on the increased incidence of respiratory infections caused by heavy physical stress. In this report the results of three placebo-controlled studies that have examined the effect of vitamin C supplementation on common cold incidence in subjects under acute physical stress are analyzed. In one study the subjects were school-children at a skiing camp in the Swiss Alps, in another they were military troops training in Northern Canada, and in the third they were participants in a 90 km running race. In each of the three studies a considerable reduction in common cold incidence in the group supplemented with vitamin C(0.6-1.0 g/day) was found. The pooled rate ratio (RR) of common cold infections in the studies was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.35-0.69) in favour of vitamin C groups. Accordingly, the results of the three studies suggest that vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial for some of the subjects doing heavy exercise who have problems with frequent upper respiratory infections.

  6. Estimation of Subjective Difficulty and Psychological Stress by Ambient Sensing of Desk Panel Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Nana; Yamamoto, Keiko; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    We investigate ambient sensing techniques that recognize writer's psychological states by measuring vibrations of handwriting on a desk panel using a piezoelectric contact sensor attached to its underside. In particular, we describe a technique for estimating the subjective difficulty of a question for a student as the ratio of the time duration of thinking to the total amount of time spent on the question. Through experiments, we confirm that our technique correctly recognizes whether or not a person writes something down on paper by measured vibration data at the accuracy of over 80 %, and that the order of computed subjective difficulties of three questions is coincident with that reported by the subject in 60 % of experiments. We also propose a technique to estimate a writer's psychological stress by using the standard deviation of the spectrum of the measured vibration. Results of a proof-of-concept experiment show that the proposed technique correctly estimates whether or not the subject feels stress at least 90 % of the time.

  7. Gender differences in subjective health complaints in adolescence: The roles of self-esteem, stress from schoolwork and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanesen, Fiona; Meland, Eivind; Torp, Steffen

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine subjective health complaints among Norwegian adolescents and assess the development of gender differences in subjective health complaints between age 14 and 16; to investigate whether self-esteem, stress from schoolwork or body dissatisfaction affected adolescents' subjective health complaints; and determine whether these factors could explain the excess of subjective health complaints among girls. We used multiple linear regression analyses to analyse longitudinal survey data from 751 Norwegian adolescents at the ages of 14 and 16. The results from various cross-sectional and prospective analyses were compared. Girls reported more subjective health complaints than boys, and gender differences increased from age 14 to 16. Self-esteem and stress from schoolwork had cross-sectional and prospective associations with subjective health complaints. Stress from schoolwork at age 14 was also associated with changes in subjective health complaints from age 14 to 16. The cross-sectional mediation analyses indicated that self-esteem and stress from schoolwork accounted for 61% of the excess of subjective health complaints among girls at age 16. The same variables measured at age 14 accounted for 24% of the gender differences in subjective health complaints two years later. The investigated factors could not account for the increase in gender differences in subjective health complaints between ages 14 and 16. The findings showed that self-esteem and stress from schoolwork were associated with subjective health complaints during adolescence. These factors could partially explain the excess of subjective health complaints among girls.

  8. Interpersonal perception in Japanese and British observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Tsuneo; Lee, Billy

    2004-01-01

    We compared performance of Japanese and British observers in deciphering images depicting Japanese interpersonal relationships. 201 Japanese and 215 British subjects were assessed by means of a test consisting of 31 photograph problems accompanied by two or three alternative solutions one of which was correct. Japanese subjects outperformed British subjects on the test overall (z = 3.981, p interpersonal relationships, but it may sometimes cause specific errors. Differences in the perceptual cues used suggest that British subjects had difficulty reading Japanese facial expressions.

  9. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE: CULTURAL UNDERPINNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LESENCIUC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of interpersonal communication competence, intercultural communication competence and intercultural competence are prone to frequent misunderstanding as a result of an epistemic field that does not draw clear cut distinctions among the disciplines the former are subject of. With a view to facilitating future research in the fields of the aforementioned concepts, this paper will focus on their operationalization by delineating not only the differences among them, but also their inherent marginal overlapping.

  10. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among HIV-positive women in Kisumu, Kenya: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Chinwe; Ongeri, Linnet; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R; Neylan, Thomas C; Oyaro, Patrick; Rota, Grace; Otewa, Faith; Delucchi, Kevin L; Meffert, Susan M

    2016-02-03

    Mental disorders are the leading global cause of years lived with disability; the majority of this burden exists in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Over half of mental illness is attributable to depression and anxiety disorders, both of which have known treatments. While the scarcity of mental health care providers is recognized as a major contributor to the magnitude of untreated disorders in LMICs, studies in LMICs find that evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety disorders, such as brief, structured psychotherapies, are feasible, acceptable and have strong efficacy when delivered by local non-specialist personnel. However, most mental health treatment studies using non-specialist providers in LMICs deploy traditional efficacy designs (T1) without the benefit of integrated mental health treatment models shown to succeed over vertical interventions or methods derived from new implementation science to speed policy change. Here, we describe an effectiveness-implementation hybrid study that evaluates non-specialist delivery of mental health treatment within an HIV clinic for HIV-positive (HIV+) women affected by gender- based violence (GBV) (HIV+ GBV+) in the Nyanza region of Kenya. In this effectiveness-implementation hybrid type I design, 200 HIV+ women with major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who are receiving care at a Family AIDS Care Education and Services (FACES)-supported clinic in Kisumu, Kenya will be randomized to: (1) interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) + treatment as usual (TAU) or (2) TAU, both delivered within the HIV clinic. IPT will consist of 12 weekly 60-minute individual IPT sessions, delivered by non-specialists trained to provide IPT. Primary effectiveness outcomes will include MDD and PTSD diagnosis on the Mini International Diagnostic Interview (MINI). Primary implementation outcomes will include treatment cost-benefit, acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility and fidelity of the

  11. Association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with subjective oral health status and oral functions in Korean adults aged 35 years or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Han-Na; Lee, Jung-Ha; Kim, Se-Yeon; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2017-06-23

    Oral health greatly affects well-being throughout the different stages of life from childhood to late adulthood. Loss of teeth due to poor oral health hinders mastication, leading to poor nutrition absorption, and affects pronunciation and aesthetics, leading to interpersonal difficulties. As social activities become limited, a sense of isolation and loneliness, stress, and depression grows while happiness decreases. This study aimed to examine the association of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation with oral health status and oral functions in a large nationwide sample of Korean adults aged 35 years or more. The sample comprised 15,716 adults, selected using a rolling survey sampling method and data were extracted from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2010-2012). Participants were interviewed about their self-evaluation of health including oral health status and mental health, such as stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Data from 11,347 adults were finally selected after excluding participants with missing answers. The dependent variables were stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. The independent variables were gender, age, household income, education, smoking, drinking, oral health perception, chewing, and speaking. Complex samples logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Participants met the criteria for stress (25.4%), depression (13.0%), and suicidal ideation (13.9%). Subjective oral health status was not significantly associated with stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. However, the presence of very uncomfortable chewing problems was significantly associated with stress (OR = 2.294, 95% CI = 1.41, 3.72), depression (OR = 3.232, 95% CI = 1.97, 5.31), and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.727, 95% CI = 1.58, 4.72). The presence of very uncomfortable speaking problems was significantly associated with stress (OR

  12. [Influence of affectivity trait on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan-fa; Zhou, Wen-hui; Gu, Gui-zhen

    2008-09-01

    To explore the influence of affectivity trait on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. Self-reports for psychosocial work conditions and health and well-being in a sample of 878 workers from a thermal power plant in China were conducted using the job demand-control model, the effort-reward imbalance model, job satisfaction, depression symptom, and physical health complaints questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used by controlling for age, sex, and educational level. Negative and positive affectivity were correlated with occupational stressors or strains (Paffectivity or positive affectivity was controlled; Odds ratios decreased greater when negative affectivity and positive affectivity were controlled simultaneously. Furthermore in some equation no variable entered. Affectivity trait has effect on relationships between occupational stress and subjective physical health and job satisfaction. According to the outcome category of study, the possible confounding role of affectivity should be controlled in the study of the relationships between occupational stress and health self-reports.

  13. Effects of acute physical exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory status in young, sedentary obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Pullano, Salvatore A; Carè, Ilaria; Fiorillo, Antonino S; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Foti, Daniela P; Brunetti, Antonio; Gulletta, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Circulating oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory markers change after regular physical exercise; however, how a short session of acute physical activity affects the inflammatory status and redox balance in sedentary individuals is still unclear. Aim of this study is to assess antioxidant and inflammatory parameters, both at rest and after acute exercise, in sedentary young men with or without obesity. Thirty sedentary male volunteers, aged 20-45 (mean age 32 ± 7 years), were recruited, divided into 3 groups (normal weight: BMI group comparisons demonstrated significantly higher Glutathione Reductase activity in severely obese subjects in the post-exercise period (P = 0.036), and higher EGF levels in normal weight individuals, either before (P = 0.003) and after exercise (P = 0.05). Intra-group comparisons showed that the acute exercise stress induced a significant increase in Glutathione Reductase activity in severely obese subjects only (P = 0.007), a significant decrease in MCP-1 in the normal weight group (P = 0.02), and a decrease in EGF levels in all groups (normal weight: P = 0.025, overweight/moderate obesity: P = 0.04, severe obesity: P = 0.018). Altogether, these findings suggest that in sedentary individuals with different ranges of BMI, Glutathione Reductase and distinct cytokines are differentially involved into the adaptive metabolic changes and redox responses induced by physical exercise. Therefore, these biomarkers may have the potential to identify individuals at higher risk for developing diseases pathophysiologically linked to oxidative stress.

  14. Achilles tendon stress is more sensitive to subject-specific geometry than subject-specific material properties: A finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wencke; Shim, Vickie B; Obst, Steven; Lloyd, David G; Newsham-West, Richard; Barrett, Rod S

    2017-05-03

    This study used subject-specific measures of three-dimensional (3D) free Achilles tendon geometry in conjunction with a finite element method to investigate the effect of variation in subject-specific geometry and subject-specific material properties on tendon stress during submaximal isometric loading. Achilles tendons of eight participants (Aged 25-35years) were scanned with freehand 3D ultrasound at rest and during a 70% maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Ultrasound images were segmented, volume rendered and transformed into subject-specific 3D finite element meshes. The mean (±SD) lengths, volumes and cross-sectional areas of the tendons at rest were 62±13mm, 3617±984mm3 and 58±11mm2 respectively. The measured tendon strain at 70% MVIC was 5.9±1.3%. Subject-specific material properties were obtained using an optimisation approach that minimised the difference between measured and modelled longitudinal free tendon strain. Generic geometry was represented by the average mesh and generic material properties were taken from the literature. Local stresses were subsequently computed for combinations of subject-specific and generic geometry and material properties. For a given geometry, changing from generic to subject-specific material properties had little effect on the stress distribution in the tendon. In contrast, changing from generic to subject-specific geometry had a 26-fold greater effect on tendon stress distribution. Overall, these findings indicate that the stress distribution experienced by the living free Achilles tendon of a young and healthy population during voluntary loading are more sensitive to variation in tendon geometry than variation in tendon material properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective interpersonal communication

    OpenAIRE

    Darja Holátová

    2003-01-01

    Effective interpersonal communication is fundamental process. Accurate interpersonal communication between people takes place only if the idea, facts, opinions, attitudes or feelings that the sender intended to transmit are the same those understood and interpreted by the receiver. Personal feedback used by managers help personnel and managers to look at their behavior. An interpersonal communication network, the communication style aids managers to implement the objectives of the organizations.

  16. Daily Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849

  17. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistent effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management on cortisol responses to acute stress in healthy subjects--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerfald, K; Eberle, C; Grau, M; Kinsperger, A; Zimmermann, A; Ehlert, U; Gaab, J

    2006-04-01

    Psychosocial stress leads to a release of cortisol. While this psychoneuroendocrine response helps to maintain physiological as well as psychological equilibrium under stress, exaggerated secretion of cortisol has been shown to have negative effects on somatic health and cognitive functioning. The study set out to examine the long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management training on cortisol stress responses in healthy men and women. Eighty-three healthy subjects were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) training or a control condition. Four months after the CBSM, 76 subjects underwent a standardized psychosocial stress test. Salivary cortisol responses were assessed repeatedly before and after the stress test. Subjects in the CBSM group showed significantly reduced cortisol stress responses. With regard to gender, this effect was observed in both men and women. However, the magnitude of the CBSM effect on cortisol responses was smaller in women than in men. Use of oral contraceptives in women influenced the cortisol response, but did not have an impact on the CBSM effect on cortisol. The results show that the previously reported attenuation of cortisol stress responses through CBSM persists and are observable in both men and women. Since stress-induced alterations of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis functioning are discussed to be involved in the onset and maintenance of both somatic and psychiatric conditions, similar interventions could be used for prevention and therapy of these detrimental stress effects.

  19. Analysis of stresses on buried pipeline subjected to landslide based on numerical simulation and regression analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bing; Jing, Hongyuan; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Zhangzhong [PetroChina Pipeline RandD Center, Langfang, Hebei (China); Hao, Jianbin [School of Petroleum Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Landslides have a serious impact on the integrity of oil and gas pipelines in the tough terrain of Western China. This paper introduces a solving method of axial stress, which uses numerical simulation and regression analysis for the pipelines subjected to landslides. Numerical simulation is performed to analyze the change regularity of pipe stresses for the five vulnerability assessment indexes, which are: the distance between pipeline and landslide tail; the thickness of landslide; the inclination angle of landslide; the pipeline length passing through landslide; and the buried depth of pipeline. A pipeline passing through a certain landslide in southwest China was selected as an example to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. This method has practical applicability, but it would need large numbers of examples to better verify its reliability and should be modified accordingly. Also, it only considers the case where the direction of the pipeline is perpendicular to the primary slip direction of the landslide.

  20. Altered Pain Perception and Fear-Learning Deficits in Subjects With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenewein, Josef; Erni, Jeannine; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Grillon, Christian; Schumacher, Sonja; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Hassanpour, Katayun; Seiler, Annina; Wittmann, Lutz; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    There is growing evidence that fear-learning abnormalities are involved in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain. More than 50% of PTSD patients suffer from chronic pain. This study aimed to examine the role of fear-learning deficits in the link between pain perception and PTSD. We included 19 subjects with PTSD and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects in a fear-conditioning experiment. The conditioned stimulus (CS) consisted of visual signs flashed upon a screen in front of each subject. The unconditioned stimulus was either a low or high temperature impulse delivered through a thermal contact thermode on the subjects' hand. A designation of 'CS-' was assigned to CS always followed by nonpainful low-temperature stimuli; a designation of 'CS+' was given to CS that were randomly followed by either a low or a more painful high temperature. Skin conductance was used as a physiological marker of fear. In healthy control subjects, CS+ induced more fear than CS-, and a low-temperature stimulus induced less subjective pain after CS- than after CS+. PTSD subjects failed to demonstrate such adaptive conditioning. Fear ratings after CS presentation were significantly higher in the PTSD group than in the control group. There were significant interaction effects between group and the type of CS on fear and pain ratings. Fear-learning deficits are a potentially promising, specific psychopathological factor in altered pain perception associated with PTSD. Deficits in safety learning may increase fear and, consequently, pain sensations. These findings may contribute to elucidating the pathogenesis behind the highly prevalent comorbidity that exists between PTSD and pain disorders, and to developing new treatments. This study provides new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic pain in patients with PTSD. The findings may help to develop new treatment strategies for this highly prevalent comorbidity in PTSD. Copyright © 2016

  1. Interpersonal conflict and depression among Japanese workers with high or low socioeconomic status: findings from the Japan Work Stress and Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito

    2010-07-01

    Research that focuses on the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work (i.e., intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict) and depression that also considers differences in socioeconomic status (SES) is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and depression at different levels of SES. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 17,390 males and 2923 females employed in nine factories located in several regions of Japan. These participants were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire that included self-reported measures of interpersonal conflict at work (intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict), SES (education and occupation), worksite support (supervisor support and coworker support), depression (assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] scale), and other demographic covariates. Those who had scores of 16 + on the CES-D scale (4066 males and 873 females) were classified as experiencing depression. The association of interpersonal conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES (i.e., higher educational status and non-manual workers) than males of a low SES (i.e., lower educational status and manual workers) after adjusting for demographic variables, supervisor support, and coworker support. More specifically, the association of intergroup conflict with depression was significantly greater among males of a high SES than males of a low SES. However, this pattern was not observed in females. The current study suggests that males of a higher SES are more vulnerable to interpersonal conflict at work in terms of developing depression than males of a lower SES. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. COMT Val158Met genotype selectively alters prefrontal [18F]fallypride displacement and subjective feelings of stress in response to a psychosocial stress challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hernaus

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT plays an essential role in degradation of extracellular dopamine in prefrontal regions of the brain. Although a polymorphism in this gene, COMT Val(158Met, affects human behavior in response to stress little is known about its effect on dopaminergic activity associated with the human stress response, which may be of interest for stress-related psychiatric disorders such as psychosis. We aimed to investigate the effect of variations in COMT genotype on in vivo measures of stress-induced prefrontal cortex (PFC dopaminergic processing and subjective stress responses. A combined sample of healthy controls and healthy first-degree relatives of psychosis patients (n = 26 were subjected to an [(18F]fallypride Positron Emission Tomography scan. Psychosocial stress during the scan was induced using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task and subjective stress was assessed every 12 minutes. Parametric t-maps, generated using the linear extension of the simplified reference region model, revealed an effect of COMT genotype on the spatial extent of [(18F]fallypride displacement. Detected effects of exposure to psychosocial stress were unilateral and remained restricted to the left superior and right inferior frontal gyrus, with Met-hetero- and homozygotes showing less [(18F]fallypride displacement than Val-homozygotes. Additionally, Met-hetero- and homozygotes experienced larger subjective stress responses than Val-homozygotes. The direction of the effects remained the same when the data was analyzed separately for controls and first-degree relatives. The human stress response may be mediated in part by COMT-dependent dopaminergic PFC activity, providing speculation for the neurobiology underlying COMT-dependent differences in human behaviour following stress. Implications of these results for stress-related psychopathology and models of dopaminergic functioning are discussed.

  3. Interpersonal Liking and Self-Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Richard; McGinley, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    Females viewed a female stranger who discussed opinions about social issues. Subjects rated stranger on Interpersonal Judgment Scale and indicated on Jourard Self-Disclosure Questionnaire topics they would discuss with her. Topics subjects would discuss were positively related to their level of disclosure and attraction toward the stranger.…

  4. Annatto carotenoids attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory response after high-calorie meal in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Miguel; Conte, Lisiane; da Silva, Dariane Trivisiol; Duarte, Thiago; Maurer, Luana Haselein; de Carvalho, José Antonio Mainardi; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Somacal, Sabrina; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto carotenoids intake associated to a single high-calorie meal (high fat and high carbohydrate) in postprandial biochemical, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Twelve healthy subjects (6 men, 6 women) were included in this randomised, controlled crossover study. Baseline blood samples were collected from fasting subjects that immediately received high-calorie meal without carotenoid (placebo) or containing 1.2mg/kg bixin (BIX) or 0.06mg/kg norbixin (NBIX). Blood samples were taken 60, 120 and 240min after meal intake. NBIX intake did not affect biochemical blood markers but reduced the postprandial levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) and lipid oxidation 60-120min after meal. BIX only partially prevented postprandial-induced lipid oxidation. Results indicate that the intake of NBIX may be an alternative to reduce the postprandial inflammatory and oxidative stress responses to high-calorie meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between bioclimatic thermal stress and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, David; Jiao, Dixin; Garb, Yaakov

    2014-12-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has important implications for urban planning and energy consumption in the built environment. To better understand the relation of subjective thermal experience to bioclimatic thermal stress in such contexts, this study compares micrometeorological and perceptual data from urban spaces in the hot-arid Negev region of Israel. Pedestrians reported on their thermal sensation in these spaces, whereas radiation and convection-related data were used to compute the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The former is a straightforward characterization of energy exchanges between the human body and its surroundings, without any conversion to an "equivalent temperature." Although the relation of ITS to subjective thermal sensation has been analyzed in the past under controlled indoor conditions, this paper offers the first analysis of this relation in an outdoor setting. ITS alone can account for nearly 60 % of the variance in pedestrians' thermal sensation under outdoor conditions, somewhat more than PET. A series of regressions with individual contextual variables and ITS identified those factors which accounted for additional variance in thermal sensation, whereas multivariate analyses indicated the considerable predictive power ( R-square = 0.74) of models including multiple contextual variables in addition to ITS. Our findings indicate that pedestrians experiencing variable outdoor conditions have a greater tolerance for incremental changes in thermal stress than has been shown previously under controlled indoor conditions, with a tapering of responses at high values of ITS. However, the thresholds of ITS corresponding to thermal "neutrality" and thermal "acceptability" are quite consistent regardless of context.

  6. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Bruno Dias; Lima, Patricia Oliveira de; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Rolim, Gustavo Sattolo; Moraes, Antonio Bento Alves de; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects. Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument. The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p stressed group (p stressed subjects.

  7. Stress response of a clinical Enterococcus faecalis isolate subjected to a novel antimicrobial surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss-Lendzian, Emanuel; Vaishampayan, Ankita; de Jong, Anne; Landau, Uwe; Meyer, Carsten; Kok, Jan; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2018-03-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria, paired with their ability to form biofilms on medical and technical devices, represents a serious problem for effective and long-term decontamination in health-care environments and gives rise to an urgent need for new antimicrobial materials. Here we present the impact of AGXX ® , a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial surface coating consisting of micro-galvanic elements formed by silver and ruthenium, on the transcriptome of Enterococcus faecalis. A clinical E. faecalis isolate was subjected to metal stress by growing it for different periods in presence of the antimicrobial coating or silver-coated steel meshes. Subsequently, total RNA was isolated and next-generation RNA sequencing was performed to analyze variations in gene expression in presence of the antimicrobial materials with focus on known stress genes. Exposure to the antimicrobial coating had a large impact on the transcriptome of E. faecalis. After 24min almost 1/5 of the E. faecalis genome displayed differential expression. At each time-point the cop operon was strongly up-regulated, providing indirect evidence for the presence of free Ag + -ions. Moreover, exposure to the antimicrobial coating induced a broad general stress response in E. faecalis. Genes coding for the chaperones GroEL and GroES and the Clp proteases, ClpE and ClpB, were among the top up-regulated heat shock genes. Differential expression of thioredoxin, superoxide dismutase and glutathione synthetase genes indicates a high level of oxidative stress. We postulate a mechanism of action where the combination of Ag + -ions and reactive oxygen species generated by AGXX ® results in a synergistic antimicrobial effect, superior to that of conventional silver coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Stress hormone release is a key component of the metabolic response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS): studies in hypopituitary and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) generates acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release...... of stress hormones. We compared the metabolic effects of LPS in hypopituitary patients (HP) (in the absence of pituitary stress hormone responses) and healthy control subjects (CTR) (with normal pituitary stress hormone responses). DESIGN: Single blind randomized. METHODS: We compared effects of LPS...

  9. Accuracy of Interpersonal Perception in Mediated Contacts in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya E.P.; Bronin I.D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on the issue of accuracy of interpersonal perception in computer-mediated communication. It shows how J.Biesanz’s social accuracy model of interpersonal perception may be used in explorations of interpersonal perception in mediated contacts — via personal webpages in social media. In the study the subjects (15 people) were asked to assess individuals with whom they were unacquainted basing on their webpages in VKontakte (30 web pages) using a brief version of the Big Five In...

  10. Interpersonal emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain.

  11. Computationally modeling interpersonal trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Joo; Knox, W. Bradley; Wormwood, Jolie B.; Breazeal, Cynthia; DeSteno, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind's readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naiveté of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to investigate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust. PMID:24363649

  12. Computationally Modeling Interpersonal Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo eLee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind’s readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naivete' of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to incorporate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust.

  13. Stress-Induced Dopamine Response in Subjects at Clinical High Risk for Schizophrenia with and without Concurrent Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Romina; Kenk, Miran; Suridjan, Ivonne; Boileau, Isabelle; George, Tony P; McKenzie, Kwame; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Rusjan, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Research on the environmental risk factors for schizophrenia has focused on either psychosocial stress or drug exposure, with limited investigation of their interaction. A heightened dopaminergic stress response in patients with schizophrenia and individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) supports the dopaminergic sensitization hypothesis. Cannabis is believed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia, possibly through a cross-sensitization with stress. Twelve CHR and 12 cannabis-using CHR (CHR-CU, 11 dependent) subjects underwent [11C]-(+)-PHNO positron emission tomography scans, while performing a Sensorimotor Control Task (SMCT) and a stress condition (Montreal Imaging Stress task). The simplified reference tissue model was used to obtain binding potential relative to non-displaceable binding (BPND) in the whole striatum, its functional subdivisions (limbic striatum (LST), associative striatum (AST), and sensorimotor striatum (SMST)), globus pallidus (GP), and substantia nigra (SN). Changes in BPND, reflecting alterations in synaptic dopamine (DA) levels, were tested with analysis of variance. SMCT BPND was not significantly different between groups in any brain region (p>0.21). Although stress elicited a significant reduction in BPND in the CHR group, CHR-CU group exhibited an increase in BPND. Stress-induced changes in regional BPND between CHR-CU and CHR were significantly different in AST (p<0.001), LST (p=0.007), SMST (p=0.002), SN (p=0.021), and whole striatum (p=0.001), with trend level in the GP (p=0.099). All subjects experienced an increase in positive (attenuated) psychotic symptoms (p=0.001) following the stress task. Our results suggest altered DA stress reactivity in CHR subjects who concurrently use cannabis, as compared with CHR subjects. Our finding does not support the cross-sensitization hypothesis, which posits greater dopaminergic reactivity to stress in CHR cannabis users, but adds to the growing body of literature showing reduced DA

  14. Reduced synapse and axon numbers in the prefrontal cortex of rats subjected to a chronic stress model for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csabai, Dávid; Wiborg, Ove; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2018-01-01

    Stressful experiences can induce structural changes in neurons of the limbic system. These cellular changes contribute to the development of stress-induced psychopathologies like depressive disorders. In the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals, reduced dendritic length and spine loss...... have been reported. This loss of dendritic material should consequently result in synapse loss as well, because of the reduced dendritic surface. But so far, no one studied synapse numbers in the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals. Here, we examined synaptic contacts in rats subjected...... to an animal model for depression, where animals are exposed to a chronic stress protocol. Our hypothesis was that long term stress should reduce the number of axo-spinous synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male rats were exposed to daily stress for 9 weeks and afterward we did a post mortem...

  15. PENGEMBANGAN KECERDASAN INTERPERSONAL ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mumun Muniroh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kecerdasan interpersonal sangat urgen bagi masa depan anak. Bagaimana dengan tingkat kecerdasan interpersonal anak dan pola pengembangan keterampilan sosialnya pada Sekolah Dasar Islam Terpadu (SD-IT Ulul Albab Kota Pekalongan? Melalui pendekatan double approach (kuantitatif-kualitatif, hasil penelitian mengungkap bahwa tingkat kecerdasan interpersonal siswa SDIT sebagian besar atau 89 % masuk kategori sedang, selain itu 4 % kategori tinggi, serta 7 % kategori rendah. Sedangkan pola keterampilan sosial yang dilakukan pada siswa-siswi SDIT di antaranya dilakukan melalui membangun kurikulum caracter building, membangun keberanian berkomunikasi melalui bercerita, membangun kedekatan personal dan bermain, penanaman nilai-nilai moralitas Islam, belajar menyelesaikan konflik, membiasakan berbagi, dan menumbuhkan sikap kerjasama.

  16. Stress responses of the fish Nile tilapia subjected to electroshock and social stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Barreto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cortisol and glucose levels were measured in 36 adult Nile tilapia males, Oreochromis niloticus (standard length, mean ± SD, 14.38 ± 1.31 cm, subjected to electroshock and social stressors. Pre-stressor levels were determined 5 days after the adjustment of the fish to the experimental aquaria (1 fish/aquarium. Five days later, the effects of stressors on both cortisol and glucose levels were assessed. The following stressors were imposed for 60 min: pairing with a larger resident animal (social stressor, or a gentle electroshock (AC, 20 V, 15 mA, 100 Hz for 1 min every 4 min. Each stressor was tested in two independent groups, one in which stress was quantified immediately after the end of the 60-min stressor imposition (T60 and the other in which stress was quantified 30 min later (T90. Pre-stressor values for cortisol and glucose were not statistically different between groups. Plasma cortisol levels increased significantly and were of similar magnitude for both electroshock and the social stressor (mean ± SD for basal and final samples were: electroshock T60 = 65.47 ± 15.3, 177.0 ± 30.3; T90 = 54.8 ± 16.0, 196.2 ± 57.8; social stress T60 = 47.1 ± 9.0, 187.6 ± 61.7; T90 = 41.6 ± 8.1, 112.3 ± 26.8, respectively. Plasma glucose levels increased significantly for electroshock at both time points (T60 and T90, but only at T90 for the social stressor. Initial and final mean (± SD values are: electroshock T60 = 52.5 ± 9.2, 115.0 ± 15.7; T90 = 35.5 ± 1.1, 146.3 ± 13.3; social stress T60 = 54.8 ± 8.8, 84.4 ± 15.0; T90 = 34.5 ± 5.6, 116.3 ± 13.6, respectively. Therefore, electroshock induced an increase in glucose more rapidly than did the social stressor. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between cortisol and glucose was detected only at T90 for the social stressor. These results indicate that a fish species responds differently to different stressors, thus suggesting specificity of fish stress response to a

  17. Dishabituating properties of cognitive and interpersonal stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interpersonal stressors are especially effective at stimulating consumption of energy dense comfort foods, which may contribute to overweight or obesity. One reason that people slow or stop eating is by habituating to the food. Stress may also influence energy intake by acting as a dishabituator, bu...

  18. The Assessing of the Failure Behavior of Glass/Polyester Composites Subject to Quasi Static Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, M. D.; Savin, A.; Teodorescu-Drăghicescu, H.

    2017-06-01

    Using glass fabric reinforced composites for structure of wind turbine blades requires high mechanical strengths especially to cyclic stresses. Studies have shown that approximately 50% of composite material failure occurs because of fatigue. Composites behavior to cyclic stresses involves three stages regarding to stiffness variation: the first stage is characterized by the accelerated decline of stiffness with micro-cracks, the second stage - a slight decrease of stiffness characterized by the occurrence of delamination and third stage characterized by higher decreases of resistance and occurrence of fracture thereof. The aim of the paper is to analyzed the behavior of composites reinforced with glass fibers fabric type RT500 and polyester resin subjected to tensile cyclic loading with pulsating quasi-static regime with asymmetry coefficient R = 0. The samples were tested with the universal tensile machine LS100 Lloyd Instruments Plus, with a load capacity of 100 kN. The load was applied with different speeds of 1 mm/min, 10 mm/min and 20 mm/min. After tests, it was observed that the greatest permanent strains were recorded in the first load cycles when the total energy storage by material was lost due to internal friction. With increasing number of cycles, the glass/polyester composites ability to store energy of deformation decreases, the flow phenomenon characterized by large displacements to smaller loading forces appearing.

  19. Gender differences in response to emotional stress: an assessment across subjective, behavioral, and physiological domains and relations to alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Hong, Kwangik; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-07-01

    Women and men are at risk for different types of stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for depression and anxiety and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders. The present study examines gender differences in emotional and alcohol craving responses to stress that may relate to this gender divergence in disorders. Healthy adult social drinkers (27 men, 27 women) were exposed to individually developed and calibrated stressful, alcohol-related, and neutral-relaxing imagery, 1 imagery per session, on separate days and in random order. Subjective emotions, behavioral/bodily responses, cardiovascular arousal [heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP)], and self-reported alcohol craving were assessed. Women reported and displayed greater sadness and anxiety following stress than men and men had greater diastolic BP response than women. No gender differences in alcohol craving, systolic BP or HR were observed. Subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular measures were correlated in both genders. However, for men, but not women, alcohol craving was associated with greater subjective emotion and behavioral arousal following stress and alcohol cues. These data suggest that men and women respond to stress differently, with women experiencing greater sadness and anxiety, while men show a greater integration of reward motivation (craving) and emotional stress systems. These findings have implications for the gender-related divergence in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for anxiety and depression than men, and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders than women.

  20. Evaluation of changes in birefringence for samples subjected to various stress sources measured with polarization-sensitive OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnowski, Karol; Li, Qingyun; Villiger, Martin; Sampson, David D.

    2017-04-01

    Polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) has proven useful in determining the stress-induced birefringence of non-biological materials, but such utility in biological tissues subjected to stress has not been well studied yet. To study stress-induced birefringence of biological tissues, we use a swept-source PS-OCT system with passively depth-encoded, orthogonal polarization states in the illumination path and polarization-diversity detection and a Mueller formalism in post-processing. We present measurements of stress-induced changes in the birefringence of non-biological and biological samples that provide useful benchmarks in further assessing the utility of this approach.

  1. Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Boysen, Lisbeth; Haugaard, Stine

    2008-01-01

    . Medial longitudinal-arch deformation was measured during walking gait using 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrated a significantly larger navicular drop (mean +/- 1 SD, 7.7 +/- 3.1 mm) and medial longitudinal-arch deformation (5.9 +/- 3.2 degrees) during......The objective of this study was to investigate (1) if subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome demonstrate increased navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait compared with healthy subjects, and (2) the relationship between medial longitudinal......-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait. Thirty subjects aged 20 to 32 years were included (15 with medial tibial stress syndrome and 15 controls). Navicular drop and medial longitudinal-arch deformation were measured during quiet standing with neutral and loaded foot using a ruler and digital photography...

  2. TEACHING INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2009-01-01

    knowledge and skills in teamwork, leadership, and communications are highly required. Thus, the practice of interpersonal skills need to be implemented in engineering teaching, not only in terms of learning objectives, but realised in practical teaching activities and as an integrated part......In addition to the traditional learning outcomes for technical disciplinary knowledge, the CDIO-syllabus also specifies personal and interpersonal learning outcomes. The argument for teaching interpersonal skills rest upon the team-based working environment that is typical for engineers, where...... of the examination. This study aims at presenting and reviewing a practical approach to teaching of interpersonal skills, referred to as the Social Risk Analysis, which has been applied and integrated into the curriculum of two engineering courses. The Social Risk Analysis encourages and imposes a critical review...

  3. An Interpersonal Communication Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, Millard J., Sr.

    1971-01-01

    Patterns, characteristics and styles of interpersonal communication in 316 men and women were investigated using the Inventory; item analysis yielded 50 items which discriminated between good and poor communication. (Author)

  4. Mindfulness, perceived stress, and subjective well-being: a correlational study in primary care health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanes, Ana C M; Andreoni, Solange; Hirayama, Marcio S; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Barros, Viviam V; Ronzani, Telmo M; Kozasa, Eliza H; Soler, Joaquim; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo M P

    2015-09-02

    Primary health care professionals (PHPs) usually report high levels of distress and burnout symptoms related to job strain. Mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental-present-moment awareness, seems to be a moderator in the causal association between life stressors and well-being. This study aimed to verify correlations among self-reported mindfulness, perceived stress (PS), and subjective well-being (SW) in Brazilian PHPs. We performed a correlational cross-sectional study in a purposive sample of Brazilian PHPs (physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, and community health workers), working in community-oriented primary care programs (known locally as "Family Health Programs"). We used validated self-reporting instruments: the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Subjective Well-being Scale (SWS). We performed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), through regression coefficients (beta) in relation to the professional category (nursing assistant), in addition to the length of time in the same job (under than 6 months) that had indicated the lowest level of PS. Participants (n=450) comprised community health workers (65.8%), nursing assistants (18%), registered nurses (10.0%), and doctors (family physicians) (6.0%); 94% were female and 83.1% had worked in the same position for more than one year. MANOVA regression analysis showed differences across professional categories and length of time in the same job position in relation to mindfulness, PS, and SW. Nurses demonstrated lower levels of mindfulness, higher PS, and SW negative affect, as well as lower SW positive affect. Being at work for 1 year or longer showed a clear association with higher PS and lower SW positive affect, and no significance with mindfulness levels. Pearson's coefficient values indicated strong negative correlations between mindfulness and PS, and medium correlations between mindfulness and SW. In this study, there were clear correlations

  5. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Shawn M; Talbott, Julie A; Pugh, Mike

    2013-08-07

    Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are "stressed" by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (pStress (-11%), Tension (-13%), Depression (-20%), Anger (-42%), Fatigue (-31%), and Confusion (-27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery benefits of Relora supplementation in athletes overstressed by the physical and psychological demands of training and competition.

  6. Subjectively and objectively measured sleep with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Huntley, Edward; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Although reports of sleep disturbances are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results of polysomnographic (PSG) studies have inconsistently documented abnormalities and have therefore suggested "sleep state misperception." The authors' study objectives were to compare sleep parameters measured objectively and subjectively in the laboratory and at home in civilians with and without trauma exposure and PTSD. Cross-sectional study. PSG recordings in a sleep laboratory and actigraphic recordings in participants' homes. One hundred three urban-residing African Americans with and without trauma exposure and PTSD who participated in a larger study. N/A. Sleep parameters (total sleep time [TST], sleep onset latency [SOL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) were assessed using laboratory PSG and home actigraphy. A sleep diary was completed in the morning after PSG and actigraphy recordings. Habitual TST, SOL, and WASO were assessed using a sleep questionnaire. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered to assess participants' trauma exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Participants, regardless of their trauma exposure/PTSD status, underestimated WASO in the diary and questionnaire relative to actigraphy and overestimated SOL in the diary relative to PSG. Among participants with current PTSD, TST diary estimates did not differ from the actigraphy measure in contrast with those without current PTSD who overestimated TST. No other significant group differences in discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep measures were found. Discrepancies between subjectively and objectively measured sleep parameters were not associated with trauma exposure or PTSD. This challenges prior assertions that individuals with PTSD overreport their sleep disturbances.

  7. An Interpersonal Analysis of Pathological Personality Traits in DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed changes to the personality disorder section of the DSM-5 places an increased focus on interpersonal impairment as one of the defining features of personality psychopathology. In addition, a proposed trait model has been offered to provide a means of capturing phenotypic variation on the expression of personality disorder. In this study, we subject the proposed DSM-5 traits to interpersonal analysis using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Circumplex scales via the structural summary method for circumplex data. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with generalized interpersonal dysfunction suggesting that they are maladaptive in nature, the majority of traits demonstrated discriminant validity with prototypical and differentiated interpersonal problem profiles, and conformed well to a priori hypothesized associations. These results are discussed in the context of the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary interpersonal theory, with a particular focus on potential areas for expansion of the DSM-5 trait model. PMID:22589411

  8. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  9. Distinct neural circuits subserve interpersonal and non-interpersonal emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Alla; Wang, Zhishun; Russell, James A; Posner, Jonathan; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Huo, Yuankai; Fallon, Brian A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-01-01

    Emotions elicited by interpersonal versus non-interpersonal experiences have different effects on neurobiological functioning in both animals and humans. However, the extent to which the brain circuits underlying interpersonal and non-interpersonal emotions are distinct still remains unclear. The goal of our study was to assess whether different neural circuits are implicated in the processing of arousal and valence of interpersonal versus non-interpersonal emotions. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants imagined themselves in emotion-eliciting interpersonal or non-interpersonal situations and then rated the arousal and valence of emotions they experienced. We identified (1) separate neural circuits that are implicated in the arousal and valence dimensions of interpersonal versus non-interpersonal emotions, (2) circuits that are implicated in arousal and valence for both types of emotion, and (3) circuits that are responsive to the type of emotion, regardless of the valence or arousal level of the emotion. We found extensive recruitment of limbic (for arousal) and temporal-parietal (for valence) systems associated with processing of specifically interpersonal emotions compared to non-interpersonal ones. The neural bases of interpersonal and non-interpersonal emotions may, therefore, be largely distinct.

  10. Distinct Neural Circuits Subserve Interpersonal and Non-interpersonal Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Alla; Wang, Zhishun; Russell, James A.; Posner, Jonathan; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Huo, Yuankai; Fallon, Brian A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Emotions elicited by interpersonal versus non-interpersonal experiences have different effects on neurobiological functioning in both animals and humans. However, the extent to which the brain circuits underlying interpersonal and non-interpersonal emotions are distinct still remains unclear. The goal of our study was to assess whether different neural circuits are implicated in the processing of arousal and valence of interpersonal versus non-interpersonal emotions. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants imagined themselves in emotion-eliciting interpersonal or non-interpersonal situations and then rated the arousal and valence of emotions they experienced. We identified (a) separate neural circuits that are implicated in the arousal and valence dimensions of interpersonal versus non-interpersonal emotions, (b) circuits that are implicated in arousal and valence for both types of emotion, and (c) circuits that are responsive to the type of emotion, regardless of the valence or arousal level of the emotion. We found extensive recruitment of limbic (for arousal) and temporal-parietal (for valence) systems associated with processing of specifically interpersonal emotions compared to non-interpersonal ones. The neural bases of interpersonal and non-interpersonal emotions may, therefore, be largely distinct. PMID:24028312

  11. An investigation of interfacial stresses in adhesively-bonded single lap joints subject to transverse pulse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E.; Soleiman Fallah, A.; Louca, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    Debonding in adhesively-bonded lap joints is a detrimental failure mode contingent upon the level of stresses develped in the adhesive. In this work, an analytical model is developed to estimate the peel and shear stresses in an isotropic elastic adhesive in a single lap joint subjected to transverse pulse loads. The proposed analytical model is an extension of the mathematical models developed by He and Rao (Journal of Sound and Vibration 152 (3), (1992) 405-416, 417-425) to study the coupled transverse and longitudinal vibrations of a bonded lap joint system. The adhesive, in this work, is modelled as an elastic isotropic material implemented in Abaqus 6.9-1. The interfacial stresses obtained by finite element simulations were used to validate the proposed analytical model. The maximum peel and shear stresses in the adhesive as predicted by the analytical model were found to correlate well with the maximum stresses predicted by the corresponding numerical models. The peel stresses in the adhesive were found to be higher than shear stresses, a result which is consistent with intuition for transversally loaded joints. The analytical model is able to predict the maxium stresses in the edges where debonding initiates due to the highly asymetrical stress distribution as observed in the finite element simulations and experiment. This phenomenon is consistent with observations made by Vaidya et al. (International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 26 (2006) 184-198). The stress distribution under uniformily distributed transverse pulse loading was observed to be similarly asymetric.

  12. Rivulet flow round a horizontal cylinder subject to a uniform surface shear stress

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2014-09-14

    © 2014 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. The steady flow of a slowly varying rivulet with prescribed flux in the azimuthal direction round a large stationary horizontal cylinder subject to a prescribed uniform azimuthal surface shear stress is investigated. In particular, we focus on the case where the volume flux is downwards but the shear stress is upwards, for which there is always a solution corresponding to a rivulet flowing down at least part of one side of the cylinder. We consider both a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle but slowly varying width (that is, de-pinned contact lines) and a rivulet with constant width but slowly varying contact angle (that is, pinned contact lines), and show that they have qualitatively different behaviour. When shear is present, a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can never run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, and so we consider the scenario in which an infinitely wide two-dimensional film of uniform thickness covers part of the upper half of the cylinder and \\'breaks\\' into a single rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle. In contrast, a sufficiently narrow rivulet with constant width can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, whereas a wide rivulet can do so only if its contact lines de-pin, and so we consider the scenario in which the contact lines of a wide rivulet de-pin on the lower half of the cylinder.

  13. The response of endocrine system to stress loads during space flight in human subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L.; Koška, J.; Kšinantová, L.; Pacak, K.; Hoff, T.; Noskov, V. B.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Vigaš, M.; Kvetňanský, R.

    The responses of endocrine system to the exposure to stress-work load and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance tests were studied in the Slovak astronaut before (three weeks before flight), during (on the 4th and the 6th days of space flight), and after space flight (1-3 days and 15-17 days after space flight) on board of space station MIR. Blood samples during the tests were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transforred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Preflight workload produced an increase of plasma norepinephrine and a moderate elevation of epinephrine levels. Plasma levels of insulin, growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol were not markedly changed immediately or 10 min after the end of work load. The higher increases of plasma growth hormone, prolactin and catecholamine levels were noted after workload during space flight as compared to preflight response. The higher plasma glucose and insulin levels were noted during the oral glucose tolerance test in space flight and also in the post flight period. Plasma epinephrine levels were slightly decreasing during glucose tolerance test; however, plasma norepinephrine levels were not changed. The similar patterns of catecholamine levels during glucose tolerance test were found when compared the preflight, in-flight and post flight values. These data demonstrate the changes of the dynamic responses of endocrine system to stress-work and metabolic loads during space flight in human subject.

  14. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Plants Subjected to Boron Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervilla, Luis M.; Blasco, Begoña; Ríos, Juan J.; Romero, Luis; Ruiz, Juan M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Boron (B) toxicity triggers the formation of reactive oxygen species in plant tissues. However, there is still a lack of knowledge as to how B toxicity affects the plant antioxidant defence system. It has been suggested that ascorbate could be important against B stress, although existing information is limited in this respect. The objective of this study was to analyse how ascorbate and some other components of the antioxidant network respond to B toxicity. Methods Two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivars (‘Kosaco’ and ‘Josefina’) were subjected to 0·05 (control), 0·5 and 2 mm B. The following were studied in leaves: dry weight; relative leaf growth rate; total and free B; H2O2; malondialdehyde; ascorbate; glutathione; sugars; total non-enzymatic antioxidant activity, and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate oxidase and l-galactose dehydrogenase. Key Results The B-toxicity treatments diminished growth and boosted the amount of B, malondialdehyde and H2O2 in the leaves of the two cultivars, these trends being more pronounced in ‘Josefina’ than in ‘Kosaco’. B toxicity increased ascorbate concentration in both cultivars and increased glutathione only in ‘Kosaco’. Activities of antioxidant- and ascorbate-metabolizing enzymes were also induced. Conclusions High B concentration in the culture medium provokes oxidative damage in tomato leaves and induces a general increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. In particular, B toxicity increased ascorbate pool size. It also increased the activity of l-galactose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in ascorbate biosynthesis, and the activity of enzymes of the Halliwell–Asada cycle. This work therefore provides a starting point towards a better understanding of the role of ascorbate in the plant response against B stress. PMID:17660516

  15. Interpersonal problems across levels of the psychopathology hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Scott, Lori N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationship between psychopathology and interpersonal problems in a sample of 825 clinical and community participants. Sixteen psychiatric diagnoses and five transdiagnostic dimensions were examined in relation to self-reported interpersonal problems. The structural summary method was used with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales to examine interpersonal problem profiles for each diagnosis and dimension. We built a structural model of mental disorders including factors corresponding to detachment (avoidant personality, social phobia, major depression), internalizing (dependent personality, borderline personality, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress, major depression), disinhibition (antisocial personality, drug dependence, alcohol dependence, borderline personality), dominance (histrionic personality, narcissistic personality, paranoid personality), and compulsivity (obsessive-compulsive personality). All dimensions showed good interpersonal prototypicality (e.g., detachment was defined by a socially avoidant/nonassertive interpersonal profile) except for internalizing, which was diffusely associated with elevated interpersonal distress. The findings for individual disorders were largely consistent with the dimension that each disorder loaded on, with the exception of the internalizing and dominance disorders, which were interpersonally heterogeneous. These results replicate previous findings and provide novel insights into social dysfunction in psychopathology by wedding the power of hierarchical (i.e., dimensional) modeling and interpersonal circumplex assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns of interpersonal problems in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Simone; Streeck, Ulrich; Jaeger, Ulrich; Masuhr, Oliver; Warwas, Jasmin; Leichsenring, Falk; Leibing, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a wide variety of interpersonal problems. We examined whether there are different characteristic interpersonal patterns in BPD and how these patterns are related to symptom distress and therapeutic alliance. In 228 inpatients with diagnoses of BPD, interpersonal subtypes based on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Horowitz et al., Inventar zur Erfassung Interpersonaler Probleme, 2000) were examined through cluster analyses. The global symptom severity and therapeutic alliance were also assessed. We identified five characteristic interpersonal patterns, which we labeled as follows: Cluster 1, "Vindictive"; Cluster 2, "Moderate Submissive"; Cluster 3, "Nonassertive"; Cluster 4, "Exploitable"; and Cluster 5, "Socially Avoidant." The clusters differed significantly in terms of interpersonal distress, interpersonal differentiation, and severity of global symptoms. The ratings of the therapeutic alliance by therapists during treatment significantly differed between the interpersonal subtypes, and the lowest ratings for patients were in the "Socially Avoidant" cluster. Our results stress the impact of interpersonal style on the appearance and treatment of BPD.

  17. Bales's Interpersonal Rating Forms: Reliability and Dimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Myron W.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated reliability and dimensionality of Bales's Interpersonal Rating Forms (IRF) using volunteer subjects (N=266) enrolled in undergraduate communications course. Results documented shortcomings of IRF as a measuring instrument finding the subscales neither reliable nor dimensionally structured; only 2 of 18 items in each subscale are…

  18. Gender differences in irritable bowel syndrome: the interpersonal connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, E R; Gurtman, M B; Keefer, L; Brenner, D M; Lackner, J M

    2015-10-01

    While irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects women more than men, the reasons are unclear. Research on the female preponderance of IBS has focused on gender differences in sex-linked biological processes; much less attention has been paid to the role of psychosocial factors. Interpersonal difficulties may be one source of stress that may significantly impact on women with IBS. Because of the importance that women attach to relationships, we suspected they would be more reactive to interpersonal stress. A total of 283 (M age = 41 years, F = 80%), Rome III-diagnosed IBS patients completed a test battery that included the IBS Symptom Severity Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), interpersonal support evaluation list (social support), Negative Interactions Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory (distress), Beck Depression Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory, and IBS-Quality of Life as part of baseline assessment of an NIH trial. Males scored higher on two IIP scales reflecting a hostile-dominant interpersonal pattern, and reported less social support. The quality of relationship problems (more interpersonal difficulties, lower support) correlated with IBS symptom severity as measured mainly by gastroenterologists. Male, not female, IBS patients reported more interpersonal difficulties. Male patients-a population for whom little is known-are characterized by hostile-dominant interpersonal problems. This finding has clinical importance, given that relationship problems may influence MDs' estimation of IBS symptom severity and undermine the physician-patient relationship. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Opić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the scientific project titled “The Curriculum of Social Competences and Relations in School”, the aim of this paper is to examine the quality of interpersonal relations between teachers and pupils. On a sample of 432 teachers from 20 towns, 35 primary schools in the Republic of Croatia, and 432 pupils, it was confirmed that there is a difference in the appraisal of the quality of their interpersonal relations. Although the overall quality of interpersonal relations between pupils and teachers is at a moderately satisfactory level, pupils still appraise the quality of interpersonal relations lower than their teachers. In view of latent dimensionality, a factor questionnaire structure was used (14 variables; ordinal type and two main components (subscales determined: didactic support and interaction, and rough verbal and physical treatment. As part of the differential draft of our research, no gender differences were established (between female and male teachers in the appraisal of the quality of interpersonal relations with pupils (on two subscales. The correlation analysis confirmed a low negative statistically significant correlation between the years of service and the subscale rough verbal and physical treatment (Rho=-0.101. In view of the subscale of rough verbal and physical treatment between pupils and teachers, such results on a negative correlation imply that older teachers, as opposed to their younger colleagues, use more corporal punishment in schools, treat pupils rudely, use nasty and impolite words, and call pupils insulting names.

  20. Accuracy of Interpersonal Perception in Mediated Contacts in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinskaya E.P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issue of accuracy of interpersonal perception in computer-mediated communication. It shows how J.Biesanz’s social accuracy model of interpersonal perception may be used in explorations of interpersonal perception in mediated contacts — via personal webpages in social media. In the study the subjects (15 people were asked to assess individuals with whom they were unacquainted basing on their webpages in VKontakte (30 web pages using a brief version of the Big Five Inventory. The outcomes reveal which objective parameters of the assessed webpages contribute most to the accuracy of interpersonal perception in the subjects, and also prove that the accuracy of interpersonal perception in this case is shaped by its normative component, not by the distinctive one. This suggests that in virtual communication one’s perception of a partner may be more affected by stereotypes than in real communication — a hypothesis that needs to be further tested.

  1. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Stress Relief Program for Depression*. A Replicated Single-Subject Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartogs, Bregje M A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Van der Ploeg, Karen; Bos, Elske H

    2017-07-19

    Depressive disorders often have a chronic course and the efficacy of evidence-based treatments may be overestimated. To examine the effectiveness of the Heart Rate Variability Stress Reduction Program (SRP) as a supplement to standard treatment in patients with depressive disorders. The SRP was individually administered in eight weekly sessions. Seven participants completed the full protocol and were enrolled in a single-subject ABA multiple baseline experimental design. To perform interrupted time-series analyses, daily measures were completed in a diary (depression, resilience, happiness, heart coherence and a personalized outcome measure). Five out of seven patients improved in depressed mood and/or a personalized outcome measure. The effect of treatment was reversed in four patients during the withdrawal phase. One patient reliably improved on depression, whereas two patients recovered on autonomy and one on social optimism. No consistent relationship was found between the heart rate variability-related level of coherence and self-reported mood levels. The SRP is beneficial in some domains and for some patients. A prolonged treatment or continued home practice may be required for enduring effects. The intervention had more clinical impact on resilience-related outcome measures than on symptoms. The small sample size does not permit generalization of the results. We recommend future investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the SRP.

  2. Acid-base balance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) subjected to acid stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, F.B.

    1976-01-01

    The respiratory properties of rainbow-trout blood were investigated in acid-stressed fish. In the first group acid was introduced into the bloodstream and in the second the carbon dioxide content of the ambient water was increased. Initially the introduction of the acid to the blood caused a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate, and increases in oxygen uptake and ventilation volume. After 2 to 3 h these values had returned to the control levels. Trout subjected to high ambient CO/sub 2/ (about 10 mmHg) showed a decrease in blood pH while PCO/sub 2/ and bicarbonate increased. After 8 h the trout began to show signs of compensation to the acidosis. In each experiment the blood PO/sub 2/ was little changed but blood O/sub 2/ content was decreased and tended not to resume the control value even after several hours. The results are discussed in terms of the various acid-base mechanisms thought to be available to the fish. These include branchial ion exchanges and the possible buffering roles of the extracellular and intracellular fluids.

  3. Effect of Protectants on the Fermentation Performance of Wine Yeasts Subjected to Osmotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caridi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During alcoholic fermentation of must from dried grapes, yeasts are subjected to very high sugar concentrations, besides other environmental stresses, and they modify their metabolic behaviour giving low ethanol yield and abnormally high acetic acid production. To investigate the protective effect of catechin, inositol, and SO2 on wine yeasts, three thermotolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, selected for wine making of must from dried grapes, and three strains of Saccharomyces selected for the production of wine, were inoculated in a sample of must at very high osmotic strength. A significant (p<0.01 or p<0.05 relationship between the addition of 100 mg/L of catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must and the change in the metabolic behaviour of the yeasts was observed. Compared to the control and depending on strain and protectant, the fermentation rate after 3 days increased up to 55 %, the ethanol content of the wines increased up to 16 %, the unitary succinic acid production increased up to 55 %, the unitary acetic acid production decreased up to 53 %, and the unitary glycerol production decreased up to 69 %. So by adding catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must it is possible to minimise the abnormal fermentation performance that wine yeasts exhibit in wine making of must from dried grapes.

  4. Comparative proteome analysis of metabolic proteins from seeds of durum wheat (cv. Svevo) subjected to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laino, Paolo; Shelton, Dale; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    include proteins with metabolic activity or structural function. In order to investigate the consequences of heat stress on the accumulation of nonprolamin proteins in mature durum wheat kernels, the Italian cultivar Svevo was subjected to two thermal regimes (heat stress versus control). The 2-D patterns...... polypeptides, 47 of which were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS and included HSPs, proteins involved in the glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as stress-related proteins. Many of the heat-induced polypeptides are considered to be allergenic for sensitive individuals....

  5. Examining coping style and the relationship between stress and subjective well-being in Australia's 'sandwich generation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jade E; Crisp, Dimity A

    2017-09-01

    The sandwich generation represents adults, often in midlife, who care for both children and ageing parents/relatives. While the stress they experience has received some attention, little research has investigated the subjective well-being (SWB) of this population. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and SWB and the moderating effect of coping style. Ninety-three participants (80 women), aged 23-63 years, completed an online survey measuring perceived stress, coping strategies, life satisfaction and positive and negative affect. Stress was negatively associated with SWB. While emotion- and problem-focused coping were directly associated with SWB outcomes, the only moderating effect found was for avoidance-focused coping (AFC). Specifically, AFC was associated with higher positive affect for those reporting lower stress. This study highlights the need to recognise the distinct circumstances that exist for the sandwich generation. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  6. Life Stress and First Onset of Psychiatric Disorders in Daughters of Depressed Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Gershon, Anda; Hayward, Chris; Schraedley-Desmond, Pamela; Rudolph, Karen D.; Booster, Genery D.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a comprehensive, interview-based measure of life stress to assess the role of different types of stress in predicting first onset of psychiatric disorders among daughters of depressed (n = 22) mothers and healthy (n = 22) mothers. Several types of stress were assessed: Chronic interpersonal stress, chronic non-interpersonal stress, episodic dependent (i.e., self-generated) interpersonal stress, episodic dependent non-interpersonal stress, episodic independent interpersonal str...

  7. Stress Symptoms among Adolescents: The Role of Subjective Psychosocial Conditions, Lifestyle, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraml, Karin; Perski, Aleksander; Grossi, Giorgio; Simonsson-Sarnecki, Margareta

    2011-01-01

    Stress-related problems are increasing among Swedish adolescents, especially among females. The aims of this study were to survey the incidence of stress symptoms among 16-year-olds, to investigate the related gender differences, and to understand the factors that may contribute to stress symptoms. The study is questionnaire based, and the sample…

  8. The influence of androstadienone during psychosocial stress is modulated by gender, trait anxiety and subjective stress: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K C; Springer, I; Kogler, L; Turetsky, B; Freiherr, J; Derntl, B

    2016-06-01

    Androstadienone (ANDR), a bodily secreted steroid compound, is a socially relevant chemosignal that modulates subjective and (neuro)physiological responses, predominantly in females. The impact of ANDR on stress responses in males and females has not been explored. Therefore, this fMRI study aimed to examine psychosocial stress reactions induced by mental arithmetic and social evaluation on behavioral and hormonal levels (46 participants: 15 naturally cycling females in their early follicular phase (EF), 15 females on hormonal contraceptives (HC) and 16 males); and on a neural level (40 participants: 13 EF-females, 13 HC-females and 14 males) in an ANDR and placebo treatment repeated-measures design. While no gender differences emerged in subjective ratings and performance during stress, neural activation patterns differed significantly. Besides, ANDR attenuated the post-stress increase of negative mood in all participants. Region of interest analyses showed that irrespective of treatment, males showed stronger activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) than females. At the whole brain level, gender differences emerged indicating stronger fronto-parietal activation in males compared to HC-females on both treatments. Males showed stronger visual and fusiform activation than EF-females under ANDR. Both female groups did not show stronger activation than males. Further, error ratio in the ANDR-stress condition was positively associated with their post-stress cortisol level and increase in subjective stress in males; and male DLPFC activity in the ANDR-stress condition was negatively associated with trait anxiety. Surprisingly, compared to HC-females, EF-female only showed stronger activation of arousal-related areas under placebo treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that the male stress reaction under social evaluative threat was stronger than female stress reactions as a function of ANDR. More specifically, this effect on behavioral and

  9. Effect of Stress-free Therapy on Cerebral Blood Flow: Comparisons among patients with metabolic cardiovascular disease, healthy subjects and placebo-treated subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryotokuji, Kenji; Ishimaru, Keisou; Kihara, Kazuhiko; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Nakashima, Takuma; Otani, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: We have developed a Stress-free Therapy® device wherein “Pinpoint Plantar Long-wavelength Infrared Light Irradiation (PP-LILI)” increases peripheral-deep body temperature and blood flow volume and stabilizes blood pressure as well as significantly reduces stress hormones such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol without using drugs. Moreover, we have found this therapy to significantly improve blood glucose and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on this background of clinical efficacy, we validated changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with metabolic cardiovascular disease and examined the efficacy of Stress-free Therapy® on cerebral blood flow as compared to that in healthy control subjects and placebo-treated patients. Results: The change in cerebral blood flow volume during 15-minute PP-LILI was 5.1 ± 1.8 mL/min in patients with metabolic cardiovascular disease, showing a significant increase (P<0.05) of 3.1 mL/min as compared with the mean blood flow value after resting for 15 minutes. Conclusions: Our results suggested Stress-free Therapy® to significantly increase cerebral blood flow, possibly leading to the prevention of metabolic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24771966

  10. Schisandra chinensis and Rhodiola rosea exert an anti-stress effect on the HPA axis and reduce hypothalamic c-Fos expression in rats subjected to repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nan; Li, Jie; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yangtian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) and Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) on rats subjected to 5 h of stress, induced by water-floating followed by treadmill exercise. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and c-Fos and Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) mRNA expression levels in the hypothalamus of the rats were evaluated. Rats were distributed into four groups: S. chinensis (n=12), R. rosea (n=10), stress control (n=10) and quiet control (n=8). Following a training period of 6 consecutive days, the S. chinensis, R. rosea and stress control groups underwent a 3-h water-floating session in the presence of feline predators immediately followed by 2 h treadmill running to induce psychological and physical stress. Following compound stress induction, the serum levels of corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone and interleukin-1β and the mRNA expression levels of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), neuropeptide-Y, c-Fos and Fra-2 were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The results indicated that S. chinensis and R. rosea markedly decreased the stress-induced elevation of CRH and peripheral CORT levels. The mRNA expression levels of c-Fos and Fra-2 in the hypothalamus were significantly increased after 5 h compound stress, and reduced levels of c-Fos expression were detected in rats treated with R. rosea. Thus, S. chinensis and R. rosea exert an anti-stress effect in rats subjected to stress by balancing the HPA axis, and possibly by reducing the expression of c-Fos in the hypothalamus.

  11. An analytical solution describing the shape of a yield stress material subjected to an overpressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Spangenberg, Jon; Larsen, P.

    2016-01-01

    Many fluids and granular materials are able to withstand a limited shear stress without flowing. These materials are known as yields stress materials. Previously, an analytical solution was presented to quantify the yield stress for such materials. The yields stress is obtained based on the density...... as well as the spread length and height of the material when deformed in a box due to gravity. In the present work, the analytical solution is extended with the addition of an overpressure that acts over the entire body of the material. This extension enables finding the shape of a yield stress material...

  12. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Oxidative Stress Is Associated with an Increased Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Subjects: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Elosua, Roberto; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Basora-Gallisà, Josep; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Fiol, Miquel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Subirana, Isaac; Lapetra, José; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a subsample of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study in Spain. Participants were 1,060 asymptomatic subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), aged 55 to 80, selected from 8 primary health care centers (PHCCs). We assessed classical CVD risk factors, plasma oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) using multilevel statistical procedures. Results Mean GSH-Px value was 612 U/L (SE: 12 U/L), with variation between PHCCs ranging from 549 to 674 U/L (Variance = 1013.5; P<0.001). Between-participants variability within a PHCC accounted for 89% of the total variation. Both glucose and oxidized LDL were positively associated with GSH-Px activity after adjustment for possible confounder variables (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusion In a population at high cardiovascular risk, a positive linear association was observed between plasma GSH-Px activity and both glucose and ox-LDL levels. The high GSH-Px activity observed when an oxidative stress situation occurred, such as hyperglycemia and lipid oxidative damage, could be interpreted as a healthy defensive response against oxidative injury in our cardiovascular risk population. PMID:25269026

  14. Anti-stress effect of theanine on students during pharmacy practice: positive correlation among salivary α-amylase activity, trait anxiety and subjective stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Tanida, Naoki; Ishii, Naoto; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Hoshino, Minoru; Takeda, Atsushi; Ozawa, Hayato; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effect on experimental animals under psychosocial stress. Anti-stress effect of theanine on humans was evaluated in 5th-year university students during pharmacy practice. The study design was a single-blind group comparison and participants (n=20) were randomly assigned to theanine or placebo groups. Theanine or placebo (lactose) tablets (200 mg, twice a day, after breakfast and lunch) were taken from 1 week prior to the pharmacy practice and continued for 10 days in the practice period. To assess the anxiety of the participants, the state-trait anxiety inventory test was carried out before the pharmacy practice. Salivary α-amylase activity (sAA) was measured as a marker of sympathetic nervous system activity. In the placebo-group, sAA in the morning (pre-practice sAA) was higher than in theanine-group during the pharmacy practice (p=0.032). Subjective stress was significantly lower in the theanine-group than in the placebo-group (p=0.020). These results suggest that theanine intake had anti-stress effect on students. Furthermore, students with higher pre-practice sAA showed significantly higher trait anxiety in both groups (p=0.015). Similarly, higher pre-practice sAA was correlated to shorter sleeping time in both groups (p=0.41×10(-3)). Stressful condition increased the level of sAA that was essentially affected by individual trait anxiety. The low levels of pre-practice sAA and subjective stress in the theanine-group suggest that theanine intake suppressed initial stress response of students assigned for a long-term commitment of pharmacy practice. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exp...

  16. A preliminary investigation of workplace stress in platinum miners using subjective and objective measures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of accidents and injuries. Slide 5 ? CSIR 2010 www.csir.co.za Definitions Work place Stress ? Work place stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the psychological and/or physiological....csir.co.za ? Slide 8 Salivary cortisol levels ? Biochemical characteristics of the human, in relation to environmental or personal stimuli, produce physiological responses and significant links with psychological stress have been shown ? Method...

  17. Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to drought and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, Elisabeth; Kaufman, Peter B; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Chang, Soo Chul

    2003-07-02

    Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) were subjected to drought and cold stress treatments, and polyphenolic extracts from control and stress-treated plants were assayed for antioxidant capacities using a modified version of the Total Antioxidant Status Assay (Randox, San Francisco, CA). In addition, these plants were analyzed for levels of flavanol-type substance [(-)-epicatechin] and flavonoid (vitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, acetylvitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, and hyperoside) constituents that are important metabolites in hawthorn herbal preparations used to treat patients with heart disease. Drought and cold stress treatments caused increases in levels of (-)-epicatechin and hyperoside in both Crataegus species. Such treatments also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The results from this study thus indicate that these kinds of stress treatments can enhance the levels of important secondary metabolites and their total antioxidant capacities in leaves of Crataegus.

  18. Stress-intensity factor equations for cracks in three-dimensional finite bodies subjected to tension and bending loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Raju, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Stress intensity factor equations are presented for an embedded elliptical crack, a semielliptical surface crack, a quarter elliptical corner crack, a semielliptical surface crack along the bore of a circular hole, and a quarter elliptical corner crack at the edge of a circular hole in finite plates. The plates were subjected to either remote tension or bending loads. The stress intensity factors used to develop these equations were obtained from previous three dimensional finite element analyses of these crack configurations. The equations give stress intensity factors as a function of parametric angle, crack depth, crack length, plate thickness, and, where applicable, hole radius. The ratio of crack depth to plate thickness ranged from 0 to 1, the ratio of crack depth to crack length ranged from 0.2 to 2, and the ratio of hole radius to plate thickness ranged from 0.5 to 2. The effects of plate width on stress intensity variation along the crack front were also included.

  19. Differential stress response in rats subjected to chronic mild stress is accompanied by changes in CRH-family gene expression at the pituitary level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Magdalena; Faron-Górecka, Agata; Kuśmider, Maciej; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Solich, Joanna; Żurawek, Dariusz; Gruca, Piotr; Papp, Mariusz; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine molecular markers of the stress response at the pituitary and peripheral levels in animals that responded differently to chronic mild stress (CMS). Rats were subjected to 2-weeks CMS and symptoms of anhedonia was measured by the consumption of 1% sucrose solution. mRNA levels of CRH-family neuropeptides (Crh-corticotropin-releasing hormone, Ucn1-urocortin 1, Ucn2-urocortin 2, Ucn3-urocortin 3), CRH receptors (Crhr1-corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, Crhr2-corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2) and Crhbp (corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein) in the pituitaries of rats were determined with real-time PCR. Plasma levels of ACTH (adrenocorticotropin), CRH and urocortins were measured with ELISA assays. CMS procedure led to the development of anhedonia manifested by the decreased sucrose consumption (stress-reactive, SR, stress-susceptible group). Additionally, the group of animals not exhibiting any signs of anhedonia (stress non-reactive, SNR, stress-resilient group) and the group characterized by the increased sucrose consumption (stress invert-reactive group SIR) were selected. The significant increases in ACTH plasma level accompanied by the decreases in the pituitary gene expression of the Crh, Ucn2 and Ucn3 in both stress non-reactive and stress invert-reactive groups were observed. The only molecular change observed in stress-reactive group was the increase in UCN2 plasma level. The differentiated behavioral stress responses were reflected by gene expression changes in the pituitary. Alterations in the mRNA levels of Crh, Ucn2 and Ucn3 in the pituitary might confirm the paracrine and/or autocrine effects of these peptides in stress response. The opposite behavioral effect between SNR vs. SIR groups and the surprising similarity at gene expression and plasma ACTH levels in these two groups may suggest the discrepancy between molecular and behavioral stress responses; however, there results might

  20. [Effect of stress and intesity of mobile phone using on the health and subjective symptoms in GSM workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyjkowska, Agata; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szymczak, Wiesław; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-07-26

    There are no available data on the health consequences that may result from the synergistic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and stress. Understanding the mechanisms of the simultaneous exposure will make it possible to develop procedures to minimize adverse health effects in professionals using mobile phones. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 600 randomly selected people to obtain data on their health status and the prevalence of subjective symptoms related to the mobile phones using. Among them, there were 208 GSM Network employees, to whom the Perceived Stress Scale and Assessment of Stress at Work Questionnaire were sent. Eighty-nine completed questionnaires were returned (response rate - 42.8%). The mean age of respondents was 30.3 years (standard deviation (SD) = 7.7), time of occupational use of mobile phone - 4.1 years (SD = 1.7), the level of occupational stress - 95.3 (SD = 19.1). A significant percentage of people (62.8%) complained of the frequent difficulties in coping with problems of everyday life, and 57.4% had a fairly frequent problems with managing their own affairs. Significant differences in the life stress were detected between groups with different time of phone use (p = 0.03), and in occupational stress level, significant differences were noted between the 2 groups differing in the length of the conversation (p = 0.05). The risk of headache, associated (odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, p = 0.008) or not associated (OR = 2.97, p = 0.04) with calls on mobile phone, adjusted for stress, was significantly higher in people speaking via mobile more than 60 min/day than in those talking less. The study indicates that both stressors acting at the same time (EMF from cell phone and stress) adversely affect the well-being of workers and increase the risk of subjective symptoms. Med Pr 2017;68(5):617-628.

  1. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  2. Psychological and interpersonal adaptation to Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.; Connors, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The crucial importance of a thorough understanding of the psychological and interpersonal dimensions of Mars flights is indicated. This is necessary both to reduce the chances that psychological problems or interpersonal frictions will threaten the success of Mars missions and to enhance the quality of life of the people involved. Adaptation to interplanetary flight will depend on an interplay of the psychological stresses imposed by the missions and the psychological strengths and vulnerabilities of the crewmembers involved. Stresses may be reduced through environmental engineering, manipulating crew composition, and the structuring of situations and tasks. Vulnerabilities may be reduced through improving personnel selection procedures, training personnel in psychological and group dynamics, and providing mechanisms for emotional support. It is essential to supplement anecdotal evidence regarding the human side of space travel with the results of carefully conducted scientific research.

  3. Carotenoid profiling of the leaves of selected African eggplant accessions subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibei, Elias K; Ambuko, Jane; Giovannoni, James J; Onyango, Arnold N; Owino, Willis O

    2017-01-01

    African eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum and S. macrocarpon) are among the most economically important and valuable vegetable and fruit crops. They are a major source of biologically active nutritional substances and metabolites which are essential for plant growth, development, stress adaptation and defense. Among these metabolites are the carotenoids which act as accessory pigments for photosynthesis and precursor to plant hormones. Though African eggplants are known to be resistant to various abiotic stresses, the effect of these stresses on secondary metabolites has not been well defined. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of drought stress on carotenoid profiles of nineteen African eggplant accessions selected based on leaf and fruit morphological traits. Stress was achieved by limiting irrigation and maintaining the wilting state of the crops. Fresh leaves were sampled at different maturity stages; before stress, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after stress for carotenoid analysis. The fresh harvested leaf tissues were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground. Analysis was carried out using a Dionex HPLC machine coupled to Photo Array Detector and Chromeleon software package (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). Major carotenoids viz;. Xanthophylls (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein) and carotenes (β-carotene and α-carotene), phytofluene, lycopene, phytoene as well as chlorophylls (chlorophyll-b and Chlorophyll-a) were targeted. The carotenoids increased with maturity stage of the crop. Although the stressed crops reported significantly decreased amount of carotenes, chlorophylls, neoxanthin and violaxanthin, the concentration of zeaxanthin increased with stress whereas lutein had no significant change. Chlorophyll-a was significantly high in all the control accessions. Two accessions reported significantly higher contents of carotenoids as compared to the other accessions. The results of this study

  4. Carotenoid profiling of leaves of selected eggplant accessions subjected to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focused on the quantification of carotenoids of the leaves of African eggplants commonly consumed as leafy and fruit vegetables. The results gave comparative profiles of carotenoids at different growth and developmental stages and under drought stress. Stress was achieved by limiting irri...

  5. Effect of mild mental stress on solid phase gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, J; Dobbeleir, A; Vandevivere, J; Ham, H R

    1990-04-01

    Radionuclide gastric emptying studies are performed in clinical routine but the possible influence of the mental state of the patient is never taken into account. We wanted to evaluate the effect of a mild psychological stress on solid phase gastric emptying in healthy young male volunteers. The standard meal consisted of a pancake (500 kJ) without additional liquid. Simultaneous dynamic acquisitions of gastric activity in anterior and posterior projection were taken during 90 min starting from the onset of the meal. Gastric emptying was evaluated three times in basal conditions and once under mental stress. Stress was induced by means of a dichotomous listening test, lasting for 30 min, starting at the end of the meal. The results of rest and stress studies were compared. Mild mental stress has a significant influence on gastric emptying. The lag phase increased from 11 +/- 3 min to 36 +/- 10 min (mean +/- S.D.) (p less than 0.005) and the gastric emptying rate from 79 +/- 13%/hour to 100 +/- 31%/hour (mean +/- S.D.) (not significant). During a stress period gastric emptying as a whole is delayed but this is mainly due to the prolongation of the lag phase. Our data also suggest that during the stress period gastric emptying is interrupted and reactivated once the stress period has ended.

  6. Behaviour of S 355JO steel subjected to uniaxial stress at lowered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    defined as the progressive accumulation of plastic strain in a specimen or machine part under stress, at elevated temperature over a period of time. Sometimes, it can be easy to quantify damage in laboratory creep procedure conducted at constant stress (load) and temperature, but components of machines in service hardly ...

  7. Increase in perceived stress is correlated to lower heart rate variability in healthy young subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV is associated to increased mortality rates in certain heart diseases. Current study assessed the co-relation between perceived stress and HRV parameters. The correlation between psychological stress, measured by the perceived stress scale (PSS-14, and HRV parameters obtained during 5 min. at rest was evaluated. Data from 35 healthy young volunteers demonstrated a significant correlation between PSS-14 scores and Low Frequency-LF (ms2 by frequency domain HRV analysis. Other variables such as High Frequency and Standard Deviation of R-R intervals had also negative coefficients but did not have any significant correlation with PSS-14. No correlation between PSS-14 and sympathovagal balance parameters was found. Data interpretation demonstrated that increase in perceived stress was correlated to decrease in heart rate variability, which may point out an important mechanism in cardiovascular pathophysiology that should be further investigated.

  8. A Comparison of Objective and Subjective Stress in Homogeneous Male and Female Teams in a Mars Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S.; Sundaresan, A.

    Introduction The role of stress and its impact on coping performance motivation behavior cognitive functioning and psychological well-being has become a key focus for long duration missions Since all extreme environments are characterized by significant physical demands e g skiing climbing EVAs as well as inescapable environmental characteristics e g imminent danger noise isolation confinement loss of normal sensory stimuli an examination of the impact of prolong stress in analogue environments should provide insight into developing effective support and countermeasures for long duration space crews The presence of even low levels of chronic stressors if not met with functional adaptation and or countermeasures has been shown to produce subjective symptoms of stress persistent performance incompetence accelerated fatiguability altered mood states increased rate of infections and decrements in attention and cognitive Gender has been shown to cut across both individual factors and group factors including response to stress and ways of coping Generally men and women differ in many arenas such as interaction and communication styles need for affiliation responses to crowding privacy and confined spaces Men and women in homogeneous groups interact in significantly different ways than those in mixed groups Therefore differences between genders on subjective and objective responses to stress are of interest The Mars Society Utah Desert Simulation MDRS facility provides a unique opportunity to examine the interaction of

  9. Analyses of layer-thickness effects in bilayered dental ceramics subjected to thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway [ORNL; Thompson, G. A. [U.S. Army Dental and Trauma Research Detachment, Greak Lakes; Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Becher, Paul F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution through the thickness of bilayered dental ceramics subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests and to systematically examine how the individual layer thickness influences this stress distribution and the failure origin. Methods. Ring-on-ring tests were performed on In-Ceram Alumina/Vitadur Alpha porcelain bilayered disks with porcelain in the tensile side, and In-Ceram Alumina to porcelain layer thickness ratios of 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 were used to characterize the failure origins as either surface or interface. Based on the thermomechanical properties and thickness of each layer, the cooling temperature from glass transition temperature, and the ring-on-ring loading configuration, the stress distribution through the thickness of the bilayer was calculated using closed-form solutions. Finite element analyses were also performed to verify the analytical results. Results. The calculated stress distributions showed that the location of maximum tension during testing shifted from the porcelain surface to the In-Ceram Alumina/porcelain interface when the relative layer thickness ratio changed from 1:2 to 1:1 and to 2:1. This trend is in agreement with the experimental observations of the failure origins. Significance. For bilayered dental ceramics subjected to ring-on-ring tests, the location of maximum tension can shift from the surface to the interface depending upon the layer thickness ratio. The closed-form solutions for bilayers subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests are explicitly formulated which allow the biaxial strength of the bilayer to be evaluated.

  10. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  11. A Study on a Stress Reaction Measure Creation in University Student's : Subject were Daito Bunka University Student's

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 博史

    2003-01-01

    contents of data in a 144 item list. (Daily stress levels of Daito Bunka University students) Using a pre research test formula. Then we made a ore test of 522 students and collected the subjects data. We then preformed a factor analysis of the factor structures and examined all remaining factors and proceeded to the naming. 1) The Daito Bunka University stress diagnostic test that consists of 54 items of 6 factors (Factorl is 20 items, Factor2 is 12 items, FactorS is 8 items, Factor4 is 6 it...

  12. [Effect of a hypocaloric diet in the oxidative stress in obese subjects without prescription of exercise and antioxidants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Liliana; García, José R; Rincón, María de Jesús; Ceballos, Guillermo M; Olivares, Ivonne M

    2015-07-06

    Obesity is characterized by a generalized increase of adipose tissue, high production of adipocytokines and presence of oxidative systemic stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes generated in the oxidative stress and anthropometric parameters in obese subjects by the prescription of a hypocaloric diet in combination with moderate aerobic exercise and supplementation with antioxidants. Oxidative damage was determined in the plasma from 30 normal weight and 30 obese subjects. Three groups of treatment were established: Hypocaloric diet (HD), HD plus moderate aerobic exercise (HDE) and HDE plus antioxidants (DHEA). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], carbonyl groups, dityrosine) and anthropometric parameters were determined. Higher values of biomarkers of oxidative damage were observed in obese (TBARS 13.74 ± 1.2 μM; carbonyl groups 0.89 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 478.9 ± 27.4 RFU/mg of protein) in comparison to normal weight subjects (TBARS 7.08 ± 0.8 μM; carbonyl groups 0.65 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 126.3 ± 12.6 RFU/mg of protein), thus showing the presence of an oxidative damage. The prescription of HD decreased the oxidative damage and anthropometric parameters in the obese subjects. We did not observe additional benefit effects on these determinations with HDE or HDEA treatments. We demonstrated that an HD decreases the oxidative damage in obese subjects. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the development of comorbidity in obesity. Therefore, the prescription of a HD could be a key issue in the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Generation of Interpersonal Stressful Events : The Role of Poor Social Skills and Early Physical Maturation in Young Adolescents-The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study developed two specifications of the social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis: the "gender-incongruence" hypothesis to predict peer victimization and the "need for autonomy" hypothesis to predict conflict with authorities. These hypotheses were tested in a prospective large

  14. Generation of Interpersonal Stressful Events: The Role of Poor Social Skills and Early Physical Maturation in Young Adolescents--The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study developed two specifications of the social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis: the "gender-incongruence" hypothesis to predict peer victimization and the "need for autonomy" hypothesis to predict conflict with authorities. These hypotheses were tested in a prospective large population cohort of 2,064 Dutch…

  15. Negative Social Reactions to Assault Disclosure as a Mediator between Self-Blame and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Survivors of Interpersonal Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassija, Christina M.; Gray, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    The type of causal attributions offered for traumatic life events has been documented as a potential vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few investigations have sought to identify the mechanisms by which such explanations are associated with greater posttraumatic distress. One possible factor that may account…

  16. Loss of pH control in Plasmodium falciparum parasites subjected to oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donelly A van Schalkwyk

    Full Text Available The intraerythrocytic malaria parasite is susceptible to oxidative stress and this may play a role in the mechanism of action of some antimalarial agents. Here we show that exposure of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite to the oxidising agent hydrogen peroxide results in a fall in the intracellular ATP level and inhibition of the parasite's V-type H(+-ATPase, causing a loss of pH control in both the parasite cytosol and the internal digestive vacuole. In contrast to the V-type H(+-ATPase, the parasite's digestive vacuole H(+-pyrophosphatase is insensitive to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. This work provides insights into the effects of oxidative stress on the intraerythrocytic parasite, as well as providing an alternative possible explanation for a previous report that light-induced oxidative stress causes selective lysis of the parasite's digestive vacuole.

  17. High Prevalence of Stress and Low Prevalence of Alzheimer Disease CSF Biomarkers in a Clinical Sample with Subjective Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerström, Marie; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Nordlund, Arto; Rolstad, Sindre; Sacuiu, Simona; Wallin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) is a trigger for seeking health care in a possible preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the characteristics of SCI need clarification. We investigated the prevalence of psychosocial stress, depressive symptoms and CSF AD biomarkers in SCI and MCI (mild cognitive impairment). Memory clinic patients (SCI: n = 90; age: 59.8 ± 7.6 years; MCI: n = 160; age: 63.7 ± 7.0 years) included in the Gothenburg MCI study were examined at baseline. Variables were analyzed using logistic regression with SCI as dependent variable. Stress was more prevalent in SCI (51.1%) than MCI (23.1%); p patients had more previous depressive symptoms (p = 0.006), but showed no difference compared to MCI patients considering current depressive symptoms. A positive CSF AD profile was present in 14.4% of SCI patients and 35.0% of MCI patients (p = 0.001). Stress (p = 0.002), previous stress/depressive symptoms (p = 0.006) and a negative CSF AD profile (p = 0.036) predicted allocation to the SCI group. Psychosocial stress is more prevalent in SCI than previously acknowledged. The high prevalence and long-term occurrence of stress/depressive symptoms in SCI in combination with a low prevalence of altered CSF AD biomarkers strengthens the notion that AD is not the most likely etiology of SCI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-09-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  19. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  20. Interpersonal stressors predict ghrelin and leptin levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Glaser, Ronald; Christian, Lisa; Emery, Charles F; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2014-10-01

    Stressful events enhance risk for weight gain and adiposity. Ghrelin and leptin, two hormones that are implicated in appetite regulation, may link stressful events to weight gain; a number of rodent studies suggest that stressors increase ghrelin production. The present study investigated the links among daily stressors, ghrelin and leptin, and dietary intake in humans. Women (n=50) completed three study appointments that were scheduled at least 2 weeks apart. At each visit, women arrived fasting and ate a standardized breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected 45min after each meal. Women completed a self-report version of the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE) at each appointment. Two composites were created from the DISE data, reflecting the number of stressors that did and did not involve interpersonal tension. Women who experienced more stressors involving interpersonal tension had higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than those who experienced fewer interpersonal stressors. Furthermore, women who experienced more interpersonal stressors had a diet that was higher in calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sugar, sodium, and fiber, and marginally higher in cholesterol, vegetables (but not fruits), vitamin A, and vitamin C. Stressors that did not involve interpersonal tension were unrelated to ghrelin and leptin levels or any of the dietary components examined. These data suggest that ghrelin and leptin may link daily interpersonal stressors to weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interpersonal Stressors Predict Ghrelin and Leptin Levels in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Glaser, Ronald; Christian, Lisa; Emery, Charles F.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stressful events enhance risk for weight gain and adiposity. Ghrelin and leptin, two hormones that are implicated in appetite regulation, may link stressful events to weight gain; a number of rodent studies suggest that stressors increase ghrelin production. The present study investigated the links among daily stressors, ghrelin and leptin, and dietary intake in humans. Method Women (N = 50) completed three study appointments that were scheduled at least 2 weeks apart. At each visit, women arrived fasting and ate a standardized breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected 45 minutes after each meal. Women completed a self-report version of the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE) at each appointment. Two composites were created from the DISE data, reflecting the number of stressors that did and did not involve interpersonal tension. Results Women who experienced more stressors involving interpersonal tension had higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than those who experienced fewer interpersonal stressors. Furthermore, women who experienced more interpersonal stressors had a diet that was higher in calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sugar, sodium, and fiber, and marginally higher in cholesterol, vegetables (but not fruits), vitamin A, and vitamin C. Stressors that did not involve interpersonal tension were unrelated to ghrelin and leptin levels or any of the dietary components examined. Conclusions These data suggest that ghrelin and leptin may link daily interpersonal stressors to weight gain and obesity. PMID:25032903

  2. Interpersonal intelligence: key concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Cano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to delimit the conceptual space of interpersonal intelligence, relating it to situations in which it is used. To this end, we first identify some aspects of an intellectual nature and the type of objects represented. The next section is devoted to the origins of interpersonal intelligence and its role in human adaptation. A third section focuses on the type of procedures for its measurement, not as a collection of tools commonly used, but as a way to make explicit the kind of evidence that is appropriate as good indicators of this intelligence. Finally, we describe some of the main confusions associated with the idea of this form of intelligence, integrating all aspects previously discussed.

  3. Stress Analysis of Adhesive Lap Joint of Hollow Shafts Subjected to Torsional Moments

    OpenAIRE

    仲野, 雄一; 高城, 有希久

    2001-01-01

    The stress and strain distributions in adhesively bonded lap joints of dissimilar hollow shafts are examined using the axisymmetric theory of elasticity. In the analysis, the joint is modeled as an elastic three-body contact problem where the hollow shafts and the adhesive are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. The effects of the ratio of Young's modulus of the adhesive to that of the shaft, the overlap length and the thickness of the adhesive on the stress distributions at the interfaces i...

  4. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann; Peter ePeyk; Markus eStreb; Elena eHolz; Tanja eMichael

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (...

  5. Stresses and Strains in Plain and Coldworked Annuli Subjected to Remote, Interference or Combined Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Civil Aviation Authority Hawker de Havilland Aust Pty Ltd, Victoria, Library Hawker de Havilland Aust Pty...of the annulus from the pin, (34): yielding of the resulting open hole annulus (13) provides the positive stress limit of elastic behaviour shown...curves in Figs. 11 and 12. It is seen that, under either tensile or compressive loading, the stress limits are identical in the region from the bore to the

  6. Interpersonal Skills Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    of the counterpart” (Zbylut, Metcalf, McGowan, Beemer, Brunner, & Vowels , 2009, p. 102). Intercultural and interpersonal sensitivity involves...Zbylut, M.L., Metcalf, K.A., McGowan, B., Beemer, M., Brunner, J.M., & Vowels , C.L. (2009). The human dimension of advising: An analysis of...M., Brunner, J.M., & Vowels , C.L. (2009) x Zbylut, M.L., Ward, J.N. (2005) x x Overall Concept Matrix (continued) B-4 C-1

  7. Pengembangan Materi Komunikasi Interpersonal

    OpenAIRE

    Yanti, Riri Ramada; Umari, Tri; Rosmawati

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop interpersonal communication materials class X SLTA/MA equals, and a description of its feasibility in terms of aspects of clarity, systematics, image support, freshness, completeness of the material, and support for video or games. Type of research is the development of data analysis techniques using data validity. The source of the data obtained from the supervisor 1, supervisor 2, two teachers BK, and 26 students of class X Telkom SMK Telkom Pekanbaru. The resu...

  8. [The effect of writing about the perceived benefits of interpersonal transgressions on psychological well-being in Japanese college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Kenji; Ishimura, Ikuo; Kashimura, Masami; Asano, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the effect of writing about the perceived benefits (WPB) of an interpersonal transgression on subjective well-being and feelings of hostility. Participants (N = 74) who reported experiencing a highly stressful interpersonal trouble within the past year were randomly assigned to one of four conditions that consisted of 20-minute writing tasks conducted over a three-day period in which they wrote about either (a) the perceived benefits resulting from the trouble, (b) the features of the trouble, (c) the features in the first 10 minutes and the perceived benefits of the trouble in the last 10 minutes, or (d) a control topic that was unrelated to the trouble. Results of analysis of covariance revealed that group A had significantly decreased hostility. Furthermore groups A and B showed a significant increase in subjective well-being compared to the control condition. Issues related to WPB are discussed.

  9. Influence of Dissimilar Adherends on the Stress Distribution in Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints Subjected to Impact Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazimeh, R.; Challita, G.; Khalil, K.; Othman, R.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of nonsymmetric rotation of laminates on the shear and peel stresses in the adhesive layer of adhesively bonded double-lap composite joints (DLJ) subjected to in-plane impact compressive loadings is investigated by using a three-dimensional finite-element analysis. The compressive in-plane impact on DLJ is simulated using the direct Hopkinson bar system, and the specimen is impacted by an incident bar. It is found that the rotation of any adherend from the 0° orientation leads to a decrease in the average shear stress in the adhesive layer, but the maximum peel stress is affected only by the longitudinal stiffness of the outer adherend and decreases when this stiffness diminishes.

  10. Plasma hormone levels in human subject during stress loads in microgravity and at readaptation to Earth's gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L; Koska, J; Ksinantova, L; Vigas, M; Noskov, V B; Grigoriev, A I; Kvetnansky, R

    2001-07-01

    In great part of the investigations of endocrine system functions in astronauts during space flights the plasma levels of hormones and metabolites were determined only in resting conditions, usually from one blood sample collection. Such levels reflected the psychical and physical state and new hormonal homeostasis of organism at the time of blood collection, however, the functional capacity of neuroendocrine system to respond to various stress stimuli during space flight remained unknown. The aim of present investigations was to study dynamic changes of hormone levels during the stress and metabolic loads (insulin induced hypoglycemia, physical exercise and oral glucose tolerance test) at the exposure of human subject to microgravity on the space station MIR. The responses of sympatico-adrenomedullary system to these stress and workloads were presented by Kvetnansky et al.

  11. Relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Enokido, Masanori; Shirata, Toshinori; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2017-10-10

    Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes, and telomere length represents a biological marker for cellular aging. Interpersonal sensitivity, excessive sensitivity to the behavior and feelings of others, is one of the vulnerable factors to depression. In the present study, we examined the effect of interpersonal sensitivity on telomere length in healthy subjects. The subjects were 159 unrelated healthy Japanese volunteers. Mean age ± SD (range) of the subjects was 42.3 ± 7.8 (30-61) years. Interpersonal sensitivity was assessed by the Japanese version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Leukocyte telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method. Higher scores of the total IPSM were significantly (β = -0.163, p = 0.038) related to shorter telomere length. In the sub-scale analysis, higher scores of timidity were significantly (β = -0.220, p = 0.044) associated with shorter telomere length. The present study suggests that subjects with higher interpersonal sensitivity have shorter leukocyte telomere length, implying that interpersonal sensitivity has an impact on cellular aging.

  12. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  13. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dias Nani

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects.Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument.The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test. There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test.The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects.

  14. Subjective stress, role perceptions and coping strategies among mental health nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridoula Doupi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of nursing personnel, the consequent nurses’ work pressure within health care units and the particularities of nursing services provision in mental health institutions, render the examination of stress at work a necessity. Aim: The current study aims in presenting the stress levels among nurses in mental health institutions, their perceptions of the nursing role and the coping strategies they use. Methodology: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the population of 85 nurses in mental health open and closed units of two public hospitals of Attica, one psychiatric and one general. Participants filled in questionnaires on demographic characteristics, perceived stress, role conflict and ambiguity and ways of coping with stressful situations. Results: 57 women (67,1% and 28 men (32,9%, aged (mean 41,08 years, mostly married (74,1% and graduates of Technological institutions (29,4% participated in the study. Most were working 16-20 years (32,9%, were nurses (71,8% and were being occupied in a psychiatric structure for more than 21 years (27,1%. Female nurses had a greater amount of role ambiguity (p=0.048 and higher levels of stress (p=0.007. The same pattern was observed to those who worked for more years (p=0.038. Those who were not satisfied with their job suffered from greater role ambiguity (p<0.001 and conflict (p<0.001, while the graduates of secondary education and specialised nurses had higher levels of stress (p=0.004. Nurses with most working years in a psychiatric facility, experienced greater role conflict (p=0.034. Role ambiguity was positively associated with role conflict (p<0.001, perceived stress (p=0.006, positive approach strategy (negatively; p=0.003, self-rated health (negatively; p=0.003 and age (negatively; p=0.006. Perceived stress was negatively associated with positive approach (p=0.019 and self-rated health (p<0.001. Finally, positive approach was positively associated with social

  15. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0-8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state.

  16. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Martinez-Hervas

    Full Text Available To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses.We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women. After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0-8 hours with supracal® (50 g/m2. We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde.In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group.Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state.

  17. Effects of stress and relaxation on pain perception in subjects with pain-free occlusional disharmony compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscheweyh, R; Becker, T; Born, Y; Çolak-Ekici, R; Marziniak, M; Evers, S; Gerlach, A L; Wolowski, A

    2015-04-01

    The significance of occlusal disharmony for the development of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is controversial. The ongoing biomechanical strain caused by occlusal disharmony might lead to sensitization processes in the nociceptive system. Understanding these processes might be an important step toward understanding the possible relationship between occlusal disharmony and TMD. In this study, we therefore investigated whether subjects with occlusal disharmony (n = 22) differ from healthy controls (n = 26) in their pain perception and pain modulation by stress and relaxation. Trigeminal and extratrigeminal experimental pain perception (pinprick, heat, and pressure pain) was assessed before and after stress (mental arithmetic) and relaxation (viewing of low-arousal pictures). There were no group differences in pain perception at baseline or during the stress task. Compared with controls, the occlusal disharmony group exhibited an inadequate reduction in pain perception during relaxation, which was significant for the extratrigeminal site (P < 0.01) and reached a trend for significance at the trigeminal site (P = 0.1). These results suggest that subjects with occlusal disharmony show signs of disturbed endogenous pain inhibition during relaxation. There is evidence for the presence of sensitization of the nociceptive system in subjects with occlusal disharmony. Possibly, deficient inhibition of extratrigeminal and trigeminal pain perception by relaxation might contribute to the development of TMD or other chronic pain disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Risk stratification of asymptomatic subjects using resting ECG and stress ECG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Wieneke, Heinrich; Sack, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund

    2007-08-01

    The resting electrocardiogram (ECG) and stress ECG are established tests in the array of cardiovascular diagnostic modalities. In addition to their diagnostic value for structural heart disease and rhythm disorders, ECGs at rest or during stress also contain prognostically relevant information. Several ECG abnormalities, e.g., left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), Q waves, ST segment changes, left bundle branch block, atrial fibrillation or QT interval prolongation, were shown to be associated with cardiovascular events. Differences in study design, the cohorts of investigation and morphological definitions of ECG abnormalities may in part be responsible for the abnormalities not being implemented in risk stratification algorithms. The non-ST-segment-related variables in stress testing, e.g., functional capacity, chronotropic (in)competence, heart rate (HR) recovery, and the HR/ST index and slope, could be identified as prognostically relevant markers in population-based studies. For many of these resting and stress ECG-based abnormalities, associations with the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in persons without established coronary heart disease were observed, indicating a preclinical relationship between epicardial atherosclerosis and myocardial pathology. The resting and the stress ECG provide a number of prognostically relevant indices that can easily be obtained in routine clinical practice, but have thus far found little acceptance for risk stratification of asymptomatic individuals.

  19. Simulation of Stress-Strain behavior for one-dimensional aluminum samples subjected to high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In order to satisfy the growing need in high quality aluminum cast parts of the automobile industries, in the last decades the foundries have been showing an increasing interest in the implementation of numerical simulations as part of their process design. As a consequence, it is possible to find...... in literature several programs capable of simulating the entire casting process, i.e. filling, solidification, as well as developed thermomechanical stresses. However, it is common practice in the foundry industry that the results obtained by the simulation of the cast process are "forgotten" during...... the residual stresses are negligible. Nevertheless, in order to account for eventually "forgotten" thermal stresses, the automobile parts are usually over-designed. It is the objective of this work, that is part of the IDEAL (Integrated Development Routes for Optimized Cast Aluminium Components) project...

  20. Protective Effect of Theaflavin on Erythrocytes Subjected to In Vitro Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahejabeen Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect of black tea theaflavins has been shown in many epidemiological studies. In the present work we report the protective mechanism of tea theaflavins on biomarkers of oxidative stress, which are elevated during stress conditions. We hereby report the in vitro effect of theaflavins on erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA, intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH, and plasma membrane redox system (PMRS of rats. The effect of theaflavin on PMRS has also been validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD. We report that theaflavins show significant protection to erythrocyte against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP. The findings suggest a possible protective role of theaflavins as antioxidant.

  1. Reduced Synapse and Axon Numbers in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats Subjected to a Chronic Stress Model for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabai, Dávid; Wiborg, Ove; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2018-01-01

    Stressful experiences can induce structural changes in neurons of the limbic system. These cellular changes contribute to the development of stress-induced psychopathologies like depressive disorders. In the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals, reduced dendritic length and spine loss have been reported. This loss of dendritic material should consequently result in synapse loss as well, because of the reduced dendritic surface. But so far, no one studied synapse numbers in the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals. Here, we examined synaptic contacts in rats subjected to an animal model for depression, where animals are exposed to a chronic stress protocol. Our hypothesis was that long term stress should reduce the number of axo-spinous synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male rats were exposed to daily stress for 9 weeks and afterward we did a post mortem quantitative electron microscopic analysis to quantify the number and morphology of synapses in the infralimbic cortex. We analyzed asymmetric (Type I) and symmetric (Type II) synapses in all cortical layers in control and stressed rats. We also quantified axon numbers and measured the volume of the infralimbic cortex. In our systematic unbiased analysis, we examined 21,000 axon terminals in total. We found the following numbers in the infralimbic cortex of control rats: 1.15 × 10 9 asymmetric synapses, 1.06 × 10 8 symmetric synapses and 1.00 × 10 8 myelinated axons. The density of asymmetric synapses was 5.5/μm 3 and the density of symmetric synapses was 0.5/μm 3 . Average synapse membrane length was 207 nm and the average axon terminal membrane length was 489 nm. Stress reduced the number of synapses and myelinated axons in the deeper cortical layers, while synapse membrane lengths were increased. These stress-induced ultrastructural changes indicate that neurons of the infralimbic cortex have reduced cortical network connectivity. Such reduced network connectivity is

  2. Reduced Synapse and Axon Numbers in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats Subjected to a Chronic Stress Model for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabai, Dávid; Wiborg, Ove; Czéh, Boldizsár

    2018-01-01

    Stressful experiences can induce structural changes in neurons of the limbic system. These cellular changes contribute to the development of stress-induced psychopathologies like depressive disorders. In the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals, reduced dendritic length and spine loss have been reported. This loss of dendritic material should consequently result in synapse loss as well, because of the reduced dendritic surface. But so far, no one studied synapse numbers in the prefrontal cortex of chronically stressed animals. Here, we examined synaptic contacts in rats subjected to an animal model for depression, where animals are exposed to a chronic stress protocol. Our hypothesis was that long term stress should reduce the number of axo-spinous synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male rats were exposed to daily stress for 9 weeks and afterward we did a post mortem quantitative electron microscopic analysis to quantify the number and morphology of synapses in the infralimbic cortex. We analyzed asymmetric (Type I) and symmetric (Type II) synapses in all cortical layers in control and stressed rats. We also quantified axon numbers and measured the volume of the infralimbic cortex. In our systematic unbiased analysis, we examined 21,000 axon terminals in total. We found the following numbers in the infralimbic cortex of control rats: 1.15 × 109 asymmetric synapses, 1.06 × 108 symmetric synapses and 1.00 × 108 myelinated axons. The density of asymmetric synapses was 5.5/μm3 and the density of symmetric synapses was 0.5/μm3. Average synapse membrane length was 207 nm and the average axon terminal membrane length was 489 nm. Stress reduced the number of synapses and myelinated axons in the deeper cortical layers, while synapse membrane lengths were increased. These stress-induced ultrastructural changes indicate that neurons of the infralimbic cortex have reduced cortical network connectivity. Such reduced network connectivity is likely

  3. Human birth weight patterns as an indicator of populations subject to environmental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtiss, J.R.B.; Ginevan, M.E.; Brown, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to address two questions of central importance to the possibility of using birth weight as a monitor of the health status of populations. First, can one discern consistent effects of known influencing factors while controlling for only a small number of other influencing factors. This is important because standard birth certificates provide only a few variables in addition to weight. If known effects are obscured by noise from unknown sources, the effects of environmental stress may likewise be obscured. Second, if known effects are discernable, do known stressed populations show predictable patterns of depressed birth weight.

  4. Effects of l-arginine and creatine administration on spatial memory in rats subjected to a chronic variable stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fabio Seidel; da Silva, Luiz Augusto; Pochapski, José Augusto; Raczenski, Alan; da Silva, Weber Claudio; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Malfatti, Carlos Ricardo Maneck

    2014-08-01

    Chronic stress results from repeated exposure to one or more types of stressors over a period, ranging from days to months, and can be associated with physical, behavioral, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Some physiological alterations resulting from chronic stress can potentially cause deficits on spatial learning and memory. This study investigated the effects of chronic variable stress (CVS) and administration of l-arginine and creatine on spatial memory in rats. Furthermore, body, heart, adrenal weight, and plasma glucose and corticosterone levels were analyzed. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a CVS model for 40 days and evaluated for spatial memory after the stress period. Chronically stressed animals were treated daily by gavage with: 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (Group Cs), 500 mg/kg l-arginine (Group Cs/La), 300 mg/kg creatine (Group Cs/Cr); and 500 mg/kg l-arginine and 300 mg/kg creatine (Group Cs/La + Cr) during the entire experimental period. Our results showed that animals in the Cs/Cr and Cs/La + Cr groups presented significantly decreased corticosterone levels compared to group Cs (p working memory task, compared to all other groups (p memory retention compared to controls (p working memory efficiency, and, when co-administrated with l-arginine, improves reference memory retention, a phenomenon that is possibly associated with increased creatine/phosphocreatine levels and l-arginine-derived NO synthesis.

  5. Emotional intelligence, life satisfaction and subjective happiness in female student health professionals: the mediating effect of perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aranda, D; Extremera, N; Pineda-Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to extend previous findings by examining the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness) in a 12-week follow-up study. In addition, we examined the influence of perceived stress on the relationship between EI and well-being. Female students from the School of Health Sciences (n = 264) completed an ability measure of emotional intelligence. After 12 weeks, participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. Participants with higher EI reported less perceived stress and higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness. The results of this study suggest that perceived stress mediates the relationship between EI and well-being indicators, specifically life satisfaction and happiness. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional intelligence may increase well-being in female students in nursing and allied health sciences by reducing the experience of stress. The implications of these findings for future research and for working with health professions to improve well-being outcomes are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Metabolic effects of dark chocolate consumption on energy, gut microbiota, and stress-related metabolism in free-living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Rezzi, Serge; Peré-Trepat, Emma; Kamlage, Beate; Collino, Sebastiano; Leibold, Edgar; Kastler, Jürgen; Rein, Dietrich; Fay, Laurent B; Kochhar, Sunil

    2009-12-01

    Dietary preferences influence basal human metabolism and gut microbiome activity that in turn may have long-term health consequences. The present study reports the metabolic responses of free living subjects to a daily consumption of 40 g of dark chocolate for up to 14 days. A clinical trial was performed on a population of 30 human subjects, who were classified in low and high anxiety traits using validated psychological questionnaires. Biological fluids (urine and blood plasma) were collected during 3 test days at the beginning, midtime and at the end of a 2 week study. NMR and MS-based metabonomics were employed to study global changes in metabolism due to the chocolate consumption. Human subjects with higher anxiety trait showed a distinct metabolic profile indicative of a different energy homeostasis (lactate, citrate, succinate, trans-aconitate, urea, proline), hormonal metabolism (adrenaline, DOPA, 3-methoxy-tyrosine) and gut microbial activity (methylamines, p-cresol sulfate, hippurate). Dark chocolate reduced the urinary excretion of the stress hormone cortisol and catecholamines and partially normalized stress-related differences in energy metabolism (glycine, citrate, trans-aconitate, proline, beta-alanine) and gut microbial activities (hippurate and p-cresol sulfate). The study provides strong evidence that a daily consumption of 40 g of dark chocolate during a period of 2 weeks is sufficient to modify the metabolism of free living and healthy human subjects, as per variation of both host and gut microbial metabolism.

  7. Immediate effects of chest physiotherapy on hemodynamic, metabolic, and oxidative stress parameters in subjects with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael S; Donadio, Márcio V F; da Silva, Gabriela V; Blattner, Clarissa N; Melo, Denizar A S; Nunes, Fernanda B; Dias, Fernando S; Squizani, Eamim D; Pedrazza, Leonardo; Gadegast, Isabella; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2014-09-01

    Septic shock presents as a continuum of infectious events, generating tissue hypoxia and hypovolemia, and increased oxidative stress. Chest physiotherapy helps reduce secretion, improving dynamic and static compliance, as well as improving secretion clearance and preventing pulmonary complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of chest physiotherapy on hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters in subjects in septic shock. We conducted a quasi-experimental study in 30 subjects in septic shock, who underwent chest physiotherapy, without associated heart diseases and with vasopressors physiotherapy. Thirty subjects with a mean age of 61.8 ± 15.9 y and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment of 8 (range 6-10) were included. Chest physiotherapy caused a normalization of pH (P = .046) and P(aCO2) (P = .008); reduction of lactate (P = .001); and an increase in P(aO2) (P = .03), arterial oxygen saturation (P = .02), and P(aO2)/F(IO2) (P = .034), 15 min after it was applied. The results indicate that chest physiotherapy has immediate effects, improving oxygenation and reducing lactate and oxidative damage in subjects in septic shock. However, it does not cause alterations in the inflammatory and hemodynamic parameters. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Stressed out or subjective acquisition of competence – how do veterinary students see their curative work placement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilly, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary studies in Germany are regulated by the Veterinary Certification Act (TAppV. The practical part of the education consists of 1,170 hours, whereby up to 850 hours can be spent on the curative work placement. A curative work placement can result in physical and psychological stress in the sense of a professional overload. It is the aim of this study to find out in what areas and to what extent competence is acquired and psychological stress exists in students during their work placement. Veterinary students (n=142 from all German education institutes participated in a voluntary online-study based on Burnout Screening Scales (BOSS as well as a questionnaire regarding the acquisition of competence and excessive stress during the work placement (FKÜP. The distribution of values for work placement related stress show that such work placement related stress is generally slightly increased (T=60 and lies above that of occupational stresses within the normal population. Work placement related physical complaints also show a significant slight increase (T=61. A value (T=42 within the normal range was determined for the resource values. Few of the students questioned considered themselves to be excessively stressed in favour of a high subjective acquisition of competences. The largest increase regarding the acquisition of competence was noted for the areas of animal handling/restraint and application and injection techniques. In the sense of a perceived excessive demand regarding practical capabilities the areas of emergency management, surgery and medication dispensation were mentioned. With regard to the load structure and the acquisition of competence by veterinary students during their work placement, more support of the individual and a balancing of teaching/learning goals would be desirable and represents a promising approach.

  9. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular and Subjective Stress Reactions: Prospective Evidence in a Realistic Military Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    this study require comment. Importantly, we did not control for menstrual phase or oral contraceptive use. Reproductive hormones may be implicated in...Cigarette smoking and oral contra- ceptive use influence women’s lipid, lipoprotein, and cardiovascular responses during stress. Health Psychol 9(6

  10. Measuring Stress-Reducing Effects of Virtual Training Based on Subjective Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Gerritsen, C.; de Man, J.; Treur, J.

    2012-01-01

    Training to cope with negative emotions or stress is important for professionals with a high pressure job, such as police officers and military personnel. The work reported in this paper is part of a project that aims to develop a Virtual Reality based training environment for such professionals. As

  11. Behaviour of S 355JO steel subjected to uniaxial stress at lowered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Short-time creep tests for selected constant stresses at selected temperatures were curried out. Uniaxial creep behaviour for selected creep test was modeled by the rheological model. The creep curve determined by modeling procedure was compared with experimentally obtained one. Also, notch impact energy test, using ...

  12. Artemisinin production and precursor ratio in full grown Artemisia annua L. plants subjected to external stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjaer, A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Ivarsen, E.; Frette, X.; Christensen, L.P.; Grevsen, K.; Jensen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of the lifesaving antimalarial compound artemisinin (AN) in cultivated Artemisia annua (A. annua) plants is relatively low, and thus research in improving the content is important. In the present study, external stress was applied to adult plants of A. annua and the effect was

  13. Age Identity in Context: Stress and the Subjective Side of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2010-01-01

    The passage of time is fundamentally experienced through people's interaction with their social worlds. Life-course scholars acknowledge the multiple aspects of time-based experience but have given little attention to age identity in a dynamic context. Drawing from a stress-process model, we expected that turbulence within people's family…

  14. Effect of cobalt chloride on soybean seedlings subjected to cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagna Chmielowska-Bąk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the environment with heavy metals such as Cd is a serious problem of modern world. Exposure of plants to Cd leads to oxidative stress, inhibition of respiration and photosynthesis, increased rate of mutation and, as a consequence, stunted growth and yield decrease. One of the common reactions of plants to cadmium stress is over-production of ethylene, however the exact role of this hormone in plants response to Cd is still unrecognized. The aim of the present study is evaluation of the impact of an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, Co, on the response of soybean seedlings to cadmium stress. The experiments included measurements of growth, cell viability, ethylene production and expression of genes associated with cellular signaling in soybean seedlings exposed to CdCl2 (with Cd in a concentration of 223 μM and/or CoCl2 (with Co in concentration of 4.6 μM. Surprisingly, the results show that Co has no effect on ethylene biosynthesis, however, it affects cell viability and expression of Cd-induced genes associated with plant signaling pathways. The affected genes encode mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase2 (MAPKK2, nitrate reductase and DOF1 and bZIP2 transcription factors. The role of Co in plants response to cadmium stress and its potential use as an ethylene inhibitor is discussed.

  15. Oxidative stress augments toll-like receptor 8 mediated neutrophilic responses in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsunaga Kazuto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive oxidative stress has been reported to be generated in inflamed tissues and contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases, exacerbations of which induced by viral infections are associated with toll-like receptor (TLR activation. Among these receptors, TLR8 has been reported as a key receptor that recognizes single-strand RNA virus. However, it remains unknown whether TLR8 signaling is potentiated by oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to examine whether oxidative stress modulates TLR8 signaling in vitro. Methods Human peripheral blood neutrophils were obtained from healthy non-smokers and stimulated with TLR 7/8 agonist imidazoquinoline resiquimod (R848 in the presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Neutrophilic responses including cytokine release, superoxide production and chemotaxis were examined, and the signal transduction was also analyzed. Results Activation of TLR8, but not TLR7, augmented IL-8 release. The R848-augmented IL-8 release was significantly potentiated by pretreatment with H2O2 (p L-cysteine reversed this potentiation. The combination of H2O2 and R848 significantly potentiated NF-kB phosphorylation and IkBα degradation. The H2O2-potentiated IL-8 release was suppressed by MG-132, a proteosome inhibitor, and by dexamethasone. The expressions of TLR8, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6 were not affected by H2O2. Conclusion TLR8-mediated neutrophilic responses were markedly potentiated by oxidative stress, and the potentiation was mediated by enhanced NF-kB activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress might potentiate the neutrophilic inflammation during viral infection.

  16. Effect of stress and intesity of mobile phone using on the health and subjective symptoms in GSM workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Szyjkowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no available data on the health consequences that may result from the synergistic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF and stress. Understanding the mechanisms of the simultaneous exposure will make it possible to develop procedures to minimize adverse health effects in professionals using mobile phones. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 600 randomly selected people to obtain data on their health status and the prevalence of subjective symptoms related to the mobile phones using. Among them, there were 208 GSM Network employees, to whom the Perceived Stress Scale and Assessment of Stress at Work Questionnaire were sent. Eighty-nine completed questionnaires were returned (response rate – 42.8%. Results: The mean age of respondents was 30.3 years (standard deviation (SD = 7.7, time of occupational use of mobile phone – 4.1 years (SD = 1.7, the level of occupational stress – 95.3 (SD = 19.1. A significant percentage of people (62.8% complained of the frequent difficulties in coping with problems of everyday life, and 57.4% had a fairly frequent problems with managing their own affairs. Significant differences in the life stress were detected between groups with different time of phone use (p = 0.03, and in occupational stress level, significant differences were noted between the 2 groups differing in the length of the conversation (p = 0.05. The risk of headache, associated (odds ratio (OR = 4.2, p = 0.008 or not associated (OR = 2.97, p = 0.04 with calls on mobile phone, adjusted for stress, was significantly higher in people speaking via mobile more than 60 min/day than in those talking less. Conclusions: The study indicates that both stressors acting at the same time (EMF from cell phone and stress adversely affect the well-being of workers and increase the risk of subjective symptoms. Med Pr 2017;68(5:617–628

  17. [Stress and night eating syndrome: a comparison study between a sample of psychiatric outpatients and healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacitti, Francesca; Maraone, Annalisa; Zazzara, Francesca; Biondi, Massimo; Caredda, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a disorder characterized by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. The core clinical feature appears to be a delay in the circadian timing of food intake. The diagnosis and early treatment of NES may represent an important means of prevention for obesity. Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the vulnerability to develop NES between a clinical sample of patients with psychiatric disorders and a non clinical sample. We investigated a possible relation between stress and a dysfunctional eating behaviors as NES. Methods. The Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) has been administered to 147 psychiatric outpatients and to 531 subjects attending the University of L'Aquila. The NEQ is a questionnaire used to evaluate the prevalence of NES. The sample has been also evaluated through the Stress-related Vulnerability Scale (SVS) to measure both perceived stress and social support. Results. The 8.2% of patients scored above the diagnostic cut-off of the NEQ, compared to the 2.1% in the sample of healthy subjects. The majority of patients who had shown NEQ>25 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). The total scores on the NEQ were strongly associated with the SVS total score and especially with the "lack of social support" subscale. Conclusions. This study shows the increased vulnerability of NES in the sample of psychiatric patients compared to the sample of healthy subjects. The study further confirms the strong association between perceived stress, social support, altered eating behaviors and obesity.

  18. Disaggregating Within- and Between-Person Effects of Social Identification on Subjective and Endocrinological Stress Reactions in a Real-Life Stress Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketturat, Charlene; Frisch, Johanna U; Ullrich, Johannes; Häusser, Jan A; van Dick, Rolf; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Several experimental and cross-sectional studies have established the stress-buffering effect of social identification, yet few longitudinal studies have been conducted within this area of research. This study is the first to make use of a multilevel approach to disaggregate between- and within-person effects of social identification on subjective and endocrinological stress reactions. Specifically, we conducted a study with 85 prospective students during their 1-day aptitude test for a university sports program. Ad hoc groups were formed, in which students completed several tests in various disciplines together. At four points in time, salivary cortisol, subjective strain, and identification with their group were measured. Results of multilevel analyses show a significant within-person effect of social identification: The more students identified with their group, the less stress they experienced and the lower their cortisol response was. Between-person effects were not significant. Advantages of using multilevel approaches within this field of research are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. α-Tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene protect against oxidative stress but reveal no direct influence on p53 expression in rats subjected to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Górnicka, Magdalena; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Drywień, Małgorzata; Pierzynowska, Jolanta; Gronowska-Senger, Anna

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene, either applied individually or in combination, would modulate redox homeostasis and affect the regulation of genes involved in DNA repair under stress conditions. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the influence of these vitamins, either supplied individually or in combination, on the plasma lipid peroxide level and the hepatic level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in rats. We also evaluated the expression of p53 and Mdm2 protein in the intestinal epithelium, as these proteins are involved in the cellular regulation of DNA damage repair. Male Wistar rats (n = 112) were supplemented with α-tocopherol (2 mg), ascorbic acid (12 mg), and β-carotene (1 mg), both individually and in combination, for 14 days; 32 control rats were treated with placebo. Half of the animals in each group (n = 8) were subjected to 15-minute treadmill running at 20 m/min to cause exercise-induced oxidative stress. A statistically significant reduction in lipid peroxide levels was observed in the plasma of rats subjected to exercise and given 2 or 3 of the antioxidants (P p53 protein expression were observed both in exercised and nonexercised animals, especially when the studied vitamins were administered in combination. Our findings suggest that α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and β-carotene, when given concurrently, have primarily antioxidant effects on lipids under stress but do not significantly affect the regulation of p53 gene expression. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE: CULTURAL UNDERPINNINGS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adrian Lesenciuc; Aura Codreanu

    2012-01-01

      The concepts of interpersonal communication competence, intercultural communication competence and intercultural competence are prone to frequent misunderstanding as a result of an epistemic field...

  1. Emotions are temporal interpersonal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily A

    2017-10-01

    Several characteristics of emotions are that they: first, evolve dynamically over time, second, extend beyond the individual to incorporate multiple people, and third, function as a system. In other words, emotions can be seen as temporal interpersonal systems. This review summarizes current models for temporal interpersonal emotion systems (TIES), evidence they matter beyond levels of emotional responding, their connections with relationship quality and interpersonal regulation, and some of the challenges for studying them. Important directions for future research include distinguishing between different patterns of interpersonal emotional dynamics and extending theory and experimental work to uncover mechanisms for altering harmful TIES and promoting beneficial ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional analysis of stress protein data in a flor yeast subjected to a biofilm forming condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Moreno-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, an OFFGEL fractionator coupled to LTQ Orbitrap XL MS equipment and a SGD filtering were used to detect in a biofilm-forming flor yeast strain, the maximum possible number of stress proteins under the first stage of a biofilm formation conditions (BFC and under an initial stage of fermentation used as reference, so-called non-biofilm formation condition (NBFC. Protein functional analysis – based on cellular components and biological process GO terms – was performed for these proteins through the SGD Gene Ontology Slim Mapper tool. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the data can be found in “Stress responsive proteins of a flor yeast strain during the early stages of biofilm formation” [1].

  3. Chemo-Plasticity of Clays Subjected to Stress and Flow of a Single Contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueckel, T.

    1997-01-01

    Isothermal chemo-elasto-plasticity of clays is discussed, to describe strains induced in clay by permeation of it with a low dielectric constant organic contaminant, in the presence of stress. The strain is crucial in controlling permeability changes in chemically affected clay barriers of landfills and impoundments. The theory encompasses chemical softening or yield surface reduction, coefficient of chemical reversible expansion or contraction due to mass concentration increase, as well as chemical sensitivity of bulk plastic modulus. The experiments on chemistry and stress dependent permeability of Sarnia clay performed by Fernandez and Quigley (1985, 1991) are interpreted using this model. The numerical representations of the chemo-plastic softening function and the chemo-elastic strain function, as well as plastic bulk modulus sensitivity to concentration are evaluated for dioxane and ethanol. Specific requirements for the tests for chemo-plastic behavior of clays are discussed.

  4. Predicted stresses and strains in fused biconical taper couplers subjected to tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, E

    1993-06-20

    In fused biconical taper (FBT) couplers, the cores of the fibers are positioned close to each other. In order to bring the cores of the fibers in close proximity, the cladding in the fused midportion of the coupler has to be made thin. At the same time the coupler must be sufficiently strong, both on a short- and a long-time scale, and must be able to withstand appreciable axial deformations. These can be caused by the thermal contraction mismatch of the coupler with its substrate or can be due to a deliberate prestressing of the coupler structure in order to improve its dynamic stability. In this study an easy-to-apply analytical stress model is developed for the evaluation of stresses and strains in FBT couplers from the expected or measured total elongation. In the analysis the nonprismaticity of the coupler structure as well as the nonlinear behavior of the material was considered. The numerical example has been carried out for a coupler that is intended for undersea applications. The results obtained can be used in the stress-strain analyses and physical design of light-wave FBT couplers.

  5. Phenotypic heterogeneity is a selected trait in natural yeast populations subject to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Sara L; Reader, Tom; Dyer, Paul S; Avery, Simon V

    2014-01-01

    Populations of genetically uniform microorganisms exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity, where individual cells have varying phenotypes. Such phenotypes include fitness-determining traits. Phenotypic heterogeneity has been linked to increased population-level fitness in laboratory studies, but its adaptive significance for wild microorganisms in the natural environment is unknown. Here, we addressed this by testing heterogeneity in yeast isolates from diverse environmental sites, each polluted with a different principal contaminant, as well as from corresponding control locations. We found that cell-to-cell heterogeneity (in resistance to the appropriate principal pollutant) was prevalent in the wild yeast isolates. Moreover, isolates with the highest heterogeneity were consistently observed in the polluted environments, indicating that heterogeneity is positively related to survival in adverse conditions in the wild. This relationship with survival was stronger than for the property of mean resistance (IC50) of an isolate. Therefore, heterogeneity could be the major determinant of microbial survival in adverse conditions. Indeed, growth assays indicated that isolates with high heterogeneities had a significant competitive advantage during stress. Analysis of yeasts after cultivation for ≥ 500 generations additionally showed that high heterogeneity evolved as a heritable trait during stress. The results showed that environmental stress selects for wild microorganisms with high levels of phenotypic heterogeneity. PMID:24000788

  6. Diversity of Survival Patterns among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes Subjected to Food-Related Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadidy, Mohamed; Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance patterns to food-related stresses of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains belonging to specific genotypes. A total of 33 E. coli O157:H7 strains were exposed to seven different stress conditions acting as potential selective pressures affecting the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to humans through the food chain. These stress conditions included cold, oxidative, osmotic, acid, heat, freeze-thaw, and starvation stresses. The genotypes used for comparison included lineage-specific polymorphism, Shiga-toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites, clade type, tir (A255T) polymorphism, Shiga toxin 2 subtype, and antiterminator Q gene allele. Bacterial resistance to different stressors was calculated by determining D-values (times required for inactivation of 90% of the bacterial population), which were then subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. In addition, a relative stress resistance value, integrating resistance values to all tested stressors, was calculated for each bacterial strain and allowed for a ranking-type classification of E. coli O157:H7 strains according to their environmental robustness. Lineage I/II strains were found to be significantly more resistant to acid, cold, and starvation stress than lineage II strains. Similarly, tir (255T) and clade 8 encoding strains were significantly more resistant to acid, heat, cold, and starvation stress than tir (255A) and non-clade 8 strains. Principal component analysis, which allows grouping of strains with similar stress survival characteristics, separated strains of lineage I and I/II from strains of lineage II, which in general showed reduced survival abilities. Results obtained suggest that lineage I/II, tir (255T), and clade 8 strains, which have been previously reported to be more frequently associated with human disease cases, have greater multiple stress resistance than strains of other genotypes. The results from this

  7. Whole canopy gas exchange among elite loblolly pine families subjected to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson G. Hood; Michael C. Tyree; Dylan N. Dillaway; Michael A. Blazier; Mary Anne Sword Sayer

    2012-01-01

    Future climate change simulations predict that the southeastern United States will experience hydrologic patterns similar to that currently found in the Western Gulf Region, meaning, that planted elite loblolly families may be subject to drier, hotter summers (Ruosteenoja et al. 2003, Field et al. 2007). Currently, there is little research on how these fast-growing...

  8. Subjective, Autonomic, and Endocrine Reactivity during Social Stress in Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Martina; Seefeldt, Wiebke Lina; Heinrichs, Nina; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Schmitz, Julian; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Blechert, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Reports of exaggerated anxiety and physiological hyperreactivity to social-evaluative situations are characteristic of childhood social phobia (SP). However, laboratory research on subjective, autonomic and endocrine functioning in childhood SP is scarce, inconsistent and limited by small sample sizes, limited breadth of measurements, and the use…

  9. AN ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS FOR A POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE CANTILEVER BEAM SUBJECTED TO A SINGLE TRANSVERSE FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla TEKİN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, elasto-plastic stress analysis is carried out in a polymer matrix composite cantilever beam of arbitrary fiber orientation subjected to a single transverse force applied to the free end by using the anisotropic elasticity theory. The residual stress component of ?x and yield points are determined for 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° fiber orientation angles. The yielding begins for 0° and 90° fiber orientation angles at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam at the same distances from the free end. It is seen that the yielding begins for 30°, 45° and 60° fiber orientation angles at the upper surface of the beam. The intensity of the residual stress component of ?x is maximum at the upper and lower surfaces of the beam. In this study, the residual stress component of ?x obtained for the polymer matrix composite thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by reinforced unidirectional fibers is compared with that of the thermoplastic cantilever beam reinforced by woven Cr-Ni steel fibers.

  10. Effects of itopride hydrochloride on plasma gut-regulatory peptide and stress-related hormone levels in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Shiga, Toru; Inoue, Shin; Sato, Yuhki; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (itopride), a gastrokinetic drug, has recently been evaluated for its clinical usefulness in functional dyspepsia. We investigated effects of itopride on human plasma gastrin-, somatostatin-, motilin-, and cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactive substances (IS); adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-immunoreactive substances (IS), and cortisol under stress conditions in healthy subjects. A single administration of itopride caused significant increases in plasma somatostatin- and motilin-IS levels compared to placebo. Itopride significantly decreased plasma CCK-IS, and suppressed the ACTH-IS level compared to placebo. We hypothesize that itopride may have an accelerating gastric emptying effect, and a modulatory effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous functions. These effects might be beneficial in stress-related diseases, suggesting that itopride has clinicopharmacological activities.

  11. GAS EXCHANGE IN YOUNG PLANTS OF Tabebuia aurea(Bignoniaceae Juss. SUBJECTED TO FLOODING STRESS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Kleber Morbeck Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Paratudo (Tabebuia aurea is a species occurring in the Pantanal of Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, an area characterized by seasonal flooding. To evaluate the tolerance of this plant to flooding, plants aged four months were grown in flooded soil and in non-flooded soil (control group. Stomatal conductance, transpiration and CO2 assimilation were measured during the stress (48 days and recovery (11 days period, totalling 59 days. The values of stomatal conductance of the control group and stressed plants at the beginning of the flooded were 0.33 mol m-2s-1 and reached 0.02 mol m-2 s-1 (46th day at the end of this event. For the transpiration parameter, the initial rate was 3.1 mol m s-1, and the final rate reached 0.2 or 0.3 mol m-2 s-1 (47/48 th day. The initial photosynthesis rate was 8.9 mmol m-2s-1 and oscillated after the sixth day, and the rate reached zero on the 48th day. When the photosynthesis rate reached zero, the potted plants were dried, and the rate was analyzed (11th day. The following values were obtained for dried plants: stomatal conductance = 0.26 mol m-2 s-1, transpiration rate = 2.5 mol m-2 s-1 and photosynthesis rate = 7.8 mmol m-2 s-1. Flooded soil reduced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to the hypertrophy of the lenticels. These parameters recovered and after this period, and plants exhibited tolerance to flooding stress by reducing their physiological activities.

  12. Oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress in subjects occupationally exposed to nitrous oxide (N(2)O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrońska-Nofer, Teresa; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; Jajte, Jolanta; Dziubałtowska, Elżbieta; Szymczak, Wiesław; Krajewski, Wojciech; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Rydzyński, Konrad

    2012-03-01

    Occupational exposure to nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and/or halogenated hydrocarbons has been suggested to induce damage of genetic material, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. This study investigated the role of oxidative processes in the genotoxicity associated with exposure to waste anaesthetic gases. The study was performed in 36 female nurses and in 36 unexposed female health care workers matched for age and employment duration. Genotoxic effects were examined by Comet test modification employing formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) that allows assessment of oxidative DNA damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leukocytes were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Oxidative stress markers including 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (8-iso-PGF(2α)), thiobarbituric acid-reacive substances (TBARS), α-tocopherol, and glutathione peroxidise (GPX) activity were measured immuno- or colorimetrically. N(2)O, sevoflurane and isoflurane were monitored by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The study documents for the first time the positive correlation between the oxidative DNA damage and the N(2)O levels in the ambient air. By contrast, no association was observed between genotoxic effects and sevoflurane or isoflurane. In addition, ROS generation and plasma and urine concentrations of TBARS and 8-iso-PGF(2α), respectively, were elevated, while GPX activity was reduced in nurses exposed to waste anaesthetic gases. Path analysis pointed to a causal relationship between N(2)O exposure, oxidative stress and DNA damage. Occupational exposure to N(2)O is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and the level of exposure plays a critical role in this regard. Increased oxidative stress may represent a mechanistic link between chronic N(2)O exposure and genotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tracing the Neural Carryover Effects of Interpersonal Anger on Resting-State fMRI in Men and Their Relation to Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Subsample of Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi Gilam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled anger may lead to aggression and is common in various clinical conditions, including post traumatic stress disorder. Emotion regulation strategies may vary with some more adaptive and efficient than others in reducing angry feelings. However, such feelings tend to linger after anger provocation, extending the challenge of coping with anger beyond provocation. Task-independent resting-state (rs fMRI may be a particularly useful paradigm to reveal neural processes of spontaneous recovery from a preceding negative emotional experience. We aimed to trace the carryover effects of anger on endogenous neural dynamics by applying a data-driven examination of changes in functional connectivity (FC during rs-fMRI between before and after an interpersonal anger induction (N = 44 men. Anger was induced based on unfair monetary offers in a previously validated decision-making task. We calculated a common measure of global FC (gFC which captures the level of FC between each region and all other regions in the brain, and examined which brain regions manifested changes in this measure following anger. We next examined the changes in all functional connections of each individuated brain region with all other brain regions to reveal which connections underlie the differences found in the gFC analysis of the previous step. We subsequently examined the relation of the identified neural modulations in the aftermath of anger with state- and trait- like measures associated with anger, including brain structure, and in a subsample of designated infantry soldiers (N = 21, with levels of traumatic stress symptoms (TSS measured 1 year later following combat-training. The analysis pipeline revealed an increase in right amygdala gFC in the aftermath of anger and specifically with the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG.We found that the increase in FC between the right amygdala and right IFG following anger was positively associated with smaller right IFG volume

  14. Usefulness of an accelerated transoesophageal stress echocardiography in the preoperative evaluation of high risk severely obese subjects awaiting bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessier Michel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe obesity is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Bariatric surgery is an effective procedure for long term weight management as well as reduction of comorbidities. Preoperative evaluation of cardiac operative risk may often be necessary but unfortunately standard imaging techniques are often suboptimal in these subjects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility, safety and utility of transesophageal dobutamine stress echocardiography (TE-DSE using an adapted accelerated dobutamine infusion protocol in severely obese subjects with comorbidities being evaluated for bariatric surgery for assessing the presence of myocardial ischemia. Methods Subjects with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m2] with known or suspected CAD and being evaluated for bariatric surgery were recruited. Results Twenty subjects (9M/11F, aged 50 ± 8 years (mean ± SD, weighing 141 ± 21 kg and with a BMI of 50 ± 5 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study and underwent a TE-DSE. The accelerated dobutamine infusion protocol used was well tolerated. Eighteen (90% subjects reached their target heart rate with a mean intubation time of 13 ± 4 minutes. Mean dobutamine dose was 31.5 ± 9.9 ug/kg/min while mean atropine dose was 0.5 ± 0.3 mg. TE-DSE was well tolerated by all subjects without complications including no significant arrhythmia, hypotension or reduction in blood arterial saturation. Two subjects had abnormal TE-DSE suggestive of myocardial ischemia. All patients underwent bariatric surgery with no documented cardiovascular complications. Conclusions TE-DSE using an accelerated infusion protocol is a safe and well tolerated imaging technique for the evaluation of suspected myocardial ischemia and cardiac operative risk in severely obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery. Moreover, the absence of myocardial ischemia on TE-DSE correlates well with a low operative risk of cardiac event.

  15. A mathematical model for storied buildings subjected to automatic loom stresses. [vibration of weaving mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, A.; Munteanu, M.

    1974-01-01

    Expressions are derived for the displacements of a many storied building subjected to the action of classical weaving looms located at different levels of the building. The building is regarded as a vertical fixed beam with a uniformly distributed mass as well as concentrated masses at each level. The calculation relations are obtained on the assumption of harmonic variation of the forces acting at each level as well as the assumption of narrow band stationary random excitatory forces.

  16. Comparison of GC-MS and NMR for metabolite profiling of rice subjected to submergence stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barding, Gregory A; Béni, Szabolcs; Fukao, Takeshi; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Larive, Cynthia K

    2013-02-01

    Natural disasters such as drought, extreme temperatures, and flooding can severely impact crop production. Understanding the metabolic response of crops threatened with these disasters provides insights into biological response mechanisms that can influence survival. In this study, a comparative analysis of GC-MS and (1)H NMR results was conducted for wild-type and tolerant rice varieties stressed by up to 3 days of submergence and allowed 1 day of postsubmergence recovery. Most metabolomics studies are conducted using a single analytical platform. Each platform, however, has inherent advantages and disadvantages that can influence the analytical coverage of the metabolome. In this work, a more thorough analysis of the plant stress response was possible through the use of both (1)H NMR and GC-MS. Several metabolites, such as S-methyl methionine and the dipeptide alanylglycine, were only detected and quantified by (1)H NMR. The high dynamic range of NMR, as compared with that of the GC-TOF-MS used in this study, provided broad coverage of the metabolome in a single experiment. The sensitivity of GC-MS facilitated the quantitation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids, some of which were not detected by NMR, and provided additional insights into the regulation of the TCA cycle. The combined metabolic information provided by (1)H NMR and GC-MS was essential for understanding the complex biochemical and molecular response of rice plants to submergence.

  17. Medical students' subjective ratings of stress levels and awareness of student support services about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Norgren Jaconelli, Sanna; Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn

    2013-06-01

    To descriptively assess medical students' concerns for their mental and emotional state, perceived need to conceal mental problems, perceived level of support at university, knowledge and use of student support services, and experience of stresses of daily life. From March to September 2011, medical students at an Australian university were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. 475 responses were received. Students rated study and examinations (48.9%), financial concerns (38.1%), isolation (19.4%) and relationship concerns (19.2%) as very or extremely stressful issues. Knowledge of available support services was high, with 90.8% indicating they were aware of the university's medical centre. Treatment rates were modest (31.7%). Students' concerns about their mental state were generally low, but one in five strongly felt they needed to conceal their emotional problems. Despite widespread awareness of appropriate support services, a large proportion of students felt they needed to conceal mental and emotional problems. Overall treatment rates for students who were greatly concerned about their mental and emotional state appeared modest, and, although comparable with those of similarly aged community populations, may reflect undertreatment. It would be appropriate for universities to address stressors identified by students. Strategies for encouraging distressed students to obtain appropriate assessment and treatment should also be explored. Those students who do seek healthcare are most likely to see a primary care physician, suggesting an important screening role for these health professionals.

  18. Neuroprotective Effects of Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Subjected to Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizi, Claudia; Santulli, Chiara; Micucci, Matteo; Budriesi, Roberta; Chiarini, Alberto; Aldinucci, Carlo; Frosini, Maria

    2016-02-01

    One of the major features of neurodegenerative disease is the selective vulnerability of different neuronal populations that are affected in a progressive and often stereotyped manner. Despite the susceptible neuronal population varies between diseases, oxidative stress is implicated as the major pathogenic process in all of them. Natural Extract of Castanea sativa Mill. bark (ENC), recently characterized in its phenolic composition, acts as antioxidant and cardioprotective agent. Its neuroprotettive properties, however, have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess neuroprotection of ENC in in vitro models of oxidative-stress-mediate injury. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with glutamate (50 mM for 24 h) or hydrogen peroxide (25 μM for 1 h followed by 24 with medium) were used. The results showed that the addition of ENC (1-50 μg/ml) to cell medium before the neuronal damage provided neuroprotection in both experimental models used, while its addition after the injury was ineffective. In conclusion, the present results suggest that ENC could be a valuable support as dietary supplement, combining beneficial preventive neuroprotettive effects with a high antioxidant activity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  20. The Facial Interpersonal Perception Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    Develops an interpersonal perception inventory which demonstrates that various ratings of facial caricature drawings when made by a husband and wife can be used as a predictor of marital adjustment. Analysis of data establishes validity for the Facial Interpersonal Perception Inventory as well as reliability and consistency. Implications are…

  1. Older Adolescents' Thinking about Academic/Vocational and Interpersonal Commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galotti, Kathleen M.; Kozberg, Steven F.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty-eight undergraduates listed the factors they consider when choosing courses, majors, careers, friends, romantic partners, and lifelong partners. Subjects provided their own definitions of commitment in an unstructured essay. Subjects listed more factors, more distinct types of factors, and more original factors for interpersonal commitments…

  2. PKCα is genetically linked to memory capacity in healthy subjects and to risk for posttraumatic stress disorder in genocide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Ackermann, Sandra; Aerni, Amanda; Boesiger, Peter; Demougin, Philippe; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena; Gschwind, Leo; Hadziselimovic, Nils; Hanser, Edveena; Heck, Angela; Hieber, Petra; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Klarhöfer, Markus; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn; Scheffler, Klaus; Spalek, Klara; Stippich, Christoph; Vogler, Christian; Vukojevic, Vanja; Stetak, Attila; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2012-05-29

    Strong memory of a traumatic event is thought to contribute to the development and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, a genetic predisposition to build strong memories could lead to increased risk for PTSD after a traumatic event. Here we show that genetic variability of the gene encoding PKCα (PRKCA) was associated with memory capacity--including aversive memory--in nontraumatized subjects of European descent. This finding was replicated in an independent sample of nontraumatized subjects, who additionally underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI analysis revealed PRKCA genotype-dependent brain activation differences during successful encoding of aversive information. Further, the identified genetic variant was also related to traumatic memory and to the risk for PTSD in heavily traumatized survivors of the Rwandan genocide. Our results indicate a role for PKCα in memory and suggest a genetic link between memory and the risk for PTSD.

  3. Prosocial Consequences of Interpersonal Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The capacity to establish interpersonal synchrony is fundamental to human beings because it constitutes the basis for social connection and understanding. Interpersonal synchrony refers to instances when the movements or sensations of two or more people overlap in time and form. Recently, the causal influence of interpersonal synchrony on prosociality has been established through experiments. The current meta-analysis is the first to synthesize these isolated and sometimes contradictory experiments. We meta-analyzed 60 published and unpublished experiments that compared an interpersonal synchrony condition with at least one control condition. The results reveal a medium effect of interpersonal synchrony on prosociality with regard to both attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, experimenter effects and intentionality moderate these effects. We discuss the strengths and limitations of our analysis, as well as its practical implications, and we suggest avenues for future research. PMID:28105388

  4. Correlates of interpersonal dependency and detachment in an adolescent inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb J; Bornstein, Robert F; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark A; Zodan, Jennifer; Rao, Nyapati

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal dependency has been linked to psychological distress, depression, help seeking, treatment compliance, and sensitivity to interpersonal cues in adult samples. However, there is a dearth of research focusing on dependency in child and adolescent samples. The current study examined the construct validity of a measure of interpersonal dependency. The authors investigated how interpersonal dependency and detachment relate to behavioral problems, subjective well-being, interpersonal problems, and global symptom severity in adolescent inpatients. Destructive overdependence (DO) and dysfunctional detachment (DD) were positively related to interpersonal distress, behavioral problems, and symptom severity and negatively related to psychological health and well-being. Healthy dependency (HD) was associated with fewer behavioral problems and less symptom severity and positively related to subjective well-being. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Nature contact and organizational support during office working hours: Benefits relating to stress reduction, subjective health complaints, and sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnstad, Siv; Patil, Grete G; Raanaas, Ruth K

    2015-01-01

    Improving social support, and providing nature contact at work are potential health promoting workplace interventions. The objective was to investigate whether nature contact at work is associated with employee's health and participation, and to study whether the possible associations between nature contact and health can be explained by perceived organizational support. Data were collected through a web-based, cross-sectional survey of employees in seven public and private office workplaces in Norway (n = 707, 40% response rate). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis were performed on 565 participants fulfilling inclusion criteria. A greater amount of indoor nature contact at work was significantly associated with less job stress (B = -0.18, CI = -0.318 to -0.042), fewer subjective health complaints (B = -0.278, CI = -0.445 to -0.112) and less sickness absence (B = -0.061, CI = -0.009 to -0.002). Perceived organizational support mediated the associations between indoor nature contact and job stress and sickness absence, and partly mediated the association with subjective health complaints. Outdoor nature contact showed no reliable association with the outcomes in this study. Extending nature contact in the physical work environment in offices, can add to the variety of possible health-promoting workplace interventions, primarily since it influences the social climate on the workplace.

  6. Oxidative stress parameters in unmedicated and treated bipolar subjects during initial manic episode: a possible role for lithium antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Andreazza, Ana Cristina; Viale, Carlos Ivan; Zanatto, Vanessa; Cereser, Victor; da Silva Vargas, Rafael; Kapczinski, Flávio; Portela, Luiz V; Souza, Diogo O; Salvador, Mirian; Gentil, Valentim

    2007-06-21

    Studies have proposed the involvement of oxidative stress and neuronal energy dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). This study evaluates plasma levels of the oxidative/energy metabolism markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) during initial episodes of mania compared to controls in 75 subjects. Two groups of manic subjects (unmedicated n=30, and lithium-treated n=15) were age/gender matched with healthy controls (n=30). TBARS and antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD and CAT) were increased in unmedicated manic patients compared to controls. Conversely, plasma NSE levels were lower during mania than in the controls. In contrast, acute treatment with lithium showed a significant reduction in both SOD/CAT ratio and TBARS levels. These results suggest that initial manic episodes are associated with both increased oxidative stress parameters and activated antioxidant defenses, which may be related to dysfunctions on energy metabolism and neuroplasticity pathways. Antioxidant effects using lithium in mania were shown, and further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential role of these effects in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of BD.

  7. Interrogation of the microstructure and residual stress of a nickel-base alloy subjected to surface severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.L. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Energetica y de los Materiales, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Tian, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Villegas, J.C. [Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ (United States); Shaw, L.L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)], E-mail: Leon.Shaw@Uconn.Edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-02-15

    A low stacking-fault energy nickel-base, single-phase, face-centered-cubic (fcc) alloy has been subjected to surface severe plastic deformation (S{sup 2}PD) to introduce nano-grains and grain size gradients to the surface region of the alloy. The simultaneous microstructural and stress state changes induced by S{sup 2}PD have been investigated via the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that includes evaluation of annealing and deformation twins, deformation faults, in-plane lattice parameters and elastic strains of the crystal lattice, macroscopic residual in-plane stresses, crystallite sizes, internal strains, dislocation densities, and crystallographic texture as a function of the depth measured from the processed surface. Microstructural changes have also been characterized using optical and electron microscopy in order to corroborate the findings from the XRD analysis. The results from the XRD analysis are in excellent agreement with those derived from the microscopy analysis. This is the first systematic and comprehensive study using XRD to quantify depth-profile changes in a wide range of microstructural features and stress states in a fcc material resulting from the S{sup 2}PD process.

  8. Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, H; Matoulek, M; Malinska, H; Oliyarnik, O; Kazdova, L; Neskudla, T; Skoch, A; Hajek, M; Hill, M; Kahle, M; Pelikanova, T

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of calorie-restricted vegetarian and conventional diabetic diets alone and in combination with exercise on insulin resistance, visceral fat and oxidative stress markers in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. A 24-week, randomized, open, parallel design was used. Seventy-four patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 37), which received a vegetarian diet, or the control group (n = 37), which received a conventional diabetic diet. Both diets were isocaloric, calorie restricted (-500 kcal/day). All meals during the study were provided. The second 12 weeks of the diet were combined with aerobic exercise. Participants were examined at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks. Primary outcomes were: insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinaemic isoglycaemic clamp; volume of visceral and subcutaneous fat measured by magnetic resonance imaging; and oxidative stress measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Analyses were by intention to treat. Forty-three per cent of participants in the experimental group and 5% of participants in the control group reduced diabetes medication (P vegetarian diet had greater capacity to improve insulin sensitivity compared with a conventional diabetic diet over 24 weeks. The greater loss of visceral fat and improvements in plasma concentrations of adipokines and oxidative stress markers with this diet may be responsible for the reduction of insulin resistance. The addition of exercise training further augmented the improved outcomes with the vegetarian diet. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  9. Understanding interpersonal function in psychiatric illness through multiplayer economic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Casas, Brooks; Chiu, Pearl H

    2012-07-15

    Interpersonal factors play significant roles in the onset, maintenance, and remission of psychiatric conditions. In the current major diagnostic classification systems for psychiatric disorders, some conditions are defined by the presence of impairments in social interaction or maintaining interpersonal relationships; these include autism, social phobia, and the personality disorders. Other psychopathologies confer significant difficulties in the social domain, including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychotic disorders. Still other mental health conditions, including substance abuse and eating disorders, seem to be exacerbated or triggered in part by the influence of social peers. For each of these and other psychiatric conditions, the extent and quality of social support is a strong determinant of outcome such that high social support predicts symptom improvement and remission. Despite the central role of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness, the neurobiology of social impairments remains largely unexplored, in part due to difficulties eliciting and quantifying interpersonal processes in a parametric manner. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging, combined with multiplayer exchange games drawn from behavioral economics, and computational/quantitative approaches more generally, provide a fitting paradigm within which to study interpersonal function and dysfunction in psychiatric conditions. In this review, we outline the importance of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness and discuss ways in which neuroeconomics provides a tractable framework within which to examine the neurobiology of social dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A socio-interpersonal perspective on PTSD: the case for environments and interpersonal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Horn, Andrea B

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common reaction to traumatic experiences. We propose a socio-interpersonal model of PTSD that complements existing models of post-traumatic memory processes or neurobiological changes. The model adds an interpersonal perspective to explain responses to traumatic stress. The framework draws from lifespan psychology, cultural psychology and research into close relationships and groups. Additionally, clinical knowledge about PTSD is incorporated. This involves knowledge about shame, guilt, estrangement feelings and protective factors, such as social support and forgiveness. Three levels are proposed at which relevant interpersonal processes can be situated and should be adequately researched. First, the individual level comprises social affective states, such as shame, guilt, anger and feelings of revenge. Second, at the close relationship level, social support, negative exchange (ostracism and blaming the victim), disclosure and empathy are proposed as dyadic processes relevant to PTSD research and treatment. Third, the distant social level represents culture and society, in which the collectivistic nature of trauma, perceived injustice, and social acknowledgement are concepts that predict the response trajectories to traumatic stress. Research by the current authors and others is cited in an effort to promote future investigation based on the current model. Methodological implications, such as multi-level data analyses, and clinical implications, such as the need for couple, community or larger-level societal interventions, are both outlined. The socio-interpersonal model proposes an interpersonal view of the processes that occur in the aftermath of a traumatic experience. At the individual level, the model integrates the social affective phenomena that clinical research identifies in PTSD patients, including shame, guilt, anger, revenge and the urges or reluctance to disclose. At the level of close relationships, there is

  11. Efektivitas Komunikasi Interpersonal Tutor dan Murid di Lembaga Kursus Easy Speak Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Wirman, Welly; Sari, Windiyana

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal communication is a very important in the learning process, and establishing a good relationship tutor and student in easy speak institutions courses Pekanbaru. With this interpersonal communication, the tutor can determine how to form a good relationship to students, causing a sense of passion and motivation to students in the following subjects and can speak English well. The purpose of this study is to explain how the effectiveness of interpersonal communication tutors and stu...

  12. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender - a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiklund, Maria; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt; Ohman, Ann; Bergström, Erik; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2012-01-01

    .... Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls...

  13. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  14. Cooperative Learning and Interpersonal Synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T

    2017-04-01

    Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.

  15. Underground verification of the large deflection performance of fibre reinforced shotcrete subjected to high stresses and convergence and to dynamic loading.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joughin, WC

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Committee Final Project Report Underground verification of the large deflection performance of fibre reinforced shotcrete subjected to high stresses and convergence and to dynamic loading W.C. Joughin, J.L. Human and P.J. Terbrugge Research agency...: Steffen, Robertson and Kirsten Project number: GAP 710 Date: April 2002 2 Executive summary The underground verification of the performance of fibre reinforced shotcrete, subject to high stresses, convergence and dynamic loading, was identified...

  16. An examination of personality, emotional intelligence, coping, gender and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) in undergraduate students.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Shona Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This multivariate study aimed to further understand student stress. Associations between personality, emotional intelligence, coping and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) were examined in 238 undergraduate students, using self-report measures. Gender differences in these variables were also investigated. The results showed that students low in emotional stability, extraversion, emotional intelligence, subjective well-being and those with a tendency to use emotion...

  17. Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction Approach for Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Quantification in Solanum lycopersicum Plants Subjected to Water Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catola, Stefano; Kaidala Ganesha, Srikanta Dani; Calamai, Luca; Loreto, Francesco; Ranieri, Annamaria; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) are compounds found mainly in marine phytoplankton and in some halophytic plants. DMS is a globally important biogenic volatile in regulating of global sulfur cycle and planetary albedo, whereas DMSP is involved in the maintenance of plant-environment homeostasis. Plants emit minute amounts of DMS compared to marine phytoplankton and there is a need for hypersensitive analytic techniques to enable its quantification in plants. Solid Phase Micro Extraction from Head Space (HS-SPME) is a simple, rapid, solvent-free and cost-effective extraction mode, which can be easily hyphenated with GC-MS for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants subjected to water stress as a model system, we standardized a sensitive and accurate protocol for detecting and quantifying DMSP pool sizes, and potential DMS emissions, in cryoextracted leaves. The method relies on the determination of DMS free and from DMSP pools before and after the alkaline hydrolysis via Headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). We found a significant (2.5 time) increase of DMSP content in water-stressed leaves reflecting clear stress to the photosynthetic apparatus. We hypothesize that increased DMSP, and in turn DMS, in water-stressed leaves are produced by carbon sources other than direct photosynthesis, and function to protect plants either osmotically or as antioxidants. Finally, our results suggest that SPME is a powerful and suitable technique for the detection and quantification of biogenic gasses in trace amounts. PMID:27602039

  18. Effects of mindfulness based stress reduction therapy on subjective bother and neural connectivity in chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Lauren T; Lenze, Eric J; Hardin, Frances Mei; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Nicklaus, Joyce; Wineland, Andre M; Fendell, Ginny; Peelle, Jonathan E; Piccirillo, Jay F

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program in patients with chronic bothersome tinnitus on the (1) severity of symptoms of tinnitus and (2) functional connectivity in neural attention networks. Open-label interventional pilot study. Outpatient academic medical center. A total of 13 adult participants with a median age of 55 years, suffering from bothersome tinnitus. An 8-week MBSR program was conducted by a trained MBSR instructor. The primary outcome measure was the difference in patient-reported tinnitus symptoms using the Tinnitus Handicap Index (THI) and Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) between pre-intervention, post-MBSR, and 4-week post-MBSR assessments. Secondary outcomes included change in measurements of depression, anxiety, mindfulness, and cognitive abilities. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at pre- and post-MBSR intervention time points to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker of critical cortical networks. Scores on the THI and TFI showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement over the course of the study with a median ΔTHI of -16 and median ΔTFI of -14.8 between baseline and 4-week follow-up scores. Except for depression, there was no significant change in any of the secondary outcome measures. Analysis of the resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data showed increased connectivity in the post-MBSR group in attention networks but not the default network. Participation in an MBSR program is associated with decreased severity in tinnitus symptoms and depression and connectivity changes in neural attention networks. MBSR is a promising treatment option for chronic bothersome tinnitus that is both noninvasive and inexpensive. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  19. Projective drawings for assessing stress among subjects with medical symptoms compatible with sick building syndrome, and validation of a modified version of the Stress Load Index from the Drawing Personality Profile: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, Roma; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Norbäck, Dan

    2007-02-01

    It was hypothesized that subjects with medical symptoms would show more signs of stress in projective drawings. A Stress Load Index, including five signs of stress in drawings, was evaluated. A questionnaire with an instruction to draw "a person in the rain" was sent to a cohort of 195 subjects, and the drawings were analysed blindly for eight stress items. Men had a higher index than women (p sick building syndrome symptoms (p < .05). In conclusion, a nonverbal projective drawing test detected sex differences which represent directions opposite to those with verbal methods. These need empirical assessment.

  20. The COFU3 Study. Improvement in cognitive function, attention, mental performance with Pycnogenol® in healthy subjects (55-70) with high oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Ippolito, E; Hu, S; Saggino, A; Feragalli, B

    2015-12-01

    This 12-month product registry study evaluated the effects of supplementation with French pine bark extract (Pycnogenol(®)) on cognitive function, attention, and mental performance in healthy subjects with high oxidative stress. Healthy subjects (age range 55-70) were screened - within a cardiovascular screening program - for oxidative stress. Out of 150 subjects, high oxidative stress was present in 44; the use of the supplement Pycnogenol(®) was suggested (100 mg/day). These subjects decided to use Pycnogenol(®) and accepted to be evaluated by assessing cognitive functions. A group of subjects with comparable oxidative stress was followed as a reference. IQ Code (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly), daily tasks, cognitive function, oxidative stress and the short Blessed tests (SBT) were used (in defined scales) to evaluate cognitive functions (COFU). As for the IQ Code, at 12 months there was a significantlty total lower score in Pycnogenol(®) patients and also a lower value (PPycnogenol(®) (-28.07%; PPycnogenol(®) group (PPycnogenol(®) were optimal with >97% of the doses of the supplement correctly used. No side effects were observed, recorded or described. Pycnogenol(®) supplementation for 12 months appears to improve cognitive function and oxidative stress in normal subjects between 55 and 70 years of age.

  1. Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly

    2016-01-01

    RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…

  2. Inteligencia interpersonal: conceptos clave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni CASTELLÓ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es el de delimitar el espacio conceptual de la inteligencia interpersonal, relacionándolo con las situaciones en las cuales se utiliza. Para ello se establecen, en primer lugar, los aspectos relacionados con la naturaleza intelectual y el tipo de objetos representados. Sigue un apartado dedicado a los orígenes de la misma y su función en la adaptación de la especie humana. Un tercer apartado trata del tipo de procedimientos adecuados para su medición, no como una recopilación de instrumentos comúnmente utilizados, sino como una manera de hacer explícitos qué tipo de indicios son buena prueba de este tipo de inteligencia. A continuación se describen algunas de las principales confusiones asociadas a la idea de esta forma de inteligencia, integrando finalmente todos los aspectos tratados en el apartado de conclusiones.

  3. FOSTERING ADOLESCENTS' INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    BEHAVIOUR: AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF. ENHANCED THINKING SKILLS AND SOCIAL. SKILLS TRAINING. AYODELE, Kolawole Olanrewaju. Counselling ... Skills, Social Skills. Training, Interpersonal Behaviour, Emotions and Gender. Introduction ... Children report the greatest concurrence in perceptions of ...

  4. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sethi

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  5. Workplace violence, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health in Chinese doctors: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Gao, Lei; Li, Fujun; Shi, Yu; Xie, Fengzhe; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Shue; Liu, Wenhui; Duan, Xiaojian; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Li; Fan, Lihua

    2017-12-07

    Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is known as violence in healthcare settings and referring to the violent acts that are directed towards doctors, nurses or other healthcare staff at work or on duty. Moreover, WPV can cause a large number of adverse outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence to test the link between exposure to WPV against doctors, psychological stress, sleep quality and health status in China. This study had three objectives: (1) to identify the incidence rate of WPV against doctors under a new classification, (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health of Chinese doctors and (3) to verify the partial mediating role of psychological stress. A cross-sectional online survey study. The survey was conducted among 1740 doctors in tertiary hospitals, 733 in secondary hospital and 139 in primary hospital across 30 provinces of China. A total of 3016 participants were invited. Ultimately, 2617 doctors completed valid questionnaires. The effective response rate was 86.8%. The results demonstrated that the prevalence rate of exposure to verbal abuse was the highest (76.2%), made difficulties (58.3%), smear reputation (40.8%), mobbing behaviour (40.2%), intimidation behaviour (27.6%), physical violence (24.1%) and sexual harassment (7.8%). Exposure to WPV significantly affected the psychological stress, sleep quality and self-reported health of doctors. Moreover, psychological stress partially mediated the relationship between work-related violence and health damage. In China, most doctors have encountered various WPV from patients and their relatives. The prevalence of three new types of WPV have been investigated in our study, which have been rarely mentioned in past research. A safer work environment for Chinese healthcare workers needs to be provided to minimise health threats, which is a top priority for both government and society. © Article author(s) (or

  6. Optimization Design of Structures Subjected to Transient Loads Using First and Second Derivatives of Dynamic Displacement and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qimao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an effective optimization method, i.e., gradient-Hessian matrix-based method or second order method, of frame structures subjected to the transient loads. An algorithm of first and second derivatives of dynamic displacement and stress with respect to design variables is formulated based on the Newmark method. The inequality time-dependent constraint problem is converted into a sequence of appropriately formed time-independent unconstrained problems using the integral interior point penalty function method. The gradient and Hessian matrixes of the integral interior point penalty functions are also computed. Then the Marquardt's method is employed to solve unconstrained problems. The numerical results show that the optimal design method proposed in this paper can obtain the local optimum design of frame structures and sometimes is more efficient than the augmented Lagrange multiplier method.

  7. Perceived interpersonal relations in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hakelind, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to examine aspects of adolescents perceived interpersonal relations, in view of the association between adolescents’ interpersonal problems and self-concepts, and considering influential factors such as behavioural problems, depression, perceptions of parental rearing styles, type of relationships and sex. All of the studies examined participants from the four-year longitudinal research project in Umeå, which was designed to investigate the psychic hea...

  8. The Mediating Roles of Perceived Stress and Health Behaviors in the Relation between Objective, Subjective, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Perceived Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective, subjective, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with perceived health, morbidity, and mortality. Purpose We investigated whether perceived stress and health behaviors mediated the relation between the three types of SES and perceived health. Methods Participants (N = 508) attending a public clinic completed a computerized survey assessing objective SES (income, education, employment); health behaviors; perceived stress; and perceived health. They also indicated their social standing relative to others (subjective SES) and provided their current address to determine neighborhood SES. Results In a structural equation model including all three SES types, lower objective and subjective SES were related to poorer perceived health. When mediators were included in the model, there were significant indirect effects of: (a) SES on health through stress; and (b) SES on health through stress and health compromising behaviors. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the impact of stressors could improve the health of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. PMID:24648016

  9. Survival and weight change among adult individuals of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria, Blattidae subject to various stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelio Peter Duarte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n2p103 Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P. americana couples were formed and subject to: I no water or food; II no food; III no water; and IV control group. Insects were isolated according to the groups, which were weighed at the beginning and end of the stress conditions. They remained under these conditions until all individuals in each test group were dead. Stress conditions caused reduction in survival time when compared to the control group. Adults with higher body mass survived longer when deprived only of food, while among those lacking water, weight had no influence on survival. Total weight loss was greater among individuals deprived of water than those deprived only of food.

  10. Influence of L-Carnitine on fitness and oxidative stress parameters in Trotter Horses subjected to Laval’s test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, in addition to grain, the high energy requirements of racehorses have been met with dietary supplementsof vegetable oil, which may, however, represent an easily oxidisable substrate. Carnitine can be used to improvelipid metabolism. We evaluated the changes in performance and oxidative stress parameters measured in 4 trottersreceiving a diet containing soybean oil and L-Carnitine and subjected to two Standardized Exercise Tests (SET accordingto Laval’s protocol (3 hits at increasing speed at an interval of 30 days. Blood samples were taken at rest, just aftereach of the three hits, and at 10, 20 and 40 min after each test to determine lactic acid, glucose, Non-Esterified FattyAcid (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, Reactive Oxygen metabolites (ROMs, Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px, and SuperoxideDismutase (SOD. L-Carnitine influenced ROMs and SOD and resulted in a reduction in the oxidative stress parameters.Some indices of the fitness status also improved.

  11. Psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives among subjects with alcohol dependence (AD) presenting different patterns of coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanicka, Katarzyna; Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The problem of coping with stress is an important one in the context of development and persistence of alcohol dependence. In the literature to date very little attention has been paid to coping patterns construed as a configuration of specific coping styles, particularly as regards the functioning of addicted individuals. The aim of the study was to verify whether individuals with alcohol dependence characterized by different coping patterns differ with respect to the severity of psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests-Coping Inventory for Stresfull Situations (CISS), Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ 40), Syndrom Checklist (SCL-90) and Short Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (SZPTI-PL). The sample comprised 112 individuals with alcohol dependence, aged 20 to 63 years old, the average age was 37.86; 78 percent were men. There were identified three sub-groups of individuals characterized by a distinctive patterns of coping with stress -"emotional-avoidant", "task oriented" and a "mixed one". Individuals with the predominant emotional-avoidant coping pattern are characterized by significantly higher severity of psychopathological symptoms, less mature defense mechanisms and past time perspectives. Subjects reliant on task-oriented coping pattern were characterized by the highest level of adaptation and the most constructive way of functioning in the face of difficulties. It is worth regarding the examination of patterns of coping as an indispensable element of collecting medical history from alcohol dependent individuals.

  12. Interpersonal Attraction and Dependence as a Function of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Joseph A.; Sesi, Maher S.

    This experiment tested the hypotheses that interpersonal dependence would be an inverse function of the individual's chronic and situational levels of self-esteem, and that interpersonal attraction would be an inverse function of the individual's induced/situational level of self-esteem, but would be unaffected by her chronic level. Subjects were…

  13. The counselor's trauma as counseling motivation: vulnerability or stress inoculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Mitchell, Jessica L; Baird, Stephanie; Whitfield, Sarah Roby; Meyer, Heather Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Should counselors with interpersonal trauma histories work with similarly traumatized clients? How does the work affect them? Current research is inconsistent. This study examines 101 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors' recalled motivations for trauma work, their reported subjective personal changes, and their secondary and vicarious trauma symptoms and burnout. Counselors motivated by interpersonal trauma report both more symptoms and positive changes (including dealing with their own trauma). Those seeking personal meaning report becoming more hypervigilant and self-isolating. Those saying they learned from clients rate symptoms lower, suggesting stress inoculation. Supervisors of trauma counselors should facilitate learning from clients separately from processing the counselor's trauma.

  14. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender - a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Maria; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt; Ohman, Ann; Bergström, Erik; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2012-11-16

    Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16-18 year olds (n = 1027), boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71) and anxiety (r = 0.71). The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the school environment, in order to prevent negative strain and stress

  15. Self-distancing from trauma memories reduces physiological but not subjective emotional reactivity among Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisco, Blair E; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M; Gorman, Kaitlyn R; Kulish, Andrea L; Pineles, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Self-distancing, or viewing oneself from a third-person perspective, reduces reactivity when analyzing one's feelings. Self-distancing may have important effects among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who have heightened emotional and physiological reactivity to trauma memories, but the effects of self-distancing in this group are unclear. We randomly assigned 48 Veterans diagnosed with PTSD to analyze their trauma-related feelings from an immersed (first-person) or distanced (third-person) perspective, and measured physiological and subjective emotional reactivity. Self-distancing during trauma analysis protected against increases in physiological reactivity, such that participants in the immersed condition showed a significant increase in heart rate and skin conductance responses not seen in the distanced condition. However, self-distancing had no effect on self-reported emotional reactivity. Our findings suggest that the effects of self-distancing on subjective emotions may not extend to trauma memories. However, self-distancing during trauma analysis did change physiological reactivity, suggesting at least a short-term benefit for individuals with PTSD.

  16. Interpersonal and economic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, U G

    1971-01-29

    High population density and increased institutional specialization, which are relatively novel features of human society. have provided conditions for a more efficient exchange of universalistic resources, while decreasing the opportunity for exchanging particularistic ones. The parallel with physical environment is striking: in both cases technology has created new problems in the process of solving old ones. Whether it is natural resources or interpersonal resources, physical ecology or social ecology, recognizing and defining the new problem is the first step toward its solution. The importance of particularistic resources in solving problems of modern society has scarcely been recognized. Welfare institutions, for example, often require clients to lose status for the money they receive. This form of exchange deprives the client of a resource which is already scarce for him, thus further reducing his chances of autonomous performance as a resource exchanger in society. By ignoring the significance of particularistic resources for social functioning, we tend to see the solution of social problems exclusively in terms of a better distribution of economic resources. Improvement of education, for instance, is considered almost equivalent to allocating more money for schools. Truly money is one of the neighbors of information in the order, but the other one is status. Evidence to suggest that higher status improves educational achievement has, indeed, been repeatedly reported (26). The very mention of particularistic resources in social planning causes uneasiness and bafflement. The economist Levitan (27), for example, in reviewing the activities of VISTA (a program of the Office of Economic Opportunity), wonders how to evaluate goals such as dedication, involvement, and good feeling. The reluctance to include particularistic resources in social engineering will hopefully decrease as we improve techniques for their observation and measurement and as we begin to

  17. Interpersonal distress is associated with sleep and arousal in insomnia and good sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Heather E; Troxel, Wendy M; Hall, Martica H; Buysse, Daniel J

    2014-03-01

    The interpersonal environment is strongly linked to sleep. However, little is known about interpersonal distress and its association with sleep. We examined the associations among interpersonal distress, objective and subjective sleep in people with and without insomnia. Participants in this cross-sectional observational study included men and women with insomnia (n = 28) and good sleeper controls (n = 38). Interpersonal distress was measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Sleep parameters included insomnia severity, self-reported presleep arousal, and sleep quality; and polysomnographically-assessed sleep latency (SL), total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), percent delta (stage 3 + 4 NREM), percent REM, and EEG beta power. Hierarchical linear regression was used to assess the relationship between distress from interpersonal problems and sleep and the extent to which relationships differed among insomnia patients and controls. More interpersonal distress was associated with more self-reported arousal and higher percentage of REM. More interpersonal distress was associated with greater insomnia severity and more cognitive presleep arousal for individuals with insomnia, but not for controls. Contrary to expectations, interpersonal distress was associated with shorter sleep latency in the insomnia group. Results were attenuated, but still significant, after adjusting for depression symptoms. Distress from interpersonal problems is associated with greater self-reported arousal and higher percent REM. Individuals with insomnia who report more distress from interpersonal problems have greater insomnia severity and cognitive presleep arousal, perhaps due to rumination. These findings extend our knowledge of the association between interpersonal stressors and sleep. Assessment and consideration of interpersonal distress could provide a novel target for insomnia treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, and 29.7 kg/m2). Patients taking antihypertensive agents or with renal insufficiency were excluded. All patients were evaluated with a continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (Finapres) in standing (1 min), squatting (1 min), and again standing position (1 min). Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were compared with two groups of 40 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy subjects. RESULTS Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly higher pulse pressure, heart rate, and double product of pulse pressure and heart rate (PP×HR) (type 1: 5,263 vs. 4,121 mmHg/min, P = 0.0004; type 2: 5,359 vs. 4,321 mmHg, P = 0.0023) levels than corresponding control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes regarding pulse pressure (59 vs. 58 mmHg), heart rate (89 vs. 88/min), and PP×HR (5,263 vs. 5,359 mmHg/min). CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased levels of peripheral PP, an indirect marker of arterial stiffness, and PP×HR, an index of pulsatile stress, comparable to those of nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes at similar mean age of 50 years. PMID:20693351

  19. Dialogue as interpersonal synergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    What is the proper unit of analysis in the psycholinguistics of dialogue? While classical approaches are largely based on models of individual linguistic processing, recent advances stress the social coordinative nature of dialogue. In the influential interactive alignment model, dialogue is thus...

  20. Five domains of interpersonal competence in peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrmester, D; Furman, W; Wittenberg, M T; Reis, H T

    1988-12-01

    In three studies we investigated the utility of distinguishing among different domains of interpersonal competence in college students' peer relationships. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire to assess five dimensions of competence: initiating relationships, self-disclosure, asserting displeasure with others' actions, providing emotional support, and managing interpersonal conflicts. Initial validation evidence was gathered. We found that self-perceptions of competence varied as a function of sex of subject, sex of interaction partner, and competence domain. In Study 2 we found moderate levels of agreement between ratings of competence by subjects and their roommates. Interpersonal competence scores were also related in predictable ways to subject and roommate reports of masculinity and femininity, social self-esteem, loneliness, and social desirability. In Study 3 we obtained ratings of subjects' competence from their close friends and new acquaintances. Relationship satisfaction among new acquaintances was predicted best by initiation competence, whereas satisfaction in friendships was most strongly related to emotional support competence. The findings provide strong evidence of the usefulness of distinguishing among domains of interpersonal competence.

  1. Students' Perceptions of Interpersonal Aspects of the Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jack; Den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2003-01-01

    Examined variables associated with differences in students' perceptions of interpersonal teacher behavior in seven secondary schools. Focuses on seven variables in a multilevel analysis: student and teacher gender; student and teacher ethnic background; student age and grade; class size; grade level; subject taught; and teacher experience.…

  2. An Analysis of the Interpersonal Perceptions of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Jung Bay

    1983-01-01

    Investigated concerns, needs, and other characteristics of interpersonal relationships of adolescents (N=655) as reflected by stories written in response to pictures of people. Subjects were high school students and reformatory residents. Analysis indicated predominant themes were affiliation, aggression, achievement (sports), and drugs. Personal…

  3. Metabolite Profiling of Barley Grains Subjected to Water Stress: To Explain the Genotypic Difference in Drought-Induced Impacts on Malting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain weight and protein content will be reduced and increased, respectively, when barley is subjected to water stress after anthesis, consequently deteriorating the malt quality. However, such adverse impact of water stress differs greatly among barley genotypes. In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions and two cultivated varieties differing in water stress tolerance were used to investigate the genotypic difference in metabolic profiles during grain-filling stage under drought condition. Totally, 71 differently accumulated metabolites were identified, including organic acids, amino acids/amines, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Their relative contents were significantly affected by water stress for all genotypes and differed distinctly between the wild and cultivated barleys. The principal component analysis of metabolites indicated that the Tibetan wild barley XZ147 possessed a unique response to water stress. When subjected to water stress, the wild barley XZ147 showed the most increase of β-amylase activity among the four genotypes, as a result of its higher lysine content, less indole-3-acetic acid (IAA biosynthesis, more stable H2O2 homeostasis, and more up-regulation of BMY1 gene. On the other hand, XZ147 had the most reduction of β-glucan content under water stress than the other genotypes, which could be explained by the faster grain filling process and the less expression of β-glucan synthase gene GSL7. All these results indicated a great potential for XZ147 in barley breeding for improving water stress tolerance.

  4. Identifying Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Ho, Moon Ho-Ringo; Kim, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research has begun to examine cognitive and interpersonal predictors of stress and subsequent depression in adolescents. This research is critical as cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors likely shape expectations, perspectives, and interpretations of a given situation prior to the onset of a stressor. In the current study, adolescents (n=157; boys=64, girls=93), ages 12 to 18, participated in a 6-month, multi-wave longitudinal study examining the impact of negative cognitive style, self-criticism, and dependency on stress and depression. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel analyses indicate that depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite score and weakest link approach) and self-criticism predict dependent interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal stress. Moreover, the occurrence of stress mediates the relationship between cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms over time. At the same time, self-criticism predicts above and beyond depressogenic attributional styles (i.e., composite and weakest link approach). In contrast to our hypotheses, dependency does not contribute to the occurrence of stress, and additionally, no gender differences emerge. Taken together, the findings suggest that self-criticism may be a particularly damaging vulnerability factor in adolescence, and moreover, it may warrant greater attention in the context of psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:24398789

  5. Social environments and interpersonal distance regulation in psychosis: A virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Chris N W; van Beilen, Marije; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim

    2018-02-01

    Experimentally studying the influence of social environments on mental health and behavior is challenging, as social context is difficult to standardize in laboratory settings. Virtual Reality (VR) enables studying social interaction in terms of interpersonal distance in a more ecologically valid manner. Regulation of interpersonal distance may be abnormal in patients with psychotic disorders and influenced by environmental stress, symptoms or distress. To investigate interpersonal distance in people with a psychotic disorder and at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR) compared to siblings and controls in virtual social environments, and explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and interpersonal distance. Nineteen UHR patients, 52 patients with psychotic disorders, 40 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder and 47 controls were exposed to virtual cafés. In five virtual café visits, participants were exposed to different levels of social stress, in terms of crowdedness, ethnicity and hostility. Measures on interpersonal distance, distress and state paranoia were obtained. Baseline measures included trait paranoia, social anxiety, depressive, positive and negative symptoms. Interpersonal distance increased when social stressors were present in the environment. No difference in interpersonal distance regulation was found between the groups. Social anxiety and distress were positively associated with interpersonal distance in the total sample. This VR paradigm indicates that interpersonal distance regulation in response to environmental social stressors is unaltered in people with psychosis or UHR. Environmental stress, social anxiety and distress trigger both people with and without psychosis to maintain larger interpersonal distances in social situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. L-carnitine Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Brains of Rats Subjected to a Chemically Induced Chronic Model of MSUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescka, Caroline Paula; Rosa, Andrea Pereira; Schirmbeck, Gabriel; da Rosa, Thales Hein; Catarino, Felipe; de Souza, Laila Oliveira; Guerreiro, Gilian; Sitta, Angela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2016-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), or branched-chain α-keto aciduria, is an inherited disorder that is caused by a deficiency in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD) activity. Blockade of this pathway leads to the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine, and their respective ketoacids in tissues. The main clinical symptoms presented by MSUD patients include ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, opisthotonos, poor feeding, apnea, ataxia, convulsions, coma, psychomotor delay, and mental retardation. Although increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of this disease, the mechanisms of the brain damage caused by this disorder remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of BCAAs on some oxidative stress parameters and evaluated the efficacy of L-carnitine (L-car), an efficient antioxidant that may be involved in the reduction of oxidative damage observed in some inherited neurometabolic diseases, against these possible pro-oxidant effects of a chronic MSUD model in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rats. Our results showed that chronic BCAA administration was able to promote both lipid and protein oxidation, impair brain antioxidant defenses, and increase reactive species production, particularly in the cerebral cortex, and that L-car was able to prevent these effects. Taken together, the present data indicate that chronic BCAA administration significantly increased oxidative damage in the brains of rats subjected to a chronic model of MSUD and that L-car may be an efficient antioxidant in this disorder.

  7. Association of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) intake and dietary intervention and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers of dyslipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Brunna Cristina Bremer; Di Pietro, Patrícia Faria; Stefanuto, Aliny; Klein, Graziela Alessandra; de Morais, Elayne Cristina; de Andrade, Fernanda; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term ingestion of mate tea, with or without dietary intervention, on the markers of oxidative stress in dyslipidemic individuals. Seventy-four dyslipidemic volunteers participated in this randomized clinical trial. Subjects were divided into three treatment groups: mate tea (MT), dietary intervention (DI), and mate tea with dietary intervention (MD). Biochemical and dietary variables were assessed at the beginning of the study (baseline) and after 20, 40, 60, and 90 d of treatment. Participants in the MT and MD groups consumed 1 L/d of mate tea. Those in the DI and MD groups were instructed to increase their intake of fruit, legumes and vegetables and decrease their consumption of foods rich in cholesterol and saturated and trans-fatty acids. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as antioxidant capacity of serum (ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay), uric acid, reduced glutathione, paraoxonase-1 enzyme, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and protein carbonyl were analyzed. Participants in the DI group showed a significant decrease in total fat and saturated fatty acid intakes. Those in the DI and MD groups presented a significant increase in vitamin C consumption. For all groups, there was a significant increase in ferric reducing antioxidant potential and reduced glutathione concentrations but no significant changes in LOOH, protein carbonyl, and paraoxonase-1 values. The reduced glutathione concentration was positively correlated with the consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber, and vitamin C, whereas levels of LOOH were inversely correlated with intakes of vitamin C and fiber. In addition, LOOH correlated positively with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inversely with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which had a positive association with paraoxonase-1. The ingestion of mate tea independently of the dietary intervention increased plasma and blood antioxidant protection in patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright

  8. A soy-based phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) normalizes the stress reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis in chronically stressed male subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellhammer, Juliane; Vogt, Dominic; Franz, Nadin; Freitas, Ulla; Rutenberg, David

    2014-07-31

    Supplementation with a phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) has been observed to normalize stress induced dysregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Prolonged stress first induces a hyper-activation of the HPAA, which then can be followed by a state of hypo-activation.The aim of this study was to examine effects of an oral supplementation with 400 mg PS & 400 mg PA (PAS 400) per day on the endocrine stress response (ACTH, saliva and serum cortisol) to a psychosocial stressor. A special focus was to analyze subgroups of low versus high chronically stressed subjects as well as to test efficacy of 200 mg PS & 200 mg PA (PAS 200). 75 healthy male volunteers were enrolled for this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, stratified by chronic stress level, and randomly allocated to one of three study arms (placebo, PAS 200 and PAS 400 per day, respectively). Study supplementation was administered for 42 days for each participant. Chronic stress was measured with the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS), and subgroups of high and low chronic stress were differentiated by median values as provided by the TICS authors. A six week period of supplementation was followed by an acute stress test (Trier Social Stress Test - TSST). Chronic stress levels and other baseline measures did not differ between treatment groups (all p>0.05). Acute stress was successfully induced by the TSST and resulted in a hyper-responsivity of the HPAA in chronically stressed subjects. Compared to placebo, a supplementation with a daily dose of PAS 400 was effective in normalizing the ACTH (p=0.010), salivary (p=0.043) and serum cortisol responses (p=0.035) to the TSST in chronically high but not in low stressed subjects (all p>0.05). Compared to placebo, supplementation with PAS 200 did not result in any significant differences in these variables (all p>0.05). There were no significant effects of supplementation with PAS on heart rate

  9. Pengaruh Sosial Media Terhadap Komunikasi Interpersonal dan Cyberbullying Pada Remaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vensy Vydia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Internet provides any information which could help teenagers in many cases, including to communicate with their friends. On the other way, internet technology which makes communication easier, does some negative effects related with interpersonal communication. Teenagers are not willing to do direct communication, including with their families. The purpose of this research is to find out and to prove whether social media impacts to interpersonal communication and cyberbullying of  teenagers . Further, this research is giving some solutions for teenagers to hpersonal communication altough they are social media addicted. The subject of this research is 500 students in age of 16 up to 19 years old.

  10. The mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase in the impairment of learning and memory in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Kuang, Shengnan; Xue, Lai; Yang, Junqing

    2016-12-01

    To examine the mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in the learning and memory dysfunction in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Eighty rats were divided into eight groups: the 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (NaCMC)-treated group, empty vector (LV-Mock)-treated group, CUMS+NaCMC-treated group, CUMS+sertraline-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (10mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (30mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+LV-Mock-treated group, and CUMS+5-LO-silencers lentiviral vectors (LV-si-5-LO)-treated group, n=10. Sucrose preference tests were performed to assess depression-like behavior. The Morris water maze and step-down tests were used to evaluate learning and memory performance. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, malondialdehyde, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to estimate inflammation and oxidative stress. Changes in 5-LO mRNA and protein were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The expression of synaptophysin, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured using immunohistochemical staining. Treatment with caffeic acid or LV-si-5-LO increased sucrose consumption, decreased escape latency and increased the number of platform crosses in the Morris water maze test, and decreased the number of errors and prolonged the latency in the step-down test. We observed a decreased expression of 5-LO, and levels of malondialdehyde, leukotriene-B4, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, while the protein levels of synaptophysin, PSD-95, BDNF, and the activity of SOD were increased in the hippocampus of the CUMS-treated rats. CUMS-induced impairment in learning and memory could be triggered by an inflammatory response in the rat hippocampus, which results in oxidative stress injury and impacts the synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons. Inhibition of the activity or expression of 5-LO

  11. Consequences of untreated posttraumatic stress disorder following war in former Yugoslavia: morbidity, subjective quality of life, and care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Matanov, Aleksandra; Janković Gavrilović, Jelena; McCrone, Paul; Ljubotina, Damir; Knezević, Goran; Kucukalić, Abdulah; Francisković, Tanja; Schützwohl, Matthias

    2009-10-01

    To assess long-term mental health outcomes in people who suffer from war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but do not receive appropriate treatment. We interviewed 264 subjects from former Yugoslavia, who lived in Croatia, Serbia, Germany, and the United Kingdom. All of them had suffered from PTSD at some point following the war, but never received psychiatric or psychological treatment. The interviews took place on average 10.7+/-3.0 years after the war-related trauma. Outcomes were current PTSD on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, subjective quality of life (SQOL) on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, and care costs. Socio-demographic characteristics, the level of traumatic war-events, and aspects of the post-war situation were tested for association with outcomes. Current PTSD was diagnosed in 83.7% of participants, the mean SQOL score was 4.0+/-0.9, and mean care costs in the last 3 months exceeded euro1100 in each center. Older age, more traumatic war-events, lower education, and living in post-conflict countries were associated with higher rates of current PTSD. Older age, combat experience, more traumatic war-events, being unemployed, living alone, being housed in collective accommodation, and current PTSD were independently associated with lower SQOL. Older age and living in Germany were linked to higher costs of formal care. People with untreated war-related PTSD have a high risk of still having PTSD a decade after the traumatic event. Their SQOL is relatively low, and they generate considerable care costs. Factors that have been reported as influencing the occurrence of PTSD also appear relevant for recovery from PTSD. Current PTSD may impair SQOL independently of social factors.

  12. Psychological and Interpersonal Dimensions of Sexual Function and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori; Atallah, Sandrine; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista; Rosenbaum, Talli; Abdo, Carmita; Byers, E Sandra; Graham, Cynthia; Nobre, Pedro; Wylie, Kevan

    2016-04-01

    Psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors play a significant role in making one vulnerable to developing a sexual concern, in triggering the onset of a sexual difficulty, and in maintaining sexual dysfunction in the long term. To focus on psychological and interpersonal aspects of sexual functioning in women and men after a critical review of the literature from 2010 to the present. This report is part 1 of 2 of our collaborative work during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine for Committee 2. Systematic review of the literature with a focus on publications since 2010. Our work as sexual medicine clinicians is essentially transdisciplinary, which involves not only the collaboration of multidisciplinary professionals but also the integration and application of new knowledge and evaluation and subsequent revision of our practices to ensure the highest level of care provided. There is scant literature on gender non-conforming children and adolescents to clarify specific developmental factors that shape the development of gender identity, orientation, and sexuality. Conversely, studies consistently have demonstrated the interdependence of sexual function between partners, with dysfunction in one partner often contributing to problems in sexual functioning and/or sexual satisfaction for the other. We recommend that clinicians explore attachment styles of patients, childhood experiences (including sexual abuse), onset of sexual activity, personality, cognitive schemas, infertility concerns, and sexual expectations. Assessment of depression, anxiety, stress, substance use and post-traumatic stress (and their medical treatments) should be carried out as part of the initial evaluation. Clinicians should attempt to ascertain whether the anxiety and/or depression is a consequence or a cause of the sexual complaint, and treatment should be administered accordingly. Cognitive distraction is a significant contributor to sexual response problems

  13. Interpersonal Couplings in Human Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A.

    As inherently social beings people routinely interact with others. Interpersonal activities such as dancing, conversation, or team sports require people to coordinate at several different levels, ranging from the coordination of physical movements and physiological states of the body to the coordination of mental states and cognitive or linguistic activity. One of the challenges confronted by researchers in this interdisciplinary field has been to find ways to objectively quantify interpersonal coupling on the basis of brief, noisy, nonstationary, and complex time series of human behavioral sequences. Given their robustness to these challenges, recurrence-based strategies have played a very important role in the development of this field of research. This chapter provides a review of current behavioral, cognitive, and physiological research that has used recurrence methods to quantify interpersonal coupling.

  14. Association between Subjective School Adaptation and Life Skills in Elementary School Children with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoji, Yurina; Miyai, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between subjective school adaptation and life skills in elementary school children with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional sample of children with chronic diseases (n=76), who were being treated as pediatric outpatients and who were in the 4th to 6th grade of public elementary schools, was selected. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised an Adaptation Scale for School Environments on Six Spheres (ASSESS) and life skills scales for self-management and stress coping strategies. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the inter-relationship between subjective school adaptation and life skills. Compared with the gender- and schoolyear-matched healthy controls (n=380), a large number of children with chronic diseases had low scores on the measure of interpersonal relationship in school. From the structural equation modeling, the subscales "friend's support" and "victimized relationship" in interpersonal relationship were two of the factors closely related to subjective adaptation of learning as well as school satisfaction in the children with chronic diseases. Furthermore, the "decision-making" and "goal-setting" components of self-management skills demonstrated positive contributions to the adaptation of learning and interpersonal relationship either directly affected by the skills themselves or through the affirmative effects of stress coping strategies. These results suggest that life skills education, focusing on self-management and stress coping strategies along with support to improve interpersonal relationships, is effective in promoting subjective school adaptation and leads to increased school satisfaction in children with chronic diseases.

  15. Attraction and Interpersonal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.

    This study investigates seating distance and angles of location and orientation in a conversational situation as a function of several variables: attitudinal agreement or disagreement by a stranger, agreeing or disagreeing normative information, and personality variables. Subjects were 52 randomly selected introductory psychology students from the…

  16. Effect of magnesium, probiotic, and vitamin food supplementation in healthy subjects with psychological stress and evaluation of a persistent effect after discontinuing intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaert, Francois A; Courau, Stephanie; Forestier, Anne

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the changes in subjects' psychological stress intensity under the effect of dietary supplements of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins after one month of intake. Observational cohort study of subject complaining of psychological stress defined by a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10) score of more than 21. The study covered 242 healthy volunteers, 38.6±13.6-year-old, among whom 79.8% were women. Under the effect of the supplementation of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins, the psychological stress of the subjects decreased significantly from 34.1±4.5 to 26.2±6.1 (Ppsychological stress level was strictly similar one month after the treatment was discontinued and therefore clearly demonstrated that the psychological benefit was maintained over time. Stress and fatigue are significantly reduced by the intake of a food supplement with probiotics, magnesium, vitamins, and minerals and this effect is fully maintained one month after discontinuing the food supplement intake.

  17. Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms--results of an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D; Heufelder, A; Zimmermann, A

    2012-08-01

    The trial was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and safety of a 4 week treatment with Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms. This was a multicentre, non-randomized, open-label, single-arm trial. One hundred and one subjects were enrolled in this clinical study and received the study drug at a dose of 200 mg twice daily for 4 weeks. Assessments with seven questionnaires included Numerical Analogue Scales of Subjective Stress Symptoms, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory 20, Numbers Connecting Test, Sheehan Disability Scale and Clinical Global Impressions to cover various aspects of stress symptoms and adverse events. Invariably, all tests showed clinically relevant improvements with regard to stress symptoms, disability, functional impairment and overall therapeutic effect. Improvements were observed even after 3 days of treatment, as were continuing improvements after 1 and 4 weeks. Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 was safe and generally well tolerated. Adverse events were mostly of mild intensity and no serious adverse events were reported. Rhodiola extract at a dose of 200 mg twice daily for 4 weeks is safe and effective in improving life-stress symptoms to a clinically relevant degree. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Interpersonal attraction and rewarding aspects of disclosure content and level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, D M; Banikiotes, P G

    1976-04-01

    The relationship between self-disclosure and interpersonal attraction was viewed within the context of theories of social penetration and social exchange. The effects of similarity of disclosure level and similarity in content of disclosure on interpersonal attraction were assessed. Specifically, 24 high-self-disclosing subjects and 24 low-self-disclosing subjects were presented with four bogus inventories manipulated on the variables of agreement in content and amount of disclosure. The reward potential of various factors within the disclosure process were measured by the subject's attraction to these four hypothetical strangers. Results indicated that along with amount of disclosure, similarity in the content of the disclosed material and similarity between the subject's and another's level of disclosure had a positive influence on attraction.

  19. Humor and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Brust, R G

    1985-12-01

    A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed.

  20. Assertiveness Training Melalui Bermain Peran dalam Bimbingan Kelompok untuk Meningkatkan Komunikasi Interpersonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristinus Sembiring

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal communication skills are one of the ability students to interact with others. Students who have interpersonal communication problems can be hinder the process of development of creativity and improved academic  achievement. The purpose of this study is to investigate interpersonal communication skills of score experimental group after assertiveness training through a role playing methods in group guidance to help improve. This research applied quasi-experimental approach by pretest-posttest control group design. The subjects were 10 students of class Eleven IPS (experimental group and 10 students of class Eleven  IPA (the control group. To select subjects for experimental and control groups using purposive sampling technique through data analysis pretest. It was considered in some criteria such as with low average scores of interpersonal communication skills. The data was collected through by scale of interpersonal communication skills that have been tested for validity and reliability. The data analysis technique used is nonparametric statistics by Mann Whitney U Test. From the results of post-test, the student interpersonal communication skills improved. It was indicated by the results of quantitative analysis that assertiveness training through a role playing methods in group guidance was effective to improve students interpersonal communication skills from group guidance without assertiveness training through a role playing method, with the result that assertiveness training through role-play methods can be used as one method of group guidance services to enhance the interpersonal communication skills of students.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates physiology and performance of Digitaria eriantha plants subjected to abiotic stresses by modulating antioxidant and jasmonate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedranzani, H; Rodríguez-Rivera, M; Gutiérrez, M; Porcel, R; Hause, B; Ruiz-Lozano, J M

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates antioxidant responses and jasmonate regulation in Digitaria eriantha cv. Sudafricana plants inoculated (AM) and non-inoculated (non-AM) with Rhizophagus irregularis and subjected to drought, cold, or salinity. Stomatal conductance, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants enzymes activities, and jasmonate levels were determined. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic efficiency decreased in AM and non-AM plants under all stress conditions. However, AM plants subjected to drought, salinity, or non-stress conditions showed significantly higher stomatal conductance values. AM plants subjected to drought or non-stress conditions increased their shoot/root biomass ratios, whereas salinity and cold caused a decrease in these ratios. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, which was high in non-AM plant roots under all treatments, increased significantly in non-AM plant shoots under cold stress and in AM plants under non-stress and drought conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the roots of all plants under drought conditions. In shoots, although lipid peroxidation decreased in AM plants under non-stress and cold conditions, it increased under drought and salinity. AM plants consistently showed high catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments. By contrast, the glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of AM roots was lower than that of non-AM plants and increased in shoots. The endogenous levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoc acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and 12-OH-JA showed a significant increase in AM plants as compared to non-AM plants. 11-OH-JA content only increased in AM plants subjected to drought. Results show that D. eriantha is sensitive to drought, salinity, and cold stresses and that inoculation with AM fungi regulates its physiology and performance under such conditions, with antioxidants and jasmonates being involved

  2. Interpersonal touch as a game interaction method

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Joe; Linehan, Conor; Tennent, Paul; Hazzard, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a key element of social behaviour, yet is largely ignored in HCI. In this paper, we describe two games which explore two extremes of interpersonal touch, and discuss key research questions relating to them.

  3. Interpersonal communication and issues for autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Interpersonal roadway communication is a vital component of the transportation system. Road users communicate to coordinate movement and increase roadway safety. Future autonomous vehicle research needs to account for the role of interpersonal roadwa...

  4. Plants as Biofactories: Postharvest Stress-Induced Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Glucosinolates in Broccoli Subjected to Wounding Stress and Exogenous Phytohormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-García, Daniel; Nair, Vimal; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive molecules and is considered a functional food. In this study, postharvest treatments to enhance the concentration of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Broccoli whole heads were wounded to obtain florets and wounded florets (florets cut into four even pieces) and stored for 24 h at 20 °C with or without exogenous ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 ppm). Whole heads were used as a control for wounding treatments. Regarding glucosinolate accumulation, ET selectively induced the 4-hydroxylation of glucobrassicin in whole heads, resulting in ∼223% higher 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin than time 0 h samples. Additionally, glucoraphanin was increased by ∼53% in whole heads treated with ET, while neoglucobrassicin was greatly accumulated in wounded florets treated with ET or MeJA, showing increases of ∼193 and ∼286%, respectively. On the other hand, although only whole heads stored without phytohormones showed higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, which was reflected in ∼33, ∼30, and ∼46% higher levels of 1,2,2-trisinapoylgentiobose, 1,2-diferulolylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose, respectively; broccoli florets stored under air control conditions showed enhanced concentrations of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,2-disinapoylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose (∼22, ∼185, and ∼65% more, respectively). Furthermore, exogenous ET and MeJA impeded individual phenolics accumulation. Results allowed the elucidation of simple and effective postharvest treatment to enhance the content of individual glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli. The stressed-broccoli tissue could be subjected to downstream processing in order to extract and purify bioactive molecules with applications in the dietary supplements, agrochemical and cosmetics markets. PMID:26904036

  5. Plants as biofactories: Postharvest Stress-Induced Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Glucosinolates in Broccoli Subjected to Wounding Stress and Exogenous Phytohormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eVillarreal-García

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive molecules and is considered a functional food. In this study, postharvest treatments to enhance the concentration of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Broccoli whole heads were wounded to obtain florets and wounded florets (florets cut into four even pieces and stored for 24 h at 20 ºC with or without exogenous ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm or methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 ppm. Whole heads were used as a control for wounding treatments. Regarding glucosinolate accumulation, ET selectively induced the 4-hydroxylation of glucobrassicin in whole heads, resulting in ~223% higher 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin than time 0 h samples. Additionally, glucoraphanin was increased by ~53% in whole heads treated with ET, while neoglucobrassicin was greatly accumulated in wounded florets treated with ET or MeJA, showing increases of ~193% and ~286%, respectively. On the other hand, although only whole heads stored without phytohormones showed higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, which was reflected in ~33%, ~30%, and 46% higher levels of 1,2,2-trisinapoylgentiobose, 1,2-diferulolylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose, respectively; broccoli florets stored under air control conditions showed enhanced concentrations of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,2-disinapoylgentiobiose, and 1,2-disinapoyl-2-ferulolylgentiobiose (~22%, ~185%, and ~65% more, respectively. However, exogenous ET and MeJA impeded individual phenolics accumulation. Results allowed the elucidation of simple and effective postharvest treatment to enhance the content of individual glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli. The stressed-broccoli tissue could be subjected to downstream processing in order to extract and purify bioactive molecules with applications in the dietary supplements, agrochemical and cosmetics markets.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Common Savannahgrass on a Range of Soils Subjected to Different Stresses I: Productivity and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Springer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass growth, performance and quality are affected by abiotic stress factors and are of primary concern for persons managing turfgrass areas under seasonal tropical climates. Under these conditions, common Savannahgrass (SG may have a performance advantage over imported hybrid turfgrasses. A greenhouse study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the performance of tropical turfgrasses exposed to water and compaction related stresses across a range of soils, with or without the addition of a surface sand layer. Turfgrass productivity and quality was monitored over a four-month growth period. Clipping yield (CY was lower at the higher compaction effort for all turfgrasses, but across all stresses, drought (D and waterlogging (WL resulted in lower CY. Values were significantly lower under D. SG had the highest clipping yield across all soils. The chlorophyll index (CI was lower for all turfgrasses under water-induced stress compared to compaction stresses. SG had a significantly higher CI across all stress treatments. Correlation analysis showed a positive (r² = 0.420 and significant (p < 0.05 relationship between CY and CI. Similar to CI, stress type influenced turfgrass visual quality (VQ, with D stress, resulting in the lowest VQ rating among turfgrasses. Bermudagrass (BG had the lowest VQ across all stress treatments, whilst, comparatively, Zoysiagrass (ZG had significantly higher VQ under high compaction (HC, low compaction (LC and WL stress. Overall, SG showed a higher level of tolerance to applied stresses and warrants greater attention as a potential turfgrass under tropical conditions.

  7. The Importance of Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of our lesson in this module is for you to become acquainted with the importance of es- tablishing and maintaining a shared vision of positive professional interpersonal relationship practices among all stakeholders on your campus. This module introduces the use of administrative tools designed to help you document and measure progress…

  8. Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.; Bobik, Chad; Coston, Tracie D.; Greeson, Cyndy; Jedlicka, Christina; Rhodes, Emily; Wendorf, Greta

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of seven studies that focused on the link between emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. Tests emotional intelligence with empathy and self-monitoring, social skills, cooperation, relations with others, and marital satisfaction. Explores preference for emotionally intelligent partners in the final study. Includes…

  9. FOSTERING ADOLESCENTS' INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    Relationship, be it intra or inter, is a universal human experience. Emotions have been observed to play a major role in human interpersonal relationships. We experience and express emotions throughout our daily lives, and our emotional state at any given moments influences our perception, cognition, motivation, decision ...

  10. Putting Interpersonal Communication to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachur, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Educators are continuously faced with a wide range of communication challenges. Only by self-examining one's own approaches to interpersonal communication and being willing to improve can one put better communication to work in meeting those challenges--whether they are part of one's personal or professional life. Four principles are addressed…

  11. Disclosure Flexibility and Interpersonal Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelune, Gordon J.

    The relationship between dispositional level of self-disclosure or disclosure flexibility--a measure of appropriateness of self-disclosure with respect to social-situational norms--and indices of effective interpersonal functioning were investigated in two experiments. Results of Study I revealed that when differences in social desirability were…

  12. Humor as a Part of Interpersonal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karpenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the description and analysis of humor, irony, sarcasm in our life. Different points of view on humor are presented. Theories of the origin of humor (relief, incongruity, superiority are described. It’s proved that humor is a part of interpersonal communication and it is irreplaceable characteristic and the quality people always seek in other ones. Some features of humor and the categories of irony (verbal, situational and dramatic are demonstrated. The advantages of using humor by teachers in the classroom are stated. Some episodes from the lives of students in which they use humor, irony and sarcasm are presented. It’s stressed that people were born with the gift of laughter that lifts their spirits, makes them feel happy. The article states that a sense of humor is a good characteristic that helps people to live happily, to stay younger, to endure problems and to influence other people positively.

  13. Self-Compassion and Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions. Participants were 338 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale were used. The relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions…

  14. Interpersonal Perceptions and Relationship--Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisbell, Marshall; Dallinger, Judith

    A study examined the relationship of interpersonal perceptual variables to communication contexts, specifically relationship types. The variables examined were (1) interpersonal solidarity, (2) perceived homophily, (3) uncertainty reduction, (4) feeling good, (5) interpersonal attraction, (6) relational safety, and (7) self-disclosure. The…

  15. Misfit stresses in a composite core-shell nanowire with an eccentric parallelepipedal core subjected to one-dimensional cross dilatation eigenstrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnitckii, S. A.; Kolomoetc, D. R.; Smirnov, A. M.; Gutkin, M. Yu

    2017-05-01

    The boundary-value problem in the classical theory of elasticity for a core-shell nanowire with an eccentric parallelepipedal core of an arbitrary rectangular cross section is solved. The core is subjected to one-dimensional cross dilatation eigenstrain. The misfit stresses are given in a closed analytical form suitable for theoretical modeling of misfit accommodation in relevant heterostructures.

  16. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in a child and an adolescent with mild to borderline intellectual disability: A multiple baseline across subjects study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen, E.H.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Jongh, A. de

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. METHODS: One child and one

  17. Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Child and an Adolescent with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability: A Multiple Baseline across Subjects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Liesbeth; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. Methods: One child and one adolescent with MBID, who met diagnostic criteria…

  18. Does interpersonal behavior of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, Janna I; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees' interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.

  19. Does interpersonal behavior of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, Janna I.; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees’ interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees’ relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees’ level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees’ interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training. PMID:26106347

  20. Does interpersonal behaviour of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Ida Fincke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behaviour on Work Involvement (WI and compared their social behaviour within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic (PA, psychodynamic (PD and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT training. Trainees from sample 1 (N = 184 were asked to describe their interpersonal behaviour in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from sample 2 (N = 135 were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of Healing Involvement (HI, while Stress Involvement (SI was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behaviour within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behaviour. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behaviour with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behaviour could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behaviour in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.

  1. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender – a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklund Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18 year olds (n = 1027, boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71 and anxiety (r = 0.71. Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the

  2. Interpersonální vztahy klientů diagnostického ústavu pro mládež

    OpenAIRE

    Houlíková, Klára

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on interpersonal relationships of adolescents, who were placed in the Diagnostic Institute for Youth. The thesis using qualitative research methods to maps interpersonal relationships of late adolescents. The aim is to identify what types of relationships are subjectively assessed as important and on the other side as insignificant. Interpersonal relationships are considered in the context of selfconcept, identy and emotional and behavioral disorders. The result...

  3. Postural effects on hemodynamic response to interpersonal interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, S R; Neumann, S A; Merrill, J A

    1998-05-01

    Laboratory studies of stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity have been conducted predominantly with participants in a seated posture. This procedure may contribute to limited laboratory-field generalization of cardiovascular response. The present study examined hemodynamic adjustments underlying pressor responses, in addition to heart rate and systolic time intervals, during seated and standing role-played, interpersonal interaction in 60 young adults. Irrespective of gender or race, blood pressure responses to the seated and standing interactions were comparable. However, seated interactions yielded a significantly greater increase in heart rate, shortened preejection period and decreased stroke index as compared to standing. Alternatively, interacting while standing yielded a significantly increased left ventricular ejection time and total peripheral resistance in comparison to sitting. These results suggest that hemodynamic adjustments during stressful interpersonal interaction vary as a function of posture, with somewhat greater cardiac influences apparent while seated and a more pronounced vascular response while standing.

  4. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural disaster. This type of stress can cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Different people may feel stress in different ways. Some people experience digestive symptoms. Others may have headaches, sleeplessness, depressed mood, anger, ...

  5. Komunikasi Interpersonal Siswa Pengguna Internet dan Implikasinya terhadap Layanan Bimbingan dan Konseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winda Marnita

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal communication through the internet is now becoming a trend among the public, especially students. Online communication is of  interest by students because it is cheap, easy and fast. The Internet as a communication medium between the interpersonal students with parents, teachers and fellow internet users. The use of the internet as a medium of interpersonal communication understood the students well. Aspects that should be understood in communicating interpersonal are students use of the internet, the purpose of the use of the internet, openness, attention, empathy, equality. This research is descriptive research, the population in this study are students of SMP Negeri Padang 25 that become the subject of research is as much as 69 students, data collected by using question form. This study reveals students' interpersonal communication through the internet and the implications for guidance and counselling services. Because most of students have yet to understand and implement the aspects of the accommodation.

  6. Modeling of the stress-strain relationship for specimens made of S355J0 steel subjected to bending block loading with mean load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pawliczek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of calculation for modelling of the stressstrain relationship in the case of block loads with mean load value. A model, based on the stable hysteresis loops, was assumed and modified to use for block loading analysis. For stress history calculation, the proposed model and two other constitutive models were used. Results of fatigue test of specimens made of S355J0 steel subjected to bending block loading with mean load value are presented and used to verify the proposed model. In the tests, the mean load was increased and decreased in subsequent blocks. The changes of strain recorded during the tests shown in the paper indicate a different behavior of the material. Damage accumulation degree for block sequence was used to compare the results of calculations. It was shown, that stress history parameters (stress amplitude and mean stress value in this case are similar for all investigated models

  7. Medical student empathy: interpersonal distinctions and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-12-01

    Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.

  8. Phenotypic, physiological and malt quality analyses of US barley varieties subjected to short periods of heat and drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought and heat are major abiotic stresses that significantly reduce crop yield and seed quality. In this study, we examined the impact of heat, drought and combined effect of heat and drought stress imposed during the grain filling stage in 18 US spring barley varieties. These impacts were assesse...

  9. Interpersonal communication and creativity in journalistic telework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manssour, Ana Beatriz Benites

    2003-02-01

    Man and work histories are interlaced to tell us how the interaction among different human groups have helped in the development of intellectual capacities of our species. Creativity is mostly seen as a gift or an individual quality, for whose bloom and exercise there are internal and external factors, understood as stimulants of the creative process. Research for a master's thesis had, as its principal aim, the analysis of the subjective impact of telework on the workers personal satisfaction. Our second category authenticates the importance of interpersonal communication among fellow workers as incentive to personal creativity. The study was developed with columnists of a great newspaper with a big circulation in the south of Brazil, because telework is a tool of the press media, and creativity is a requirement for journalistic employment.

  10. Stress Level of Dental and Medical Students: Comparison of Effects of a Subject-Based Curriculum versus a Case-Based Integrated Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fatemah A; Karimi, Anfal A; Alboloushi, Naela A; Al-Omari, Qasem D; AlSairafi, Fatimah J; Qudeimat, Muawia A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stress level of medical and dental students at Kuwait University after a case-based integrated curriculum replaced the former subject-based curriculum. A modified version of the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire was used to measure possible stressors for both medical and dental students. The investigators administered the questionnaire for the first time in 2008, when Kuwait University medical and dental schools followed a subject-based curriculum (group A). The same questionnaire was administered for a second time in 2014, when both medical and dental schools had adopted a case-based integrated curriculum (group B). A total of 345 fifth- and sixth-year medical and dental students responded to the questionnaire (group A=187, group B=158), with an overall 83% response rate. The results showed that, for both the dental and medical students, changing to a case-based integrated curriculum raised the stress level for most of the stressors evaluated. "Inconsistency of feedback on work between different instructors," "difficulties in communicating with teaching staff," "amount of assigned class work," and "examinations and grades" were some of the statistically significant stressors for group B students. Female students reported higher levels of stress than male students in both groups. These results suggest that introducing stress management education into the case-based integrated dental and medical curricula could enhance students' psychological well-being.

  11. Interactive Teaching in Interpersonal Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Karhu, Markku; Christensen, Cecillia

    2013-01-01

    skills, leadership and awareness. Consequently, educational programs for teaching engineers should work with the fact that the capability of communicating with people with different background competences is important, nevertheless the engineering education has traditionally focused on technical skills......Engineers are very much part of the ongoing globalization and they are encountering problems of cross-disciplinary nature. Team working skills respecting other peoples’ qualifications are required so therefore interpersonal skills are becoming more and more important, including communications...... to the CDIO (conceive, design, implement and operate) approach in the autumn of 2008. The CDIO pedagogy encouraged to develop an interactive course in interpersonal skills, where the students have to take an active part in the exercises as well as involve themselves in the interactive communication process...

  12. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica GHEORGHIȚĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social networks visible influence people's ability to interact and communicate. Extending social circles by establishing virtual links involves a number of positive aspects such as: instant access to options for interaction, sharing of information to large communities of people, intensification of acts of communication, high levels of feedback and trust with people with whom we communicate. On the other hand, social networks adversely affects communication by decreasing the interaction face to face, by imposing superficial communications experiences, grammatical and spelling erosion of the language. Therefore, the study aims to capture the spread of social networks, their use and impact on interpersonal communication. More specifically, they look for the answer to the question: what is the nature of interpersonal communication that is found on social networking sites: personal, emotional, private or shared, informal, and public?

  13. Specific traumatic events during childhood as risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder development in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedl, Aline F; Costa, Mariana P; Fossaluza, Victor; Mari, Jair J; Mello, Marcelo F

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate differences in early life events (ELE) on adult victims of severe interpersonal violence among patients who developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control group. Adult victims of interpersonal violence were evaluated to diagnose the presence of PTSD and ELE. 308 subjects were included, 141 in patient's group (PTSD+) and 167 in control group (PSTD-). PTSD+ group had more severe PTSD, depressive symptoms and higher ETI scores than PTSD- group. Patients in PTSD+ group had a more frequent history of ELE. Some ELE were more significant for the development of this predisposition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Subjective happiness among mothers of children with disabilities: The role of stress, attachment, guilt and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findler, Liora; Klein Jacoby, Ayelet; Gabis, Lidia

    2016-08-01

    Parenting a child with disabilities might affect the happiness of the mothers. Hence we adapted Wallander, Varni, Babani, Banis, and Wilcox's (1989) disability-stress-coping model to examine the impact of risk factors (specific stressors related to the child's disability) on the mother's adaptation (happiness). Intrapersonal factors (attachment) and social-ecological factors (social support) were hypothesized to predict adaptation. Both constitute 'risk-resistant' factors, which are mediated by the mother's perceived general stress and guilt. 191 mothers of a child with a developmental disability (ages 3-7) answered questionnaires on happiness, specific and general stress, attachment, guilt and social support. Attachment avoidance was directly and negatively associated with mothers' happiness. General stress was negatively associated with happiness, and mediated the association between anxious attachment, support, and specific stress with happiness. Guilt was negatively associated with happiness, and served as a mediator between attachment anxiety and support and happiness. The findings of the current research show direct and indirect associations of risk factors with happiness and the role of general stress and feelings of guilt as mediators. This study stresses the importance of attachment and social support to happiness and sheds light on the unique role of guilt in promoting or inhibiting happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interpersonal violence and facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai H

    2009-09-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major health hazard that contributes to the high volume of trauma seen in the emergency department. It is also one of the principal causes of maxillofacial fractures. The present study was a retrospective analysis of patients referred to, and treated at, the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit at Christchurch Hospital during an 11-year period (1996 to 2006). The variables examined included patient demographics, fracture types, mode of injury, and treatment delivered. An increase was found in the number of fractures due to interpersonal violence in the second half of the study, although the proportion remained the same. The age of the patients ranged from 9 to 89 years (mean 28). The male-to-female ratio was 9:1. Of the patients, 87% had alcohol involvement. The mandible was the most common site of fracture, followed by the zygoma. Other midface fractures, including Le Fort fractures, were less frequently observed. Of the patients, 59% were hospitalized and 56% required surgery, with internal fixation necessary in 41% of patients. An increase occurred in the number of facial fractures associated with interpersonal violence during the study period. Young male adults were the most affected demographic group, with alcohol a main contributing factor. Violence-related facial fracture is a health hazard that deserves more public awareness and implementation of preventive programs.

  16. Student under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a natural phenomenon, sooner or later experienced by the most Rapid increase in the number of students with health problems, seeking health and advisory services, causes deep concern to parents, schools and wider community. This, in turn, arouses the interest in the research of the negative effects of poor physical and mental health on academic success. Considering the fact that school age population was rarely the subject of research, this paper deals with psycho-social and developmental aspects of stress, namely, with causes, consequences and the strategies for overcoming stressful events in the education of children and adolescents. Life events in which children most often participate and which are also potential sources of stress (stressors can be classified into familial, interpersonal, personal and academic. Out of numerous identified sources of stress, we have focused our attention on several less researched ones in the field of school life starting school, transition from primary school to secondary and from secondary school to university, peer rejection and problems concerning financing school education. Anxiety, depression and anger were analyzed as the most frequent consequences of unfavorable life events. The following strategies for overcoming stress are most often used by children and adolescents: seeking social support, problem-solving orientation, reduction and avoidance of tension as well as sport and recreation.

  17. Numerical analysis of residual stress of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy subjected to surface strengthening by shot peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Stegliński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the results of the analysis of the stresses in the Al-Mg5%-Mn1,5%-Sc0,8%-Zr0,4% alloy after shot peening process using solver ANSYSANSYSANSYS LS-Dyna. The computational model illustrates the phenomena occurring as a result of plastic deformation caused by hitting a steel ball on the surface of the analyzed aluminium alloy. We analyzed two input variables: diameter and speed of a ball. The resulting normal stress distribution centred exposes the minimum compressive stress at a position located at a depth point of Belayev 0.125 mm with a value of σ = –345 MPa. Variable parameter shows the correlation of the boundary conditions of minimum stress increase with increasing ball’s diameter and its speed. Selected points of numerical analysis were verified with experimental results.[b]Keywords[/b]: materials science, numerical analysis, metal forming, shot peening, aluminium

  18. Growth characteristics of a plane crack subjected to three-dimensional loading. [based on stress intensity factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartranft, R. J.; Sih, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The closed form expressions for the stress intensity factors due to concentrated forces applied to the surfaces of a half plane crack in an infinite body are used to generate solutions for distributed loads in this geometry. The stress intensity factors for uniformly distributed loads applied over a rectangular portion of the crack surface are given in closed form. An example of non-uniformly distributed loads which can be treated numerically is also included. In particular, combinations of normal and shear stresses on the crack which simulate the case of loading at an angle to the crack front are considered. The resulting stress intensity factors are combined with the strain energy density fracture criterion for the purpose of predicting the most likely direction of crack propagation. The critical value of the energy density factor can then be used for determining the allowable load on a specimen with a crack front not perpendicular to the tensile axis.

  19. The Potential Explanatory Role of Perceived Stress in Associations Between Subjective Social Status and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Homeless Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Homeless individuals smoke at high rates relative to the general population and are at heightened risk of tobacco-related illnesses and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Homeless smokers also report low subjective social status (SSS) or perceived social standing relative to others. SSS may contribute to poor HRQoL, potentially through perceived stress. The current study examined the role of perceived stress in the association of SSS and HRQoL among 227 (70.9% male, Mage = 43.2) homeless smokers. Participants completed self-report measures of SSS, perceived stress, and HRQoL. Perceived stress partially explained the relation between SSS (United States and Community) and HRQoL in covariate-adjusted analyses. Results suggested that perceived stress is a pathway through which SSS contributes to HRQoL among homeless smokers. Findings broaden current understanding of the impact of social disadvantage and perceived stress on HRQoL among homeless smokers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  1. Cortisol response and desire to binge following psychological stress: comparison between obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noa; Bloch, Miki; Ben Avi, Irit; Rouach, Vanessa; Schreiber, Shaul; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona

    2013-07-30

    While stress and negative affect are known to precede "emotional eating", this relationship is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between induced psychological stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder (BED). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was applied in obese participants with (n=8) and without BED (n=8), and normal weight controls (n=8). Psychological characteristics, eating-related symptoms, and cortisol secretion were assessed. Baseline stress, anxiety and cortisol measures were similar in all groups. At baseline desire to binge was significantly higher among the BED group. While the TSST induced an increase in cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed in the BED group. In the BED group, a positive correlation was found between cortisol (area under the curve) levels during the TSST and the change in VAS scores for desire to binge. Post-TSST desire to binge and sweet craving were significantly higher in the BED group and correlated positively with stress, anxiety, and cortisol response in the BED group only. These results suggest chronic down-regulation of the HPA axis in participants with BED, and a relationship between psychological stress, the acute activation of the HPA axis, and food craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Diploid and Tetraploid Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Subjected to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjuan Meng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is adaptable to salt stress. Here, we compared morphological, physiological, ultrastructural, and proteomic traits of leaves in tetraploid black locust and its diploid relatives under salt stress. The results showed that diploid (2× plants suffered from greater negative effects than those of tetraploid (4× plants. After salt treatment, plant growth was inhibited, photosynthesis was reduced, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, and relative electrolyte leakage increased, and defense-related enzyme activities decreased in 2× compared to those in 4×. In addition, salt stress resulted in distorted chloroplasts, swollen thylakoid membranes, accumulation of plastoglobules, and increased starch grains in 2× compared to those in 4×. However, 4× developed diverse responses under salt stress. A comparative proteomic analysis revealed that 41 and 37 proteins were differentially expressed in 2× and 4×, respectively. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, energy, metabolism, transcription/translation, and transportation. Distinct patterns of protein changes between 2× and 4× were analyzed. Collectively, our results suggest that the plants showed significantly different responses to salt stress based on ploidy level of the plant. The 4× possessed a better salt protection mechanism than that of 2×, suggesting salt tolerance in the polyploid plant.

  3. [Interpersonal competence in caring of people with diabetes: perception of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Sadigursky, Dora; Soares, Isabela

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative and exploratory study which aimed to apprehend the perceptions of nurses who care for people with Diabetes on the interpersonal competence. The subjects were eleven nurses who performed their activities in the Units of Family Health in the urban area, and completed a consent form. The data, obtained through semi-structured interview, were analyzed and categorized by thematic analysis. The results showed that nurses perceive the interpersonal competence as an ability to interact with the patient, as the establishment of an effective interpersonal relationship and as forms of interpersonal relationships. It appeared that the exercise of that power is not subject to standardization, what emphasizes the uniqueness of the processes of interaction and of health care.

  4. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced hippocampal IL-10 expression, altered monoaminergic activity and anxiety and depressive-like behavior in female mice subjected to chronic social instability stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaka, Ainitze; Gómez-Lázaro, Eneritz; Vegas, Oscar; Pérez-Tejada, Joana; Arregi, Amaia; Garmendia, Larraitz

    2017-09-29

    Evidence indicates that release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by social stress contributes to affective disorders. Additionally, there are known sex differences in both the stress response and the stressors that can elicit this response. In this regard, the chronic social instability (CSI) rodent model of stress appears to be the best fit for the social nature of females. This study analyzed the effects of CSI on female mouse behavior, hippocampal cytokine expression, tryptophan metabolism and monoaminergic activity. The activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes were also measured. Results showed a decrease in sucrose consumption in stressed subjects, indicative of anhedonic behavior and an increase in climbing activity in the forced swimming test (FST) and in whisking behavior, which have been associated with anxiety. Decreased interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression was found in the hippocampus of the stressed mice, while no differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and tryptophan (TRYP), kynurenine (KYN) or 3-hydroxy kynurenine (3-HK) levels were found. Increased hippocampal serotoninergic and noradrenergic activity was observed in stressed mice. The higher plasma corticosterone and lower hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression levels showed an increase in HPA activity after CSI. No differences were found in the plasma estradiol levels or the central estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) expression levels. These data indicate that the CSI stress-induced behavioral and physiological changes associated with anxiety and depressive disorders. Although additional studies are warranted, the results suggest an involvement of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the biobehavioral effects of social stress in female mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Psychoeducation and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy for bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    In treating bipolar disorder, specific psychotherapies in adjunct to pharmacotherapy have been shown to be effective in preventing new episodes and treating depressive episodes. Among those, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) developed by Frank, amalgamation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) with behavioral therapy focused on social rhythm has been shown to be an efficacious adjunct to mediation in preventing new episodes in bipolar I patients and in treating depression in bipolar I arid II disorder. IPSRT has also been shown to enhance total functioning, relationship functioning and life satisfaction among patients with bipolar disorder, even after pretreatment functioning and concurrent depression were covaried. IPSRT was designed to directly address the major pathways to recurrence in bipolar disorder, namely medication nonadherence, stressful life events, and disruptions in social rhythms. IPT, originated by Klerman et al., is a strategic time-limited psychotherapy focused on one or two of four current interpersonal problem areas (ie, grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal dificits). In IPSRT, the fifth problem area "grief for the lost healthy self" has been added in order to promote acceptance of the diagnosis and the need for life-long treatment. Social rhythm therapy is a behavioral approach aiming at increasing regularity of social rhythms using the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), a chart to record daily social activities including how stimulating they were, developed from observation that disruptions in social rhythms often trigger affective episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. IPSRT also appears to be a promising intervention for a subset of individuals with bipolar II depression as monotherapy for the acute treatment.

  7. Dietary Fats and Oxidative Stress: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Coronary Artery Disease Subjects Consuming Coconut Oil/Sunflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, D M

    2018-01-01

    Coconut oil has been used by the people of Kerala as a cooking medium for several decades. Due to its alleged hypercholesterolemic activity, general population in recent times is shifting to cooking oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, the most popular being sunflower oil. The effect of long-term consumption of sunflower oil on oxidative stress in humans is not well investigated. We studied oxidative stress among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who were consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as a part of their routine diet. Men, aged 35-70 years, with established CAD, who presented to the hospital for routine cardiac evaluations, were enrolled in this observational study. Group 1 and 2 consisted of 73 and 80 subjects consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively for over a period of 2 years. Lipid profile and parameters for oxidative stress were evaluated among them. Conventional lipid parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mean vitamin C concentration was significantly reduced for subjects on sunflower oil compared to those consuming coconut oil ( P  = 0.044). Malondialdehyde was higher for sunflower oil consumers compared to coconut oil consumers ( P  coconut oil did not induce hypercholesterolemia compared to sunflower oil. On the other hand, sunflower oil group had elevated oxidative stress compared to coconut oil group.

  8. Evaluation of Vipassana Meditation Course Effects on Subjective Stress, Well-being, Self-kindness and Mindfulness in a Community Sample: Post-course and 6-month Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Roberta A; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2015-12-01

    Residential Vipassana meditation courses, which teach mindfulness skills, are widely available globally but under-evaluated. This study examined effects of a standardized, community-based Vipassana course, on subjective stress, well-being, self-kindness and trait mindfulness in a community sample. Participants completed self-report measures of these variables at pre-course and post-course (n = 122), and outcomes were compared to a control group of early enrollers (EEs) (n = 50) who completed measures at parallel time points before course commencement. Six-month follow-up was undertaken in the intervention group (n = 90). Findings, including intention-to-complete analyses, suggested positive effects of the Vipassana course in reducing subjective stress and increasing well-being, self-kindness and overall mindfulness (present-moment awareness and non-reaction). Although some reductions in post-course gains were found at follow-up, particularly in stress, follow-up scores still showed improvements compared to pre-course scores. Mindfulness change scores between pre-course and 6-month follow-up were moderately to highly correlated with outcome variable change scores, consistent with the idea that effects of the Vipassana course on stress and well-being operate, at least partially, through increasing mindfulness. The present research underscores the importance of undertaking further investigations into Vipassana courses' effects and applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Depression and interpersonal problems in adolescents: their relationship with alexithymia and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Joybari, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine whether depression and interpersonal problems had relationships with alexithymia and coping styles in adolescents. The study population was randomly selected from all of the adolescent students in the schools of Sari in Iran; 441 adolescents (228 boys and 213 girls) were included in the study. The participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and was expressed in means, standard deviations, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Alexithymia was related to depression and interpersonal problems; the adolescents who defined themselves as more alexithymic obtained higher scores in depression and interpersonal problems than the adolescents who classified themselves as less- and non-alexithymic. Furthermore, coping styles were related to depression and interpersonal problems. Regression analyses showed that both alexithymia and coping styles accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in depression and interpersonal problems in adolescents. These findings support the positive correlation of alexithymia and maladaptive coping styles with depression and interpersonal problems.

  10. Innovations in Practice: The relationship betweensleep disturbances, depression, and interpersonal functioning in treatment for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Turner, J Blake; Mufson, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently comorbid with depression and sleep complaints are the most common residual symptoms after treatment among adolescents with depression. The present analyses investigated the effect of sleep disturbance in depressed adolescents treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents (IPT-A) versus Treatment as Usual (TAU) in school-based mental health clinics. 63 adolescents participated in a randomized clinical trial of IPT-A versus TAU for adolescent depression. Participants were diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive disorder and assessed for symptoms of depression, interpersonal functioning and sleep disturbance. Measures were assessed at baseline, session 4 and 8 of treatment, and session 12 for post-acute treatment follow-up. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to model change in depression, interpersonal functioning and sleep disturbance. Ongoing sleep disturbance was significantly associated with worse depression scores as rated by clinician (γ = 1.04, SE = 0.22, p interpersonal functioning across the course of treatment (γ = 0.09, SE = 0.02, p interpersonal functioning for depressed adolescents. Sleep disturbance predicted more depression and interpersonal stress across treatments and led to a slower improvement in depression and interpersonal functioning. This data suggests that sleep disturbance should be a target for future treatment development research among depressed adolescents.

  11. Stress analysis and damage evolution in individual plies of notched composite laminates subjected to in-plane loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junshan Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate local stress distribution, damage evolution and failure of notched composite laminates under in-plane loads. An analytic method containing uniformed boundary equations using a complex variable approach is developed to present layer-by-layer stresses around the notch. The uniformed boundary equations established in series together with conformal mapping functions are capable of dealing with irregular boundary issues around the notch and at infinity. Stress results are employed to evaluate the damage initiation and propagation of notched composites by progressive damage analysis (PDA. A user-defined subroutine is developed in the finite element (FE model based on coupling theories for mixed failure criteria and damage mechanics to efficiently investigate damage evolution as well as failure modes. Carbon/epoxy laminates with a stacking sequence of [45°/0°/−60°/90°]s are used to investigate surface strains, in-plane load capacity and microstructure of failure zones to provide analytic and FE methods with strong validation. Good agreement is observed between the analytic method, the FE model and experiments in terms of the stress (strain distributions, damage evaluation and ultimate strength, and the layer-by-layer stress components vary according to a combination effect of fiber orientation and loading type, causing diverse failure modes in individuals.

  12. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on biomass production and nitrogen fixation of berseem clover plants subjected to water stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saia

    Full Text Available Several studies, performed mainly in pots, have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on plant growth. No information is available about the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on berseem clover growth and nitrogen (N fixation under conditions of water shortage. A field experiment was conducted in a hilly area of inner Sicily, Italy, to determine whether symbiosis with AM fungi can mitigate the detrimental effects of drought stress (which in the Mediterranean often occurs during the late period of the growing season on forage yield and symbiotic N2 fixation of berseem clover. Soil was either left under water stress (i.e., rain-fed conditions or the crop was well-watered. Mycorrhization treatments consisted of inoculation of berseem clover seeds with arbuscular mycorrhizal spores or suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by means of fungicide treatments. Nitrogen biological fixation was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was able to mitigate the negative effect of water stress on berseem clover grown in a typical semiarid Mediterranean environment. In fact, under water stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis resulted in increases in total biomass, N content, and N fixation, whereas no effect of crop mycorrhization was observed in the well-watered treatment.

  13. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on biomass production and nitrogen fixation of berseem clover plants subjected to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Sergio; Amato, Gaetano; Frenda, Alfonso Salvatore; Giambalvo, Dario; Ruisi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Several studies, performed mainly in pots, have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on plant growth. No information is available about the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on berseem clover growth and nitrogen (N) fixation under conditions of water shortage. A field experiment was conducted in a hilly area of inner Sicily, Italy, to determine whether symbiosis with AM fungi can mitigate the detrimental effects of drought stress (which in the Mediterranean often occurs during the late period of the growing season) on forage yield and symbiotic N2 fixation of berseem clover. Soil was either left under water stress (i.e., rain-fed conditions) or the crop was well-watered. Mycorrhization treatments consisted of inoculation of berseem clover seeds with arbuscular mycorrhizal spores or suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by means of fungicide treatments. Nitrogen biological fixation was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was able to mitigate the negative effect of water stress on berseem clover grown in a typical semiarid Mediterranean environment. In fact, under water stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis resulted in increases in total biomass, N content, and N fixation, whereas no effect of crop mycorrhization was observed in the well-watered treatment.

  14. Open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horseshoe and elliptic composite curved bars subjected to end forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1990-01-01

    The multilayer theory of anisotropic elasticity and a finite element method were used to analyze the open-mode delamination stress concentrations in horseshoe and elliptic laminated composite curved bars. Two types of laminations, solid laminations and sandwich laminations, were analyzed. It was found that the open-mode delamination stress concentration could be greatly increased in these two types of curved bars by decreasing their aspect ratios. The open-mode delamination stress concentration generated in the solid laminations was found to be far more severe than that generated in the sandwich laminations. The horseshoe curved bar may be used to determine both the open-mode delamination strength of solidly laminated composites and the open-mode debonding strength of sandwiched laminated composites. However, the elliptic curved bar is only good for determining the open-mode delamination strength of solidly laminated composites.

  15. Influence of the average stress in a unidirectional glass-epoxi composite material subjected to off-axis cyclic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revuelta, D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A fatigue theoretical model for continuous glass-fibrereinforced epoxy composite material under general loadconditions was developed in previous works based onthe principal fatigue failure modes and on local failurecriteria. It was demonstrated that fatigue life dependedon the cyclic shear stress and the maximum stress transverseto the crack growth direction. Following the previousmodel, this work analyzes the influence of the averageapplied stress on the fatigue life of the material.En trabajos anteriores del autor desarrollo un modeloteorico de vida a fatiga para materiales compuestos unidireccionalesde matriz epoxi reforzados con fibra devidrio bajo condiciones generales de carga basado en losmodos fundamentales de rotura por fatiga y en criteriosde rotura local. Se comprobo que la vida de fatigadependia de la tension ciclica de cortadura y de la maximatension transversal a la direccion de crecimiento delas grietas. Siguiendo el modelo previo, este trabajo analizala influencia que tiene la tension media aplicada enla vida a fatiga de estos materiales.

  16. Interpersonal relationships in isolation and confinement: Long-term bed rest in head-down tilt position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karine, Weiss; Gabriel, Moser

    The long-term bed-rest was organized by ESA and CNES, in order to simulate the physiological effects of weightlessness: eight volunteers had to stay 42 days in bed, in a head down tilt position (-6 °). There were two subjects in a room, they could not be alone and it was difficult for them to have their own personal space and intimacy. In these circumstances, as in outer space, interpersonal relationships were of prime importance. This situation enabled us, through systematic observation, to analyze the evolution of the relational behavior in dyads, and to quote some social indicators of adaptation. Results show significant withdrawal, and the time spent alone was marked by the emergence, during the experiment, of specific preferential activities. Behavioral contagion was observed in each dyad (people engaged in the same activities at the same time), except in the one case of abandon. Moreover, the highest rates of inactivity and withdrawal were noted in this case. Verbal indicators were useful to comment these results and showed that, for all the dyads, one of the two subjects always played a regulating role by expressing a very positive perception of the situation. These results emphasize the importance of psycho-sociological factors in isolation and confinement. Thus, it appears that different modalities of interpersonal relationships, and not only verbal interactions, play a significant role in adaptation to stress situations.

  17. Efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, M W; Stuart, S; Gorman, L L; Wenzel, A

    2000-11-01

    Postpartum depression causes women great suffering and has negative consequences for their social relationships and for the development of their infants. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapy for postpartum depression. A total of 120 postpartum women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to 12 weeks of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) or to a waiting list condition (WLC) control group. Subjects completed interview and self-report assessments of depressive symptoms and social adjustment every 4 weeks. Ninety-nine of the 120 patients completed the protocol. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) scores of women receiving IPT declined from 19.4 to 8.3, a significantly greater decrease than occurred in the WLC group (19.8 to 16.8). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of women who received IPT declined from 23.6 to 10.6 over 12 weeks, a significantly greater decrease than occurred in the WLC group (23.0 to 19.2). A significantly greater proportion of women who received IPT recovered from their depressive episode based on HRSD scores of 6 or lower (37. 5%) and BDI scores of 9 or lower (43.8%) compared with women in the WLC group (13.7% and 13.7%, respectively). Women receiving IPT also had significant improvement on the Postpartum Adjustment Questionnaire and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report relative to women in the WLC group. These findings suggest that IPT is an efficacious treatment for postpartum depression. Interpersonal psychotherapy reduced depressive symptoms and improved social adjustment, and represents an alternative to pharmacotherapy, particularly for women who are breastfeeding.

  18. Effect of foliar-applied silicon on photochemistry, antioxidant capacity and growth in maize plants subjected to chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader HABIBI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the major adverse climatic factors that suppress plant growth and sustainable agricultural development. In these climate conditions, silicon (Si can mitigate various abiotic stresses including low temperature. In this study, the roles of foliar-applied silicon (10 mM potassium metasilicate in enhancing tolerance to chilling stress were investigated in maize (Zea mays ‘Fajr’ plants. The low temperature stress caused significant reduction of plant growth and relative water content; however, Si ameliorated these effects. Si supply in maize exhibited a significantly positive effect on accumulation of free amino acids, and reduced the necrotic leaf area. The decrease in maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm was reversible during recovery, but not in the non-Si-treated leaves. This can be explained by enhancement of protective pigments; carotenoid and anthocyanin leading to the protection of PSII from damage. Additionally, analysis of OJIP transients revealed that Si reduced cold damaging effect on performance index (PIabs and Fv/Fm through improvement of excitation energy trapping (TR0/CS and electron transport (ET0/CS per excited cross-section of leaf. The malondialdehyde (MDA concentration, which was significantly increased under chilling stress, was decreased by Si. The reduced glutathione and ascorbate concentrations were higher in Si-treated plants as compared to those without application of Si under chilling stress. These results indicated that Si could enhance the chilling stress tolerance of maize plants through improving the biomass accumulation, maintaining a high level of glutathione, ascorbic acid, protein, protective pigments, and enhancing the photochemical reactions. This study also suggests that the foliar-applied Si increases recovery ability from chilling injury.

  19. A Quantitative Profiling Method of Phytohormones and Other Metabolites Applied to Barley Roots Subjected to Salinity Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Da; Lutz, Adrian; Hill, Camilla B.; Callahan, Damien L.; Roessner, Ute

    2017-01-01

    As integral parts of plant signaling networks, phytohormones are involved in the regulation of plant metabolism and growth under adverse environmental conditions, including salinity. Globally, salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stressors with an estimated 800 million hectares of arable land affected. Roots are the first plant organ to sense salinity in the soil, and are the initial site of sodium (Na+) exposure. However, the quantification of phytohormones in roots is challenging, as they are often present at extremely low levels compared to other plant tissues. To overcome this challenge, we developed a high-throughput LC-MS method to quantify ten endogenous phytohormones and their metabolites of diverse chemical classes in roots of barley. This method was validated in a salinity stress experiment with six barley varieties grown hydroponically with and without salinity. In addition to phytohormones, we quantified 52 polar primary metabolites, including some phytohormone precursors, using established GC-MS and LC-MS methods. Phytohormone and metabolite data were correlated with physiological measurements including biomass, plant size and chlorophyll content. Root and leaf elemental analysis was performed to determine Na+ exclusion and K+ retention ability in the studied barley varieties. We identified distinct phytohormone and metabolite signatures as a response to salinity stress in different barley varieties. Abscisic acid increased in the roots of all varieties under salinity stress, and elevated root salicylic acid levels were associated with an increase in leaf chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the landrace Sahara maintained better growth, had lower Na+ levels and maintained high levels of the salinity stress linked metabolite putrescine as well as the phytohormone metabolite cinnamic acid, which has been shown to increase putrescine concentrations in previous studies. This study highlights the importance of root phytohormones under salinity stress and

  20. Effective Interpersonal Communication: A Practical Guide to Improve Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertino, Kathleen A

    2014-09-30

    Use of effective interpersonal communication strategies by nurses in both personal and professional settings, may reduce stress, promote wellness, and therefore, improve overall quality of life. This article briefly explores the concept of interpersonal communication as it relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs; describes personal variables and the interaction of internal and external variables that can impact communication; and discusses possible causes and consequences of ineffective communication. Drawing on both the literature and experiences as a longtime provider of care in the mental health field, the author offers multiple practical strategies, with specific examples of possible responses for effective communication. Recommendations in this article are intended for nurses to consider as they seek healthy communication strategies that may be useful in both their personal and professional lives.

  1. Artemisinin production and precursor ratio in full grown Artemisia annua L. plants subjected to external stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2013-01-01

    was examined on the concentrations of AN and its immediate precursors in leaves, and these concentrations were related to densities and sizes of the glandular trichomes (GT). Plants were stress treated weekly five times by sandblasting or spraying with salicylic acid, chitosan oligosaccharide, H2O2, and Na...

  2. Initial and delayed circulatory responses to orthostatic stress in normal humans and in subjects with orthostatic intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, W.; Shepherd, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Gravitational stresses, which are common daily event for humans, result in a diminution in central blood volume, due to displacement of blood to the lower parts of the body. They demand complex adjustments in the cardiovascular system to offset the decrease in cardiac filling pressure. Such changes

  3. Ascorbate Peroxidase and Catalase Activities and Their Genetic Regulation in Plants Subjected to Drought and Salinity Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Nuzzaci, Maria; Vitti, Antonella

    2015-06-12

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an important relatively stable non-radical reactive oxygen species (ROS) is produced by normal aerobic metabolism in plants. At low concentrations, H2O2 acts as a signal molecule involved in the regulation of specific biological/physiological processes (photosynthetic functions, cell cycle, growth and development, plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses). Oxidative stress and eventual cell death in plants can be caused by excess H2O2 accumulation. Since stress factors provoke enhanced production of H2O2 in plants, severe damage to biomolecules can be possible due to elevated and non-metabolized cellular H2O2. Plants are endowed with H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidases (APX), some peroxiredoxins, glutathione/thioredoxin peroxidases, and glutathione sulfo-transferases. However, the most notably distinguished enzymes are CAT and APX since the former mainly occurs in peroxisomes and does not require a reductant for catalyzing a dismutation reaction. In particular, APX has a higher affinity for H2O2 and reduces it to H2O in chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as in the apoplastic space, utilizing ascorbate as specific electron donor. Based on recent reports, this review highlights the role of H2O2 in plants experiencing water deficit and salinity and synthesizes major outcomes of studies on CAT and APX activity and genetic regulation in drought- and salt-stressed plants.

  4. Ascorbate Peroxidase and Catalase Activities and Their Genetic Regulation in Plants Subjected to Drought and Salinity Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sofo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, an important relatively stable non-radical reactive oxygen species (ROS is produced by normal aerobic metabolism in plants. At low concentrations, H2O2 acts as a signal molecule involved in the regulation of specific biological/physiological processes (photosynthetic functions, cell cycle, growth and development, plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Oxidative stress and eventual cell death in plants can be caused by excess H2O2 accumulation. Since stress factors provoke enhanced production of H2O2 in plants, severe damage to biomolecules can be possible due to elevated and non-metabolized cellular H2O2. Plants are endowed with H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalases (CAT, ascorbate peroxidases (APX, some peroxiredoxins, glutathione/thioredoxin peroxidases, and glutathione sulfo-transferases. However, the most notably distinguished enzymes are CAT and APX since the former mainly occurs in peroxisomes and does not require a reductant for catalyzing a dismutation reaction. In particular, APX has a higher affinity for H2O2 and reduces it to H2O in chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as in the apoplastic space, utilizing ascorbate as specific electron donor. Based on recent reports, this review highlights the role of H2O2 in plants experiencing water deficit and salinity and synthesizes major outcomes of studies on CAT and APX activity and genetic regulation in drought- and salt-stressed plants.

  5. A thin rivulet or ridge subject to a uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow

    KAUST Repository

    Sullivan, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We use the lubrication approximation to analyze three closely related problems involving a thin rivulet or ridge (i.e., a two-dimensional droplet) of fluid subject to a prescribed uniform transverse shear stress at its free surface due to an external airflow, namely a rivulet draining under gravity down a vertical substrate, a rivulet driven by a longitudinal shear stress at its free surface, and a ridge on a horizontal substrate, and find qualitatively similar behaviour for all three problems. We show that, in agreement with previous numerical studies, the free surface profile of an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with pinned contact lines is skewed as the shear stress is increased from zero, and that there is a maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with prescribed semi-width is possible. In practice, one or both of the contact lines will de-pin before this maximum value of the shear stress is reached, and so we consider situations in which the rivulet/ridge de-pins at one or both contact lines. In the case of de-pinning only at the advancing contact line, the rivulet/ridge is flattened and widened as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a second maximum value of the shear stress beyond which no solution with a prescribed advancing contact angle is possible. In contrast, in the case of de-pinning only at the receding contact line, the rivulet/ridge is thickened and narrowed as the shear stress is increased from its critical value, and there is a solution with a prescribed receding contact angle for all values of the shear stress. In general, in the case of de-pinning at both contact lines there is a critical "yield" value of the shear stress beyond which no equilibrium solution is possible and the rivulet/ridge will evolve unsteadily. In the Appendix, we show that an equilibrium rivulet/ridge with prescribed flux/area is quasi-statically stable to two-dimensional perturbations. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Interpersonal Accuracy of Interventions and the Outcome of Cognitive and Interpersonal Therapies for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Temes, Christina M.; Elkin, Irene; Gallop, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the interpersonal accuracy of interventions in cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy as a predictor of the outcome of treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. Method: The interpersonal accuracy of interventions was rated using transcripts of treatment sessions…

  7. Effects of Virtual Human Appearance Fidelity on Emotion Contagion in Affective Inter-Personal Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Matias; Babu, Sabarish V; Chaturvedi, Himanshu; Newsome, Nathan; Ebrahimi, Elham; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Fasolino, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Realistic versus stylized depictions of virtual humans in simulated inter-personal situations and their ability to elicit emotional responses in users has been an open question for artists and researchers alike. We empirically evaluated the effects of near visually realistic vs. non-realistic stylized appearance of virtual humans on the emotional response of participants in a medical virtual reality system that was designed to educate users in recognizing the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. In a between-subjects experiment protocol, participants interacted with one of three different appearances of a virtual patient, namely visually realistic, cartoon-shaded and charcoal-sketch like conditions in a mixed reality simulation. Emotional impact were measured via a combination of quantitative objective measures were gathered using skin Electrodermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and quantitative subjective measures such as the Differential Emotion Survey (DES IV), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and Social Presence questionnaire. The emotional states of the participants were analyzed across four distinct time steps during which the medical condition of the virtual patient deteriorated (an emotionally stressful interaction), and were contrasted to a baseline affective state. Objective EDA results showed that in all three conditions, male participants exhibited greater levels of arousal as compared to female participants. We found that negative affect levels were significantly lower in the visually realistic condition, as compared to the stylized appearance conditions. Furthermore, in emotional dimensions of interest-excitement, surprise, anger, fear and guilt participants in all conditions responded similarly. However, in social emotional constructs of shyness, presence, perceived personality, and enjoyment-joy, we found that participants responded differently in the visually realistic condition as compared to the cartoon and sketch conditions. Our

  8. Stability Control of Underground Roadways Subjected to Stresses Caused by Extraction of a 10-m-Thick Coal Seam: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Ma, Shuqi; Yu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Extraction of a 10-m-thick coal seam in one single lift using the longwall top coal caving method caused severe deformations in underground roadways in Majialiang coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. Field monitoring of stress changes in the roof and in the coal pillar, and deformation of the 14202 tailgate, were carried out. The deformation monitoring found that the maximum floor heave of the 14202 tailgate was 1.85 m when the monitoring point was 250 m behind the longwall working face, while the maximum roof subsidence and the maximum rib-rib convergence was 0.93 and 1.14 m, respectively. The deformation rate of the 14202 tailgate increased dramatically when the monitoring point was at distances of 100-150 m behind the longwall working face, which reflected the fact that the tailgate underwent sharply increased loads within this range. Field monitoring of stress changes and the displacement of the 14202 tailgate revealed that the impact range of the mining-induced stresses in longitudinal direction (the same as the mining direction) was from 60 m ahead of the longwall face to 250 m behind the longwall face. Additionally, the mining impact range in transverse direction was more than 45 m, indicating that the coal pillar width should be larger than 45 m to avoid significant influences of mining-induced stresses. This finding was applied to the 14103 tailgate, which was subjected to similar mining and geological conditions as the 14202 tailgate. A coal pillar with width of 56 m was adopted in the 14103 tailgate, and displacement monitoring showed that large deformation was successfully controlled. The field investigations in this study provide a basis for design of a proper coal pillar width of underground roadways when subjected to large stresses induced by mining of thick coal seams in a single lift.

  9. [Interpersonal relationships experienced in college life and development of social skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yuriko; Muroya, Kazuko; Sato, Hitomi

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between the development of social skills and students' experience in interpersonal relationships during their college life, focusing on what factors are most influential. The study was conducted based on a questionnaire regarding social skills, attitudes toward college life, clinical practice, lectures and interpersonal relationships, etc., distributed to 72 senior students from a 4-year nursing college as subjects. As a result, it was found that when students had to meet hardships regarding interpersonal relations during their college life, those who had two or more coping tools were able to develop more social skills than those who had to cope with the difficulty on their own. Moreover, students who had part-time jobs, took part in two or more extracurricular activities or overcame the difficulty of interpersonal relations during school festivals were reported to have improved their social skills. From these findings, one can speculate that the more quantity and the higher quality of interpersonal relationships students experience in their college life, the more and the higher-level social skills they can develop. It was also shown that the negative attitude toward interpersonal relationships as well as the difficulty students felt, during clinical practices worked as negative factors that might arrest the development of their social skills. It is therefore suggested that during clinical practices teachers should commit themselves positively to helping students cope with difficult situations or mend their negative attitudes toward interpersonal relations.

  10. The Analysis of the Relationship Between Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions and Aggression Responses of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol UĞUR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to display the relationship between interpersonal cognitive distortions and aggression responses of high school students and to determine if how interpersonal cognitive distortions predict aggression level. The subjects of this study were 843 students who have been studying in 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th grads of high schools in Gaziantep. The data were collected by using three instruments, namely, ‘’Demographic Data Form’’, ‘’Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale’’ (Hamamcı ve Büyüköztürk, 2003 and ‘’Aggression Scale’’ (Can, 2002 in this study. According to the results of this study; significant positive correlations were found between interpersonal cognitive distortions and aggression responses. It has been found out that the students having high interpersonal cognitive distortion level has higher points of all subscales of Aggression Responses Scale than students have low interpersonal cognitive distortion level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, it is indicated that all subscales points of interpersonal cognitive distortions were significant predictors for student’s total aggression points

  11. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  12. Stress in closed thin-walled tubes of single box subjected by shear forces and application to airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbiche Toufik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is to develop a numerical computation program to determine the distribution of the shear stress to shear in closed tubes with asymmetric single thin wall section with a constant thickness and applications to airfoils and therefore determining the position and value of the maximum stress. In the literature, there are exact analytical solutions only for some sections of simple geometries such as circular section. Hence our interest is focused on the search of approximate numerical solutions for more complex sections used in aeronautics. In the second stage the position of the shear center is determined so that the section does not undergo torsion. The analytic function of the boundary of the airfoil is obtained by using the cubic spline interpolation since it is given in the form of tabulated points.

  13. An explanation for catastrophic failures of GaN-based vertical structure LEDs subjected to thermoelectric stressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lilin; Yin, Luqiao; Teng, Dongdong; Zhang, Jianhua; Ma, Xincan; Wang, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Both accelerated life tests and engineering practices present a common behavior: LED products may encounter catastrophic failure under thermo-electric co-stressing. The present work proposes that the applied thermoelectric stresses themselves are not necessary conditions but pre-conditions for LED breakdown. The deformation and sliding of the metal lines on n-GaN under thermoelectric co-stressing cause electrodes to become dilapidated. Such dilapidated electrodes with rough edges will help to generate localized high electrical fields. The catastrophic failure occurs during the de-trapping process of space charges in and around threading dislocations when the applied electric field is removed and short circuits form between the charged dislocation cores and the tips of the dilapidated electrodes. A phenomenological relationship is given to describe the interactions between temperatures and applied electric currents on the diffusion-flux-accommodated sliding and deformation of patterned metal electrodes on vertical LEDs. Such a law is coincident with the practical trend of LED failure rates observed in accelerated life tests and engineering applications.

  14. Acute effect of sorghum flour-containing pasta on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in healthy subjects: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2015-06-01

    It has been previously reported that pasta containing wholegrain sorghum flour exhibits high content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity and hence might enhance antioxidant status and reduce markers of oxidative stress in vivo; however no clinical studies have yet been reported. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of pasta containing red or white wholegrain sorghum flour on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in humans. The study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN: 12612000324819). In a randomised crossover design, healthy subjects (n = 20) consumed three test meals of control pasta (CP), 30% red sorghum pasta (RSP) or 30% white sorghum pasta (WSP), 1-2 wk apart. The test meals were consumed as breakfast after an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained at fasting and 2 h after consumption and analysed for total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, protein carbonyl and 8-isoprostanes. Compared to baseline, the 2 h post-prandial levels following the RSP meal of plasma polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were significantly (P polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were significantly (P < 0.001) higher while protein carbonyl were significantly (P = 0.035) lower following consumption of the RSP meal than the CP meal. The results demonstrated that pasta containing red wholegrain sorghum flour enhanced antioxidant status and improved markers of oxidative stress in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive impairments, emotion, stress, and language in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghers, James P; Docherty, Nancy M

    2009-12-30

    Language symptoms in schizophrenia are exacerbated by arousal of negative affect; the extent of this effect varies widely among patients. The present study assessed predictors of affective speech reactivity. Based on earlier research, it was expected that speech reactivity would be predicted by a combination of neurocognitive and emotional variables. We assessed patients (n=50) for baseline depression; neurocognitive functioning in the domains of sustained attention, immediate auditory memory, organizational sequencing, and conceptual sequencing ability; and clarity of speech communication in both stress and non-stress conditions. Twenty-three subject-nominated "significant others" (SOs) also participated in the study, and were assessed for levels of expressed emotion (EE) as an index of relationship stressors. Patients, in turn, rated the subjective stressfulness of being in the presence of their SOs, from which the propensity to perceive interpersonal experiences as stressful was calculated by regressing out EE ratings. As predicted, baseline depression and sensitivity to interpersonal stressors were related to affective reactivity of speech, with stress sensitivity mediating the relationship between depression and speech reactivity. Contrary to expectations, baseline neurocognitive functioning was not related to speech reactivity. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding both schizophrenic language disturbance and stress vulnerability.

  16. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes.

  17. Outdoor dynamic subject-specific evaluation of internal stresses in the residual limb: hydraulic energy-stored prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy-stored prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; Kristal, Anat; Gefen, Amit; Siev-Ner, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    The prosthetic foot plays an important role in propelling, breaking, balancing and supporting body loads while the amputee ambulates on different grounds. It is therefore important to quantify the effect of the prosthetic foot mechanism on biomechanical parameters, in order to prevent pressure ulcers and deep tissue injury. Our aim was to monitor the internal stresses in the residuum of transtibial amputation (TTA) prosthetic-users ambulating on different terrains, which the amputees encounter during their daily activities, i.e. paved floor, grass, ascending and descending stairs and slope. We specifically aimed to compare between the internal stresses in the TTA residuum of amputees ambulating with a novel hydraulic prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy storage and return (ESR) prosthetic feet. Monitoring of internal stresses was accomplished using a portable subject-specific real-time internal stress monitor. We found significant decrease (phydraulic foot, compared to walking with ESR feet. The loading rate calculated while ambulating with the hydraulic foot was at least three times lower than the loading rate calculated while ambulating with the ESR foot. Although the average decrease in internal stresses was ≈ 2-fold larger when replacing single-toe ESR feet with the hydraulic foot than when replacing split-toed ESR feet with the hydraulic foot, the differences were statistically insignificant. Our findings suggest that using a hydraulic prosthetic foot may protect the distal tibial end of the TTA residuum from high stresses, therefore preventing pressure-related injury and pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of exogenous spermidine concentration on polyamine metabolism and salt tolerance in zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud subjected to short-term salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress, and particularly short-term salinity stress, is one of the most serious abiotic factors limiting plant survival and growth in China. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd stimulats tolerance to salt stress in plants. In the present study, two cultivars that are typically grown in China were used. The two zoysiagrass cultivars, exhibiting a sensitive ( cv. Z081 or tolerant ( cv. Z057 salt stress adaptation ability, were subjected to 200 mM salt stress and treated with different exogenous Spd concentrations for 8 days. Polyamine (Put, Spd and Spm contents and polyamine metabolic enzyme (ADC, ODC, SAMDC, PAO and DAO, malondialdehyde (MDA, H2O2 and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were measured. The results showed that salt stress induced increases in Spd and Spm contents and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC and diamine oxidase (DAO in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd application did not compromise polyamine contents through the regulation of polyamine-degrading enzymes, and an increase in PA synthesis enzymes was observed during the experiment. The application resulted in a tendency for the Spd and Spm contents and the activities of ODC, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC, DAO, and antioxidant enzymes to first increase and then decrease in both cultivars with an increase in the exogenous Spd concentration. H2O2 and MDA significantly decreased in both cultivars treated with Spd. With an increase in the exogenous Spd concentration, the Spd + Spm level scores showed positive correlations with polyamine synthesis enzymes (ADC, SAMDC, DAO, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, while showing negative correlations with H2O2 and MDA in both cultivars.

  19. The role of interpersonal perception in dyadic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, M; Campbell, I M

    1988-05-01

    The discrepancy between the way individuals perceive themselves and the way they are perceived by their partners has been proposed as an indicator of dyadic adjustment. The present study employed the CPI to investigate the relation of interpersonal perception within dyads and real similarity of spouses to marital satisfaction. The subjects were 20 married couples. Support was provided for the use of the real similarity-assumed similarity-accuracy paradigm in studies of interpersonal perception. No sex differences were found in the ability of individuals to predict their spouse's responses on the CPI. Accuracy of prediction was correlated significantly with scores on the Hogan Empathy scale for males, but not for females. Conversely, accuracy was related significantly to dyadic adjustment in the case of females, but not males. Real similarity also was correlated positively with dyadic adjustment. Avenues for further research are suggested.

  20. Predicting health: the interplay between interpersonal communication and health campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; de Vreese, Claes H

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigated the interplay between interpersonal communication and health message exposure in relation to alcohol consumption intentions. Participants were 174 students who took part in a study on the effects of an antialcohol message. At baseline, the authors assessed intention to refrain from binge drinking. At the second wave (2 weeks later), participants were assigned to the conditions of a 2 (antialcohol message or no-alcohol message) × 2 (alcohol conversation or control conversation) between-subjects design, after which intention was again assessed. Results showed that when participants talked about alcohol (instead of the control topic) and were not exposed to an antialcohol message, they were less inclined to refrain from binge drinking, an effect that was not visible when participants talked about alcohol after viewing an antialcohol message. These findings suggest that health campaign exposure moderates the influence of interpersonal communication on health variables.

  1. Pluralism and Objectivism: Cornerstones for Interpersonal Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    comparison, and between a subjectivist and objectivist standard of interpersonal comparison. The paper provides a normative argument for pluralism and objectivism with regard to interpersonal comparison, and it suggests that the Capability Approach as developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum fits...

  2. Improving Music Teaching through Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Natalie Steele

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships are fundamental to learning and human development. To develop a positive and safe classroom environment with student motivation and learning, music educators need to learn to relate and connect effectively with others. This article looks at the importance of the interpersonal relationships in the classroom environment…

  3. Bulimia and Interpersonal Relationships: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Mark H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed changes in bulimia in female college students (N=44) and in relation between bulimia and interpersonal relationships over time. Found (1) stable symptomology for normals and bulimics; (2) strong negative correlations between bulimia measures and interpersonal relationships with men; and (3) improvement in symptomology and relationships…

  4. Culture and Pragmatic Inference in Interpersonal Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relevance, cognition. Introduction. This paper is essentially an application of pragmatics to the study of interpersonal communication and its main focus is on how .... Relevance theory is a cognitive theory of meaning which explains how we .... her emotions which is part of the requirement of interpersonal communication - to.

  5. The interpersonal core of personality pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptions and evidence base of the interpersonal paradigm in clinical psychology. We describe how grounding the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 definition in interpersonal theory, and in particular a focus on the “interpersonal situation”, adds to its theoretical texture, empirical support, and clinical utility. We provide a clinical example that demonstrates the ability of contemporary interpersonal theory to augment the DSM-5 definition of personality pathology. We conclude with directions for further research that could clarify the core of personality pathology, and how interpersonal theory can inform research aimed at enhancing the DSM-5 Section 3 proposal and ultimately justify its migration to DSM-5 Section 2. PMID:23735037

  6. Interpersonal Conflicts In Ghanaian University Libraries | Kofi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that personality differences, superior/subordinate relationships, power struggle and competition are responsible for interpersonal conflicts in Ghanaian university libraries. It then makes recommendations on how to manage the various types of interpersonal conflicts within university libraries. Keywords: ...

  7. Groupware: A Tool for Interpersonal Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson; McLellan, Hilary

    Computer networks have provided a foundation for interpersonal computing, and new tools are emerging, the centerpiece of which is called "groupware." Groupware technology is reviewed, and the theoretical framework that will underlie interpersonal collaborative computing is discussed. Groupware can consist of hardware, software, services,…

  8. INTERPERSONAL COMUNICATION IN THE CONTEMPORARY SIRCUMSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan JAKULIC

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In this item, the writer emphasizes the origination of the interpersonal communications in contemporary circumstances on the present evolutionary stage of the civilization. In addition the phenomenon of the interpersonal communications determine the social being of the humans in the area of the family and nation together with the area of the wide social community.

  9. Interpersonal Attraction Under Negative Conditions: A Problem for the Classical Conditioning Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; Johnson, Gregory A.

    The influence of aversive conditions on interpersonal attraction was investigated using 60 female undergraduates as subjects. Dyads were formed and equally divided into aversive (loud-noise) and neutral (low-noise) conditions. After completing an attitude survey questionnaire subjects completed a short filler task while the experimenter…

  10. The response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, T. J.; Bradley, J.; Dwivedi, A.; Casem, D.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress. Laboratory data from the literature, and new test data provided here, are used in the evaluation. The new data include uniaxial stress compression tests (at various strain rates and temperatures) and uniaxial stress tension tests (at low strain rates and ambient temperatures). The compression tests include experiments at ˙ɛ = 13,000 s-1, significantly extending the range of known strain rate data. The observed behavior of PMMA includes the following: it is brittle in compression at high rates, and brittle in tension at all rates; strength is dependent on the pressure, strain, strain rate, temperature, and the intermediate principal stress; the shear modulus increases as the pressure increases; and it is highly compressible. Also presented are novel, high velocity impact tests (using high-speed imaging) that provide insight into the initiation and evolution of damage. Lastly, computational constitutive models for pressure, strength, and failure are presented that provide responses that are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The models are used to compute several ballistic impact events for which experimental data are available.

  11. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Probst, Irmelin; Staerk, Ulrich; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Frölich, Jürgen C.

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP), cyclooxygenase (COX), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA) was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans. PMID:24799980

  12. Perbedaan Keefektifan Adlerian Group Play Counseling dan Layanan Bimbingan Klasikal dalam Meningkatkan Daya Tarik Interpersonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Bilqis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to generate empirical data on the difference in effectiveness between Adlerian Group Play Counseling (AGPC interventions and Classical Guidance Services in enhancing interpersonal attractiveness based on social relations profiles. Research using Experimental Factorial Designs. The sample of this research is all students of grade V of Elementary School Sukasenang & Elementary School of Cihaurgeulis. The research instrument is an interpersonal and sociometric attraction questionnaire. The results show that Adlerian Group Play Counseling interventions are more effective at increasing all categories of interpersonal attractiveness than the Classical Guidance Service. Based on the analysis using two-way ANOVA test, it can be concluded that there is a difference of power level of interpersonal attraction after intervention (F = 21,322, p = 0,000 but not influenced by social relation (F = 1.56, p = 0.208. Research recommendations addressed to counselors, subject teachers, and other researchers

  13. Global interpersonal inequality: Trends and measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    inequality is decomposed into within-country and between-country inequality. The paper illustrates that the relationship between global interpersonal inequality and these constituent components is a complex one. In particular, we demonstrate that the changes in China’s and India’s income distributions over......This paper discusses different approaches to the measurement of global interpersonal in equality. Trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975-2005 are measured using data from UNU-WIDER’s World Income Inequality Database. In order to better understand the trends, global interpersonal...... the past 30 years have simultaneously caused inequality to rise domestically in those countries, while tending to reduce global inter-personal inequality. In light of these findings, we reflect on the meaning and policy relevance of global vis-à-vis domestic inequality measures...

  14. Static instability of beam-type NEMS subjected to symmetric electrostatic actuation based on couple stress theory and Timoshenko beam theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeian, M.; Zeighampour, H.

    2017-06-01

    The behavior of nanoelectromechanical systems subjected to symmetrical electrostatic actuation and symmetrical Casimir intermolecular force has been investigated. Two different phenomena (i.e. electromechanical bifurcation and electromechanical buckling) have been considered to explore the static electromechanical instability of such systems. The Timoshenko beam model has been employed to find the effect of shear deformation on these systems. Modified couple stress theory has been used to investigate size-dependency. Besides, the compressive and tensile residual stresses of nanobridges have been measured on the basis of electromechanical buckling. The governing equations and corresponding boundary conditions have been obtained by means of the principle of minimum potential energy. Finally, following validation of results, the effects of material length scale, length, shear deformation, beam geometry, and gap distance on the symmetric electromechanical behavior have been discussed and examined.

  15. Subjective versus objective stress in noncritica