WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject terms earth

  1. Hamiltonian theory for the non-rigid Earth: Semidiurnal terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getino, J.; Ferrándiz, J. M.; Escapa, A.

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the contributions to the nutation series arising from the triaxiality of a non-rigid Earth model composed of a rigid mantle and a liquid core. With this aim, the canonical formulation of the rotation of the non-rigid Earth developed by Getino and Ferrándiz is applied in order to study the semidiurnal terms arising from the C22 and S22 geopotential coefficients. Once the corresponding generating function is calculated, analytical expressions of the Andoyer and figure planes are derived. We also provide numerical nutation series based on the analytical formulae.

  2. The response of teachers to new subject areas in a national science curriculum: The case of the earth science component

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2001-11-01

    The National Curriculum for Science (NCS) introduced to schools in England and Wales in 1989 contained an earth science component that was new to many secondary science teachers. Ten years after this introduction, a survey was undertaken to test teacher perception of the effectiveness of their teaching in this subject area that was new to them, and to identify factors that might affect this effectiveness. The information gained has been used in reviewing possible curriculum changes and in developing professional development strategies that would improve the effectiveness of NCS earth science teaching. The data collected from science teachers who are currently teaching this earth science component revealed that their background knowledge of earth science from their own education was generally poor, even though most of them considered their knowledge to be moderate. The teachers indicated that the achievement of their pupils in earth science is moderate, while reports on national testing show it is poor. They reported that their main sources of earth science knowledge and understanding were science textbooks written for 11- to 16-year-old pupils (with their small earth science content of variable quality) and science colleagues (who often have poor earth science backgrounds too). Most teachers indicated that they needed more support in this area. Overall, the data indicated that while teachers consider their teaching in this area to be moderate, other evidence suggests it is poor. If this situation is not to continue it should be addressed. In the longer term the emphasis on the earth science content of the National Science Curriculum could be changed (either enhanced or reduced) within larger scale curriculum changes. Until such curriculum change takes place, effective methods of professional development should be instituted so that teachers have a much improved basis on which to build their earth science teaching. Similar measures would be necessary in other

  3. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  4. Earth System Research Laboratory Long-Term Surface Aerosol Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerosol measurements began at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) baseline observatories in the mid-1970's with the...

  5. Long Term Climate Friction For The Earth's Obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrard, B.; Laskar, J.

    The lagged response between obliquity variations, the waxing and waning of continen- tal ice sheets, the viscous flow of the mantle and thereby, the total dynamical ellipticity may induce a secular trend in Earth's obliquity (Bills, 1994; Rubincam, 1995; Ito et al, 1995; D.M Williams et al., 1998) though its amplitude and direction are still very controversial and unclear. Previous works predicted a positive drift of 0.04/Ma (Ito et al, 1995) with Late Pleis- tocene glacial conditions, while D.M Williams et al.(1998) proposed a large decrease of 30 during 100 Ma around the Late Precambrian-Cambrian (ca. 550 Ma) bound- ary, favoured by hypothetical huge extented ice cap on a South polar supercontinent, and thus arguing in favor of G.E Williams' high obliquity scenario (1975, 1993) as an explanation of low-latitude Precambrian glaciations. However, theses models have considered the obliquity as the only ice-age driver, while it is admitted that advances and retreats of ice sheets are also driven by others Mi- lankovitch periods, or they have used unrealistic palaeogeographic continental and glacial distributions. We, thus, show that for realistic estimations of theses character- istics, absolute value of the secular drift of obliquity does not exceed 0.01/Ma for the Late Pleistocene and 0.05/Ma for each Neoproterozoic glacial interval. Futher- more, we show that widespread continental glaciations from low to high-latitude dur- ing Varanger glacial interval (ca. 610-570 Ma) on Pannotia supercontinent and low- latitude Sturtian continental glaciations (ca. 750-700 Ma) on an equator-straddling Rodinia supercontinent have probably drifted the obliquity in opposite directions in- ducing a global invariancy of the obliquity during Neoproterozoic Era. "Hard" or "soft" Snowball Earth hypothesis producing global or partial ice-covered oceans and continents would also probably minimize climate friction effect. If we take account of massive and long Permo

  6. The Earth Education Program Sunship™ Earth: A Mixed Methods Study of the Long-Term Influence on Environmental Attitudes and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bires, Nancy K.

    2013-01-01

    There have been a limited number of studies on the short-term influence of environmental and earth education programs, however, not much information is available about the long-term influence of these programs on participants' environmental attitudes and actions. This mixed methods study explores the long-term influence of the earth education…

  7. Fractionated space infrastructure for long-term earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, E. K. A.

    A fractionated spacecraft is a space system that distributes its functionalities, such as computation, communication, data storage, payload and even power generation, over several independent satellite modules that share those functionalities through a wireless link. This paper exploits this innovational architecture to design a space infrastructure that is able to accept and support multiple Earth Observation (EO) payload modules. In this paper the functional, physical and organizational architectures of the infrastructure are presented. To start with, EO programs utilizing monolithic spacecraft especially SPOT and Landsat programs are reviewed and analyzed to derive the inherent EO functional requirements. Then these functional requirements are integrated into an EO scenario based on a reference orbit typically for EO missions. Next, novel architectures of fractionated spacecraft are reviewed and the inherent non traditional attributes are summarized and classified in such a way to show their close interrelation with the EO functional requirements. Then four resources components: high bandwidth downlink component, data relay satellite communication component, mission data processor component and large volume data storage component are identified and designated to establish the EO space infrastructure. Based on those four components different physical architectures are designed for the specific scenario and then are evaluated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with eight selection criteria. Afterwards, the best option has been identified, which comprises four heterogeneous modules assigned to host those four resources components separately. Finally, this physical architecture is organized by means of the Multi-Agent System (MAS) theory, which fulfills best the EO non traditional requirements. The proposed organization is tailored for the autonomous operations of the fractionated infrastructure and is based on the peer-to-peer architecture. From a physica

  8. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  9. Results of long-term field tests of protective earthing device for vessel electric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaginin V.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of prolonged natural tests of protective neutral earthing device for controlling the fire and electrical safety of vessel electric systems have been shown. The use of such devices provides safe single-phase fault currents and reducing arc overvoltage during the long-term operation of a ship. The results of long-term monitoring of the device operation as part of the existing vessel electric power system have confirmed its effectiveness

  10. Towards a Seamless Global Long-Term Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Su, W.; Kratz, D. P.; Kato, S.; Doelling, D.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation (ASR) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions, and energy released to space in the form of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) nearly balances ASR, ensuring a relatively stable climate. Owing to human activities, there is currently less emitted thermal radiation than absorbed solar radiation, leading to an accumulation of energy into the Earth's system, which is driving global warming. Achieving an understanding of Earth's energy flows requires an accurate description of how radiant energy at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), within the atmosphere, and at the surface is distributed spatially, and how this changes with time. A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is the production of a long-term global climate data record of Earth's radiation budget from the TOA down to the surface along with the associated atmospheric and surface properties that influence this budget. The CERES team relies on a number of data sources, including broadband radiometers that measure incoming and reflected solar radiation and OLR, high-resolution spectral imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. While TOA radiation budget is determined from accurate broadband radiometer measurements, the surface radiation budget is derived indirectly through radiative transfer model calculations initialized using imager-based cloud and aerosol retrievals and meteorological assimilation data. In order to accurately capture changes in Earth's radiation budget from interannual to decadal timescales, satellite instruments used to produce these data records must be radiometrically stable and the input data stream must be free of artificial discontinuities. Otherwise, distinguishing real climate system changes from

  11. An one-parametric model of the Earth's magnetosphere and short-term prediction of the Kp index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaschenko, Yuri A.; Starodubtsev, Sergey A.; Sharin, Egor P.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper a simple one-parameter mathematical model of the Earth's magnetosphere is proposed and implemented. The main idea is to introduce a parameter a, which is a distance from the center of the Earth to a subsolar point of the magnetosphere. The parameter a is expressed through a speed of solar wind plasma, density and magnitude of an interplanetary magnetic field as well as magnitude of magnetic moment of the Earth's dipole. It is shown that a is expressed in terms of a planetary index of magnetic activity. The model can be used for a short-term forecast of magnetic activity in near-earth space.

  12. 38 CFR 17.258 - Terms and conditions to which awards are subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms and conditions to which awards are subject. 17.258 Section 17.258 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.258 Terms and conditions to which awards...

  13. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. Reconstructed ancestral enzymes suggest long-term cooling of Earth's photic zone since the Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Amanda K.; Schopf, J. William; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Akanuma, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2017-05-01

    Paleotemperatures inferred from the isotopic compositions (δ18O and δ30Si) of marine cherts suggest that Earth’s oceans cooled from 70 ± 15 °C in the Archean to the present ˜15 °C. This interpretation, however, has been subject to question due to uncertainties regarding oceanic isotopic compositions, diagenetic or metamorphic resetting of the isotopic record, and depositional environments. Analyses of the thermostability of reconstructed ancestral enzymes provide an independent method by which to assess the temperature history inferred from the isotopic evidence. Although previous studies have demonstrated extreme thermostability in reconstructed archaeal and bacterial proteins compatible with a hot early Earth, taxa investigated may have inhabited local thermal environments that differed significantly from average surface conditions. We here present thermostability measurements of reconstructed ancestral enzymatically active nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) derived from light-requiring prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophs having widely separated fossil-based divergence ages. The ancestral environmental temperatures thereby determined for these photic-zone organisms--shown in modern taxa to correlate strongly with NDK thermostability--are inferred to reflect ancient surface-environment paleotemperatures. Our results suggest that Earth's surface temperature decreased over geological time from ˜65-80 °C in the Archean, a finding consistent both with previous isotope-based and protein reconstruction-based interpretations. Interdisciplinary studies such as those reported here integrating genomic, geologic, and paleontologic data hold promise for providing new insight into the coevolution of life and environment over Earth history.

  15. Long-Term Audience Impacts of Live Fulldome Planetarium Lectures for Earth Science and Global Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K. C.; Champlin, D. M.; Goldsworth, D. A.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2011-09-01

    Digital Earth visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. At the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), we have used such visualization technologies, including real-time virtual reality software running in the immersive digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium, to impact the community through topical policy presentations. DMNS public lectures have covered regional issues like water resources, as well as global topics such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion. The Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience-similar to virtual reality "CAVE" environments found in academia-that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend dynamically changing geospatial datasets in an exciting and engaging fashion. Surveys and interviews show that these talks are effective in heightening visitor interest in the subjects weeks or months after the presentation. Many visitors take additional steps to learn more, while one was so inspired that she actively worked to bring the same programming to her children's school. These preliminary findings suggest that fulldome real-time visualizations can have a substantial long-term impact on an audience's engagement and interest in science topics.

  16. Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Benin City, Nigeria. O. G. Igharo, T.L. Olawoye, H.B. Osadolor, F. A. Idomeh, O. J. Osunbor, A. O. Osagie, O.C. Iyamu ...

  17. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension...

  18. Leveraging output term co-occurrence frequencies and latent associations in predicting medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Lu, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Trained indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) manually tag each biomedical abstract with the most suitable terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology to be indexed by their PubMed information system. MeSH has over 26,000 terms and indexers look at each article's full text while assigning the terms. Recent automated attempts focused on using the article title and abstract text to identify MeSH terms for the corresponding article. Most of these approaches used supervised machine learning techniques that use already indexed articles and the corresponding MeSH terms. In this paper, we present a new indexing approach that leverages term co-occurrence frequencies and latent term associations computed using MeSH term sets corresponding to a set of nearly 18 million articles already indexed with MeSH terms by indexers at NLM. The main goal of our study is to gauge the potential of output label co-occurrences, latent associations, and relationships extracted from free text in both unsupervised and supervised indexing approaches. In this paper, using a novel and purely unsupervised approach, we achieve a micro-F-score that is comparable to those obtained using supervised machine learning techniques. By incorporating term co-occurrence and latent association features into a supervised learning framework, we also improve over the best results published on two public datasets.

  19. The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire for Subjects With COPD With Long-Term Oxygen Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; July, Johanna; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Rzehak, Peter; Windisch, Wolfram

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory insufficiency in COPD may present as hypoxic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure treated with long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and/or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with LTOT. The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire (SRI) is a tool for the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in subjects receiving NIV. However, it remains unclear whether the SRI is also capable of assessing and discriminating HRQOL in subjects receiving LTOT. Stable subjects with COPD receiving LTOT or NIV + LTOT (NIV) were prospectively recruited and completed the SRI, lung function tests, and blood gases. Confirmatory factor analysis for construct validity and internal consistency reliability were calculated. One hundred fifty-five subjects were included (113 LTOT, 42 NIV). The Cronbach α coefficient of the 7 subscales ranged between 0.69 and 0.89 (LTOT) and between 0.79 and 0.93 (NIV), respectively. In both groups, confirmatory factor analysis revealed a one-factor model for the SRI summary scale; in 5 subscales, one- or 2-factor models could be established. Group differences in the SRI subsets were all P <.05 (except for physical functioning) with higher scores in subjects receiving NIV. The SRI showed high reliability and validity in subjects with COPD receiving LTOT. Subjects receiving LTOT had lower SRI scores, indicating a poorer HRQOL compared with subjects with established NIV and LTOT. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Subjective memory ability and long-term forgetting in patients referred for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieberen Pieter Van Der Werf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the one-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological assessment and who had normal memory performance during standard memory assessment with that of a non-patient control group. Both groups performed equally in verbal learning and delayed recall. However, after one week, the patients performed worse than controls on both recall and recognition tests. Although subjective memory ability predicted short-term memory function in patients, it did not predict long-term delayed forgetting rates in either the patients or controls. Thus, long-term delayed recall and recognition intervals provided no additional value to explain poor subjective memory ability in the absence of objective memory deficits.

  1. Long-term legacy of massive carbon input to the Earth system: Anthropocene versus Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E; Zachos, James C

    2013-10-28

    Over the next few centuries, with unabated emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), a total of 5000 Pg C may enter the atmosphere, causing CO2 concentrations to rise to approximately 2000 ppmv, global temperature to warm by more than 8(°)C and surface ocean pH to decline by approximately 0.7 units. A carbon release of this magnitude is unprecedented during the past 56 million years-and the outcome accordingly difficult to predict. In this regard, the geological record may provide foresight to how the Earth system will respond in the future. Here, we discuss the long-term legacy of massive carbon release into the Earth's surface reservoirs, comparing the Anthropocene with a past analogue, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, approx. 56 Ma). We examine the natural processes and time scales of CO2 neutralization that determine the atmospheric lifetime of CO2 in response to carbon release. We compare the duration of carbon release during the Anthropocene versus PETM and the ensuing effects on ocean acidification and marine calcifying organisms. We also discuss the conundrum that the observed duration of the PETM appears to be much longer than predicted by models that use first-order assumptions. Finally, we comment on past and future mass extinctions and recovery times of biotic diversity.

  2. Short- versus long-term prediction of dementia among subjects with low and high educational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Emilie; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène

    2013-09-01

    Using simple measures of cognition and disability in a prospective community-living cohort of normal elderly persons, the main objectives of our study were to distinguish short- and long-term predictors for dementia according to educational level and to propose a tool for early detection of subjects at high risk of dementia. Data derived from the French cohort study Paquid (Personnes Agées QUID), which included 3777 subjects, older than 65 years of age, who were followed for a 20-year period. The risk of dementia at 3 years and 10 years was estimated by logistic regression for repeated measures combining data from all the 3- and 10-year windows throughout the follow-up. Predictors included disability assessed by the number of dependent items among four instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), four neuropsychological tests, five Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subtests, and four items of subjective memory complaints. Of the 2882 included subjects, the number of IADLs remained a predictor of short- and long-term conversion to dementia for those with low educational level (combined with only one cognitive test) whereas the best predictors for more educated subjects combined subjective memory complaints and memory and executive function tests. The episodic memory subtest was the only predictive MMSE subtest. In the high-education-level group, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the selected models were 0.85 for 3-year prediction and 0.78 for 10-year prediction. Early predictors of dementia are different according to educational level. Among subjects reaching the secondary school level, early detection of those at high risk of dementia is possible with good predictive performance, with a few simple objective and subjective cognitive evaluations. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched.

  4. Enabling Long-Term Earth Science Research: Changing Data Practices (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Data stewardship plans are shaped by our shared experiences. As a result, community engagement and collaborative activities are central to the stewardship of data. Since modes and mechanisms of engagement have changed, we benefit from asking anew: ';Who are the communities?' and ';What are the lessons learned?'. Data stewardship with its long-term care perspective, is enriched by reflection on community experience. This presentation draws on data management issues and strategies originating from within long-term research communities as well as on recent studies informed by library and information science. Ethnographic case studies that capture project activities and histories are presented as resources for comparative analysis. Agency requirements and funding opportunities are stimulating collaborative endeavors focused on data re-use and archiving. Research groups including earth scientists, information professionals, and data systems designers are recognizing the possibilities for new ways of thinking about data in the digital arena. Together, these groups are re-conceptualizing and reconfiguring for data management and data curation. A differentiation between managing data for local use and production of data for re-use remotely in locations and fields remote from the data origin is just one example of the concepts emerging to facilitate development of data management. While earth scientists as data generators have the responsibility to plan new workflows and documentation practices, data and information specialists have responsibility to promote best practices as well as to facilitate the development of community resources such as controlled vocabularies and data dictionaries. With data-centric activities and changing data practices, the potential for creating dynamic community information environments in conjunction with development of data facilities exists but remains elusive.

  5. Modelling long-term trends in lunar exposure to the Earth's plasmasheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hapgood

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how the exposure of the Moon to the Earth's plasmasheet is subject to decadal variations due to lunar precession. The latter is a key property of the Moon's apparent orbit around the Earth – the nodes of that orbit precess around the ecliptic, completing one revolution every 18.6 years. This precession is responsible for a number of astronomical phenomena, e.g. the year to year drift of solar and lunar eclipse periods. It also controls the ecliptic latitude at which the Moon crosses the magnetotail and thus the number and duration of lunar encounters with the plasmasheet. This paper presents a detailed model of those encounters and applies it to the period 1960 to 2030. This shows that the total lunar exposure to the plasmasheet will vary from 10 h per month at a minimum of the eighteen-year cycle rising to 40 h per month at the maximum. These variations could have a profound impact on the accumulation of charge due plasmasheet electrons impacting the lunar surface. Thus we should expect the level of lunar surface charging to vary over the eighteen-year cycle. The literature contains reports that support this: several observations made during the cycle maximum of 1994–2000 are attributed to bombardment and charging of the lunar surface by plasmasheet electrons. Thus we conclude that lunar surface charging will vary markedly over an eighteen-year cycle driven by lunar precession. It is important to interpret lunar environment measurements in the context of this cycle and to allow for the cycle when designing equipment for deployment on the lunar surface. This is particularly important in respect of developing plans for robotic exploration on the lunar surface during the next cycle maximum of 2012–2019.

  6. Long-term endurance training increases serum cathepsin S levels in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponder, M; Minichsdorfer, C; Campean, I-A; Emich, M; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Litschauer, B; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2017-11-27

    Circulating cathepsin S (CS) has been associated with a lower risk for breast cancer in a large Swedish cohort. Long-term physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on the development of various cancer subtypes, in particular breast and colorectal cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term endurance sport on CS levels in females. Thirty-six of 40 subjects completed the study. Subjects were told to increase their activity pensum for 8 months reaching 150 min/week moderate or 75 min/week intense exercise. Ergometries were performed at the beginning and the end of the study to prove/quantify the performance gain. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 2 months. Serum CS levels were measured by ELISA. To analyse the change and the progression of CS, Wilcoxon rank sum and Friedman tests were used. The sportive group (performance gain by > 4.9%) showed a significant increase of CS levels from 3.32/2.73/4.09 to 4.00/3.09/5.04 ng/ml (p = 0.008) corresponding to an increase of 20.5%. We could show a significant increase of circulating CS levels in healthy female subjects induced by long-term physical activity. CS, occurring in the tumour microenvironment, is well-known to promote tumour growth, e.g. by ameliorating angiogenesis. However, the role of circulating CS in cancer growth is not clear. As physical activity is known as preventive intervention, in particular concerning breast and colorectal cancers, and long-term physical activity leads to an increase of CS levels in female subjects, circulating CS might even be involved in this protective effect. Clinical trial registration: NCT02097199.

  7. The study of subjective feelings of loneliness older women in terms of suicide risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov E.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of subjective feeling lonely older women and their actual social status in terms of the propensity to suicidal behavior. Hypothesized that the level of suicide risk in older women reveals a closer connection with the severity of subjective feelings of loneliness than with the degree of objective social isolation. The study involved 52 women aged 55 to 75 years old who do not have mental disorders and debilitating physical illness. The main methods of study was the analysis of medical records, interview and psychological testing formalized. Data used for U-Mann-Whitney test, H-Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson criterion 2 Spearman rank correlation method. It is shown that the severity of suicidal risk in the studied sample is really linked to the level of subjective feelings of loneliness (p≤0,05, in respect of the same objective social isolation test found no such relationship.

  8. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERPY WITH SUPERVISED EXERCISE PROGRAM IN SUBJECTS WITH TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Shridhar Thakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose is to find long term effect of Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program in the reduction of pain and improvement of functional ability for subjects with tennis elbow. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with Tennis Elbow randomized 15 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received Supervised Exercise program while Study group received Cyriax Physiotherapy with Supervised exercises program thrice in a week for 4 weeks and post intervention follow up after 2 weeks. Outcome measurements were measured for pain using Visual analogue Scale (VAS and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE for functional ability. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- intervention means of VAS and PRTEE when compared between the groups using independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. When means of post intervention and follow-up measurements were compared there is a statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in VAS and PRTEE scores between the groups. However greater percentage of improvements was obtained in study group than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is significant long term effect with greater percentage of improvement in pain and functional ability up to 2 weeks follow-up following 4 weeks of combined Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program than only supervised exercise program for subjects with tennis elbow.

  9. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the long-term control of the Earth's climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Carver

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available A CO2-weathering model has been used to explore the possible evolution of the Earth's climate as the Sun steadily brightened throughout geologic time. The results of the model calculations can be described in terms of three, qualitatively different, "Megaclimates". Mega-climate 1 resulted from a period of rapid outgassing in the early Archean, with high, but declining, temperatures caused by the small weathering rates on a largely water-covered planet. Mega-climate 2 began about 3 Gyear ago as major continental land masses developed, increasing the weathering rate in the early Proterozoic and thereby depleting the atmospheric CO2 concentration. This process produced the first Precambrian glaciations about 2.3 Gyear ago. During Mega-climate 2, evolutionary biological processes increased the surface weatherability in incremental steps and plate tectonics modulated the CO2 outgassing rate with an estimated period of 150 Myear (approximately one-half the period for the formation and breakup of super continents. Throughout Mega-climate 2 the surface temperature was controlled by variations in the atmospheric CO2 level allowing transitions between glacial and non-glacial conditions. The results of the model for Mega-climate 2 are in agreement with the occurrence (and absence of glaciations in the geologic record. Extending the model to the future suggests that CO2 control of the Earth's temperature will no longer be able to compensate for a solar flux that continues to increase. The present level of atmospheric CO2 is so small that further reduction in CO2 cannot prevent the Earth from experiencing Mega-climate 3 with steadily increasing surface temperatures caused by the continued brightening of the Sun. During Mega-climate 3, the main danger to the biosphere would come not from an increasing temperature but from a decreasing (rather than an increasing CO2 level which could, in time, fall below 0.5 PAL, causing serious damage to the biosphere

  10. Long term evolution of Earth's magnetic field strength: Supercontinent cycles and nucleation of the inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscher, Uwe; Mitchell, Ross N.; Cox, Grant; Asimow, Paul; Zhang, Nan; Li, Zheng-Xiang

    2017-04-01

    Earth's magnetic field is generated in the outer core, where an electrically conducting dynamic fluid mainly composed of iron and nickel acts as a geodynamo. Features like polarity reversals ( 10 kyr in duration), geomagnetic excursions (reversal frequency or the inner core nucleation. For example, a sudden Mesoproterozoic increase in field intensity has been interpreted as the nucleation of the inner core. However, such analyses have been criticized for insufficient statistical rigor. Here we present an approach that does not attempt to detect mean values, but accepts an inherent variability in the intensity of Earth's magnetic field, especially on long time scales. Spectral analysis of all palaeointensity data and a quality-filtered dataset obtained from the palaeointensity database for all of Earth history yield a strong 600 Myr cycle, among other significant periodicities. Because large-scale changes in the heterogeneity of core-mantle boundary heat flux should have a direct effect on palaeointensity, we relate this cycle to the physical reorganization of superplume structures at the core mantle boundary, which in turn may be related to the supercontinent cycle. Furthermore, a common statistical test for detecting heteroscedastic behavior in datasets indicates the presence of a significant step change increase in palaeointensity ca. 1.3 Ga, coincident with the time that geologic and palaeogeographic evidence suggests the onset of quasiperiodic assembly and fragmentation of supercontinents. If the supercontinent cycle reflects a mantle flow regime that not just organized but increased core-mantle boundary heat flow, then there may be a causal link to inner core nucleation through increased core cooling. Our results thus have implications for both the age of the inner core and the long-term modulation of magnetic field strength through the influence of the supercontinent cycle on core-mantle boundary heat flow. If, in fact, inner core nucleation is related to

  11. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the long-term control of the Earth's climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Carver

    Full Text Available A CO2-weathering model has been used to explore the possible evolution of the Earth's climate as the Sun steadily brightened throughout geologic time. The results of the model calculations can be described in terms of three, qualitatively different, "Megaclimates". Mega-climate 1 resulted from a period of rapid outgassing in the early Archean, with high, but declining, temperatures caused by the small weathering rates on a largely water-covered planet. Mega-climate 2 began about 3 Gyear ago as major continental land masses developed, increasing the weathering rate in the early Proterozoic and thereby depleting the atmospheric CO2 concentration. This process produced the first Precambrian glaciations about 2.3 Gyear ago. During Mega-climate 2, evolutionary biological processes increased the surface weatherability in incremental steps and plate tectonics modulated the CO2 outgassing rate with an estimated period of 150 Myear (approximately one-half the period for the formation and breakup of super continents. Throughout Mega-climate 2 the surface temperature was controlled by variations in the atmospheric CO2 level allowing transitions between glacial and non-glacial conditions. The results of the model for Mega-climate 2 are in agreement with the occurrence (and absence of glaciations in the geologic record. Extending the model to the future suggests that CO2 control of the Earth's temperature will no longer be able to compensate for a solar flux that continues to increase. The present level of atmospheric CO2 is so small that further reduction in CO2 cannot prevent the Earth from experiencing Mega-climate 3 with steadily increasing surface temperatures caused by the continued brightening of the Sun. During Mega-climate 3, the main danger to the biosphere would come not from an increasing temperature but from a decreasing (rather than an increasing CO2

  12. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  13. Metacognition of visual short-term memory: Dissociation between objective and subjective components of VSTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the objective accuracy of visual-short term memory (VSTM representations and their subjective conscious experience is unknown. We investigated this issue by assessing how the objective and subjective components of VSTM in a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task are affected by intervening distracters. On each trial, participants were shown a memory cue (a grating, the orientation of which they were asked to hold in memory. On approximately half of the trials, a distractor grating appeared during the maintenance interval; its orientation was either identical to that of the memory cue, or it differed by 10 or 40 degrees. The distractors were masked and presented briefly, so they were only consciously perceived on a subset of trials. At the end of the delay period, a memory test probe was presented, and participants were asked to indicate whether it was tilted to the left or right relative to the memory cue (VSTM accuracy; objective performance. In order to assess subjective metacognition, participants were asked indicate the vividness of their memory for the original memory cue. Finally, participants were asked rate their awareness of the distracter. Results showed that objective VSTM performance was impaired by distractors only when the distractors were very different from the cue, and that this occurred with both subjectively visible and invisible distractors. Subjective metacognition, however, was impaired by distractors of all orientations, but only when these distractors were subjectively invisible. Our results thus indicate that the objective and subjective components of VSTM are to some extent dissociable.

  14. Short-term interval training alters brain glucose metabolism in subjects with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sanna M; Johansson, Jarkko; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-01-01

    Brain insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) is increased in obese and insulin resistant subjects but normalizes after weight loss along with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to study whether short-term exercise training (moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) or sprint interval training (SIT)) alters substrates for brain energy metabolism in insulin resistance. Sedentary subjects ( n = 21, BMI 23.7-34.3 kg/m2, age 43-55 y) with insulin resistance were randomized into MICT ( n = 11, intensity≥60% of VO2peak) or SIT ( n = 10, all-out) groups for a two-week training intervention. Brain GU during insulin stimulation and fasting brain free fatty acid uptake (FAU) was measured using PET. At baseline, brain GU was positively associated with the fasting insulin level and negatively with the whole-body insulin sensitivity. The whole-body insulin sensitivity improved with both training modes (20%, p = 0.007), while only SIT led to an increase in aerobic capacity (5%, p = 0.03). SIT also reduced insulin-stimulated brain GU both in global cortical grey matter uptake (12%, p = 0.03) and in specific regions ( p Brain FAU remained unchanged after the training in both groups. These findings show that short-term SIT effectively decreases insulin-stimulated brain GU in sedentary subjects with insulin resistance.

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption predicts long-term mortality in elderly subjects with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, G; Testa, G; Cacciatore, F; Mazzella, F; Galizia, G; Della-Morte, D; Langellotto, A; Pirozzi, G; Ferro, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, F; Abete, P

    2013-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is related to a reduction of mortality. However, this phenomenon is not well established in the elderly, especially in the presence of chronic heart failure (CHF). The aim of the study was to verify the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on 12-year mortality in elderly community-dwelling with and without CHF. community-dwelling from 5 regions of Italy. A cohort of 1332 subjects aged 65 and older. Mortality after 12-year follow-up in elderly subjects (≥65 years old) with and without CHF was studied. Moderate alcohol consumption was considered ≤250 ml/day (drinkers). In the absence of CHF (n=947), mortality was 42.2% in drinkers vs. 53.7% in non-drinker elderly subjects (p=0.021). In contrast, in the presence of CHF (n=117), mortality was 86.5% in drinkers vs. 69.7% in non-drinker elderly subjects (p=0.004). Accordingly, Cox regression analysis shows that a moderate alcohol consumption is protective of mortality in the absence (HR=0.79; CI 95% 0.66-0.95; pmoderate alcohol consumption is associated with an increased long-term mortality risk in the elderly in the presence of CHF.

  16. Astronaut Photography of the Earth: A Long-Term Dataset for Earth Systems Research, Applications, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Earth observations dataset obtained by humans in orbit using handheld film and digital cameras is freely accessible to the global community through the online searchable database at https://eol.jsc.nasa.gov, and offers a useful compliment to traditional ground-commanded sensor data. The dataset includes imagery from the NASA Mercury (1961) through present-day International Space Station (ISS) programs, and currently totals over 2.6 million individual frames. Geographic coverage of the dataset includes land and oceans areas between approximately 52 degrees North and South latitudes, but is spatially and temporally discontinuous. The photographic dataset includes some significant impediments for immediate research, applied, and educational use: commercial RGB films and camera systems with overlapping bandpasses; use of different focal length lenses, unconstrained look angles, and variable spacecraft altitudes; and no native geolocation information. Such factors led to this dataset being underutilized by the community but recent advances in automated and semi-automated image geolocation, image feature classification, and web-based services are adding new value to the astronaut-acquired imagery. A coupled ground software and on-orbit hardware system for the ISS is in development for planned deployment in mid-2017; this system will capture camera pose information for each astronaut photograph to allow automated, full georegistration of the data. The ground system component of the system is currently in use to fully georeference imagery collected in response to International Disaster Charter activations, and the auto-registration procedures are being applied to the extensive historical database of imagery to add value for research and educational purposes. In parallel, machine learning techniques are being applied to automate feature identification and classification throughout the dataset, in order to build descriptive metadata that will improve search

  17. Long-term changes in space weather effects on the Earth's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagouri, Ioanna; Galkin, Ivan; Asikainen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Certain limitations that have been identified in existing ionospheric prediction capabilities indicate that the deeper understanding and the accurate formulation of the ionospheric response to external forcing remain always high priority tasks for the research community. In this respect, this paper attempts an investigation of the long-term behavior of the ionospheric disturbances from the solar minimum between the solar cycles 23 and 24 up to the solar maximum of solar cycle 24. The analysis is based on observations of the foF2 critical frequency and the hmF2 peak electron density height obtained in the European region, records of the Dst and AE indices, as well as measurements of energetic particle fluxes from NOAA/POES satellites fleet. The discussion of the ionospheric behavior in a wide range of geophysical conditions within the same solar cycle facilitates the determination of general trends in the ionospheric response to different faces of space weather driving. According to the evidence, the disturbances in the peak electron density reflect mainly the impact of geoeffective solar wind structures on the Earth's ionosphere. The intensity of the disturbances may be significant (greater than 20% with respect to normal conditions) in all cases, but the ionospheric response tends to have different characteristics between solar minimum and solar maximum conditions. In particular, in contrast to the situation in solar maximum, in solar minimum years the solar wind impact on the Earth's ionosphere is mainly built on the occurrence of ionization increases, which appear more frequent and intense than ionization depletions. The ionization enhancements are apparent in all local time sectors, but they peak in the afternoon hours, while a significant part of them seems not related with an F2 layer uplifting. Taking into account the main interplanetary drivers of the disturbances in each case, i.e. high speed streams (HSSs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in

  18. The SCIDIP-ES project - towards an international collaboration strategy for long term preservation of earth science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Andrew; Glaves, Helen; Marelli, Fulvio; Albani, Mirko; Tona, Calogera; Marketakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; Guarino, Raffaele; Giaretta, David; Di Giammatteo, Ugo

    2013-04-01

    The capability for long term preservation of earth science data is a key requirement to support on-going research and collaboration within and between many earth science disciplines. A number of critically important current research directions (e.g. understanding climate change, and ensuring sustainability of natural resources) rely on the preservation of data often collected over several decades in a form in which it can be accessed and used easily. Another key driver for strategic long term data preservation is that key research challenges (such as those described above) frequently require cross disciplinary research utilising raw and interpreted data from a number of earth science disciplines. Effective data preservation strategies can support this requirement for interoperability and collaboration, and thereby stimulate scientific innovation. The SCIDIP-ES project (EC FP7 grant agreement no. 283401) seeks to address these and other data preservation challenges by developing a Europe wide infrastructure for long term data preservation comprising appropriate software tools and infrastructure services to enable and promote long term preservation of earth science data. Because we define preservation in terms of continued usability of the digitally encoded information, the generic infrastructure services will allow a wide variety of data to be made usable by researchers from many different domains. This approach promotes international collaboration between researchers and will enable the cost for long-term usability across disciplines to be shared supporting the creation of strong business cases for the long term support of that data. This paper will describe our progress to date, including the results of community engagement and user consultation exercises designed to specify and scope the required tools and services. Our user engagement methodology, ensuring that we are capturing the views of a representative sample of institutional users, will be described. Key

  19. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelte Lena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasions up to 21 days after inhalation. Results were compared with data from ten healthy controls. For additional comparison three of the PCD subjects also inhaled the test particles with normal inhalation flow, 0.5 L/s, providing a more central deposition. The lung retention at 24 h in % of lung deposition (Ret24 was higher (p 24 with slow inhalation flow was 73.9 ± 1.9 % compared to 68.9 ± 7.5 % with normal inhalation flow in the three PCD subjects exposed twice. During day 7–21 the three PCD subjects exposed twice cleared 9 % with normal flow, probably representing predominantly alveolar clearance, compared to 19 % with slow inhalation flow, probably representing mainly small airway clearance. This study shows that despite ciliary dysfunction, clearance continues in the small airways beyond 24 h. There are apparently additional clearance mechanisms present in the small airways.

  20. Long-term wheat germ intake beneficially affects plasma lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, L; Armand, M; Borel, P; Senft, M; Portugal, H; Pauli, A M; Lafont, H; Lairon, D

    1992-02-01

    In previous short-term studies in rats and humans, the ingestion of raw wheat germ lowered plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the possible long-term effects of wheat germ intake. Diet supplementation with raw wheat germ or partially defatted wheat germ was tested in two separate groups of 10 and 9 free-living human subjects, respectively. They all exhibited hypercholesterolemia (6.14-9.67 mmol/L cholesterol) and 11 had hypertriglyceridemia. None was diabetic. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study, after 4 wk of 20 g/d wheat germ intake, after 14 additional weeks of 30 g/d wheat germ intake and after 12 wk without any supplementation. Dietary records were kept for seven and three consecutive days, before and during the wheat germ intake periods, respectively. Raw wheat germ intake significantly decreased plasma cholesterol (-8.7%) and tended to reduce VLDL cholesterol (-19.6%) after 4 wk. After 14 additional weeks, plasma cholesterol (-7.2%) and LDL cholesterol (-15.4%) remained lower and plasma triglycerides (-11.3%) tended to be lower. The apo B:apo A1 ratio significantly decreased after both periods. Partially defatted wheat germ transiently decreased plasma triglycerides and cholesterol after a 4-wk intake. The present data indicate that wheat germ reduces cholesterolemia in the long term and could play a beneficial role in the dietary management of type IIa and IIb hyperlipidemia.

  1. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  2. Relevance of a subjective quality of life questionnaire for long-term homeless persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, V; Tinland, A; Bonin, J P; Olive, F; Poule, J; Lancon, C; Apostolidis, T; Rowe, M; Greacen, T; Simeoni, M C

    2017-02-17

    Increasing numbers of programs are addressing the specific needs of homeless people with schizophrenia in terms of access to housing, healthcare, basic human rights and other domains. Although quality of life scales are being used to evaluate such programs, few instruments have been validated for people with schizophrenia and none for people with schizophrenia who experience major social problems such as homelessness. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the S-QoL a self-administered, subjective quality of life questionnaire specific to schizophrenia for people with schizophrenia who are homeless. In a two-step process, the S-QoL was first administered to two independent convenience samples of long-term homeless people with schizophrenia in Marseille, France. The objective of the first step was to analyse the psychometric properties of the S-QoL. The objective of the second step was to examine, through qualitative interviews with members of the population in question, the relevance and acceptability of the principle quality of life indicators used in the S-QoL instrument. Although the psychometric characteristics of the S-QoL were found to be globally satisfactory, from the point of view of the people being interviewed, acceptability was poor. Respondents frequently interrupted participation complaining that questionnaire items did not take into account the specific context of life on the streets. Less intrusive questions, more readily understandable vocabulary and greater relevance to subjects' living conditions are needed to improve the S-QoL questionnaire for this population. A modular questionnaire with context specific sections or specific quality of life instruments for socially excluded populations may well be the way forward.

  3. EPOS Multi-Scale Laboratory platform: a long-term reference tool for experimental Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Tesei, Telemaco; Funiciello, Francesca; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Rosenau, Matthias; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Lange, Otto; Calignano, Elisa; Spiers, Chris; Drury, Martin; Willingshofer, Ernst; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    With continuous progress on scientific research, a large amount of datasets has been and will be produced. The data access and sharing along with their storage and homogenization within a unique and coherent framework is a new challenge for the whole scientific community. This is particularly emphasized for geo-scientific laboratories, encompassing the most diverse Earth Science disciplines and typology of data. To this aim the "Multiscale Laboratories" Work Package (WP16), operating in the framework of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), is developing a virtual platform of geo-scientific data and services for the worldwide community of laboratories. This long-term project aims at merging the top class multidisciplinary laboratories in Geoscience into a coherent and collaborative network, facilitating the standardization of virtual access to data, data products and software. This will help our community to evolve beyond the stage in which most of data produced by the different laboratories are available only within the related scholarly publications (often as print-version only) or they remain unpublished and inaccessible on local devices. The EPOS multi-scale laboratory platform will provide the possibility to easily share and discover data by means of open access, DOI-referenced, online data publication including long-term storage, managing and curation services and to set up a cohesive community of laboratories. The WP16 is starting with three pilot cases laboratories: (1) rock physics, (2) palaeomagnetic, and (3) analogue modelling. As a proof of concept, first analogue modelling datasets have been published via GFZ Data Services (http://doidb.wdc-terra.org/search/public/ui?&sort=updated+desc&q=epos). The datasets include rock analogue material properties (e.g. friction data, rheology data, SEM imagery), as well as supplementary figures, images and movies from experiments on tectonic processes. A metadata catalogue tailored to the specific communities

  4. Controlled Terms or Free Terms? A JavaScript Library to Utilize Subject Headings and Thesauri on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Nagaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of keywords used as metadata: controlled terms and free terms. Free terms have the advantage that metadata creators can freely select keywords, but there also exists a disadvantage that the information retrieval recall ratio might be reduced. The recall ratio can be improved by using controlled terms. But creating and maintaining controlled vocabularies has an enormous cost. In addition, many existing controlled vocabularies are published in formats less suitable for programming. We introduce a JavaScript library called “covo.js” that enables us to make use of controlled vocabularies as metadata for the organization of web pages.

  5. Negative emotion enhances mnemonic precision and subjective feelings of remembering in visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2017-09-01

    Negative emotion sometimes enhances memory (higher accuracy and/or vividness, e.g., flashbulb memories). The present study investigates whether it is the qualitative (precision) or quantitative (the probability of successful retrieval) aspect of memory that drives these effects. In a visual long-term memory task, observers memorized colors (Experiment 1a) or orientations (Experiment 1b) of sequentially presented everyday objects under negative, neutral, or positive emotions induced with International Affective Picture System images. In a subsequent test phase, observers reconstructed objects' colors or orientations using the method of adjustment. We found that mnemonic precision was enhanced under the negative condition relative to the neutral and positive conditions. In contrast, the probability of successful retrieval was comparable across the emotion conditions. Furthermore, the boost in memory precision was associated with elevated subjective feelings of remembering (vividness and confidence) and metacognitive sensitivity in Experiment 2. Altogether, these findings suggest a novel precision-based account for emotional memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Short and long-term effects of sham-controlled prefrontal EEG-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbregt, H.J.; Keeser, D.; van Eijk, L.; Suiker, E.M.; Eichhorn, D.; Karch, S.; Deijen, J.B.; Pogarell, O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study we evaluated long-term effects of frontal beta EEG-neurofeedback training (E-NFT) on healthy subjects. We hypothesized that E-NFT can change frontal beta activity in the long-term and that changes in frontal beta EEG activity are accompanied by altered cognitive performance.

  7. Short term effects of kinesiotaping on acromiohumeral distance in asymptomatic subjects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, A; Navarro-Ledesma, S; Petocz, P; Hancock, M J; Hush, J

    2013-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether kinesiotaping (KT) can increase the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic subjects in the short term. The second aim was to investigate whether the direction of kinesiotaping application influences AHD. In recent years, the use of KT has become increasingly popular for a range of musculoskeletal conditions and for sport injuries. To date, we are unaware of any research investigating the effect of kinesiotaping on AHD. Moreover, it is unknown whether the direction of kinesiotaping application for the shoulder is important. Forty nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: kinesiotaping group 1 (KT1), kinesiotaping group 2 (KT2) and sham kinesiotaping (KT3). AHD ultrasound measurements at 0° and 60° of shoulder elevation were collected at baseline and immediately after kinesiotape application. The results showed significant improvements in AHD after kinesiotaping, compared with sham taping. The mean difference in AHD between KT1 and KT3 groups was 1.28 mm (95% CI: 0.55, 2.03), and between KT2 and KT3 was 0.98 mm (95% CI: 0.23, 1.74). Comparison of KT1 and KT2 groups, which was performed to identify whether the direction of taping influences the AHD, indicated there were no significant differences. KT increases AHD in healthy individuals immediately following application, compared with sham kinesiotape. No differences were found with respect to the direction in which KT was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stewardship of NASA's Earth Science Data and Ensuring Long-Term Active Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Behnke, J.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been in operation since 1994. EOSDIS manages data from pre-EOS missions dating back to 1960s, EOS missions that started in 1997, and missions from the post-EOS era. Its data holdings come from many different sources - satellite and airborne instruments, in situ measures, field experiments, science investigations, etc. Since the beginning of the EOS Program, NASA has followed an open data policy, with non-discriminatory access to data with no period of exclusive access. NASA has well-established processes for assigning and/or accepting datasets into one of 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that are parts of EOSDIS. EOSDIS has been evolving through several information technology cycles, adapting to hardware and software changes in the commercial sector. NASA is responsible for maintaining Earth science data as long as users are interested in using them for research and applications, which is well beyond the life of the data gathering missions. For science data to remain useful over long periods of time, steps must be taken to preserve: 1. Data bits with no corruption, 2. Discoverability and access, 3. Readability, 4. Understandability, 5. Usability and 6. Reproducibility of results. NASA's Earth Science data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, along with the 12 EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), has made significant progress in each of these areas over the last decade, and continues to evolve its active archive capabilities. Particular attention is being paid in recent years to ensure that the datasets are "published" in an easily accessible and citable manner through a unified metadata model, a common metadata repository (CMR), a coherent view through the earthdata.gov website, and assignment of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) with well-designed landing/product information pages.

  9. Stewardship of NASA's Earth Science Data and Ensuring Long-Term Active Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Program, NASA has followed an open data policy, with non-discriminatory access to data with no period of exclusive access. NASA has well-established processes for assigning and or accepting datasets into one of 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that are parts of EOSDIS. EOSDIS has been evolving through several information technology cycles, adapting to hardware and software changes in the commercial sector. NASA is responsible for maintaining Earth science data as long as users are interested in using them for research and applications, which is well beyond the life of the data gathering missions. For science data to remain useful over long periods of time, steps must be taken to preserve: (1) Data bits with no corruption, (2) Discoverability and access, (3) Readability, (4) Understandability, (5) Usability' and (6). Reproducibility of results. NASAs Earth Science data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, along with the 12 EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), has made significant progress in each of these areas over the last decade, and continues to evolve its active archive capabilities. Particular attention is being paid in recent years to ensure that the datasets are published in an easily accessible and citable manner through a unified metadata model, a common metadata repository (CMR), a coherent view through the earthdata.gov website, and assignment of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) with well-designed landing product information pages.

  10. Short-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Subjective and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters in Severely Depressed Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hoogerhoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions. The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD 14 years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21. Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P<0.001 compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.

  11. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  12. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  13. Characterization and Correction of Aquarius Long Term Calibration Drift Using On-Earth Brightness Temperature Refernces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon; Misra, Sidharth

    2013-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D mission was launched on June 10, 2011 from Vandenberg Air Force Base. Aquarius consists of an L-band radiometer and scatterometer intended to provide global maps of sea surface salinity. One of the main mission objectives is to provide monthly global salinity maps for climate studies of ocean circulation, surface evaporation and precipitation, air/sea interactions and other processes. Therefore, it is critical that any spatial or temporal systematic biases be characterized and corrected. One of the main mission requirements is to measure salinity with an accuracy of 0.2 psu on montly time scales which requires a brightness temperature stability of about 0.1K, which is a challenging requirement for the radiometer. A secondary use of the Aquarius data is for soil moisture applications, which requires brightness temperature stability at the warmer end of the brightness temperature dynamic range. Soon after launch, time variable drifts were observed in the Aquarius data compared to in-situ data from ARGO and models for the ocean surface salinity. These drifts could arise from a number of sources, including the various components of the retrieval algorithm, such as the correction for direct and reflected galactic emission, or from the instrument brightness temperature calibration. If arising from the brightness temperature calibration, they could have gain and offset components. It is critical that the nature of the drifts be understood before a suitable correction can be implemented. This paper describes the approach that was used to detect and characterize the components of the drift that were in the brightness temperature calibration using on-Earth reference targets that were independent of the ocean model.

  14. The long-term effects of chronic recreational ketamine use on cognition and subjective experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Grayer, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: A review of the chronic recreational ketamine research is needed because of (i) increases in recreational ketamine use in the past five years, and (ii) its application to the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Receptor ('NMDA-R') hypofunction model of psychosis.;Method: PsychInfo and Pubmed databases were searched using the following terms: 'ketamine', 'frequent', 'regular*, 'repeated', 'chronic', and 'long-term'. The search was limited to human populations and English language journals. Relevan...

  15. Global Judgments of Subjective Well-Being: Situational Variability and Long-Term Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Michael; Diener, Ed

    2004-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is an important indicator of quality of life. SWB can be conceptualized as a momentary state (e.g., mood) as well as a relatively stable trait (e.g., life satisfaction). The validity of self-reported trait aspects of SWB has been questioned by experimental studies showing that SWB judgments seem to be strongly context…

  16. Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michaelis

    ultimately leads to gluconeogenesis, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, increased fat synthesis as well as, fatty liver development and weight gain are biochemical abnormalities that can directly alter liver enzymes and lipid profiles in HAART using. HIV subjects. Occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction is listed as part of ...

  17. Short- and Medium-Term Induced Ionization in the Earth Atmosphere by Galactic and Solar Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the troposphere of the Earth. Solar energetic particles of MeV energies cause an excess of ionization in the atmosphere, specifically over polar caps. The ionization effect during the major ground level enhancement 69 on January 20, 2005 is studied at various time scales. The estimation of ion rate is based on a recent numerical model for cosmic-ray-induced ionization. The ionization effect in the Earth atmosphere is obtained on the basis of solar proton energy spectra, reconstructed from GOES 11 measurements and subsequent full Monte Carlo simulation of cosmic-ray-induced atmospheric cascade. The evolution of atmospheric cascade is performed with CORSIKA 6.990 code using FLUKA 2011 and QGSJET II hadron interaction models. The atmospheric ion rate is explicitly obtained for various latitudes, namely, 40°N, 60°N and 80°N. The time evolution of obtained ion rates is presented. The short- and medium-term ionization effect is compared with the average effect due to galactic cosmic rays. It is demonstrated that ionization effect is significant only in subpolar and polar atmosphere during the major ground level enhancement of January 20, 2005. It is negative in troposphere at midlatitude, because of the accompanying Forbush effect.

  18. The difference in subjective and objective complexity in the visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several studies discuss the influence of complexity on the visual short term memory; some have demonstrated that short-term memory is surprisingly stable regardless of content (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997) where others have shown that memory can be influenced by the complexity of stimulus (e.g. Alvarez...... of expertise (e.g. Dall, et al., 2016). We will present a paradigm testing the proposed distinction using specific isolation of attentional components (see Bundesen, 1990; Sørensen, Vangkilde, & Bundesen, 2015). We propose that objective complexity can be manipulated through the number of strokes in Chinese...

  19. Important prognostic factors for the long-term survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Albert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study used a large-scale cancer database in determination of prognostic factors for the survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan. Methods Total of 24,910 subjects diagnosed with lung cancer was analysed. Survival estimates by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional-hazards model estimated the death risk (hazard ratio (HR for various prognostic factors. Results The prognostic indicators associated with a higher risk of lung cancer deaths are male gender (males versus females; HR = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.03–1.11, males diagnosed in later periods (shown in 1991–1994 versus 1987–1990; HR = 1.13, older age at diagnosis, large cell carcinoma (LCC/small cell carcinoma (SCC, and supportive care therapy over chemotherapy. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer death was significantly poorer for males (21.3% than females (23.6%. Subjects with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC and treatment by surgical resection alone had better prognosis. We find surgical resections to markedly increase 5-year survival rate from LCC, decreased risk of death from LCC, and no improved survival from SCC. Conclusion Gender and clinical characteristics (i.e. diagnostic period, diagnostic age, histological type and treatment modality play important roles in determining lung cancer survival.

  20. The salivary microbiome is consistent between subjects and resistant to impacts of short-term hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Damien J; Wurster, Jenna I; Flokas, Myrto E; Alevizakos, Michail; Zabat, Michelle; Korry, Benjamin J; Rowan, Aislinn D; Sano, William H; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Ducharme, R Bobby; Chan, Philip A; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Belenky, Peter

    2017-09-08

    In recent years, a growing amount of research has begun to focus on the oral microbiome due to its links with health and systemic disease. The oral microbiome has numerous advantages that make it particularly useful for clinical studies, including non-invasive collection, temporal stability, and lower complexity relative to other niches, such as the gut. Despite recent discoveries made in this area, it is unknown how the oral microbiome responds to short-term hospitalization. Previous studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiome is extremely sensitive to short-term hospitalization and that these changes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we present a comprehensive pipeline for reliable bedside collection, sequencing, and analysis of the human salivary microbiome. We also develop a novel oral-specific mock community for pipeline validation. Using our methodology, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of patients before and during hospitalization or azithromycin treatment to profile impacts on this community. Our findings indicate that azithromycin alters the diversity and taxonomic composition of the salivary microbiome; however, we also found that short-term hospitalization does not impact the richness or structure of this community, suggesting that the oral cavity may be less susceptible to dysbiosis during short-term hospitalization.

  1. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  2. Recent onmiddellijk geheugenonderzoek bij zwakzinnigen [Investigation of short term memory in mentally retarded subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to get a preliminary answer to the problem of the type of information processing deficit of undifferentiated retardates (with an IQ of about 70). Taking the topic of verbal short-term memory as a framework, it appears that children or adults of a subnormal

  3. 80 120 yr Long-term solar induced effects on the earth, past and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Shahinaz Moustafa

    The 80-120 year solar Wolf-Gleissberg cycles have wide effects on the Earth’s environment. Studying past effects can throw light on future predictions of solar terrestrial relations at similar solar activity levels. Solar induced climate changes do happen at the turning points of such cycles when changes in solar spin rates occur. Reversing of North Atlantic Oscillations can be interpreted in terms of solar stimuli. The sudden abrupt rises of lakes levels and closed seas are solar forced. It is anticipated that the Aral and the Dead Sea will recover in the near future. Following drought conditions in African Equatorial lakes by the end of cycle 23 around 2008 ± 2 yr, cyclic rises and falls of lakes level are expected to be coherent with the weak cycles 24 to perhaps 26 when solar forcings will reverse or cease to exist. The Atlanto Canadian fish disappearance dilemma is a natural Wolf-Gleissberg cycle induced effect and is expected to recover in due time.

  4. Long-term effectiveness of unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Court

    2016-01-01

    VL), performing a time to loss of virological response (TLOVR Virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed pVL >50 copies/mL.We included 285 subjects, 67% male, with median baseline CD4 530 cells, and 44 months with pVL ≤50 copies/mL. The third...... drug in the previous regimen was ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) in 79 (28%), and another ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) in 29 (10%). Ninety (32%) had previously failed with a PI. Proportions of people with virological success at 48/96/144 weeks were 90%/87%/88% (TLOVR) and 74...

  5. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  6. Effects of pregabalin on subjective sleep disturbance symptoms during withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gabriel; Bobes, Julio; Cervera, Gaspar; Terán, Antonio; Pérez, María; López-Gómez, Vanessa; Rejas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pregabalin as a tapering therapy on the subjective sleep quality of patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program in routine medical practice. Secondary analysis of a 12-week prospective, open noncontrolled study carried out in patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for benzodiazepine dependence. Sleep was evaluated with the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS Sleep Scale). 282 patients were included in the analysis. Mean (±SD) pregabalin dose was 315 ± 166 mg/day at the end of the trial. We observed a significant and clinically relevant improvement in sleep outcomes at the endpoint, with a total score reduction from 55.8 ± 18.9 to 25.1 ± 18.0 at week 12 (i.e. a 55% reduction). Similar findings were apparent using the six dimensions of the MOS Sleep Scale. Moderate correlations were observed between the MOS Sleep summary index and sleep domains, and there were improvements in anxiety symptoms and disease severity. These findings suggest that pregabalin may improve subjective sleep quality in patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program. This effect appears to be partly independent of improvements in symptoms of anxiety or withdrawal. However, controlled studies are needed to establish the magnitude of the effect of pregabalin. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Brossa, Ricard; Pint?-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; L?pez-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Main conclusion The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus ac...

  8. Plasma hormone levels in human subject during stress loads in microgravity and at readaptation to Earth's gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L; Koska, J; Ksinantova, L; Vigas, M; Noskov, V B; Grigoriev, A I; Kvetnansky, R

    2001-07-01

    In great part of the investigations of endocrine system functions in astronauts during space flights the plasma levels of hormones and metabolites were determined only in resting conditions, usually from one blood sample collection. Such levels reflected the psychical and physical state and new hormonal homeostasis of organism at the time of blood collection, however, the functional capacity of neuroendocrine system to respond to various stress stimuli during space flight remained unknown. The aim of present investigations was to study dynamic changes of hormone levels during the stress and metabolic loads (insulin induced hypoglycemia, physical exercise and oral glucose tolerance test) at the exposure of human subject to microgravity on the space station MIR. The responses of sympatico-adrenomedullary system to these stress and workloads were presented by Kvetnansky et al.

  9. Gut microbiome response to short-term dietary interventions in reactive hypoglycemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Sara; Turroni, Silvia; Fiori, Jessica; Soverini, Matteo; Rampelli, Simone; Biagi, Elena; Castagnetti, Andrea; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Pianesi, Mario; Fallucca, Francesco; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Reactive hypoglycemia is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meals. Over recent years, the gut microbiota has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct gut microbiota dysbioses through diet, favouring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. We investigate the impact of 2 short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the gut microbiota in 12 patients affected by reactive hypoglycemia. The gut microbiota composition was characterized by next-generation sequencing of the V3 to V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and the ecosystem functionality was addressed by measuring the faecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In order to measure the short-term physiological gut microbiota fluctuation, the microbiomes of 7 healthy people were characterized before and after 3 days of constant diet. While no convergence of the gut microbiota compositional profiles was observed, a significant increase in SCFA faecal levels was induced only in the Ma-Pi 2 diet group, suggesting the potential of this diet to support a short-term functional convergence of the gut microbiota, regardless of the individual compositional layout. The Ma-Pi 2 diet, with its high fibre load, was effective in increasing the production of SCFAs by the gut microbiota. Because these metabolites are known for their ability to counterbalance the metabolic deregulation in persons with glucose impairment disorders, their increased bioavailability could be of some relevance in reactive hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Long-term Denitrification Processes and Kinetics in a Crystalline Aquifer subject to Pumping from 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Clement; Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Boisson, Alexandre; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Bour, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The kinetic of denitrification associated to long-term mixing processes in heterogeneous aquifers is particularly challenging to constrain. Specifically, chemical evolutions related to groundwater exploitation are cases that are poorly known. It remains particularly unclear if long-term pumping whether enhances or slows-down the nitrate reducing processes and what is the source of electron donor sustaining the reaction. The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic of denitrification processes induced by long-term pumping in the Ploemeur aquifer (Britany, France) which has been operated for water supply since 1991. Several batch experiments have been carried out in order to fully characterize the kinetics of the denitrification reaction involved. Batches consisted in crushed rock: more or less weathered granite and schists, and water sampled from the site. Denitrification always developed except in sterilized batchs. Denitrification rate was independent on the rock type but more on the state of the bacterial community. Inorganic dissolved carbon only showed moderate variations while organic carbon remained at low concentrations. Both observations make heterotrophic denitrification unlikely. A silicate dissolution was observed and detailed analysis of the cations quantified a main biotite contribution. The iron produced by biotite dissolution accounts for the denitrification processes observed. Long term time-series analysis of the conservative elements recorded at the pumped well were used to determine mixing fractions from different compartments of the aquifer based on a Principal Component Analysis approach coupled with an end-member mixing analysis. Discharge fractions were then used to quantify the denitrification kinetic linked to pumping. With increasing concentration of Nitrate entering in the groundwater system since the beginning of the operations, computations confirm that i) autotrophic denitrification processes are dominant and ii) biotite plays a

  11. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Mathôt, Ron A A; Romijn, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), S-warfarin (CYP2C9) and caffeine (CYP1A2). In 9 healthy volunteers, pharmacokinetics of the five drugs were assessed after an overnight fast at two separate occasions: after a regular diet and after 3 days of a hypercaloric high fat diet (i.e. regular diet supplemented with 500 mL cream [1715 kcal, 35% fat]). Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean [SEM]) were estimated by non-compartmental analysis. The high fat diet increased exposure to midazolam by 19% from 24.7 (2.6) to 29.5 (3.6) ng ml-1h-1 (p=0.04) and exposure to omeprazole by 31% from 726 (104) to 951 (168) ng ml-1h-1 (p=0.05). Exposure to metoprolol, caffeine and S-warfarin was not affected by the high fat diet. A short-term hypercaloric high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole, possibly reflecting modulation of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.

  12. Change in hydraulic traits of Mediterranean Quercus ilex subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Longepierre, Damien; Huc, Roland; Rambal, Serge

    2010-08-01

    Mediterranean tree species experience unpredictable climate environments and severe summer droughts and they may be impaired by the trend of decline in precipitation projected as a consequence of global climate change. The response of Quercus ilex to drought was studied by measuring hydraulic traits of trees growing in a mature forest subjected to partial throughfall exclusion for 6 years. We measured hydraulic conductivity, xylem vulnerability to embolism, and anatomical features in branches and roots. Xylem vulnerability to embolism was higher in the dry treatment than in the control treatment, P₅₀ of branches was on average -3.88 +/- 0.80 MPa for the control treatment compared with -3.41 +/- 0.80 MPa for the dry treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. A similar difference between treatments was observed for roots, which exhibited lower P₅₀ values. This change of xylem vulnerability to embolism was not linked to modification of the hydraulic conductivity or vessel anatomy, which remained unaffected by the throughfall exclusion treatment. The xylem density of branches was lower in the dry treatment. The hydraulic conductivity was correlated with the mean vessel diameter of xylem, but the P₅₀ was not. The main response of trees from the dry treatment to reduced water availability appeared to be a reduction in the transpiring leaf area, which resulted in significantly increased leaf-specific conductivity.

  13. Short-term triglyceride lowering with fenofibrate improves vasodilator function in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Warren H; DeSouza, Christopher A; Poirier, Paul; Bell, Melanie L; Stauffer, Brian L; Weil, Kathleen M; Hernandez, Teri L; Eckel, Robert H

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of lowering plasma triglycerides (TGs) on endothelial function and gain insight into the role played by free fatty acids (FFAs) in hypertriglyceridemia-associated vascular dysfunction. Eleven hypertriglyceridemic subjects without coronary artery disease, diabetes, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, tobacco use, or hypertension were studied using a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design (fenofibrate and placebo, 14 days). After each regimen, forearm blood flow was assessed by plethysmography in response to arterial acetylcholine, nitroprusside, and verapamil infusion. Hourly plasma TGs, FFA, glucose, and insulin were measured during a 24-hour feeding cycle to characterize the metabolic environment. Changes in plasma FFA after intravenous heparin were used to estimate typical FFA accumulation in the luminal endothelial microenvironment. Fenofibrate lowered plasma TG (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P<0.01), and apolipoprotein B (P<0.01) without altering high-density lipoprotein or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Forearm blood flow in response to acetylcholine (P<0.0001), nitroprusside (P<0.001), and verapamil (P<0.0001) improved after fenofibrate. Fenofibrate lowered 24-hour (P<0.0001) and post-heparin (P<0.001) TG and tended to lower 24-hour (P=0.054) and post-heparin (P=0.028) FFA. Vascular smooth muscle function significantly improves after lowering plasma TG without changes in confounding lipoproteins or insulin resistance. The data raise additional questions regarding the role of FFA in hypertriglyceridemia-associated vascular dysfunction.

  14. Short-Term Effect of Gabapentin on Subjective Tinnitus in Acoustic Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goljanian Tabrizi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Although several treatment approaches have been proposed for tinnitus, there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved agents available to treat this condition. In this study, we evaluated the effect of gabapentin on the sensation of subjective tinnitus in patients with acoustic trauma referring to the ear, nose and throat (ENT clinic of Taleghani Hospital during 2014. Materials and Methods:In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 103 patients with tinnitus due to acoustic trauma who were referred to the ENT clinic of Taleghani Hospital during 2014 were randomized to the gabapentin (300 mg bid, n=55 or control (n=48 groups. The two groups were then compared before and after 6 weeks of treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS. At least a 30% reduction in VAS was considered a response to treatment. Results:Differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, duration of disease, and audiometry results was not significant (P>0.05. After 6 weeks’ treatment, the VAS significantly decreased in both groups (P

  15. Long-term dynamics of watershed leaching and lake sediment sequestration of rare earth elements following deglaciation of two mountain watersheds.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Norton, S. A.; Pierret, M.C.; Kopáček, Jiří; Handley, M.J.; Perry, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 209-222 ISSN 0921-2728 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : rare earth elements * aluminum * phosphorus * lake sediment * weathering Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2016

  16. Subjective socioeconomic status as a predictor of long-term care staff burnout and positive caregiving experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2008-06-01

    The potentially negative consequences associated with providing care to older adults are well documented. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the positive aspects associated with caregiving. Both aspects are believed to represent a continuum of caregiving experiences. Long-term care (LTC) staff members often report high levels of burnout associated with their work. Whereas several job characteristics and objective indicators of socioeconomic status have been identified as potential predictors of LTC staff caregiving experiences, the role of subjective socioeconomic status (i.e. one's view of one's place in society) has not yet been evaluated. A cross-sectional design of 122 LTC staff members. LTC staff completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Positive Aspects of Caregiving questionnaire. They also completed questions about job characteristics (i.e. staff-to-resident ratio, number of hours worked per day, and years of experience working with older adults), objective sociodemographic variables (i.e. level of education, professional affiliation), and subjective socioeconomic indicator (i.e. MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status). Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to identify the unique contribution of job characteristics, objective socioeconomic status, and subjective socioeconomic status to LTC staff caregiving experiences. Subjective socioeconomic status remained a significant predictor of LTC staff experience even once job characteristics and objective indicators of socioeconomic status were entered into the model. Those who placed themselves higher on the subjective social ladder reported higher levels of positive caregiving experiences and lower levels of burnout. Building a sense of community identity and improving one's status within the community might result in lower levels of burnout and better caregiving experiences among LTC staff.

  17. Long-term effect of bariatric surgery on liver enzymes in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonella Burza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Obesity is associated with elevated serum transaminase levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and weight loss is a recommended therapeutic strategy. Bariatric surgery is effective in obtaining and maintaining weight loss. Aim of the present study was to examine the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on transaminase levels in obese individuals. METHODS: The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study is a prospective controlled intervention study designed to compare the long-term effects of bariatric surgery and usual care in obese subjects. A total of 3,570 obese participants with no excess of alcohol consumption at baseline (1,795 and 1,775 in the control and surgery group, respectively were included in the analyses. Changes in transaminase levels during follow-up were compared in the surgery and control groups. RESULTS: Compared to usual care, bariatric surgery was associated with lower serum ALT and AST levels at 2- and 10- year follow up. The reduction in ALT levels was proportional to the degree of weight loss. Both the incidence of and the remission from high transaminase levels were more favorable in the surgery group compared to the control group. Similarly, the prevalence of ALT/AST ratio <1 was lower in the surgery compared to the control group at both 2- and 10-year follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery results in a sustained reduction in transaminase levels and a long-term benefit in obese individuals.

  18. SHORT TERM EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE-TENS ON LUNG FUNCTIONS AND DYSPNEA FOR SUBJECTS WITH MODERATE COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture TENS is used to improve pain instead of invasive acupuncture. Acupuncture shown to improve dyspnoea and lung functions in COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients. The purpose of the study is to determine Short term effectiveness of Acupuncture-TENS in reducing dyspnea and improving lung functions for subjects with moderate COPD. Method: An experimental study design, selected 30 geriatric subjects with COPD randomized 15 subjects into each Study and Control group. Study group received Acu-TENS for 45 minutes for total 5 sessions, while control group received placebo TENS. Outcome measurements such as breathlessness using Modified Borg Scale (MBS, Lung functions using Pulmonary Function Test (PFT was measured before and after intervention. Results: Analysis from pre-intervention to post-intervention within study group found that there is statistically significant change in means of MBS, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and within control group there is a statistically significant change in means of MBS, but there is no statistically significant change in means of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. When post-intervention means were compared between the groups there is no statistically significant difference in means of MBS and FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: It is concluded that one week of Acu-TENS on EXL1 point found no significant effect on improving dyspnea and lung functions in subjects with moderate COPD in geriatric populations.

  19. Moderate- to long-term periodontal outcomes of subjects failing to complete a course of periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, V; Hackmack, P P; Corbet, E F; Leung, W K

    2017-06-01

    The current retrospective cross-sectional study investigated 5-18-year treatment outcomes in subjects who did not complete a recommended course of periodontal therapy. Sixty-five subjects who voluntarily discontinued therapy were recalled. The subjects' demographic data and dental history since discontinuation of periodontal treatment were collected via questionnaires. The subjects' periodontal condition, radiographic data and individual tooth-based prognosis at pre-discontinuation and recall were compared. A total of 229 teeth had been lost over time, mainly due to periodontal reasons. Upper and lower molars were most frequently lost. Rate of tooth loss (0.38/patient per year) was comparable to untreated patients. Deterioration in periodontal health in terms of increased percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP) and sites with probing pocket depths (PPD) of 6 mm or more at re-examination was observed. Positive correlations were found between tooth loss and: (i) years since therapy discontinued; (ii) percentage of sites with PPD of 6 mm or more at pre-discontinuation; and (iii) at re-examination. Percentage of sites with PPD of 6 mm or more at recall was positively correlated with periodontal tooth loss and negatively correlated with percentage of sites without BOP. Patients not completing a course of periodontal therapy are at risk of further tooth loss and deterioration in periodontal conditions over time. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  20. [Effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic nitrogen components in paddy soil derived from red earth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Hai-ying; Wang, Kai-rong; Xie, Xiao-li

    2008-08-01

    A 16-year long-term fertilization experiment was conducted on paddy soil derived from red earth to investigate the effects of different fertilization patterns on the concentrations of soil organic nitrogen (N) components. When chemical fertilizers were applied only, the soil nitrogen content was slightly influenced. Organic fertilization, especially its combination with chemical fertilization, could significantly increase the contents of soil mineralizable N and organic nitrogen by 55.2% and 38.8%, respectively. In addition, organic fertilization could significantly improve the components of acid hydrolysable N, and lead to the increase of ammonium N (AN) , amino sugar N (ASN), and hydrolysable unidentified N (HUN) by 36.5%, 68.4%, and 73.9%, respectively. When the organic fertilization was combined with chemical fertilization, soil amino acid N content was increased by 71.1%, while HUN content was decreased by 34.5%. In all fertilization treatments, the cumulative amount of soil mineralized N increased with increasing incubation time. The content of soil mineralized N under organic fertilization and its combination with chemical fertilization was higher than that under chemical fertilization.

  1. Impaired basal glucose effectiveness but unaltered fasting glucose release and gluconeogenesis during short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael F; Caumo, Andrea; Chandramouli, Visvanathan

    2004-01-01

    Excess cortisol has been demonstrated to impair hepatic and extrahepatic insulin action. To determine whether glucose effectiveness and, in terms of endogenous glucose release (EGR), gluconeogenesis, also are altered by hypercortisolemia, eight healthy subjects were studied after overnight infusion...... contribution of gluconeogenesis to EGR (P = 0.33) did not differ on the two study days. During the prandial glucose infusion, the integrated glycemic response above baseline was higher in the presence of hydrocortisone than during saline infusion (P .... In conclusion, short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy individuals with normal beta-cell function decreases insulin action but does not alter rates of EGR and gluconeogenesis. In addition, cortisol impairs the ability of glucose to suppress its own production, which due to accumulation of glucose in the glucose...

  2. Long Term Measurement of the Earth's Radiation Budget using a constellation of Broadband Radiometers hosted on Iridium NEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Om Prakash; Thoma, Donald; Chaloner, Chris; Russell, Jacqueline; Simpson, Bill; Spilling, David; Morris, Nigel; Caldwell, Martin; Oneill, Alan

    The WMO called for "bringing new missions to operational status" and that "ERB should be measured through a constellation of sensors". A unique opportu-nity exists to host a set of Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) sensors on the Iridium NEXT (NEXT) LEO constellation in a cost effective manner that can deliver these requirements. The NEXT constellation, with 66 interconnected satellites in 6 near polar orbiting planes, provides a unique platform for hosting a variety of Earth observation missions including ERB. Launches are planned to begin in 2014 through 2016. The ERB both drives and responds to global climate and monitoring it can provide much insight into the climate system and how it might be changing. A climate quality measurement of the ERB requires high absolute accuracy and excellent stability and a long-term (decades) data record in order to inform the debate about global warming. Measurement of the ERB in terms of the broadband reflected solar (0.3 to 4 µm) and emitted thermal (4 to 200 µm) components have been identified as high priority by the WMO for climate observations. High temporal resolution is the key advantage offered by the NEXT platform and can provide a great step forward in accurately monitoring the energy balance of the planet. The sensor we propose will consist of a broad band instrument and associated imager for scene identification and cloud classification. There is the chance to place two such sensors in each of six different orbital planes this will improve the product refresh time from currently 12 hours to 3 hours. The increased temporal resolution will allow direct measure-ment of the changes to the broadband radiances that result from rapidly varying components of the climate such as cloud and aerosol, and avoid the need of relying on narrow band sensors to infer such changes. Considering that the prediction of cloud response to climate change is still a major source of uncertainty; improved measurement of the cloud effect and

  3. Effects of long-term soft contact lens wear on the corneal thickness and corneal epithelial thickness of myopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yulin; Zheng, Xiuyun; Hou, Jie; Xu, Baozeng; Mu, Guoying

    2015-03-01

    To perform safe and successful corneal refractive surgery on myopic patients, corneal thickness (CT) and corneal epithelial thickness (CET) must be accurately measured. Numerous individuals with myopia wear soft contact lenses (SCLs) for the correction of visual acuity but may subsequently undergo corneal refractive surgery. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of long-term SCL wear on the CT and the CET of myopic subjects in order to guarantee the safety and accuracy of subsequent corneal refractive surgeries. Fifty-six subjects prepared to receive refractive surgery at Jinan Mingshui Eye Hospital (Zhangqiu, China) from April to July 2013 were included in the study. CT and CET were measured in subjects immediately following discontinued SCL wear (group I, 56 eyes), and subsequently following >two weeks of discontinued SCL wear (group II, 56 eyes). Ninety-four subjects with no history of corneal contact lens wear were enrolled as a control group. The CT and CET were measured at positions with a radius of 0.0‑1.0, 1.0-2.5 (divided into eight quadrants) and 2.5-3.0 mm (divided into eight quadrants) away from the corneal center using the RTVue-100 Fourier-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography system. A significant decrease in the CT of the subjects in group II was observed, compared with that of group I and the control group (P<0.05). A significant decrease was observed in the CET of groups I and II compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). Following discontinuation of SCL wear, CET increased. However, the increased CET was unable to reach the normal range exhibited by the control group. Edema and thinning of the corneal stroma, as well as thinning of the corneal epithelium were observed in groups I and II. In conclusion, it was proposed that in clinical practice, for myopic patients following long-term SCL wear, CT and CET should be determined ≥ two weeks following discontinuation of SCL wear, once a stable

  4. Short- and long-term subjective medical treatment outcome of trauma surgery patients: the importance of physician empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhausen S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simone Steinhausen,1 Oliver Ommen,2 Sunya-Lee Antoine,1 Thorsten Koehler,3 Holger Pfaff,4 Edmund Neugebauer11Institute for Research in Operative Medicine (IFOM, Witten/Herdecke University, Campus Cologne-Merheim, Germany; 2Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA, Cologne, Germany; 3Institute for Applied Social Sciences (infas, Bonn, Germany; 4Institute for Medical Sociology, Health Services Research and Rehabilitation Science (IMVR, Faculty of Human Science and Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Germany Purpose: To investigate accident casualties’ long-term subjective evaluation of treatment outcome 6 weeks and 12 months after discharge and its relation to the experienced surgeon’s empathy during hospital treatment after trauma in consideration of patient-, injury-, and health-related factors. The long-term results are compared to the 6-week follow-up outcomes.Patients and methods: Two hundred and seventeen surgery patients were surveyed at 6 weeks, and 206 patients at 12 months after discharge from the trauma surgical general ward. The subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was measured 6 weeks and 12 months after discharge with the respective scale from the Cologne Patient Questionnaire. Physician Empathy was assessed with the Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure. The correlation between physician empathy and control variables with the subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome 12 months after discharge was identified by means of logistic regression analysis under control of sociodemographic and injury-related factors.Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients were included within the logistic regression analysis at the 12-month follow-up. Compared to the 6-week follow-up, the level of subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was slightly lower and the association with physician empathy was weaker. Compared to patients who rated the empathy of their surgeon lower than 31 points, patients

  5. HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION AS A SUBJECT OF ADAPTATION OF RURAL STUDENTS TO THE TERMS OF THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyona Aleksandrovna Antipova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the difficulties of adaptation of rural students to the various spheres of life of the modern city. These difficulties are considered as a field of activity of higher educational institution, acting as the subject of adaptation of students coming to study from rural areas to the terms of the city. The authors ' point of view on this issue is substantiated by the analysis of data of several sociological surveys conducted in various regions of theRussian Federation. Also the experience of assistance in adaptation of the Mordovia state University named after N. P. Ogarev of the city ofSaransk, which is the largest in the Republic of Mordovia University and which accommodates a large number of rural youth. The relevance and scientific novelty of research consists in allocation of areas of adaptation support of students from rural areas by the higher educational institution.

  6. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  7. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossa, Ricard; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; López-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus acclimation to long-term summer drought followed by re-watering in Mediterranean field conditions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in these plants, a proteomic study using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was performed on leaves from these shrubs. The analysis identified 57 differentially expressed proteins in water-stressed plants when contrasted to well watered. Water-stressed plants showed an increase, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in HSPs, and downregulation of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism enzymes. Under drought conditions, there was considerable upregulation of enzymes related to redox homeostasis, DHA reductase, Glyoxalase, SOD and isoflavone reductase. However, upregulation of catalase was not observed until after re-watering was carried out. Drought treatment caused an enhancement in antioxidant defense responses that can be modulated by ABA, and its catabolites, ABA-GE, as well as JA. Furthermore, quantification of protein carbonylation was shown to be a useful marker of the relationship between water and oxidative stress, and showed that there was only moderate oxidative stress in C. albidus plants subjected to water stress. After re-watering plants recovered although the levels of ABA-GE and antioxidant enzymes still remain higher than in well-watered plants. We expect that our results will provide new data on summer acclimation to drought stress in Mediterranean shrubs.

  8. Life satisfaction in subjects with long-term musculoskeletal pain in relation to pain intensity, pain distribution and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke, Audny; Damsgård, Elin; Røe, Cecilie

    2013-03-01

    To investigate levels of life satisfaction in subjects with long-term musculoskeletal pain in relation to pain characteristics and coping. Cross-sectional study. A total of 232 (42%) respondents answered self--report questionnaires regarding life satisfaction, self-efficacy, sense of coherence, pain distribution and pain intensity at rest and during activity. Levels of life satisfaction and scores for sense of coherence were low. Pain intensity at rest was negatively correlated with global life satisfaction. This result was also obtained in multiple regression analyses together with the coping factors. The life satisfaction domains activities of daily living/contacts were negatively correlated with pain intensity during activity, and the domains work/economy were negatively correlated with pain distribution. Pain was not associated with satisfaction with family life, partner relationship or sexual life. Younger age, being married/cohabitant and being female were protective for some domains. Clinically meaningful subgroups with regard to adaptation were identified by cluster analysis, and the highest level of coping was found in the adaptive cluster with high life satisfaction/low pain intensity at rest. Long-term pain is related to low levels of life satisfaction, and pain intensity and distribution influence satisfaction in different domains. Pain intensity is negatively associated with coping. The results support efforts to reduce pain, together with strengthening active coping processes and addressing individual needs.

  9. A simplified Permafrost-Carbon model for long-term climate studies with the CLIMBER-2 coupled earth system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crichton, D.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Krinner, G.; Chappellaz, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the development and validation of a simplified permafrost-carbon mechanism for use with the land surface scheme operating in the CLIMBER-2 earth system model. The simplified model estimates the permafrost fraction of each grid cell according to the balance between modelled cold (below 0

  10. Brief Report: Conveying Subjective Experience in Conversation: Production of Mental State Terms and Personal Narratives in Individuals with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Janet; Burns, Jesse; Nadig, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Mental state terms and personal narratives are conversational devices used to communicate subjective experience in conversation. Pre-adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA, n = 20) were compared with language-matched typically-developing peers (TYP, n = 17) on production of mental state terms (i.e., perception, physiology, desire, emotion,…

  11. Visual thinking networking promotes long-term meaningful learning and achievement for 9th grade earth science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Palma Joni

    2001-12-01

    An experimental and interview-based design was used to test the efficacy of visual thinking networking (VTN), a new generation of metacognitive learning strategies. Students constructed network diagrams using semantic and figural elements to represent knowledge relationships. The findings indicated the importance of using color in VTN strategies. The use of color promoted the encoding and reconstruction of earth science knowledge in memory and enhanced higher order thinking skills of problem solving. Fifty-six ninth grade earth science students (13--15 years of age) in a suburban school district outside New York City were randomly assigned to three classes with the same instructor. Five major positive findings emerged in the areas of problem solving achievement, organization of knowledge in memory, problem solving strategy dimensionality, conceptual understanding, and gender differences. A multi-covariate analysis was conducted on the pre-post gain scores of the AGI/NSTA Earth Science Examination (Part 1). Students who used the color VTN strategies had a significantly higher mean gain score on the problem solving criterion test items than students who used the black/white VTN (p = .003) and the writing strategies for learning science (p influenced the choice of VTN strategy. Females used significantly more color VTN strategies, while males used predominately black/white VTN strategies (p = .01). A neurocognitive model, the encoding activation theory of the anterior cingulate (ENACT-AC), is proposed as an explanation for these findings.

  12. Cadmium concentrations in the testes, sperm, and spermatids of mice subjected to long-term cadmium chloride exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench, G; Corzett, M H; Martinelli, R; Balhorn, R

    1999-01-01

    Exposures to cadmium have been reported to reduce male fertility and there are several hypotheses that suggest how reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice subjected to long-term intraperitoneal cadmium exposure incorporated cadmium into their sperm chromatin. Male mice were exposed to 0.1 mg/kg body weight cadmium in the form of CdCl2 via intraperitoneal injection once per week for 4, 10, 26, and 52 weeks and then sacrificed. The cadmium contents of the liver, testes, pooled sperm, and pooled spermatids from dosed and control animals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cadmium and zinc contents in individual sperm and spermatid heads were determined by particle-induced x-ray emission. Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that although cadmium accumulated in the liver and testes, cadmium was not detected in pooled sperm or spermatid samples down to minimum detectable limits of 0.02 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses did not show the presence of cadmium in any sperm or spermatid head down to minimum detectable limits of 15 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses also demonstrated that phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc concentrations in individual sperm and spermatid heads were not altered by exposure to CdCl2. Because cadmium was not incorporated into sperm chromatin at levels above 0.02 microg/g dry weight, the data cast doubt on hypotheses that suggest that reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin.

  13. Long-term subjective benefit with a bone conduction implant sound processor in 44 patients with single-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Jolien; Wouters, Kristien; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Studies that investigate the subjective benefit from a bone conduction implant (BCI) sound processor in patients with single-sided sensorineural deafness (SSD) have been limited to examining short- and mid-term benefit. In the current study, we performed a survey among 44 SSD BCI users with a median follow-up time of 50 months. Forty-four experienced SSD BCI users participated in the survey, which consisted of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit, the Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire, the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults, and a self-made user questionnaire. For patients with tinnitus, the Tinnitus Questionnaire was also completed. The results of the survey were correlated with contralateral hearing loss, age at implantation, duration of the hearing loss at the time of implantation, duration of BCI use, and the presence and burden of tinnitus. In total, 86% of the patients still used their sound processor. The Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit and the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults show a statistically significant overall improvement with the BCI. The Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire and the user questionnaire showed that almost 40% of the patients reported daily use of the sound processor. However, the survey of daily use reveals benefit only in certain circumstances. Speech understanding in noisy situations is rated rather low, and 58% of all patients reported that their BCI benefit was less than expected. The majority of the patients reported an overall improvement from using their BCI. However, the number of users decreases during a longer follow-up time and patients get less enthusiastic about the device after an extended period of use, especially in noisy situations. However, diminished satisfaction because of time-related reductions in processor function could not be ruled out.

  14. Long term time variability of cosmic rays and possible relevance to the development of life on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis is made of the manner in which the cosmic ray intensity at Earth has varied over its existence and its possible relevance to both the origin and the evolution of life. Much of the analysis relates to the 'high energy' cosmic rays ($E>10^{14}eV;=0.1PeV$) and their variability due to the changing proximity of the solar system to supernova remnants which are generally believed to be responsible for most cosmic rays up to PeV energies. It is pointed out that, on a statistical basis, t...

  15. Long-term geomagnetically induced current observations in New Zealand: Earth return corrections and geomagnetic field driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Manus, Daniel H.; Rodger, Craig J.; Dalzell, Michael; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Petersen, Tanja; Wolf, Moritz M.; Thomson, Neil R.; Divett, Tim

    2017-08-01

    Transpower New Zealand Limited has measured DC currents in transformer neutrals in the New Zealand electrical network at multiple South Island locations. Near-continuous archived DC current data exist since 2001, starting with 12 different substations and expanding from 2009 to include 17 substations. From 2001 to 2015 up to 58 individual transformers were simultaneously monitored. Primarily, the measurements were intended to monitor the impact of the high-voltage DC system linking the North and South Islands when it is operating in "Earth return" mode. However, after correcting for Earth return operation, as described here, the New Zealand measurements provide an unusually long and spatially detailed set of geomagnetically induced current (GIC) measurements. We examine the peak GIC magnitudes observed from these observations during two large geomagnetic storms on 6 November 2001 and 2 October 2013. Currents of 30-50 A are observed, depending on the measurement location. There are large spatial variations in the GIC observations over comparatively small distances, which likely depend upon network layout and ground conductivity. We then go on to examine the GIC in transformers throughout the South Island during more than 151 h of geomagnetic storm conditions. We compare the GIC to the various magnitude and rate of change components of the magnetic field. Our results show that there is a strong correlation between the magnitude of the GIC and the rate of change of the horizontal magnetic field (H'). This correlation is particularly clear for transformers that show large GIC current during magnetic storms.

  16. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.

  17. Analytic model for the long-term evolution of circular Earth satellite orbits including lunar node regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.

  18. Numerical modeling of short-term slow slip events in the Shikoku region considering the effect of earth tides and plate configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Shibazaki, B.

    2016-12-01

    Several studies reported that occurrence of slow slip events (SSEs) in the Nankai region is affected by earth tides (e.g., Nakata et al., 2008; Ide and Tanaka, 2014; Yabe et al., 2015). The tidal effect on the SSEs is also examined by numerical studies (e.g., Hawthorne and Rubin, 2013). In our previous study, repeating SSEs in the Shikoku region are numerically reproduced, incorporating the actual plate configuration (Matsuzawa et al., 2013). In this study, we examined the behavior of SSEs in the Shikoku region, considering stress perturbation by earth tides. Our numerical model is similar to our previous study (Matsuzawa et al., 2013). A plate interface is expressed by small triangular elements. A rate- and state-dependent friction law (RS-law) with cutoff velocities is adopted as the friction law on each element. We assumed that (a-b) value in the RS-law is negative within the short-term SSE region, and positive outside the region. The short-term SSE region is based on the actual distribution of low-frequency tremor. Low effective normal stress is assumed at the depth of short-term SSEs. Calculating stress change by earth tides as in Yabe et al., (2015), we assume that the stress change is represented by periods of 10 major tides. Incorporating this stress perturbation, we calculate the evolution of slip on the plate interface. In the numerical result, repeating short-term SSEs are reproduced in the short-term SSE region. Recurrent intervals of SSEs at an isolated patch (e.g., northeastern Shikoku) have small fluctuation. Introducing tidal effect, peak velocity becomes faster than that in the case without tidal effect. On the other hand, the difference of peak velocities is not clear between the cases with and without tidal effect at widely connected SSE region (e.g., western Shikoku), as the intervals and peak velocities of SSEs are largely fluctuated in both cases. Hirahara (2016) suggested that the recurrence interval of events is synchronized to the period of

  19. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Rashad Ahmed; Ahmed Fathy Samhan

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstr...

  20. A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Bernt; Nilssön, Torbjörn K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending...

  1. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  2. DynEarthSol2D: An efficient unstructured finite element method to study long-term tectonic deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, E.

    2013-05-01

    Many tectonic problems require to treat the lithosphere as a compressible elastic material, which can also flow viscously or break in a brittle fashion depending on the stress level applied and the temperature conditions. We present a flexible methodology to address the resulting complex material response, which imposes severe challenges on the discretization and rheological models used. This robust, adaptive, two-dimensional, finite element method solves the momentum balance and the heat equation in Lagrangian form using unstructured meshes. An implementation of this methodology is released to the public with the publication of this paper and is named DynEarthSol2D (available at http://bitbucket.org/tan2/dynearthsol2). The solver uses contingent mesh adaptivity in places where shear strain is focused (localization) and a conservative mapping assisted by marker particles to preserve phase and facies boundaries during remeshing. We detail the solver and verify it in a number of benchmark problems against analytic and numerical solutions from the literature. These results allow us to verify and validate our software framework and show its improved performance by an order of magnitude compared against an earlier implementation of the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua algorithm.

  3. Long Term Manipulations of Intact Microbial Mat Communities in a Greenhouse Collaboratory: Simulating Earth's Present and Past Field Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; Discipulo, Mykell; Embaye, Tsegereda; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda L.; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie E.; hide

    2002-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mat communities were obtained from marine hypersaline saltern ponds, maintained in a greenhouse facility, and examined for the effects of salinity variations. Because these microbial mats are considered to be useful analogs of equivalent ancient marine communities, they offer insights about evolutionary events during the greater than 3 billion year time interval wherein mats co-evolved with Earth's geosphere and atmosphere. Although photosynthetic mats can be highly dynamic and exhibit extremely high activity, the mats in the present study have been maintained for more than one year with relatively minor changes. The major groups of microorganisms, as assayed using microscopic, genetic, and biomarker methodologies, are essentially the same as those in the original field samples. Field and greenhouse mats were similar with respect to rates of exchange of oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon across the mat-water interface, both during the day and at night. Field and greenhouse mats exhibited similar rates of efflux of methane and hydrogen. Manipulations of salinity in the water overlying the mats produced changes in the community that strongly resemble those observed in the field. A collaboratory testbed and an array of automated features are being developed to support remote scientific experimentation with the assistance of intelligent software agents. This facility will permit teams of investigators to explore ancient environmental conditions that are rare or absent today but might have influenced the early evolution of these photosynthetic ecosystems.

  4. Improved work ability and return to work following vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation of subjects on long-term sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    Braathen, Tore; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Heggenes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients on long-term sick leave with respect to their work ability and return to work. Methods: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was administered to an intervention group of 183 patients on long-term sick leave (mean 12.2 months). Effects of the treatment were compared with a control group (n = 96) recruited from the national sickness insurance record of patients on sick leave of 6??2 month...

  5. Long-Term Changes in Stratospheric Age Spectra in the 21st Century in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan E.; Ma, Jun; Nielsen, J. Eric; Liang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the long-term variations in the stratospheric age spectra using simulations of the 21st century with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry- Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Our purposes are to characterize the long-term changes in the age spectra and identify processes that cause the decrease of the mean age in a warming climate. Changes in the age spectra in the 21st century simulations are characterized by decreases in the modal age, the mean age, the spectral width, and the tail decay timescale. Our analyses show that the decrease in the mean age is caused by two processes: the acceleration of the residual circulation that increases the young air masses in the stratosphere, and the weakening of the recirculation that leads to the decrease of tail of the age spectra and the decrease of the old air masses. The weakening of the stratospheric recirculation is also strongly correlated with the increase of the residual circulation. One important result of this study is that the decrease of the tail of the age spectra makes an important contribution to the decrease of the main age. Long-term changes in the stratospheric isentropic mixing are investigated. Mixing increases in the subtropical lower stratosphere, but its impact on the age spectra is outweighed by the increase of the residual circulation. The impacts of the long-term changes in the age spectra on long-lived chemical traces are also investigated. 37 2

  6. A coupled human-Earth model perspective on long-term trends in the global marine fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, E. D.; Carozza, D. A.; Bianchi, D.

    2017-01-01

    The global wild marine fish harvest increased fourfold between 1950 and a peak value near the end of the 20th century, reflecting interactions between anthropogenic and ecological forces. Here, we examine these interactions in a bio-energetically constrained, spatially and temporally resolved model of global fisheries. We conduct historical hindcasts with the model, which suggest that technological progress can explain most of the 20th century increase of fish harvest. In contrast, projections extending this rate of technological progress into the future under open access suggest a long-term decrease in harvest due to over-fishing. Climate change is predicted to gradually decrease the global fish production capacity, though our model suggests that this is of secondary importance to social and economic factors. Our study represents a novel way to integrate human-ecological interactions within a single model framework for long-term simulations. PMID:28345669

  7. A coupled human-Earth model perspective on long-term trends in the global marine fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, E. D.; Carozza, D. A.; Bianchi, D.

    2017-03-01

    The global wild marine fish harvest increased fourfold between 1950 and a peak value near the end of the 20th century, reflecting interactions between anthropogenic and ecological forces. Here, we examine these interactions in a bio-energetically constrained, spatially and temporally resolved model of global fisheries. We conduct historical hindcasts with the model, which suggest that technological progress can explain most of the 20th century increase of fish harvest. In contrast, projections extending this rate of technological progress into the future under open access suggest a long-term decrease in harvest due to over-fishing. Climate change is predicted to gradually decrease the global fish production capacity, though our model suggests that this is of secondary importance to social and economic factors. Our study represents a novel way to integrate human-ecological interactions within a single model framework for long-term simulations.

  8. Is Earth coming out of the recent ice house age in the long-term? - constraints from probable mantle CO2-degassing reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jens; Li, Gaojun; West, A. Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Enhanced partial melting of mantle material probably started when the subduction motor started around 3.2 Ga ago as evidenced by the formation history of the continental crust. Carbon is degassing due partial melting as it is an incompatible element. Therefore, mantle carbon degassing rates would change with time proportionally to the reservoir mantle concentration evolution and the ocean crust production rate, causing a distinct CO2-degassing rate change with time. The evolution of the mantle degassing rate has some implications for the reconstruction of the carbon cycle and therefore climate and Earth surface processes rates, as CO2-degassing rates are used to constrain or to balance the atmosphere-ocean-crust carbon cycle system. It will be shown that compilations of CO2-degassing from relevant geological sources are probably exceeding the established CO2-sink terrestrial weathering, which is often used to constrain long-term mantle degassing rates to close the carbon cycle on geological time scales. In addition, the scenarios for the degassing dynamics from the mantle sources suggest that the mantle is depleting its carbon content since 3 Ga. This has further implications for the long-term CO2-sink weathering. Results will be compared with geochemical proxies for weathering and weathering intensity dynamics, and will be set in context with snow ball Earth events and long-term emplacement dynamics of mafic areas as Large Igneous Provinces. Decreasing mantle degassing rates since about 2 Ga suggest a constraint for the evolution of the carbon cycle and recycling potential of the amount of subducted carbon. If the given scenarios hold further investigation, the contribution of mantle degassing to climate forcing (directly and via recycling) will decrease further.

  9. Long Term Time Variability of Cosmic Rays and Possible Relevance to the Development of Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    An analysis is made of the manner in which the cosmic ray intensity at Earth has varied over its existence and its possible relevance to both the origin and the evolution of life. Much of the analysis relates to the `high energy’ cosmic rays ( E > 1014 eV; =0.1 PeV) and their variability due to the changing proximity of the solar system to supernova remnants which are generally believed to be responsible for most cosmic rays up to PeV energies. It is pointed out that, on a statistical basis, there will have been considerable variations in the likely 100 My between the Earth’s biosphere reaching reasonable stability and the onset of very elementary life. Interestingly, there is the increasingly strong possibility that PeV cosmic rays are responsible for the initiation of terrestrial lightning strokes and the possibility arises of considerable increases in the frequency of lightnings and thereby the formation of some of the complex molecules which are the `building blocks of life’. Attention is also given to the well known generation of the oxides of nitrogen by lightning strokes which are poisonous to animal life but helpful to plant growth; here, too, the violent swings of cosmic ray intensities may have had relevance to evolutionary changes. A particular variant of the cosmic ray acceleration model, put forward by us, predicts an increase in lightning rate in the past and this has been sought in Korean historical records. Finally, the time dependence of the overall cosmic ray intensity, which manifests itself mainly at sub-10 GeV energies, has been examined. The relevance of cosmic rays to the `global electrical circuit’ points to the importance of this concept.

  10. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction...

  11. Do subjects with whiplash-associated disorders respond differently in the short-term to manual therapy and exercise than those with mechanical neck pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. METHODS : Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28...... with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after...... the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. RESULTS : Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability (P = 0...

  12. Title Epidemic Model of a Concept within the Subject Classes of Patents: A Case Study on the Term RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tavakolizade Ravari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims at studying the epidemic model of the term RFID within the classes of patents. Methodology: The research is descriptive and has been conducted based on the mathematical models of diseases. Research population consists of 35,627 granted patents from the USPTO database those which the terms RFID or Radio Frequency Identification occur in their titles or abstracts. Data analysis was performed through software like Excel, SPSS, and Ravar-Matrix. Findings show that the cumulative growth of sub-classes with the term RFID follows an S-logistic model. This is an evidence of natural growth rate for assigning the term RFID to the USPTO sub-classes over the years.  Other finding reveals that the term RFID has been entered into and exited from the sub-classes of patents like the SIS epidemic model of diseases. As a final conclusion, the most technical fields those that are susceptible for RFID technology, have been met this technology. On the base of SIS model, the epidemic of RFID technology has been reached a balance.

  13. THE SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF A HOME-BASED PROGRAM TO CORRECT FORWARD HEAD POSTURE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Omar Abdelnaeem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain and dysfunction may be the consequence of adopting sustained non-neutral spinal postures. Such postures are associated with increased activation of the neck-shoulder stabilizer muscles, which eventually increase the loading of cervical spine. Forward head posture is a common postural dysfunction that has been associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of deep cervical flexor muscles training on the severity of forward head posture in asymptomatic subjects. Methods: Forty-one asymptomatic subjects volunteered in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n= 20that received a home-based training of deep cervical flexor muscles for 6-weeks, and a control group(n= 21 that received only the assessment procedure. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 6weeks later with regards to the severity of forward head as indicated by the cranio-vertebral angle. Also, the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles were assessed. Results: After six weeks, participants in the intervention group showed significant improvement in all measured variables compared to the control group. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed significant difference in all measured variables after 6-weeks of training compared to baseline, whereas those in the control group remained the same. Conclusion: Six-weeks of deep cervical training improves forward head posture and deep flexors strength and endurance in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, this exercise could be used as a preventive measure against the development of neck dysfunction in at risk population even before the onset of any symptoms.

  14. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  15. Comparison of Subjective Sleep Quality of Long-Term Residents at Low and High Altitudes: SARAHA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Ulfberg, Jan; Allen, Richard P; Goel, Deepak

    2018-01-15

    To study the effect of altitude on subjective sleep quality in populations living at high and low altitudes after excluding cases of restless legs syndrome (RLS). This population-based study was conducted at three different altitudes (400 m, 1,900-2,000 m, and 3,200 m above sea level). All consenting subjects available from random stratified sampling in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India were included in the study (ages 18 to 84 years). Sleep quality and RLS status were assessed using validated translations of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Cambridge Hopkins RLS diagnostic questionnaire. Recent medical records were screened to gather data for medical morbidities. In the total sample of 1,689 participants included, 55.2% were women and average age of included subjects was 35.2 (± 10.9) years. In this sample, overall 18.4% reported poor quality of sleep (PSQI ≥ 5). Poor quality of sleep was reported more commonly at high altitude compared to low altitude (odds ratio [OR] = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.9-3.7; P quality of sleep were male sex, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and varicose veins. Binary logistic regression indicated that COPD (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.36-2.86; P quality of sleep. This study showed that poor quality of sleep was approximately twice as prevalent at high altitudes compared to low altitudes even after removing the potential confounders such as RLS and COPD.

  16. Increased Serum PAI-1 Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Long-Term Adverse Mental Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huotari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, an inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, are associated with MetS. To clarify the role of PAI-1 in subjects with long-term adverse mental symptomatology (LMS; including depression and MetS, we measured circulating PAI-1 levels in controls (n=111, in subjects with MetS and free of mental symptoms (n=42, and in subjects with both MetS and long-term mental symptoms (n=70. PAI-1 increased linearly across the three groups in men. In logistic regression analysis, men with PAI-1 levels above the median had a 3.4-fold increased likelihood of suffering from the comorbidity of long-term adverse mental symptoms and MetS, while no such associations were detected in women. In conclusion, our results suggest that in men high PAI-1 levels are independently associated with long-term mental symptomatology.

  17. Psychomotor and Memory Effects of Haloperidol, Olanzapine, and Paroxetine in Healthy Subjects After Short-Term Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  18. Psychomotor and memory effects of haloperidol, olanzapine, and paroxetine in healthy subjects after short-term administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  19. Short- and Long-Term Effectiveness of a Subject's Specific Novel Brain and Vestibular Rehabilitation Treatment Modality in Combat Veterans Suffering from PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Frederick Robert; Pagnacco, Guido; McLellan, Kate; Solis, Ross; Shores, Jacob; Fredieu, Andre; Brock, Joel Brandon; Randall, Cagan; Wright, Cameron; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat veterans that have a long-term positive clinical effect has the potential to modify the treatment of PTSD. This outcome may result in changed and saved lives of our service personnel and their families. In a previous before-after-intervention study, we demonstrated high statistical and substantively significant short-term changes in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores after a 2-week trial of a subject's particular novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation (VR) program. The long-term maintenance of PTSD severity reduction was the subject of this study. We studied the short- and long-term effectiveness of a subject's particular novel brain and VR treatment of PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. We analyzed the difference in the CAPS scores pre- and post-treatment (1 week and 3 months) using our subjects as their matched controls. The generalized least squares (GLS) technique demonstrated that with our 26 subjects in the 3 timed groups the R (2) within groups was 0.000, R (2) between groups was 0.000, and overall the R (2) was 0.000. The GLS regression was strongly statistically significant z = 21.29, p < 0.001, 95% CI [58.7, 70.63]. The linear predictive margins over time demonstrated strong statistical and substantive significance of decreasing PTSD severity scores for all timed CAPS tests. Our investigation has the promise of the development of superior outcomes of treatments in this area that will benefit a global society. The length of the treatment intervention involved (2 weeks) is less that other currently available treatments and has profound implications for cost, duration of disability, and outcomes in the treatment of PTSD in combat veterans.

  20. Short and long term effectiveness of a subject's specific novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation treatment modality in combat veterans suffering from PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in combat veterans that have a long-term positive clinical effect has the potential to modify the treatment of PTSD. This outcome may result in changed and saved lives of our service personnel and their families. In a previous before-after-intervention study we demonstrated high statistical and substantively significant short-term changes in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS scores after a two week trial of a subject's particular novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation (VR program. The long-term maintenance of PTSD severity reduction was the subject of this study.Material and Methods:We studied the short and long term effectiveness of a subject's particular novel brain and VR treatment of PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. We analyzed the difference in the CAPS scores pre and post treatment (one week and three months using our subjects as their matched controls. Results:The generalized least squares (GLS technique demonstrated that with our 26 subjects in the 3 timed groups the R2 within groups was 0.000, R2 between groups was 0.000 and overall the R2 was 0.000. The GLS regression was strongly statistically significant z = 21.29, p < 0.001, 95% CI [58.7, 70.63]. The linear predictive margins over time demonstrated strong statistical and substantive significance of decreasing PTSD severity scores for all timed CAPS tests.Discussion:Our investigation has the promise of the development of superior outcomes of treatments in this area that will benefit a global society. The length of the treatment intervention involved (two weeks is less that other currently available treatments and has profound implications for cost, duration of disability and outcomes in the treatment of PTSD in combat veterans.

  1. The effects of a nucleotide supplement on the immune and metabolic response to short term, high intensity exercise performance in trained male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Naughton, L; Bentley, D; Koeppel, P

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the ergogenic effects of a nucleotide supplement on the metabolic and immune responses to short term high intensity exercise in volunteer, trained, male subjects. Thirty moderately trained male subjects were randomly divided into 3 equal sized groups, control (C), placebo (P) or experimental (E). Each subject undertook a 2 min maximal exercise test prior to, and after 60 days, on either a nucleotide (E) or placebo supplement. Prior to exercise testing unstimulated saliva samples and blood samples were taken. Saliva was analysed for cortisol and IgA, while blood was analysed for lactate, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. The postexercise C value was significantly higher than the pre-exercise concentration (Pchanges in blood lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, or creatine kinase concentrations post supplementation. We concluded that a chronically ingested nucleotide supplement blunts the response of the hormones associated with physiological stress.

  2. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Mehta, Nalin; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90) included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45) not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items), subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items), and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items) at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (Panxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases. PMID:22869998

  3. The effect of duration of exercise at the ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in 9 to 14 year old boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencharz Paul B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of exercise on subjective appetite and short-term food intake has received little investigation in children. Despite a lack of reported evaluation of short-duration activity programs, they are currently being implemented in schools as a means to benefit energy balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of duration of exercise at the ventilation threshold (VeT on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in normal weight boys and girls aged 9 to 14 years. Methods On 4 separate mornings and in random order, boys (n = 14 and girls (n = 15 completed 2 rest or 2 exercise treatments for 15 (short-duration; SD or 45 min (long-duration; LD at their previously measured VeT, 2 h after a standardized breakfast. Subjective appetite was measured at regular intervals during the study sessions and food intake from a pizza meal was measured 30 min after rest or exercise. Results An increase in average appetite, desire to eat, and hunger (p Conclusion Neither SD nor LD exercise at the VeT increased short-term food intake and SD exercise attenuated increases in appetite. Thus, SD exercise programs in schools may be an effective strategy for maintaining healthier body weights in children.

  4. Evaluating Middle School Students' Spatial-Scientific Performance within Earth/Space Astronomy in Terms of Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; Toland, Michael D.; Cole, Merryn

    2017-01-01

    Differences were examined between groups of sixth grade students? spatial-scientific development pre/post implementation of an Earth/Space unit. Treatment teachers employed a spatially-integrated Earth/Space curriculum, while control teachers implemented their Business as Usual (BAU) Earth/Space units. A multi-level modeling approach was used in a…

  5. Short-term objective and subjective evaluation of small-diameter implants used to support and retain mandibular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Robert; Hollis, Scott; Ahuja, Swati; Adatrow, Pradeep; Balanoff, William

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of small-diameter implants has provided dentists the means of providing edentulous and partially edentulous patients with immediate functioning transitional prostheses while definitive restorations are being fabricated. The successful use of these small-diameter implants for temporary stabilization of prostheses has led many clinicians to explore the option of using them as a definitive alternative, especially as the technique requires minimal time and also is economical for the patients. To date, there has been no study with multiple patients looking at both the subjective and objective outcomes of these small-diameter implants. Twenty-seven edentulous patients were enrolled in this study, seven of them were smokers. One-hundred and eight small-diameter (2.0 mm, MDL) implants were surgically placed in 24 edentulous mandibles. All implants were immediately loaded. The patients filled out a screening questionnaire and four subsequent questionnaires to test their satisfaction with the altered prosthesis at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The survival of the implants was also noted. Smokers had an implant survival of 79%. Non-smokers had an implant survival of 100%. The results of the questionnaire indicated an overall satisfaction with the implant-supported prosthesis.

  6. Effects of short-term very low-calorie diet on intramyocellular lipid and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Newcomer, Bradley R; Rowell, Jennifer; Wallace, Penny; Shaughnessy, Sara M; Munoz, A Julian; Shiflett, Alanna M; Rigsby, Dana Y; Lawrence, Jeannine C; Bohning, Daryl E; Buchthal, Steven; Garvey, W Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects of a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD) on intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), total body fat, and insulin sensitivity in a group of obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Seven untreated type 2 diabetic and 5 obese nondiabetic individuals were studied before and after a 6-day VLCD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify IMCL, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess body fat, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity. In both groups, decrements in total body fat mass and body mass index were small but statistically significant. In contrast, the diet resulted in a pronounced reduction in IMCL compared with baseline values in nondiabetic subjects (56% decrease) and type 2 diabetic subjects (40% decrease) (P increase in maximally stimulated glucose disposal rate (P lipid was significantly correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.69, P insulin sensitivity was related to measures of general adiposity such as body mass index, percentage of body fat, or total body fat (P = not significant). In conclusion, short-term VLCD is accompanied by small decrements in general adiposity, marked decrease in IMCL, and an increase in insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore, rapid amelioration of insulin resistance by VLCD can be partially explained by loss of IMCL both in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects in the absence of substantial changes in total body fat. These observations are consistent with the idea that insulin resistance is more directly related to IMCL rather than to body fat per se.

  7. Long-term adherence to antimuscarinic drugs when treating overactive bladder in the older: Subjective reason and objective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Vladimirovich Kosilov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. Materials and Methods: One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736 patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years who took antimuscarinic (AM drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients’ medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Results: Fifty-two point six percent (52.6% of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% – during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time. The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2% was significantly lower (p≤0.05, than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%. Conclusions: A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.

  8. Long-term adherence to antimuscarinic drugs when treating overactive bladder in the older: Subjective reason and objective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, Kirill Vladimirovich; Loparev, Sergay Alexandrovich; Kuzina, Irina Gennadyevna; Geltser, Boris Izrailevich; Shakirova, Olga Viktorovna; Zhuravskaya, Natalya Sergeevna; Lobodenko, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736) patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years) who took antimuscarinic (AM) drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients' medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Fifty-two point six percent (52.6%) of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% - during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time). The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2%) was significantly lower (p≤0.05), than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%). A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.

  9. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ePetrican

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1 and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (Study 2, which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female expressing one positive (i.e., happiness and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1’s neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance. Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive versus negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  10. Proficiency in positive vs. negative emotion identification and subjective well-being among long-term married elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive vs. negative emotions and a close partner's well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (Study 2), which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female) expressing one positive (i.e., happiness) and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear) basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1's neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative) emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance). Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive) emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive vs. negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Changes in total energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery predict long-term weight outcome: findings from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Larsson, Ingrid; Peltonen, Markku; Lindroos, Anna-Karin; Carlsson, Lena M

    2017-07-01

    Background: Approximately 20-30% of obese patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.Objective: We examined whether short-term changes (≤0.5 y postsurgery) in energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery could predict 10-y weight change.Design: Participants were recruited from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, which was a matched (nonrandomized) prospective trial that compared bariatric surgery with usual care for obese patients. A total of 2010 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were included in the study. Physical examinations (e.g., weight) and questionnaires (e.g., dietary questionnaire) were completed before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after surgery. For the main analytic strategy, a linear mixed model was implemented, which included repeated measures with a random intercept and an unstructured covariance matrix.Results: Short-term changes in energy intake (P bariatric surgery. At the 10-y follow-up, men and women with the largest reductions in energy intake had lost 7.3% and 3.9% more weight, respectively, compared with that of subjects with the smallest intake reductions (P bariatric surgery predicts long-term weight loss. Weight loss is also associated with a changing dietary macronutrient composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01479452. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Comparison of Dietary Macro and Micro Nutrient Intake between Iranian Patients with Long-term Complications of Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Mood, Mahdi Balali; Zilaee, Marzie; -Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Sheikh-Andalibi, Mohammad Sobhan; Mohades-Ardabili, Hossein; Dehghani, Hamideh; Ferns, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning are often less able to undertake optimum levels of physical activity and adequately control their dietary intake. The aim of present study was to investigate the dietary intake of patients with SM poisoning in comparison to a control group Methods: The study was undertaken on 55 Iranian male veterans, who had > 25% disabilities due to long-term complications of SM poisoning and 55 men age-matched healthy subjects. A previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for measuring dietary macro/micro nutrient intake for both groups; and the results were analysed using Dietplan6 software. Analysis of macro/micro nutrients in dietary intakes of the patients versus the controls showed a significantly lower intake of several nutrients including selenium and carbohydrate. On the other hand, the dietary intake of trans-fatty acids and iodine were significantly higher in these patients. Long-term complications of SM poisoning in the Iranian veterans induce both chemical and physical disabilities. Macro/micro nutrient intake in these patients was significantly different in comparison with matched, healthy subjects. Dietary advice for these patients should be strongly recommended to these patients in order to prevent other chronic diseases.

  14. Reproducibility and seasonal variation of ambulatory short-term heart rate variability in healthy subjects during a self-selected rest period and during sleep.

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    Kristiansen, Jesper; Olsen, Annemarie; Skotte, Jørgen H; Garde, Anne Helene

    2009-01-01

    Although ambulatory measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) are widely used, the reproducibility and seasonal variation of ambulatory sampled short-term HRV measurements in healthy participants has not been investigated before. In the present study we collected ambulatory ECGs from 19 healthy participants monthly for 12 months, and for a sub-group of 12 participants weekly for one month. Frequency-domain HRV-metrics were calculated for 5 min ECG segments during (i) a 15-min self-selected rest period (awake period), and (ii) a 30-min sleep period starting 45 min after estimated sleep onset. Total, within- and between-subject coefficient of variation (CV) and seasonal variation were estimated for ln (TP), ln (LFP), ln (HFP), ln (LF/HF), LFnu, HFnu, the mean heart period and the ECG derived respiratory frequency.The within- and between-subject CV varied considerably between different variables, from 100% for ln (LF/HF). Within- and between-subject CV of ln (HFP), LFnu and HFnu were 10-40%. A weak, but significant, seasonal variation was found for ln (TP) (p = 0.05), ln (LFP) (p<0.05) and the respiratory frequency (p<0.01), but the seasonal variation did not affect the within-subject CV. Furthermore, sample size calculations demonstrated that the reproducibility was sufficient for ambulatory HRV measurements to be used to study autonomic cardiac regulation in healthy populations.

  15. Achievement emotions in elementary, middle, and high school: how do students feel about specific contexts in terms of settings and subject-domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanello, Daniela; Brondino, Margherita; De Bernardi, Bianca

    2013-12-01

    The present work investigates students' representation of achievement emotions, focusing in context-specific situations in terms of settings and subject-domains, as a function of grade level. We involved 527 fourth-, seventh-, and eleventh-graders, who evaluated ten discrete emotions through questionnaires, with reference to verbal language and mathematics, and different settings (class, homework, tests). Confirmatory multitrait-multimethod analyses indicated higher salience of subject-domains rather than settings for all the emotions; however, complexity of reality was best explained when also settings were accounted for. Analyses of variance revealed higher intensity of positive emotions for younger students, and the opposite pattern for older students; significant differences for most of the emotions based on the evaluative nature of settings, moderated by class levels; more intense positive emotions for mathematics and more intense negative emotions for Italian. Results are discussed considering their theoretical and applied relevance, corroborating previous literature on domain-specificity. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  16. [Contribution of the study of singing in tune in musically non-expert subjects: importance of short term memory of the pitch (19 to 28 year-old subjects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, S; Peuvergne, A; Sarfati, J

    2005-01-01

    In the singing, which requires precise knowledge of the relevant musical code in use, accuracy of intonation plays a central role. Singing in tune requires to perceive pitch precisely and to memorize it before planning and executing the accurate vocal motion, which allows the exact emission of the correct pitch. Our work investigated the role of short term memory of pitch on singing accuracy. For that purpose, the experimental protocol of Deutsch (1970) was adapted for a perception and a production task. Participants were selected for their singing accuracy and separated into two groups of ten singing in tune and ten out-of-tune. All participants perceived pitch height exactly and were musically non-experts. For the perception and the production tasks, participants had to either compare or reproduce single pitches or two-pitch-sets. For the perception task, participants had to compare either single pitches or two-pitch patterns, all separated by a five seconds delay. For the production task, participants had to reproduce either single pitches or two-pitch patterns after a five seconds delay. The five seconds delay was either filled with intervening numbers, or with intervening tones, or without any disturbing sound. In perception and production task, the presence of intervening tones disturbs deeply the success of the subjects for every trial. Performance of the in-tune singing group is better for all the exercises while the other group had difficulties on single pitches and two-pitch patterns and was more disturbed by the effect of the intervening material. The outcome suggests that short term memory of pitch and accuracy of intonation would be closely linked. Further research needs to specify if that would mean that troubles in singing in tune are a consequence of a low-efficient short term memory of pitch, or if that troubles would hold up the right construction of the short term memory of pitch.

  17. Objective and subjective sleep quality: Melatonin versus placebo add-on treatment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder withdrawing from long-term benzodiazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepines are frequently long-term prescribed for the treatment of patients with severe mental illness. This prescribing practice is problematic because of well-described side effects including risk of dependence. We examined the efficacy of prolonged-release melatonin on objective and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings. Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some efficacy for self-reported sleep quality after gradual benzodiazepine dose reduction, and that benzodiazepine discontinuation is not associated with rebound insomnia in medicated patients with severe mental illness. However, these findings were limited by a small sample size and a low retention rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Results: Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (P<0.001. Counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane took place after maxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Conclusions: Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  19. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar; Rattan, Vidya; Utreja, Ashok Kumar

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months) after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (Ppalatal plane took place after maxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  20. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hallman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry, HRV (heart rate monitor, and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking. ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001, according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power, even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02. The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

  1. Long-term Safety and Efficacy of Latanoprostene Bunod 0.024% in Japanese Subjects with Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: The JUPITER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kazuhide; Vittitow, Jason L; Weinreb, Robert N; Araie, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Latanoprostene bunod (LBN) is a novel nitric oxide (NO)-donating prostaglandin F2α analog. We evaluated the long-term safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% over 1 year in Japanese subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). This was a single-arm, multicenter, open-label, clinical study. Subjects aged 20 years and older with a diagnosis of OAG or OHT instilled 1 drop of LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% in the affected eye(s) once daily in the evening for 52 weeks and were evaluated every 4 weeks. Safety assessments included vital signs, comprehensive ophthalmic exams, and treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Absolute and percent reductions from baseline in IOP were also determined. Of 130 subjects enrolled, 121 (93.1%) completed the study. Mean age was 62.5 years, and mean (standard deviation) baseline IOP was 19.6 (2.9) and 18.7 (2.6) mmHg in study eyes and treated fellow eyes, respectively. Overall, 76/130 (58.5%) and 78/126 (61.9%) subjects experienced ≥1 AEs in study eyes and treated fellow eyes, respectively. In both study eyes and treated fellow eyes, the most common AEs were conjunctival hyperemia, growth of eyelashes, eye irritation, and eye pain. At 52 weeks, 9% of treated eyes had an increase in iris pigmentation compared with baseline based on iris photographs. No safety concerns emerged based on vital signs or other ocular assessments. Mean reductions from baseline in IOP of 22.0% and 19.5% were achieved by week 4 in study and treated fellow eyes, respectively. These reductions were maintained through week 52 (P < 0.001 vs. baseline at all visits). Once daily LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% was safe and well-tolerated in Japanese subjects with OAG or OHT when used for up to 1 year. Long-term treatment with LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% provided significant and sustained IOP reduction. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01895972. Bausch & Lomb, Inc. a division of

  2. Power Spectral Analysis of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Healthy and Arrhythmia Subjects by the Adaptive Continuous Morlet Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sewak SINGH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Power spectral analysis of short-term heart rate variability (HRV can provide instant valuable information to understand the functioning of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system. In this study, an adaptive continuous Morlet wavelet transform (ACMWT method has been used to describe the time-frequency characteristics of the HRV using band power spectra and the median value of interquartile range. Adaptation of the method was based on the measurement of maximum energy concentration. The ACMWT has been validated on synthetic signals (i.e. stationary, non-stationary as slow varying and fast changing frequency with time modeled as closest to dynamic changes in HRV signals. This method has been also tested in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN to show its robustness towards the noise. From the results of testing on synthetic signals, the ACMWT was found to be an enhanced energy concentration estimator for assessment of power spectral of short-term HRV time series compared to adaptive Stockwell transform (AST, adaptive modified Stockwell transform (AMST, standard continuous Morlet wavelet transform (CMWT and Stockwell transform (ST estimators at statistical significance level of 5%. Further, the ACMWT was applied to real HRV data from Fantasia and MIT-BIH databases, grouped as healthy young group (HYG, healthy elderly group (HEG, arrhythmia controlled medication group (ARCMG, and supraventricular tachycardia group (SVTG subjects. The global results demonstrate that spectral indices of low frequency power (LFp and high frequency power (HFp of HRV were decreased in HEG compared to HYG subjects (p<0.0001. While LFp and HFp indices were increased in ARCMG compared to HEG (p<0.00001. The LFp and HFp components of HRV obtained from SVTG were reduced compared to other group subjects (p<0.00001.

  3. Gastric bypass surgery is followed by lowered blood pressure and increased diuresis - long term results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallersund

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare two bariatric surgical principles with regard to effects on blood pressure and salt intake. BACKGROUND: In most patients bariatric surgery induces a sustained weight loss and a reduced cardiovascular risk profile but the long-term effect on blood pressure is uncertain. METHODS: Cohort study with data from the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study involving 480 primary health care centres and 25 surgical departments in Sweden. Obese patients treated with non-surgical methods (Controls, n = 1636 and n = 1132 at 2 y and 10 y follow up, respectively were compared to patients treated with gastric bypass (GBP, n = 245 and n = 277, respectively or purely restrictive procedures (vertical banded gastroplasty or gastric banding; VBG/B, n = 1534 and n = 1064, respectively. RESULTS: At long-term follow-up (median 10 y GBP was associated with lowered systolic (mean: -5.1 mm Hg and diastolic pressure (-5.6 mmHg differing significantly from both VBG/B (-1.5 and -2.1 mmHg, respectively; p<0.001 and Controls (+1.2 and -3.8 mmHg, respectively; p<0.01. Diurnal urinary output was +100 ml (P<0.05 and +170 ml (P<0.001 higher in GBP subjects than in weight-loss matched VBG/B subjects at the 2 y and 10 y follow-ups, respectively. Urinary output was linearly associated with blood pressure only after GBP and these patients consumed approximately 1 g salt per day more at the follow-ups than did VBG/B (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The purely restrictive techniques VBG/B exerted a transient blood pressure lowering effect, whereas gastric bypass was associated with a sustained blood pressure reduction and an increased diuresis. The daily salt consumption was higher after gastric bypass than after restrictive bariatric surgery.

  4. Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A

    2016-10-01

    A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Evaluation of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Subjects With Acquired Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Focus on Binaural Auditory Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    Cochlear implantation (CI) in subjects with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss was investigated. The authors of the present study demonstrated the binaural auditory outcomes in a 12- and 36-month prospective cohort outcome study. The present study aimed to do a long-term (LT) evaluation of the auditory outcomes in an analogous study group. LT evaluation was derived from 12 single-sided deaf (SSD) CI recipients and from 11 CI recipients with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). A structured interview was conducted with each subjects. Speech perception in noise and sound localization were assessed in a CIOFF and in a CION condition. Four binaural effects were calculated: summation effect (S0N0), squelch effect (S0NCI), combined head shadow effect (SCIN0), and spatial release from masking (SRM). At the LT evaluation, the contribution of a CI or a bone conduction device on speech perception in noise was investigated in two challenging spatial configurations in the SSD group. All (23/23) subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation, which ranged from 3 to 10 years after implantation. In the SSD group, a significant combined head shadow effect of 3.17 dB and an SRM benefit of 4.33 dB were found. In the AHL group, on the other hand, the summation effect (2.00 dB), the squelch effect (2.67 dB), the combined head shadow effect (3.67 dB), and SRM benefit (2.00 dB) were significant at LT testing. In both the spatial challenging configurations, the speech in noise results was significantly worse in the condition with the bone conduction device compared with the unaided condition. No negative effect was found for the CION condition. A significant benefit in the CION condition was found for sound localization compared with the CIOFF condition in the SSD group and in the AHL group. All subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation. The presence of binaural effects has been demonstrated with speech in noise testing, sound localization

  6. Short-term effect of spinal manipulation on pain perception, spinal mobility, and full height recovery in male subjects with degenerative disk disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Pellenz, Felipe; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect on spinal mobility, pain perception, neural mechanosensitivity, and full height recovery after high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation (SM) in the lumbosacral joint (L5-S1). Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial with evaluations at baseline and after intervention. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Men (N=40; mean age ± SD, 38 ± 9.14 y) with diagnosed degenerative lumbar disease at L5-S1 were randomly divided into 2 groups: a treatment group (TG) (n=20; mean age ± SD, 39 ± 9.12 y) and a control group (CG) (n=20; mean age ± SD, 37 ± 9.31 y). All participants completed the intervention and follow-up evaluations. A single L5-S1 SM technique (pull-move) was performed in the TG, whereas the CG received a single placebo intervention. Measures included assessing the subject's height using a stadiometer. The secondary outcome measures included perceived low back pain, evaluated using a visual analog scale; neural mechanosensitivity, as assessed using the passive straight-leg raise (SLR) test; and amount of spinal mobility in flexion, as measured using the finger-to-floor distance (FFD) test. The intragroup comparison indicated a significant improvement in all variables in the TG (Pperceived pain, spinal mobility in flexion, hip flexion during the passive SLR test, and subjects' full height. Future studies should include women and should evaluate the long-term results. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fel d 1-derived synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes show a long-term treatment effect in cat allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroux, P; Patel, D; Armstrong, K; Larché, M; Hafner, R P

    2015-05-01

    Cat-PAD, the first in a new class of synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes (SPIREs), was shown to significantly improve rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in subjects with cat allergy up to 1 year after the start of a short course of treatment. To evaluate the long-term effects of Cat-PAD on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms following standardized allergen challenge 2 years after treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, subjects were exposed to cat allergen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) before and after treatment with two regimens of Cat-PAD (either eight doses of 3 nmol or four doses of 6 nmol) given intradermally over a 3-month period. In this follow-up study, changes from baseline in rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were reassessed 2 years after the start of treatment. The primary endpoint showed a mean reduction in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores of 3.85 units in the 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD group compared to placebo 2 years after the start of treatment (P = 0.13), and this difference was statistically significant in the secondary endpoint at the end of day 4 when the cumulative allergen challenge was greatest (P = 0.02). Consistent reductions in nasal symptoms of between 2 and 3 units were observed for 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD compared to placebo between the 2 and 3 h time points on days 1-4 of EEC challenge at 2 years (P Cat-PAD. This study is the first to provide evidence of a long-term therapeutic effect with this new class of SPIREs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Middle-Term Dietary Supplementation with Red Yeast Rice Plus Coenzyme Q10 Improves Lipid Pattern, Endothelial Reactivity and Arterial Stiffness in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Rosticci, Martina; D''Addato, Sergio; Grandi, Elisa; Borghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether treatment with red yeast rice added with Coenzyme Q10 is associated with changes in endothelial function and arterial stiffness. This double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 non-smoker moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects (ClinicalTrial.gov ID NCT02492464). After 4 weeks of diet and physical activity, patients were allocated to treatment with placebo or with an active product containing 10 mg monacolins and 30 mg Coenzyme Q10, to be assumed for 6 months. Endothelial reactivity and arterial stiffness have been measured through the validated Vicorder® device. During monacolin treatment, patients experienced a more favorable percentage change in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (after monacolin treatment: -26.3%; after placebo treatment: +3.4%, p < 0.05). Endothelial reactivity (pulse volume displacement after monacolin treatment: +6.0%; after placebo treatment: -0.3%, p < 0.05), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV) after monacolin treatment: -4.7%; after placebo: +1.1%, p < 0.05) also significantly improved only after monacolin treatment. The long-term assumption of the tested dietary supplement is associated with an improvement in LDL-cholesterolemia, endothelial reactivity and PWV in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used. Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly. Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination.

  10. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global, long-term Earth Science Data Records of forest cover, change, and fragmentation from Landsat: the Global Forest Cover Change Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J.; Huang, C.; Channan, S.; Feng, M.; Song, X.; Kim, D.; Song, D.; Vermote, E.; Masek, J.; Townshend, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring, analysis, and management of forests require measurements of forest cover that are both spatio-temporally consistent and resolved globally at sub-hectare resolution. The Global Forest Cover Change project, a cooperation between the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, is providing the first long-term, sub-hectare, globally consistent data records of forest cover, change, and fragmentation in circa-1975, -1990, -2000, and -2005 epochs. These data are derived from the Global Land Survey collection of Landsat images in the respective epochs, atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance in 1990, 2000, and 2005 using the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) implementation of the 6S radiative transfer algorithm, with ancillary information from MODIS Land products, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), and climatological data layers. Forest cover and change were estimated by a novel continuous-field approach, which produced for the 2000 and 2005 epochs the world's first global, 30-m resolution database of tree cover. Surface reflectance estimates were validated against coincident MODIS measurements, the results of which have been corroborated by subsequent, independent validations against measurements from AERONET sites. Uncertainties in tree- and forest-cover values were estimated in each pixel as a compounding of within-sample uncertainty and accuracy relative to a sample of independent measurements from small-footprint lidar. Accuracy of forest cover and change estimates was further validated relative to expert-interpreted high-resolution imagery, from which unbiased estimates of forest cover and change have been produced at national and eco-regional scales. These first-of-kind Earth Science Data Records--surface reflectance in 1990, 2000, and 2005 and forest cover, change, and fragmentation in and between 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005--are hosted at native, Landsat

  12. The effects of long-term daily folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dieuwertje E G; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Lute, Carolien; Heil, Sandra G; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Schoor, Natasja M; Hooiveld, Guido J E J; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Folate and its synthetic form folic acid function as donor of one-carbon units and have been, together with other B-vitamins, implicated in programming of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation during early development. To what extent regulation of DNA methylation can be altered via B-vitamins later in life, and how this relates to health and disease, is not exactly known. The aim of this study was to identify effects of long-term supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects. This project was part of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on effects of supplemental intake of folic acid and vitamin B12 on bone fracture incidence (B-vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures (B-PROOF) study). Participants with mildly elevated homocysteine levels, aged 65-75 years, were randomly assigned to take 400 μg folic acid and 500 μg vitamin B12 per day or a placebo during an intervention period of 2 years. DNA was isolated from buffy coats, collected before and after intervention, and genome-wide DNA methylation was determined in 87 participants (n = 44 folic acid/vitamin B12, n = 43 placebo) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. After intervention with folic acid and vitamin B12, 162 (versus 14 in the placebo group) of the 431,312 positions were differentially methylated as compared to baseline. Comparisons of the DNA methylation changes in the participants receiving folic acid and vitamin B12 versus placebo revealed one single differentially methylated position (cg19380919) with a borderline statistical significance. However, based on the analyses of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) consisting of multiple positions, we identified 6 regions that differed statistically significantly between the intervention and placebo group. Pronounced changes were found for regions in the DIRAS3, ARMC8, and NODAL genes, implicated in carcinogenesis and early embryonic development

  13. Long-term incidence of female-specific cancer after bariatric surgery or usual care in the Swedish Obese Subjects Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anveden, Åsa; Taube, Magdalena; Peltonen, Markku; Jacobson, Peter; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Sjöholm, Kajsa; Svensson, Per-Arne; Carlsson, Lena M S

    2017-05-01

    To examine the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on female-specific cancer in women with obesity. The prospective, matched Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study was designed to examine outcomes after bariatric surgery. This study includes 1420 women from the SOS cohort that underwent bariatric surgery and 1447 contemporaneously matched controls who received conventional obesity treatment. Age was 37-60years and BMI was ≥38kg/m2. Information on cancer events was obtained from the Swedish National Cancer Registry. Median follow-up time was 18.1years (interquartile range 14.8-20.9years, maximum 26years). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01479452. Bariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of overall cancer (hazard ratio=0.71; 95% CI 0.59-0.85; pbariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer (hazard ratio=0.56: 95% CI 0.35-0.89; p=0.014). In this long-term study, bariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of female-specific cancer, especially in women with hyperinsulinemia at baseline. This project was supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01DK105948 (the content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health), the Swedish Research Council K2013-99X-22279-01, K2013-54X-11285-19, Sahlgrenska University Hospital ALF research grant and Swedish Diabetes Foundation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Blood Pressure and Other Clinical Variables on Long-Term Mortality in a Cohort of Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Daniel M; Meneilly, Graydon S; Moleski, Luc; Trottier, Lise; Lanthier, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure (HBP) are commonly associated conditions in the elderly population. An effect of treatments, biologic and anthropometric variables on long-term mortality is unknown in this population. To determine the prevalence of HBP control in a sample of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes with office blood pressure (BP) readings and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and evaluate the influence of BP, anthropometric and laboratory variables on long term mortality. Cohort study in patients living at home in the area of Sherbrooke, ≥65 years old, receiving reimbursement for antidiabetic medication. The study included medical history, 2 sets of BP measurements, 2 24-hour urinary collections for microalbuminuria, 1 24-hour ABPM, blood level of creatinine and glycosylated hemoglobin. Charts were reanalyzed 8 years later for analysis of cardiovascular and total mortality cases. 198 patients were initially recruited. By history, 83% of the subjects had diagnoses and treatments for high blood pressure. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with an 8-year increased risk for cardiovascular mortality were creatinine ≥84 µmol/L, office seated systolic blood pressure ≤130 and diastolic BP ≤67.6 over 24 hours. Factors associated with total mortality were lower waist circumference, serum creatinine ≥84 and diastolic BP ≤67.6 over 24 hours. Lower systolic and diastolic BP (office and ABPM), lower waist circumference and higher creatinine values are associated with an increased mortality risk. This suggests that a lower BP, declining kidney function and frailty are factors associated with this observation. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mawad, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  16. The earth orbiting space debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The space debris population is similar to the asteroid belt, since it is subject to a process of high-velocity mutual collisions that affects the long-term evolution of its size distribution. Presently, more than 10 000 artificial debris particles with diameters larger than 10 cm (and more than 300 000 with diameters larger than 1 cm are orbiting the Earth, and are monitored and studied by a large network of sensors around the Earth. Many objects of different kind compose the space debris population, produced by different source mechanisms ranging from high energy fragmentation of large spacecraft to slow diffusion of liquid metal. The impact against a space debris is a serious risk that every spacecraft must face now and it can be evaluated with ad-hoc algorithms. The long term evolution of the whole debris population is studied with computer models allowing the simulation of all the known source and sink mechanisms. One of these codes is described in this paper and the evolution of the debris environment over the next 100 years, under different traffic scenarios, is shown, pointing out the possible measures to mitigate the growth of the orbital debris population. .

  17. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  18. Polar Misunderstandings: Earth's Dynamic Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the movement of Earth's north and south poles. The Earth's poles may be a bit more complex and dynamic than what many students and teachers believe. With better understanding, offer them up as a rich landscape for higher-level critical analysis and subject integration. Possible curriculum tie-ins include magnets, Earth…

  19. Short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillunat LE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Naim Terai, Matthias Müller-Holz, Eberhard Spoerl, Lutz E PillunatDepartment of Ophthalmology, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Dresden, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects.Methods: In this prospective, double-blind crossover trial, break-up time and basal secretion (Jones test were measured 60 minutes before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after topical antiglaucoma drop application in 30 healthy subjects. Corneal sensitivity was measured 60 minutes before, and five, 10, and 15 minutes after drop application using a Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometer.Results: Reduction of break-up time in the latanoprost group was -23.8% after 30 minutes (P = 0.21, -26.7% after 60 minutes (P = 0.03 and -51.4% after 90 minutes (P ≤ 0.003, which was statistically significant. Reduction of break-up time in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. The Jones test revealed a significant reduction of basal secretion after application of brimonidine (-17.8%, P = 0.002; -22.5%, P< 0.001; -30.5%, P < 0.001, followed by apraclonidine (-10%, P = 0.06; -20.1%, P = 0.02; -22.1%, P = 0.002, latanoprost (-2.4%, P = 0.64; -18.6%, P = 0.001; -20.1%, P = 0.001 and dorzolamide (-0.5%, P = 0.9; 14.3%, P = 0.018; -17.3%, P = 0.004 at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drop application. Reduction of basal secretion in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant.Conclusion: Latanoprost showed the most statistically significant reduction in break-up time, and brimonidine showed the most significant reduction in basal secretion of all the glaucoma medications used in this study. In conclusion, our data may be helpful for treatment decisions in glaucoma patients who also suffer from ocular surface problems.Keywords: tear-film, tear secretion, corneal sensitivity, antiglaucoma medication

  20. Effects of short-term exercise in the heat on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and sweat composition of tropic-dwelling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohamed; Sirisinghe, Roland Gamini; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1+/-0.1 degrees C, rh: 70.0+/-4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes.After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77+/-0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14+/-0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a

  1. Long-term safety of oral nucleos(t)ide analogs for patients with chronic hepatitis B: A cohort study of 53,500 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Tse, Yee-Kit; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Yip, Terry Cheuk-Fung; Tsoi, Kelvin Kam-Fai; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2015-09-01

    Widespread and long-term use of oral nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) to treat chronic hepatitis B (CHB) brings about safety data in a real-life setting. We aimed to determine the risks of renal and bone side effects in patients receiving or who have received NAs as CHB treatment. A territory-wide cohort study using the database from Hospital Authority, the major provider of medical services in Hong Kong, was conducted. We identified CHB patients by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes, diagnosed between 2000 and 2012. The primary events were renal (incident renal failure and renal replacement therapy [RRT]) and bone events (incident hip, vertebral, and all fractures). A 3-year landmark analysis was used to evaluate the relative risk of primary outcome in patients with or without NA treatment. A total of 53,500 CHB patients (46,454 untreated and 7,046 treated), who were event free for 3 years, were included in the analysis. At a median follow-up of 4.9 years, chronic renal failure, RRT, all fractures, hip fractures, and vertebral fractures occurred in 0.6%, 0.2%, 0.7%, 0.1%, and 0.1% of untreated subjects and 1.4%, 0.7%, 1.3%, 0.2%, and 0.2% of treated subjects. After propensity score weighting, NA therapy did not increase the risk of any of the events (hazard ratios [HRs] ranged from 0.79 to 1.31; P = 0.225-0.887). Exposure to nucleotide analogues, compared with nucleoside analogs, increased the risk of hip fracture (HR = 5.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.98-16.39; P = 0.001), but not other events (HR = 0.58-1.44; P = 0.202-0.823). NA treatment does not increase the risk of renal and bone events in general. Nucleotide analogs may increase the risk of hip fracture, but the overall event rate is low. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Earth-tide-induced fluctuations in the salinity of an inland river, New South Wales, Australia: a short-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasonsmith, J F; Macdonald, B C T; White, I

    2017-04-01

    Wybong Creek discharges salts into the agriculturally and industrially important Hunter River in New South Wales, Australia. Abrupt increases in salinity occur periodically in the mid-Wybong Creek catchment. In order to understand the processes which cause these abrupt increases, changes in surface and groundwater were investigated. It is shown that salinity increases can be attributed to highly discrete groundwater discharge directly into the river from below. Hourly electrical conductivity data measured in the river showed regular, diurnal electrical conductivity fluctuations of up to 350 μS cm-1. These fluctuations could not be attributed to barometric pressure, temperature, or evapotranspiration. Instead, a similar periodicity in surface water electrical conductivity and groundwater height in nearby groundwater wells was found. Fluctuations were of similar periodicity to the orthotides which cause fluctuations in surface water height and are induced by Earth tides. The geology in the mid-catchment area indicates conditions are optimal for Earth tides to impact groundwater. The reporting of orthotidal changes in water chemistry in this article is believed to be the first of its kind in the scientific literature, with the large fluctuations noted having important implications for water monitoring and management in the catchment. Further research investigating Earth-tide-induced phases of groundwater heights will better constrain the relationships between surface water chemistry and groundwater height.

  3. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienberg, Sara G; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma; Astrup, Arne; Vaag, Allan; Andersen, Birgitte

    2012-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies respectively. Five days of HF overfeeding diet significantly (Pincreased fasting serum FGF21 levels in both the groups (Pinsulin infusion additionally increased serum FGF21 levels to a similar extent in both the groups. Basal mRNA expression of FGF21 in muscle was near the detection limit and not present in fat in both the groups before and after the dietary challenge. However, insulin significantly (Pincreased FGF21 mRNA in both muscle and fat in both the groups during both diets. Short-term HF overfeeding markedly increased serum FGF21 levels in healthy young men with and without LBW but failed to increase muscle or fat FGF21 mRNA levels. This suggests that the liver may be responsible for the rise of serum FGF21 levels during overfeeding. In contrast, the increase in serum FGF21 levels during insulin infusion may arise from increased transcription in muscle and fat. We speculate that increased serum FGF21 levels during HF overfeeding may be a compensatory response to increase fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure.

  4. Long-term test-retest reliability of resting-state networks in healthy elderly subjects and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blautzik, Janusch; Keeser, Daniel; Berman, Albert; Paolini, Marco; Kirsch, Valerie; Mueller, Sophia; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian; Teipel, Stefan J; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of cerebral resting-state networks (RSNs) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising tool for the early diagnosis and follow-up of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this context, the determination of inter-session reliability of these networks is crucial. However, data on network reliability in healthy elderly subjects is rare and does not exist for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a prodromal stage of AD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the long-term test-retest reliability of RSNs in both groups. Twelve healthy controls (HC) and 13 aMCI patients underwent resting-state fMRI and neuropsychological testing (CERAD test battery) twice, at baseline and after 13-16 months. Resting-state fMRI data was decomposed into independent components using independent component analysis. Inter-session test-retest reliability of the resulting RSNs was determined by calculating voxel-wise intra-class correlation coefficients. Overall test-retest reliability of corresponding RSNs was moderate to high in both groups, but significantly higher in the HC group compared to the aMCI group (p < 0.001), while the cognitive performance within the CERAD test battery remained stable over time in either group. Most reliable RSNs derived from the HC group and were associated with sensory and motor as well as higher order cognitive and the default-mode function. Particularly low reliability was found in basal frontal regions, which are known to be prone to susceptibility-induced noise. We conclude that stable RSNs may represent healthy aging, whereas decreased RSN reliability may indicate progressive neuro-functional alterations before the actual manifestation of clinical symptoms.

  5. The effect of exogenous spermidine concentration on polyamine metabolism and salt tolerance in zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud subjected to short-term salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress, and particularly short-term salinity stress, is one of the most serious abiotic factors limiting plant survival and growth in China. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd stimulats tolerance to salt stress in plants. In the present study, two cultivars that are typically grown in China were used. The two zoysiagrass cultivars, exhibiting a sensitive ( cv. Z081 or tolerant ( cv. Z057 salt stress adaptation ability, were subjected to 200 mM salt stress and treated with different exogenous Spd concentrations for 8 days. Polyamine (Put, Spd and Spm contents and polyamine metabolic enzyme (ADC, ODC, SAMDC, PAO and DAO, malondialdehyde (MDA, H2O2 and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were measured. The results showed that salt stress induced increases in Spd and Spm contents and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC and diamine oxidase (DAO in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd application did not compromise polyamine contents through the regulation of polyamine-degrading enzymes, and an increase in PA synthesis enzymes was observed during the experiment. The application resulted in a tendency for the Spd and Spm contents and the activities of ODC, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC, DAO, and antioxidant enzymes to first increase and then decrease in both cultivars with an increase in the exogenous Spd concentration. H2O2 and MDA significantly decreased in both cultivars treated with Spd. With an increase in the exogenous Spd concentration, the Spd + Spm level scores showed positive correlations with polyamine synthesis enzymes (ADC, SAMDC, DAO, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, while showing negative correlations with H2O2 and MDA in both cultivars.

  6. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M Llibre

    2014-11-01

    (3. Effectiveness data of ATV400+ABC/3TC as a switch strategy in clinical routine however are scant. Methods: We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing. We performed a time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR below 50 c/mL and a snapshot analysis at 48, 96 and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA >50 c/mL. Results: We included 258 subjects: 176 (68% male, median age 46 (IQR 41, 53 y, 225 (87.2% white, hepatitis virus co-infection 36%, median baseline CD4 at switch 540 cells (360, 700, time with VL≤ 50 c/mL 45 (24, 69 months. The median calendar year of switching was 2008 (2006, 2010. The 3rd drug in previous regimen was ATV/r in 70 (27.1%, other PI/r in 25 (9.7%, and other 163 (63.2%; 85 (32.9% had previously failed with a PI. The virological response at 48/96/144 weeks was, respectively, 89.5 [95% CI 85.1, 92.9]/88 [83.4, 91.7]/86.3% [81.6, 90.4] (TLOVR, composite endpoint failure or stop for any reason and the risk of VF was 8.3/7.6/7.6%. In the snapshot analysis HIV-RNA was below 50 c/mL in 72.5/65.9/51.6%, respectively, and >50 c/mL in 6.6/5.4/4.3%. Only 0.8/1.9/3.5% discontinued due to adverse events. There was a high rate of discontinuations due to other reasons or with VL missing in window. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we observed an association between VF and nadir CD4 count (RH 0.60 [0.39, 0.93] per 100 cells higher, time with VL≤50 c/mL (RH 0.89 [0.81, 0.98] per 6 months longer and previous failure with a PI (3.04 [1.36, 6.80]. There was no association with gender, age, hepatitis virus co-infection, CD4 count at time of switching or third drug used in the previous regimen. Conclusions: A switch to ATV400+ABC/3TC in selected subjects with HIV-RNA below 50 c/mL is associated with relatively low rates of VF and discontinuation due to adverse events. Use

  7. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  8. Healing the Earth - Earth observation supporting international environmental conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, Olivier; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Volden, Espen

    2006-11-01

    ESA is building long-term relationships with several user communities that can benefit from the Agency's Earth observation programmes. Since 2000, ESA has been working in close collaboration on three international environmental conventions. Here we see how its Earth observation activities are benefiting these conventions.

  9. Acute and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose metabolism in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N B; Jacobsen, S H; Dirksen, C

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to study the potential mechanisms responsible for the improvement in glucose control in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) within days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Thirteen obese subjects with T2D and twelve matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were examined during a liqu...

  10. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  11. Long-term outcomes of bronchial thermoplasty in subjects with severe asthma: a comparison of 3-year follow-up results from two prospective multicentre studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviolette, Michel; Cohn, Lauren; McEvoy, Charlene; Bansal, Sandeep; Shifren, Adrian; Khatri, Sumita; Grubb, G. Mark; McMullen, Edmund; Strauven, Racho; Kline, Joel N.

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty is an endoscopic therapy for severe asthma. The previously reported, randomised sham-controlled AIR2 (Asthma Intervention Research 2) trial showed a significant reduction in severe asthma exacerbations, emergency department visits and hospitalisations after bronchial thermoplasty. More “real-world” clinical outcome data is needed. This article compares outcomes in bronchial thermoplasty subjects with 3 years of follow-up from the ongoing, post-market PAS2 (Post-FDA Approval Clinical Trial Evaluating Bronchial Thermoplasty in Severe Persistent Asthma) study with those from the AIR2 trial. 279 subjects were treated with bronchial thermoplasty in the PAS2 study. We compared the first 190 PAS2 subjects with the 190 bronchial thermoplasty-treated subjects in the AIR2 trial at 3 years of follow-up. The PAS2 subjects were older (mean age 45.9 versus 40.7 years) and more obese (mean body mass index 32.5 versus 29.3 kg·m−2) and took higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids (mean dose 2301 versus 1961 μg·day−1). More PAS2 subjects had experienced severe exacerbations (74% versus 52%) and hospitalisations (15.3% versus 4.2%) in the 12 months prior to bronchial thermoplasty. At year 3 after bronchial thermoplasty, the percentage of PAS2 subjects with severe exacerbations, emergency department visits and hospitalisations significantly decreased by 45%, 55% and 40%, respectively, echoing the AIR2 results. The PAS2 study demonstrates similar improvements in asthma control after bronchial thermoplasty compared with the AIR2 trial despite enrolling subjects who may have had poorer asthma control. PMID:28860266

  12. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  13. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Laureen A.; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a

  14. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Lammers (Laureen); Achterbergh, R. (Roos); R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); J.A. Romijn (Johannes); R.A. Mathot (Ron)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Objective: Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic

  15. Social participation and subjective well-being of long-term unemployed : why is paid work so hard to substitute for?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, AC; Diener, E; Rahtz, DR

    2000-01-01

    In a study of SWB among 948 Dutch long-term unemployed, the two main questions were (I) do long-term unemployed learn To adjust, i.e. does the negative effect on SWB wear off over unemployment duration?; and (2) does social participation help adjustment and restoration of SWB? The effect of

  16. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However, no p...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  17. A short-term evaluation of the relationship between plasma ascorbic acid levels and periodontal disease in systemically healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Neeraja H; Acharya, Anirudh B; Patil, Vidya S; Trivedi, Dheeraj J; Thakur, Srinath L

    2013-06-01

    Deficient ascorbic acid levels (AALs) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with periodontal disease. This study evaluated the relationship between plasma AAL and periodontitis in systemically healthy and T2DM subjects, which to the best of our knowledge is being reported for the first time. One hundred twenty subjects were categorized into four groups of 30 each as group 1: without periodontal disease; group 2: chronic gingivitis; group 3: chronic periodontitis, and group 4: chronic periodontitis and freshly diagnosed T2DM. Plaque index (PlI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and probing pocket depths (PPDs) were evaluated. Venous blood was evaluated for plasma AAL spectrophotometrically. Randomized subjects were subgrouped within groups 2-4, to receive either scaling and root planing (SRP) with dietary supplementation (450 mg) of ascorbic acid (AA) for two weeks or only SRP. After two weeks, the clinical parameters were reassessed. Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures and paired t test were used with the level of statistical significance adjusted to p ≤ .05. AAL plasma levels were significantly greater in group 1 than in group 2 (p = .0007) and in group 4 (p = .0003). A significant reduction in the SBI was seen in the subgroups that received dietary supplementation of vitamin C within group 2 (p = .0012) and group 4 (p = .036). Plasma AAL is below the normal range in systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis. Dietary AA supplementation with SRP improves the SBI in subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis.

  18. Minor long-term changes in weight have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Rasmussen, M H

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function.......To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function....

  19. [Slowing down the rate of irreversible age-related atrophy of the thymus gland by atopic autotransplantation of its tissue, subjected to long-term cryoconservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A V; Arkhipova, L V; Smirnova, G N; Novoselova, E G; Shpurova, N A; Shishova, N V; Sukhikh, G T

    2010-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed enabling to slow down the rate of irreversible atrophy of the thymus gland. The atopic autotransplantation of its tissue subjected to prolonged cryoconservation enables one to inhibit the aging of the organism with respect to several biochemical and immunological indicators.

  20. The Examination of Secondary Education Chemistry Curricula Published between 1957-2007 in Terms of the Dimensions of Rationale, Goals, and Subject-Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…

  1. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The ability to develop muscle force rapidly may be a very important factor to prevent a fall and to perform other tasks of daily life. However, information is still lacking on the range of training-induced neuromuscular adaptations in elderly humans recovering from a period of disuse. Therefore......, the present study examined the effect of three types of training regimes after unilateral prolonged disuse and subsequent hip-replacement surgery on maximal muscle strength, rapid muscle force [rate of force development (RFD)], muscle activation, and muscle size. Thirty-six subjects (60-86 yr) were randomized...... to a 12-wk rehabilitation program consisting of either 1) strength training (3 times/wk for 12 wk), 2) electrical muscle stimulation (1 h/day for 12 wk), or 3) standard rehabilitation (1 h/day for 12 wk). The nonoperated side did not receive any intervention and thereby served as a within-subject control...

  2. Group dynamics in a long-term blind endeavor on Earth: An analog for space missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition group dynamic analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.

    2008-12-01

    In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains M. Lewis and W. Clark (Lewis and Clark Expedition) on an exploration that would become an everlasting part of US national history and pride. Looking back at the events of this exploration, there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond (NASA Vision for Space Exploration, 2004): The Lewis and Clark Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean; The Expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in the early 18th century; The Expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew; Supplies brought on the mission were limited (mainly a mass/weight issue rather than cost), therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources (In-Situ Resource Utilization approach, including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty) was necessary for crew survival. The environments astronauts will encounter in space and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar to what Lewis and Clark's crew experienced, as environments will be hostile and unforgiving if problems arise and aren't resolved quickly. The analysis provided in this research paper is relevant because the Lewis and Clark Expedition needed to move extensively and with minimal supplies. Polar remote settings, which were analyzed extensively, were different from this expedition due to the fact that these missions did not encompass extensive movement of crew facilities and supplies and were more like space missions orbiting the Earth. Using past space station results of performance on orbit in correlation with a

  3. Short-term variability of dissolved rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in the entire water column of the Panama Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasse, P.; Bosse, L.; Hathorne, E. C.; Böning, P.; Pahnke, K.; Frank, M.

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) and neodymium isotopes (εNd) in the open ocean traces water mass mixing and provides information on lithogenic inputs to the source regions of the water masses. However, the processes influencing the REE budget at the ocean margins, in particular source and sink mechanisms, are not yet well quantified. In this study the first dissolved REE concentrations and Nd isotope compositions of seawater from the Panama Basin (RV Meteor cruise M90) in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) are presented. The EEP is characterized by one of the world's largest oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). It is dominated by high particle fluxes that are expected to enhance the removal of REEs from the water column by scavenging. The measured REE concentrations peak at the surface indicating high lithogenic input, which is supported by shale-normalized REE patterns in surface waters and highly radiogenic εNd signatures ranging between +1.4 and +4.3, the latter value constituting the most radiogenic value measured for seawater to date. In contrast, intermediate and deep water REE concentrations are low compared to other Pacific Basins and suggest enhanced removal via scavenging associated with high particle fluxes. The εNd signatures of intermediate and deep waters are less radiogenic than surface waters ranging between -1.4 and +1.3 but significantly more radiogenic than source water masses in the EEP. The εNd signatures consequently do not reflect mixing of intermediate and deep water masses entering the Panama Basin but can only be explained by lithogenic inputs originating from source rocks with highly radiogenic Nd isotope signatures such as the Central American Volcanic Arc (ε Nd = + 3 to +10). Our data demonstrate significant surface input via continental particles, which are partially dissolved in the water column and thereby release REEs and particularly radiogenic Nd isotope signatures to the subsurface ocean. Data obtained

  4. Short-term corneal changes with gas-permeable contact lens wear in keratoconus subjects: a comparison of two fitting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Jiménez, Miguel; Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Méijome, Jose-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in anterior corneal topography and higher-order aberrations (HOA) after 14-days of rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lens (CL) wear in keratoconus subjects comparing two different fitting approaches. Thirty-one keratoconus subjects (50 eyes) without previous history of CL wear were recruited for the study. Subjects were randomly fitted to either an apical-touch or three-point-touch fitting approach. The lens' back optic zone radius (BOZR) was 0.4mm and 0.1mm flatter than the first definite apical clearance lens, respectively. Differences between the baseline and post-CL wear for steepest, flattest and average corneal power (ACP) readings, central corneal astigmatism (CCA), maximum tangential curvature (KTag), anterior corneal surface asphericity, anterior corneal surface HOA and thinnest corneal thickness measured with Pentacam were compared. A statistically significant flattening was found over time on the flattest and steepest simulated keratometry and ACP in apical-touch group (all pcontact lens wear (all plens wear. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Landsat 7 ETM+ image in and around Kuju volcano,. Kyushu, Japan. 1049. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin. Province, China: Constrains from rare earth element, fluid inclusion geochemistry and geochronology. 1401. Ninety million years of orogenesis, 250 million years of quiescence and then further ...

  6. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The termsubjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  7. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  8. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; La Rosa, Jorge Antonio Valencia

    2014-01-01

    routine however are scant. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing. We performed a time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR below 50 c....../mL) and a snapshot analysis at 48, 96 and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF) was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA >50 c/mL. RESULTS: We included 258 subjects: 176 (68%) male, median age 46 (IQR 41, 53) y, 225 (87.2%) white, hepatitis virus co-infection 36%, median baseline CD4 at switch 540 cells (360, 700......, respectively, 89.5 [95% CI 85.1, 92.9]/88 [83.4, 91.7]/86.3% [81.6, 90.4] (TLOVR, composite endpoint failure or stop for any reason) and the risk of VF was 8.3/7.6/7.6%. In the snapshot analysis HIV-RNA was below 50 c/mL in 72.5/65.9/51.6%, respectively, and >50 c/mL in 6.6/5.4/4.3%. Only 0...

  9. Short-Term Exercise Training Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Does Not Inhibit Inflammatory Pathways in Immune Cells from Insulin-Resistant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  10. Ablative fractional CO2laser for burn scar reconstruction: An extensive subjective and objective short-term outcome analysis of a prospective treatment cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issler-Fisher, Andrea C; Fisher, Oliver M; Smialkowski, Ania O; Li, Frank; van Schalkwyk, Constant P; Haertsch, Peter; Maitz, Peter K M

    2017-05-01

    The introduction of ablative fractional CO 2 lasers (CO 2 -AFL) for burn scar management shows promising results. Whilst recent studies have focused on objective scar outcomes following CO 2 -AFL treatment, to date no data on patient subjective factors such as quality of life are available. A prospective study was initiated to analyze the safety and efficacy of the CO 2 -AFL. Various objective and subjective outcome parameters were prospectively collected from the date of first consultation and follow-up following treatment. Objective factors include the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), and ultrasound measurements of the thickness of the scar. Subjective parameters included the assessment of neuropathic pain and pruritus, as well as the evaluation of improvement of quality of life following CO 2 -AFL with the Burns Specific Health Scale (BSHS-B). For treatment effect analysis, patients were stratified according to scar maturation status (> or <2 years after injury). 47 patients with 118 burn scars completed at least one treatment cycle. At a median of 55 days (IQR 32-74) after CO 2 -AFL treatment all analyzed objective parameters decreased significantly: intra-patient normalized scar thickness decreased from a median of 2.4mm to 1.9mm (p<0.001) with a concomitant VSS-drop from a median of 7 to 6 (p<0.001). The overall POSAS patient scale decreased from a median of 9 to 5 (p<0.001) with similar effects documented in POSAS observer scales. Both pain and pruritus showed significant reduction. Quality of life increased significantly by 15 points (median 120 to 135; p<0.001). All of the identified changes following CO 2 -AFL were equally significant irrespective of scar maturation status. Our preliminary results confirm significant improvement in thickness, texture, colour, and symptoms following treatment with CO 2 -AFL. Foremost, quality of life of patients with both immature and mature scars (up to 23 years after

  11. Increased hippocampal, thalamus and amygdala volume in long-term lithium-treated bipolar I disorder patients compared with unmedicated patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana M; Palacio, Juan David; Castrillón, Gabriel; Bearden, Carrie; Vieta, Eduard

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in bipolar I disorder (BD-I) suggest that lithium is associated with increased volumes of cortico-limbic structures. However, more rigorous control of confounding factors is needed to obtain further support for this hypothesis. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in brain volumes among long-term lithium-treated BD-I patients, unmedicated BD-I patients, and healthy controls. This was a cross-sectional study with 32 euthymic BD-I patients (16 on lithium monotherapy for a mean of 180 months, and 16 receiving no medication for at least the 2 months prior to the study) and 20 healthy controls. Patients were euthymic (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS] lithium for at least 6 months. Brain images were acquired on a 1.5 Tesla MRI (Phillips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and segmented to generate volumetric measures of cortical and subcortical brain areas, ventricles and global brain. Significant differences were found in the volumes of the left amygdala (P=.0003), right amygdala (P=.030), left hippocampus (P=.022), left thalamus (P=.022), and right thalamus (P=.019) in long-term lithium-treated BD-I patients, compared to unmedicated patients and controls, after multivariable adjustment. No differences were observed in global brain volume or in ventricular size among the three groups. Likewise, there was no correlation between serum lithium levels and the increase in size in the described brain areas. The structural differences found among the three groups, and specifically those between long-term lithium-treated and unmedicated BD-I patients, indicate increased limbic structure volumes in lithium-treated patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Short term non-invasive ventilation post-surgery improves arterial blood-gases in obese subjects compared to supplemental oxygen delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoremba Norbert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the immediate postoperative period, obese patients are more likely to exhibit hypoxaemia due to atelectasis and impaired respiratory mechanics, changes which can be attenuated by non-invasive ventilation (NIV. The aim of the study was to evaluate the duration of any effects of early initiation of short term pressure support NIV vs. traditional oxygen delivery via venturi mask in obese patients during their stay in the PACU. Methods After ethics committee approval and informed consent, we prospectively studied 60 obese patients (BMI 30-45 undergoing minor peripheral surgery. Half were randomly assigned to receive short term NIV during their PACU stay, while the others received routine treatment (supplemental oxygen via venturi mask. Premedication, general anaesthesia and respiratory settings were standardized. We measured arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry and blood gas analysis on air breathing. Inspiratory and expiratory lung function was measured preoperatively (baseline and at 10 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h after extubation, with the patient supine, in a 30 degrees head-up position. The two groups were compared using repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-test analysis. Statistical significance was considered to be P Results There were no differences at the first assessment. During the PACU stay, pulmonary function in the NIV group was significantly better than in the controls (p Conclusion Early initiation of short term NIV during in the PACU promotes more rapid recovery of postoperative lung function and oxygenation in the obese. The effect lasted 24 hours after discontinuation of NIV. Patient selection is necessary in order to establish clinically relevant improvements. Trial Registration# DRKS00000751; http://www.germanctr.de

  13. Nutri-metabolomics: subtle serum metabolic differences in healthy subjects by NMR-based metabolomics after a short-term nutritional intervention with two tomato sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Cañellas, Nicolau; Abete, Itziar; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Ángeles; Correig, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by 1H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel

  14. Variability in the intraspecific response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings subjected to long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anschel, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Health and Ecological Assessment Div.; Pushnik, J.C. [California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Anderson, P.D. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The authors are investigating the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and intraspecific variability on Pinus ponderosa. To analyze intraspecific variability, they included seedling source (family) as an additional treatment, using a split-plot experimental design. The three elevated CO{sub 2} treatments were ambient (approx. 350 ppm CO{sub 2}), ambient + 175 ppm CO{sub 2} and ambient +350 ppm CO{sub 2}. Their study uses the source/sink control framework at several key integrating steps, incorporating the long-term effects of elevated CO{sub 2} (insuring sufficient time for the expression of any long-term physiological and biochemical acclimation to occur) and genetics (using multiple species and multiple known genetic sources) in an attempt to ascertain the extent of overall regulation contributed by selected independent regulatory process at the physiological, biochemical and structural level. In order to assess intraspecific variability, this paper reports on the integration of measurements of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, pigmentation, RuBPCase, SPSase to quantify the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the growth response of various families of the same species.

  15. Primary Index Term Secondary Index Term Tertiary Index term ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chaubey

    Tertiary Index term. Geosciences. Solid earth. Tectonics. Structural Geology. Geodynamics. Seismology. Exploration geophysics. Seismic hazards. Geomagnetism. Mineralogy. Petrology. Metamorphic. Igneous. Sedimentary. Fossil fuels. Petroleum and coal. Isotope geology. Geochronology. Isotope geology. Landform and.

  16. Short-term efficacy of calcium fructoborate on subjects with knee discomfort: a comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzkowski Z

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zbigniew Pietrzkowski,1 Michael J Phelan,2 Robert Keller,3 Cynthia Shu,1 Ruby Argumedo,1 Tania Reyes-Izquierdo11FutureCeuticals, Inc., Applied BioClinical Laboratory; 2Department of Statistics, School of Information and Computer Science, University of California at Irvine; 3NutraClinical Inc., Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Calcium fructoborate (CFB at a dose of 110 mg twice per day was previously reported to improve knee discomfort during the first 14 days of treatment. In this study, 60 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized into two groups receiving CFB or placebo. Initial levels of knee discomfort were evaluated by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ scores at the beginning of the study and also at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Results showed that supplementation with CFB significantly improved knee discomfort in the study subjects; significant reductions of mean within-subject change in WOMAC and MPQ scores were observed for the CFB group compared to the placebo group at both 7 and 14 days after treatment. Estimated treatment differences for the MPQ score were -5.8 (P=0.0009 and -8.9 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Estimated differences for the WOMAC score were -5.3 (P=0.06 and -13.73 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Negative values indicate greater reductions in reported discomfort. On both Day 7 and Day 14, the trend was toward greater improvement in the CFB group. The placebo group did not exhibit any change in the WOMAC and MPQ scores. In conclusion, supplementation with 110 mg CFB twice per day was associated with improving knee discomfort during the 2 weeks of intake.Keywords: CFB, joint discomfort, WOMAC score, McGill pain score

  17. Long-term follow-up of hepatic ultrasound findings in subjects with magnetic resonance imaging defined hepatic steatosis following clinical islet transplantation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephanie; Mager, Diana R; Bhargava, Ravi; Ackerman, Thomas; Imes, Sharleen; Hubert, Grace; Koh, Angela; Shapiro, A M James; Senior, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is one complication patients may experience following clinical islet transplantation (CIT), yet the cause and consequences of this are poorly understood. The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the relationship between hepatic steatosis, metabolic parameters and graft function in an Albertan cohort of CIT recipients. Hepatic steatosis was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in n = 10 cases age-matched with n=10 MRI-negative controls. Progression/regression of steatosis was determined by ultrasound (US) in cases. Hepatic steatosis first appeared 2.8 ± 2.2 (mean ± SD) years post-CIT, and lasted approximately 4.6 ± 2.0 years. In five cases steatosis resolved, with recurrence in two cases during the follow-up period (8.5 ± 3.2 years). No evidence of CIT causing deleterious effects on long-term liver function or graft outcome was observed.

  18. Long-term follow-up of hepatic ultrasound findings in subjects with magnetic resonance imaging defined hepatic steatosis following clinical islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephanie; Mager, Diana R.; Bhargava, Ravi; Ackerman, Thomas; Imes, Sharleen; Hubert, Grace; Koh, Angela; Shapiro, A.M. James; Senior, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is one complication patients may experience following clinical islet transplantation (CIT), yet the cause and consequences of this are poorly understood. The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the relationship between hepatic steatosis, metabolic parameters and graft function in an Albertan cohort of CIT recipients. Hepatic steatosis was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in n = 10 cases age-matched with n=10 MRI-negative controls. Progression/regression of steatosis was determined by ultrasound (US) in cases. Hepatic steatosis first appeared 2.8 ± 2.2 (mean ± SD) years post-CIT, and lasted approximately 4.6 ± 2.0 years. In five cases steatosis resolved, with recurrence in two cases during the follow-up period (8.5 ± 3.2 years). No evidence of CIT causing deleterious effects on long-term liver function or graft outcome was observed. PMID:23514958

  19. Long-term use of oral nucleos(t)ide analogues for chronic hepatitis B does not increase cancer risk - a cohort study of 44 494 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G L-H; Tse, Y-K; Yip, T C-F; Chan, H L-Y; Tsoi, K K-F; Wong, V W-S

    2017-05-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) need long-term antiviral treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA). Animal studies suggest that some NA may increase cancer risk, but human data are lacking. To investigate cancer risks in patients with or without NA treatment. We conducted a territory-wide cohort study using the database from Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. The diagnosis of CHB and various malignancies was based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes between 2000 and 2012. Patients exposed to any of the oral NA for CHB were included. The primary outcome was incident cancers. A 3-year landmark analysis, with follow-up up to 7 years, was used to evaluate the relative risk of cancers in treated and untreated patients. A total of 44 494 patients (39 712 untreated and 4782 treated) were included in the analysis. During 194 890 patient-years of follow-up, hepatocellular carcinoma developed in 402 (1.0%) untreated patients and 179 (3.7%) treated patients, while other cancers developed in 528 (1.3%) and 128 (2.7%) patients respectively. After propensity score weighting, treated patients had similar risks of all malignancies [weighted hazard ratio (wHR): 1.01, 95% CI: 0.82-1.25, P = 0.899], lung/pleural cancers (wHR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.52-1.31, P = 0.409) and urinary/renal malignancies (wHR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.38-2.81, P = 0.944) when compared with untreated patients. Oral nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment does not appear to increase cancer risk in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Given the beneficial effect on liver outcomes, our data support the current practice of long-term anti-viral therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  1. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  2. Near earth propagation: physics revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wert, R.; Goroch, A.; Worthington, E.; Wong, V.

    2007-04-01

    Both the military and consumer sectors are pursuing distributed networked systems and sensors. A major stumbling block to deployment of these sensors will be the radio frequency (RF) propagation environment within a few wavelengths of the earth. Increasing transmit power (battery consumption) is not a practical solution to the problem. This paper will discuss some of the physical phenomena related to the near earth propagation (NEP) problem. When radiating near the earth the communications link is subjected to a list of physical impairments. On the list are the expected Fresnel region encroachment and multipath reflections. Additionally, radiation pattern changes and near earth boundary layer perturbations exist. A significant amount of data has been collected on NEP. Disturbances in the NEP atmosphere can have a time varying attenuation related to the time of day and these discoveries will be discussed. Solutions, or workarounds, to the near earth propagation problem hinge on dynamic adaptive RF elements. Adaptive RF elements will allow the distributed sensor to direct energy, beam form, impedance correct, increase communication efficiency, and decrease battery consumption. Small electrically controllable elements are under development to enable antenna impedance matching in a dynamic environment. Additionally, small dynamic beam forming arrays are under development to focus RF energy in the direction of need. With an increased understanding of the near earth propagation problem, distributed autonomous networked sensors can become a reality within a few centimeters of the earth.

  3. Evaluation of long-term stability of mesiodistal axial inclinations of maxillary molars through panoramic radiographs in subjects treated with Pendulum appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Caroline Andrade; Almeida, Renato Rodrigues de; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the stability of mesiodistal inclination of maxillary molars produced by a pendulum appliance, five years after completion of orthodontic treatment. Angulation changes were compared to an untreated sample. The sample consisted of 20 patients (14 females and 6 males) with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion that was treated through molar distalization with a pendulum appliance followed by cervical headgear and full fixed appliances. Maxillary molar inclination was evaluated through panoramic radiograph. The mean age at pretreatment was 14.3 ± 1.6 years, whereas at immediate post-treatment it was 18.6 ± 1.8 years, and at long-term post-treatment it was 23.8 ± 2.0 years. A control group of 16 untreated individuals with untreated normocclusion ranging in age from 12 to 17 years old were used as comparison group. Data were statistically analyzed with independent t-tests and ANOVA test followed by Tukey post-hoc tests. Statistically significant differences were found between T1(94.50) and T2 (98.80) as well as between T2 and T3 (94.70) for maxillary first molars. Maxillary second molars did not show any statistically significant positional changes during the evaluated time periods T1 (107.50), T2 (109.30) and T3 (106.90). Although maxillary first molars underwent distal crown inclination immediately after treatment, approximately five years thereafter their roots tended to upright close to the pretreatment positions.

  4. A comparison of the nutritional status between adult celiac patients on a long-term, strictly gluten-free diet and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M; Della Valle, N; Rosania, R; Facciorusso, A; Trotta, A; Cantatore, F P; Falco, S; Pignatiello, S; Viggiani, M T; Amoruso, A; De Filippis, R; Di Leo, A; Francavilla, R

    2016-01-01

    There are conflicting data on the effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on the nutritional status of celiac patients. In the present study, we evaluated, in adult celiac patients, the influence of a long-term, strictly GFD on their nutritional status and compared it with matched healthy volunteers. Our study included 39 celiac patients and 39 healthy volunteers. The body mass index (BMI) of patients and controls was evaluated at enrollment, while the patients' BMI before the GFD was retrieved from clinical records. In addition, at enrollment, in both groups, we compared BMI, fat mass (FM), bone mineral density (BMD), as well as their dietary intake, recorded on a 7-day diary. At the time of diagnosis, the majority of celiac patients (82.0%) had a normal BMI or were overweight, while 10.3% were malnourished. After the GFD, patients with a normal BMI showed a significant weight increase (P=0.002), but none of them switched in the overweight or obese category. Two (50%) of the four malnourished patients achieved a normal BMI. Controls and patients on a GFD had a similar BMI, FM, BMD and total calorie intake, but the amount of lipids and fiber intake was significantly different in the two groups (P=0.003 and Pnutritional status of celiac patients without inducing overweight or obesity. Our findings are related to a celiac population adopting a GFD based on a Mediterranean-type diet.

  5. A comparison of the medium-term impact and recovery of the Pakistan floods and the Haiti earthquake: objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William M; Kirsch, Thomas D; Doocy, Shannon; Perrin, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The 2010 Haiti earthquake and Pakistan floods were similar in their massive human impact. Although the specific events were very different, the humanitarian response to disasters is supposed to achieve the same ends. This paper contrasts the disaster effects and aims to contrast the medium-term response. In January 2011, similarly structured population-based surveys were carried out in the most affected areas using stratified cluster designs (80×20 in Pakistan and 60×20 in Haiti) with probability proportional to size sampling. Displacement persisted in Haiti and Pakistan at 53% and 39% of households, respectively. In Pakistan, 95% of households reported damage to their homes and loss of income or livelihoods, and in Haiti, the rates were 93% and 85%, respectively. Frequency of displacement, and income or livelihood loss, were significantly higher in Pakistan, whereas disaster-related deaths or injuries were significantly more prevalent in Haiti. Given the rise in disaster frequency and costs, and the volatility of humanitarian funding streams as a result of the recent global financial crisis, it is increasingly important to measure the impact of humanitarian response against the goal of a return to normalcy.

  6. Evaluation of long-term stability of mesiodistal axial inclinations of maxillary molars through panoramic radiographs in subjects treated with Pendulum appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Andrade Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the stability of mesiodistal inclination of maxillary molars produced by a pendulum appliance, five years after completion of orthodontic treatment. Angulation changes were compared to an untreated sample. Methods: The sample consisted of 20 patients (14 females and 6 males with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion that was treated through molar distalization with a pendulum appliance followed by cervical headgear and full fixed appliances. Maxillary molar inclination was evaluated through panoramic radiograph. The mean age at pretreatment was 14.3 ± 1.6 years, whereas at immediate post-treatment it was 18.6 ± 1.8 years, and at long-term post-treatment it was 23.8 ± 2.0 years. A control group of 16 untreated individuals with untreated normocclusion ranging in age from 12 to 17 years old were used as comparison group. Data were statistically analyzed with independent t-tests and ANOVA test followed by Tukey post-hoc tests. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between T1(94.50 and T2 (98.80 as well as between T2 and T3 (94.70 for maxillary first molars. Maxillary second molars did not show any statistically significant positional changes during the evaluated time periods T1 (107.50, T2 (109.30 and T3 (106.90. Conclusion: Although maxillary first molars underwent distal crown inclination immediately after treatment, approximately five years thereafter their roots tended to upright close to the pretreatment positions.

  7. Evaluation of long-term stability of mesiodistal axial inclinations of maxillary molars through panoramic radiographs in subjects treated with Pendulum appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Caroline Andrade; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Flores-Mir, Carlos; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability of mesiodistal inclination of maxillary molars produced by a pendulum appliance, five years after completion of orthodontic treatment. Angulation changes were compared to an untreated sample. Methods: The sample consisted of 20 patients (14 females and 6 males) with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion that was treated through molar distalization with a pendulum appliance followed by cervical headgear and full fixed appliances. Maxillary molar inclination was evaluated through panoramic radiograph. The mean age at pretreatment was 14.3 ± 1.6 years, whereas at immediate post-treatment it was 18.6 ± 1.8 years, and at long-term post-treatment it was 23.8 ± 2.0 years. A control group of 16 untreated individuals with untreated normocclusion ranging in age from 12 to 17 years old were used as comparison group. Data were statistically analyzed with independent t-tests and ANOVA test followed by Tukey post-hoc tests. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between T1(94.50) and T2 (98.80) as well as between T2 and T3 (94.70) for maxillary first molars. Maxillary second molars did not show any statistically significant positional changes during the evaluated time periods T1 (107.50), T2 (109.30) and T3 (106.90). Conclusion: Although maxillary first molars underwent distal crown inclination immediately after treatment, approximately five years thereafter their roots tended to upright close to the pretreatment positions. PMID:27007764

  8. Short-term effects of sports taping on navicular height, navicular drop and peak plantar pressure in healthy elite athletes: A within-subject comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegyu; Park, Jong-Chul

    2017-11-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common exercise-induced leg pain. The navicular drop (ND) was identified as a risk factor for MTSS. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of sports taping applied to the supporting lower leg during sitting, standing, walking, and jogging to restrict the ND in healthy elite athletes.Twenty-four healthy elite athletes without a history of exercise-induced pain or injuries in the lower limbs participated in this study (median age: 21.00 years; 1st--3rd quartiles; 19.25-22.00). The 4 taping conditions were used: rigid taping (RT), kinesiology taping (KT), placebo taping (PT), and non-taping (NT). The order of taping techniques was randomly assigned. Normalized navicular height (NH), ND, and normalized ND evaluated using 3-dimensional motion analysis, and normalized peak plantar pressure (PP) were compared in 4 taping conditions during sitting, standing, walking, and jogging.During sitting, the normalized NH of RT is higher than that of NT, KT, and PT (χ = 17.30, P = .001), while during jogging, the normalized NH of RT is higher than that of NT and PT (χ = 10.55, P = .014). The normalized peak PP of NT is higher than that of PT (χ = 8.871, P = .031) in the lateral midfoot region.This study showed the RT technique maintained NH during sitting and jogging, and the RT technique could be an effective preventive and treatment strategy for MTSS.

  9. Paleoseismology: evidence of earth activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 5 (2016), 1467-1469 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Paleoseismology * Colluvial wedge * White Creek Fault _ * Greendale Fault * San And reas Fault * Paganica Fault Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  10. Visualizing Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2016-12-01

    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  11. The Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, C. M. R.

    2005-02-01

    The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been brought fully up-to-date to reflect the latest advances in geophysical research. It is designed for students in introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. New to this edition are a section of color plates and separate sections on the earth's mantle and core. The book also contains an extensive glossary of terms, and includes numerous exercises for which solutions are available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org. First Edition Hb (1990): 0-521-37025-6 First Edition Pb (1990): 0-521-38590-3

  12. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  13. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  14. Geomagnetism solid Earth and upper atmosphere perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Basavaiah, Nathani

    2011-01-01

    This volume elaborates several important aspects of solid Earth geomagnetism. It covers all the basics of the subject, including biomagnetism and instrumentation, and offers a number of practical applications with carefully selected examples and illustrations.

  15. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  16. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  17. The Effects of Earth Science Programs on Student Knowledge and Interest in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ariana Wilson, Chris Skinner, Chris Poulsen Abstract For many years, academic programs have been in place for the instruction of young students in the earth sciences before they undergo formal training in high school or college. However, there has been little formal assessment of the impacts of these programs on student knowledge of the earth sciences and their interest in continuing with earth science. On August 6th-12th 2016 I will attend the University of Michigan's annual Earth Camp, where I will 1) ascertain high school students' knowledge of earth science-specifically atmospheric structure and wind patterns- before and after Earth Camp, 2) record their opinions about earth science before and after Earth Camp, and 3) record how the students feel about how the camp was run and what could be improved. I will accomplish these things through the use of surveys asking the students questions about these subjects. I expect my results will show that earth science programs like Earth Camp deepen students' knowledge of and interest in earth science and encourage them to continue their study of earth science in the future. I hope these results will give guidance on how to conduct future learning programs and how to recruit more students to become earth scientists in the future.

  18. Short-term red wine consumption promotes differential effects on plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, sympathetic activity, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive, and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana CM Andrade

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10 or arterial hypertension (n=9, or healthy controls (n=7 were given red wine (250 mL/night for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01 and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05. Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine.

  19. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  20. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...

  1. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  2. Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, Julia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K

    2016-08-05

    Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is often used to assess human descending pain inhibition. Nine different studies on the test-retest-reliability of different CPM paradigms have been published, but none of them has investigated the commonly used heat-cold-pain method. The results vary widely and therefore, reliability measures cannot be extrapolated from one CPM paradigm to another. Aim of the present study was to analyse the test-retest-reliability of the common heat-cold-pain method and its correlation to pain thresholds. We tested the short-term test-retest-reliability within 40 ± 19.9 h using a cold-water immersion (10 °C, left hand) as conditioning stimulus (CS) and heat pain (43-49 °C, pain intensity 60 ± 5 on the 101-point numeric rating scale, right forearm) as test stimulus (TS) in 25 healthy right-handed subjects (12females, 31.6 ± 14.1 years). The TS was applied 30s before (TSbefore), during (TSduring) and after (TSafter) the 60s CS. The difference between the pain ratings for TSbefore and TSduring represents the early CPM-effect, between TSbefore and TSafter the late CPM-effect. Quantitative sensory testing (QST, DFNS protocol) was performed on both sessions before the CPM assessment. paired t-tests, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, significance level p test-retest-reliability of the early CPM-effect using the heat-cold-pain method in healthy subjects achieved satisfying results in terms of the ICC. The SRD of the early CPM effect showed that an individual change of > 20 NRS can be attributed to a real change rather than chance. The late CPM-effect was weaker and not reliable.

  3. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  4. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  5. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  6. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  7. EarthKAM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sponsored by NASA, EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students) is an educational outreach program allowing middle school students to take pictures...

  8. Estimates of radiation effect for a spacecraft on the Earth-Mars-Earth route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N V; Nymmik, R A; Sobolevsky, N M

    2002-01-01

    The space radiation environment predicted for a spacecraft on the Earth-Mars-Earth route at different solar activity levels is analyzed in terms of the Russian-devised models. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Our sustainable Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbach, Raymond L, E-mail: orbach@energy.utexas.edu [Director Energy Institute, Cockrell Family Regents Chair in Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Flawn Academic Center, FAC 428, 2 West Mall C2400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as oceans are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880, and can be associated with the industrial revolution. The climactic consequences of this human dominated increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} define a geologic epoch that has been termed the 'Anthropocene.' The issue is whether this is a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. Eight 'myths' that posit the former are examined in light of known data. The analysis strongly suggests the latter. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. Two examples of economically sustainable CO{sub 2} emission reduction demonstrate that technological innovation has the potential to maintain our standard of living while stabilizing global temperatures.

  10. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Oschman, James L.; Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance. PMID:22291721

  11. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétan Chevalier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  12. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  13. Towards Big Earth Data Analytics: The EarthServer Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Big Data in the Earth sciences, the Tera- to Exabyte archives, mostly are made up from coverage data whereby the term "coverage", according to ISO and OGC, is defined as the digital representation of some space-time varying phenomenon. Common examples include 1-D sensor timeseries, 2-D remote sensing imagery, 3D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geology data, and 4-D x/y/z/t atmosphere and ocean data. Analytics on such data requires on-demand processing of sometimes significant complexity, such as getting the Fourier transform of satellite images. As network bandwidth limits prohibit transfer of such Big Data it is indispensable to devise protocols allowing clients to task flexible and fast processing on the server. The EarthServer initiative, funded by EU FP7 eInfrastructures, unites 11 partners from computer and earth sciences to establish Big Earth Data Analytics. One key ingredient is flexibility for users to ask what they want, not impeded and complicated by system internals. The EarthServer answer to this is to use high-level query languages; these have proven tremendously successful on tabular and XML data, and we extend them with a central geo data structure, multi-dimensional arrays. A second key ingredient is scalability. Without any doubt, scalability ultimately can only be achieved through parallelization. In the past, parallelizing code has been done at compile time and usually with manual intervention. The EarthServer approach is to perform a samentic-based dynamic distribution of queries fragments based on networks optimization and further criteria. The EarthServer platform is comprised by rasdaman, an Array DBMS enabling efficient storage and retrieval of any-size, any-type multi-dimensional raster data. In the project, rasdaman is being extended with several functionality and scalability features, including: support for irregular grids and general meshes; in-situ retrieval (evaluation of database queries on existing archive structures, avoiding data

  14. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Beaudry, Bernard J.

    1987-01-06

    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: La.sub.3-x M.sub.x S.sub.4 where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000.degree. C.

  15. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  16. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  17. Geodetic Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacher, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mankind is constantly threatened by a variety of natural disasters and global change phenomena. In order to be able to better predict and assess these catastrophic and disastrous events a continuous observation and monitoring of the causative Earth processes is a necessity. These processes may happen in time scales from extremely short (earthquakes, volcano eruptions, land slides, ...) to very long (melting of ice sheets, sea level change, plate tectonics, ...). Appropriate monitoring and early warning systems must allow, therefore, the detection and quantification of catastrophic events in (near) real-time on the one hand and the reliable identification of barely noticeable, but crucial long-term trends (e.g., sea level rise) on the other hand. The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), established by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) in 2003, already now contributes in a multitude of ways to meet this challenge, e.g., by providing a highly accurate and stable global reference frame, without which the measurement of a sea level rise of 2-3 mm/y would not be possible; by measuring displacements in near real-time and deformations over decades that offer valuable clues to plate tectonics, earthquake processes, tsunamis, volcanos, land slides, and glaciers dynamics; by observing the mass loss of ice sheets with gravity satellite missions; and by estimating essential variables such as the amount of water vapor in the troposphere relevant for weather predictions and climate and the content of free electrons in the ionosphere crucial for space weather.

  18. Tidal variations of earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The periodic variations of the earths' rotation resulting from the tidal deformation of the earth by the sun and moon were rederived including terms with amplitudes of 0.002 millisec and greater. The series applies to the mantle, crust, and oceans which rotate together for characteristic tidal periods; the scaling parameter is the ratio of the fraction of the Love number producing tidal variations in the moment of inertia of the coupled mantle and oceans (k) to the dimensionless polar moment of inertia of the coupled moments (C). The lunar laser ranging data shows that k/C at monthly and fortnightly frequencies equals 0.99 + or - 0.15 and 0.99 + or - 0.20 as compared to the theoretical value of 0.94 + or - 0.04.

  19. Studying the Earth with Geoneutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Ludhova, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Geo-neutrinos, electron antineutrinos from natural radioactive decays inside the Earth, bring to the surface unique information about our planet. The new techniques in neutrino detection opened a door into a completely new inter-disciplinary field of Neutrino Geoscience. We give here a broad geological introduction highlighting the points where the geo-neutrino measurements can give substantial new insights. The status-of-art of this field is overviewed, including a description of the latest experimental results from KamLAND and Borexino experiments and their first geological implications. We performed a new combined Borexino and KamLAND analysis in terms of the extraction of the mantle geo-neutrino signal and the limits on the Earth's radiogenic heat power. The perspectives and the future projects having geo-neutrinos among their scientific goals are also discussed.

  20. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  1. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  2. Demonstrating Earth Connections and Fuses Working Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Earth wires and fuses work together in UK mains circuits to keep users safe from electric shocks and are taught in many school contexts. The subject can be quite abstract and difficult for pupils to grasp, and a simple but visually clear and direct demonstration is described which would be easy for most physics departments to build and which can…

  3. Earth and ocean modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  4. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  5. Thinking the earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Quentin Meillassoux's call for realism is a call for a new interest in the Earth as un-correlated being in philosophy. Unlike Meillassoux, Martin Heidegger has not been criticized for being a correlationist. To the contrary, his concept of the Earth has to be understood as un-correlated being, as it

  6. Solid Earth: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, R.

    1991-10-01

    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  7. Treinamento isocinético de curto prazo promove aumento da força muscular em indivíduos jovens Short-term isokinetic training increases muscle strength in young subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cunha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos de treinamento isocinético de curta duração no desempenho muscular em indivíduos jovens. Onze homens sadios participaram de um programa de treinamento isocinético de curta duração, composto por 3 sessões (4 séries; 10 repetições isocinéticas concêntricas a 120º.s-1; 2 minutos de intervalo entre séries. A reprodutibilidade dos dados de 2 sessões foi avaliada pelo coeficiente de correlação intraclasses (CCI e teste de Bland e Altman. As avaliações do treinamento foram aplicadas pré e pós a 2ª e 3ª sessões (1 série; 3 repetições concêntricas de extensão do joelho a 60º.s-1, 120º.s-1 e 180º.s-1. Utilizou-se a ANOVA para medidas repetidas e post-hoc de Tukey para verificar diferenças nos testes. O CCI variou de 0,97 a 0,98 em todas as velocidades. Ocorreu um aumento no pico de torque a 60º.s-1 (P=0,03 e 120º.s-1 (P=0,01 após 2 sessões de treinamento. Sugere-se que duas sessões de exercício isocinético foram suficientes para induzir ganhos de força na velocidade treinada (120º.s-1 e em velocidade de contração mais lenta (60º.s-1, em indivíduos jovens.The aim was to investigate the effects of short-term isokinetic training on muscle performance in young individuals. Eleven healthy males subjects underwent to short-term training, consisting of 3 sessions (4 sets, 10 repetitions of concentric isokinetic exercise at 120º.s-1; 2-minute interval between sets. Data reproducibility from two sessions was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Bland and Altman test. Training assessments were made pre and post the 2nd and 3rd sessions (1 set, 3 repetitions of concentric knee extension at 60º.s-1, 120º.s-1 and 180º.s-1. An ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey post-hoc test was applied to determine differences between tests. The ICC ranged from 0.97 to 0.98 for all velocities. There was an increase in peak torque at 60º.s-1 (P=0,03 and 120º.s-1 (P=0,01 after 2

  8. Earth Sciences Division, collected abstracts-1977. [Research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitiquit, W.A.; Ledbetter, G.P.; Henry, A.L.

    1978-05-24

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1977 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. It is arranged alphabetically by author and includes a cross-reference by subject indicating the areas of research interest of the Earth Sciences Division.

  9. Senior High School Earth Sciences and Marine Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Mary; And Others

    This guide was developed for earth sciences and marine sciences instruction in the senior high schools of Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. The subjects covered are: (1) Earth Science for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (2) Marine Biology I for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (3) Marine Biology II, Advanced, for 11th and 12th graders; (4) Marine…

  10. Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Eleanor F.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Rabinowitz, David L.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.

    1997-01-01

    The discoveries of near-Earth asteroids (NEA's) and comets have increased enormously over the last 10-20 years. This is a consequence in large par; of the success of programs that have systematically searched for these objects. These programs have been motivated by the relationships of NEA's to terrestrial impacts, meteorites, comets, and their relative accessibility to spacecraft missions. This paper will review the long-term Palomar Planet Crossing Asteroid Survey (PCAS) a photographic program and the current Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) system NASA's new electronic detection program. The primary goal of NEAT is to discover and inventory near-Earth asteroids and comets, collectively called near-Earth objects or NEO's, larger than 1 km in size. Details of the NEAT system and program results are presented and discussed.

  11. Scarcity of rare earth elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, M A; Lammertsma, K

    2013-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other critical elements besides REEs, identified by the European Commission, are also becoming less easily available. Although there is no deficiency in the earth's crust of rare earth oxides, the economic accessibility is limited. The increased demand for REEs, the decreasing export from China, and geopolitical concerns on availability contributed to the (re)opening of mines in Australia and the USA and other mines are slow to follow. As a result, short supply of particularly terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium, and neodymium is expected to be problematic for at least the short term, also because they cannot be substituted. Recycling REEs from electronic waste would be a solution, but so far there are hardly any established REE recycling methods. Decreasing the dependency on REEs, for example, by identifying possible replacements or increasing their efficient use, represents another possibility. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudigel, H. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Albarede, F. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Lyon (France); Shaw, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McDonough, B. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; White, W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1996-12-01

    The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM) initiative is a grass- roots effort with the goal of establishing a community consensus on a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs, and the fluxes between them. Long term goal of GERM is a chemical reservoir characterization analogous to the geophysical effort of the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Chemical fluxes between reservoirs are included into GERM to illuminate the long-term chemical evolution of the Earth and to characterize the Earth as a dynamic chemical system. In turn, these fluxes control geological processes and influence hydrosphere-atmosphere-climate dynamics. While these long-term goals are clearly the focus of GERM, the process of establishing GERM itself is just as important as its ultimate goal. The GERM initiative is developed in an open community discussion on the World Wide Web (GERM home page is at http://www-ep.es.llnl. gov/germ/germ-home.html) that is mediated by a series of editors with responsibilities for distinct reservoirs and fluxes. Beginning with the original workshop in Lyons (March 1996) GERM is continued to be developed on the Internet, punctuated by workshops and special sessions at professional meetings. It is planned to complete the first model by mid-1997, followed by a call for papers for a February 1998 GERM conference in La Jolla, California.

  13. Earth as art three

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  14. Earth view: A business guide to orbital remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: Earth view - a guide to orbital remote sensing; current orbital remote sensing systems (LANDSAT, SPOT image, MOS-1, Soviet remote sensing systems); remote sensing satellite; and remote sensing organizations.

  15. Identifying Severe Weather Impacts and Damage with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Burks, J. E.; Bell, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Hazards associated with severe convective storms can lead to rapid changes in land surface vegetation. Depending upon the type of vegetation that has been impacted, their impacts can be relatively short lived, such as damage to seasonal crops that are eventually removed by harvest, or longer-lived, such as damage to a stand of trees or expanse of forest that require several years to recover. Since many remote sensing imagers provide their highest spatial resolution bands in the red and near-infrared to support monitoring of vegetation, these impacts can be readily identified as short-term and marked decreases in common vegetation indices such as NDVI, along with increases in land surface temperature that are observed at a reduced spatial resolution. The ability to identify an area of vegetation change is improved by understanding the conditions that are normal for a given time of year and location, along with a typical range of variability in a given parameter. This analysis requires a period of record well beyond the availability of near real-time data. These activities would typically require an analyst to download large volumes of data from sensors such as NASA's MODIS (aboard Terra and Aqua) or higher resolution imagers from the Landsat series of satellites. Google's Earth Engine offers a "big data" solution to these challenges, by providing a streamlined API and option to process the period of record of NASA MODIS and Landsat products through relatively simple Javascript coding. This presentation will highlight efforts to date in using Earth Engine holdings to produce vegetation and land surface temperature anomalies that are associated with damage to agricultural and other vegetation caused by severe thunderstorms across the Central and Southeastern United States. Earth Engine applications will show how large data holdings can be used to map severe weather damage, ascertain longer-term impacts, and share best practices learned and challenges with applying

  16. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  17. The BIOMASS mission — An ESA Earth Explorer candidate to measure the BIOMASS of the earth's forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scipal, K.; Arcioni, M.; Chave, J.

    2010-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) released a Call for Proposals for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission in March 2005, with the aim to select the 7th Earth Explorer (EE-7) mission for launch in the next decade. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to scientific and technical assessment...

  18. Earth before life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  19. Project Earth Science

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  20. The Earth's Magnetic Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovsky, Eduard; Harinarayana, T; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    This volume combines review and solicited contributions, related to scientific studies of Division I of IAGA presented recently at its Scientific Assembly in Sopron in 2009. The book is aimed at intermediate to advanced readers dealing with the Earth's magnetic field generation, its historical records in rocks and geological formations - including links to geodynamics and magnetic dating, with magnetic carriers in earth materials, electromagnetic induction and conductivity studies of the Earth interior with environmental applications of rock magnetism and electromagnetism. The aim of the book

  1. Importance of the Small-Scale Processes Melting, Plate Boundary Formation and Mineralogy on the Large-Scale, Long-Term Thermo-Chemical Evolution of Earth's Mantle-Plate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic observations of the deep Earth reveal the presence of two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) that are typically inferred to be dense chemically-distinct material, as well as discontinuities that are typically linked to the post-perovskite (pPv) phase transition. Several possible origins of chemically-dense material have been proposed, including recycling of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), primordial differentiation events, crystallisation of a basal magma ocean, or some combination of these creating a basal melange (BAM; Tackley 2012 Earth Sci. Rev.). Each of these possibilities would result in a different composition hence different mineralogy. In order to constrain this we have been running calculations of thermo-chemical mantle evolution over 4.5 billion years that include melting-induced differentiation, plate tectonics induced by strongly temperature-dependent viscosity and plastic yielding, core cooling and compressibility with reasonable assumptions about the pressure-dependence of other material properties. Some of our simulations start from a magma ocean state so initial layering is developed self-consistently. Already-published results (Nakagawa et al., 2009 GCubed, 2010 PEPI, 2012 GCubed) already indicate the importance of exact MORB composition on the amount of MORB segregating above the CMB, which in turn influences mantle thermal structure and the evolution of the core and geodynamo. In more recent results we have been additionally including primordial material. We find that melting-induced differentiation has several first-order effects on the dynamics, including (i) making plate tectonics easier (through stresses associated with lateral variations in crustal thickness) and (ii) reducing heat flux through the CMB (due to the build-up of dense material above the CMB); also (iii) tectonic mode (continuous plate tectonics, episodic lid or stagnant lid) also makes a first-order difference to mantle structure and dynamics. This emphasises

  2. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D

    2010-01-01

    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  3. Earth retaining structures manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  4. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H

    2000-01-01

    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  5. Earth's variable rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  6. EARTH ISLAND PROJECT NEWS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

      The section features Earth Island's Dolphin Safe tuna . label (asking readers to look for tuna cans without the Dolphin Safe label and alert us so we can have the cans removed from store shelves...

  7. The Earth's rotation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, V. A.; Ivanova, T. V.

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present paper is to find the trigonometric solution of the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass in the form of polynomial trigonometric series (Poisson series) without secular and mixed therms. For that the techniques of the General Planetary Theory (GPT) ( Brumberg, 1995) and the Poisson Series Processor (PSP) (Ivanova, 1995) are used. The GPT allows to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation in Euler parameters to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  8. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2005-01-01

    The principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics are disclosed leading to a new way to interpret whole-Earth dynamics. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics incorporates elements of and unifies the two seemingly divergent dominant theories of continential displacement, plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory. Whole-Earth decompression is the consequence of Earth formation from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet with subsequent loss of gases and ices and concomitant rebounding. The i...

  9. Direct and indirect capture of near-Earth asteroids in the Earth-Moon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Minghu; McInnes, Colin; Ceriotti, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    Near-Earth asteroids have attracted attention for both scientific and commercial mission applications. Due to the fact that the Earth-Moon L1 and L2 points are candidates for gateway stations for lunar exploration, and an ideal location for space science, capturing asteroids and inserting them into periodic orbits around these points is of significant interest for the future. In this paper, we define a new type of lunar asteroid capture, termed direct capture. In this capture strategy, the candidate asteroid leaves its heliocentric orbit after an initial impulse, with its dynamics modeled using the Sun-Earth-Moon restricted four-body problem until its insertion, with a second impulse, onto the L2 stable manifold in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem. A Lambert arc in the Sun-asteroid two-body problem is used as an initial guess and a differential corrector used to generate the transfer trajectory from the asteroid's initial obit to the stable manifold associated with Earth-Moon L2 point. Results show that the direct asteroid capture strategy needs a shorter flight time compared to an indirect asteroid capture, which couples capture in the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem and subsequent transfer to the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem. Finally, the direct and indirect asteroid capture strategies are also applied to consider capture of asteroids at the triangular libration points in the Earth-Moon system.

  10. Imprint of Galactic dynamics on Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A connection between climate and the Solar system's motion perpendicular to the Galactic plane during the last 200 Myr years is studied. An imprint of galactic dynamics is found in a long-term record of the Earth's climate that is consistent with variations in the Solar system oscillation around ...

  11. The global variability of diatomaceous earth toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nattrass, C; Horwell, C J; Damby, D E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diatomaceous earth (DE) is mined globally and is potentially of occupational respiratory health concern due to the high crystalline silica content in processed material. DE toxicity, in terms of variability related to global source and processing technique, is poorly understood...

  12. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  13. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Dharmaveer Singh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 124 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 17-35. Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of temperature parameters over Sutlej river basin, India · Dharmaveer Singh R D Glupta Sanjay ...

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. M Venkat Ratnam. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 120 Issue 5 October 2011 pp 807-823. Long-term variations in outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR), convective available potential energy (CAPE) and temperature in the tropopause region over ...

  16. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  17. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However...

  18. Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacefield, James Anderson

    Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of responding teachers were found to be properly certified to teach the subject; most had been trained for teaching life science. Approximately one-half had never had a course in geology, astronomy, or meteorology--the three primary components of the typical earth science course. Of 32 earth science topics suggested for possible additional inservice workshops, teachers responding to the Logue and Lacefield survey selected Alabama and Southeastern geology as the topic of greatest interest and need. As an alternative to conventional inservice training, an illustrated book on Alabama geologic history was developed for publication. Its purpose was to supply an ongoing, usable geologic reference for Alabama earth science teachers and their students and to promote greater understanding of Alabama geology by the public in general. Entitled Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: The Half-Billion Year Record of Change in the State's Life and Landscape, the 82-page book (included as appendix) explains how geologic history is reconstructed using evidence from rocks, surveys the major sets of sedimentary rocks found within the state, details what each means in terms of ancient environment, and describes how Alabama's present landscape can be interpreted to reflect past geologic changes. The resource includes nearly 200 color photographs and graphics and 12 pages of fossil identification guides illustrating the most common fossil organisms found within the state. A selected group of professional geologists and earth science educators evaluated the book for scientific accuracy, format, presentation of content, and

  19. Long-term efficacy and safety of E/C/F/TDF vs EFV/FTC/TDF and ATV+RTV+FTC/TDF in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve subjects ≥50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzard, Brian; Girard, Pierre Marie; Di Perri, Giovanni; Gallant, Joel; Towner, William; Rogatto, Felipe; Demorin, Jennifer; McColl, Damian; Liu, Hui; Rhee, Martin; Szwarcberg, Javier; Piontkowsky, David

    2014-01-01

    In high-income countries, ≥30% of HIV-infected patients are ≥50 years (yrs) old (UNAIDS 2013). In two phases, three clinical trials (Studies 102 and 103) elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (E/C/F/TDF; STB) had non-inferior efficacy and favourable safety vs efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EFV/FTC/TDF; ATR) or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV+RTV)+FTC/TDF (TVD) in HIV-infected, treatment-naïve subjects at Week 144. The efficacy and safety of STB in subjects < or ≥50 yrs is described. Post hoc analysis of efficacy, tolerability and safety in subjects < or ≥50 yrs at Week 144. Subjects ≥50 yrs in Study 102: STB: 14% (49/348), ATR: 16% (56/352); in Study 103: STB: 14% (48/353), ATV+RTV+TVD: 14% (48/355). Efficacy, safety and tolerability by age and study endpoint are shown in Table 1. Regardless of age, STB had robust efficacy at Week 144 with similar virologic outcomes vs ATR or ATV+RTV+TVD. Discontinuations (DC) due to AE on STB were similar to the comparators, most occurred by Week 48. Median changes in eGFR on STB were similar by age; DC with renal PRT was rare [STB: 4 (0.6%); ATV: 3 (0.8%); ATR: 0], 2 and 1 in ≥50 yrs old strata, respectively. STB compared to ATR or ATV+RTV+TVD, is an efficacious, well-tolerated and safe regimen for HIV-1-infected, treatment-naïve subjects

  20. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  1. Earth - Moon Conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    On December 16, 1992, 8 days after its encounter with Earth, the Galileo spacecraft looked back from a distance of about 6.2 million kilometers (3.9 million miles) to capture this remarkable view of the Moon in orbit about Earth. The composite photograph was constructed from images taken through visible (violet, red) and near-infrared (1.0-micron) filters. The Moon is in the foreground; its orbital path is from left to right. Brightly colored Earth contrasts strongly with the Moon, which reacts only about one-third as much sunlight as our world. To improve the visibility of both bodies, contrast and color have been computer enhanced. At the bottom of Earth's disk, Antarctica is visible through clouds. The Moon's far side can also be seen. The shadowy indentation in the Moon's dawn terminator--the boundary between its dark and lit sides--is the South Pole-Aitken Basin, one of the largest and oldest lunar impact features. This feature was studied extensively by Galileo during the first Earth flyby in December 1990.

  2. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  3. Google Earth and Map Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By starting Google Earth, the screen shows Earth from a great distance, e.g. from a satellite rotating around the Earth (Fig. 1. The graticule is drawn by using the Grid function from the View menu. Google Earth is a virtual globe which can be rotated in all directions using a mouse.

  4. Fourteen Times the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    ESO HARPS Instrument Discovers Smallest Ever Extra-Solar Planet Summary A European team of astronomers [1] has discovered the lightest known planet orbiting a star other than the sun (an "exoplanet"). The new exoplanet orbits the bright star mu Arae located in the southern constellation of the Altar. It is the second planet discovered around this star and completes a full revolution in 9.5 days. With a mass of only 14 times the mass of the Earth, the new planet lies at the threshold of the largest possible rocky planets, making it a possible super Earth-like object. Uranus, the smallest of the giant planets of the Solar System has a similar mass. However Uranus and the new exoplanet differ so much by their distance from the host star that their formation and structure are likely to be very different. This discovery was made possible by the unprecedented accuracy of the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, which allows radial velocities to be measured with a precision better than 1 m/s. It is another clear demonstration of the European leadership in the field of exoplanet research. PR Photo 25a/04: The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope PR Photo 25b/04: Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae (3.6m/HARPS, 1.2m Swiss/CORALIE, AAT/UCLES) PR Photo 25c/04: Velocity Variation of mu Arae Observed by HARPS (3.6m/HARPS) PR Photo 25d/04: "Velocity Curve" of mu Arae A unique planet hunting machine ESO PR Photo 25a/04 ESO PR Photo 25a/04 The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope [Preview - JPEG: 602 x 400 pix - 211k] [Normal - JPEG: 1202 x 800 pix - 645k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25a/04 represents a montage of the HARPS spectrograph and the 3.6m telescope at La Silla. The upper left shows the dome of the telescope, while the upper right illustrates the telescope itself. The HARPS spectrograph is shown in the lower image during laboratory tests. The vacuum tank is open so that some of the high-precision components inside can be seen. Since the first

  5. Nomograms for calculating the safety factor of homogeneous earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Key words: Nomograms, safety factor, homogeneous earth dams. INTRODUCTION ... based on variations of the main properties in the long- term stability ... 2002; Duncan, 2005), the value of the density of these materials is chosen as the ...

  6. The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

  7. Dagik Earth and IUGONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, K.; Koyama, Y.; Saito, A.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, M.; Kumano, Y.; Hazumi, Y.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we introduce two independent projects in progress in Japan. Dagik Earth is a visualization project of the Earth and planets on a spherical screen using only a standard PC and a projector. Surface images of the Earth or planets (or whatever having spherical shape) in the equirectangular (plate carre) projection are projected on a spherical screen in the orthographic projection. As a result, the spherical screen becomes a virtual digital globe, which can be rotated using mouse or remote controller. Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) is a collaboration of five Japanese institutes to build a comprehensive database system for the metadata of the upper-atmospheric data taken by these institutes. We explain the IUGONET metadata database and iUgonet Data Analysis Software (UDAS) for upper atmospheric research.

  8. Better Than Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René

    2015-01-01

    Do we inhabit the best of all possible worlds? German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz thought so, writing in 1710 that our planet, warts and all, must be the most optimal one imaginable. Leibniz's idea was roundly scorned as unscientific wishful thinking, most notably by French author Voltaire in his magnum opus, Candide. Yet Leibniz might find sympathy from at least one group of scientists - the astronomers who have for decades treated Earth as a golden standard as they search for worlds beyond our own solar system. Because earthlings still know of just one living world - our own - it makes some sense to use Earth as a template in the search for life elsewhere, such as in the most Earth-like regions of Mars or Jupiter's watery moon Europa. Now, however, discoveries of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars other than our sun - exoplanets, that is - are challenging that geocentric approach.

  9. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  10. Reversibility of stress-echo induced ST-segment depression by long-term oral n-3 PUFA supplementation in subjects with chest pain syndrome, normal wall motion at stress-echo and normal coronary angiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziacchi Vigilio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal coronary arteries may coexist with abnormal coronary and systemic endothelial function in patients with chest pain. Recent work by the renowned Pisa echo-group elegantly suggests that isolated ST-segment depression during stress-echo (SE can be used as a marker of coronary endothelial dysfunction, in the absence of stress-inducible wall motion abnormalities and in the absence of angiographically-significant coronary artery disease (CAD. The long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to possess several properties that may positively influence vascular function. The present study's hypothesis is that a 4 month-course of oral supplementation with n-3 PUFAs can reverse endothelial dysfunction. Methods Subjects were selected on the basis of the following criteria: 1 reported chest pain syndrome, 2 significant ST-segment depression during an otherwise normal SE, 3 absence of angiographically-significant CAD. Subjects underwent a 4-month course of oral supplementation with commercially available n-3 PUFA, 1 g once a day. Normalization of endothelial dysfunction was defined, at the end of the supplementation period, by the absence of significant ST-segment depression during repeat SE. We tested the aforementioned hypothesis in a very small series of consecutive subjects, with the intent to produce a hypothesis-generating study. Results Seven out of the total nine subjects enrolled (77.8% had normal ST-segment during repeat SE performed after the 4 month course of therapy. Conclusions A striking rate of reversion of SE-induced ST-segment depression after oral n-3 PUFAs suggests reversion of coronary endothelial dysfunction; nonetheless these data need to be validated in larger, placebo-controlled studies.

  11. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  12. Earth Science Data Analytics: Preparing for Extracting Knowledge from Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steven; Barbieri, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Data analytics is the process of examining large amounts of data of a variety of types to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations and other useful information. Data analytics is a broad term that includes data analysis, as well as an understanding of the cognitive processes an analyst uses to understand problems and explore data in meaningful ways. Analytics also include data extraction, transformation, and reduction, utilizing specific tools, techniques, and methods. Turning to data science, definitions of data science sound very similar to those of data analytics (which leads to a lot of the confusion between the two). But the skills needed for both, co-analyzing large amounts of heterogeneous data, understanding and utilizing relevant tools and techniques, and subject matter expertise, although similar, serve different purposes. Data Analytics takes on a practitioners approach to applying expertise and skills to solve issues and gain subject knowledge. Data Science, is more theoretical (research in itself) in nature, providing strategic actionable insights and new innovative methodologies. Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining, preparing, reducing, and analyzing large amounts of spatial (multi-dimensional), temporal, or spectral data using a variety of data types to uncover patterns, correlations and other information, to better understand our Earth. The large variety of datasets (temporal spatial differences, data types, formats, etc.) invite the need for data analytics skills that understand the science domain, and data preparation, reduction, and analysis techniques, from a practitioners point of view. The application of these skills to ESDA is the focus of this presentation. The Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster was created in recognition of the practical need to facilitate the co-analysis of large amounts of data and information for Earth science. Thus, from a to

  13. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  14. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  15. Short-term Acipimox decreases the ability of plasma from Type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux : a potentially adverse effect on reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; van Tol, A

    Aims To evaluate the effect of short-term administration of the anti-lipolytic agent, Acipimox, on the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol removal, which represents one of the first steps in the anti-atherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. Methods Eight male Type 2

  16. Short-term Acipimox decreases the ability of plasma from type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux: A potentially adverse effect on reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); A. van Tol (Arie)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAims: To evaluate the effect of short-term administration of the anti-lipolytic agent, Acipimox, on the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol removal, which represents one of the first steps in the anti-atherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Eight

  17. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes - Relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA(1c) as markers of diabetic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, VM; Bautista, O; Kenny, D; Sell, DR; Fogarty, J; Dahms, W; Cleary, PA; Lachin, J; Genuth, S

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N-epsilon-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the

  18. "Thinking about a Sustainable Earth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshita, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the

  19. Cosmic Influence on the Sun-Earth Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumitra Mukherjee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SOHO satellite data reveals geophysical changes before sudden changes in the Earth's Sun-Earth environment. The influence of extragalactic changes on the Sun as well as the Sun-Earth environment seems to be both periodic and episodic. The periodic changes in terms of solar maxima and minima occur every 11 years, whereas the episodic changes can happen at any time. Episodic changes can be monitored by cosmic ray detectors as a sudden increase or decrease of activity. During these solar and cosmic anomaly periods the environment of the Earth is affected. The Star-Sun-Earth connection has the potential to influence the thermosphere, atmosphere, ionosphere and lithosphere. Initial correlation of the cosmic and Sun-Earth connection has shown the possibility of predicting earthquakes, sudden changes in atmospheric temperatures and erratic rainfall/snowfall patterns.

  20. The Earth: A Changing Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Núria; Màrquez, Conxita

    2013-04-01

    text: We describe a didactic unit that rises from our own living impression about our experience on the planet. Most of us feel the Earth to be a very static place. Rocks don't easily move and most landscapes always look the same over time. Anyone would say (the same way most scientists believed until the beginning of the last century) that our planet has always remained unchanged, never transformed. But then, all of a sudden, as a misfortune for so many humans, natural hazards appear on the scene: an earthquake causing so many disasters, a tsunami carrying away everything in its path, an eruption that can destroy huge surrounding areas but also bring new geographical relief. Science cannot remain oblivious to these events, we must wonder beyond. What does an earthquake mean? Why does it happen? What about an eruption? If it comes from the inside, what can we guess from it? Researching about all of these events, scientists have been able to arrive to some important knowledge of the planet itself: It has been possible to theorize about Earth's interior. It has also been confirmed that the planet has not always been the quiet and stable place we once thought. Continents, as Wegener supposed, do move about and the Tectonic Plates Theory, thanks to the information obtained through earthquakes and eruption, can provide some interesting explanations. But how do we know about our planet's past? How can we prove that the Earth has always been moving and that its surface changes? The Earth's rocks yield the answer. Rocks have been the only witnesses throughout millions of years, since the planet first came to existence. Let's learn how to read them… Shouldn't we realize that rocks are to Geology what books are to History? This discursive process has been distributed in four learning sequences: 1. Land is not as solid nor firm as it would seem, 2. The Earth planet: a puzzle, 3. The rocks also recycle , 4. Field trip to "Sant Miquel del Fai". The subjects take about 30

  1. DIORAMA Earth Terrain Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werley, Kenneth Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-10

    When simulating near-surface nuclear detonations, the terrain of the Earth can have an effect on the observed outputs. The critical parameter is called the “height of burst”. In order to model the effect of terrain on the simulations we have incorporated data from multiple sources to give 9 km resolution data with global coverage.

  2. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  3. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  4. The Earth's Changing Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wavelength range between 0.2 and 4.0 microns (p,m). ... from the earth is in the long wavelength range from 4.0 to 80/-Lm. .... turing industry. But, it is removed from the atmosphere by the photosynthesis of plants. The largest reservoirs of carbon are in the deep oceans. Some of this reaches the atmosphere when waters.

  5. Modeling Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun; Pryputniewicz, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Systems thinking suggests that one can best understand a complex system by studying the interrelationships of its component parts rather than looking at the individual parts in isolation. With ongoing concern about the effects of climate change, using innovative materials to help students understand how Earth's systems connect with each other is…

  6. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  7. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  8. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  9. Google Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  10. Between Earth and Sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    to rescue architecture from the sterile impasse of late-modernism. In his works the basic elements of lived space become present: the earth, the sky and the `between` of human existence." Jørn Utzon's architecture ranges from the modest to the monumental; from the Kingo courtyard houses, the finest...

  11. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  12. Orthodontic Treatment and Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis of a Subject with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Isolated Cleft Palate: A Long-Term Follow-Up from the Age of 5 to 24 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Yamaguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS is a rare multisystem disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23. WBS patients have characteristic skeletal features and dental anomalies accompanied by mental retardation, a friendly outgoing personality, and mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning problems. In this case report, we present the combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a WBS patient with an isolated cleft palate through a long-term follow-up from the age of 5 to 24 years. During the period of active treatment, comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis and prosthetic treatment using dental implants were effective in dramatically improving the patient’s malocclusion. The patient’s mental abilities and the cooperation shown by the patient and her family were crucial for the success of this complex and long-term treatment course.

  13. Deriving Earth Science Data Analytics Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Data Analytics applications have made successful strides in the business world where co-analyzing extremely large sets of independent variables have proven profitable. Today, most data analytics tools and techniques, sometimes applicable to Earth science, have targeted the business industry. In fact, the literature is nearly absent of discussion about Earth science data analytics. Earth science data analytics (ESDA) is the process of examining large amounts of data from a variety of sources to uncover hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information. ESDA is most often applied to data preparation, data reduction, and data analysis. Co-analysis of increasing number and volume of Earth science data has become more prevalent ushered by the plethora of Earth science data sources generated by US programs, international programs, field experiments, ground stations, and citizen scientists.Through work associated with the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation, ESDA types have been defined in terms of data analytics end goals. Goals of which are very different than those in business, requiring different tools and techniques. A sampling of use cases have been collected and analyzed in terms of data analytics end goal types, volume, specialized processing, and other attributes. The goal of collecting these use cases is to be able to better understand and specify requirements for data analytics tools and techniques yet to be implemented. This presentation will describe the attributes and preliminary findings of ESDA use cases, as well as provide early analysis of data analytics toolstechniques requirements that would support specific ESDA type goals. Representative existing data analytics toolstechniques relevant to ESDA will also be addressed.

  14. A supplementary note on constructing the general Earth's rotation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Victor A.; Ivanova, Tamara V.

    2014-07-01

    Representing a post-scriptum supplementary to a previous paper of the authors Brumberg & Ivanova (2011) this note aims to simplify the practical development of the Earth's rotation theory, in the framework of the general planetary theory, avoiding the non-physical secular terms and involving the separation of the fast and slow angular variables, both for planetary-lunar motion and Earth's rotation. In this combined treatment of motion and rotation, the fast angular terms are related to the mean orbital longitudes of the bodies, the diurnal and Euler rotations of the Earth. The slow angular terms are due to the motions of pericenters and nodes, as well as the precession of the Earth. The combined system of the equations of motion for the principal planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation is reduced to the autonomous secular system with theoretically possible solution in a trigonometric form. In the above-mentioned paper, the Earth's rotation has been treated in Euler parameters. The trivial change of the Euler parameters to their small declinations from some nominal values may improve the practical efficiency of the normalization of the Earth's rotation equations. This technique may be applied to any three-axial rigid planet. The initial terms of the corresponding expansions are given in the Appendix.

  15. 3D-model: Earth's seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirlaen, Koen

    2017-04-01

    A lot of subjects in geography and geology are linked to the seasons of the earth. Most of the students think that the earth's seasons are caused by the differences in the distance from the sun throughout the year. So as a teacher I tried year after year to explain the motion of the earth around the sun. Even when I used animations/movies/… it still seemed difficult for the students to understand the 3D-situation. Most of the animations only show the start of every season but it's important to demonstrate to the students the motion of the earth during a year so they can see that the tilt of our planet causes the seasons. The earth's axis is tilted by 23.4 degrees to the plane in which it travels around the sun, the ecliptic. So I started to work on a 3D-model on a scale to use in a classroom. It measures approximately 2m by 1m. You can buy all the materials in DIY-shop for less than € 100: wooden plank, lamp, styrofoam spheres (= earth), … I have been using the model for over 4 years now and it's very nice to work with. You can involve the students more and let them investigate for themselves what causes the seasons. The model demonstrates the start of every season, why it is dark for several months in several places on Earth. They can draw the positions of the Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle on the styrofoam spheres. Also the difference between day and night is well shown on the globes. A lot of subjects in geography and geology are linked to the seasons of the earth: the changes in weather, ocean currents, winds, tropical storms, vegetation, fauna and flora, hours of daylight, … even economy, migration and social health. This way the model can be used in many lessons during the year. The poster session will demonstrate how you can make the 3D-model, some exercises, …

  16. Rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  17. NASA's Earth Data Coherent Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    activities. A. Consolidate ESDIS supported sites into a single URL powered by a Content Management System. 1. Perform trade studies and selection of a Content Management System 2. earthdata.nasa.gov has launched 3. Consistent look and feel for all content 4. Define roles, responsibilities, and workflow for content management 5. Define content governance 6. Define the process and provide the infra-structure for system enhancements B. Encourage cross data center linkages by implementing a uniform 'Top Hat' at all Data Centers 1. Improves user awareness of other EOSDIS resources 2. Facilitates initial cross-linking between data centers C. Create a process and roadmap for future modifications 1. Surveys completed and analyzed 2. Key Focus Areas Identified 3. Develop a concept of operation for future phases by defining operational goals and user scenarios to address the identified key focus area We will present details on these Phase I activities, how they were addressed, the benefits to the Earth Data users, and lessons learned. In addition, we will discuss the survey results and near term objectives to achieve EOSDIS vision.

  18. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  19. Imaging earth`s interior: Tomographic inversions for mantle P-wave velocity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulliam, Robert Jay [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-07-01

    A formalism is developed for the tomographic inversion of seismic travel time residuals. The travel time equations are solved both simultaneously, for velocity model terms and corrections to the source locations, and progressively, for each set of terms in succession. The methods differ primarily in their treatment of source mislocation terms. Additionally, the system of equations is solved directly, neglecting source terms. The efficacy of the algorithms is explored with synthetic data as we perform simulations of the general procedure used to produce tomographic images of Earth`s mantle from global earthquake data. The patterns of seismic heterogeneity in the mantle that would be returned reliably by a tomographic inversion are investigated. We construct synthetic data sets based on real ray sampling of the mantle by introducing spherical harmonic patterns of velocity heterogeneity and perform inversions of the synthetic data.

  20. Effect of a short-term dietary supplementation with phytosterols, red yeast rice or both on lipid pattern in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects: a three-arm, double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Fogacci, Federica; Rosticci, Martina; Parini, Angelo; Giovannini, Marina; Veronesi, Maddalena; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Phytosterols and red yeast rice are largely studied cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals, respectively inhibiting the bowel absorption and liver synthesis of cholesterol. Our aim was to test the effect on lipid profile of phytosterols, red yeast rice and their association. We performed a three parallel arms, double blind, clinical trial randomizing 90 moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects to treatment with phytosterols 800 mg (group 1), red yeast rice standardized to contain 5 mg monacolins from Monascus purpureus (group 2), or both combined nutraceuticals (group 3). After 8 weeks of treatment, in group 1 no significant variation of lipid parameters has been detected. In group 2 a significant reduction (p red yeast rice seems to have additive cholesterol lowering effect, reaching a clinically significant LDL-Cholesterol reduction in mildly hypercholesterolemic patients. ClinicalTrial.gov ID: NCT02603276, Registered 27/08/2015.

  1. Earth Science Multimedia Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation will begin with the latest 1998 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. A compilation of the 10 days of animations of Hurricane Georges which were supplied daily on NASA to Network television will be shown. NASA's visualizations of Hurricane Bonnie which appeared in the Sept 7 1998 issue of TIME magazine. Highlights will be shown from the NASA hurricane visualization resource video tape that has been used repeatedly this season on network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1 -min GOES images that will appear in the October BAMS. The visualizations are produced by the Goddard Visualization & Analysis Laboratory, and Scientific Visualization Studio, as well as other Goddard and NASA groups using NASA, NOAA, ESA, and NASDA Earth science datasets. Visualizations will be shown from the "Digital-HyperRes-Panorama" Earth Science ETheater'98 recently presented in Tokyo, Paris and Phoenix. The presentation in Paris used a SGI/CRAY Onyx Infinite Reality Super Graphics Workstation at 2560 X 1024 resolution with dual synchronized video Epson 71 00 projectors on a 20ft wide screen. Earth Science Electronic Theater '999 is being prepared for a December 1 st showing at NASA HQ in Washington and January presentation at the AMS meetings in Dallas. The 1999 version of the Etheater will be triple wide with at resolution of 3840 X 1024 on a 60 ft wide screen. Visualizations will also be featured from the new Earth Today Exhibit which was opened by Vice President Gore on July 2, 1998 at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum in Washington, as well as those presented for possible use at the American Museum of Natural History (NYC), Disney EPCOT, and other venues. New methods are demonstrated for visualizing, interpreting, comparing, organizing and analyzing immense Hyperimage remote sensing datasets and three dimensional numerical model results. We call the data from many new Earth sensing satellites

  2. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  3. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  4. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  5. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

    2006-01-01

    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  6. ERDA energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The technical staff of the ERDA Technical Information Center, as part of its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary which allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. Terms in the thesaurus are listed alphabetically; each entry is accompanied by a ''word block'' containing all the terms associated with the entry. There are 15,905 approved terms and 4198 forbidden terms in this edition. (RWR)

  7. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  8. Phaethon Near Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2017-08-01

    Planet-crossing asteroid (3200) Phaethon, source of the Geminid meteoroid stream, will pass close to Earth in December 2017. Observations with HST are proposed to image debris ejected from this object at 1 AU heliocentric distance, to estimate the ejection velocities as the Earth passes through the orbit plane, and to estimate the dust production rate for comparison with the rates needed to sustain the Geminid stream in steady-state. These measurements will help determine the mechanism behind the ejection of the Geminids, a long-standing puzzle. While the release of micron-sized particles (probably by thermal fracture) has been recorded at Phaethon's perihelion (0.14 AU), mass loss has never been detected otherwise, raising the puzzle of the ejection mechanism and duration. The close approach (0.07 AU) on December 17 gives a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to observe Phaethon at high sensitivity with a resolution of a few kilometers.

  9. Marketing Earth science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Spiers, Chris

    In the 1990s, the Department of Earth Sciences at Utrecht University in the Netherlands was struggling with a declining influx of students. For years, the department had been active in promoting its program, but this was insufficient to stem the decline in interest. To remedy the problem, the school's Earth science faculty carried out, with the help of consultants, a qualitative evaluation of its promotional activities. The faculty feared that their own image of the department might be in conflict with the image held by others; prospective students, in particular. The consultants interviewed secondary school students, parents, teachers, and study advisors in secondary schools. This article is a report on the results of this evaluation.

  10. Life Before Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no...

  11. Photosynthesis and early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Patrick M

    2015-10-05

    Life has been built on the evolution and innovation of microbial metabolisms. Even with our scant understanding of the full diversity of microbial life, it is clear that microbes have become integral components of the biogeochemical cycles that drive our planet. The antiquity of life further suggests that various microbial metabolisms have been core and essential to global elemental cycling for a majority of Earth's history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology ...

  13. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  14. Life Before Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Sharov, Alexei A; Gordon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization,...

  15. Testing MOND on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatiev, A Yu

    2014-01-01

    MOND is one of the most popular alternatives to Dark Matter (DM). While efforts to directly detect DM in laboratories have been steadily pursued over the years, the proposed Earth-based tests of MOND are still in their infancy. Some proposals recently appeared in the literature are briefly reviewed, and it is argued that collaborative efforts of theorists and experimenters are needed to move forward in this exciting new area. Possible future directions are outlined.

  16. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  17. Earth's heat budget: Clairvoyant geoneutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2011-09-01

    The quantity of heat generated by radioactive decay in Earth's interior is controversial. Measurements of geoneutrinos emitted from the mantle during this decay indicate that this source contributes only about half of Earth's total outgoing heat flux.

  18. Physics: clairvoyant of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, R. T.

    1991-05-01

    The Earth is a vibrant body whose structure and dynamics can be investigated by geophysics. Earth movements not only constitute a hazard, but over many millenia have contributed to the development and location of our natural resources.

  19. Mirador - Earth Surface and Interior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. The goal of the Earth Surface and Interior focus area is to assess, mitigate and forecast the natural hazards that affect...

  20. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  1. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  2. Afganistan and rare earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. Dobrescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  3. Value of Earth Observations: NASA Activities with Socioeconomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, L.

    2016-12-01

    There is greater emphasis internationally on the social and economic benefits that organizations can derive from applications of Earth observations. A growing set of qualitative, anecdotal examples on the uses of Earth observations across a range of sectors can be complemented by the quantitative substantiation of the socioeconomic benefits. In turn, the expanding breadth of environmental data available and the awareness of their beneficial applications to inform decisions can support new products and services. To support these efforts, there are needs to develop impact assessments, populate the literature, and develop familiarity in the Earth science community with the terms, concepts and methods to assess impacts. Within NASA, the Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences Program has initiated and supported numerous activities in recent years to quantify the socioeconomic benefits from Earth observations applications and to build familiarity within the Earth science community. This paper will present an overview of measuring socioeconomic impacts of Earth observations and how the measures can be translated into a value of Earth observation information. It will address key terms, techniques, principles and applications of socioeconomic impact analyses. It will also discuss activities to support analytic techniques, expand the literature, and promote broader skills and capabilities.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Earth Radiation Pressure Acceleration on Low-Earth Orbit Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielberg, Kristin; Forootan, Ehsan; Lück, Christina; Kusche, Jürgen; Börger, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The orbits of satellites are influenced by several external forces. The main non-gravitational forces besides thermospheric drag, acting on the surface of satellites, are accelerations due to the Earth and Solar Radiation Pres- sure (SRP and ERP, respectively). The sun radiates visible and infrared light reaching the satellite directly, which causes the SRP. Earth also emits and reflects the sunlight back into space, where it acts on satellites. This is known as ERP acceleration. The influence of ERP increases with decreasing distance to the Earth, and for low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites ERP must be taken into account in orbit and gravity computations. Estimating acceler- ations requires knowledge about energy emitted from the Earth, which can be derived from satellite remote sensing data, and also by considering the shape and surface material of a satellite. In this sensitivity study, we assess ERP accelerations based on different input albedo and emission fields and their modelling for the satellite missions Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). As input fields, monthly 1°x1° products of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant En- ergy System (CERES), L3 are considered. Albedo and emission models are generated as latitude-dependent, as well as in terms of spherical harmonics. The impact of different albedo and emission models as well as the macro model and the altitude of satellites on ERP accelerations will be discussed.

  5. Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet and a physical activity programme on weight loss and exercise capacity in obese subjects with chronic ischaemic heart disease: a study in everyday practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoni, Luca Alessandro; Titon, Anna Maria; Nibbio, Ferruccio; Caetani, Giulia; Augello, Giovanni; Mian, Ornella; Tuzzi, Cristina; Averna, Eva; Parisio, Cinzia; Liuzzi, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the effects of a rehabilitation programme in obese patients affected with chronic ischaemic heart disease; to identify the factors that influence weight loss and improvement in exercise capacity in everyday practice. We studied 562 white patients (381 men) who followed a 23.3 +/- 3.9 days in-hospital programme. They attended daily sessions of aerobic activity (cycloergometer, walking, and strength exercise); a low-calorie diet was set at approximately 80% of resting energy expenditure. By the end of the programme BMI decreased from 38.0 +/- 4.9 to 36.7 +/- 4.8 kg/m2 (P exercise capacity: 0.9 +/- 1.0 METS vs. 1.3 +/- 1.3 (P exercise capacity and induces significant weight loss in obese patients with stable IHD, but women, diabetic, elderly and poorly educated subjects obtained unsatisfactory results. Use of diuretics and ARB seem to worsen the results. At follow-up only a small percentage of patients further improves BMI.

  6. Infarct Artery Distribution and Clinical Outcomes in Occluded Artery Trial Subjects Presenting with Non ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (From the Long Term Follow-up of the Occluded Artery Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Venu; Ruzyllo, Witold; Carvalho, Antonio C.; Marconi, Jose; de Sousa, Almeida; Forman, Sandra A.; Jaworska, Krystyna; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Roik, Marek; Thuaire, Christophe; Turgeman, Yoav; Hochman, Judith S.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that the insensitivity of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in identifying acute circumflex occlusion would result in differences in the distribution of the infarct related artery (IRA) between patients with non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) enrolled in the Occluded Artery Trial. We also sought to evaluate the impact of percutaneous intervention to the IRA on clinical outcomes for patients with NSTEMI. Overall NSTEMI subjects comprised 13% (n=283) of the trial population. The circumflex IRA was overrepresented in the NSTEMI group compared to patients enrolled with STEMI (42.5 vs. 11.2%; pCHF) (22.3 vs. 20.23%, p=0.51, HR 1.20; 0.59-2.43); as well as the individual endpoints of Death (13.8 vs. 17.0%, p=0.51, HR 0.81;0.36-1.85); MI (6.1 vs. 5.1%, p=0.84, HR=1.11; 0.28-4.41); Class IV CHF (6.7 vs. 6.0%, p=0.45, HR 1.50;0.37-6.02). There was no interaction between MI type by ECG and treatment effect (p= NS). In conclusion the occluded circumflex IRA is overrepresented in the NSTEMI population. Consistent with the overall trial results, stable patients with NSTEMI and a totally occluded IRA did not benefit from randomization to PCI. PMID:23351464

  7. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  8. Debate on expanding survey of near Earth objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA officials told a U.S. House of Representatives Science Subcommittee on 3 October that a ground-based survey to detect near-Earth objects (NEOs) is on target for achieving its goals. The NEOs that are the subject of the survey are those 1 km across or larger, and could therefore cause devastating damage if they collided with Earth.Representatives of NASA, the National Research Council, and other agencies also told the subcommittee that astronomers and policy-makers need to consider whether to expand the survey to scan for even smaller NEOs that also could inflict widespread damage to Earth on collision.

  9. Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2016-09-01

    Salinity is the major environmental constraint that affects legume productivity by inducing oxidative stress. Individually, both silicon (Si) nutrition and mycorrhization have been reported to alleviate salt stress. However, the mechanisms adopted by both in mediating stress responses are poorly understood. Thus, pot trials were undertaken to evaluate comparative as well as interactive effects of Si and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in alleviating NaCl toxicity in modulating oxidative stress and antioxidant defence mechanisms in two Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes-HC 3 (salt-tolerant) and CSG 9505 (salt-sensitive). Plants subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial increase in the rate of superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), H2O2, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which induced leakage of ions and disturbed Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in roots and leaves. Individually, Si and AM reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX)). Si was relatively more efficient in reducing accumulation of stress metabolites, while mycorrhization significantly up-regulated antioxidant machinery and modulated ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle. Combined applications of Si and AM complemented each other in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up by further enhancing the antioxidant defence responses. Magnitude of ROS-mediated oxidative burden was lower in HC 3 which correlated strongly with more effective AM symbiosis, better capacity to accumulate Si and stronger defence response when compared with CSG 9505. Study indicated that Si and/or AM fungal amendments upgraded salt tolerance through a dynamic shift from oxidative destruction towards favourable antioxidant defence system in stressed chickpea plants.

  10. Virtual materiality, potentiality and gendered subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse, subjectivity and the enactment of masculinity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse, subjectivity and masculinity in children’s everyday lives...

  11. On general Earth's rotation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, V.; Ivanova, T.

    2009-09-01

    This paper dealing with the general problem of the rigid-body rotation of the three-axial Earth represents a straightforward extension of (Brumberg and Ivanova, 2007) where the simplified Poisson equations of rotation of the axially symmetrical Earth have been considered. The aim of the present paper is to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  12. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  13. Solid Earth: The priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, P.

    1991-10-01

    The European Space Agency's strategy concerning the solid Earth program is reviewed. Improvement of current knowledge of the global geopotential fields, both gravity and magnetic, was stressed as the highest priority. It was agreed that the objectives and goals of the planned Aristoteles mission correspond to this priority, and the need to realize this part of the program was stated. The interdisciplinary links of the program were identified, and it was decided that this program could make substantial contributions to research of oceans, climate and global change, atmosphere, ice and land surfaces.

  14. Monitoring of Earth Rotation by VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma., Chopo; Macmillan, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring Earth rotation with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has unique potential because of direct access to the Celestial Reference System (CRF and Terrestrial Reference System (TRF) and the feasibility of re-analyzing the entire data set. While formal precision of better than 0.045 mas for pole and 0.002 ms for UT 1 has been seen in the best 24-hr data, the accuracy of the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) time series as a whole is subject to logistical, operational, analytical and conceptual constraints. The current issues related to the VLBI data set and the CORE program for greater time resolution such as analysis consistency, network jitter and reference frame stability will be discussed.

  15. Magnetic excitations in rare earth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jens

    1982-10-01

    The observation of magnetic excitations, by means of inelastic neutron scattering, provides valuable information on the magnetic forces acting in rare-earth systems. The RPA (random-phase approximation) theory, developed into its final form in the early seventies, is now a widely used tool for analyzing the excitation spectra in systems with well-defined local moments. These excitations reflect both the dynamics of the single moments and the interactions of these moments with their surroundings. A discussion of the information which has been obtained from studies of the magnetic excitations in the rare-earth metal is presented. The emphasis is laid on Pr-metal which has attracted much interest in recent years. Recent progress in the investigation of rare-earth intermetallic compounds, like the Laves-phase and the CsCl-type-compounds and the rare-earth pnictides, is also condidered. Some aspects of the magnetic properties of the actinides can be understood in terms of a model of localized moments, and we include a discussion of USb, where the spin-wave spectrum contains direct evidence that the spins are ordered in a triple- q structure. The magnetic excitations may be coupled to the phonons and in the metallic systems they interact with the electron- hole excitations of the conduction electrons. Therefore the sound velocities and the effective mass of the conduction electrons can be strongly affected by the spin system. Recent developments within these areas are also reviewed.

  16. Teach and Touch the Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florina Tendea, Camelia

    2017-04-01

    My name is Camelia Florina Tendea. I am primary school teacher at "Horea, Closca and Crisan" Secondary School, in Brad, a town in the west side of Transylvania. I am permanently interested to develop my knowledge and teaching skills about space sciences (Earth and Sky) because the new generations of students are very well informed and couriouse about these topics. In this context the teachers must be prepared to deal with such requests in school. Introducing of activity: For a primary school teacher is a real challenge teaching about Earth and Sky, so I consider that a collaboration with science teachers, engineers and other specialists in the sciences is absolutely essential and beneficial in the educational design. In my opinion, the contents about Earth ans Sky-Space in a single word- are very attractive for students and they are a permanent source of discoveries and provide a multidisciplinary vision, so required in the education. Possible contents to teach in primary school: about Earth: -Terra -the third Planet from the Sun; How Earth spins; Land and water; The Earth seen from space, Trip between Earth and Moon,Weather Phenomena; the Poles; about Sky: Solar System, Asteroids, Comets, Meteorites; Rosetta Mission or rendez-vous with a comet; Sun.Moon. Earth. Eclipse;Light Pollution and protection of the night sky; Life in Space. Astronauts and experiences; Mission X:- Train Like an Astronaut;About ISS. For teachers it is important to know from the beginning how they teach, a viable support is the teaching of STEM subjects, which provides access to careers in astronomy, science/technology space. We could teach about earth and sky using different kinds of experiments, simulations, hands-on activities, competitions, exhibitions, video presentations. Competences developed in primary school through these contents: Comunication, individual studying, understanding and valorisation of scientific information, relating to the natural environment. In addition, they are

  17. Earth's surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Davies

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a revised estimate of Earth's surface heat flux that is based upon a heat flow data-set with 38 347 measurements, which is 55% more than used in previous estimates. Our methodology, like others, accounts for hydrothermal circulation in young oceanic crust by utilising a half-space cooling approximation. For the rest of Earth's surface, we estimate the average heat flow for different geologic domains as defined by global digital geology maps; and then produce the global estimate by multiplying it by the total global area of that geologic domain. The averaging is done on a polygon set which results from an intersection of a 1 degree equal area grid with the original geology polygons; this minimises the adverse influence of clustering. These operations and estimates are derived accurately using methodologies from Geographical Information Science. We consider the virtually un-sampled Antarctica separately and also make a small correction for hot-spots in young oceanic lithosphere. A range of analyses is presented. These, combined with statistical estimates of the error, provide a measure of robustness. Our final preferred estimate is 47±2 TW, which is greater than previous estimates.

  18. Diatomaceous Earths - Natural Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Korunić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory issues for diatomaceous earth (DE cover three fields: consumer safety,worker safety, and proof of efficacy against pests. For consumer safety, regulatory issuesare similar to those for other additives, and a principal benefit of DEs is their removal bynormal processing methods. For worker safety, regulatory issues are similar to those forother dusts, such as lime. The proof of potential insecticide values of DE may be assessedby using the analysis of physical and chemical properties of DE and its effect on grainproperties and the proof of efficacy may be regulated by bioassay of standard design.Integrated pest management (IPM, a knowledge-based system, is rapidly providing aframework to reduce dependence on synthetic chemical pesticides. The main principleof post-harvest IPM is to prevent problems rather than to react to them. The specificcurative measures using synthetic pesticides should be applied only when infestationoccurs. DE and enhanced diatomaceous earth (EDE formulations hold significant promiseto increase the effectiveness and broaden the adoption of IPM strategies, thereby reducingthe need for synthetic pesticides. By incorporating DE in an effective IPM program,grain is protected against infestation, loss caused by insects is prevented and grain qualityis maintained until the grain is processed. Cases study data on the use of DE for commodityand structural treatment show that DE is already a practical alternative to syntheticpesticides in some applications.

  19. School, Earth and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity

  20. The Translational-Rotational Motion of an Earth Spheroid Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaboury, S. M.; Mostafa, A.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we consider the translational-rotational motion of a spheroid satellite in the gravitational field, taking into account the asphericity of the earth. The harmonic coefficients of the earth's gravitational field are taken up to J 4. The equations of motion are obtained in terms of the canonical elements of Delaunay-Andoyer. A first order solution is obtained using the perturbing technique of Lie series.

  1. Negative Refraction in Rare-Earth Doped Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0221 NEGATIVE REFRACTION IN RARE-EARTH DOPED CRYSTALS Deniz Yavuz UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN SYSTEM MADISON WI Final Report 06/09...DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2013-February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NEGATIVE REFRACTION IN RARE-EARTH DOPED CRYSTALS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT In this project, our long-term goal is to demonstrate the first negative refraction in atomic systems. Although the concept of negative

  2. Moving Closer to EarthScope: A Major New Initiative for the Earth Sciences*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D.; Blewitt, G.; Ekstrom, G.; Henyey, T.; Hickman, S.; Prescott, W.; Zoback, M.

    2002-12-01

    EarthScope is a scientific research and infrastructure initiative designed to provide a suite of new observational facilities to address fundamental questions about the evolution of continents and the processes responsible for earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The integrated observing systems that will comprise EarthScope capitalize on recent developments in sensor technology and communications to provide Earth scientists with synoptic and high-resolution data derived from a variety of geophysical sensors. An array of 400 broadband seismometers will spend more than ten years crossing the contiguous 48 states and Alaska to image features that make up the internal structure of the continent and underlying mantle. Additional seismic and electromagnetic instrumentation will be available for high resolution imaging of geological targets of special interest. A network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and sensitive borehole strainmeters will be installed along the western U.S. plate boundary. These sensors will measure how western North America is deforming, what motions occur along faults, how earthquakes start, and how magma flows beneath active volcanoes. A four-kilometer deep observatory bored directly into the San Andreas fault will provide the first opportunity to observe directly the conditions under which earthquakes occur, to collect fault rocks and fluids for laboratory study, and to monitor continuously an active fault zone at depth. All data from the EarthScope facilities will be openly available in real-time to maximize participation from the scientific community and to provide on-going educational outreach to students and the public. EarthScope's sensors will revolutionize observational Earth science in terms of the quantity, quality and spatial extent of the data they provide. Turning these data into exciting scientific discovery will require new modes of experimentation and interdisciplinary cooperation from the Earth

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  4. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  5. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  6. Addressing Grand Challenges in Earth Observation Science: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, W.; Fröhlich, J.; Wotawa, G.; Stowasser, R.; Staudinger, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Walli, A.; Federspiel, C.; Aspetsberger, M.; Atzberger, C.; Briese, C.; Notarnicola, C.; Zebisch, M.; Boresch, A.; Enenkel, M.; Kidd, R.; von Beringe, A.; Hasenauer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Mücke, W.

    2014-09-01

    Earth observation is entering a new era where the increasing availability of free and open global satellite data sets combined with the computing power offered by modern information technologies opens up the possibility to process high-resolution data sets at global scale and short repeat intervals in a fully automatic fashion. This will not only boost the availability of higher level earth observation data in purely quantitative terms, but can also be expected to trigger a step change in the quality and usability of earth observation data. However, the technical, scientific, and organisational challenges that need to be overcome to arrive at this point are significant. First of all, Petabyte-scale data centres are needed for storing and processing complete satellite data records. Second, innovative processing chains that allow fully automatic processing of the satellite data from the raw sensor records to higher-level geophysical products need to be developed. Last but not least, new models of cooperation between public and private actors need to be found in order to live up to the first two challenges. This paper offers a discussion of how the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC) - a catalyser for an open and international cooperation of public and private organisations - will address these three grand challenges with the aim to foster the use of earth observation for monitoring of global water resources.

  7. Term Context

    OpenAIRE

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Two construction functors: simple term with a variable and compound term with an operation and argument terms and schemes of term induction are introduced. The degree of construction as a number of used operation symbols is defined. Next, the term context is investigated. An x-context is a term which includes a variable x once only. The compound term is x-context iff the argument terms include an x-context once only. The context induction is shown and used many times. As a key concept, the co...

  8. Term Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two construction functors: simple term with a variable and compound term with an operation and argument terms and schemes of term induction are introduced. The degree of construction as a number of used operation symbols is defined. Next, the term context is investigated. An x-context is a term which includes a variable x once only. The compound term is x-context iff the argument terms include an x-context once only. The context induction is shown and used many times. As a key concept, the context substitution is introduced. Finally, the translations and endomorphisms are expressed by context substitution.

  9. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  10. One Day on Earth

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with the CineGlobe Film Festival, the One Day on Earth global film project invites you to share your story of scientific inspiration, scientific endeavors and technological advancement on 11 November 2011 (11.11.11).   Technology in the 21st century continuously inspires us to re-imagine the world. From outer-space to cyberspace, new ideas that we hope will improve the lives of future generations keep us in a state of change. However, these new technologies may alter the nature of our shared existence in ways not yet known. On 11.11.11, we invite you to record the exciting ways that science is a part of your life, together with people around the world who will be documenting their lives on this day of global creation. See www.onedayonearth.org for details on how to participate.

  11. Telephony Earth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adrian J.; Kay, Stan

    The Telephony Earth Station (TES), a digital full-mesh SCPC (single channel per carrier) system designed for satellite voice and data transmission is described. As compared to companded FM, the advanced speech compression and forward error correction techniques used by TES better achieve the quality, power, and bandwidth ideal for each application. In addition, the TES offers a fully demand-assigned voice call setup, handles point-to-point data channels, supports a variety of signaling schemes, and does not require any separate pilot receivers at the station, while keeping costs low through innovative technology and packaging. The TES can be used for both C-band and Ku-band (domestic or international) applications, and is configurable either as an VSAT (very small aperture terminal) using an SSPA, or as a larger station depending on the capacity requirements. A centralized DAMA processor and network manager is implemented using a workstation.

  12. Earth System Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Margaret

    If every citizen could read the above quote and understand its underlying ecological concepts, economic challenges, social services, and spiritual heritage, then it is likely that sustainability education would be achieved. The notion of a tree and its ecosystem services illustrate sustainability in the simplest yet most robust sense. To plant and grow a tree, economists struggle with volatile currencies; ecologists juggle development and conservation; religious leaders advocate stewardship; and social scientists examine equity in a world of declining resources. Sustainability education requires an integrated approach between ecology, risk analyses, economics, social sciences, biological sciences, political sciences, languages, biotechnology, physical sciences, health sciences, and religion. All these practitioners (and many others) contribute to sustainability education, an emerging discipline that requires an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge, translated into practice, to insure the future of life on Earth.

  13. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  14. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    hypothesis. Finally, we use ex-ante spanned subjective beliefs to evaluate several reduced-form and structural models. We find support for heterogeneous beliefs models and also uncover a number of statistically significant relationships in favour of alternative rational expectations models once the effect......This paper studies the properties of bond risk premia in the cross-section of subjective expectations. We exploit an extensive dataset of yield curve forecasts from financial institutions and document a number of novel findings. First, contrary to evidence presented for stock markets but consistent......-primary dealers. Third, we reject the null hypothesis that subjective expected bond returns are constant. When predicting long term rates, however, primary dealers have no information advantage. This suggests that a key source of variation in long-term bonds are risk premia and not short- term rate variation...

  15. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  16. Earth Science Education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barifaijo, E.

    1999-05-01

    Uganda has two Government funded universities, five operating private universities and four other universities are due to start soon. Geology was first taught in Uganda at Makerere University in 1968 within the Department of Geography. Through the leadership of Prof. Robert Macdonald it became established as a full department in August 1969 as part of the Faculty of Science. Both pure and applied geology are taught and the courses are designed to suit the current job market. At present, the three-term academic year is being replaced by a semester-based course unit system. At the same time, the 3:2:2 subject combination, requiring a student to do three subjects in first year and two subjects in both second and third years, is to be replaced by a major-minor subject combination. Currently, there are about 50 undergraduate students and four Ph.D. students in the Department. A student Geological Association acts as a forum for the exchange of information on matters of geological concern. An affirmative action policy has improved the intake of women students into the Department. On average, the number of women has increased from about 10% to 33.3% in the years 1984/85 to 1997/98. Their performance parallels that of the male students and they are readily employed. Of the eight members of academic staff, two are women. The Department of Geology has good links with regional and overseas universities through which a number of research programmes are currently supported. In addition, most of the training of manpower for the University and research programmes is supported by regional and international research agencies. Academic staff combine teaching with research and consultancy.

  17. The earth and the moon

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The moon is the only body in the solar system outside of the Earth that has been visited by humans. More than 440 pounds of lunar material are brought by NASA and Soviet space missions to Earth for study. The information gleaned about the moon from this relatively small pile of rocks is mind-boggling and stands as the greatest proof that Martian planetary science would be greatly enhanced by returning samples to Earth. Compositional studies of lunar rocks show that the moon and the Earth are made of similar material, and because lunar material has not been reworked through erosion and plate te

  18. Solid-Earth Geophysics in Latinamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-F, J.

    2003-12-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires of multidisciplinary global approaches. This is particularly the case on Earth system science, where studies of our planet attempt to integrate phenomena from the inner core to surface, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and beyond the magnetosphere into our solar system. To accomplish this, studies span wide ranges of spatial and temporal scales. Increasing understanding of how deeply interrelated are the Earth components and processes, the potential global impact of human activities, and view of our planet as a spaceship journeying in the solar system and galaxy emphasize the need of international cooperation. New tools are being developed to investigate the planet at different scales, with high spatial-temporal resolution, and we say - Earth scientists (particularly from highly-developed countries) do conduct global research. In this context, what is the situation in developing countries? Do all studies in foreign countries classify as international research? - Foreign countries to some of us are the home and study areas for other researchers. What are the conditions, facilities, projects and views of those other researchers? We attempt to examine some of these questions from an inside analysis and some examples in solid Earth geophysics from a Latinamerican country. How is the situation, size of research community, education and training, facilities, economic support, major problems, participation in international programs, and bilateral and multinational collaboration? What are the perspectives for future development within the region and in an international context? International research collaboration has an immense potential and is clearly needed for study of our planet. Understanding it in terms of unselfish cooperation in equal terms with fellow researchers is yet a major challenge to make the most of that potential.

  19. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  20. The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

    2009-12-01

    In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to

  1. The EPOS Implementation Phase: building thematic and integrated services for solid Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Epos Consortium, the

    2015-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) has a scientific vision and approach aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support a safe and sustainable society. To follow this vision, the EPOS mission is integrating a suite of diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures (RIs) in Europe relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system. To this goal, the EPOS Preparatory Phase has designed a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data and products as well as access to facilities from mainly distributed existing and new research infrastructures for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. Since its conception EPOS has been built as "a single, Pan-European, sustainable and distributed infrastructure". EPOS is, indeed, the sole infrastructure for solid Earth Science in ESFRI and its pan-European dimension is demonstrated by the participation of 23 countries in its preparatory phase. EPOS is presently moving into its implementation phase further extending its pan-European dimension. The EPOS Implementation Phase project (EPOS IP) builds on the achievements of the successful EPOS preparatory phase project. The EPOS IP objectives are synergetic and coherent with the establishment of the new legal subject (the EPOS-ERIC in Italy). EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and builds the

  2. ESA Earth Observation missions at the service of geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef

    2017-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and boundary conditions. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific endeavours. Meteorological satellites help to predict the weather and feature the most mature application of Earth observation. Over the last four decades satellites have been radically improving the accuracy of weather forecasts by providing unique and indispensable input data to numerical computation models. In addition, Essential Climate Variables (ECV) are constantly monitored within ESA's Climate Change Initiative in order to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters. All of these activities can only be carried out in international cooperation. Accordingly, ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and relevant institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges as well as to requirements resulting from political priorities, such as the United Nations' Sustainable Development

  3. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes exist.in order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view......, and that the longitude of the satellite position is significant to the model output. The results also show that the calculated albedo is generally lower than it would be expected based only on the reflectivity data....

  4. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  5. Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M. E.

    Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight.

  6. Near Earth Objects - a threat and an opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jonathan R.

    2003-05-01

    In the past decade the hazard posed to the Earth by Near Earth Objects (NEOs) has generated considerable scientific and public interest. A number of major films, television programmes and media reports have brought the issue to public attention. From an educational perspective an investigation into NEOs and the effects of impacts on the Earth forms a topical and dynamic basis for study in a huge range of subjects, not just scientific. There are clear routes to chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology, but history, psychology, geography, palaeontology and geology are just a selection of other subjects involved. A number of projects have been established, mainly in the USA, to determine the extent of the hazard, and to develop ways of countering it, but the present situation is far from satisfactory. Current detection and follow-up programmes are underfunded and lack international coordination.

  7. Heterogeneity of an earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, T.; Petrova, A.

    2009-04-01

    The study of magnetic anomaly field structure of the Barents Sea water area along seismic and extended profiles intersecting known fields is carried out. Geomagnetic and density sections down to 40 km depth are constructed. This allowed the estimation of heterogeneities of the Barents Sea water area deep structure. The analysis of geomagnetic and density sections along extended profiles showed the confinedness of oil-and-gas bearing provinces to deep permeable zones characterized by reduced magnetic and density features. Based on the analysis of permeable zones, regional diagnostic features similar to those obtained earlier in oil-and-gas bearing provinces in other regions, for example, in Timan-Pechora, Volga-Urals and Siberian, as well as in the Northern and Norwegian seas water areas, are revealed. The analysis of magnetic and gravity fields over the region area allowed the delineation of weakened zones as intersection areas of weakly magnetic areals with reduced density. Within the Barents Sea water area, permeable areas with lenticular-laminated structure of the upper and lower Earth's crust containing weakly magnetic areals with reduced rock density within the depth range of 8-12 and 15-20 km are revealed. Such ratio of magnetic and density heterogeneities in the Earth's crust is characteristic for zones with proved oil-and-gas content in the European part of the Atlantic Ocean water area. North Kildin field on 1 AR profile is confined to a trough with thick weakly magnetic stratum discontinuously traced to a depth of 6-10 km. At a depth of approximately 15 km, a lens of weakly magnetic and porous formations is observed. Ludlov field in the North Barents trough is confined to a zone of weakly magnetic rocks with reduced density traced to a depth of 8-9 km. Deeper, at Н=15 km, a lenticular areal of weakly magnetic formations with reduced density is observed. The profile transecting the Stockman field shows that it is located in the central part of a permeable

  8. Earth Resources Stewardship at Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    graduated cylinder and a graduated dip rod. A graduated cylinder is constructed of clear glass hav- ing a low coefficient of expansion with a diameter...A Earth Resource Subjects/Key Words in CELDS GROUND WATER LEACHATE SURFACE WATER GROUND WATER UNDERGROUND INJECTION WELLS MAGNESITE ORE PROCESSING

  9. Seismic detection of post-perovskite inside the Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobden, Laura; Thomas, Christine; Trampert, Jeannot

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004, we have known that perovskite, the most abundant mineral in the lower mantle, has the capacity to transform to a denser structure, postperovskite, if subjected to sufficiently high temperature and pressure. But does post-perovskite exist inside the Earth? And if it does, do we have the

  10. Shell of Planet Earth – Global Batch Bioreactor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga; Kaštánek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 1959-1965 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : critical raw materials * global batch bioreactor * planet earth Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  11. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2009-01-01

    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  12. Doped to Rare Earth Ions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we are interested by studying the spectroscopic properties for optical applications, mainly laser amplification, of MF2 crystals, where M is an alkaline earth (Ba, Sr) or Cadmium (Cd) doped with rare earth ions (Tb3+, Er3+, Ho3+. So far, we present the absorption and emission properties and also the ...

  13. Teaching Waves with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Google Earth is a huge source of interesting illustrations of various natural phenomena. It can represent a valuable tool for science education, not only for teaching geography and geology, but also physics. Here we suggest that Google Earth can be used for introducing in an attractive way the physics of waves. (Contains 9 figures.)

  14. Rotation of a Moonless Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, Jason W.; Chambers, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1 deg and 24.5 deg. Without lunar influence, a frequency-map analysis by Laskar et al. showed that the obliquity could vary between 0 deg. and 85 deg. This has left an impression in the astrobiology community that a large moon is necessary to maintain a habitable climate on an Earth-like planet. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 Gyr. We find that while obliquity varies significantly more than that of the actual Earth over 100,000 year timescales, the obliquity remains within a constrained range, typically 20-25 deg. in extent, for timescales of hundreds of millions of years. None of our Solar System integrations in which planetary orbits behave in a typical manner show obliquity accessing more than 65% of the full range allowed by frequency-map analysis. The obliquities of moonless Earths that rotate in the retrograde direction are more stable than those of pro-grade rotators. The total obliquity range explored for moonless Earths with rotation periods shorter than 12 h is much less than that for slower-rotating moonless Earths. A large moon thus does not seem to be needed to stabilize the obliquity of an Earth-like planet on timescales relevant to the development of advanced life.

  15. Characterization of radiations field in Earth space in term of linear energy transfer (L.E.T.) for the radiation protection and the radiobiology; Caracterisation du champ de radiation dans l`espace circumterrestre en terme de transfert lineique d`energie (T.L.E.) pour la radioprotection et pour la radiobiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L.

    1994-07-07

    The space missions on orbital stations are becoming longer and the radiological risk constitutes a factor limiting the space flights. The tissue-equivalent proportional counters, (CIRCE in 1988 and 1990, then NAUSICAA from 1992), have been conceived to ensure the monitoring and the dosimetry of space travellers. They measure in real time, different parameters of dosimetry and evaluate the microdosimetric spectrum of space radiations on the board of the Mir spatial station. The equivalent of middle day dose measured by CIRCE was situated between 0.6 and 0.8 mSv associated to a quality factor of 1.9; that one measured by NAUSICAA is higher, between 0.9 and 1.0 mSv with a steady quality factor. These systems measure the time and spatial variations of cosmic radiations, in function of solar activity, orbit, and shielding thickness of space vehicles. Values of high doses equivalent (upper than 1 mSv), associated to quality factor of 1.4 have been measured during the South Atlantic Anomaly crossing and during solar eruptions. That is the same for polar regions. The evaluation of Relative Biological Effectiveness (R.B.E.) of the space radiations on Mir station board, in term of carcinogenesis of the Harder gland in the mouse, is here an extrapolation of a relation based on experimental data; the average R.B.E. allows to suppose that radiological risk is low. (N.C.). 69 refs., 74 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. An Invitation to Kitchen Earth Sciences, an Example of MISO Soup Convection Experiment in Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, K.; Kumagai, I.; Davaille, A.

    2008-12-01

    In recent frontiers of earth sciences such as computer simulations and large-scale observations/experiments involved researchers are usually remote from the targets and feel difficulty in having a sense of touching the phenomena in hands. This results in losing sympathy for natural phenomena particularly among young researchers, which we consider a serious problem. We believe the analog experiments such as the subjects of "kitchen earth sciences" proposed here can be a remedy for this. Analog experiments have been used as an important tool in various research fields of earth science, particularly in the fields of developing new ideas. The experiment by H. Ramberg by using silicone pate is famous for guiding concept of the mantle dynamics. The term, "analog" means something not directly related to the target of the research but in analogical sense parallel comparison is possible. The advantages of the analog experiments however seem to have been overwhelmed by rapid progresses of computer simulations. Although we still believe in the present-day meaning, recently we are recognizing another aspect of its significance. The essence of "kitchen earth science" as an analog experiment is to provide experimental setups and materials easily from the kitchen, by which everyone can start experiments and participate in the discussion without special preparations because of our daily-experienced matter. Here we will show one such example which can be used as a heuristic subject in the classrooms at introductory level of earth science as well as in lunch time break of advanced researchers. In heated miso soup the fluid motion can be easily traced by the motion of miso "particles". At highly heated state immiscible part of miso convects with aqueous fluid. At intermediate heating the miso part precipitates to form a sediment layer at the bottom. This layered structure is destroyed regularly by the instability caused by accumulated heat in the miso layer as a bursting. By showing

  17. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  18. Using GIS in an Earth Sciences Field Course for Quantitative Exploration, Data Management and Digital Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Wouter A.; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Field courses are essential for subjects like Earth Sciences, Geography and Ecology. In these topics, GIS is used to manage and analyse spatial data, and offers quantitative methods that are beneficial for fieldwork. This paper presents changes made to a first-year Earth Sciences field course in the French Alps, where new GIS methods were…

  19. Using GIS in an Earth Sciences field course for quantitative exploration, data management and digital mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter A.; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Field courses are essential for subjects like Earth Sciences, Geography and Ecology. In these topics, GIS is used to manage and analyse spatial data, and offers quantitative methods that are beneficial for fieldwork. This paper presents changes made to a first-year Earth Sciences field course in the

  20. The earth rotation parameters - Conceptual and conventional definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitaine, N.

    1986-07-01

    Conceptual definitions of the earth rotational parameters (ERP) used for obtaining astronomical references with an accuracy of 0.001 arcsec are reviewed, along with the fit between conceptual and conventional values. Conceptually, the instantaneous rotation of the earth is selected for calculating the ERP from a terrestrial frame of reference. It is shown that in calculating the third parameter, the UT1 value becomes unclear when it is related to the mean sidereal time using conventional models, and can be improved by using the stellar angle to obtain the angular speed of the earth in space directly. The accuracy of the value for the Celestial Ephemeris Pole (CEP) is demonstrated to be higher if considered conventionally in terms of the model of the precessional nutation of the earth. This formation accounts for the terrestrial motion of the instantaneous pole of rotation and the corresponding celestial motion.

  1. Crossing the Boundaries in Planetary Atmospheres - From Earth to Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has been an especially exciting time to study atmospheres, with a renaissance in fundamental studies of Earths general circulation and hydrological cycle, stimulated by questions about past climates and the urgency of projecting the future impacts of humankinds activities. Long-term spacecraft and Earth-based observation of solar system planets have now reinvigorated the study of comparative planetary climatology. The explosion in discoveries of planets outside our solar system has made atmospheric science integral to understanding the diversity of our solar system and the potential habitability of planets outside it. Thus, the AGU Chapman Conference Crossing the Boundaries in Planetary Atmospheres From Earth to Exoplanets, held in Annapolis, MD from June 24-27, 2013 gathered Earth, solar system, and exoplanet scientists to share experiences, insights, and challenges from their individual disciplines, and discuss areas in which thinking broadly might enhance our fundamental understanding of how atmospheres work.

  2. Diurnal and Semidiurnal Variations in Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijing, Q.; Xu, X.; Dong, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including Satellite Laser ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and the Global Positioning System (GPS). We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1 with Consistency of 90% , and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. This work add the motivating term libration to the empirical tidal models, which can reduce the difference between the high frequency earth rotation model and observations. Then the numerical simulated ocean tidal model is obtained with the newest ERP datas from GPS, and the Scaled Sensitivity Matrix (SSM) approach is used to separate the sidebands in major ocean tides.

  3. Magnetic field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  4. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  5. Chemical earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javoy, Marc

    1999-10-01

    This article presents a critical review of method, concepts and prejudices used bv modelists of the Earth's chemical composition over approximate the last fifty years and of the resulting compositions. Brief descriptions are given of admitted accretion mechanisms, of the starting materials most often considered and of the major parameters and recurrent concepts: 'reduced" state, mantle homogeneity vs heterogeneity, 'low pressure' core formation, 'great impact', refractory, lithophile, siderophile, compatible, incompatible character of elements, depleted and degassed mantle, Urey ratio, as well as the description of a commonly-used instrument, possibly harmful to Iogic, the famous Ockham's razor. Differences between models are now restricted to the lower mantle composition:the 'primary' (before crust differentiation) upper mentle varies little from model to model and the idea of a 10-15% combined Si-O-S concentration as representing the necessary light elements in the core is gaining more and more ground. The dominant type of model derives more or less directly from the CI cabonaceous composition by complete devolatilization and reduction. Its mantle is homogeneous and convecting mainly in a one-level mode, in accordence with dominant geophysicists' views but in rather strong disagreement with geochemical data and models which insist on the strong decoupling between lower and upper mantle. Its low Si excess is generally supposed to have been absorbed by the core, whereas its high refractory lithophile element (RLE) content creates mass balance problems relative to presently observed mantle and crust concentrations. The alternative type is a two-lavel mantle with a Si and Fe-rich, RLE-poor, lower mantle, previously based mainly on seismic and mineral physics data, and now also on geochemical and cosmochemical arguments.

  6. Experiencing Earth's inaudible symphony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlton, Graeme; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Harrison, Giles; Robson, Juliet

    2017-04-01

    Everyday the human body is exposed to thousands of different sounds; smartphones, music, cars and overhead aircraft to name a few. There are some sounds however which we cannot hear as they are below our range of hearing, sound at this level is known as infrasound and is of very low frequency. Such examples of infrasound are the sounds made by glaciers and volcanos, distant mining activities and the sound of the ocean. These sounds are emitted by these sources constantly all over the world and are recorded at infrasound stations, thus providing a recording of Earth's inaudible symphony. The aim of this collaboration between artists and scientists is to create a proof of concept immersive experience in which members of the public are invited to experience and understand infrasound. Participants will sit in an installation and be shown images of natural infrasound sources whilst their seat is vibrated at with an amplitude modulated version of the original infrasound wave. To further enhance the experience, subwoofers will play the same amplitude modulated soundwave to place the feeling of the infrasound wave passing through the installation. Amplitude modulation is performed so that a vibration is played at a frequency that can be felt by the human body but its amplitude varies at the frequency of the infrasound wave. The aim of the project is to see how humans perceive sounds that can't be heard and many did not know were there. The second part of the project is educational in which that this installation can be used to educate the general public about infrasound and its scientific uses. A simple demonstration for this session could be the playing of amplitude modulated infrasound wave that can be heard as opposed to felt as the transport of an installation at this is not possible and the associated imagery.

  7. Earth System Science - Bridging the gaps between disciplines; Perspectives from a multi-disciplinary Helmholtz Research School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggers, Helge; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Bracher, Astrid; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Unnithan, Vikram; Buschmann, Matthias; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Notholt, Justus

    2015-04-01

    Post-graduate education in Germany has changed a lot over the past decades. Formerly, PhD students generally did not have the option to attend formal classes and lectures and were expected to conduct their independent research, including occasionally teaching courses for students. Since the introduction of bachelor and masters studies with the Bologna Process in the late 90th, the higher education in Europe has been harmonized, leading to more structured and focused studies at the expense of a broad and universal disciplinary education. At this same time, special fields such as Earth System Science became more interdisciplinary. In consequence, universities and research institutes have established so-called research schools and/or graduate schools, offering specific courses and training alongside the doctorate. Especially, Earth System Science has developed from an interesting concept in Earth Sciences education to a fully integrative Science focussed on understanding the complex system Earth. This evolution is partially due to the radical and far reaching anthropogenic changes and the general feeling of helplessness with regards to the possible consequences and future impacts on the Earth System. The Helmholtz "Earth System Science Research School" (ESSReS) is a small unit of PhD students co-organized by three educational and research institutions in the city state Bremen: University of Bremen (Institute for Environmental Physics, IUP), Jacobs University (School of Engineering and Science (JU)), and Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven (AWI). ESSReS aims at the integration of research at the interface of Geology, Biology, Physics, Geophysics, Mathematics and Informatics. It is therefore multi- and interdisciplinary in every aspect. The training, curriculum, and PhD research subjects are closely located at the interfaces between the participating disciplines. This is guaranteed by interdisciplinary supervision of

  8. Laser Prevention of Earth Impact Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Today we are seeing the geological data base constantly expanding as new evidence from past impacts with the Earth are discovered and investigated. It is now commonly believed that a hypervelocity impact occurring approximately 65 million years ago in the Yucatan Peninsula area was the disaster responsible for the extinction of almost 70% of the species of life on Earth including of course the dinosaurs. What is sobering is that we believe now that this was just one of several such disasters and that some of the others caused extinctions to even a greater extent. Preventing collisions with the Earth by hypervelocity asteroids, meteoroids, and comets is the most important problem facing human civilization. While there are many global problems facing our planet including overpopulation, pollution, disease, and deforestation; none of these offer the potential of rapid, total extinction. Rapid is the operative word here in that many of the global problems we face may indeed, if not sufficiently addressed, pose a similar long-term threat. However, with the impact threat, a single, almost unpredictable event could lead to a chain reaction of disasters that would end everything mankind has worked to achieve over the centuries. Our chances of being hit are greater than our chance of winning the lottery. We now believe that while there are only about 2000-earth orbit crossing rocks great than 1 kilometer in diameter, there may be as many as 100,000 rocks in the 100 m size range. The 1 kilometer rocks are difficult to detect and even harder to track. The 100 m class ones are almost impossible to find with today's technology. Can anything be done about this fundamental existence question facing us? The answer is a resounding yes. By using an intelligent combination of Earth and space based sensors coupled with high-energy laser stations in orbit, we can deflect rocks from striking the Earth. This is accomplished by irradiating the surface of the rock with sufficiently intense

  9. Multidisciplinary integrated field campaign to an acidic Martian Earth analogue with astrobiological interest: Rio Tinto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gómez, F.; Walter, N.; Amils, R.; Rull, F.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Kvíderová, Jana; Sarrazin, P.; Foing, B.; Behar, A.; Fleischer, I.; Parro, V.; Garcia-Villadangos, M.; Blake, D.; Martin-Ramos, J. D.; Direito, S.; Mahapatra, P.; Stam, C.; Venkateswaran, K.; Voytek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2011), 291-305 ISSN 1473-5504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : astrobiology * extreme environments * Earth analogue Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2011

  10. Seismic Effects on the Design of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Earth Retaining Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    For the purposes of this paper, the study will be limited to developing a design method for earth retaining structures that have been reinforced with geosynthetics and are subjected to cyclic motion...

  11. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  12. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  13. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  14. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  15. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  16. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  17. Project Earth Lover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slobotski, Stephanie,

    2011-09-01

    Under this project, the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska (PTN) will conduct An Energy Options Analysis (EOA) to empower Tribal Leadership with critical information to allow them to effectively screen energy options that will further develop the Tribe's long-term strategic plan and energy vision. The PTN will also provide community workshops to enhance Tribal Members' capabilities, skills and awareness of energy efficiency and conservation technology and practices. A 90- minute workshop will be conducted at each of the 5 sites and one-hundred tribal members will receive an erergy efficiency kit.

  18. Earth observation archives in digital library and grid infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fusco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth Observation Missions provide continuous surveillance of the Earth regardless of atmospheric conditions producing huge amounts of data every year that need to be processed, elaborated, appraised and archived by dedicated systems. Emerging institutional and international environmental initiatives, like the ESA and EC Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES, require access to full historical data collections, including the performed data elaborations, scientific analysis, models and results. The historical ESA Earth Observation archives account for Petabytes data holding, which is augmented, since the launch of Envisat in 2002, by some 500 Terabytes per year. The access and utilisation of these archives is an important measurement for long-term data preservation; improving it is a continuous challenge at programmatic, technological and operational level. This article describes how Digital Library and Grid technology can support the underlying infrastructure for long-term data preservation.

  19. ERDA energy information data base subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The technical staff of the ERDA Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the ERDA mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. Terms in the thesaurus are listed alphabetically; each alphabetic entry is accompanied by a ''word block'' containing all the terms associated with the entry. (RWR)

  20. Near earth propagation of distributed sensors: problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wert, R.; Goroch, A.; Worthington, E.; Chan, K.; Tremper, D.; Schuette, L.

    2006-05-01

    Both the military and consumer sectors are driving towards distributed networked sensors. A major stumbling block to deployment of these sensors is the radio frequency (RF) propagation environment within a few wavelengths of the earth. Increasing transmit power (battery consumption) is not the practical solution to the problem. This paper will discuss some aspects of the near earth propagation (NEP) problem and provide a few solutions. When radiating near the earth the communications link is subjected to a list of physical impairments. On the list are the expected Fresnel region encroachment and multipath reflections along with the intriguing radiation pattern changes and near earth boundary layer perturbations. A significant amount of data has been collected on NEP. Disturbances in the NEP atmosphere have a time varying attenuation related to the solar radiation (insolation). Solutions, or workarounds, to the near earth propagation problem hinge on dynamic adaptive RF elements. Adaptive RF elements will allow the distributed sensor to direct energy, beam form, impedance correct, increase communication efficiency, and decrease battery consumption. Small electrically controllable elements are under development to enable antenna impedance matching in a dynamic environment. Additionally, small dynamic beam forming antennas will be developed to focus RF energy in the direction of need. By creating provisions for decreasing the output RF power to the level required, battery consumption can be reduced. With the addition of adaptive RF elements, distributed autonomous networked sensors can become a reality within a few centimeters of the earth.

  1. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M; Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Hall, Jim W; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2008-02-12

    The term "tipping point" commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term "tipping element" to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. We critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and we assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then we explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  2. Is life on Earth unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Ray

    2013-10-01

    From finding unusual creatures on Earth to spying life's building blocks beyond our solar system, Ray Jayawardhana examines what we know about the nature of life's uniqueness, and the possibility of its existence in faraway realms such as extrasolar planets.

  3. Earth education: a new beginning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Matre, Steve

    1990-01-01

    .... The goal of this book is to "help people improve upon their cognitive and affective relationship with the earth's natural comunities and life support systems, and begin crafting lifestyles that will...

  4. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  5. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron

    1992-01-01

    ... on which it depends. This Encyclopedia brings to all interested in the earth system, whether at the level of the professional scientist and engineer, the student, or the informed public, a snapshot of the present state...

  6. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron

    1992-01-01

    .... The very diversity of the articles attests to the complexity of earth system science as a unique interdisciplinary venture to place humanity in a position to move wisely to protect the global habitat...

  7. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  8. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  9. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-05-29

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  10. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A rare earth optical temperature sensor is disclosed for measuring high temperatures. Optical temperature sensors exist that channel emissions from a sensor to a detector using a light pipe. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform the sensed thermal energy into a narrow band width optical signal that travels to a detector using a light pipe. An optical bandpass filter at the detector removes any noise signal outside of the band width of the signal from the emitter.

  11. Earth observation for rangeland monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for the methodology is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Conceptual framework for the development of grass nutrient estimation models, using remote sensing at various scales Earth Observation for Rangeland Monitoring DR A RAMOELO, DR M CHO AND DR R MATHIEU CSIR... and canopy N conforms to the underlying geology (Figure 2). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology which contributed financially to this work through the grant ?Earth Observation Application Development...

  12. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  13. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 3 April 2016 pp 559-569. Long term changes in forest cover and land ... Volume 126 Issue 1 February 2017 pp 8. Predictive modelling of the spatial pattern of past and future forest cover changes in India · C Sudhakar Reddy Sonali Singh V K Dadhwal ...

  15. Next-generation Digital Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Michael F; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter

    2012-07-10

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of "big data" has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public's access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation.

  16. Theory of the rotation of the rigid earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, H.

    1977-01-01

    Equations of motion for a triaxial rigid earth are derived in Andoyer variables. The reference plane is the ecliptic of date which is moving as a result of planetary perturbations. By using this noninertial system, the development of the disturbing function for the sun and moon is simplified, with an additional term appearing in the Hamiltonian which, however, contributes only to precessional motion. The nutation terms derived are compared with those of Woolard.

  17. Handbook of mechanical engineering terms

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, KK

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: The Handbook of Mechanical Engineering terms contains short, precise definitions of about four thousand terms. These terms have been collected from different sources, edited and grouped under twenty six parts and given alphabetically under each part for easy reference. The book will be a source of guidance and help to the students, staff and practising engineers in understanding and updating the subject matter. Contents: The Handbook of Mechanical Engineering terms contains short, precise definitions of about four thousand terms. These terms have been collected from differ

  18. Understanding anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, L A; Natrajan, M; Kothari, M L

    1996-01-01

    Words are our masters and words are our slaves, all depending on how we use them. The whole of medical science owes its origin to Greco-Roman culture and is replete with terms whose high sound is not necessarily accompanied by sound meaning. This is even more the case in the initial, pre-clinical years. Anatomical terminology seems bewildering to the initiate; and maybe that is a reason why love of anatomy as a subject does not always spill over through later years. Employing certain classifications of the origin of the anatomical terms, we have prepared an anthology that we hope will ease the student's task and also heighten the student's appreciation of the new terms. This centers on revealing the Kiplingian "how, why, when, where, what, and who" of a given term. This presentation should empower students to independently formulate a wide network of correlations once they understand a particular term. The article thus hopes to stimulate students' analytic and synthetic faculties as well. A small effort can reap large rewards in terms of enjoyment of the study of anatomy and the related subjects of histology, embryology, and genetics. It is helpful to teachers and students alike. This exercise in semantics and etymology does not demand of the student or his teacher any background in linguistics, grammar, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, anatomy, or medicine.

  19. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  20. EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science is one of the most important tools that the global community needs to address the pressing environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. While, at times considered a second-rate science at the high school level, it is currently undergoing a major revolution in the depth of content and pedagogical vitality. As part of this revolution, labs in Earth science courses need to shift their focus from cookbook-like activities with known outcomes to open-ended investigations that challenge students to think, explore and apply their learning. We need to establish a new model for Earth science as a rigorous lab science in policy, perception, and reality. As a concerted response to this need, five states, a coalition of scientists and educators, and an experienced curriculum team are creating a national model for a lab-based high school Earth science course named EarthLabs. This lab course will comply with the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The content will focus on Earth system science and environmental literacy. The lab experiences will feature a combination of field work, classroom experiments, and computer access to data and visualizations, and demonstrate the rigor and depth of a true lab course. The effort is being funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. One of the prototype units of the course is Investigating Hurricanes. Hurricanes are phenomena which have tremendous impact on humanity and the resources we use. They are also the result of complex interacting Earth systems, making them perfect objects for rigorous investigation of many concepts commonly covered in Earth science courses, such as meteorology, climate, and global wind circulation. Students are able to use the same data sets, analysis tools, and research techniques that scientists employ in their research, yielding truly authentic learning opportunities. This month-long integrated unit uses hurricanes as the story line by

  1. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  2. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  3. Rare Earth Elements - A New Challenge for the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bumbac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare Earth Elements or Rare Earth Metals (REM are a collection of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium and fifteen lanthanides. The term "rare earth" arises from the rare earth minerals from which they were first isolated. They are uncommon oxide-type minerals (earths found in Gandolinite extracted from one mine in Sweden. The first discovery was made in 1794, but it was only in 1940 that the scientist Frank Spedding developed an ion exchange procedure for separating and purifying the REM. For the next decades, they were hardly used in some "minor" industrial fields. Only after 2000 their importance grew, once the multitude of possibilities to use them was discovered due to technological progress. Now REM are incorporated into almost all modern technological devices: superconductors, magnets, electronic polishers, refining catalysts hybrid car components and military techniques. They are used in small quantities, but due to their extraordinary properties the prices are very high. The main problem is that China dominates this market, with 97% of total global supply. The highest concentration of rare earth metals are in Inner Mongolia in China, Mountain Pass in California U.S.A. and in Mount Weld in Australia. The developed countries are far behind China regarding production and are indeed depending on Chinese exports. Hence, there is a difficult situation on this particular market, with an uncertain future.

  4. Preparing Earth Data Scientists for 'the sexiest job of the 21st century'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    What Exactly do Earth Data Scientists do, and What do They Need to Know, to do It? There is not one simple answer, but there are many complex answers. Data Science, and data analytics, are new and nebulas, and takes on different characteristics depending on: The subject matter being analyzed, the maturity of the research, and whether the employed subject specific analytics is descriptive, diagnostic, discoveritive, predictive, or prescriptive, in nature. In addition, in a, thus far, business driven paradigm shift, university curriculums teaching data analytics pertaining to Earth science have, as a whole, lagged behind, and/or have varied in approach. This presentation attempts to breakdown and identify the many activities that Earth Data Scientists, as a profession, encounter, as well as provide case studies of specific Earth Data Scientist and data analytics efforts. I will also address the educational preparation, that best equips future Earth Data Scientists, needed to further Earth science heterogeneous data research and applications analysis. The goal of this presentation is to describe the actual need for Earth Data Scientists and the practical skills to perform Earth science data analytics, thus hoping to initiate discussion addressing a baseline set of needed expertise for educating future Earth Data Scientists.

  5. Preparing Earth Data Scientists for 'The Sexiest Job of the 21st Century'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steven

    2014-01-01

    What Exactly do Earth Data Scientists do, and What do They Need to Know, to do It? There is not one simple answer, but there are many complex answers. Data Science, and data analytics, are new and nebulas, and takes on different characteristics depending on: The subject matter being analyzed, the maturity of the research, and whether the employed subject specific analytics is descriptive, diagnostic, discoveritive, predictive, or prescriptive, in nature. In addition, in a, thus far, business driven paradigm shift, university curriculums teaching data analytics pertaining to Earth science have, as a whole, lagged behind, andor have varied in approach.This presentation attempts to breakdown and identify the many activities that Earth Data Scientists, as a profession, encounter, as well as provide case studies of specific Earth Data Scientist and data analytics efforts. I will also address the educational preparation, that best equips future Earth Data Scientists, needed to further Earth science heterogeneous data research and applications analysis. The goal of this presentation is to describe the actual need for Earth Data Scientists and the practical skills to perform Earth science data analytics, thus hoping to initiate discussion addressing a baseline set of needed expertise for educating future Earth Data Scientists.

  6. The long-term variability of cosmic ray protons in the heliosphere: A modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Potgieter

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Galactic cosmic rays are charged particles created in our galaxy and beyond. They propagate through interstellar space to eventually reach the heliosphere and Earth. Their transport in the heliosphere is subjected to four modulation processes: diffusion, convection, adiabatic energy changes and particle drifts. Time-dependent changes, caused by solar activity which varies from minimum to maximum every ∼11 years, are reflected in cosmic ray observations at and near Earth and along spacecraft trajectories. Using a time-dependent compound numerical model, the time variation of cosmic ray protons in the heliosphere is studied. It is shown that the modeling approach is successful and can be used to study long-term modulation cycles.

  7. Geography - Changing Faces of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanacek-Schubert, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Geography - Changing Faces of the Earth In Austria there are currently some major reforms concerning high school education underway. At our school, the Bundesgymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium Draschestrasse, a school belonging to the Vienna Bilingual Schooling branch, we have developed a course system in which pupils can select courses and determine individually which areas of study they want to focus on. Specially devised courses have been developed which fit within the framework of natural and applied sciences but go beyond the basic curriculum in geography. At the same time the structure of the basic courses, compulsory for all pupils, was altered in order to allow for topics that are currently in the news to be dealt with sufficiently. In the basic courses of geography exogenic and endogenic forces are dealt with extensively. The main idea is to make children aware of the powers that make landscapes look the way the do now - and what their appearance may have been thousands or millions of years ago. A piece of rubble, a depression in the landscape or the way a tree may bend may serve as the key to what lies underneath earth's surface. These tell-tale signs are worth investigating, they can open up our eyes and change our perception of the world. A great focus, in particular in the 7th grade, is placed on glaciers and karst, most notably in the Alps and the Mediterranean region, whereas the 6th grade emphasizes weathering, erosion and endogenic forces in the geography curriculum. The newly installed whiteboards at our school allow for excellent visualization of subject-related aspects concerning the aforementioned topics and issues. In addition to the geography basic-course we have devised a special course entitled „Dante's Peak" which deals specifically with the endogenic forces that help shape the appearance of the earth, in particular plate tectonics, vulcanism, earthquakes.

  8. Thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Ulrike

    2007-07-01

    This work focuses on the thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds. The measurements of the thermal conductivity, thermopower, and Nernst coefficient are supplemented by investigations of other quantities as magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the relevant physical concepts. Section 1 of that chapter summarizes the characteristic properties of rare-earth systems; section 2 gives an overview on thermoelectric transport processes in magnetic fields. The applied experimental techniques as well as the new experimental setup are described in detail in Chapter 3. The experimental results are presented in Chapter 4-6, of which each concentrates on a different subject. In Chapter 4, various Eu clathrates and the skutterudite-like Ce{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} are presented, which have been investigated as potential thermoelectric materials for applications. Chapter 5 focusses on the study of the energy scales in the heavy-fermion series Lu{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}Rh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} by means of thermopower investigations. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the thermoelectric transport properties of the correlated semimetal CeNiSn with special emphasis on the Nernst coefficient of this compound. (orig.)

  9. Earth to Orbit Beamed Energy Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Montgomery, Edward E.

    2017-01-01

    As a means of primary propulsion, beamed energy propulsion offers the benefit of offloading much of the propulsion system mass from the vehicle, increasing its potential performance and freeing it from the constraints of the rocket equation. For interstellar missions, beamed energy propulsion is arguably the most viable in the near- to mid-term. A near-term demonstration showing the feasibility of beamed energy propulsion is necessary and, fortunately, feasible using existing technologies. Key enabling technologies are large area, low mass spacecraft and efficient and safe high power laser systems capable of long distance propagation. NASA is currently developing the spacecraft technology through the Near Earth Asteroid Scout solar sail mission and has signed agreements with the Planetary Society to study the feasibility of precursor laser propulsion experiments using their LightSail-2 solar sail spacecraft. The capabilities of Space Situational Awareness assets and the advanced analytical tools available for fine resolution orbit determination now make it possible to investigate the practicalities of an Earth-to-orbit Beamed Energy eXperiment (EBEX) - a demonstration at delivered power levels that only illuminate a spacecraft without causing damage to it. The degree to which this can be expected to produce a measurable change in the orbit of a low ballistic coefficient spacecraft is investigated. Key system characteristics and estimated performance are derived for a near term mission opportunity involving the LightSail-2 spacecraft and laser power levels modest in comparison to those proposed previously. While the technology demonstrated by such an experiment is not sufficient to enable an interstellar precursor mission, if approved, then it would be the next step toward that goal.

  10. Earth and Venus: Planetary Evolution and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, P. E.

    2017-11-01

    What caused Earth and Venus to evolve very differently? Could Venus have evolved to more Earth-like state? Could Earth end up to similar state that Venus is today? This is a review of these questions in the light of astrobiology and Earth's future.

  11. Biology as a Key Technological Foundation for Settlement Beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Navarrete, J.; Kent, R. E.; McCutcheon, G.; Pless, E.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Moving materials beyond Earth, whether spacecraft, living organisms, or both, is limited by mass constraints. Yet human survival requires an extensive infrastructure, from environmental regulation to life support. In practice this means habitats, food, oxygen, waste recycling, medicine and so on. Thus, there is a mismatch between what will be required in transit and at destination to fulfill dreams of human settlements and what can realistically moved there. Further, settlement off planet with current transportation systems requires the ability to operate independently of the Earth for prolonged periods of time, requiring long-term storage of supplies and the flexibilityto satisfy new needs.

  12. New Earth Observation Capabilities For The Commercial Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Earth observation data collected from orbital remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly critical to the short- and long-term operations of many commercial industries including agriculture, energy exploration, environmental management, transportation, and urban planning and operations. In this panel, I will present an overview of current and planned NASA remote sensing systems for Earth observation with relevance to commercial and industrial applications. Special emphasis will be given to the International Space Station (ISS) as a platform for both commercial technology demonstration/development and operational data collection through the ISS National Laboratory.

  13. European grid services for global earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, S.; Sipos, G.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the distributed computing services that the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) offers to the Earth Sciences community and also explain the processes whereby Earth Science users can engage with the infrastructure. One of the main overarching goals for EGI over the coming year is to diversify its user-base. EGI therefore - through the National Grid Initiatives (NGIs) that provide the bulk of resources that make up the infrastructure - offers a number of routes whereby users, either individually or as communities, can make use of its services. At one level there are two approaches to working with EGI: either users can make use of existing resources and contribute to their evolution and configuration; or alternatively they can work with EGI, and hence the NGIs, to incorporate their own resources into the infrastructure to take advantage of EGI's monitoring, networking and managing services. Adopting this approach does not imply a loss of ownership of the resources. Both of these approaches are entirely applicable to the Earth Sciences community. The former because researchers within this field have been involved with EGI (and previously EGEE) as a Heavy User Community and the latter because they have very specific needs, such as incorporating HPC services into their workflows, and these will require multi-skilled interventions to fully provide such services. In addition to the technical support services that EGI has been offering for the last year or so - the applications database, the training marketplace and the Virtual Organisation services - there now exists a dynamic short-term project framework that can be utilised to establish and operate services for Earth Science users. During this talk we will present a summary of various on-going projects that will be of interest to Earth Science users with the intention that suggestions for future projects will emerge from the subsequent discussions: • The Federated Cloud Task

  14. An Earth Penetrating Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, E; Yarrington, P; Glenn, L

    2005-06-21

    Documentation of a study to assess the capability of computer codes to predict lateral loads on earth penetrating projectiles under conditions of non-normal impact. Calculations simulated a set of small scale penetration tests into concrete targets with oblique faces at angles of 15 and 30 degrees to the line-of-flight. Predictive codes used by the various calculational teams cover a wide range of modeling approaches from approximate techniques, such as cavity expansion, to numerical methods, such as finite element codes. The modeling assessment was performed under the auspices of the Phenomenology Integrated Product Team (PIPT) for the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Program (RNEP). Funding for the penetration experiments and modeling was provided by multiple earth penetrator programs.

  15. Diseases of the Earth's skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The German Government's Scientific Advisory Council on Global Climate Change recently diagnosed a score of ailments of the “Earth's skin,” according to the German Research Service. Like numerous viral and bacterial diseases, many of the earthidermal diseases are named for the regions where scientists first discovered them. For some symptoms, the German Council has also recommended therapeutic treatments, such as terracing of slopes near rivers. It remains to be seen whether universities worldwide will start cranking out specialists in Earth dermatology. But judging by the condition of many regions of the world, it appears this field may offer great growth potential for the Earth sciences, which is welcome news in the current tight job market.

  16. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  17. Earth Science Data Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Y.; Yang, R.; Kafatos, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Science Data Grid System (ESDGS) is a software in support of earth science data storage and access. It is built upon the Storage Resource Broker (SRB) data grid technology. We have developed a complete data grid system consistent of SRB server providing users uniform access to diverse storage resources in a heterogeneous computing environment and metadata catalog server (MCAT) managing the metadata associated with data set, users, and resources. We are also developing additional services of 1) metadata management, 2) geospatial, temporal, and content-based indexing, and 3) near/on site data processing, in response to the unique needs of Earth science applications. In this paper, we will describe the software architecture and components of the system, and use a practical example in support of storage and access of rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) to illustrate its functionality and features.

  18. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  19. The Earth We are Creating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a number of Earth System scientists have advocated that we need a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, to describe the changes to Earth that have occurred since the 1800s. The preceding epoch, the Holocene (the period from the end of Earth's last glaciation about 12 millennia ago, has offered an unusually stable physical environment for human civilisations. In the new Anthropocene epoch, however, we can no longer count on this climate stability which we have long taken for granted. Paradoxically, it is our own actions that are undermining this stability—for the first time in history, human civilisation is now capable of decisively influencing the energy and material flows of our planet. Particularly since the 1950s, under the twin drivers of growth in population and per capita income, we have seen unprecedented growth in oil use and energy use overall, vehicle numbers, air travel and so on. This unprecedented growth has resulted in us heading toward physical thresholds or tipping points in a number of areas, points that once crossed could irreversibly lead to structural change in vital Earth systems such as climate or ecosystems. We may have already passed three limits: climate change; rate of biodiversity loss; and alterations to the global nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. The solutions usually proposed for our predicament are yet more technical fixes, often relying on greater use of the Earth's ecosystems, biomass for bioenergy being one example of this, and one we explore in this paper. We argue that these are unlikely to work, and will merely replace one set of problems by another. We conclude that an important approach for achieving a more sustainable and equitable world is to reorient our future toward satisfying the basic human needs of all humanity, and at the same time minimising both our use of non-renewable resources and pollution of the Earth's soil, air and water.

  20. NASA Thesaurus. Volumes 1 and 2; Hierarchical Listing with Definitions; Rotated Term Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized subject terms by which the documents in the NASA STI Databases are indexed and retrieved. The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and to some extent, the biological sciences. Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing With Definitions contains over 18,400 subject terms, 4,300 definitions, and more than 4,500 USE cross references. The Hierarchical Listing presents full hierarchical structure for each term along with 'related term' lists, and can serve as an orthographic authority. Volume 2 - Rotated Term Display is a ready-reference tool which provides over 52,700 additional 'access points' to the thesaurus terminology. It contains the postable and nonpostable terms found in the Hierarchical Listing arranged in a KWIC (key-word-in-context) index. This CD-ROM version of the NASA Thesaurus is in PDF format and is updated to the current year of purchase.

  1. The earth`s resources, its utilisation and protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rybár Pavol

    1996-01-01

    The article is published to present needs for accessible information on utilisation and protection of Earth resources, which are defined in this article as sources present in the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, economicaly extracted by previous technologies, and associated with a consumer culture. The article is focused on production and consumption of some selected sources as well as on worlds environmental degradation.

  2. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These discoveries indicate that large meteorite impacts have had enormous effects on the Earth, perhaps most dramatically illustrated 65 million years ago, when an impact at Chicxulub in the Caribbean may have been responsible for mass extinctions (including the dinosaurs) on a global scale. The evidence for these ...

  3. Tools and Techniques to Teach Earth Sciences to Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, R.; Dicelis, G.; Molina, E. C.

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to identify the tools available to disseminate the Earth sciences to young people in Brazil and to propose new techniques that may help in the teaching of such subjects. The use of scientific dissemination can be a great tool for the consolidation of a scientific culture, especially for a public of young students. The starting point of this study is an important characteristic that is present in virtually all the children: curiosity. The young public tries to understand how the world is and how it works. The use of scientific dissemination and some educational experiences have shown that these students have a great ability to learn and deal with various topics within the Earth Sciences. Another relevant point is the possibility to show that the Earth sciences, e.g., geophysics, oceanography, meteorology, geology and geography, can be an educational attractive option. Several ways of disseminating Earth sciences are commonly used with the purpose of attracting and mainly teaching these subjects, such as websites, interactive museums and cultural and educational spaces. The objectives of this work are: i) Investigate the role of science centers as motivators in disseminating the scientific knowledge by examining the communication resources that are being employed, the acceptance, reaction, and interest of children to these means, and ii) From this analysis, to list suggestions of contents and new tools that could be used for obtaining better results.

  4. Astrogeodynamic Studies of Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A.; Alonso, E.; Podesta, R.; Actis, E.

    2006-06-01

    From OAFA's Photoelectric Astrolabe Pa II systematic observations of stellar fundamental groups on period 1992 - 2002 we have determined (UT0-UTC) Time Variation Curve corresponding to Earth Rotation and its comparison with data (UT1-UTC) given by International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) We have obtained values of the curve from the average of observations of each night with their respective weights, and have corrected them by Pole Movement. We have also studied the possibility of relations between anomalies on Time Variation (UT0-UTC) and important earthquakes happened on the neighborhood of the Astrolabe.

  5. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  6. True disciples, nature and leiturgia: Preservation of the earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marumo, Phemelo Olifile

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available God created man in his image (imago Dei and to be a disciple of God. Being a disciple man must look after, use and care for the earth as part of his leiturgia. It is a clear indication that God speaks to us through nature and as such we must heed the call of creation in our worship services. The Fall, however, resulted in a disregard for worshipping God, living with him and taking care of the earth. Instead, the earth has been subject to exploitation ever since. This exploitation is in sharp contrast to Matthew 28:20; where Jesus instructed the disciples to go and teach the nations to observe all his commands, whatever they may be, one of which was to “care for and subdue” the earth. Global warming is gradually ravaging the environment and has affected how we pray. Much has been said by religious bodies, governments as well as organisations advocating the preservation of the environment, to no avail. Leiturgia and discipleship have been replaced by conferences and seminars on the environment. Nature is at the centre of debate, but nothing ever comes of it and true discipleship has been pushed aside as though it never existed. The earth is facing imminent destruction. This paper addresses the above by firstly highlighting the historical background of discipleship as core of the mission to preserve the earth, then presents the action taken at present to attend to the earth’s destruction. Thirdly the paper demonstrates how leiturgia and nature could serve to remind all to care for the earth. Part of true discipleship is glorifying God in accordance to the missio Dei.

  7. Earth System Science Education Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R.; Schwerin, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in-depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Now sponsored by NSF, the network has expanded to nearly 40 institutions of higher learning committed to teacher Earth system science education. The program supports participating institutions with funding, training, and standards-aligned courses and resources for pre- and in-service teachers. As a result, teachers are prepared to teach Earth system science using inquiry-based classroom methods, geoscience data and tools. From 1999-2005, the NASA funded ESSEA Program delivered online Earth system science professional development for K-12 teachers through a network of 20 colleges and universities. The program was led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) and based on a trio of 16-week online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers) that had been developed and piloted by NASA's Classroom of the Future at Wheeling Jesuit University. The ESSEA program's mission was to: 1) support universities, colleges, and science education organizations delivering the K-12 online graduate courses; 2) strengthen teachers' understanding of Earth system science; 3) demonstrate the ability to deliver exceptional professional development to a national audience; and 4) create a solid infrastructure to sustain the program. As of spring 2006, the courses had been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 K-12 teachers in Earth system science. Through NSF funding beginning in late 2006, IGES is enhancing and building on the ESSEA foundation by: 1. Introducing extensive use of data, models and existing Earth system educational materials to support the courses; 2. Implementing a rigorous evaluation program designed to demonstrate growth in teachers' Earth

  8. Earth From Space: "Beautiful Earth's" Integration of Media Arts, Earth Science, and Native Wisdom in Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, V.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Rock, J.; Markus, T.

    2015-12-01

    "Beautiful Earth: Experiencing and Learning Science in an Engaging Way" was a 3-year project funded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science. An outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA performance, Beautiful Earth fostered a new approach to teaching by combining live music, data visualizations and Earth science with indigenous perspectives, and hands-on workshops for K-12 students at 5 science centers. Inspired by the "Overview Effect," described by many astronauts who were awestruck by seeing the Earth from space and their realization of the profound interconnectedness of Earth's life systems, Beautiful Earth leveraged the power of multimedia performance to serve as a springboard to engage K-12 students in hands-on Earth science and Native wisdom workshops. Results will be presented regarding student perceptions of Earth science, environmental issues, and indigenous ways of knowing from 3 years of evaluation data.

  9. The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Paul; Runco, Susan; Fontanot, Carlos; Getteau, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) payload enables long-term experimentation of four, commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) high definition video, cameras mounted on the exterior of the International Space Station. The payload enables testing of cameras in the space environment. The HDEV cameras transmit imagery continuously to an encoder that then sends the video signal via Ethernet through the space station for downlink. The encoder, cameras, and other electronics are enclosed in a box pressurized to approximately one atmosphere, containing dry nitrogen, to provide a level of protection to the electronics from the space environment. The encoded video format supports streaming live video of Earth for viewing online. Camera sensor types include charge-coupled device and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. Received imagery data is analyzed on the ground to evaluate camera sensor performance. Since payload deployment, minimal degradation to imagery quality has been observed. The HDEV payload continues to operate by live streaming and analyzing imagery. Results from the experiment reduce risk in the selection of cameras that could be considered for future use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. This paper discusses the payload development, end-to- end architecture, experiment operation, resulting image analysis, and future work.

  10. Management approach recommendations. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Management analyses and tradeoffs were performed to determine the most cost effective management approach for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Phase C/D. The basic objectives of the management approach are identified. Some of the subjects considered are as follows: (1) contract startup phase, (2) project management control system, (3) configuration management, (4) quality control and reliability engineering requirements, and (5) the parts procurement program.

  11. Flicker perimetry in healthy subjects: influence of age and gender, learning effect and short-term fluctuation Perimetria "flicker" em indivíduos normais: influência da idade e sexo, efeito aprendizado e flutuação a curto prazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bernardi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the mean critical fusion frequency and the short-term fluctuation, to analyze the influence of age, gender, and the learning effect in healthy subjects undergoing flicker perimetry. METHODS: Study 1 - 95 healthy subjects underwent flicker perimetry once in one eye. Mean critical fusion frequency values were compared between genders, and the influence of age was evaluated using linear regression analysis. Study 2 - 20 healthy subjects underwent flicker perimetry 5 times in one eye. The first 3 sessions were separated by an interval of 1 to 30 days, whereas the last 3 sessions were performed within the same day. The first 3 sessions were used to investigate the presence of a learning effect, whereas the last 3 tests were used to calculate short-term fluctuation. RESULTS: Study 1 - Linear regression analysis demonstrated that mean global, foveal, central, and critical fusion frequency per quadrant significantly decreased with age (p0.05, with the exception of the central area and inferonasal quadrant (p=0.049 and p=0.011, respectively, where the values were lower in females. Study 2 - Mean global (p=0.014, central (p=0.008, and peripheral (p=0.03 critical fusion frequency were significantly lower in the first session compared to the second and third sessions. The mean global short-term fluctuation was 5.06±1.13 Hz, the mean interindividual and intraindividual variabilities were 11.2±2.8% and 6.4±1.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that, in healthy subjects, critical fusion frequency decreases with age, that flicker perimetry is associated with a learning effect, and that a moderately high short-term fluctuation is expected.OBJETIVOS: Determinar os valores médios da freqüência crítica de fusão e a flutuação a curto prazo, analisar a influência da idade, sexo e o efeito aprendizado na perimetria "flicker". MÉTODOS: Estudo 1 - 96 indivíduos normais foram submetidos à perimetria "flicker" uma vez em

  12. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2013-05-01

    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  13. Mathematical modeling of earth's dynamical systems a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Slingerland, Rudy

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Modeling of Earth's Dynamical Systems gives earth scientists the essential skills for translating chemical and physical systems into mathematical and computational models that provide enhanced insight into Earth's processes. Using a step-by-step method, the book identifies the important geological variables of physical-chemical geoscience problems and describes the mechanisms that control these variables. This book is directed toward upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students, researchers, and professionals who want to learn how to abstract complex systems into sets of dynamic equations. It shows students how to recognize domains of interest and key factors, and how to explain assumptions in formal terms. The book reveals what data best tests ideas of how nature works, and cautions against inadequate transport laws, unconstrained coefficients, and unfalsifiable models. Various examples of processes and systems, and ample illustrations, are provided. Students using this text should be f...

  14. Numerical integration of relativistic equations of motion for Earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, A.

    2009-01-01

    The equations of motion proposed by Brumberg for an artificial satellite around the Earth (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 88:209, 2004), in which the relativistic effects due to the Earth’s oblatness and the gravitational action caused by a third body are added to those perturbations considered in the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (2003) convention, are here integrated numerically. To compute the solution of the time-dependent Langrangian system for a gravitational satellite Earth Sun model we consider a six-order partitioned Runge Kutta integrator, whose coefficients satisfy the condition of symplecticity. A comparison with the classical Adams Basforth Moulton method allows to verify the good-performance of the partitioned Runge Kutta method both in the description of the evolution of the satellite energy and in the efficiency of the method when applied to a long-term integration.

  15. Satellite Gravity Drilling the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonFrese, R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Leftwich, T. E.; Kim, H. R.; Han, S.-H.; Taylor, P. T.; Ashgharzadeh, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of satellite-measured gravity and topography can provide crust-to-core mass variation models for new insi@t on the geologic evolution of the Earth. The internal structure of the Earth is mostly constrained by seismic observations and geochemical considerations. We suggest that these constraints may be augmented by gravity drilling that interprets satellite altitude free-air gravity observations for boundary undulations of the internal density layers related to mass flow. The approach involves separating the free-air anomalies into terrain-correlated and -decorrelated components based on the correlation spectrum between the anomalies and the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain-decorrelated gravity anomalies are largely devoid of the long wavelength interfering effects of the terrain gravity and thus provide enhanced constraints for modeling mass variations of the mantle and core. For the Earth, subcrustal interpretations of the terrain-decorrelated anomalies are constrained by radially stratified densities inferred from seismic observations. These anomalies, with frequencies that clearly decrease as the density contrasts deepen, facilitate mapping mass flow patterns related to the thermodynamic state and evolution of the Earth's interior.

  16. Earth Day 2012: Greening Government

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-19

    This podcast describes sustainability efforts at CDC in relation to Earth Day celebrations and details agency greenhouse gas reduction strategies and successes.  Created: 4/19/2012 by Office of the Chief Operating Officer (OCOO)/ Chief Sustainability Office (CSO).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  17. The Volume of Earth's Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cael, B. B.

    How much water do lakes on Earth hold? Global lake volume estimates are scarce, highly variable, and poorly documented. We develop a mechanistic null model for estimating global lake mean depth and volume based on a statistical topographic approach to Earth's surface. The volume-area scaling prediction is accurate and consistent within and across lake datasets spanning diverse regions. We applied these relationships to a global lake area census to estimate global lake volume and depth. The volume of Earth's lakes is 199,000 km3 (95% confidence interval 196,000-202,000 km3) . This volume is in the range of historical estimates (166,000-280,000 km3) , but the overall mean depth of 41.8 m (95% CI 41.2-42.4 m) is significantly lower than previous estimates (62 - 151 m). These results highlight and constrain the relative scarcity of lake waters in the hydrosphere and have implications for the role of lakes in global biogeochemical cycles. We also evaluate the size (area) distribution of lakes on Earth compared to expectations from percolation theory. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. 2388357.

  18. Boldly go deeper into earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der

    We are ever learning more about the worlds far above Earth, but the rocky world below us remains largely mysterious. Yet Earth’s dynamic interior holds keys to understanding the planet’s early state and how its biology, hydrology and atmosphere evolved and shaped the planet on which we now

  19. Refresher Course on Earth Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Refresher Course on Earth Sciences. Information and Announcements Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 105-106. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0105-0106. Resonance ...

  20. Scarcity of rare earth elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.A.; Lammertsma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other

  1. The Greatest Show on Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The year 2009 was celebrated all over the world as the Darwin bicentennial – and the. 150th anniversary of the publication of the epoch-making book The Origin of Species. The general public learnt from it about a discovery made independently by Charles. Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: life on earth had evolved from ...

  2. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  3. Geotechnical risk and earth structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníček, Ivan; Jirásko, Daniel; Vaníček, Martin

    2017-09-01

    There is a general acceptance that the complexity of each geotechnical design should correspond to the expected risk. The attention of the paper is therefore focused on the closer specification of the geotechnical risk - risk with which the design and realization of geotechnical structure is connected. The special attention with respect to this geotechnical risk is devoted to the earth structures.

  4. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  5. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  6. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D

    2011-06-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  7. [Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, James (Technical Monitor); Merkey, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    This grant supported the effort to characterize the problem domain of the Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project, to engage the Beowulf Cluster Computing Community as well as the High Performance Computing Research Community so that we can predict the applicability of said technologies to the scientific community represented by the CT project and formulate long term strategies to provide the computational resources necessary to attain the anticipated scientific objectives of the CT project. Specifically, the goal of the evaluation effort is to use the information gathered over the course of the Round-3 investigations to quantify the trends in scientific expectations, the algorithmic requirements and capabilities of high-performance computers to satisfy this anticipated need.

  8. Earth system modelling and data grid activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohan, P.; Budich, R. G.; Lautenschlager, M.; Foujols, M.-A.

    2003-04-01

    Earth System science in general is based upon modelling and observations. The bulk of the raw data model output and Earth observation data is stored in a few centres, distributed over Europe and worldwide. The scientists in principle rely on the avail-ability of easy and transparent access to these data-bases, which is not given today for different reasons: National boundaries, different structures of the archives, non-standard data formats, inconsistent access management are a few of them. Earth System Modelling is an extremely data intensive field of science. Typical archive sizes presently are on the order of a few hundred Terabyte with a rapid growing rate. Successful modelling and prediction of the Earth System relies heavily on the availability of these huge data sets for boundary and initial conditions from observations and other model studies, and on comparison with the output of other model studies. ENES tries to solve the parts of the data problems by the following activities, mainly planned in the context of FP6: Networking aspects: National Research Networks are to be involved, together with the industry, to solve problems existing today concerning bandwidth, latency, Qual-ity of Service and control and development as well as integration of middleware. Software aspects: Tools have to be developed to help scientists find and access the data they need. This means development of common data and metadata standards, systems for authorising access, and tools for data extraction and visualisation. Such tools will have to be optimised in their computer science aspects, for instance load balancing and job scheduling. Data archives: The value and potential of the data stored and produced in the differ-ent centres can not be used in an optimal way if the centres do not strive for unifica-tion and standardisation of their data models, primary data and meta data organiza-tion, and interfaces. Additional aspects for cooperation are long-term storage, secu-rity, data

  9. Dartmouth College Earth Sciences Mobile Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E. E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Dade, W. B.; Sonder, L. J.; Renshaw, C. E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hawley, R. L.; Chipman, J. W.; Mikucki, J.; Posmentier, E. S.; Moore, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    For the last 50 years the Department of Earth Sciences at Dartmouth College has offered a term-long, undergraduate field program, informally called "the Stretch". A student typically enrolls during fall quarter of his or her junior year soon after choosing a major or minor. The program thus provides valuable field context for courses that a student will take during the remainder of his or her undergraduate career. Unlike many traditional field camps that focus on one particular region, the Stretch is a mobile program that currently travels through Western North America, from the Canadian Rockies to the Grand Canyon. The program spans two and a half months, during which time undergraduates, graduate TAs, and faculty live, work, and learn collaboratively. Dartmouth College faculty members sequentially teach individual 1- to 2-week segments that focus on their interests and expertise; currently, there are a total of eight segments led by eleven faculty members. Consequently, topics are diverse and include economic geology, geobiology, geomorphology, glaciology, glacial geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, paleontology, stratigraphy, structure and tectonics, and volcanology. The field localities are equally varied, including the alpine glaciers of western Alberta, the national parks of Montana, Wyoming and Utah, the eastern Sierra Nevada, the southern Great Basin, and highlight such classic geological field locales as Sheep Mountain in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin, Death Valley, and the Grand Canyon. Overall, the program aims to: 1) give students a broad perspective on the timing and nature of the processes that resulted in the landscape and underlying geology of western North America; and 2) introduce students to a wide variety of geological environments, field techniques, and research equipment. Students emerge from the program with wide-ranging exposure to active research questions as well as a working knowledge of core field skills in the earth sciences. Stretch students

  10. Behaviour of Rare Earth Elements during the Earth's core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Pierre; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Boyet, Maud; Hammouda, Tahar; Manthilake, Geeth

    2017-04-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) are classified in the refractory group, which means that they have a high temperature condensation and their volatility-controlled fractionation is limited to high-temperature processes. Anomalies have been measured for Eu, Yb and Sm, which are the REE with the lowest condensation temperatures in CAIs and chondrules (e.g. [1]). REE are particularly abundant in the sulfides of enstatite chondrites, 100 to 1000 times the CI value [e.g. 2,3], proving that these elements are not strictly lithophile under extremely reducing conditions. However by investigating experimentally the impact of Earth's core formation on the behavior of Sm and Nd, we have shown the absence of fractionation between Sm and Nd during the segregation of the metallic phase [4]. Recently, Wohlers and Wood [5] proposed that Nd and Sm could be fractionated in presence of a S-rich alloy phase. However, their results were obtained at pressure and temperature conditions below the plausible conditions of the Earth's core formation. Clearly, large pressure range needs to be covered before well-constrained model can be expected. Furthermore, our preliminary metal-silicate partitioning results show that Ce and Eu have higher metal/silicate partition coefficients than their neighboring elements, and that the presence of sulphur enhances the relative difference between partition coefficients. In this presentation, we will present and discuss new metal-silicate partition coefficients of all REE at a deep magma ocean at pressures ranging from those of the uppermost upper mantle ( 5 GPa) to a maximum pressure expected in the range of 20 GPa, temperatures ranging from 2500 to about 3000 K, and oxygen fugacities within IW-1 to IW-5 (1 to 5 orders of magnitude lower than the iron-wüstite buffer). We will discuss the effect of S, as well as the effect of H2O on the behaviour of REE during the Earth's core formation: recent models suggest that contrary to currently accepted beliefs, the

  11. Microbial Colonization of Earth's Subsurface: A Thermodynamically Consistent Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethke, C. M.; Sanford, R. A.; Jin, Q.; Kirk, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of how anaerobic microbes have come to distribute themselves within Earth's crust is an ecologic question that must be posed subject to the laws of thermodynamics, but a question that cannot be understood in light of thermodynamics alone. We use here the results of theory and quantitative modeling, field observations, and long-term laboratory experiments to argue that subsurface communities are composed of groups of microbes that cooperate as well as compete, and whose existence reflects a tight balance between reproduction and cell death. The most significant functional groups colonizing the anoxic crust, classified by electron accepting process, are the methanogens, sulfate reducers, and ferric iron reducers. An anaerobe can harvest the energy it needs to live and reproduce only to the extent that energy available to it in the environment exceeds the cell's internal levels. When methanogens transfer or dismutate electrons, they capture little energy, so as to preserve a thermodynamic drive for their catabolic reaction. In this way, they maximize their environmental range, but grow slowly. Sulfate reducers adopt a different strategy, striving to capture energy quickly and grow rapidly. Iron reduction consumes acid, so the energy available to iron reducers varies sharply with pH. The iron reducers can grow rapidly under acidic conditions, but an alkaline environment may leave them insufficient energy to live. Methane producers are vulnerable to exclusion in the subsurface, as is broadly appreciated, but not because of energetic limitations. Instead, the methanogens require abundant energy substrates in order to reproduce quickly enough to replace cells as they die. Sulfate reducers and iron reducers, instead of working to exclude each other by competing for limited energy sources, as is commonly believed, thrive in mutualistic communities. The three functional groups by necessity compete in their environments for limited sources of energy, but the manner

  12. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas

    2004-01-01

    The report spans the three year period beginning in June of 2001 and ending June of 2004. Joint Interdisciplinary Earth Science Information Center's (JIESIC) primary purpose has been to carry out research in support of the Global Change Data Center and other Earth science laboratories at Goddard involved in Earth science, remote sensing and applications data and information services. The purpose is to extend the usage of NASA Earth Observing System data, microwave data and other Earth observing data. JIESIC projects fall within the following categories: research and development; STW and WW prototyping; science data, information products and services; and science algorithm support. JIESIC facilitates extending the utility of NASA's Earth System Enterprise (ESE) data, information products and services to better meet the science data and information needs of a number of science and applications user communities, including domain users such as discipline Earth scientists, interdisciplinary Earth scientists, Earth science applications users and educators.

  13. Development of an earth pressure model for design of earth retaining structures in piedmont soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that earth pressure in Piedmont residual soils is typically over estimated. Such estimates of earth pressure impact the design of earth retaining structures used on highway projects. Thus, the development of an appropriate...

  14. Arecibo Radar Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Virkki, Anne; Saran Bhiravarasu, Sriram; Venditti, Flaviane; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa Fernanda; Aponte-Hernandez, Betzaida

    2017-10-01

    The Arecibo S-Band (2.38 GHz, 12.6 cm; 1 MW) planetary radar system at the 305-m William E. Gordon Telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico is the most active, most powerful, and most sensitive planetary radar facility in the world. As such, Arecibo is vital for post-discovery characterization and orbital refinement of near-Earth asteroids. Since August 2016, the program has observed 100 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), of which 38 are classified as potentially hazardous to Earth and 31 are compliant with the NASA Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Arecibo observations are critical for identifying NEAs that may be on a collision course with Earth in addition to providing detailed physical characterization of the objects themselves in terms of size, shape, spin, and surface properties, which are valuable for assessing impact mitigation strategies. Here, we will present a sampling of the asteroid zoo observed by Arecibo, including press-noted asteroids 2014 JO25 and the (163693) Atira binary system.

  15. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  16. Cyanobacterial Diazotrophy and Earth?s Delayed Oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Stephanie L.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    The redox landscape of Earth’s ocean-atmosphere system has changed dramatically throughout Earth history. Although Earth’s protracted oxygenation is undoubtedly the consequence of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis, the relationship between biological O2 production and Earth’s redox evolution remains poorly understood. Existing models for Earth’s oxygenation cannot adequately explain the nearly 2.5 billion years delay between the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the oxygenation of th...

  17. The earth`s resources, its utilisation and protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybár Pavol

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is published to present needs for accessible information on utilisation and protection of Earth resources, which are defined in this article as sources present in the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, economicaly extracted by previous technologies, and associated with a consumer culture. The article is focused on production and consumption of some selected sources as well as on world’s environmental degradation.

  18. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  19. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  20. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81